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1

Simultaneous quantitative determination of 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 51Cr, and 125I on the surface of a paper disc using combustion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A paper disc that retained 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 51Cr, and 125I on its surface was combusted in a flow-type combustion flask filled with oxygen. The combustion products containing five radionuclides, except 14CO2, were collected by washing the inner wall of the flask with 0.5-M hydrogen peroxide containing excess NaHSO3. The 14CO2 that remained in the gas phase of the flask was introduced into another flask for absorption into an organic base solution. By determining the radioactivity of both the solutions containing the respective radionuclides by means of NaI(Tl) and liquid scintillation counters, the six radionuclides in the solutions were quantified. The detection limit of surface contamination with this method was compared with the limit specified by Japanese law for the surface contamination of controlled areas. PMID:8505232

Saito, K; Miyatake, H; Kobori, H; Kurihara, N

1993-07-01

2

Synthesis of Letosteine labelled with 14C and 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LETOSTEINE, 2-[1(ethoxy carbonyl methylthio)-ethyl] 4-hydroxycarbonyl thiazolidine is labelled with either carbon-14 on the carboxylic carbon of the ester function by means of chloro (1-14C)-acetic acid or with sulfur-35 on the thiazolidinyl group by means of L-(35S)-cysteine. Specific activities are 0,373 mCi/mMole or 13,8 MBq/mMole for 14C-LETOSTEINE and 9,90 mCi/mMole or 366 MBq/mMole for 35S-LETOSTEINE. (author)

3

Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

4

Synthesis of 14C- and 35S-labelled 2-mercaptobenzimidazoles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C- and 35S-labelled 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 1-methyl-2-mercaptobenzimidazole were synthesized from 14C-carbon disulfide, 35S-thiourea, 14C-methyl iodide and 35S-thiourea, respectively, for use in studies on the mechanism of action of antithyroid drugs. The products were purified by chromatography on silica and isolated with radiochemical purities of greater than 98%, yields of 45-77% and specific activities of 2.1-5.3 mCi/mmole. (author)

5

A cytological analysis of the mutagenic action of 32P and 35S on the tea seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cytologic analysis of mutagenic effect of 32P and 35S aqueous solutions (specific activity of 0.05 mCi/ml) on the seeds of the ''Kolchida'' tea, is carried out. Seed treatment with the above solutions within 12 hours causes the inhibition of mitoses, more pronounced in the case of 32P effect. The maximum frequency of chromosomal aberrations is observed after 28 hours after the action (13.62% for 32P and 11.20% for 35S). Close to 180 hours, the frequency of aberrations reaches the level of control. A low amount of bridges as compared with the number of fragments is characteristic of 32P effect; while 35S effect causes the formation of a considerable number of bridges

6

Origin of 14C and 32P labelled lipids moving to and from freshwater surface microlayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production and distribution of 14C and 32 labelled lipids were studied in laboratory model aquatic systems consisting of organisms, sediment and suspended particles. Using teflon impactor plates, transport of the lipids from the water to the atmosphere via jet drops from breaking bubbles in the surface microlayer was measured. Several solid materials were studied for recovery of artificial and natural surface microlayers. Hydrophilic teflon, which collects a layer 17-19 ?m thick, showed the best recovery in both cases. 14C and 32P added in inorganic form to sediment and subsurface water of the systems were biologically incorporated into neutral and complex lipids. The 14C labelled lipids were enriched in the surface microlayer to about 3500-5400 times the concentration found in the subsurface water. The corresponding enrichment for 32P labelled lipids was 16000 to 200 000. The 32P lipid material produced within the systems was strongly associated to microorganisms, particulate matter and sediment. However, during 5 d 0.3 to 16% of the labelled lipids left the systems via jet drops produced by breaking bubbles. (author)

7

A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35S and 14C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35S and 14C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

8

The distribution of 35S-sulfadiazine and 14C-trimethoprim in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 35S-labelled sulfadiazine and 14C-labelled trimethoprim was studied in rainbow trout by use of whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation. As compared to mammals, gastrointestinal absorption and elimination were slow. Accumulation in the skin and the uveal tract of the eye was observed for both drugs tested. The results also indicated that the bile was an important route of excretion. Considerable radioactivity was still present in the skin at 144 hr. survival time. (author)

9

Metabolism of /sup 35/S- and /sup 14/C-labeled 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole in vitro and in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously described an in vitro incubation system for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalyzed iodination by the antithyroid drug 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). Inhibition of iodination in this system may be reversible or irreversible, depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and MMI and on the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drug occurs under both conditions, and in the present investigation we used 35S- and 14C-labeled MMI together with reverse phase HPLC to examine the metabolic products associated with reversible and irreversible inhibition of iodination by MMI. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, MMI was rapidly metabolized and disappeared completely from the incubation mixture. With (35S)MMI, the earliest detectable 35S-labeled product was MMI disulfide, which reached a peak after a few minutes and then declined to undetectable levels. Coincident with the decrease in disulfide was the appearance of two 35S peaks, the major one corresponding to sulfate/sulfite, and the other to a component eluting at 7.5 min. Similar results were obtained for the disulfide and for the 7.5 min metabolite with (14C)MMI. The major 14C-labeled metabolite containing no S appeared to be 1-methylimidazole. Under conditions of irreversible inhibition, MMI disulfide was also the earliest detectable 35S-labeled metabolite. However, MMI decreased more slowly, and after reaching a nadir at about 6 min returned gradually to a level about halfway between the initial and the minimum value. The reformation of MMI appeared to involve the nonenzymatic disproportionation of MMI disulfide. Formation of the 7.5 min peak was also observed, but there was no formation of sulfate/sulfite.

Taurog, A.; Dorris, M.L.; Guziec, F.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

10

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with 14C-and 35S-isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with 14C and 35S isotopes starting from L-[U-14C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[35S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-14C]-5 is converted into L-[U-14C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to (14C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[35S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[35S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [35S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of (14C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of (35S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author)

11

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with [sup 14]C-and [sup 35]S-isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with [sup 14]C and [sup 35]S isotopes starting from L-[U-[sup 14]C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[[sup 35]S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-[sup 14]C]-5 is converted into L-[U-[sup 14]C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[[sup 35]S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[[sup 35]S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [[sup 35]S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of ([sup 35]S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author).

Ferraboschi, Patrizia; Grisenti, Paride; Santaniello, Enzo (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Biochimica Medica); Giachetti, Claudio; Zanolo, Giovanni (Biomedical Research Inst. ' ' Antoine Marxer' ' , Turin (Italy)); Signorelli, Giovanni; Coppi, Germano (Poli Industrial Center, Milan (Italy). Research Center)

1992-12-01

12

Comparison of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves estimated by using 32P and 35S-labelled mixed rumen bacteria as a marker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled bacteria were used to estimate their growth rate and a comparison has been made of the values obtained by using 35S labelled bacterial markers. Since 32P is a hard ?-emitter the radioactivity measurement can be made without scintillation fluid by Cherenkov counting which may be economical. (author)

13

Effects of source distribution, dose, and linear energy transfer capacity on inactivation and mutation of mycobacteria after 2H, 35S, and 32P incorporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a selected model, the paper makes a contribution to the question whether the energy dose as a macroscopically-physically defined quantity can be usefully applied in cell ranges with linear dimensions of the order of 1 ?m, i.e. whether there is still a correlation between the energy dose and quantitatively measurable biological radiation effects. The problem is investigated with the aid of the intracellular ? decay of the 3H, 35S, and 32P nuclei on mycobacteria (BCG) in liquid media. Quantitative findings of radiobiological experiments are linked with model dose calculations to form dose-effect curves. The experimental principle consists in adding radioactively labelled compounds to the nutrient solution of bacteria at normal growth temperatures, thus obtaining an intracellular ? source region caused by their uptake. The uptake conditions for the three radionuclides are varied by using different chemical bonds (2H) or carrier concentrations (3H, 35S). As biological reactions, inactivation in the form of growth inhibition and mutagenic induction of resistance to isonicotinic acid hydrazide are recorded. (orig./MG)

14

Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein oof 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

15

Use of radioisotopes (35S, 3H, 14C) in the study of the biochemistry of Trypanosoma congolense  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using [35S]-diazoniobenzenesulphonate the surface coat of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense could be specifically labelled. From the result of the labelling reaction it could be concluded that the surface coat is built up mainly from one type of protein with a mean molecular weight of 57,000. T. congolense can also be surface-labelled by mild periodate oxidation, followed by borotritide reduction. On SDS polyacrylamide gels the labelled surface antigen could be resolved into three closely neighbouring bands. Sialic acids are present in the surface antigen and are responsible for its heterogeneity in electric charge. Trypanosome motility can be enhanced by protein in the medium. Using radiolabelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) no protein degradation could be observed, indicating that the motility-enhancing effect of proteins is not simply produced by serving as energy substrates for the parasites. (author)

16

Autoradiography of 32P and 14C incorporation into protoplasts as a means of determining the percentage of virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stripping Film Autoradiography (SFA) was used to measure protoplast infection. Control and infected protoplasts were incubated in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate or [14C]leucine fixed onto glass slides and placed in contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. Infected protoplasts were distinguished by blackened areas of exposed film which coincided with protoplasts containing labelled virus products. The use of SFA is demonstrated for two different virus/protoplast systems, namely tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) in rape. The method detects infection as early as 12-16 h post-inoculation and UV irradiation is not necessary for reducing background interference from labelled host proteins. (Auth.)

17

Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with (3H)succinic anhydride, (14C)succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-(35S)sulfonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to (3H)succinic anhydride plus (35S)p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by (3H)succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by (35S)DABS was similar to (3H)succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to (3H)succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein.

Ho, S.H.; Rieske, J.S.

1985-12-01

18

Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

19

A study of 32P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as 45Ca, 35S, 32P and 14C as long as several days. The ?-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected ?-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the 32P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the 32P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of 32P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of 32P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of 32ained from the analysis of 32P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as 32P and 32S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

20

A study of {sup 32}P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as {sup 45}Ca, {sup 35}S, {sup 32}P and {sup 14}C as long as several days. The {beta}-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected {beta}-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the {sup 32}P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the {sup 32}P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of {sup 32}P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of {sup 32}P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of {sup 32}P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as {sup 32}P and {sup 32}S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

Yamawaki, M.; Kanno, S.; Ishibashi, H.; Noda, A.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Real-time imaging of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present real-time images of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, {sup 35}S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both {sup 35}S and {sup 32}P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of {sup 35}S show that {sup 35}S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand {sup 32}P, when applied as {sup 32}P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

Nakanishi, T.M.; Yamawaki, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Tanoi, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

2011-07-01

22

Determination of 35S in radioisotope wastes by a wet oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidation studies of a sulfur to a sulfate ion by various oxy-halide oxidants in organic (thiourea, methionine) and inorganic (sulfate, thiophosphate) compounds were carried out in an acidic solution. The optimized result of the oxidation reaction was obtained when a bromate compound (BrO3-) as an oxidant and a 3 M HNO3 solvent. The chemical yield for the oxidation of the organic and inorganic sulfur compounds to a sulfate ion was monitored as 80% for thiophosphate, 87% for methionine, and 100% for thiourea and sulfate within 5% RSD. The oxidation of thiourea required at least 1.6 equivalents of the bromate in an acidic solution. In the case of the oxidation of methionine and thiophosphate, the oxidation yield was above 80% if the bromate was used at 20 times that of the substrates. The chemical yield in the paper sample (WypAll) exceeded 100% because of its background sulfur contents (910 ppm). The sulfate ion was quantitatively measured by using GPC and/or LSC counting of 3 S followed by precipitates of BaSO4. The interfering nuclides (14C, 32P) were removed in an acidic condition. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of 35S was found to be 0.1 Bq/g. (authors)

23

(32)P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS OF TWO NITRATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN RABBIT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1-nitropyrene (1-NPP and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) adducts have been analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling and with 1-NP have been compared to the total number of adducts estimated from (14)C binding in rabbit trachael epithelial (RTE) DNA samples. One adduct spot, by (32)P-postlab...

24

Synthesis of [35S]phosphorothionate insecticides: the example of [35S]fenthion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general method for the synthesis of [35S] phosphorothionates is proposed, based on the example of [35S]fenthion. This consists of reacting molecular 35S with the corresponding phosphites which are easily prepared from commercial precursors. (Author)

25

Microanalysis 32P-labelled phospholipids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple micromethod for the separation, detection and determination of 32P-labelled phospholipids of different biological origin is described. Only 100 mg of biological material are required for complete analysis. The procedure is based on the selective isolation of phospholipids, their separation by thin-layer chromatography and 32P-activity determination in the individual fractions. (author)

26

Detection of 32P scintillating plastic vials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a novel technique for the detection of 32P using a liquid scintillation counter. In this technique 32P is detected in plastic vials which have been given scintillation properties through impregnation with a scintillating liquid. Beta particles emitted by the 32P are detected when they interact with the scintillating walls of the vials. Measurements show much better repeatability than those using the Cerenkov effect in the walls of glass or plastic vials; counting efficiency is very close to that obtained with the liquid scintillation method. (author)

27

Salivary gland tumors induced by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oncogenic power of 32P was demonstrated in salivary glands. An intraglandular injection of 0.25 mCi of chromic colloidal phosphate (32P) was administered to young adult Wistar rats. Seven months post-injection, tumors began to appear in the neck region in 64% of the rats. The tumors were sarcomas (50%), carcinomas (35.70%), and carcino-sarcomas (14.28%). (author)

28

Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide (35S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author)

29

Synthesis of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S) has been prepared by exchange between elementary sulfur (35S) and sodium N-dithiocarbamate followed by an oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. The method allows to obtain rapidly a pure product with relatively high activity. The radioactive exchange is 82 per cent. (author)

30

Synthesis of [[sup 35]S]phosphorothionate insecticides: the example of [[sup 35]S]fenthion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general method for the synthesis of [[sup 35]S] phosphorothionates is proposed, based on the example of [[sup 35]S]fenthion. This consists of reacting molecular [sup 35]S with the corresponding phosphites which are easily prepared from commercial precursors. (Author).

Dias, Marylene; Mornet, Rene (Angers Univ., 49 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique Fondamentale et Appliquee); Kotoujansky, Alain (Institut National Agronomique, 75 - Paris (France))

1994-01-01

31

35S-glycosaminoglycan and 35S-glycopeptide metabolism by diabetic glomeruli and aorta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Total 35S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. Whereas 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with 35SO4, a larger proportion of total 35S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. Both control and diabetic glomeruli synthesize 35S-labeled glycopeptides, the quantity from diabetic glomeruli being reduced. Aorta from 35SO4-injected diabetic rats also synthesized reduced quantities of 35S-glycosaminoglycans. There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of 35S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. These studies suggest that synthesis of 35S-glycosaminoglycans and 35S-glycopeptides by diabetic glomeruli are altered by disturbances of both synthetic as well as degradative pathways. An alteration of 35S-glycosaminoglycans interaction with matrix components in diabetes is postulated

32

The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

33

32P testing for posterior segment lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P testing introduced to ophthalmology by Thomas et al. in 1952 has gained wide acceptance as a test for determining the benign or malignant nature of ocular lesions. With experience gained during the first decade, the test was generally thought to be accurate for larger anterior lesions but unreliable in testing smaller posterior lesions. Over the last ten years new instruments utilizing modern technologic advances have been developed. Greater understanding of the basic properties of 32P and its behavior in benign and malignant tissue has been obtained. Accurate localization, improvements in instrument design, and newer surgical techniques have been employed. All of these factors have transformed 32P testing into a highly accurate and reliable procedure. If done properly, the test is accurate not only for large anterior lesions but also for smaller posterior lesions. This series will verify the reliability of 32P testing if properly performed and correctly interpreted. It will also point out the limitations and pitfalls in the procedure

34

Chronic eczema patients on ?-therapy (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-therapy with 32P was provided to 22 chronic eczema patients. A dose of 25 Gy given in 5 sessions resulted in a cure of 19 patients within 3 years of follow-up. Hyperpigmentation of the skin was noted in 2 patients

35

Structure of 32P at high spins  

Science.gov (United States)

Excited states in 32P have been investigated up to high spins using ?-ray spectroscopic techniques following the 18O(16O, np)32P fusion-evaporation reaction. Sixteen new transitions have been observed, and the level scheme has been extended up to Ex=9.637 MeV. The multiclover Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) facilitated angular correlation and linear polarization measurements for spin-parity assignments. Branching ratios have been determined. The level scheme is indicative of excitation of nucleons across the sd-fp shell gap. The experimental observables were successfully interpreted by large-basis cross shell model calculations without resorting to any reduction of the single-particle energies of the f7/2 and p3/2 orbitals. These results suggest that any lowering of single-particle energies may not be required if an appropriate choice of valence space and effective interaction is made.

Chakrabarti, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Dhal, A.; Chaturvedi, L.; Raju, M. Kumar; Madhavan, N.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Yogi, B. K.; Garg, U.

2011-11-01

36

Synthesis of [14C] quincetone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[14C]Quincetone was prepared from Ba14CO3 with a radiochemical yield of 21.3%. Ba14CO3, as starting material, was acidified to release 14CO2, which reacted with PhMgBr to [14C]benzoic acid. [14C]Benzoic acid was reduced with LiAlH4 to [14C]benzyl alcohol, and oxidized with CrO3 to [14C]benzaldehyde. In the last reaction, [14C]benzaldehyde was condensed with 3-methyl-2-acetyl-quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide to [14C]quincetone. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was 7.76 mCi/mmol and its radiochemical purity was >97%. (author)

37

Reactor production of 32P for medical applications. An assessment of 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes a comparative study carried out on the reactor production of 32P by two different processes, namely, 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P with a view to determine the merits and bottlenecks of each method and assess the usefulness of 32P obtained from each of the processes. In a typical batch, 250 g of elemental sulfur when irradiated at a fast neutron flux of ?8 × 1011 n cm-2 s-1 for 60 days, after chemical processing provided about 150 GBq(4.05Ci) of 32P having specific activity of 200TBq(5500Ci)/mmole. On the other hand, irradiation of 0.35 g of red phosphorus at a fast neutron flux of ?7.5 × 1013 n cm-2 s-1 for a period of 60 days gave 75 GBq(2.02Ci) of 32P of specific activity 7 GBq(190mCi)/mol-1. While the specific activity of 32P obtained from 32S(n,p)32P is superior to that obtained from the 3lP(n,?)32P process, the requirement of elaborate target processing steps involving distillation and purification emerged as a deterrent that limits its widespread adaptability. Both the production routes offer 32P of acceptable quality amenable for medical applications although their specific activity differs. (author)

38

Isolation of (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a 14CO2 chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed. (author)

39

Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

40

An estimation of fast neutron flux by 32P production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus-32 produced by the 35Cl(n, ?)32P and 32S(n, p)32P reaction in table salt and several chemical reagent was measured to estimate the fast neutron flux from the JCO criticality accident. Production rate of 32P decreased monotonically with the increase of distance, however, directional dependence of the fast neutron flux was suggested by the anomalously low production rate of samples collected from the south, south-west and west directions. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Genetic Effects of 32P Incorporated into Yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of 32P decay on lethality, mutagenicity and recombination were compared to effects of X-rays and u.v. light. 1. Lethal effect. Decay of 32P incorporated in haploid yeasts causes a constant inactivation rate with a lethal efficiency ? = 0. 010. Lethal efficiency of 32P in diploid and tetraploid cells is low when decay begins (sigmoidal curves) and increases with progress of decay up to values comparable to the efficiency in haploid cells. The lethal effect of 32P is not modified by phosphorus starvation which decreases the RNA content of the cells. The sensitive site to 32 disintegrations might thus be DNA. It is shown that the lethal effect of 32P decay is mostly due to transmutation. The relative proportion of dominant over recessive lethals induced in a diploid population is comparable to that of X-ray-induced lethal mutations (1/15). 2. Mutagenic effect. The spectrum and frequencies of genes reversions which are induced by 32P disintegration are similar to those of X-rays. The mutation frequency increases exponentially with 32P decay for the cytoplasmic 'petitecolonie' mutation. The mutagenic efficiency of decay is therefore not constant. Two novel mutations were induced in yeast by 32P decay: a mutation to radioresistance (xr) and a mutation expressed by an abnormal meiosis, 3. Effect on recombination. The frequency of mitotic recombination is enhanced by 32P decay. The break and rejoining hypothesis in relation to this observation is discussed. (author)

42

Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

43

Elastic and inelastic scattering of 14C by 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elastic scattering cross sections for 14C+14C have been measured at 700, 800, and 900 (c.m.) in the energy range between 6 and 35 MeV (c.m.). Strongly pronounced, rather regular, gross structure is observed which, at 900, peaks at 15.5, 19.5, 24, and 28 MeV. The angular distributions suggest a dominance of l=12, 14,16, and 18, respectively, at these energies. Intermediate structure is observed in the single and a mutual 3-, 6.73- MeV inelastic channels above 20 MeV

44

Formation of thiosulfate [35S] by neutron irradiation of potassium chloride and preparation of elementary sulfur [35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium chloride was subjected to various kinds of pretreatments and irradiated in a nuclear reactor. Irradiated potassium chloride was dissolved in deaerated aqueous solution of several sulfur-salts. A portion of the solution was chromatographed on a thin layer chromatographic plate and the distribution of 35S-chemical species was determined. Irradiation of potassium chloride degassed at 3 x 10-4 Torr resulted in the formation of about 60% of 35S in the form of thiosulfate and remainder was distributed among sulfide, sulfate and elementary sulfur. Thiosulfate[35S] was converted to elementary sulfur[35S] first by reducing to hydrogen sulfide[35S] with nascent hydrogen and then by oxidizing the latter to elementary sulfur[35S] with hexacyanoferrate(III). Elementary sulfur [35S] was finally extracted into benzene. Radiochemically pure elementary sulfur[35S] could be produced by simple procedures with a yield of about 60%. Thiosulfate[35S] was decomposed with acid to elementary sulfur[35S] and sulfur [35S] dioxide. The former was separated by centrifuging and dispersed in boiling water to form colloidal suspension of elementary sulfur[35S]. Approximately 40% of 35S was recovered as colloid. (auth.)

45

The Automorphism Groups of the Groups of Order 32p  

CERN Document Server

The results of computer computations determining the automorphism groups of the groups of order 32$p$ for $p \\geq 3$ are given in several tables. Presentations for the automorphism groups of the groups of order 32, which in many cases appear as direct product factors in the automorphism groups of order $32p$, are also presented for completeness. Many of the groups of order 32$p$ with a normal sylow $p$-subgroup have automorphism groups of the form: Hol($C_p$)$ \\times $Invariant Factor. A suggestion is made as to how one might determine this invariant factor using only information on the automorphism group of the 2-group associated with the group of order 32$p$, and the normal subgroup of the 2-group associated with the extension of the group of order $32p$. Some general comments on the groups of order $32p^2$ and their automorphism groups are made. A few explicit calculations for the groups of order $32p^2$ are reported here. Knowing the automorphism groups for the groups of order $32p$ enables us to explicit...

Becker, Elaine W

2009-01-01

46

A simple method for synthesizing [gamma-32P]nucleoside triphosphates using [32P]acetylphosphate and acetate kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple, rapid, and inexpensive method is described for the synthesis of gamma-32P-labeled ribo- or deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The procedure involves chemical synthesis of [32P]acetylphosphate and subsequent phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates using acetate kinase (EC 2.7.2.1) and a final purification step. The entire procedure is performed 8 h or less. PMID:9762147

Bauer, P I; Várady, G

1978-12-01

47

Exchange of 31P-32P in phosphorus acid chlorides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are investigation results of 31P-32P isotope exchange between phosphorus acid dichloroanhydrides and radioactive trichlorated and thiotrichlorated phosphorus and phosphorus oxychloride. The results confirm the presence of the exchan.oe in the mixture of trichlorated phosphorus with phosphorus acid dichloranhydrides. The 31P-32P isotope exchange being observed can be explained by the redistribution of substituents at phosphorus atom and is determined by the structure of phosphorus acid dichloroanhydrides

48

Salivary gland tumors induced by /sup 32/P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oncogenic power of /sup 32/P was demonstrated in salivary glands. An intraglandular injection of 0.25 mCi of chromic colloidal phosphate (/sup 32/P) was administered to young adult Wistar rats. Seven months post-injection, tumors began to appear in the neck region in 64% of the rats. The tumors were sarcomas (50%), carcinomas (35.70%), and carcino-sarcomas (14.28%).

Espinal, E.G.; Ubios, A.M.; Cabrini, R.L. (Department of Radiobiology, National Commission of Atomic Energy and Department of Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Buenos Aires, Argentina)

1984-01-01

49

Synthesis of [gamma-32P]thiamine triphosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a novel chemical synthesis of thiamine triphosphate which allows us to incorporate 32P in the gamma position. The reaction is based on the condensation of [32P]orthophosphoric acid and thiamine diphosphate in the presence of ethyl chloroformate. After purification by two ion-exchange purification steps, the thiamine derivative has a specific radioactivity of 10 Ci/mmol. The average final yield synthesis is about 10%

50

Ras p21 and other Gn proteins are detected in mammalian cell lines by [gamma-35S]GTP gamma S binding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of guanine nucleotide binding proteins in mouse and human cell lines was investigated using [gamma-35S]GTP gamma S and [gamma-32P]GTP. Cell lysate polypeptides were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Incubation of the nitrocellulose blots with [gamma-35S]GTP gamma S identified 9 distinct GTP-binding polypeptides in all lysates. One of these is the ras oncogene product, p21, as demonstrated by subsequent immunochemical staining of the nitrocellulose blots. We have shown that this procedure provides a sensitive method for detection of p21 in culture cell lines

51

Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

52

Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were...

Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

1985-01-01

53

Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

54

Synthetic process for preparation of 32P-labeled nucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a process for the production of 32P-labeled NTP. It comprises: reacting H3 32PO4 with an excess of X-CoA where X is selected from the group consisting of acetyl, propionyl, butyryl and succinyl in the presence of phosphotrancetylase, inducing the formation of 32PO4-labeled X, simultaneously reacting the resulting X-32PO4, as it is formed, with NDP in the presence of acetate kinase, under conditions capable of both inducing the formation of X-32PO4 and conversion of NDP to 32P-labeled NTP, and stopping the reactions before excess hydrolysis of 32P-labeled NTP occurs to prepare the product having a specific activity greater than 7500 Ci/mM

55

Present status of the 32P test in ophthalmology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies agreed with Hagler and Jarrett that the 32P test continues to be the most accurate test devised for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. The one false negative test was one in which the probe could not be accurately placed because the lesion was pedunculated and adjacent to the optic disc. There were no false positive tests in this series. An attempt to correlate the percentage uptake with the cell type of the melanoma was unsuccessful. Perhaps further studies may elucidate what should be a possible connection between the metabolic activity of a given tumor and amount of radiophosphorus uptake within the lesion. The relative quantities and localizations of 32P in normal choroid, retina, cornea, lens, tumor, and vitreous are being studied. A significant amount of 32P may enter the vitreous cavity around the tumor. This knowledge should lead to a more precise understanding of the true basis for the clinical test as it is now performed. (U.S.)

56

Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (?-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 ?mol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

57

A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

1991-03-01

58

A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

59

7Be and 32P in the Antarctic atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since March 1977 the atmospheric concentration of 7Be aerosols has been monitored daily at Dumont-Durville station (Terre Adelie - 66040 South, 1400 East). These data were completed after January 1978 by 32P measurements. These two nuclides appear to be in good correlation (r = 0.9). Mean monthly 7Be concentrations of about 0.4 dpm/m3 were measured, therefore 1.5 time higher than at the South Pole. This result could be explained by the proximity of Dumont Durville to the geomagnetic pole. A small seasonal variation was observed, with maxima during the Austral Summer. This last effect is much more marked in the case of 32P, whose mean annual concentration is about 6 x 10-3 dpm/m3. Conclusions drawn from the 7Be/32P activity ratios are discussed. The mean monthly ratio is always greater than 40 at Dumont Durville. This result can only be explained by a stratospheric origin of 7Be and 32P, measured at sea level, in this station. Theoretical considerations show that, in the case of stratospheric air masses injected into the troposphere, the 7Be/32P activity ratio should be greater than the stratospheric limit of 100, and reach even about 200. This last value was actually observed a few times during our 2 year records. Good negative correlations observed between 7Be concentrations and both 222Rn conccentrations and both 222Rn concentrations and air humidity show that stratosphere to troposphere injections of spallation products happen at polar latitudes. This result would mean that most of the stratospheric materials detected in Antarctica are not transported at low altitude after an injection into the troposphere at mid-latitudes, but rather directly exchanged over the Antarctic continent

60

Formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-precursor in mulberry leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. 14C-aspartic acid and 14C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and 14C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although 14C-succinic acid was actively converted to 14C-asparagine, no significant amount of 14C-asparagine was formed from 14C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired 14C from 14C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ?-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before 14C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of 14C-asparagine froormation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of 14C-asparagine formation from 14C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Problems of 14C radiation hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature data on the problem of the radiation danger of 14C coming to environment as a result of nuclear explosions and from enterprises of nuclear power are generalized. Problems related to migration, kinetics of exchange and biological effect of radiocarbon are considered. Biological danger of 14C accumulation in biosphere with provision for nuclear power development prospects has been estimated. Assumed irradiation doses due to 14C release from the enterprises of nuclear power are presented graphically. Somatic and genetic consequences of population irradiation with small doses of 14C radiation are noted

62

Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-[sup 14]C]-cotinine from [sup 14]C-nicotine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis and purification of [sup 14]C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into [sup 14]C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in [sup 14]C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-nicotine, 224 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author).

Peeters, R.; Daenens, P. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium). Dept. of Toxicology)

1989-05-01

63

Syntheses of [4-14C] and [6-14C]nisoldipine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of the antihypertensive and antianginal drug [4-14C]nisoldipine started from dimethyl [14C]formamide which was allowed to react with 2-nitrophenyl-lithium yielding 2-nitro[7-14C]benzaldehyde. Knoevenagel condensation with isobutyl acetoacetate yielded isobutyl 2-(2-nitro[7-14C]benzylidene) acetoacetate. The key reaction step was the cyclizing Michael addition with methyl 3-aminocrotonate to obtain 3-isobutyl 5-methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitro-phenyl)-[4-14C]pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (= [4-14C]nisoldipine). (author)

64

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty received chemotherapy as well, and 34 received external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients, 34 had good results, 6 fair, and 6 were failures. Ten patients needed transfusion for marrow depression; no other side effect was observed

65

Comparison of two ?-32P-dATP labelled probes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HBV DNA probes, labelled by ?-32P-dATP from England Amersham International PIC and from China Institute of Atomic Energy, were compared in specific activity, sensitivity, incorporated percentage and stability in different temperatures for storage. We obtained almost the same satisfactory results for the two probes. HBV DNA were detected in 511 and 518 samples sera, collected in hepatitis laboratory (u = 1.0056, P>0.05)

66

Radioassay of chromic phosphate 32P suspension by Cherenkov counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple and precise method is presented for the radioassay of chromic phosphate 32P suspension by Cerenkov counting. An aliquot is weighed, dissolved, diluted, and then counted directly in a conventional liquid scintillation counter. The internal standard technique is used to provide color quench correction. This method is particularly useful for high specific activity samples. The standard deviation for the analysis of three aliquots, each determined in triplicate, was 1.9 percent

67

Calculation of measurement uncertainty for counting of 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S presented in radioisotope (RI) waste from various institutes was separated and analyzed by LSC. The measurement uncertainty was evaluated for the sample, beta (?-) counting and recovery. The sample uncertainty was calculated the sample mass (7.8 x 10-4%), the concentration of the tracer (0.618%) and used volume of tracer (0.520%). The counting uncertainty was also calculated the precipitate mass (0.973%) and the counting of 35S (2.37%). The recovery uncertainty was 3.61%. Then the relative sum uncertainty was 5.13% and the expanded uncertainty was 10.26%

68

Genomic 5-methylcytosine determination by 32P-postlabeling analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple and sensitive method for the quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine in DNA has been developed by the adaptation of the Randerath 32P-postlabeling technique. Nucleic acids were digested to 3'-monophosphate nucleotides, which were converted to 32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotides, the 3'-phosphate was cleaved by the action of nuclease P1, and the resultant 5'-[32P]-monophosphate nucleotides were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Less than 1 microgram of DNA was required for the precise quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine content to a detectable limit of 0.01% of the total cytidine residues methylated. The genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content may thus be quantitated in tissue samples, small or selective cell populations, senescing or terminally differentiating cells, or DNA from any source. We report here, for the first time, the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial and normal human pulmonary mesothelial cells. The chromatographic separation of all of the normal and some of the rare monophosphate deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides has been characterized. Thus, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and the RNA contamination of DNA or the DNA contamination of RNA can also be quantitated during the same analysis

69

Synthesis of [methoxy-14C]eugenol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A short, efficient synthesis for [methoxy-14C]eugenol from unlabelled eugenol is described. The free phenolic group is protected as a methanesulfonate ester prior to removal of the methoxyl group. Reaction of the resulting phenolic mesylate with [14C]methyl iodide under basic conditions followed by treatment with warm sodium hydroxide gave the title compound in good overall yield. (author)

70

Measurement of fecal 14C excretion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simultaneous measurements of fecal 14C and expired 14CO2 in the breath are necessary to evaluate patients with various ileal abnormalities and bile salt malabsorption. Following the oral ingestion of the labeled bile acid, glycine-[I-14C]cholic acid, detection of increased fecal 14C without abnormal expiration of 14CO2 identifies patients with ileal resection. This contrasts with the normal fecal 14C content and abnormal expired 14CO2 found in patients with bacterial overgrowth. Fecal 14C content was determined by utilizing Van Slyke combustion of the specimen and trapping the liberated 14CO2 with Scintisorb C. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate, and expands the diagnostic usefulness of the bile salt absorption test

71

Spontaneous 14C emission from 223Ra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra, recently discovered by Rose and Jones, has been confirmed, and the mass of the emitted particles unambiguously identified. The present measurement was performed with a 227Th source containing 9.2 mCi of 223Ra. An Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph was used to suppress the intense alpha radiation and to identify the 14C particles. The spectrograph was calibrated with tandem-accelerated beams of 14C, 13C, and 12C. In six days of decay counting, twenty-four 14C events were observed yielding a branching ratio of (4.7 +- 1.3) x 10-10 for the emission of 14C from 223Ra relative to that of alpha particles. The value is in fair agreement with the result of Rose and Jones, (8.5 +- 2.5) x 10-10, and with more recent measurements from other laboratories

72

14C Records from Indonesian Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

73

Analysis of ?14C variations in atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?14C in the atmosphere have been measured and studied in two localities of Slovakia. The accomplished analysis proved the existence of the annual variations of the ?14C with the attenuating amplitude and decreasing mean value. It seems to be logical and physically correct to describe the ?14C time-dependence by the equation: y = Ae-at + Be-bt cos(?1t + (?)). The coefficients A, a, B, b, (?) are listed in the table for both the localities. The observed variations of the ?14C have a maximum in summer and minimum in winter .Probably it is caused by the higher requirement of the heat supply in winter season which is connected directly with the fossil CO2 emissions and more intensive Suess effect. Summer maximum could be explained by the combination of the lower CO2 emission rate and higher turbulent transport of the stratospheric 14C to the troposphere. Using the Fourier harmonic analysis the amplitude spectra of the average annual variations were plotted. The obtained result shows that the variations have the high degree of symmetry. Furthermore, the obtained basic frequency ?1 = 2?/12 [month-1] proves that the cyclic processes with the period of T = 12 [month] have a major influence on the 14C amount in the troposphere. The presence of some higher-order harmonics is significant, but a physical interpretation has not yet been clear. In addition to the main frequency there are presented also 2?1 and 3?1 in Bratislava and 4?1 in Zlkovce data-set. The long-time average of the ?14C in Zlkovce during years 1995-2004 is higher of about 6.6 o/oo than in Bratislava. It represents an unique evidence that the local CO2 pollution affects the 14C activity . The correlation on the level R2 = 0,43 was found between Bratislava and Zlkovce atmospheric ?14C data. (authors)

74

Specifically 14C-labelled uracils: [2-14C]uracil, [2,4,5-14C]uracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are the terminology, formulas, method of preparation and uses of specifically labelled [2-14C]uracil and [2,4,5-14C]uracil. Also given are the technical requirements placed on molar activity, radiochemical purity and the presentation of delivered products, on testing conditions and packaging, transport and storage. Also presented are the related Czechoslovak standards and legal specifications. (B.S.)

75

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty were treated with chemotherapy as well, and 34 were treated with external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients treated, good results were achieved in 34, fair results in six, and no improvement in six. Subsequent marrow depression necessitated transfusion in 10 patients; no other side effect was observed

76

Dynamics of phosphorus mineralization from 32P labelled greenmanure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled Sesbania aculeata was amended with soil at 0.25 and 0.5 per cent, both on dry weight basis, and incubated in anaerobic condition for 60 days. The P mineralization pattern depicted a two-step process, a rapid declining phase upto 30 days and a slow increasing phase thereafter. The Bray-1 reagent extracted nonsynthesised ionic P in the green manure amounting to 25 per cent of the total green manure P on the initial day of incubation. The mineralization process was related with the C:N and C:P ratio of the green manure and discussed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

77

Nonenzymatic radiolabeling of protein by 32P-containing nucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a nonenzymatic reaction which results in the radiolabeling of proteins by 32P-containing nucleoside triphosphates. The labeling reaction does not require any cofactors, but is greatly enhanced by the presence of alcohols. Even under optimal conditions, less than 1% of the protein molecules undergo modification. This nonspecific labeling represents a serious artifact which may become significant in systems involving low levels of specific labeling, such as photoaffinity labeling. Since the reaction is not limited to specific proteins, this may, however, provide a simple and rapid procedure for the preparation of labeled proteins. (Auth.)

78

Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

79

Intracavitary chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients received treatment with chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension (CPCS) 346 times since 1963. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients received 200 intraperitoneal treatments. One-hundred-fifteen patients received 144 intrapleural treatments. Six patients received both intraperitoneal and intrapleural treatments. Two patients received two intrapericardial treatments. Results of therapy were evaluated three months later and then at yearly intervals. In those patients who survived three months, the referring physician observed improvement in 85% of intraperitoneal treatment and in 75% of intrapleural treatments.

Jackson, G.L.; Blosser, N.M.

1981-12-15

80

Intracavitary chromic phosphate (/sup 32/P) colloidal suspension therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients received treatment with chromic phosphate (/sup 32/P) colloidal suspension (CPCS) 346 times since 1964. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients received 200 intraperitoneal treatments. One-hundred-fifteen patients received 144 intrapleural treatments. Six patients received both intraperitoneal and intrapleural treatments. Two patients received two intrapericardial treatments. Results of therapy were evaluated three months later and then at yearly intervals. In those patients who survived three months, the referring physician observed improvement in 85% of intraperitoneal treatment and in 75% of intrapleural treatments.

Jackson, G.L.; Blosser, N.M.

1981-12-15

 
 
 
 
81

Phosphorus 32P test in primary retinal detachment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 20 patients with primary retinal detachment the 32P radioisotope test was performed injecting intravenously 500-750 ?Ci of the isotope and doing measurements with a F-Messeelektronik counter after 48 and 72 hours. The radioisotope index calculated at the site of greater detachment in 17 eye-balls in relation to the sites with apposed retina in the same eye or the other eye differed in these cases. Among the obtained results the large number of negative indices calls for attention (12 out of 17 cases) and in 2 cases the obtained values were +30 and +59 which may cause diagnostic errors in cases with suspected intraocular neoplasm. (author)

82

Intracavitary chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients received treatment with chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension (CPCS) 346 times since 1963. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients received 200 intraperitoneal treatments. One-hundred-fifteen patients received 144 intrapleural treatments. Six patients received both intraperitoneal and intrapleural treatments. Two patients received two intrapericardial treatments. Results of therapy were evaluated three months later and then at yearly intervals. In those patients who survived three months, the referring physician observed improvement in 85% of intraperitoneal treatment and in 75% of intrapleural treatments

83

Intracavitary chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients received treatment with chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension (CPCS) 346 times since 1964. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients received 200 intraperitoneal treatments. One-hundred-fifteen patients received 144 intrapleural treatments. Six patients received both intraperitoneal and intrapleural treatments. Two patients received two intrapericardial treatments. Results of therapy were evaluated three months later and then at yearly intervals. In those patients who survived three months, the referring physician observed improvement in 85% of intraperitoneal treatment and in 75% of intrapleural treatments

84

Measurement of the thermal neutron cross section for the 35 Cl (n,p) 35 S reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal neutron cross section for the 35 Cl (n,p) 35 S reaction is measured. The measurements were performed on the 31-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron booster. The 35 Cl (n,p) 35 S (Q = 0.61 MeV) reaction cross section was determined by comparing the reaction yields for 6 Li (n,t) 4 He (Q = 4.79 MeV) and 14 C (n,p) 14 C (Q = 0.63 MeV) reactions. The double-section ionization chamber was used as a charged particle detector. The investigated and standard targets, 12 x 3 cm in the first measurements and 12 x 6 cm in others, were mounted in a back-to-back geometry on the cathode of the chamber. The chamber was filled with an Ar + 3-4% CO2 gas mixture at pressures of 1.15 - 0.46 atm. The value of cross section equal to 575 ± 13 mb is obtained. The conclusion is made that this value exceeds most of the values reported previously

85

Applications of 10Be, 14C, and 32Si to geological questions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiometric dating is regarded as fundamental to any modern timescale calibration. In terms of available isotopic dating and tracing tools in environmental sciences, the cosmogenic isotopes stand out because of their application in the range from the very recent up to the middle Miocene. At IGNS, three long-lived cosmogenic isotopes can be measured. 14C (half life=5730 years) and 10Be (half-life = 1.5 Ma) are measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) of 10Be/9Be and 14C/13C ratios, while 32Si (half-life > 140 years) is measured by radioactive decay counting of its daughter-product 32P. The main advantage of AMS over decay counting is the relatively small amount of sample material needed. AMS has made it feasible to measure ultra-low concentrations of long-lived isotopes such as 10Be. (author)

86

Synthesis of 32P labelled compounds using recoil-atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the reactions of recoil atoms and subsequent thin-layer chromatography, carrier-free tris (polyfluoroalkyl) phosphates labelled with 32P have been synthesized. To prepare samples with the activity 105-106 Bq, a mixture, containing 400 g, ClCl4, 0.02 mol of tetrafluoropropyl alcohol and 0.03x10-3 mol of imidazole was irradiated by a Po-Be source neutron flux (108 neutron/s) for 1-12 days at room temperature. The effect of temperature, exposure time, concentrations and alcohol-to-imidazole ratio on the yield of tris (polyfluoroalkyl) phosphate is studied. The optimum conditions are determined to be: 20-40 deg C, alcohol concentration = 0.69 molar percent, alcohol-to-imidazole ratio = 600. The 32P-labelled tris (tetrafluoropropyl) phosphate produced is used to study its reetherification with n-butanol in the 0-80 deg C range in the presence of the CsF catalyst. The reaction rate constants of consecutive substitution of butyl group for tetrafluoropropyl one at 40 deg C are evaluated to be: K1=(1.1+-0.1)x10-4 c-1, K2=(2.1+-0.1)x10-5 c-1, K3=(3.9+-0.1)x10-6 c-1, respectively

87

Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-[35S]cysteine or L-[35S]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-[35S]cysteine and L-[35S]methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of [35S]OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of [35S]cysteine or [35S]methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine

88

32P uptake and translocation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P uptake in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars L-550 and C-235 as affected by vesicualr-arbuscular mycorrhiza (G. caledonicum) and Rhizobium was investigated in P deficient soils. Test plants coinoculated with the above two symbionts exhibited higher 32P uptake than inoculated with either symbiont alone. Uninoculated plants showed minimum level of 32P uptake. (author). 1 tab., 7 refs

89

Chemical synthesis of [32P]pyrophosphate with high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple procedure for synthesizing [32P]pyrophosphate with high specific activity (about 100 Ci/mmol) is described. [32P]pyrophosphate was formed by simple dehydration of inorganic [32P]phosphate and subsequently purified by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatography. The yield was 20 to 40%

90

Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

91

Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

92

Phosphorus /sup 32/P test in primary retinal detachment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 20 patients with primary retinal detachment the /sup 32/P radioisotope test was performed injecting intravenously 500-750 ..mu..Ci of the isotope and doing measurements with a F-Messeelektronik counter after 48 and 72 hours. The radioisotope index calculated at the site of greater detachment in 17 eye-balls in relation to the sites with apposed retina in the same eye or the other eye differed in these cases. Among the obtained results the large number of negative indices calls for attention (12 out of 17 cases) and in 2 cases the obtained values were +30 and +59 which may cause diagnostic errors in cases with suspected intraocular neoplasm.

Mondelski, S.; Pytlarz, E. (Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland))

1980-01-01

93

Endolymphatic treatment with 32P and 131I isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method can be applied mainly for the treatment of lymp node metastases of tumours of the lower extremities and melanoma malignum. It is contraindicated in the case of circulation disorders, lymphoedema and after surgical exstirpation or percutaneous irradiation of the lymph nodes. The applied isotopes are: 2 mCi 32P-tri-N-octyl-phosphate plus 0.5 mCi 131I in 7 ml Lipiodol UF contrast material. The same dose is simultaneously injected in the lymph vessels of both feet. The average dose in the lymph nodes is approx. 150000 rad, the radiation exposition of the lungs being around 400 rad. In the I. and II. stage of melanoma malignum the method resulted five-year survival in 90% and 45%, resp. (L.E.)

94

Synthesis and labelling of hydroxilapatite with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work two methods are compared to obtain Hidroxilapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in a synthetic way, with similar results in their efficiency and purity. One of those methods is based on the one of H. Hayer and W. Stadlmann (1955) modified, and the other one consists of a synthesis using H3PO4, CaCl2 and NaOH. In this case two ways are presented related with the moment in which the alcalinization is carried out. Referring to the procedure of labelling, carrier free 32P is incorporated by isotopic exchange to the H3PO4, which afterwards is used in the preparation of the hidroxilapatite. (author)

95

Synthesis of [carbonyl-14C]sparfloxacin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new antimicrobial quinolone, sparfloxacin (5-amino-1-cyclopropyl-7- (cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline -3- carboxylic acid, AT-4140; CAS 110871-86-8), was labeled by 14C for studies of disposition and metabolism. Ethyl pentafluoro[carbonyl-14C]benzoylacetate (I) was reacted with ethyl orthoformate, cyclopropylamine and then potassium tert-butoxide to give a quinolone intermediate (IV). A benzylamino derivative (V) obtained by condensation of IV and benzylamine was subject to catalytic hydrogenolysis and hydrolyzed to give the carboxyl derivative (VII), which was condensed with cis-2,6-dimethylpiperazine to form [carbonyl-14C]sparfloxacin. The average yield of 3 preparations was 41.5% and specific activities were 310.8-366.3 MBq (8.4-9.9 mCi)/mmol. Both chemical and radiochemical purities were greater than 99%. PMID:1663353

Kagemoto, A; Negoro, T; Nakao, M; Ochi, T; Chiba, K; Kataoka, M; Sekine, Y

1991-07-01

96

Determination of donor corneal tissue viability by 35S incorporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of various storage conditions on corneal tissue viability have been studied comparatively using swine eyeballs and recording the rate of 35S-labelled sodium sulphate binding to polysaccharides. With 6% dextran solution (Hemodex) injected into the anterior bulbus chamber of the donor, the rate of labelled compound binding remaines unaltered within the first five days, whereas with humid preservation techniques at 4 deg C binding ability is almost halved. Advantages of the proposed method of preservation are discussed with a view to clinical testing. (A.B.)

97

Placental transfer of 14C-hexoprenaline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The placental transfer of a single intravenous injection of 14C-hexoprenaline was studied in eight pregnant New Zealand white rabbits. Maternal and fetal blood was sampled intermittently for 60 minutes after the injection. An initial rapid decrease in the levels of 14C-hexoprenaline in maternal blood was followed by a second slower phase, whereas fetal heart rate after the administration of a single maternal intravenous injection of hexoprenaline in the treatment of fetal distress is due to the action on the uterus and/or on maternal cardiovascular function, and not to direct stimulation of the fetus

98

Isolation of (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed.

Haut, S.A.; Core, M.T. (Philip Morris Research and Development, Richmond, Va. (USA))

1982-01-01

99

Study of the reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the elastic scattering of polarized protons in 14 C, it has been very limited. Some angular distributions exists to low energy, as well as measures of excitation functions to several angles for the differential section and the vectorial analyzer power. A detailed study of the elastic scattering of protons by 14 C, it give us experimental information of the excited states in 15 N. The study of these states, is since of considerable interest it is not very easy to obtain a target of 14 C also in a reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C is possible to obtain information of levels in 15 N to an excitation energy EX >14.95 MeV. (Author)

100

Synthesis of [18-14C]octatriacontane from [1-14C]stearic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed to synthesize 14C-labelled n-alkanes for use in cigarette smoke studies. Specifically, n-[18-14C]-octatriacontane was synthesized from 1 mCi [1-14C]stearic acid in a radiochemical yield of 20%. The key features of this synthesis were two consecutive alkylations of tosylmethyl isocyanide followed by acid hydrolysis to [18-14C]-19-octatriacontanone and modified Wolff-Kishner reduction to the n-alkane. After purification on silica gel 25 mg of [18-14C]octatriacontane was obtained with a total radioactivity of 200 ?Ci, a specific activity of 4.3 mCi/mmol, and a radiochemical purity in excess of 98% by thin layer radiochromatography. The method has also been applied to the synthesis of unlabeled n-pentatriacontane and is considered to be generally applicable to the synthesis of radiolabeled alkanes from radiolabeled fatty acids. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Persorption of 35S-labelled cation exchangers in mammals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Persorption rates were determined of 35S-labelled cation exchangers (sulphonated polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymerisate) in two particle sizes, between 80?m and 125?m and smaller than 45?m in diameter, following oral administration to pigs of one single dose of 5 g / 25 kg body weight. Maximum persorption rates were 5 x 10-3 after 51 hours and 7 x 10-4 after 35 days for the larger particle size. For the fine grain sample the persorption rate showed already after 51 hours a lower value of 2 x 10-3, after 35 days it reached with 5 x 10-4 approximately the same value as it was observed with the large grain sample. About 80 per cent of all substance recorded had been absorbed by muscles. Only less than 1 x 10-4 of water-soluble 35S activity and less than 2 x 10-5 of solid particles were recordable from urine and could be, as well, identified directly by means of autoradiography. The number of particles absorbed by fine grain samples was roughly a hundred times higher than that in large grain samples. However, absorbed amounts were approximately the same after 35 days, related to the SO3H group active in ion exchange. The conclusion was drawn that no dependence of persorption rates on particle size was any longer detectable, when 35 days had passed. (author)

102

Future quality assurance in 14C dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 14C community has recently agreed to undertake a quality assurance scheme designed to ensure reliability and comparability of results across laboratories. We present evidence which demonstrates the need for this action, and outline the remedial action intended by concerned dating laboratories. Historically, 14C labs have inter-calibrated irregularly with restricted numbers of samples to help ensure satisfactory performance. Large scale organised inter-lab comparisons have, however, revealed significant discrepancies amongst 14C laboratories in the past. Recently, the second International Inter-Comparison (ICS) further demonstrated the degree and magnitude of such discrepancies. The ICS involved over fifty laboratories worldwide (including representatives of gas counting, liquid scintillation and accelerator laboratories) and was a three-stage project carried out over three years. Analysis of the results demonstrated the existence of systematic laboratory biases and additional sources of variability not accounted for by the quoted errors. As a result of the study and following discussion of its findings at an international workshop, proposals for quality control and assurance have been devised. These include the introduction of a published protocol for internal laboratory procedures; the introduction of additional reference materials, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, and finally, a provision for regular nna, and finally, a provision for regular international intercomparisons to be organised by the present authors. In essence, 14C laboratories are entering a new era of internal and external accountability, and it is appropriate that the wider scientific community is aware of these developments. (Author)

103

Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

104

Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P2O5+70 g K2O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P2O2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

105

Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17?g P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ?94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (?68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (?48%) and all other fractions were ?9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ? 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

106

An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

107

An experimental study of targeting therapy with 35S-SZ39 against glioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To prepare a pure ?-emitting immunoradiotherapeutics agent 35S-MAb SZ39, and validate its special therapeutic efficacy against glioma. Methods: MAb SZ39 was labelled with 35S using a carbodiimide method. Using 35S-nIgG, 35S + MAb SZ39 and sustained 35S as control agents, and human brain glioma cell line SHG-44 as target cell, the injury rate and 50% inhibitory concentration of 35S-MAb SZ39 were evaluated with MTT method. 35S-MAb SZ39 and its control agent 35S-nIgG or PBS were i.p. injected into glioma-bearing nude mice. The tumor inhibitory rate (I) was determined according to the formula: I = [1-(TV35S-MAb/TVPBS)] x 100% (TV: tumor volume). Flowcytometry was used to analyse the cell cycle of glioma after treatment. Results: 35S-MAb SZ39 had a strong cytotoxic effect to glioma cells with 4.2-fold and 4.0-fold more toxic than 35S-nIgG and 35S + MAb SZ39, as strong as the sustained 35S control group. Tumor growth blocking for one week was obtained with 103.6 MBq 35S-MAb SZ39 treatment. The inhibitory rate was 50% 26 days after 35S-MAb SZ39 administration. DNA synthesis of glioma cells was inhibited, cells were accumulated in S period and the road to G1 period was blocked. There was a trend of cell cycle synchronization. No obvious toxicity was found on zation. No obvious toxicity was found on bone marrow while 35S-MAb SZ39 made the glioma growth block. Conclusions: 35S-MAb SZ39 has a strong selective injurious effect on glioma and is of good prospect to be an immunoradiotherapeutics agent

108

The synthesis of HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors [14C]L-697,661, [14C]L-697,639, [14C]L-702,007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of three carbon-14 labeled reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been accomplished by elaboration of a common intermediate, 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-amino-2-(1H)-[4-14C]-pyridinone (7). Ethyl [1-14C]formate, prepared by esterification of sodium [14C]formate, was combined with 2-pentanone under basic conditions to afford 3-[14C]carboxyaldehyde-2-pentanone sodium salt (2). The pyridinone ring was constructed by condensation of 2 with nitro acetamide 4. Reduction of the nitro group afforded 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-amino-2-(1H)-[4-14C]-pyridinone (7)(specific activity 54 mCi/mmol). Subsequent alkylation of 7 provided the desired reverse transcriptase inhibitors [14C]L-697,661, [14C]L-697,639, and [14C]L-702,007. (Author)

109

The synthese of compounds labelled with 14C. General problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barium carbonate (14C) is the only material for the syntheses of compounds labelled with 14C. The syntheses of compounds of 14C were considered for their individual features and specificities in respect of double - lined character of chemical and radiochemical phenomena. It was stated that compounds of 14C obtainable directly from barium carbonate (14C) will be called basis compounds of 14C. The methods of adaptations of some syntheses of 14C elaborated previously in other laboratory were considered. The aim of this adaptation was to obtain a method flexible in respect with amount of products 14C and repeatable concerning yield and purity of compounds labelled with 14C. The methods of the microsyntheses of compounds labelled with 14C were discussed. (author)

110

Parathyroid hormone-induced phosphate excretion following preequilibration with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates a secretory component of avian renal inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) transport, but the secreted P/sub i/ does not appear to be derived directly from peritubular (plasma) P/sub i/. In the present study, experiments were conducted to determine whether differences in parathyroid status during 32P infusion influenced entry of the isotope into the P/sub i/ secretory pool. Fractional excretion values for P/sub i/ (FE/sub P//sub i/ and 32P (FE/sub 32P/) were compared in normal and parathyroidectomized (PTX) anesthetized birds that had been preinfused with 32P for 0, 90, and 240 min before PTH infusion. The results demonstrate that in the absence of exogenous PTH, FE/sub P//sub i/ is identical to FE/sub 32P/ in normal and PTX birds, reflecting full equilibration of FE32P with excreted P/sub i/ under these conditions; and, regardless of the duration of 32P preequilibration or the parathyroid status of the experimental animals, exogenous PTH always causes FE/sub p//sub i/ to exceed FE/sub 32P/. It is concluded that the P/sub i/ secretory pool is inaccessible to 32P under conditions that should markedly alter cellular P/sub i/ influx and efflux

111

The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

112

Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

113

Evaluation of the efficacy of 32P and 89Sr radionuclide therapy in metastatic bone pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Bone metastases constitutes 60 - 84% of cancer patients. Radionuclide therapy achieves palliation and improves quality of life. The efficacy of 32P and 89Sr therapy in bone pain and toxicity aspects is presented. 32P and 89Sr (orthophosphate and metastron) were administered in patients with multiple secondaries from breast or prostate cancers. The study included 31 patients with 32P and 6 patients with 89Sr. Doses of 32P and 89Sr depended upon the extent of metastases as seen from bone scan and severity of pain. Total administered activities of 32P and 89Sr ranged from 185-518 MBq and 138-182 MBq, respectively. Absorbed doses to metastases and bone marrow were 200 - 534 cGy and 70-191 cGy for 32P; 3174-4195 cGy and 219-289 cGy for 89Sr therapy. The efficacy of pain relief were 68% and 88% for 32P and 89Sr groups. Hematological toxicity was high for 32P patients receiving doses above 400 MBq, but there was no significant toxicity in 89Sr group of patients. Our preliminary study indicates 89Sr to be superior as radionuclide therapy agent. With careful evaluation of patients, 32P also could be considered in a few patients because of its easy availability and economics

114

Placental transfer of 14C-hexoprenaline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The placental transfer of a single intravenous injection of 14C-hexoprenaline was studied in eight pregnant New Zealand white rabbits. Maternal and fetal blood was sampled intermittently for 60 minutes after the injection. An initial rapid decrease in the levels of 14C-hexoprenaline in maternal blood was followed by a second slower phase, whereas fetal levels remained insignificant. The conclusion, therefore, is that the rapid improvement in fetal heart rate after the administration of a single maternal intravenous injection of hexoprenaline in the treatment of fetal distress is due to the action on the uterus and/or on maternal cardiovascular function, and not to direct stimulation of the fetus

115

Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

116

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon (14C) AMS measurements (?R/R 14C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the “Acerenza portrait” is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-14C dating on the lipid b-14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459–1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571–1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559–1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452–1519) to the support.

117

Automated evaluation of 14C AMS measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

The huge amount of raw data collected during routine 14C AMS measurements requires sophisticated processing tools to guarantee the quality and reliability of the resulting radiocarbon dates. This paper discusses the automatic evaluation system, that is in use and under continuous development at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) laboratory. It includes a calibration program which is able to handle the bomb-peak. The flexibility of the system allows its use for other rare isotopes also.

Puchegger, S.; Rom, W.; Steier, P.

2000-10-01

118

Synthesis of 14C analogue of 1,2-diaryl-[2-14C]-pyrroles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three 1,2-diaryl pyrroles selective COX-2 inhibitors, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-methyl-1-(4-methylsulfonyl-phenyl)-1H pyrrole, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1- [4-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl]-1H-pyrrole and 4-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]benzenesulfon-amide, all three labeled with 14C in the 2-position were prepared from para-fluoro-benzaldehyde-[carbonyl-14C]. (author)

119

Translocation of 14C photosynthates in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on translocation of 14C photosynthates in some of the high yielding rice varieties indicated the following: (1) the translocation of photosynthates from leaf to stem was faster in early varieties like Bala than in early to medium types, Hamsa or IR.8 (2) the fixation of 14CO2 in leaves was more in Vijaya and its sister selections (CR.10 cultures, T.90xIR.8) than in IR.8 or Jaya at the early stages of panicle development. However, the movement of 14C photosynthates to panicle was faster in IR.8 and Jaya while in CR.10 cultures they accumulated initially to stem and sheath and (3) low light enhanced translocation of 14C photosynthates from leaf to panicle in Bala, Hamsa, IR.8 and Jaya while in Padma it was impaired. In general, CR.10 cultures (Vijaya, CR.10-5071) were found to be efficient in photosynthesis and translocation under low light intensity and such character was possibly derived from the local parent, T.90. (author)

120

14C analysis via intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity, and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10-1514C/12C ratios have been obtained with theoretical limits much lower. Using a 15 W 14CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 5 x 10-15 to >1.5 x 10-12 in 14C/12C ratios, as determined by AMS, was demonstrated. Calibration becomes non-linear over larger concentration ranges due to interactions between CO2 and buffer gas, laser saturation effects and changes in equilibration time constants. The instrument is small (table top), low maintenance and can be coupled to GC or LC input. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub-therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon.carbon.

 
 
 
 
121

Synthesis of metnyl-2-/2-14C/benzimidazolecarbamate and 2-amino/2-14C/benzimidazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methyl-2-[2-14C] benzimidazolecarbamate ([2-14C]MBC) was synthesized from [14C] thiourea in three stage synthesis. S-methyl [14C] thiourea was obtained in the first stage, and treated with methyl chloroformiate giving carbamate derivative. Condensation of this compound with o-phenylenediamine led to [2-14C]MBC in radiochemical yield 66.9% and with radiochemical purity 98.5%. Hydrolysis of the [2-14C]MBC furnished 2-amino [2-14C] benzimidazole in radiochemical yield 65,8% and with radiochemical purity 97.3%

122

Liquid scintillation counting of 35S in small segments of maize (Zea mays L.) roots  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid and simple method is described for 35S-determination in minute root-tip segments. The 35S-quantification was done without preliminary grinding of the sample. Biological and technical factors affecting the 35S-quantification have been investigated. The method, for its simplicity and rapidity, can be recommended for routine assay. (author)

123

Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

124

Some autoradiographic observations on alkali chloride crystals containing sup(35)S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of sup(35)S is investigated by autoradiography in neutron irradiated sodium and potassium chloride crystals cleaved from Kyropoulos grown single crystals of high purity. The observations suggest that the sup(35)S enters the alkali chloride crystal by two mechanisms during vapour doping. One is a slow diffusive process giving continuously distributed sup(35)S. The other involves localized movement of the sup(35)S along dislocations and cracks. The relative importance of the two mechanisms depends on the temperature and time of doping and the vapour pressure of sulfur. At low pressure the dislocation process dominates the entry of the sup(35)S. (author)

125

Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

126

Enzymatic synthesis of [3-14C] cinnamic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Convenient and efficient route of the synthesis of [3-14C] cinnamic acid is reported. [1-14C] Benzoic acid, prepared by carbonation of Grignard reagent with [14C] carbon dioxide, was reduced to [1-14C] benzyl alcohol. In the enzymatic step this alcohol was selectively oxidised to [1-14C] benzaldehyde using enzyme YADH (Ec. 1.1.1.1) and immediately condensed with malonic acid. This combined chemical and enzymatic approach allows to obtain [3-14C] cinnamic acid with radiochemical yield higher than 50% in respect to the starting alcohol. (author)

127

A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes a method for separating 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K2HPO4, Mg(C2H3O2)2, ovalbumen, Na2ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14C-hexose and 14C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

128

Synthesis of 14C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1-14C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems. (author)

129

14C Accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocarbon Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of carbon isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. The possibility of dating or tracing rare or even compound specific carbon samples has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. The Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), in Brazil will soon be able to perform the complete 14C-AMS measurement of samples. At the Nuclear Chronology Laboratory (LACRON) samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide. A stainless steel vacuum system was constructed for carbon dioxide purification and graphitization is performed in sealed tubes in a muffle oven. Graphite samples will be analyzed in a 250 kV Single Stage Accelerator produced by National Electrostatic Corporation which will be installed in the beginning of 2012. With the sample preparation laboratory at LACRON and the SSAMS system, the Physics Institute of UFF will be the first 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. (author)

130

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ( 14C) AMS measurements (? R/ R Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb- 14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

Marzaioli, F.; Fiumano, V.; Capano, M.; Passariello, I.; Cesare, N. De.; Terrasi, F.

2011-12-01

131

Synthesis of dexamethasone-4-/sup 14/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bismethylenedioxy (BMD) derivative of dexamethasone 2 was silylated with trimethylchlorosilane and imidazole in dimethylformamide to give the 11..beta..-trimethylsilyloxy BMD derivative 3. The ..delta../sup 1/-double bond in 3 was hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ..delta../sup 4/-3-oxo steroid 4. Oxidation of 4 with potassium permanganate-sodium metaperiodate gave the seco-acid 5 which on subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride; sodium acetate and triethylamine gave the enol-lactone 6. The enol-lactone 6 was reacted with /sup 14/C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 7a which on heating at reflux with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide in dioxane gave the ..delta../sup 4/-3-oxo derivative 8. Compound 8 was heated at reflux with m-iodylbenzoic acid and diphenyl diselenide in toluene to give the ..delta..sup(1,4)-3-oxo steroid 9. The protecting BMD and silyl groups were removed in a single step by reaction with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid containing 2N hydrochloric acid at room temperature to give dexamethasone-4-/sup 14/C 10.

Rao, P.N.; Cessac, J.W.; Hill, K.A. (Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, San Antonio, TX (USA))

1982-10-01

132

Synthesis of dexamethasone-4-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bismethylenedioxy (BMD) derivative of dexamethasone 2 was silylated with trimethylchlorosilane and imidazole in dimethylformamide to give the 11?-trimethylsilyloxy BMD derivative 3. The ?1-double bond in 3 was hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ?4-3-oxo steroid 4. Oxidation of 4 with potassium permanganate-sodium metaperiodate gave the seco-acid 5 which on subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride; sodium acetate and triethylamine gave the enol-lactone 6. The enol-lactone 6 was reacted with 14C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 7a which on heating at reflux with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide in dioxane gave the ?4-3-oxo derivative 8. Compound 8 was heated at reflux with m-iodylbenzoic acid and diphenyl diselenide in toluene to give the ?sup(1,4)-3-oxo steroid 9. The protecting BMD and silyl groups were removed in a single step by reaction with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid containing 2N hydrochloric acid at room temperature to give dexamethasone-4-14C 10. (author)

133

Synthesis of the fungicide [14C]triadimefon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of the fungicide [14C]triadimefon is described. Bromine transformed pinacolone into ?-bromopinacolone; this reacted with 4chloro-[U-14C] phenol yielding 1(4-chloro [U-14C]phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this was transformed by bromine into 1-(4-chloro[U-14C]phenoxy)-1-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this last compound reacted with 1,2,4-triazole to yield [14C]triadimefon, i.e., 1-(4-chloro[U-14C]phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanone. [14C]Triadimefon, having the specific activity 0.88 mCi/mmol, was obtained in 58% overall yield from 4-chloro [U-14C]-phenol. (author)

134

Irradiation of ovarian carcinoma cells with {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y; Bestrahlung von Ovarialkarzinomzellen mit {sup 32}P und {sup 90}Y  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiation dose effect in two ovarian carcinoma cells was investigated after fractional irradiation of two well established human cell lines (overay and endometrium) with colloidal solutions of {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y by a proliferation assay. In consideration of a possible in vivo application the activities of both isotopes were based on the same total dose. The in vitro growth of both cell lines was compared. Concerning a possible radionuclide thrapy, a significant advantage of {sup 90}Y on {sup 32}P was demonstrated, especially, with respect to survival rates. For the maximum energy dose of 44 Gy the survival rate was 10{sup -5} after irradiation with {sup 90}Y, whereas it was only 10{sup -1} for {sup 32}P for a comparable dose. As expected from the physical characteristics of both radioisotopes, colloidal {sup 90}Y is more suitable for an intraperitoneal radionuclide thrapy of small ovarian cancers or intraabdominal tumor rests. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Bestrahlungseffekte in Ovarialkarzinomzellen nach fraktionierter (4-, 8-, 12-taegiger) Bestrahlung mit kolloidalen Radioisotopen-Loesungen von {sup 32}P und {sup 90}Y wurde an zwei etablierten humanen Karzinom-Zellinien (Ovar und Endometrium) mit einem Proliferationsassay untersucht. Die Aktivitaeten wurden im Hinblick auf eine in vivo Applikation auf gleiche Gesamtdosis normiert. Danach wurde das in vitro Wachstumsverhalten der beiden Zellinien miteinander verglichen. die durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen zeigten, besonders im Hinblick auf die Ueberlebensrate, einen deutlichen strahlentherapeutischen Vorteil von {sup 90}Y gegenueber {sup 32}P. Unter der Bestrahlung mit {sup 90}Y betrug bei maximaler Energiedosis von 44 Gy die Ueberlebensrate der Zellen 10{sup -5}, waehrend sich fuer {sup 32}P bei einer vergleichbaren Dosis nur 10{sup -1} ergab. Wie bereits aufgrund der physikalischen Eigenschaften der beiden Isotope zu erwarten war, ist kolloidales {sup 90}Y fuer eine intraperitoneale Radioisotopentherapie von kleinen Ovarialkarzinomen oder intraabdominalen Tumorresten das geeignetere Isotop. (orig.)

Jenkner, J. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Frauenklinik; Fischer, R.; Hoelzel, F. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie; Ulmer, H.U. [Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-12-31

135

Study on labelling of rapeseed mustard plants by 32P radiotracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present investigation was done to label rapeseed-mustard plants (Brassica campestris cv. YST-151 and Brassica juncea cv. Varuna) by using 32P radiotracer technique by different methods. Phosphorous being an essential nutrient, plant absorb reasonable amount of 32P thus enabling an easy way of detection. Different methods were used to label the host plant with 32P namely application of radioisotope in soil; injection of radioisotope into plant stem and application of radioisotope in nutrient solution. The best method was found by application of radioisotope in the nutrient solution as it gave highest uptake and required least time out of the 3 given methods for labeling of plants. (author)

136

A cleanup procedure towards the preparation of chemically pure ? - 32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of high purity ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides enzymatically, involves the transfer of the radio labelled phosphorus from either ?-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or ?-guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Subsequent removal of these ribose nucleotides is essential for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. In the present work we describe a chemical method for the improvement of the chemical purity, based on the preferential oxidation of ribose sugars by periodate. The efficiency of the process was validated using tracer ?-32P ATP and ?-32P dATP. The result were further corroborated by HPLC. The process developed is an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. (author)

137

AMS 14C dating of lime mortar  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for refining lime mortar samples for 14C dating has been developed. It includes mechanical and chemical separation of mortar carbonate with optical control of the purity of the samples. The method has been applied to a large series of AMS datings on lime mortar from three medieval churches on the Åland Islands, Finland. The datings show convincing internal consistency and confine the construction time of the churches to AD 1280-1380 with a most probable date just before AD 1300. We have also applied the method to the controversial Newport Tower, Rhode Island, USA. Our mortar datings confine the building to colonial time in the 17th century and thus refute claims of Viking origin of the tower. For the churches, a parallel series of datings of organic (charcoal) inclusions in the mortar show less reliable results than the mortar samples, which is ascribed to poor association with the construction time.

Heinemeier, Jan; Jungner, Högne; Lindroos, Alf; Ringbom, Åsa; von Konow, Thorborg; Rud, Niels

1997-03-01

138

Synthesis of N-methyl-14C benzyl amine and N-methyl-14C benzyl nitrosamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-methyl-14C benzyl amine was prepared from benzyl amine through a sequence of trifluoroacylation, ionization, 14C-methylation and hydrolysis. N-methyl-14C benzyl nitrosamine was obtained by treating aqueous 14C-dialkylamine with NaNO2 and H2SO4. The radiochemical purity checked by radio-HPLC and specific activity of the product was 99% and 9.2 x 1011 Bq/mol respectively

139

The percutaneous absorption of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine in rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors had reported that L-cysteine probably was formed from acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine through cystathionine pathway by the skin enzyme of rabbit, and the solution composed of acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine exhibited the effectiveness to the hair growth in rabbit. This report shows that, by the application of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine to the skin of rabbit and in vitro analysis of the metabolites of 35S-compounds, 35S-acetyl-L-methionine was absorbed into the hair tissues for many hours, and half 35S-L-cystine was formed in vitro and in vivo. When total amount of 35S in the hair was measured, the radiochemical activities were clearly shown as almost 35S-L-cystine. (auth.)

140

Synthesis of Dl-methionine carboxyl 14C and its enzymatic optical resolution into L-methionine carboxyl 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DL-methionine carboxyl 14C has been prepared by Strecker reaction from 14C N K and ?-methylmercapto-propionaldehyde with 61 per cent yield. The enzymatic resolution of N-acetyl DL-methionine gives rise to L-methionine carboxyl 14C with 78 per cent yield. (authors)

 
 
 
 
141

On the 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate  

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The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at temperatures below 0.3 GK depends on the properties of two near threshold resonances in 18O, the 1- at 6.198 MeV and the 3- at 6.404 MeV. The alpha+14C Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for these resonances were determined using the alpha-transfer reactions 14C(7Li,t) and 14C(6Li,d) at sub-Coulomb energies. The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at low temperatures has been evaluated. Implications of the new reaction rate on the e...

Johnson, E. D.; Rogachev, G. V.; Mitchell, J.; Miller, L.; Kemper, K. W.

2009-01-01

142

Radiocarbon (14C) migration and metabolism kinetics (a review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on 14C migration and kinetics. Radiocarbon metabolism kinetics depends on the form of the chemical compound metabolized. Inorganic 14C compounds are metabolized relatively quickly. Organic 14C compounds (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) are retained longer in the body. The differences in the metabolism kinetics of different 14C compounds lead to different radiation doses in various organs and tissues. In establishing standards for permissible 14C intake the kind of chemical compound in which the element is incorporated should be taken into consideration. (author)

143

The study of isotopic labelling of dithiocarbamates and dithiophosphates by 35 S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies have been carried out on organic compounds which contain sulphur atoms in their molecule and belong to the group of dithiocarbamates and dithiophosphates, having in view the labelling with 35 S radioisotope. Depending on the working conditions and reaction yields, the labelling with 35 S isotope, was done in two ways: through organic synthesis of reaction intermediate products by using of C 35 S2 or P2 35 S5 or 35 S and through isotopic exchange. The 35 S radioisotope is important due to its applications in the field of organic compound labelling. Among its characteristics: the half time is 87 days, the maximum energy of beta radiation is 0.167 MeV and it is a pure beta transmitter. This work had as purpose: a) synthesizing and labelling of organic compounds from dithiocarbamates and dithiophosphates group by 35 S; b) radiochemical characterization of labelled compounds. The activity measurements were carried out with a 3385 Tricarb-Packard spectrometer, based on liquid scintillators. At the same time, we studied the 35 S labelling technique of these compounds. The organic syntheses used in the process of labelling of these organic compounds, have the advantage to obtain a structure with a definite position of radioactive labelling (of 35 S atom). (authors)

144

The transfer of different forms of {sup 35}S to goat milk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of {sup 35}S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received {sup 35}S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of {sup 35}S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of {sup 35}S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for {sup 35}S administered as methionine compared with {sup 35}S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of {sup 35}S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of {sup 35}S to milk of a further group of goats receiving {sup 35}S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed.

Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Mayes, R.W.; Lamb, C.S. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15

145

The catabolism of intravenously injected heparan N-[35S]sulphate in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolic fate of heparan N-[35S]sulphate was studied in rats. Heparan sulphate was obtained from either bovine aorta or lung and labelled with 35S by desulphation and subsequent resulphation in vitro. Experiments in which heparan N-[35S]sulphate was administered intravenously to either free-range or wholly anaesthetized rats with ureter cannulae established that substantial desulphation occurs in vivo, with elimination of inorganic [35S]sulphate in urine. Oligosaccharides labelled with 35S, possible intermediates in heparan sulphate degradation, could not be detected in urine or blood. The general distribution of radioactivity after administration of heparan N-[35S]sulphate, as demonstrated by whole-body radioautography, suggested that desulphation was not restricted to one organ in particular. Support for this view was obtained in experiments in which heparan N-[35S]sulphate was administered to animals after the removal of kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas or gastrointestinal tract. In all cases inorganic [35S]sulphate was still produced. The ability of rats to desulphate heparan N-[35S]sulphate was progressively impaired by increasing concentrations of heparin administered simultaneously. It was concluded that heparan sulphate is metabolized at a number of sites in the body by a sequence of degradative events leading to the formation of inorganic sulphate. It is al formation of inorganic sulphate. It is also concluded that at least some of these events are common to heparan sulphate and heparin

146

The synthesis of [3-14C]indirubin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[3-14C]indirubin is synthesized in three steps from potassium [14C]cyanide. Firstly, Potassium [14C]cyanide reacts with N,N'-diphenylthiourea to get N,N'-diphenyl [14C]cyanoamidine. Then, cyclizated in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride and hydrolizated with hydrochloric acid, amidine is leaded to [3-14C]isatin. Finally, [3-14C]isatin is condensed with excess potassium 3-indolelate to yield [3-14C]indirubin in 20.34% overall radiochemical yield from K14CN with a specific activity of 2 GBq/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99.9% (TLC)

147

Uptake and distribution of 32P in the budded and self-rooted grape varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the self-rooted and budded varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the total P and 32P contents were high in 'Anabee-Shahi', but low in in 'Muscat'. The growing shoots contained more P than old stems and roots in all the varieties. In the budded plants, 'Kali Sahebi' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shani showed the maximum 32P and total P in the shoots, but 'Muscat' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shahi' accumulated more P in the roots and very low 32P in the growing shoots. Auto-radiographs of shoots also showed that 'Kali Sahebi' budded on 'Anab-e-Shani' rootstock accumulated more 32P in the shoots. (author)

148

Reactor production and separation of no-carrier added 32P for medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorous-32 is an attractive and widely used therapeutic radionuclide owing to its favorable nuclear characteristics. The major application of 32P is the treatment option for a distinct subgroup of elderly patients with polycythemia vera and leukemia. The tremendous prospects associated with the use of 32P along with the challenge of providing 32P of acceptable specific activity and purity amenable for in vivo therapy, led to development of a 32P production strategy. The 32S(n,p)32P route of production provide the scope of obtaining high specific activities or no carrier added (NCA) 32P. In a typical batch of 14 nos. of neutron irradiated Al containers, each containing 18 g of sulphur, were processed. In the quest for an effective separation method to isolate micro gram of 32P formed during the neutron irradiation of sulphur, the prospect of using distillation under reduced pressure to achieve complete removal of sulfur seemed to be an effective proposition and motivated us to adopt. The experimental parameters that influence the distillation were identified and a careful control has been exercised to ensure complete removal of sulphur from 32P within reasonable time period. The 32P remained in the distillation flask was quantitatively collected by leaching with 0.05 N HCl with gentle heating at 80? for 3 hours. In the light of the perceived need to remove cationic impurities from the 32P leachate, it was passed through an ion-exchange chromatography column containing a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50 x 8 H+, 100-200 mesh) wherein all the cationic impurities get trapped and H332PO4 solution was collected as effluent. Recognizing the fact that H332PO4 produced is to be used for clinical applications, a thorough quality assessment was carried out. Radionuclidic purity was ascertained by a measurement of its half-life. In order to establish the absence of extraneous gamma emitting radionuclide impurities, gamma spectrum of the appropriately diluted samples of 32P of each batch were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy. Radionuclide purity as determined by paper chromatography indicates >98% of 32P as orthophosphate ion. The levels of trace metal ions as analyzed by ICP-AES were found to be below detectable limit (0.1 mg/L, 0.1 ppm for all the metal ions) thereby confirming their absence. Using the described procedure, several batches of 32P were prepared and results of 32P production carried out from 5 typical batches are presented. The data represents the typical yields of the 32P in regular batches. The relatively larger variations of yield from batch to batch are mostly due to the differences in the reactor irradiation conditions, such as the exact duration, intervening shut-down, and the variation of fast neutron flux level due to the power level of the reactor operation. The objective of separating 32P from neutron irradiated sulphur for in vivo application has been successfully accomplished

149

Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

1984-04-01

150

The measurement of phosphorus release rate for medical 32P labelled glass microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement methods of phosphorus release rate for medical 32P labelled glass microspheres are described. The definition of phosphorus release rate is also discussed. The measuring results indicate that the phosphorus release rate is less than 0.01%

151

Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

152

PEMANFAATAN RADIOISOTOP 32P UNTUK PENANDAAN (LABELLED COMPOUND PADA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti  

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Full Text Available An Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling with Radioisotop 32P was performed at various dose application. The research conducted by Insitute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development, Salatiga in collaboration with The National of Atomic Agency that aimed to know the effective dose and radioactivity disposal of the Radioisotop 32 P. The research used several doses: 0,3 µCi (micro currie; 0,5 µCi; and 0,7 µCi of each 25 gr larvaefood for 50 larvae with dry and wet radiation then observed the effect of radiation against larvae stadium and mosquitoes. The result shows that at 0,5 pCi isotop 32P dose application, Ae. aegypti mosquitoe can survive with 333,3 cps (currie per second residual radioactivity and detected in 75 cm distance. The Radioisotop 32P can be used as Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling/marking.

Akhid Darwin

2012-07-01

153

Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with ?-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with ?-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

154

Incorporating tritiated water into a 14C-sampling system for quantitative estimation of 14C activity in airborne effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of incorporating tritiated water into a 14C-sampling system in sample preparation and 14C activity measurement by liquid scintillation counting were investigated. Experiments derived the limit of water content in the prepared sample, and also demonstrated that 14C activity can be determined without any interference from 3H contamination for a clear-sample solution. The results enabled us to estimate the permissible relative humidity of air required for accomplishing sample preparation and 14C activity measurement. For sampling of air with less than the permissible relative humidity, total 14C activity in airborne effluent can be evaluated accurately without dehumidification of air. (author)

155

Accumulation and elimination of radioactive phosphorus (32P) in some organs of the Tilapia Nilotica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of accumulation and elimination of 32P was measured in five organs, i.e., brain, bone, heart, muscle and small intestines of the Tilapia nilotica at 190C or 280C. There was a faster rate of uptake at 280C, with the small intestines having the highest concentration of radioactive material. Elimination rates, however, indicate that bone retains 32P longest. (Auth.). 10 refs.; 2 figs

156

Radioactive 32P incorporation in liver of mice fed with Aspergillus terreus contaminated feed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 32P during toxicosis due to Aspergillus terreus, a common food contaminant, reported to procedure the toxin terreic acid, in addition to few others, was studied in mice. Radioactive 32P was injected intraperitoneally to the control mice and the experimental ones, which were fed with Aspergillus terreus contaminated feed, as well as the toxin terreic acid. After 24 hrs, both control and experimental animals were sacrificed. 32P incorporation in various fractions of liver were studied. 0.5 cm3 of each fractions was spread on a planchette and dried at 60 deg C. 32P activity was measured using a thin end window Geiger Mueller tube connected to Panax-type 100 C counter. No corrections were necessary for self absorption. In mice, fed with the contaminated feed, more 32P got incorporated in the nucleic acid fraction than seen in protein, barium soluble and barium insoluble fractions, whereas 32P incorporation in lipid fraction was lower. (T.G.)

157

32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7?,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antiboactive carcinogens or specific antibodies. (author)

158

32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7#betta#,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [#betta#-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or speciuiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies

159

Evaluation of a 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full Text: Objective: to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and methods: the patch was prepared from [32P]-chromic phosphate and silicone. The (a) activity concentration, (b) homogeneity, (c) integrity, (d) therapeutic efficacy for two treatment schemes in an animal model of skin cancer, (e) bio elimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals and (t) dosimetry to plan the treatment schemes were determined. Results: the 32P patch demonstrated homogeneity of activity and dose. On the other hand, it showed integrity under degradation conditions like the ones in a treatment. According to the bio elimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single dose therapeutic scheme showed higher percentage of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by the histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: the 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for its use in brachytherapy treatments. (author)

160

Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Radiolabelling of humic substances with 14C by azo coupling [14C]phenyldiazonium ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time, natural and synthetic humic substances were radiolabelled by azo coupling [U-14C]phenyldiazonium ions onto the aromatic fragments of their macromolecules under mild reaction conditions. The radiolabelling procedure was optimized with respect to pH, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of the humic substance to the labelling compound. The labelled humic substances were purified by precipitation or ultrafiltration. The chemical yields were in the range between 23% and 95%, and the specific radioactivities varied between 68 and 206 MBq 14C per gram of the humic substance, depending on the origin of the humic substance and the purification method. With the 14C-labelled humic compounds thus obtained, we were able to detect humic substances at concentrations as low as 5 ?g/L. These radiolabelled compounds can be used in long-term studies because, according to size exclusion chromatography data, there are no signs of their decomposition even after 5 months of storage

162

Disposition of 14C-acetohydroxamic acid and 14C-acetamide in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been identified as a potential agent for the treatment of infection-induced staghorn renal calculi in patients. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of 14C-acetamide have been evaluated in rats following iv and oral administration. The results of these experiments suggest that, following oral administration to rats, AHA is absorbed very rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and is metabolized to acetamide and CO2. Approximately 50-56% of the iv dose and 40-49% of the oral dose of 14C-AHA is excreted in the urine, suggesting a significant nonrenal elimination pathway for AHA and metabolite(s). Administration of 14C-acetamide to rats revealed that the compound is predominantly eliminated via the renal route, accounting for 68% of the administered radioactive dose. However, approximately 30% of the dose in the case of both AHA and acetamide could not be recovered, either in the urine or in the breath, during the 72-hr period of the experiment. This suggests that acetamide, may undergo further metabolism to get incorporated into the acetate pool. This would result in very slow elimination of the remaining activity as 14CO2 or as another unknown metabolite

163

Cosmogenic 35S measurements in the Tibetan Plateau to quantify glacier snowmelt  

Science.gov (United States)

cosmogenic radionuclide 35S (t1/2 ~ 87 days) is a unique tracer for high-altitude air mass and has been used extensively to understand stratospheric air mass mixing. In this paper, we investigate if 35S can be utilized as an independent tracer to quantify glacier melt. We report the first measurements of 35S in samples collected from the Tibetan Plateau during 2009-2012 with an aim to interpret 35S in atmospheric particles and their deposition over glacier and snowmelts. Our measurements show that 35S activity in the aerosol phase varies from 116 ± 13 to 2229 ± 52 atoms/m3 resulting in higher values during winter-spring and lower values during summer-autumn. This seasonality is likely due to higher mixing of 35S-rich stratospheric air masses during winter-spring and 35S-poor air masses from the Bay of Bengal during the Asian summer monsoon. The average 35S activity in the Zhadang glacier was found to be 3-8 times higher relative to the nearby lake water. The main source of 35S activity in the Zhadang glacier is atmospheric deposition, whereas both atmospheric deposition and glacier snowmelt are the primary sources in the Nam Co Lake. The focus of this study is to quantitatively determine the spatial and temporal variations in glacier snowmelt. In the future, extensive sampling of aerosols and snow is required for determining 35S in combination with stable oxygen isotopes in sulfate to better understand the glacier melt process and hydrological cycle on the Tibetan Plateau.

Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark; Zhang, Zhisheng; Lin, Mang; Chan, Chuen-yu; Kang, Shichang

2014-04-01

164

Distribution and tissue dose of intraperitoneally administered radioactive chromic phosphate (32P) in New Zealand white rabbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiophosphorus (32P) has become the preferred radioisotope for intraperitoneal radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of ovarian cancer. In a study of the distribution and tissue dose of intraperitoneally administered 32P in rabbits, effective half-lives of 32P and the radiation dose absorbed by intra-abdominal tissues were determined. Results show that 32P is not uniformly distributed over the peritoneal surfaces and that many areas are minimally irradiated. It is concluded that a significant fraction of the 32P distribution is systemic and that the beta-ray dose for intra-abdominal tissues is much lower than suggested by theoretical models

165

Antitumor effects of 32P-chromic-poly (L-lactide) brachytherapy in nude mice with human prostate cancer  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects and tissue distribution of 32P-chromic-poly (L-lactide) (32P-CP-PLLA) in nude mice with human prostate cancer. Tumor models were obtained by transplantation of PC-3M tumor cells into male BALB/c nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control, 32P-chromic phosphate (32P-CP) colloid and 32P-CP-PLLA groups (all n=20). A series of indices were investigated, including apoptosis of tumor cells, rate of apoptosis, expressio...

Sun, Liujing; Zhu, Xishan; Xu, Longbao; Wang, Zizheng; Shao, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jun

2013-01-01

166

Incorporation of 14C in chemical constituents of algal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two marine algal species Dunaliella premodecta, Chlamydemonas sp. and one fresh water species Scenedesmus obliquus were studied for 14C incorporation under laboratory conditions. The uptake of 14C in dry marine algal species was found to be more compared to that in fresh water species for the same initial concentration in the respective media. A sequential extraction technique was employed to study the distribution of 14C in different organic constituents. 14C fixation was found to be more in fatty acid fractions followed by protein and nucleoprotein fraction. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

167

14C emission fine structure by Radium isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First works have shown the fine structure in the 14C spectra emitted by 223Ra and have confirmed the similitude between this emission and ? emission. In this thesis, the author has measured the 14C energy spectra emitted by 222Ra even-even nucleus. In all these experiments, the number of detected carbon has been more important that in the experiment of discovery of these radioactivities. The author states precisely the 14C/? branching ratios and the 14C emission decay for the two studied isotopes

168

Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

169

Use of colloids of chromic [32P] phosphate in treatment of solid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an intratumorally single dose of chromic [32P] phosphate for the treatment of solid tumors, studies of bioelimination, biodistribution, and therapeutic action were carried out. Only for comparative purposes were similar studies undertaken using a solution of sodium [32P] orthophosphate-gelatin. Results show that when sodium [32P] orthophosphate-gelatin was intratumorally injected, the percentage of total elimination, after 32 days of treatment, was equal to 85.90 ± 8.70%, with a higher percentage in urine (64.50 ± 13.70%) than in feces (21.40 ± 4.50%). In biodistribution studies, the greater percentage was found in bone (15.54 ± 2.21%), whereas only 2.51 ± 0.39% remained in the tumor. When chromic [32P] phosphate was intratumorally injected, we found that the total elimination was equal to 51.70 ± 6.90%, with a higher amount in feces (32.70 ± 4.80%) than in urine (19.00 ± 3.60%). Biodistribution studies demonstrated that 28.93 ± 1.30% was still in the tumor and 19.01 ± 1.30% of the injected activity was found in the liver. On the other hand, when therapeutic action was evaluated, no tumoral regression was observed. These results demonstrate that the colloid of chromic [32P] phosphate cannot be used in the treatment of solid tumors as it mobilizes from the injection point, delivering a high dose to the entire organism

170

Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to beplant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

171

Method of preparing D-mannose(U-14C) from glucons(U-14C) separated from natural material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glucans(U-14C) separated from green or blue-green algae are hydrolysed using diluted mineral acids in the presence of small amounts of molybdate ions to D-glucose(U-14C) which, at a temperature of 60 to 100 degC epimerizes to D-mannose(U-14C). The epimeric aldoses are separated from the reaction mixture by paper chromatography. (H.S.)

172

Synthesis of [14C]-62514, a radiolabelled derivative of erythromycin A, via [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethylenediamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [14C]A-62514, 11-deoxy-11[carboxy(2-dimethylamino-[1-14C]ethyl)amino]-6-0-methyl-e rythromycin A 11,12-(cyclic ester), was performed in five steps. The key intermediate, [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethyl-enediamine, was obtained in 80% yield by reacting Eschenmoser's salt with K14CN and reducing the resulting [1-14C]N,N-dimethylglycinonitrile with H2 and Raney Ni in methanol and ammonium hydroxide. The final product was obtained 97% radiochemically pure in an overall radiochemical yield of 14%, with a specific activity of 39 mCi/mmol. (author)

173

Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

174

The foliar radiophosphorus 32-P application and its distribution in mungbean plant (Phaseolus radiatus L)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment carried out in greenhouse were intended to investigate radiophosphorus 32-P distribution and accumulation in mung bean at various plant ages. Radiophosphorus 32-P was applied foliarly in the mung bean plant of several weeks (ie. 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks) of age. The sampling has been done within 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after treatment. The relative phosphorus accumulation (%) in various parts of the plant ie. roots, stem, leaves, leave stalks, flower stalk, pods, and pod stalk was determined. The design used in the experiment was the randomized block design with factorial calculation. The experimental results points out that the 32-P was taken up by any plant organ. This highest mean value of 4.58%/g sample was observed in the leaves of 2 weeks of age; meanwhile the lowest mean value of 0.09%/g sample was obtained in the pods of 10 weeks of age. (author). 9 refs.; 15 tabs

175

Radiotracer studies for determining the active root distribution of Hevea brasiliensis using 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus uptake by mature Hevea trees from the soil was studied using 32P tracer. The soil injection of 32P in solution was used. Latex and leaf assay were compared for detecting 32P uptake and latex was found to be more convenient and reliable than leaf assay for determining the distribution of active roots with respect to vertical and lateral distances from the tree. Latex radioactivity tended to be higher at 8 weeks than at 4 weeks. Latex assay made after 8 weeks was therefore used in this study. The activity of the latex was higher when the tracer was placed at a depth of 15 cm. Of the five lateral distances compared, the highest root activity was observed at a distance of 0.75 m from the tree. (author)

176

The absolute standardization of 32P and 204Tl at LNMRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

32P and 204Tl solutions were standardized within the frame of the international key comparisons organized by bureau international des poids et mesures, in 2002. The activity concentration of 32P was measured by counting solid sources in a 4pibeta proportional gas flow counter and by liquid scintillation counting. The self-absorption in solid sources for 4pibeta counting and the presence of 33P as an impurity were evaluated. The combined standard uncertainty for 32P was 0.59% in the 4pibeta counting and 0.38% in the liquid scintillation counting. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure the activity concentration of 204Tl with combined standard uncertainty of 0.35%. PMID:14987677

da Cruz, Paulo A L; Iwahara, Akira; Bernardes, Estela M O; da Silva, Carlos J

2004-01-01

177

The absolute standardization of 32P and 204Tl at LNMRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P and 204Tl solutions were standardized within the frame of the international key comparisons organized by bureau international des poids et mesures, in 2002. The activity concentration of 32P was measured by counting solid sources in a 4?? proportional gas flow counter and by liquid scintillation counting. The self-absorption in solid sources for 4?? counting and the presence of 33P as an impurity were evaluated. The combined standard uncertainty for 32P was 0.59% in the 4?? counting and 0.38% in the liquid scintillation counting. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure the activity concentration of 204Tl with combined standard uncertainty of 0.35%

178

Absorption and elimination kinetics of 32P malathion in the hen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the separation of urine and faeces in the hen was developed and the biological fate of 32P malathion, following a single oral dose of 262.40 mg/kg body weight was studied. The results suggested that the compound was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; significant quantities being detected in the plasma and whole blood 1/2 hr after ingestion. Total 32P was eliminated in the urine by apparent first order kinetics with an average half-life of 5.7 hrs. The cumulative urinary and faecal data revealed that 93% of the 32P is excreted via the urine within 48 hrs, thus indicating that the compound is almost completely absorbed. It is therefore concluded that accumulation in the system is unlikely. (author)

179

Laboratory and field studies with /sup 32/P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with /sup 32/P by feeding fourth-stage larvae /sup 32/P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The /sup 32/P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

1986-12-01

180

Kinetic studies of 51Cr and DF32P labelled granulocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo kinetic studies of granulocytes labelled in vitro with 51Cr and DF32P were carried out in nine haematologically normal subjects by isolation of the cells in the blood samples by the Ficoll-Isopaque flotation method. 51Cr and 32P specific activity of blood samples made of 93-98% granulocytes was studied. Distribution between marginated and circulating granulocyte pools was identical for both labelled cells and the marginated pool was similar to the circulating pool, except that it was lower in one subject who had a previous splenectomy. The half-disappearance time (T 1/2) was 16.1+/-2.2 h for 51Cr-labelled and 5.4+/-2.1 hr for DF32P-labelled granulocytes. In one case of a normal subject who previously received multiple transfusion homologous 51Cr-labelled granulocytes had a T 1/2 of less than 1 h. PMID:1201203

Dresch, C; Najean, Y; Bauchet, J

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Observations on the intraperitoneal distribution of chromic phosphate (32P) suspension for intraperitoneal therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven patients received intraperitoneal chromic phosphate (32P) suspension in a 3-ml bolus with a saline flush, and another ten patients were given the suspension in a 500-ml infusion of normal saline. During the first six hours after administration, most 32P activity redistributed to the gravity-dependent portion of the peritoneal cavity. From 24 hours up to seven weeks after administration, activity distributions were fixed. Dispersions were heterogeneous in every patient, but the most marked examples of localized activity occurred in patients who had received bolus injections. We concluded that large-volume infusions and frequent changes in patient position for several hours following the infusion, contribute to improved dispersion of 32P suspension

182

Observations on the intraperitoneal distribution of chromic phosphate (32P) suspension for intraperitoneal therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven patients received intraperitoneal chromic phosphate (32P) suspension in a 3-ml bolus with a saline flush, and another ten patients were given the suspension in a 500-ml infusion of normal saline. During the first six hours after administration, most 32P activity redistributed to the gravity-dependent portion of the peritoneal cavity. From 24 hours up to seven weeks after administration, activity distributions were fixed. Dispersions were heterogeneous in every patient, but the most marked examples of localized activity occurred in patients who had received bolus injections. Researchers concluded that large-volume infusions and frequent changes in patient position for several hours following the infusion, contribute to improved dispersion of 32P suspension

183

Adjuvant internal hepatic radiotherapy using colloidal 32P chromic phosphate in colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the study is to investigate the value of adjuvant radiotherapy given in the form of colloidal chromic phosphate 32P suspension administered via portal vein, in preventing the growth of occult metastases in the liver. Twenty two patients (10 patients of treated group with 12 controls) were followed 12 months after operation. There was no significant change in the CBC and liver functions after administration of 32P labeled colloidal chromic phosphate. Although local recurrence rates were very similar in both groups of colorectal cancer (3/12 in the control group and 4/10 in the treated group), liver metastasis rates were quite different: 4/12 in the control group and none (0/10) in the treated group. In conclusion, 32P labeled colloidal chromic phosphate is expected to prevent liver metastases of completely resected colorectal cancer. (author)

184

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

Duarte A, C

2003-07-01

185

The preparation of 14C-labeled FK-506  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilizing sodium [1-14C]propionate as a precursor, [14C]FK-506, labeled at carbon atoms 10, 16, 18, 21a, 24, and 26, was produced by fermentative biosynthesis. Extractive isolation followed by chromatographic purification provided material of purity suitable for metabolism studies. (Author)

186

Assimilation and utilization of 14C assimilates in chickpeas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Translocation, distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in two genotypes of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) during winter of 1974-75 and 1975-76. Plants were allowed to assimilate CO214 at pre-flowering, flowering and initial pod filling stages, and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During vegetative phase, most of 14C was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissues. Sixty three days after assimilation pod accumulated about 7 percent 14C while nodules gained only 1.7 percent in 'Pant G-104'. Similar pattern was observed in case of variety 'K-4'. During reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was linearly translocated from leaves to other plant parts with time. Since stem was actively growing it accumulated a major portion of carbon. Pod also accumulated 14C linearly as time after assimilation elapsed. Respiratory losses during one week after exposure were about 30 percent in both varieties. Photosynthate within a branch was translocated readily, while movement from one branch to another was restricted. Leaf at axial of pod was major source of photosynthate to pod. (author)thate to pod. (author)

187

Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

188

Internal radiotherapy using 32P colloid or microsphere for refractory solid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to study the effectiveness of 32P colloids or microspheres, by arterial interventional administration or stromal injection in the treatment of refractory solid tumors. By arterial intervention, under the guidance of computerized tomography, X-ray, ultrasonogram, or under direct vision of the surgical field, 32P microspheres (259-685 MBq) or radioactive colloid (281-666 MBq) was administered to 60 cases with refractory solid tumors. Tumor inhibition rate, side effects, survival period, and so on were observed. The tumor growth was obviously inhibited after the intratumoral injection of 32P colloid. The average survival time in the 60 cases was 35 months with a high tumor inhibition rate (93.4%). Thirty-one cases were completely relieved (51.7%), and 25 cases achieved partial remission (PR, 41.7%). One case with right lobe hepatocellular carcinoma has survived 90 months. The drug was ineffective only in four cases, including one patient who died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage and three of hepatic failure. No other obvious side effects were observed. Intratumoral necrosis, intense fibrosis in the tumor mass, and an integrated capsule encompassing the tumor were revealed by histological examination. Arterial interventional administration or stromal injection with 32P microspheres or colloid revealed a very fair clinical effectiveness in the treatment of refractory solid tumors. The range of safe effectivy solid tumors. The range of safe effective dosage for 32P glass microspheres and 32P chromic phosphate in one treatment course is 555-740 MBq and 185-370 MBq, respectively. (author)

189

Interstitial irradiation using 32P-chromic phosphate during resection of cardio-esophageal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the effectiveness of 32P-chromic phosphate (32P-colloid) by stromal injection during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection. Methods: To 91 patients with clinically diagnosed cardio-esophageal carcinoma, infiltrative injection of 32P-colloid (296-370 MBq/10 ml) was administer either into the interstitial tissues neighboring to the site of lesion and the region of lymphatic drainage after resection of the tumor or, for those patients whose tumor could not be removed, 32P-colloid was injected into the tumor proper and the lymphatic drainage region. The control group included 99 patients with the same diagnosis, who were operated in the same period of time but not injected with 32P-colloid. The peri-operative complication, time and rate of lymphatic metastasis, and the post-operative survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year were followed. Results: No operative death occurred in both groups. The incidences of peri-operative complication were not different statistically between these two group (P>0.05). The time of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of mediastinal, supraclavicular ,and abdominal lymph node metastasis were all statistically different between these two groups (P0.05) between these two groups ,while the 3- and 5-year rates were significantly different (P32P-colloid during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection is a simple and safe procedure in controlling the post-operative lymphatic metastasis and has very fair clinical effectiveness in improving intermediate and late survival rates. (author)

190

Correlation Between CT/MRI and Bremsstrahlung SPECT of 32P After Radioembolization of Hepatic Tumors  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: Radioembolization (RE is a minimally invasive transcatheter therapy through which radioactive microspheres are infused into the hepatic arteries and selectively implanted within the tumor arterioles. Some therapeutic agents are particles incorporating pure ? emitter elements (90Y, 32P and do not have gamma radiation. Bremsstrahlung imaging of these radiotherapeutic agents confirms distribution of the radiotracer in hepatic tumors or probable extrahepatic deposition of radiopharmaceuticals and helps the physician to predict the patient's response to RE therapy. The aim of this study was demonstration of 32P images and its correlation with CT/MRI findings."nPatients and Methods: Ten patients with variable types of hepatic tumors treated with intra-arterial injection of 32P were included in this study. 24-72 hours after radiotracer administration, bremsstahlung SPECT imaging was performed in all patients with a single head gamma camera equipped with a medium energy collimator. Energy window setting of 100 keV±25% was selected. Reconstructed images were evaluated by two nuclear medicine specialists and one radiologist, and based on compatibility of 32P images with CT/MRI, a grading scale from 1 to 4 was used to express their correlations."nResults: By selecting optimized parameters for bremsstrahlung SPECT images of 32P, we could obtain good quality images. In nine patients, 32P distribution in the liver was correlated with anatomical findings of CT/MRI. "nConclusion: RE is appropriate to deliver high radiation doses to liver tumors with minimal accumulation in the normal liver tissue. Bremsstrahlung imaging is a useful method to confirm proper distribution of the radiotherapeutic agent, which has good correlation with anatomical findings.

M. Amoui

2010-06-01

191

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subspeciation of total cell proteins from multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids labelled with [35S]methionine or [35S]thioATP and of coagulase negative staphylococci labelled with [35S]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors demonstrate that [35S]methionine labelling of proteins followed by PAGE can be used to distinguish biochemically similar, multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids; thirty-one isolates fell into four subgroups. The method also distinguished ten separate electrophoretypes of coagulase-negative staphylococci which correlated approximately with eight biotypes; the fifty-one isolates of biotypes SII, the commonest clinical isolate, were electrophoretically identical, thus suggesting that they are, indeed, members of a single subgroup. The authors also report a novel method of radiolabelling the phosphoproteins using [35S]thioATP and have demonstrated the method using the above diphtheroids. These were again distinguished into the same four subgroups although the patterns of phosphoproteins were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the proteins. This thioATP labelling method should have wide application also. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

192

Synthesis of 14C-labelled 2-aminopyridine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2-Aminopyridine is a versatile building block in the preparation of certain heterocycles such as imidazo[1,2-a]-pyridines, pyrido[1,2-a]-pyrimidin-ones and substituted derivatives. 14C-labelled 2-aminopyridine was synthesized as follows: potassium-[14C]cyanide was reacted with epichlorohydrin to give 3-hydroxy-[1,5-14C2]glutaronitrile. The latter was cyclized to 2-amino-6-bromo-[2,6-14C2]pyridine (IV) which was then reductively dehalogenated to the 2,6-14C2-labelled title compound in 36 % overall chemical and radiochemical yield, based upon I. The product was radiochemically pure (99.1 %) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, and had a specific activity of 9.06 mCi/mmol. (author)

193

Behavior of 14C-BHC residues in rice grain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-(U-14C)-BHC was applied to rice plants grown in a pot and its fate in the growth, polishing and oil-extraction processes of the grain was investigated. The 14C-activity was absorbed and translocated widely in the plant and the recovery of applied 14C-activity in the straw and grain was about 2.8%, of which 9.4% was found in the brown rice. The % partitioning of 14C-residues in bran and polished rice was 12:88 and that in oil and oilcake was 37:63. Characterization of 14C-residues the presence of ?-BHC, pentachlorocyclohexene, trichlorobenzene and hydrophilic metabolites, whose proportions were different in the straw and grain. (Author)

194

Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

195

Biodegradation of [(14)C] ring-labeled nonylphenol ethoxylate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonylphenol (NP) and the 9-mole ethoxylate of nonylphenol (NPE9) were synthesized with a uniform radioactive (14)C label in the aromatic ring. The [(14)C]NP isomer distribution and [(14)C]NPE9 oligomer distribution closely matched that of commercial NPE9. Biodegradation of [(14)C]NPE9 was examined under conditions simulating a river water environment, and changes in the oligomer distribution and mineralization to (14)CO(2) were monitored for 128 days. Over 40% of the [(14)C]NPE aromatic ring carbon was converted to (14)CO(2) and another 21% was incorporated into the biomass. Primary degradation of NPE (conversion to metabolites other than NP, NPE ethoxylates, and NPE carboxylates) was estimated to be 87-97%. NP was a minor metabolite, accounting for less than 0.4% of the initial NPE. These studies demonstrate that the phenolic ring of NPE is opened, metabolized, and mineralized in the aquatic environment. PMID:16485172

Naylor, C G; Staples, C A; Klecka, G M; Williams, J B; Varineau, P T; Cady, C

2006-07-01

196

Incorporation of 32P and Growth of Pseudomonad UP-2 on n-Tetracosane  

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Cultures of the marine pseudomonad UP-2 growing on n-tetracosane contained both free cells and cells bound to the solid hydrocarbon. After separation by filtration through a Whatman no. 1 filter, the numbers of free and bound cells were estimated from the amount of 32P incorporated into each fraction and the determined value of 32P incorporation per viable cell in the filtrate (free cells). During the early exponential growth phase, over 80% of the cells were bound to large pieces of n-tetrac...

Zilber, I. Kirschner; Rosenberg, E.; Gutnick, D.

1980-01-01

197

The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

198

Effect of Mn deficiency on uptake, transport and distribution of 32P in cauliflower and tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of 32P uptake, transport and distribution has been recorded in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis cv. Late Maghi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Marglobe) plants grown at deficient (0.00055 ppm) and optimal (0.55 ppm) levels of Mn supply in refined sand culture. Manganese deficiency enhanced the transport of 32P from roots to tops in both the species but the uptake and distribution pattern was found to vary with the species, plant parts and in terms of concentration and total uptake. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

199

PEMANFAATAN RADIOISOTOP 32P UNTUK PENANDAAN (LABELLED COMPOUND) PADA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti  

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An Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling with Radioisotop 32P was performed at various dose application. The research conducted by Insitute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development, Salatiga in collaboration with The National of Atomic Agency that aimed to know the effective dose and radioactivity disposal of the Radioisotop 32 P. The research used several doses: 0,3 µCi (micro currie); 0,5 µCi; and 0,7 µCi of each 25 gr larvaefood for 50...

Akhid Darwin; Lulus S.; Ali Rahayu

2012-01-01

200

Labelling of eggs of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann) through radioactive sperm ( 32p)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelling of Med-fly eggs, using the sperm in the transmission of radioisotope 32P is described. A hundred hatched couples were used, the males fed on a diet made of 5 g sugar and 1.66g of hydrolized protein. This diet was labelled with a solution of Na2HPO4, in which the atom of phosphorus was labelled with 32P isotope. It showed an activity calculated at 343,9 ?Ci. Statistical treatment of the data indicated that the eggs became labelled and remained labelled until the 5th day after mating, even on eggs laid by female who mated with untreated males

 
 
 
 
201

Synoviorthesis of the knee joint with 32P-chromic phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P-CrPO4 in colloid form has been used for radiosynoviorthesis. There were no acute or subacute side reactions observed. The therapy results were equal to those following 90Y colloid application: 60% very good to good results after 6 months. The substance can be kept on stock since it has a relatively long shelf-life. The cost reduction and the simplification of treatment planning have proved to be the most important advantages of 32P-CrPO4. (orig.)

202

The uptake of brace35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of [35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices has been shown to be activated in the presence of iodide. The total uptake (Q) of [35S] methimazole was shown to be the sum of a saturable process and a non-saturable process. The constants Qsub(max), K3 and P in the two-term equation were determined using a published statistical method and a Fortran IV computer programme. Diiodotyrosine (DIT) at a 0.1 mM concentration stimulated the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole appreciably in the absence of iodide, whilst thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) inhibited uptake in the presence of iodide and was of no effect in the absence of iodide. Propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibited the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole whilst perchlorate had no effect. (author)

203

Comparative pharmacokinetics of 35-S and 99m-Tc-labeled heparin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experimental work demonstrated a significative difference between 99m-Tc and 35-S-labeled Heparin pharmacokinetics which might be related to a differential tissular accumulation of the labeled molecules

204

Differential degradation of [35S]methionine polypeptides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy skin fibroblasts in vitro.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rates of protein turnover have been measured in three normal and three Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) skin fibroblast cell lines. Cell populations were analyzed at identical states with regard to cell number, state of topoinhibition, and cumulative population doublings (CPD). Net protein synthesis measured by the incorporation of [35S]methionine in an 18-hr pulse was reduced by an average of 34%; degradation of total cellular protein measured after an 18-hr pulse with [35S]methionine and a...

Rodemann, H. P.; Bayreuther, K.

1986-01-01

205

Optimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic activities, dominated by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), have perturbed the global sulfur (S) cycle. Uncertainties in timescales of S transport and chemistry in the atmosphere lead to uncertainties in the predicted impact of S emissions. Measurements of cosmogenic 35S may potentially be used to resolve existing uncertainties in the photochemical and chemical transformation of S in the environment. The lack of a simple, effective, and highly sensitive technique to measure 35S ...

Brothers, Lauren A.; Dominguez, Gerardo; Abramian, Anna; Corbin, Antoinette; Bluen, Ben; Thiemens, Mark H.

2010-01-01

206

Investigating atmospheric transport processes using cosmogenic 35S and oxygen isotopic anomaly (?17O) in sulfate  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfate aerosols have been recognized to possess hazardous impact on both climate and human health. Improved understanding of the SO2 residence time and sulfate aerosol transport is needed for assessing its influences on climate. Cosmogenically produced 35S (half-life~87 days)1 measurements have been used to understand the atmospheric transport process, boundary layer dynamics and its effect on the tropospheric SO2 oxidation rate constant. Our method involves determining 35S in gaseous SO2 and aerosol sulfate samples collected twice a week at Scripps Institute of Oceanography Pier (La Jolla, CA) for a year along with the determination of oxygen isotopes in both coarse and fine particle samples. The oxygen isotopes measurement in sulfate and 35S measurements were done by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and low-noise liquid scintillation spectroscopy2, respectively. The data show that 35S activity is significantly different for coarse and fine particles, with the latter possessing higher activity as it is mainly produced from the gas phase oxidation of SO2 at higher altitude. The fluctuation in 35S activity in fine particles indicates mixing of air masses from higher altitude. The coarse particles show nearly constant 35S activity which is either due to the constant uptake rate of SO2 by sea salt aerosol or the coagulation of fine particles together. The normalized activity 35S/S is about 5 times higher in both coarse and fine particles during Santa Ana wind event. Santa Ana wind is characterized by low humidity (Abramian, A. Corbin, Ben Bluen, and M. H. Thiemens, Otimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications, Proceedings National Acad. Sci. 107, 5311, 2010

Hill-Falkenthal, J. C.; Pandey, A.; Coupal, E.; Kim, S. D.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M. H.

2010-12-01

207

Lung retention of inhaled 14C-BaP and 14C-NP when adsorbed on carbon particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of particle association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on their retention in the respiratory tract. Vaporization and condensation of premixed powders dispersed from a Wright dust feeder were used to produce submicron aerosols of 2% (by mass) 14C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 2% 14C-nitropyrene adsorbed on carbon black (CB). There was close correspondence of the particle size distributions of the 14C radiolabel, specific for the organic compounds, and the total mass, representative primarily of the carbon black particles. Following 2 h nose only exposure of rats to these aerosols, lung retention of 14C was biphasic. Percentages in the long-term retention component (1.2% for 14C-BaP-CB and 3.7% for 14CC-NP-CB) were much greater than those previously measured for aerosols of the organic compounds alone (0.014% for 14C-BaP and 0.065% for 14C-NP). The amount of 14C covalently bound to lung macromolecules (as a percentage of inhaled activity) were also much greater for the BaP-CB and NP-CB than for the pure compounds. These data suggest that adsorption of BaP and NP on carbon black enhances interactions with target molecules. 4 references, 4 figures, 1 table

208

High yield synthesis of 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids with high specific radioactivity using potassium ?14C] cyanide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the tumor specificity of synthetic nonmetabolizing amino acids, 10 different 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids (3a-3j) were synthesized in high yield and with high specific radioactivity. Carbon-14 labeled alicyclic hydantoins (2a-2j) were synthesized from a small amount of radioactive potassium [14C]cyanide and corresponding ketones (1a-1j). The 14C hydantoins (2a-2j) thus obtained were hydrolyzed without isolation to give 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids (3a-3j). The overall radiochemical yields of the amino acids (3a-3j) from potassium [14C]cyanide were 55.6 - 93.2 % with radiochemical purity more than 99 %. Specific activities of these 14C labeled compounds (3a-3j) were 209 - 250 MBq/mmol (5.66 - 6.75 mCi/mmol). When non-radioactive potassium cyanide was not added as a carrier, 1-aminocyclopentane [14C]carboxylic acid (3b) and 1-aminocyclooctane [14C]carboxylic acid (3e) were synthesized in the yield of 64.9 and 19.0 % respectively with the specific activity exceed more than 1.85 GBq/mmol (50 mCi/mmol). (author)

209

Helicobacter pylori infection studies using 14C UBT method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon 14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of 14C is about 5,730 years, and it decays by emitting a low energy beta (â) particle of mean energy 49 KeV. The biological half life of 14C is 10 to 12 days. 14C is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, 14C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult 'gigantism'), and for diagnosis of Helicobacterpylori (H pylori), The discovery H Pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Since then H pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established, H pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. By the application of radiation much progress has been made worldwide in the field of medicine. This article presents the application of 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum, 14C UBT relies on the urease activity of H pylori to detect the presence of active infection. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT)f Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai has developed 14C UBT method and already in regular practice in many hospitals across the country. Orally administered 14C urea will be hydrolyzed into ammonia (NH4) and 14C labelled carbon dioxide (14CO2). The presence of a significant amount of (14CO2) in the exhaled breath indicates active H pylori infection. 14C UBT is relatively inexpensive, is easy to perform, and does not require endoscopy. 14C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low, much lower than the radiation dose due to natural sources. Nearly 100 samples collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic persons of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka were analysed and the results with discussion are presented in this paper. (author)

210

Effect of selenite on 35S-cysteine uptake by rat lens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake was studied of 35S-cysteine by the lens of 14-day old and adult rats administered selenite in vitro and in vivo. The ontogenetic difference was determined in the uptake of 35S-cysteine by the lens by a comparison with control groups. The uptake of 35S-cysteine by the lens of young rats was more than treble. The effect of selenite on the uptake of 35S-cysteine by the lens in vitro differed fundamentally in both age groups: in the young it was significantly reduced, in the lens of adult rats there was a significant increase. The uptake of 35S-cysteine by the lens of rats following subcutaneous application of a cataractogenic dose of selenite on day 14 after birth was significantly reduced as early as day 1 after the application and continued to decrease till the onset of the cataract. Changes in 35S-cysteine uptake by the lens were accompanied by reduced dry mass of the lens and increased hydration of the lens; the weight of the rats affected by selenite application was lower than that of rats in the control group. The main factor related to the higher sensitivity of the lens of rats in the early ontogenetic stage towards the cataractogenic effect of selenite could be insufficient protection against damage by oxidation. (author). 3 tabs., 30 refs

211

The uptake of (35S)-carbonyl sulphide by plants and soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition velocity (Vg) of CO35S to young swards of L. perenne and to more mature swards grown at different densities was similar, with an overall mean value of 0.082 cm s-1, under illuminated conditions and of 0.029 cm s-1 in the dark. Total deposition increased with LAI but Vg/w values were consistently lower at higher plant densities. The mean Vg of CO35S to three soil types at field capacity was 0.085 x 10-3 cm s-1. In all instances, there was a reduction in 35S activity in foliage after the termination of the fumigation, most losses occurring within 24 h. The distribution of 35S in leaves was similar following fumigation under either illuminated or dark conditions. The majority of the 35S activity directly after exposure was located in the foliage as both a soluble non-volatile fraction, and an insoluble fraction. After 24 h, the activity in the soluble fraction fell from 64% to 27% of the original activity, whilst the insoluble fraction essentially remained unchanged. Translocation of 35S in a soluble non-volatile form from shoots to roots is the main factor responsible for observed losses of activity from foliage. (author)

212

Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

213

TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias. PMID:25157825

Yien, Yvette Y.; Robledo, Raymond F.; Schultz, Iman J.; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel E.; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Pierce, Eric L.; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A.; Miyata, Non; Kingsley, Paul D.; Garone, Caterina; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Huang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Keenan, Ellen M.; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Orkin, Stuart H.; Cantor, Alan B.; Palis, James; Koehler, Carla M.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M.; Dailey, Harry A.; Phillips, John D.; Peters, Luanne L.; Paw, Barry H.

2014-01-01

214

Distribution and utilization of 14C assimilate in lentil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in lentil (Lens esculentum L.) during winter of 1975 and 1976. Plants were allowed to assimilate 14CO2 at the pre bloom, flower initiation and early pod formation stage in 1975 and initial pod formation and mid pod filling stage in 1976 and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C (74 percent) was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During the vegetative phase, most of 14C (77 percent) was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissue and relatively low amount in root and nodules. Seventy two days after assimilation, pod accumulated about 8 percent of 14C. During the early reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was translocated from leaves to stem, pod and roots. Since stem was actively growing, it accumulated a considerable amount (38 percent) of assimilates. This resulted in a severe competition for assimilate supply for pod growth during early pod filling stage. At mid pod filling stage, most of the assimilate (65 percent) was utilized in pod growth. The pattern of carbon utilization and redistribution revealed that a part of assimilate utilized in stem and leaves was remobilised during the process of mas was remobilised during the process of maturation. (author)

215

14C in the deep water of the east Atlantic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renewal of east Atlantic deep water and its large-scale circulation and mixing have been studied in observed distributions of temperature, silicate, ?CO2, and 14C. 14C variations in northeast Atlantic deep water below 3500m depth are small. ?14C values range from - 100 per thousand to - 125 per thousand. 14C bottom water concentrations decrease from ?14C = -117 per thousand in the Sierra Leone Basin to ?14C = -123 per thousand in the Iberian Basin and are consistent with a mean northward bottom water flow. The characteristic of the water that flows from the west Atlantic through the Romanche Trench into the east Atlantic was determined by inspection of theta/?14C and theta/SiO2 diagrams. A mean potential temperature of theta = 1.50 +/- .050C was found for the inflowing water. A multi-box model including circulation, mixing, and chemical source terms in the deep water has been formulated. Linear programming and least-squares techniques have been used to obtain the transport and source parameters of the model from the observed tracer fields. Model calculations reveal an inflow through the Romanche Trench from the west Atlantic, which predominates over any other inflow (5 +/- 2) Sv (potential temperature 1.500C), a convective turnover of (150 +/- 50) years and a vertical apparent diffusivity of (4 +/- 1) cm2/s. Chemical source terms2/s. Chemical source terms are in the expected ranges

216

Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to e applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

217

Effects of 32 P incorporated in plasmid DNA: strand breaks and mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the 32 P decay effects in DNA, bacterial plasmid were labeled with different activities of the radioisotope in vivo: 1,2 and 6 x 105 Bk/ml of bacterial culture, leading to 1,2 and 6 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid or in vitro: 0.7, 1.5 and 3.5 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid, stored at -20 deg C and its electroforetic profiles, transformation capacity of wild type and DNA repair. E. coli mutants cells and mutagenesis, were followed during three months. The results achieved in this work suggest that: the decay of the incorporated 32 P in vivo is able to change the pBR322 electroforetic profile, we detected a decrease on the form III (super coiled) and increase on the form II (circular), indicating single strands breaks; the decay incorporated 32 in vitro does not modify the electrophoretic profile of pBR322, suggesting that in some way the effects of the radioactive decay of incorporated 32 P is dependent of the DNA topology, the damages induced by 32 P decay increase mutation frequency in pAC189 plasmids. MRF is increased by a factor of three after 6 t1/2 of storage, indicating direct or indirect action through mismatch DNA repair pathway. (author)

218

A new analytical method for 32P. Liquid scintillation counting with solvent extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trace determination of phosphorus has been studied using neutron activation analysis. Radioactivity of 32P in tri-n-octylamine phosphomolybdate complex was measured using liquid scintillation counting by extracting the complex into xylene. Phosphorus can be quantitatively determined from 16.7 to 600 ?g/10 ml by using the radiochemical analysis method described. (author)

219

Photoaffinity labelling of tobacco subcellular fractions with [32P]-azido-UDP-glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcellular fractions from tobacco (N. rustica) leaves were photolabelled with the UDPG analog, [32P]-N3 UDPG. Two stromal polypeptides (Mr = 42 and 21 kD) were the major photolabelled chloroplast polypeptides. UDPG protected the 42 but not the 21 kD polypeptide against photoincorporation of [32P]-N3 UDPG. In a cytosol-enriched fraction, the major photolabelling polypeptides had Mr of 92, 50, 42, 30 and 17 kD. Photolabelling of the 42, 30, and 17 kD polypeptides was unaffected by UDPG, but UDPG blocked incorporation into the 92 and 50 kD polypeptides. In addition to photolabelled polypeptides, a polypeptide identified as phosphoglucomutase (PGM) was labelled in both the chloroplast and cytosol fraction. 32P-labelling of PGM was independent of UV irradiation, occurring via phosphoryl transfer from contaminating [32P]G-I-P. The plastid and cytosolic PGM isozymes had Mr of 69 and 62.8 kD, respectively, and both were labelled in a leaf extract

220

The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32P in the form of carrier free KH2 32PO4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in ?% arcsin converted from 32P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

 
 
 
 
221

Chromium(III) phosphate labelled with 32P for use in metabolic radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was obtained for the first time a suspension of chromium Phosphate (III) labelled with 32P, with predominant size of particles among 5-10 ?m, potentially useful in the treatment of solid tumors and Radiosynoctomy. A dispersion was obtained with prevalence of sizes of the colloidal order with 80% above 0,2 ?m, potentially useful for Radiosynovectomy

222

The absorbed dose to bone marrow in the treatment of polycythaemia by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made of absorbed dose to bone marrow in the treatment of polycythaemia by 32P, based on the determination of activities in bone and marrow biopsies taken at various times from 1 to 27 days after injection of the radionuclide. Activities were measured in the cortex, trabeculation and marrow of biopsies taken from the iliac crest, and also in sternal marrow. The biological half-life of 32P in marrow from the iliac crest was found to be nine days; that derived for sternal marrow was lower, but the difference was not statistically significant; the value for trabecular bone was 27 days. The biological half life for 32P in the body, as measured by whole-body counting, was 39 days. Calculations of the dose-rate to trabecular marrow have been made by a method based on that of Whitwell and Spiers (1971, Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the French Society for Radioprotection, Grenoble, France, 401), but modified to allow for the presence of 32P in the marrow as well as in trabecular bone. The dose-rates followed a single exponential decay with a half-life of 6.7 days. The integrated dose including that during the first day was 24 rad per mCi injected. (author)

223

Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

224

Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques for 32P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

225

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2014-10-01

226

Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of 14C-Labelled Dichlobenil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autoradiographs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) indicated that 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) was slightly absorbed by the leaf and some translocation occurred following foliar application. Plants with roots submersed in radioactive aqueous solution absorbed and translocated the 14C throughout the plant. An investigation of some of the chemical and physical properties of 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil was conducted. Loss because of volatilization from counting planchets was considerably reduced by application of acrylic plastic immediately after the solution dried. The plastic coating also eliminated contamination of counting chambers and windows. Two higher plants (bean and alligatorweed ) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) were selected for metabolism studies. Dichlobenil- 14C was added to Hoagland and Arnon's nutrient solution containing beans or alligatorweed and to liquid cultures containing the other organisms for 12 to 120 h. Extracts from the plants or fungi were chromatographed on silica gel thin-layers. Autoradiographs of the thin-layer chromatographed aqueous extracts revealed a C-labelled compound of Rf 0.25 that differed from that of dichlobenil, which was 0.6. After esterification of the extracts, a 14C-labelled compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thind compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the 14C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of 14C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil -14C. Other metabolites of dichlobenil -14C. were not resolved by these chromatographic procedures. (author)

227

Antitumor effects of (32)P-chromic-poly (L-lactide) brachytherapy in nude mice with human prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects and tissue distribution of (32)P-chromic-poly (L-lactide) ((32)P-CP-PLLA) in nude mice with human prostate cancer. Tumor models were obtained by transplantation of PC-3M tumor cells into male BALB/c nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into control, (32)P-chromic phosphate ((32)P-CP) colloid and (32)P-CP-PLLA groups (all n=20). A series of indices were investigated, including apoptosis of tumor cells, rate of apoptosis, expression of caspase 3 and 8, biodistribution and intratumoral concentration of (32)P-CP-PLLA, intensity of radioactivity, tumor volume and microvessel density (MVD). Highly concentrated radioactivity of (32)P-CP-PLLA in the tumor mass was detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning. The residual activities of the (32)P-CP-PLLA and (32)P-CP colloid groups were 3.02±0.32 and 1.76±0.31 MBq, respectively, on day 14 following treatment. The tumor inhibition rates were 67.24±3.55 and 55.92±7.65%, respectively (P<0.01). Necrotic changes, in conjunction with apoptosis, were observed in the treatment group. MVD values for the (32)P-CP-PLLA and (32)P-CP colloid groups were 28.24±10.07 and 36.15±11.06, respectively. (32)P-CP-PLLA showed an excellent capacity for killing tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:24137391

Sun, Liujing; Zhu, Xishan; Xu, Longbao; Wang, Zizheng; Shao, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jun

2013-09-01

228

Asymmetric synthesis of 14C-labeled L-propargylglycine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L-Propargylglycine was efficiently labeled with 14C at the 1- and 2- positions. The synthesis was achieved according to the scheme illustrated in Fig.1. Ni-complex of Schiff's base, Gly-Ni-BPB(4) was derived from [U-14C]glycine(2) and (S)-BPB(3). Diastereoselective alkylation of 4 with propargyl bromide followed by acid hydrolysis afforded L-propargyl[1, 2-14C]glycine(1). The optical purity of 1 was proved to be 97.0% and the overall yield of 1 from 2 was 28.2%. (author)

229

14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

230

Multi-method identification of 14C-labelled chlorsulfuron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical purity of 14C-labelled chlorsulfuron was determined by HPLC, its radiochemical purity was measured by HPLC-LSC (Liquid scintillation counter) and TLC-Isotope imaging analysis, respectively. The results showed that the chemical and radiochemical purity of synthetic 14C-chlorsulfuron are 94.4% and 94.7-95.2%, respectively. Results determined by LC-MS showed that the retention time of synthetic 14C-chlorsulfuron was consistent with that of its standard sample, and the molecular weight determined by MS was 357 that is equal to the molecular weight of chlorsulfuron

231

Synthesis of 3H and 14C labelled changrolin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3 kinds of [14C] and [3H] changrolin labelled at different positions (I, II, III) were prepared. The synthesis of I is as follows: (Scheme 1): Heating 5-bromoanthranilic acid with formamide yielded IV, which on heating with POCl3 gave V. Condensation of V with 4-aminophenol and Mannich reaction produced 6-bromochangrolin (VI). Catalytic dehalogenation of VI with tritium gas gave I. The synthesis of II was started from (14C) formamide and anthranilic acid. Labelled 4-chloroquine obtained was condensed with Mannich base (VII) directly (Scheme 2). III was prepared by 1 step with (14C) formaldehyde (Scheme 1)

232

Studies on absorption, conversion of sulfate by rape seedling and accumulation of glucosinolate in rape seed by using 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seedlings grown in sandy culture absorbed 35SO42- from cultural solution rapidly and the 35S was incorperated into glucosinolates, amino acids and proteins. Percentage of glucosinolates-35S in extractable 35S with 70% methanol declined and those of amino acid-35S rose regularly with time after labelling. The relative content of 35S incorperated into bound constituents as well as extractable components was constant after 5 days of labelling. From two weeks after flowering, the relative content of GS-35S in pods and seeds increased linearly with time until eight weeks after flowering when all 35S extracted with 70% methanol in seeds were in form of glucosinolate. The amount of 35S-GS per pod increased linearly from the first week to the eighth week after flowering. It seems that the accumulation of GS in seeds is related to the accumulation of dry matter in seeds

233

Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 ± 19.5 (x-bar ± s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features sple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

234

Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a demia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

235

Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

236

Assessment of chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during production of H332Po4 and effective reduction of 35S release  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during the production of H332PO4 was characterized in order to reduce 35S release from the radioisotope production laboratory. An air sample was evacuated from the cell in which the H332PO4 production was being carried out, and collected in a sample gas reservoir. Gaseous sulfur species contained in the sample was condensed in a cold trap maintained at -180 degree C and analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was the only sulfur species detected. Equilibrium constant calculations showed that SO2 would be expected to be the predominant species produced by reactions of sulfur molecules (Sn : n = 2 ? 8) with oxygen in air. Release of 35SO2 was remarkably reduced by revised production procedures that prevent the reaction between the sulfur vapor and oxygen. (4 figs., 1 tab.)

237

New 14C-labelled products by UVVVR: [14C]methyl iodide and L-[methyl-14C]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of preparation and analysis of are outlined. The [14C]methyl iodide with molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol-1 is delivered with radiochemical and chemical purity exceeding 98% and these parameters are guaranteed, if the product stored under conditions specified by the producer, for one year after delivery. The L-[methyl-14C]methionine of molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol-1 is delivered in stabilized solution, its radiochemical purity is better than 98% and enantiomeric purity (assayed by radio-g.l.c.) is better than 96%

238

Difference of 14C turnovers in brain and in transplanted glioma after intravenous injection of 14C-1-pyruvate rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon 14 from 14C-1-pyruvate injected intravenously into glioma-transplanted rats was incorporated into various compounds in the brain and in the tumor. In the brain the majority of activity was found in CO2 (60%), and minor activities were found in alanine, lactate (15%), glutamate, and aspartate, with decreasing order, 5 min after injection. In the tumor, at 5 min. the largest activity was in lactate (56%), and lower activities were found in CO2 (24%), alanine, glutamate, and aspartate. The total 14C concentration in the tumor was twice that in the brain at 5 min and 15 min. The results was in accordance with the prediction that in brain, where the mitochondrial function is active, 14C-1-pyruvate will be oxidized completely into 14CO2, and that in tumor, where the mitochondrial function is insufficient, 14C-1-pyruvate will be converted only into 14C-lactate and prevent further degradation. It may be assumed that this difference in the turnover of 14C and 14C-1-pyruvate between brain and tumor could constitute a basis for the ''hot'' visualization of human brain tumor using cyclotron-produced 11C-1-pyruvate and positron-emission tomography. (orig.)

239

Structure of newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans and (35S)-proteoglycan turnover products of cartilage explant cultures from dogs with experimental osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of newly synthesized proteoglycans from explant cultures of cartilage from joints subjected to transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (osteoarthritic) and from normal (non- or sham-operated) joints was examined. The structure of the products of proteoglycan turnover was also examined using explants of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage maintained in culture for a 48 h chase period. The findings were as follows: Newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans extracted from cartilage explants from osteoarthritic joints whether examined 3 weeks, 3 months, or 6 months after surgery were larger than those from corresponding normal cartilage. This can be explained by the synthesis in osteoarthritic cartilage of abnormally long chondroitin sulfate chains on newly synthesised proteoglycans. The extracts also contained a newly formed small proteoglycan species that was unable to interact with hyaluronic acid. The proportion of this species was higher in osteoarthritic cartilage compared with normal, examined 3 weeks after surgery, but was generally absent from cartilage obtained 3 and 6 months after surgery. Compared with controls, a smaller proportion of the (35S)-proteoglycans released into the maintenance medium of explant cultures of osteoarthritic cartilage during a 48 h chase period was able to interact with hyaluronic acid. However, although furnished with longer (35S)-glycosaminoglycan chains, these proteoglycans were smallcan chains, these proteoglycans were smaller than those from control explants

240

Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

 
 
 
 
241

Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

2004-08-01

242

A method for the determination of organic fixed 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the routineous determination of 14C, the simultaneous measurement of 3H- and 14C-activities and the ratio of 12C to 14C in different sample materials we use a method, which is based on pyrolysis and catalytical oxidation of the samples with following absorption of the two radionuclides in a qualified absorber. The activities are measured by an LSC-analyzer. 14C, free HTO and matrix fixed or in organic materials bonded tritium can be determined by using a controlled heating program and variation of nitrogen-/oxygene ratio. For avoiding a too rapid combustion and explosion it is necessary to work with a controlled nitrogen-/oxygene ratio. (orig.)

243

Tritium and 14C dating of Sudetic thermal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slightly minearalized thermal waters occurring in Carboniferous granite (Cieplice-Western Sudetes) and in Precambrian gneisses (Ladek-Central Sudetes) have been investigated. The less warm waters from some springs in Cieplice show considerable tritium and 14C concentrations, which indicates the presence of admixtures of water from modern, local precipitations. On the other hand, the warmest (400C) waters from springs and boreholes are ''dead'' as far as tritium is concerned and their 14C age may be evaluated as 21-28 thousands years. All thermal spring waters in Ladek though characterized by relatively low temperatures (20-290C), do not contain tritium and their 14C age is included within the range of 6-18 thousands years. Cool water from a 600 m deep borehole contains, however, little amounts of tritium and much more 14C than the spring waters. It may be considered as a much younger one. (author)

244

Kinetics of metabolism of organic and inorganic 14C compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental studies on the kinetics of metabolism of various inoraanic (Na2CO3, K2CO3, CaCO3) and organic (glucose, glycine, palmitic and succinic acids, ethanol and methanol) compounds of 14C after single and long term administration into the organism of rats are presented. The values of the corresponding rates of accumulation of 14C and the onset of the state of equilibrium after long term administration of the radionuclide were elucidated for a number of compounds. Results of the studies can find practical application in standardization. The corresponding rate of accumulation in man of 14C taken in the diet was determined by extrapolation of the experimental data. It was found to be approximately 30. The state of practical 14C equilibrium in man occurs approximately 1 1/2 years after the beginning of the intake. (author)

245

Patient risk of 14C-urea breath test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Helicobacter Pylori bacteria infection is determined by activity measurement of the exhaled 14C-carbon dioxide formed from 14C-urea in stomach. About 37 kBq of capsulated 14C -urea is administered to the patient. Because 14C is a weak beta emitter, patients receive certain radiation dose. This could be the only drawback of this method. Because of that in this paper the effective dose has been determined. On that basis the patient risk has been estimated. The results show that the patient effective dose is at the level of the daily background radiation. So, from the radiation protection point of view this method is very safe. Including other excellent performances of the method like sensitivity, selectivity, noninvasivity, fastness and low costs, it could be recommended in diagnosis and eradication of Helicobacter Pylori infections. (author)

246

14C/12C ratios as tracers of urban pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since fossil carbon is '14C-free', environmental materials influenced by industrial activity have 14C/12C ratios which are measurably depressed below natural values. In this study 14C/12C ratios in samples from an industrial region are compared with those in relatively unpolluted materials. It is shown that artificial sedimentation rates in the coastal sewage dumping area off the West of Scotland are an order of magnitude higher than the natural rate for this region. The 14C/12C ratio in the normal industrial atmosphere shows that up to 20% of the total carbon dioxide content is derived from local combustion of fossil fuels. This may be compared with a circa 6% contribution on a world wide basis. (author)

247

14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

2014-10-01

248

Genetic consequences of the 14C-decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are only few investigations on the biological and genetic consequences of 14C decay especially due to the long half-life of 14C. Naturally, the consequences of the decay of 14C incorperated in DNA is of particular interest. Due to the thus occuring conversion into nitrogen, either opening of the ribose residue ring and base occurs or conversion into base analogue. The present work gives a survey on the investigational results on this topic which were obtained by various authors on phages, bacteria, algae and animal cells, as well as on molecular level. It was shown that the transmutation for the occurence of a lethal effect is many times more effective than ?-radiation. Investigations of the mutagenic effects and other genetic effects of the 14C decay were carried out on micro-organisms, however also on higher forms of life, plants, insects and mice. An analysis of the mutations showed that transitions as well as transversions occur. As example for genetic effects of 14C decay, the two following are named. In the case of mice which were exposed to 14CO2 atmosphere, it was seen that the number of polyptoidal chromosome sets in the first spermotacytes increased considerably, an increase of the chromosome conversion rate was however not observed. When treating gryllus larvae with 14C, it was interesting to note that the crossing of 14C-contained females with normal males produced viable eggs, whereas normal females after crossing with 14C contained males, laid no more eggs. (MG) 891 MG

249

14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

250

Synthesis of [1-14C]n-heptane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of n-heptane labelled with carbon-14 in the 1-position is described. The procedure involves five steps starting with reaction of [14C]carbon dioxide with n-hexyl magnesium bromide and finishing with reduction of [1-14C]n-heptyl bromide. The purity of the final product was more than 97% and the overall yield was 36%. (author)

251

Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

252

Localization and characterization of 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in rat brain: An autoradiographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding to slide-mounted rat brain sections was characterized for subsequent autoradiographic analysis. Cortical brain mash slices, preincubated with EDTA to remove endogenous GABA, were used for biochemical characterization. Steady state for 35S-TBPS binding was reached by 3 hr of incubation at 22 degrees C. The association rate constant (K1) and dissociation rate constant (K2) were 0.377 min-1 microM-1 and 0.011 min-1, respectively. Dissociation was monophasic and slow (t1/2 = 80 min). The kinetically derived KD was 29.4 nM. Scatchard analysis indicated a single population of binding sites with a KD of 21.0 +/- 2.2 nM and a Bmax of 1.59 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein. Both picrotoxin and muscimol inhibited 35S-TBPS binding completely with IC50s of 251 +/- 13 nM and 203 +/- 41 nM and nHs of 0.98 and 1.4, respectively. The distribution of 35S-TBPS binding sites in the rat brain resembles that of other ligands that bind to GABAA receptor complex with some regionally specific differences. Regions with a high degree of 35S-TBPS binding included the inferior colliculus, medial septal nucleus, central and paracentral nuclei of the thalamus, olfactory tubercle, zona incerta, dentate gyrus, and substantia nigra. 35S-TBPS preferentially bound to the molecular vs granular layer of the cerebellum. Omission of the preincubation markedly but variably decreased 35S-TBPS binding. The greatest regional decreases occurred in areas with a high degrcreases occurred in areas with a high degree of GABA synthesis. In addition, 35S-TBPS binding was inhibited to different degrees in the cell layers of the cerebellum. The addition of 1 microM GABA to the incubation medium of preincubated slices also produced variable decreases in 35S-TBPS binding to cerebellar layers. These findings support previous studies that demonstrate GABAA receptor heterogeneity

253

Synthesis of organic compounds with disulfide bridge labelled with 35 S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work had as purpose: a) synthesis of aliphatic compounds with disulfide bridge, and also the synthesis of aromatic compounds with disulfide bridge, substituted with various functional groups; b) labelling with 35 S of certain positions of the obtained organic compounds having disulfide bridge in their molecular structures. At the same time, we studied the 35 S-labelling techniques of these compounds. The organic syntheses used in the process of labelling of organic compounds containing disulfide bridge, have the advantage to obtain a structure with a definite position of radioactive labelling (of 35 S). The 35 S radioisotope is an important element due to its applications in the field of organic compounds labelling. Among its characteristics we mention: the half time is 87 days, the maximum energy of beta radiation is 0.167 MeV and it constitutes a pure beta transmitter. The activity measurements were carried out with a 3385 Tricarb-Packard spectrometer, based on liquid scintillators. Thanks to its properties 35 S has several applications in organic chemistry and biology. (authors)

254

Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ? 35S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ? Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. ? Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35S activity in the 4??(PC)-? coincidence system

255

Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-?-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ?M, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ?M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

256

Clinical investigation of 14C-urea breath test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate clinical value of 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori(Hp), 70 patients were both performed gastroscopy (taking gastric mucosae biopsy for rapid urease test and histology) and 14C-UBT (some patients by Hp-IgG or DNAHp test also) within two days. The positive cases of both rapid urease test and histology was defined as 'gold standard' of Hp-positive, whereas the negative cases of both rapid urease test and histology as 'gold standard' of Hp-negative. The sensitivity of 14C-UBT was 93.2%, the specificity 73.1%, and the diagnostic accuracy 85.7%. The difference (comparing with 'gold standard') was not marked (x2 = 0.90.05(1)2 = 3.84, P>0.05). But the diagnostic accuracy of 14C-UBT (85.7%) and Hp-IgG (50%) had a marked difference (x2 13.80>x0.01(1)2 = 6.64, P14C-UBT was easy to operate, reliable and suitable for clinical application

257

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between dose and 32P-specific activity depends fundamentally on neutron spectrum information, and therefore, in order to accurately evaluate dosing in criticality accidents that may occur at different nuclear sites, conversion factors for all neutron energy spectra must be established. In addition, hair analysis can be performed only for local dose estimation. The incident direction of the top or side of phantom according to the neutron irradiation geometry must also be studied against various accident conditions. Correspondingly, in future research, the authors will augment the hair analysis method developed here by performing comprehensive dose assessment using Na activation analysis of blood samples. (authors)

258

Synthesis of [14C]-labelled dihydropyridine calcium channel entry blockers: nicardipine-[4[14C] and RS-93522-[4-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hantzsch synthesis has been applied to the general preparation of 4-aryl-dihydropyridines labelled in the metabolically stable 4-position of the dihydropyridine ring. The synthesis is based on the preparation of a key common intermediate, m-nitrobenzaldehyde-[formyl-14C], in high yield from Ba14CO3. (author)

259

14-C-NAPHTHYL, 14-C-METHYL AND 14-C-CARBONYL CARBARYL DISTRIBUTION IN THE PREGNANT MOUSE AND RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of carbaryl labeled with 14C in the ring, methyl or carbonyl groups was determined in pregnant mice and rats. Three identical concurrent experiments were performed using each of the three radiolabeled compounds in each of the species so that the different moietie...

260

Lymphokine-induced uptake of [14C]glucosamine, [14C]glucose, and [3H]leucine by macrophages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lymphokine-activated (LK+) and control (LK-) macrophages were cultured for 66 h and then pulsed with [14C]glucosamine. Uptake of [14C]glucosamine was greater in LK+ than in LK- cultures. If, after 66 h, the medium was replaced with fresh medium and then pulsed with either [14C]glucose or [14C]glucosamine, the uptake of isotope was greatly reduced compared to cultures with no change of medium. However, uptake of both radiolabeled substances was still found to be greater in LK+ cultures than in LK- cultures. Although uptake of both substances was enhanced by lymphokines, the uptake kinetics of each isotope was different. Under similar conditions the uptake of [3H]leucine was not enhanced by lymphokine activation. These data are interpreted to mean that LK+ macrophages are metabolically stimulated and utilize more glucose and glucosamine. The difference in kinetics implies a different utilization by macrophages for each substance

 
 
 
 
261

14C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the 14C levels in the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclide 14C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen (17O), nitrogen (14N) and carbon (13C). Part of the 14C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO2, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of 14C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The 14C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background 14C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of 14C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the 14C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of 14C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of 14C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of 14C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of 14C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada

262

Electron microscopic autoradiography of 35S during dentinogenesis in young cats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Migration of 35S from the dental pulp to the predentin and the dentin was studied by means of quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography in the tooth-germs of new-born cats following intravenous injection of 35S. Autoradiographs at 5 minutes, 20 minutes and 5 hours after injection consistently showed the uptake of 35S by the Golgi apparatus, indicating that the apparatus is a site of sulfation of the mucopolysaccharides in the predentin and dentin. At 5 hours, silver grains aggregated in the cytoplasm of the odontoblastic process and the predentin. No silver grains were observed in the Golgi areas, and the odontoblastic process was associated with the elongated dense vesicles which were formed by the Golgi apparatus. At 24 hours after injection, a random distribution of many silver grains was observed throughout the predentin and the interodontoblastic space. (auth.)

263

Metabolic Fate of [14C]Diuron and [14C]Linuron in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Radish (Raphanus sativus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metabolism of xenobiotics in plants usually occurs in three phases, phase I (primary metabolism), phase II (conjugation processes), and phase III (storage). The uptake and metabolism of [14C]diuron and [14C]linuron were investigated in wheat and radish. Seeds were sown in quartz sand and irrigated with a nutrient solution of either radioactive herbicide. Plants were harvested after two weeks, and metabolites were extracted and then analyzed by radio-reverse-high-performance liquid chromatogra...

Pascal-lorber, Sophie; Alsayeda, Haifaa; Jouanin, Isabelle; Debrauwer, Laurent; Canlet, Ce?cile; Laurent, Franc?ois

2010-01-01

264

Phosphorus absorption (32P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free 32P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to 32P injection. (orig.)

265

Root activity in kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) using 32P in submontane Himalayan region of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution pattern of root activity of 5-year old Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) trees was determined by the 32P soil-injection technique. The 32P solution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm from the tree trunk at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths and its uptake was determined in half and fully-expanded leaves at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The maximum specific activity was noted at 14 days of injection, which decreased thereafter. The relative root activity was maximum at 30 cm depth at a radial distance of 90-120 cm from tree trunk in both the types of leaves. About 60% of the root activity was confined to this zone. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

266

Soil tagging as a technique for nutrient uptake studies with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory and green house studies were carried out to find out the minimum period required for equilibrating soil 31P with added 32P using an alkaline alluvial soil and an acid laterite soil. From the laboratory study, it was found that the minimum period required for equilibration was 14 and 35 days for the alluvial and laterite soils, respectively. Green house study showed that the period at which a constancy of specific activity was obtained in the plant, growing on the equilibrating soil, was an unsuitable criterion for assessing the period required for 32P equilibration in soil-tagging technique. The study also revealed, significant differences between the specific activities in the laminae and petiole/stem of the same plant. (author)

267

Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

268

Contribution of Sewage Sludge to Phosphorus Nutrition of Tomato Plants:Using 32P as Tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot experiment was conducted to assess the benefits of amending sandy soil with different rates of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge (SS) in terms of its contribution to phosphorus nutrition of tomato plants using 32P as tracer. Soil were amended with four rates of sewage sludge equivalent to 20,40,60 and 80 t/ha. Tomato seedling were transplanted followed by the application of 32P-labelled KH2PO4. Dry matter yield, plant tissue and soil phosphorus concentration and phosphorus uptake were measured after one month of sowing. Dry matter production, plant tissue P concentration and P uptake and soil P have increased significantly as the sludge application rate increased. The increase was higher in irradiated than in non-irradiated sewage sludge, however, the differences aren't rate for both irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge

269

Synoviorthesis with 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate in rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synoviorthesis was performed in 217 joints from 111 patients suffering from different stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate was employed, with an average dose from 6 mCi for large joints (knees) to 0.3 mCi for small peripheral joints such as the MCP or PIP joints. Satisfactory clinical results were observed in 84% of the cases and no significant side effects resulted after a follow-up period from 1 to 10 years. Striking effects after treatment were observed through histopathological studies (light and electron microscopy) and the use of contrast arthography. We concluded that radioactive synovectomy with 32P-chromate is a very useful method for the local treatment of RA

270

Synthesis of [14C] labelled N-nitro methylamine and N-nitro dimethylamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-nitro [14C]methylamine was synthesized by the alkaline cleavage of N-nitro[methyl-14C] methylurethane obtained by nitration of [N-methyl-14C] methylurethane. N-nitro[N-methyl-14C] dimethylamine could be obtained by methylation of monomethylnitramine with [14C] diazomethane. (Author)

271

Establishment and maintenance of 35S rRNA gene chromatin states in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (hereafter called yeast) represents an ideal model system to study the interplay between chromatin and all DNA-dependent processes such as transcription, replication and DNA repair. This multicopy gene locus harbours the 35S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes which are transcribed by the specialised RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Importantly, each 35S rRNA gene exists in either a Pol I transcribed and nucleosome depleted, open chromatin state or a...

Wittner, Manuel

2012-01-01

272

Application of 35S to control microcooler dissolution in steel castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described is the method for determining the dissolution comptenes metal shot introduced into steel castings for relieing the metal overheat and crystallization rate increase by means of 35S radioisotope. The method consist in radioactive metal shot manfacture by metal sputtering (an ampou with 35S is dissolved in the metal) and its introduction into castings when filling forms with metal. Then templates are made of castings and autoradiograms are taken. This method is shown to ermit to study not only the dissolution completeness of microlers (shot) and the character of their distribution, but the influe of microadditions on the casting macrostructure as well

273

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2003-12-15

274

14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. PMID:24814329

Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

2014-07-01

275

Study of pollen dispersal of Pinus oocarpa Schiede through the utilization of radiophosphorus 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of tagging pollen of Pinus oocarpa Schiede with radiophosphorus 32P, in a closed forest are related. It was observed that the polen was distribuited until a distance of 300 meters, independently of wind velocity an almost not influenced by his direction. It was concluded that the isolation of seed growing areas is possible through a barrier superior to 300 meters only. (M.A.C.)

276

Study of pollen dispersal of Pinus oocarpa Schiede through the utilization of radiophosphorus /sup 32/P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results of tagging pollen of Pinus oocarpa Schiede with radiophosphorus /sup 32/P, in a closed forest are related. It was observed that the pollen was distribuited until a distance of 300 meters, independently of wind velocity and almost not influenced by his direction. It was concluded that the isolation of seed growing areas is possible through a barrier superior to 300 meters only.

Pacheco, I.A.; Kageyama, P.Y. (Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz); Wiendl, F.M. (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)); Garnica, J.B. (Companhia Agro-Florestal Monte-Alegre, Agudos (Brazil))

277

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

278

Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction ofand FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

279

Braquiterapia del Espacio Subaracnoideo y Ventrículos Cerebrales con el Radiocoloide Fosfato Crómic 32P (CROP).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se desarrolló un método de Braquiterapia del espacio subaracnoideo mediante la introducción de un coloide de FostatoCrómico 32P (CROP) en el LCR. Se usaron 90 conejos y los coloides fueron inyectados por vía cisternal. Se comprobó la distribución uniforme y permanencia del CROP en la pia-aracnoides de todo el espacio subaracnoideo y superficie cortical y en el epéndimo ventricular mediante autorradiografías y cortes histológicos con técnica de stripping film. La distribución del 3...

Girado, Marti?n; Lanari, Eduardo

2003-01-01

280

Neocentromere formation in a stable ring 1p32-p36.1 chromosome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neocentromeres are functional centromeres formed in chromosome regions outside the normal centromere domains and are found in an increasing number of mitotically stable human marker chromosomes in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells. We describe here the formation of a neocentromere in a previously undescribed chromosomal region at 1p32?p36.1 in an oligospermic patient. Cytogenetic GTL banding analysis and the absence of detectable fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) signals usin...

Slater, H.; Nouri, S.; Earle, E.; Lo, A.; Hale, L.; Choo, K.

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Estudio del coeficiente de utilización del superfosfato cálcico por medio de 32P  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se estudian (con 32p) dos métodos de determinación de fósforo en suelos conocidos como valor L y valor E, y así mismo se determina fósforo en resinas de cambio. Entre ellos existe correlación positiva, significativa al 1 ó 5 % según los casos. Dichos métodos dan correlación negativa con el índice de porción de Bache. Se calcula la eficiencia de dos dosis de superfosfato cálcico añadido al suelo (CU %). Dicho coeficiente da correlación positiva con el índice de porción de ...

Crisanto, T.

1986-01-01

282

Designing of a liver phantom to quantify 32p radionuclide using gamma camera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: 32P is a promising radionuclide for liver cancer because of its energetic beta emissions. The radionuclide microspheres are injected to liver artery. The injected particles must block the capillaries so radionuclide remain close to the tumor and give high dose to the target. The aim of this study was to determine how effective this method is, so we should quantify activity within organs such as liver and lung. So we provided a liver phantom and took planar images with gamma came...

Maryam Khazaee Moghadam; Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri; Hosseyn Pourbeygi

2010-01-01

283

Diffusion on donor elements (125Sb, 32P, /sup 74(73)/As) in polycrystalline silicon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diffusion of donor elements in fine-grained and coarse-grained polycrystalline silicon is studied in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0C. The radioisotopes 125Sb, 32P, and /sup 74(73)/As are used to measure concentration-depth profiles by the sectioning technique. By autoradiography the lateral distribution of the radiotracers over the sample surface is made visible. An extensive comparison with literature data is given. (author)

284

Studies on 32P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on 32P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed

285

Strong Inhibition of Xenografted Tumor Growth by Low-Level Doses of [32P]ATP  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability of a potential human anti-cancer therapeutic agent to inhibit the growth of xenografted tumors in nude mice has been an established and accepted testing method for several decades. The current report shows that a single, low-level intravenous dose of [32P]ATP significantly inhibits the growth of established xenografted tumors in nude mice. This inhibitory effect becomes appreciable very rapidly, within only five days post-injection and the low dose demonstrates little or no toxici...

Cheng, Yulan; Yang, Jian; Agarwal, Rachana; Green, Gilbert M.; Mease, Ron C.; Pomper, Martin G.; Meltzer, Stephen J.; Abraham, John M.

2011-01-01

286

Clinical study on treatment of refractory solid tumor by intervention with 32P colloids or microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the therapeutic effectiveness of 32P colloids or microspheres in treatment of the solid tumors. Methods: Thirty patients with refractory solid tumor served as the objects of investigation. After the tumor size was defined by CT scan, 32P colloids or microspheres (259-685 MBq) were administered through intra-arterial intervention or injected into the tumor proper under direct vision during operation or through per cutaneous injection under the guidance of CT or X-ray. The tumor inhibiting rate, side effect and surviving time were observed through ? camera, X-ray plan film, CT, ultrasonography and hematological assay. Results The tumor growth was prominently inhibited after the intra-tumoral injection of 32P preparations. The average surviving time of the patients was 33 months, the tumor-inhibiting rate was 96.6%. Complete inhibition was shown in 16 cases (53.3%) and partial inhibition in 13 cases (43.3%). The longest survivor, one patient with right lobe hepatic carcinoma, has been living up to now for at least 94 months. Prominent side effects did not occur but one patient with radiation lung development died from hepatic failure, and the results of pathological examination revealed intra-tumoral necrosis, highly fibrosed tumor mass and an integrated capsule as the outmost layer. Conclusion: 32P colloids or microspheres are the ideal radioactive agents for the treatment of refractory solid tumors. Furtheatment of refractory solid tumors. Further improving the clinical therapeutic effectiveness through rational solid selection of indications and/or procedures for administration of these agents is strictly required. (authors)

287

Phosphorylated benzimedazoles. 8. Synthesis of phosphorylated with /sup 32/P benzimidazoles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accessible methods of synthesis and identification of phosphorylated benzimidazoles with specific activity close to the maximum permissible with labelled /sup 32/P are developed. These methods permit to determine the permissible residual amounts of the above preparations in nutrition products and the maximum permissible amounts of growth regulators in different objects of the environment, because it is impossible to detect, for example, tri(1-benzimidazolido)phosphate with other physico-chemical methods with the existing concentration of 10/sup -9/%.

Makarov, A.M.; Matevosyan, G.L.; Zavlin, P.M. (Leningradskij Sel' skokhozyajstvennyj Inst. (USSR))

1983-03-01

288

Genotoxicity of Colloidal 32P Chromic Phosphate in the Mouse Bone Marrow Analyzed by Micronuclei Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate is used to prevent hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. It is speculated that the intravenous injection of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate can cause genotoxicity. To evaluate the genotoxicity of intravenously injected colloidal 32P chromic phosphate, authors performed a micronuclei test in mice bone marrow. Mice(ICR strain, 25 ? 30 g) were divided to 4 groups: control, group 1 (19.166 KBq/g, usual therapeutic dose in human), group 2 (191.66 KBq/g), and group 3 (1916.6 KBq/g). Five mice of each group were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Bone marrow were smeared and stained with Wright-Giemsa method. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were counted under the light microscope, and the number of micronucleated PCEs and NCEs were recorded. The frequency of micronuclei in PCE and NCE in the control group was 0.3 ± 0.06% and 0.45 ± 0.10%, respectively. At group 1, frequency of micronuclei is not different from the control. However, frequencies of micronuclei in PCE at groups 2 and 3 were significantly increased from day 1 and persisted to day 14. The frequency of micronuclei in NCE was increased only at group 3. In conclusion, the frequency of micronuclei increases as the dose of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate increases, while micronuclei was not induced at the usual therapeutic dose. And the frequency of micronuclei persistently elequency of micronuclei persistently elevated for 14 days in the cases of higher doses.

289

Preparation of highly concentrated super-hot (?-32P)ATP using small-scale ion-exchange chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain a highly concentrated, pure and super-hot [?-32P]ATP, we improved the purification method of super-hot [?-32P]ATP which was synthesized by the method of Johnson and Walseth (1979). The super-hot [?-32P]ATP was synthesized in a relatively large volume (2 ml) of reaction mixture and purified using semi-micro scale anion exchange chromatography (Dowex 1 x 2, 60 - 70 ?l column volume). In combination with washing the reaction product with certain organic solvents, this chromatography technique makes it possible to obtain a highly concentrated and pure super-hot [?-32P]ATP (approx. 7000 Ci/mmol; 20 - 30 mCi/ml) from [32P]Pi of any commercial source in a good yield. (author)

290

Dose-rate distribution of 32P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from 32P-loaded glass microspheres and also from 90Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of 32P and 90Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the 32P and 90Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

291

DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([?- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

292

The efficiency of 32P, 15N foliage spray upon winter wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of foliage spray of KH2PO4 open wheat in heading stage is related to the content of effective P in the soil. In the irrigation field with high content of effective P and under the conditions of foliage spray of KH2PO4 (3/1000), the wheat grain output was increased by 4.5-12.93% in comparison with control plot. It was increased by 7-16.07% in the soil with low content of effective P. By using 32P-tracer determination it has been shown that the foliage spray of KH2PO4 could increase the content of 32P in the plant. The utilization coefficient of 32P by plant was 19.8% while N and P were sprayed together the utilization coefficient was 28.6%, but the absolute value of absorbing capacity, however, only amounted to 0.65-0.91% of the total content of P in the plant observed. By using 15N-tracing assay, it was found that the availability of 15N-fertilizer to the roots of wheat after heading stage was rather high. The efficiency of foliage spray of N-fertilizer were not significant

293

Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

294

Colloidal chromic phosphate 32P synovectomy in antigen-induced arthritis in the rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes have been employed in the therapy of chronic arthritis, in particular, rheumatoid arthritis for many years. A variety of isotopes have been popularized, and in the last ten years a colloidal solution of radioactive chromic phosphate 32P has been in use apparently with equivalent efficacy to others such as 169erbium, 90yttrium, and 165dysprosium. No controlled studies on this modality have been reported and few animal studies were found. The efficacy of therapeutic doses of 32P as a medical synovectomy and its effect on rabbit joints with antigen-induced arthritis were observed in 62 arthritic knee joints in 31 adult rabbits treated on one side with 0.1 microCi of 32P, the opposite serving as control. The animals were observed over a period of 11 months and examined by histologic and biochemical means. The synovium showed no evidence of radiation necrosis in treated joints. Cartilage of treated and control joints showed similar changes consistent with chronic arthritis, persistent synovitis, progressive chondrocyte degeneration, and decreased matrix metachromasia. The radiosynovectomy had neither removed synovium nor protected the cartilage. Its efficacy in humans is therefore questionable

295

Whole-body autoradiographic study on the distribution of pivampicillin-14C labeled at the ampicillin and ester moieties in mice, as compared with those of ampicillin-14C, formaldehyde-14C and pivalic acid-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of pivampicillin-14C labeled at the phenylglycyl and the oxymethylene moieties and ampicillin-14C were investigated by whole-body autoradiography after oral administration to mice. The distribution of formaldehyde-14C and pivalic acid-14C was also investigated for comparison. The results revealed that, i) pivampicillin is absorbed from intestine much more rapidly and to a larger extent than ampicillin, ii) the distribution pattern was, however, the same for the two drugs, being mainly restricted to the excretory organs such as the liver, kidney, gall and urinary bladders and intestinal tract, and iii) the oxymethylene moiety, the ester group, showed a completely different distribution pattern, being distributed in the bone marrow, pancreas, intestinal mucosa, spleen and thymus; the pattern being the same as that after administration of formaldehyde-14C. It was therefore suggested that pivampicillin is hydrolyzed in vivo to form ampicillin and formaldehyde before entering into the general circulation and that formaldehyde formed is partly incorporated into the general metabolic pathways in the tissues of a rapid cell division or protein synthesis. Pivalic acid, which is to be liverated simultaneously, was shown to be well absorbed, distributed in the bone, kidney, olfactory bulb, salivary gland and some adipose tissues and finally excreted into the urine mostly as its conjugated forms. (author)stly as its conjugated forms. (author)

296

Calculation of the compounded uncertainty of 14C AMS measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The correct method to calculate conventional 14C ages from the carbon isotopic ratios was summarised 35 years ago by Stuiver and Polach (1977) and is now accepted as the only method to calculate 14C ages. There is, however, no consensus regarding the treatment of AMS data, mainly of the uncertainty of the final result. The estimation and treatment of machine background, process blank, and/or in situ contamination is not uniform between laboratories, leading to differences in 14C results, mainly for older ages. As Donahue (1987) and Currie (1994), among others, mentioned, some laboratories find it important to use the scatter of several measurements as uncertainty while others prefer to use Poisson statistics. The contribution of the scatter of the standards, machine background, process blank, and in situ contamination to the uncertainty of the final 14C result is also treated in different ways. In the early years of AMS, several laboratories found it important to describe their calculation process in details. In recent years, this practise has declined. We present an overview of the calculation process for 14C AMS measurements looking at calculation practises published from the beginning of AMS until present.

297

Endosperm protein synthesis and L-[35S]methionine incorporation in maize kernels cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to examine protein synthesis and L-[35S]methionine incorporation into the endosperm of Zea mays L. kernels developing in vitro. Two-day-old kernels of the inbred line W64A were placed in culture on a defined medium containing 10 microCuries L-[35S]methionine per milliliter (13 milliCuries per millimole) and harvested at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 days after pollination. Cultured kernels attained a final endosperm mass of 120 milligrams compared to 175 milligrams for field-grown controls. Field and cultured kernels had similar concentrations (microgram per milligram endosperm for total protein, albumin plus globulin, zein, and glutelin fractions at most kernel ages. Sodium, dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing patterns for endosperm proteins were similar for field and cultured kernels throughout development. By 15 days, over 70% of the L-[35S]methionine taken up was present in endosperm proteins. Label incorporation visualized by fluorography generally followed the protein intensity of the stained gels. The high methionine content, low molecular weight zeins (i.e. 15 and 9 kilodaltons) were highly labeled. All of the radioactivity in hydrolyzed zein samples was recovered in the methionine peak indicating minimal conversion to L-[35S]cysteine. The procedure described here is suitable for long term culture and labeling experiments in which continued kernel deveexperiments in which continued kernel development is required

298

Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

299

[(35)S]sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of [(35)S]-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. [(35)S] incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect [(35)S] incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences [(35)S] sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes

300

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S ? with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S ?, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S ?. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S ? irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

 
 
 
 
301

Method of preparing (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial compound for the preparation of (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate is a water-soluble polysaccharide (e.g., branched polysaccharide of the 1?4,6 glycan type) separated from radioactive biological material (e.g., from green or blue-green algae). The polysaccharide is gradually reacted to a number of enzymes to obtain glucose-6-phosphate (U-14C). This intermediate product is exposed to the action of the mannosephosphate isomerase enzyme in a buffered medium of pH of 7.2. The resulting mannose-6-phosphate(U-14C) is separated with paper chromatography. The reaction yield is up to 38%. The advantage of the said method of preparation is that it involves directly the water-soluble polysaccharide obtained within the complex treatment of radioactive biomass. (E.S.)

302

Determination of 14C in liquid radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to establish the parameters to determine the activity of total 14C in liquid radioactive waste by using the liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. Carbon-14 has been recognized as one of the main dose contributors in future release scenarios from the radioactive waste repository. The total 14C present in the sample is determined in the CO2 form through the acid treatment and oxidation. The CO2 absorption method is quick, inexpensive, and simple. The CO2 is absorbed in a solution of NaOH, which an aliquot is taken and mixed to scintillation cocktail. The activity of the total 14C is determined using a optimized counting window. Effective radiochemical yield was determined using sucrose and urea standards, showing a value about 50 % for both standards. (author)

303

Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

304

Low-level 14C measurements and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and isotope enrichment were used in 1991 to estimate that the 14C content of methane in natural gas was ?1.6x10-18 of the total carbon. The low content of 14C in underground hydrocarbons was verified later in the remarkable results from the Borexino test scintillation counter for solar neutrino studies. Since then studies of the 14C background problem have demonstrated that much of the background originally observed in the AMS measurements can, in principle, be eliminated. However, many difficulties and other backgrounds are to be faced as the limit for AMS is pushed still further towards possibly a ratio of < 10-21. These will be discussed

305

Synthesis of 14C-labelled 1-naphthaleneacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A convenient approach to the synthesis of 14C-side chain labelled 1-naphthaleneacetic acids was developed through the reaction of naphthalene with glycolic acid in the presence of ferric oxide and aqueous hydrobromic acid. The various 14C-labelled glycolic acids are readily available intermediates or are easily prepared. The effects of some of the variables on the product yield, such as amounts of naphthalene, ferric oxide, aqueous hydrobromic acid, rate of heating etc. were briefly examined. The product is obtained in 25-30 percent yield (based on glycolic acid), when naphthalene (6 mmol), glycolic acid (1 mmol), ferric oxide (0.6 mg) and aqueous hydrobromic acid (Sp. gr. 1.48, 100 ?l) are heated together to 220 deg C in a sealed tube over an 8 hour period. The synthesis of 14C-carboxyl labelled 1-naphthaleneacetic acid is described. (author). 2 refs.; 3 tabs

306

Verification of the dispersion model by airborne carbon 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides insight in the verification of the Lagrangean dispersion model for dose calculation in the environment. The verification method was based on the measurement of the airborne carbon 14C concentration which can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. The results proved that this method is sensitive enough and that the sensitivity analysis can be used for model verification or for identification of possible improvements of the used meteorological data. The Lagrangean model is used at Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP) for calculation of dispersion coefficients and dose in the environment. To show compliance with the authorized dose limits it is required to present a realistic calculation of the dose to the public. This is a numerical model designed to calculate air pollution dispersion in the area of 25km x 25km. The model uses on-line local meteorological measurements. The same model was already verified for another location around a coal- fired power plant based on emission and environmental measurements of SO2. Krsko NPP is placed near the Sava River in a semiopened basin surrounded by several hills. The region is characterized by low winds and frequent thermal inversions. This paper presents a verification of the short range dispersion model based on the fact that the airborne carbon 14C concentration can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. Other radioactive effluents are not detectable in the environment and carbon 14C measurements are accurate enough to detect small deviations from natural 14C levels and to compare them with the calculated concentration based on 14C effluents. The most of airborne 14C is released during the refuelling outage. Within the pre-selected period of ten days, increased effluents of 14C in the form of CO2 were sampled from the plant ventilation. The average atmospheric dispersion parameters were calculated for two locations in the environment where CO2 sampling plates were installed. Increased 14C activities were detected at both locations close to the plant for this relatively short time period. (author)

307

Synthesis of D-[1-14C]penicillamine hydrochloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods are described for the synthesis of DL-[1-14C]penicillamine and D-[1-14C]penicillamine hydrochloride from K14CN. The method consists of addition of H14CN to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-thiazoline followed by hydrolysis of the resulting thiazolidine to DL-penicillamine. Resolution was achieved through the salt of N-formylisopropylidene-DL-penicillamine with (-)-norephedrine. The specific activity of D-penicillamine was 21.7 mCi/mmole and the overall radiochemical yield from K14CN was 3.3%. (author)

308

Synthesis of D-(1-/sup 14/C)penicillamine hydrochloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are described for the synthesis of DL-(1-/sup 14/C)penicillamine and D-(1-/sup 14/C)penicillamine hydrochloride from K/sup 14/CN. The method consists of addition of H/sup 14/CN to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-thiazoline followed by hydrolysis of the resulting thiazolidine to DL-penicillamine. Resolution was achieved through the salt of N-formylisopropylidene-DL-penicillamine with (-)-norephedrine. The specific activity of D-penicillamine was 21.7 mCi/mmole and the overall radiochemical yield from K/sup 14/CN was 3.3%. (author).

Chien, D.H.T.; Ebert, D.A.; Roth, R.W.

1988-11-01

309

Spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rose and Jones recently discovered in an ingeniously simple experiment that 223Ra, an ? emitter with a half-life of 11.4 days, occasionally emits 14C nuclei of 29.8 MeV energy. The branching ratio relative to ? decay was measured to be (8.5 +/- 2.5) x 10-10. 223Ra occurs in the natural decay chain of 235U, with 227Ac being a convenient precursor and source material. In the present study the authors have confirmed the spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra and unambiguously identified the mass of the emitted particles

310

AMS of {sup 14}C at low energies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the ETH/PSI AMS facility {sup 14}C test measurements have been performed at low terminal voltages of 0.5 and 1 MV in order to study the feasibility of AMS with very small accelerators. These experiments have demonstrated that interfering molecules ({sup 13}CH and {sup 12}CH{sub 2}) in charge states 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} can be destroyed in an adequate Ar gas stripper. These new results imply the feasibility of a new generation of very small accelerator systems for {sup 14}C. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. [ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

1997-09-01

311

Synthesis of piperonyl butoxide-UL-phenyl-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient route for the preparation of 5-[1-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethoxy]methyl-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole-UL-phenyl-14 C (piperonly butoxide-UL-phenyl-14-C is described. The synthesis consisted of 14 steps from Ba14 CO3 and gave the title compound in overall chemical yield of 8%. A discussion of some of the possible alternate routes is provided, including the various drawbacks to these routes. The importance of order of substitution on the benzene ring to maximize yields of the title compound is emphasized. (author)

312

A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically <5% for concentrations of 100 ?? 103 atoms g-1 or more. The new system is relatively small and easy to construct, costs significantly less than the original in situ 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, J.

2010-01-01

313

Incorporation of U-14C-glucose into the lipids U-14C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of U-14C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with 14C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The 14C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. (author)

314

Potential application of beef liver nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the synthesis of 32P and 33P labeled biomolecules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enzyme, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) has been purified from aqueous extract of beef liver mitochondria by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by Gel filtration technique. This enzyme catalyzes the transphosphorylation reactions between a number of nucleoside di- and triphosphates. Commercially, pure enzyme is presently unavailable for the production of labeled nucleotides. The purification procedure reported in the present study was found to be superior to the earlier reported DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography method. The purified enzyme has been successfully used to synthesize ?- 32P dCTP, ?- 32P CTP, ?- 32P UTP, ? - 33P dCTP and ? - 33P UTP. (author)

315

32P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. DNA was isolated from the livers of these wild fish and from control specimens which were raised in clean aquariums. DNA was enzymatically digested to normal and adducted nucleotides, and hydrophobic/bulky adducts were enriched in the digests either by preparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, or selective nuclease P1 dephosphorylation of normal nucleotides. Aromatic DNA-carcinogen adducts were then quantitated using 32P-postlabeling analysis. Using both adduct enrichment procedures, chromatograms derived from DNA of fish from polluted areas showed a diffuse diagonal radioactive zone not present in DNA from aquarium raised fish. The diagonal zone appeared to consist at least in part of multiple overlapping discrete adduct spots which could be partially separated by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography prior to 32P-postlabeling analysis, and most of which were more strongly retained on a reverse-phase column than the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct. The behavior of the adducts in the diagonal radioactive zone and of their unlabeled precursors is consistent with their identification as nucleotide adducts of a variety of bulky hydrophobic aromatic environmental compounds. Total pollutatic environmental compounds. Total pollution-related adduct levels as analyzed by HPLC adduct enrichment and 32P-postlabeling were 70.1 +/- 29 (SD) nmol/mol normal nucleotide in fish from the Buffalo River, and 52 and 56 nmol/mol for two specimens from the Detroit River

316

Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5?M, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 ?M. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake ( 70%) indicating the presence of >10?M particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

317

Radioactive sputter cathodes for 32P plasma-based ion implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes (32P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H3 32PO4) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribu technique which enables a better distribution of 32P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in 32P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils

318

Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate

319

Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

320

Applications of AMS 14C on Climate and Archaeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with 14C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast

 
 
 
 
321

Radial transport of 14C in Norwegian pine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose to contribute to a dendro-calibration curve for 14C dating we turned our attention to pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in a high mountain area (62degN) of Norway. This area seemed to be sufficiently homogeneous to allow the build-up of a 400 years master chronology based on living trees. There should also be possibilities of finding old logs in the ground in order to extend the chronology further back. As concerns the 14C measurements, radial transport of bomb-produced 14C was reflected in the heartwood early in this century. A reflected peak in AD 1930 constituted a 14C activity of 6.7 +- 0.5% above normal level in untreated wood and was of advantage for testing the purification procedure. A complete removal of the contamination from outer rings became possible with inorganic solvents (KOH and NaClO2), where only the cellulose was extracted for measurement. The delta13C values are influenced by the pretreatment in accordance with the degree to which the various fractions are removed. Differences in delta13C values due to various pretreatment procedures may constitute up to 4 per thousand. (author)

322

Synthesis of 14C-radiolabeled ractopamine hydrochloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ractopamine HC1 was uniformly labeled with carbon-14 in one of two phenyl rings as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. The six-step synthesis was completed in a 14% yield. Product instability on silica gel complicated purification, but development of a chromatographic method afforded ractopamine HCl-14C with a radiochemical purity of 98.2%. (author)

323

Synthesis of [sup 14]C-radiolabeled ractopamine hydrochloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ractopamine HC1 was uniformly labeled with carbon-14 in one of two phenyl rings as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. The six-step synthesis was completed in a 14% yield. Product instability on silica gel complicated purification, but development of a chromatographic method afforded ractopamine HCl-[sup 14]C with a radiochemical purity of 98.2%. (author).

Terando, N.H. (DowElanco, Greenfield Labs., Greenfield, IN (United States))

1992-09-01

324

Synthesis of 14C-labelled sodium pariprazole (E3810)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium pariprazole (E3810), an inhibitor of H+,K+-ATPase, was synthesized labelled with carbon-14, starting from 2-mercapto[2-14C]-benzimidazole with a specific activity of 888 MBq/mmol. It was obtained in 49.3% radiochemical yield with a radiochemical purity of more than 98%. (author)

325

Mineralization of 14C-labeled agrochemicals in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-labeled compounds were used to study the mineralization of methamidophos, 2,4-D and metsulfuron in soil. Mineralization rate was influenced by the type of soil, concentration of chemical in the soil, the initial soil microbial population and the nature of the chemical. (author)

326

Residues of 14C-lindane in stored faba beans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 70% of the applied 14C-lindane penetrated into stored faba beans during 30 weeks. The percentage of bound residues in the grains did not exceed 3%. Feeding of the bound residues to mice considerably reduced body weight gain. (author)

327

Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

328

The applicability of the 14C-specific activity model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this note the carbon flow in the human food chain is analysed to assess the applicability and accuracy of the specific activity model estimating the 14C dose to man. In this model the specific activity in man is equated to the specific activity in air, thus avoiding concentration factors and intake rates whose parameters are difficult to ascertain. (U.K.)

329

Modified synthesis of 11-[{sup 14}C]-clozapine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[{sup 14}C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%.

Matloubi, Hojatollah E-mail: hmatloubi@seai.neda.net.ir; Ghandi, Mehdi; Zarrindast, M.-R.; Saemian, Nader

2001-11-01

330

Modified synthesis of 11-[14C]-clozapine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[14C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%. PMID:11761101

Matloubi, H; Ghandi, M; Zarrindast, M R; Saemian, N

2001-12-01

331

Modified synthesis of 11-[14C]-clozapine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[14C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%

332

Recent mass measurements by 14C induced transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the measurement of the mass and excited level energies of sup(67,68)Ni by the reaction of 14C with 70Ge together with the determination of the half-life of the O2+ state of 68Ni. (HSI)

333

Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

334

Studeis on the immobilization of water soluble phosphatic fertilizer in some soils with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using superphosphate lablled with 32P, we studied immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer on 12 typies of soil. The experimental result showed that major factors to govern immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer are: quickly availible Fe that showed positive correlation with the immobilization when it was 4.64-65.72 ppm; and pH that showed negative correlation with the immobilization when it was between 5.35 and 8.88. CaCO3 and organic matter showed a great effect on the immobilization though there wasn't obvious correlation among them

335

Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 102 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

336

Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by 32P-HPLC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by 32P-postlabeling and 32P-high-performance liquid chromatography (32p-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 degrees C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16 substances tested were, in increasing order, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 9-vinylanthracene. Metabolic activation with human and rat liver extracts gave rise to the same DNA adduct clusters. When bioactivation with material from different human individuals was used, there was a significant correlation between the CYP 1A1 activity and the capacity to form DNA adducts. This pattern was also confirmed using the CYP 1A1 inhibitor ellipticine. The 32P-HPLC method was shown to be sensitive and reproducible, and it had the capacity to separate DNA adduct-forming substances when applied to a great variety of petroleum products. PMID:11218050

Akkineni, L K; Zeisig, M; Baranczewski, P; Ekström, L G; Möller, L

2001-01-01

337

Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

338

Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

339

In vitro 32P-labelling of viroid RNA for hybridization studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for the in vitro labelling of viroid RNA for use in hybridization studies. The citrus exocortis viroid (approximately 350 nucleotides) is degraded by hot formamide hydrolysis to fragments ranging from small oligonucleotides to near full lengths, and subsequently labelled to high specific activities by enzymatically attaching 32P to the 5'-end of each molecule. The cleavage step leaves 5' hydroxyl groups which allows the polynucleotide kinase to directly label the RNA fragments without prior enzymatic dephosphorylation. The method is simple, requires no special equipment, and provides a radioactive RNA probe sufficient for most types of hybridization studies. (Auth.)

340

Detection of irradiation induced modifications in foodstuff DNA using 32p post-labelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA post-labelling has been used successfully to detect damage to DNA caused by a range of damaging agents. The assay results in a fingerprint of changes induced in DNA which might, in principle, be useful as a test for the detection of the irradiation of foods. The authors present their DNA extraction and 32p post-labelling methods from chicken or cooked prawn samples and their analysis method (High Performance liquid chromatography). It's hoped that these results could form the basis of a test to detect if foods have been irradiated

 
 
 
 
341

A new measuring probe for the performance of the 32P-recording test in iridiagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the 32P uptake test in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours, a semiconductor measuring probe was developed which has two point sources of light in addition to the radiosensitive detector, thus enabling an exact positioning of the detector over suspicious regions of the tissue under ophthalmoscopic control. The new possible reduction in the number of individual measurements enables a reduction in size of the detector and thus a reduction of the counting result accompanied by a more pronounced contrast especially in small tumours. (GSE/AK)

342

Braquiterapia del Espacio Subaracnoideo y Ventrículos Cerebrales con el Radiocoloide Fosfato Crómic 32P (CROP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de Braquiterapia del espacio subaracnoideo mediante la introducción de un coloide de FostatoCrómico 32P (CROP en el LCR. Se usaron 90 conejos y los coloides fueron inyectados por vía cisternal. Se comprobó la distribución uniforme y permanencia del CROP en la pia-aracnoides de todo el espacio subaracnoideo y superficie cortical y en el epéndimo ventricular mediante autorradiografías y cortes histológicos con técnica de stripping film. La distribución del 32P en hígado (10%, bazo (7% y médula ósea (2% y otros órganos no provoca efectos significativos. Se comprueba la tolerancia neurológica perfecta para los coloides de partículas finas de menos de 100 nm (CROP, y la neurotoxicidad de los coloides de partículas grandes mayores a 100 nm.. Con altas dosis los estudios histológicos demostraron la ausencia de edema o de lesiones en células y tejido nerviosos. Hasta 6 meses de observación ninguno de los animales mostró trastornos neurológicos atribuíbles al CROP, ni con la repetición de sus aplicaciones.A method of brachitherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P in colloidal form (CROP introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%, spleen (7% and bone marrow (2% and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP was proved and no severe neurotoxic effets where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications.

Girado, Martín.

2003-07-01

343

Resolving active microbial cycling of carbon pools using 14C  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying the carbon pools that are being actively cycled by microbial communities is an important component of understanding the fluxes and persistence of organic compounds in environmental systems. Microbial activity can play a primary role in determining the rate at which carbon pools are remineralized and rejoin the active carbon cycle versus being buried and isolated from circulation. In addition, in specific cases it can provide an important control on the transport and persistence of anthropogenic organic compounds, such as petroleum hydrocarbons, that have associated deleterious effects. In systems where large differences in 14C content of carbon pools can exist, such as sediments and soils, molecular level radiocarbon analysis of microbial cellular components provides a means to determine the balance between microbial utilization of recently fixed organic carbon into the system versus the remineralization and release of “ancient” carbon previously deposited in sediments or soils. Applying this approach at four different field sites we have directly demonstrated three distinct patterns of microbial carbon utilization: i) microbial utilization of bulk organic carbon present in sediments and soil; ii) microbial utilization of carbon pools with a higher 14C content than the bulk organic matter indicating that the active carbon pool contains more recently fixed carbon and iii) microbial utilization of carbon pools with a lower 14C content indicating microbial utilization of carbon of ancient origin. The ability to recognize active microbial cycling can allow determination of the relative persistence of a particular carbon pool. Microbial utilization of carbon with a higher 14C content than the bulk of organic matter in the system implies that the most active cycling is affecting recently fixed carbon and that the bulk organic carbon may persist for extended periods. In contrast, if the microbial community has equivalent 14C contents to the bulk organic carbon, this indicates that this bulk carbon pool is actively cycling as part of the carbon cycle of the system and has the potential to be removed from the system. In the last case, microbial utilization of carbon pools with a lower 14C content, this observation can demonstrate active cycling of carbon derived from more ancient sources within the more modern system. This is of particular use in identification of microbial carbon cycling of petroleum derived compounds present as contaminants in environmental systems and thereby providing an indication of the extent to which these compounds will persist. Examples of all three types of these patterns will be presented along with the supporting compound specific and bulk TOC 14C data.

Slater, G. F.; Ahad, J. M.; Morrill, P. L.

2009-12-01

344

Migration of 14C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system after 14C-acetic acid breakdown by microorganisms below the plow layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Migration of 14C derived from 14C-acetic acid was examined by using soils sampled from paddies in four administrative areas in Japan (Aomori, Yamanashi, Ehime and Okinawa) and rice plant in a tracer experiment to understand the fate of 14C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system. The loss of 14C radioactivity levels derived from 14C-acetic acid was caused by soil microorganism breakdown. A part of the 14C fixation to soil was caused by microbial assimilation into the fatty acid fraction. 14C moved upward via two different types of 14C dynamics in soil: quick movement upward; and constant but slow movement upward. 14C was highly assimilated into the plant panicle and that was caused by the root-uptake and the transfer of 14C. Migration of 14C derived from 14C-acetic acid relied heavily upon changes of chemical forms and characteristics of 14C-compound as caused by microorganisms in soil.

345

Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of the invasion of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} and bomb {sup 14}C into the atmosphere and surface oceans. Therefore the {Delta}{sup 14}C data that are produced in this study can be used to validate the ocean uptake of fossil fuel CO2 in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. This study takes advantage of the quasi-conservative nature of {sup 14}C as a water mass tracer by using {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in corals to identify changes in the shallow circulation of the Pacific. Although the data itself provides fundamental information on surface water mass movement the true strength is a combined approach which is greater than the individual parts; the data helps uncover deficiencies in ocean circulation models and the model results place long {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in a dynamic framework which helps to identify those locations where additional observations are most needed.

Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

2001-02-23

346

Decommissioning of a Small Laboratory that Used 14C for Research Activities in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Centre for Neurological Restoration (CIREN) used 14C unsealed sources for radiochemical research. This practice was authorized by the Regulatory Authority through a registration granted in 2003 and valid for 4 years. The institution decided to use an alternative non-radiological technique, so the institution requested release of the radiochemical laboratory from regulatory control. For decommissioning operations, the CIREN contracted the services of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR), which included the collection of radioactive wastes remaining in the facility, the radiological survey and characterization of the facility. It was fortunate that the historical records of CIREN were generally very good. A thorough revision of the available documentation (authorization, source inventories, inspection reports, radioactive waste collection reports) revealed that the only radionuclide used in the last 3 years was 14C; but between 1993 and 1996, other radionuclides, such as: 3H, 51Cr, 125I and 32P were used in the laboratory. The materials containing very short lived radionuclides had decayed to negligible levels. The activity of tritium that had been in use was very low, with the total activity received in the laboratory being only 9.25 MBq in 1993, 268 MBq in 1994 and 37 MBq in 1995. The total decay corrected activity for tritium remaining at the last audit carried out i remaining at the last audit carried out in 2005, based on activity received into the laboratory during 1993-1995 was estimated to be 174 MBq. This activity is below the clearance levels established in Cuban Regulation in terms of annual release rate for liquid discharges. Moreover, most of the materials contaminated with tritium had been previously collected as radioactive wastes. For these reasons, it was considered unnecessary to include tritium in the radiological characterization of the laboratory. From the decommissioning perspective only 14C was considered as the radiological inventory. Because of the radiological characteristics of this radionuclide, the reference levels for decommissioning were considered only in terms of surface contamination (fixed and non-fixed). The unconditional clearance levels for solid materials with low radioactive contents and for liquid and gas discharges to the environment are established in Cuban Regulation (National Nuclear Safety Centre - CNSN) in terms of activity concentration. For 14C the clearance level is 30 Bq/g for solid materials, 2 360 Bq/L for liquids and 47.6 Bq/m3 for gaseous discharges. An annual release of 10 GBq is authorized for liquid discharges. Unconditional clearance levels in terms of surface contamination are not contained in the regulations. For the radiological survey and decommissioning purposes it was necessary to derive surface contamination limits, in order to quantify the exposure risk due to non-fixed and/or fixed surface contamination. It was also necessary to define how to measure the derived surface contamination. The radiological characterization was carried out after all radioactive wastes were collected from the facility and transferred to the waste management facility. This waste consisted of unused solutions in vials and compressible solid waste.

347

Study of 32P uptake as an indicator in screening test for drought tolerance in wheat cultivars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P uptake (uptake/unit time) under laboratory conditions in hydroponics was studied in eight wheat cultivars, cultivated under decreasing order of moisture availability. The aim was to relate the P uptake under moisture stress to drought tolerance. Drought tolerant cultivars had low P uptake under controlled (non-stress) condition. Under moisture stress, the absorption and translocation of 32P was inhibited and the effect was more pronounced on translocation. In both the processes rain fed cultivars were less inhibited than irrigated ones. The severity of 32P uptake was related to moisture stress tolerance of the cultivar, lesser the inhibition more was the tolerance. Hence 32P uptake could be employed as an indicator of drought tolerance in developing a screening test based on radiotracer technique. (author)

348

Distribution of 35S in mice after oral administration of ?-dithioacetamidinium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 35S in mice has been investigated by whole-body autoradiography after oral administration of the 35S labelled S-75 (2,2'-Dithiobis[N-[(1-adamantyl)-methyl]-acetamidine]dihydrochloride). The substance was rapidly absorbed, and the highest concentration occurred in the liver and kidneys. During the highest radiation protective activity (after about 45 min) a substantial concentration was found in the red pulp of the spleen. This supports previous findings that S-75 has its most marked protective effect on the splenic haemopoiesis. Previously, it was shown that cysteamine is more evenly distributed in the body than S-75, which is in agreement with its more generalized protective effect than S-75. (Auth.)

349

Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture. Study of sulfur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32-P as indicator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of bean plants to low sulphur dioxide concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm, up to 72 hours) stimulated the incorporation of 32P into RNA, DNA, phospholipids and the acid soluble fraction, without altering the total phosphorus content. Statistically significant 32P increases were only observed with RNA. Uptake of 35SO2 (14 ppm) by bean leaves was shown to be fairly rapid and the radioactivity was translocated in the roots within 1 to 6 hours following exposure. Subcellular leaf fractions showed that the supernatant contained 60-90% of the absorbed radioactivity. The chloroplasts and microsomes showed higher 35S content than the mitochondrial fraction. In vitro studies on pea-derived chloroplasts included photosynthetic phosphorylation and electron transport. Phosphorylation was found to be inhibited in presence of SO2 (I50=3.7 mM). The nature of inhibition seems to be of the reversible-competitive type with an apparent inhibitor constant (Ki) of 1.5 mM. The electron transport system remained unaffected. It is maintained that the identification of some lesions in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the complex interactions between cultivated plants and sulphur dioxide

350

Combinatorial and synergistic properties of CaMV 35S enhancer subdomains.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have analyzed expression conferred by five subdomains of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S enhancer in mature transgenic plants. Expression was detected from subdomains that gave no expression at earlier stages of development indicating developmental regulation of expression and confirming the modular organization of the enhancer. In several cases the expression patterns are highly restricted in cell type, providing useful markers for developmental studies. Comparison of expression p...

Benfey, P. N.; Ren, L.; Chua, N. H.

1990-01-01

351

Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

352

Studies on the metabolism of inorganic sulphur by nitrifying bacterium - Nitrobacter agilis using 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studies on the incorporation of 35S-labelled sulphate into washed cell suspension of Nitrobacter agilis, the bound sulphate, sulphite, sulphide, cysteine, glutathione, homocysteine, methionine and taurine were found in the hydrolysed protein fraction. As in other micro-organisms, sulphate is first activated by ATP in Nitrobacter before it is reduced. The formation of APS and PAPS was also investigated in the present studies. (author)

353

Active tectonics of the South Chilean marine fore arc (35°S - 40°S)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The South Chilean marine fore arc (35°S–40°S) is separated into four tectonic segments, Concepción North, Concepción South, Nahuelbuta, and Tolten (from north to south). These are each characterized by their individual tectonic geomorphology and reflect different ways of mechanical and kinematic interaction of the convergent Nazca and South American plates. Splay faults that cut through continental framework rock are seismically imaged in both Concepción segments and the Tolten Segment...

Geersen, Jacob; Behrmann, Jan H.; Vo?lker, David; Krastel, Sebastian; Ranero, Ce?sar R.; Diaz-naveas, Juan; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

2011-01-01

354

Effect of some organic wastes on the absorption and translocation of 32P in Vigna mungo (L.) hepper seedling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous extracts of all the organic wastes namely Lantana camara, Chromalaena odoratum and Trifolium spp. in general inhibited the uptake of 32P in Vigna mungo seedlings. The aqueous extract of all these organic wastes at all concentrations, on the other hand, promoted significantly the distribution of 3'2P to stem and leaves than roots. The extent of distribution in stem and leaves, however, varied with the organic wastes and its concentrations. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

355

Synthesis of 7?-chloro-16?-methylprednisolone 17?,21-dipropionate-4-14C (alclometasone dipropionate-4-14C)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the bioavailability, metabolism and protein-binding effects of the new antiinflammatory corticoid, alclometasone dipropionate, it was required to obtain the biochemically stable 14C-labelled substrate. In the present publication we describe an efficient synthesis of the title compound. (author)

356

[14C]-UL-chlorothalonil: a study of the catalytic chlorination of [14C]-UL-1,3-dicyanobenzene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[14C]-UL-2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-dicyanobenzene (chlorothalonil, 2) was prepared by catalytic chlorination of [14C]-UL-dicyanobenzene (1) on activated carbon, in a tubular reactor at a controlled temperature and in a stream of chlorine. Optimization of the ratio between the catalyst (activated carbon, 30-60 mesh) and the inert support (glass beads, silicagel 0.2-0.5 mm) as well as the geometry of the column reactor, the temperature of the preheated chlorine and the reaction temperature was studied in ca 90 ''cold'' experiments. At 300oC gas temperature, 300oC reactor temperature 5 mL/min flow rate of chlorine, and a catalyst: silicagel support: 1 ratio (1:7:0.25), the reactor design produces [14C]-UL 2 in over 90% chemical yield and ca 95% purity (GLC). On purification by column chromatography on silicagel, with toluene-n-hexane (2:3, v/v) as eluant, 99.6% pure 14C-UL 2 is obtained. (Author)

357

Optimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic activities, dominated by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), have perturbed the global sulfur (S) cycle. Uncertainties in timescales of S transport and chemistry in the atmosphere lead to uncertainties in the predicted impact of S emissions. Measurements of cosmogenic (35)S may potentially be used to resolve existing uncertainties in the photochemical and chemical transformation of S in the environment. The lack of a simple, effective, and highly sensitive technique to measure (35)S activity in samples with low activities may explain the scarcity of published measurements. We present a set of new sample handling and measurement procedures optimized for the measurement of (35)S in natural samples with activities as low as 0.20 dpm above background (2sigma, integration time = 2 hr). We also report simultaneous measurements of aerosol (35SO4 ) and gas phase (35SO2) collected at inland and coastal locations; the range of observed activities corresponds to SO(2) residence lifetimes of 0.2 +/- 0.04 (coastal) - 22.3 d +/- 0.04 (inland). These optimized techniques offer the potential for resolving atmospheric processes that occur on 6-12-hour timescales as well as resolving transport phenomena such as stratospheric mixing into the troposphere. PMID:20212141

Brothers, Lauren A; Dominguez, Gerardo; Abramian, Anna; Corbin, Antoinette; Bluen, Ben; Thiemens, Mark H

2010-03-23

358

Handling of L-[35S]cystine by cysteamine-pretreated cystinotic and normal fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In short incubations with 0.1 mM L-[35S]cystine in phosphate-buffered saline medium, and long incubations with label in complete minimum Eagle's medium with Earle salts, cystine-depleted cystinotic cells reaccumulate labeled cystine more rapidly than pretreated normal cells. Cysteamine pretreatment of both normal and cystinotic cells resulted in an initial increased conversion of exogenous cystine to intracellular cysteine. In 24-h incubations in complete medium, cysteamine-pretreated cells showed enhanced conversion of 0.1 mM L-[35S]cystine to cysteine and reduced glutathione. Addition of cycloheximide to the incubation media decreased the incorporation of 35S into cellular protein by more than 90% but did not affect the accumulation of intracellular labeled cystine in cystinotic cells. Therefore, the incorporation and release of cystine from protein is not an obligatory source of accumulated cystine and researchers speculate that there may be early extralysosomal entrapment of cystine in cystinotic cells

359

Biosynthesis of lutropin in ovine pituitary slices: incorporation of [35S]sulfate in carbohydrate units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulfate incorporation into carbohydrate of lutropin (LH) has been studied in sheep pituitary slices using H2(35)SO4. Labeled ovine LH was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-100 and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography from both the incubation medium and tissue extract. Autoradiography of the gel showed only two protein bands which comigrated with the alpha and beta subunits of ovine LH in both the purified ovine LH and the immunoprecipitate obtained with LH-specific rabbit antiserum. Furthermore, [35S]sulfate was also incorporated into several other proteins in addition to LH. The location of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ in the oligosaccharides of ovine LH was evidenced by its presence in the glycopeptides obtained by exhaustive Pronase digestion. The location and the point of attachment of sulfate in the carbohydrate unit were established by the isolation of 4-O-[35S]sulfo-N-acetylhexosaminyl-glycerols and 4-O-[35S] sulfo-N-acetylglucosaminitol from the Smith degradation products and by the release of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ by chondro-4-sulfatase. Thus, the present line of experimentation indicates the presence of sulfate on both the terminal N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine in the oligosaccharide chains of the labeled ovine LH

360

Detection and characterization of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P-postlabeling has emerged as a major tool for detecting DNA adducts, since (1) it can detect unknown adducts resulting from complex mixtures; (2) it requires microgram quantities of DNA; and (3) it is extremely sensitive (1 adduct/1010 nucleotides). The assay comprises degradation of DNA to 3'-mononucleotides, 5'-32p-labeling, adduct separation by multi-directional PEI-cellulose TLC, and detection by autoradiography. The presence of open-quotes extra spotsclose quotes on the chromatogram derived from treated as compared to untreated DNA indicates for DNA adducts. Since spectroscopic techniques require nanogram quantities, and material available from an adduct spot is usually in femtogram range, characterization of adducts has thus far depended upon chromatographic resemblance with reference compounds. However, alternate procedures based on physico-chemical properties of adducts have been suggested to gain insight into the chemical nature of unknown adducts. The assay has been applied to over 140 carcinogens, making it ideally suited for complex mixture exposures as in human settings

 
 
 
 
361

Investigation of the 31P(n vector,?)32P reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The circular polarization has been measured of 16 ?-rays produced by the capture of polarized thermal neutrons in 31P. The results, fitted together with those from previous ?-? angular correlation measurements, determine the channel spin mixing parameter ? for four primary transitions and the mixing ratio delta for one primary and eight secondary transitions. On the assumption that the reaction proceeds by means of direct capture, the ?-values obtained prove that the Jsup(?) = 1- states in 32P at 4.04 and 4.88 MeV have very pure s1sub(/)2p3sub(/)2 character, and that at 5.78 MeV pure s1sub(/)2p1sub(/)2 character. For the Esub(x) = 4.66 and 5.35 MeV levels Jsup(?) = 2- has been determined. The 31P(n vector,?)32P reaction provides an example of violation of the sum rule for primary intensities ? +- ??(1-?)Isub(?) = 0. This cannot be explained by a semi-direct capture contribution to primary M1 transitions but only by missing 2p1sub(/)2 strength. (orig.)

362

Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

363

(32)P colloid radiosynovectomy in treatment of chronic haemophilic synovitis: Iran experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repeated intra-articular bleeding with subsequent development of chronic synovitis and cartilage changes, leading to haemophilic arthropathy, is one the most debilitating problems in haemophilic patients. Radiosynovectomy is a familiar therapeutic choice in management of chronic synovitis in haemophilia. We report the treatments results of synoviorthesis with (32)P chromic phosphate with emphasis on clinical aspects. Between 2002 and 2006 we performed 66 procedures in 53 patients. Seven patients were excluded. The remaining 46 patients were followed for an average of 31 months. The mean age of patients at the time of injection was 15.9 years (range: 6-28). There were three repeat injections. According to Fernandez-pallazi and Cavilgia clinical classification (Table 1) [23], nine joints were Stage II and 46 were Stage III. In latest follow-up, 77% of patients reported at least a 50% decrease in bleeding frequency after treatment (P < 0.0001). The need for antihaemophilic factor consumption dropped by about 74% postradiosynovectomy (P < 0.0001). In most of the injected joints, the range of motion remained stable or improved. A trend was found for the number of haemarthrosis to increase after a period of considerable improvement. Synoviorthesis using (32)P effectively reduces the intra-articular bleeding rate and factor concentrate use. Durability of the response seems to be unpredictable, perhaps attributable to the late intervention. An early radiosynovectomy might be more helpful in terms of stability of response to treatment. PMID:17286772

Mortazavi, S M J; Asadollahi, S; Farzan, M; Shahriaran, S; Aghili, M; Izadyar, S; Lak, M

2007-03-01

364

Intraperitoneal distribution of 32P-chromic phosphate suspension in the dog  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intraperitoneal administration of radioactive chromic phosphate suspension is receiving renewed attention as a therapeutic treatment to limit metastatic dissemination of ovarian carcinoma. Our study utilized mongrel dogs to approximate the uptake and distribution of 3.0 millicuries 32P-chromic phosphate suspension administered intraperitoneally (IP). Lymph nodes, omentum, retroperitoneum, peritoneum, diaphragm, abdominal wall muscle, pleura, spleen, liver, kidneys, lung, small intestine, and blood were sampled for liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography. Whole blood showed the least activity (1800 cpm/100 lambda at day one, declining to 2800 cpm/100 lambda by day 16). Omentum and diaphragm maintained the greatest concentrations (183 x 106 dpm/g and 4 x 106 dpm/g respectively). These initial high values were 100 times greater than the highest values found for the small intestine, abdominal wall muscle, mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes and pleura. The peritoneum increased in specific activity until day three (5.9 x 106 dpm/g) and then rapidly declined. Our results show that following IP administration to the dog, 32P suspension is associated with the serous membranes of the peritoneal cavity (most notably omentum, diaphragm, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum). This distribution could be valuable in adjuvant tumor therapy since serosal surfaces of the peritoneum (both visceral and parietal) and theoneum (both visceral and parietal) and the omentum are the most common sites of tumor metastases associated with ovarian carcinoma

365

Brachytherapy of subarachnoid space and brain ventricles with radiocolloid phosphate chromic 32p (CROP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of brachytherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P) in colloidal form (CROP) introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%), spleen (7%) and bone marrow (2%) and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP) was proved and no severe neurotoxic effects where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications (Au)

366

Studies on the effects of acetylcholine and antiepileptic drugs on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of rat brain synaptosomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted on the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phospholipids in rat brain synaptosomes. Of the four antiepileptic drugs investigated in the present study, namely phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate, only phenytoin blocked the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, and the acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. Phenytoin alone, like atropine alone, had no effect on the 32P labeling of phospholipids nor on the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP. Omission of Na+ drastically reduced both the 32P labeling of synaptosomal phospholipids and the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP and furthermore it significantly decreased the phosphoinositide effect. It was concluded that certain antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, could exert their pharmacological actions through their antimuscarinic effects. In addition the finding that phenytoin, which acts to regulate NA+ and Ca2+ permeability of neuronal membranes, also inhibited the phosphoinositide effects in synaptosomes, support the conclusions that Ca2+ and Na+ are probably involved in the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon in excitable tissues

367

A 'Cleanup Procedure' involving periodate oxidation in the enzymatic synthesis of chemically pure ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enzymatic synthesis of ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides involves the transfer of radiolabelled phosphorus from either ?-32P adenosine triphosphate (?-ATP) or ?-32P guanosine triphosphate (?-GTP). Subsequent removal of these ribonucleotides is essential for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. Agarose-phenyl boronate columns, which bind specifically to cis-diol moieties, have been used for the removal of ribonucleotide contaminants. However, this involves column losses and additional radiation exposure. In the present work we describe a chemical method for the improvement of the chemical purity, based on the preferential oxidation of ribose sugars by periodate. The cis-diol moiety of ribose is specifically oxidised to the dialdehyde. The excess periodate ions were destroyed using ethylene glycol. The phosphate group was then cleaved by ?-elimination using alkali. The product was purified using anion exchange chromatography. The efficiency of the process was validated using tracer ?-32P ATP and ?-32P dATP. Samples at various steps were analysed by TLC, autoradiography and HPLC. During the process ATP is oxidised whereas 2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) remains intact. The ?-32P dATP synthesized by this process was assayed for its incorporation in ?-DNA by the random priming method and was found to be effectively incorporated. The process developeorporated. The process developed is an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides

368

Comparison of 32P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium 32P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with 32P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with 32P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with 32P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while 32P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or 32P treatment

369

Differences in phospholipid incorporation of 32P relevant to alpha 1-receptor coupling events in rat and rabbit aorta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Labelling of membrane phospholipids with 32P was compared in rat and rabbit aorta under basal conditions and during alpha 1-receptor stimulation. Incorporation of 32P proceeded at a significantly higher rate in rat tissue. The ratio of basal labelling following 30 min of incubation for rat/rabbit arteries was 4.8 for phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PIP2), 6.0 for phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP), 9.0 for phosphatidylinositol (PI), 6.0 for phosphatidic acid (PA) and 18.7 for phosphatidylcholine (PC). Addition of 10(-5)M norepinephrine (NE) to labelled tissues resulted in a similar decrease in [32P]-PIP2 in both rat and rabbit tissues. Greater percent increases were seen in rabbit tissue of [32P]-PA (4-6 fold), and [32P]-PI (3-5 fold), when measured over the initial 10 minutes of agonist exposure. While NE caused a gradual increase of 32P incorporation into PC in rabbit aorta, reaching 180% above control after 10 minutes, PC labelling was not increased in rat aorta. Our findings provide evidence for the enhanced labelling of rat vs rabbit aorta phospholipids. This may account for differences in receptor responses and associated Ca+ movements which have been previously recognized to exist between aorta of these two species

370

14C labelling of S-acetyl-N-glycylcysteamine(I 102)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective substance, S-Acetyl-N-glycylcysteamine trifluoroacetate (I 102), was labelled by 14C on the cysteamine group using 14C benzyloxycarbonylethanolamine as precursor, on the peptidic carbonyl using 14C BOC glycin as intermediate and on the acetyl residue by means of 14C acetic anhydride. (author)

371

Degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled lignins and /sup 14/C-labeled aromatic acids by fusarium solani  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abilities of isolate AF-W1 of Fusarium solani to degrade the side chain and the ring structure of synthetic dehydrogenative polymerizates, aromatic acids, or lignin in sound wood were investigated under several conditions of growth substrate or basal medium and pH. Significant transformations of lignins occurred in 50 days in both unextracted and extracted sound wood substrances with 3% malt as the growth substrate and the pH buffered initially at 4.0 with 2,2-dimethylsuccinate. Degradation of lignin in such woods also occurred under unbuffered pH conditions when a basal medium of either 3% malt or powdered cellulose in deionized water was present. Decomposition of the lignin in these woods did not occur in cultures where D-glucose was present as a growth substrate. F. solani significantly transformed, as measured as evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, both synthetic side chain (beta, gamma)-/sup 14/C- and U-ring-/sup 14/C-labeled lignins in 30 days under liquid culture conditions of only distilled deionized water and no pH adjustment. Degradation of dehydrogenative polymerizates by F. solani was reduced drastically when D2 was the liquid medium. AF-W1 also cleaved the alpha-/sup 14/C from p- hydroxybenzoic acid and evolved /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from the substrace, (3-/sup 14/C) cinnamic acid. Thus, the fungus cleaved side chain carbon from substrate that originally lacked hydroxyl substitution on the aromatic nucleus. Surprisingly, small amounts of /sup 14/C cleaved from aromatic acids by F. solani were incorporated into cell mass. Initial buffering of the culture medium to pH 4.0 or 5.0 with 0.1 M2,2-dimethylsuccinate significantly increased F. solani degradation of all lignins or aromatic acids. Results indicated that AF-W1 used lignin as a sole carbon source.

Norris, D.M.

1980-08-01

372

Syntheses of (prolyl-U-14C) alacepril and its related compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the metabolic fate of alacepril, an anti-hypertensive agent, the 14C-labeled compound of alacepril and its related compounds were synthesized. [Prolyl-U-14C]alacepril was synthesized in over-all yield of 32.7 - 38.0 % by the mixed anhydride condensation of L-phenylalanine with [prolyl-U-14C]DU-1163, which had been prepared from L-[U-14C]proline and N-(S-3-acetylthio-2-methylpropanoyloxy)succinimide. [Prolyl-U-14C]captopril and [prolyl-U-14C]DU-1227 were prepared in high yields by hydrolysis of [prolyl-U-14C]DU-1163 and [prolyl-U-14C]alacepril, respectively. [Prolyl-U-14C]captoril-cysteine was synthesized by condensation of [prolyl-U-14C]captopril with cystine S-monoxide in 55.0 % yield. (author)

373

Fate of 14C-monocrotophos in lactating goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-monocrotophos was fed daily to two groups of lactating goats for five days at 5 and 10 mg per goat per day. The radioactivity in urine and faeces accounted for 50% and 7%, respectively, 24 hours after the first dose. About 25% of the radiocarbon was found in various organs. About 1-2% of the administered radiocarbon was secreted in milk. It was concluded that monocrotophos was rapidly eliminated through urine and faeces of teddy goats. 14C-residues in milk and urine were tentatively identified as monocrotophos, dimethylphosphate and N-desmethyl monocrotophos. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to 50% 24 hours after treatment, but no toxic symptoms were observed. (author)

374

Synthesis of triamcinolone acetonide-4-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The free hydroxyl groups in triamcinolone acetonide (1) were protected as silyl ethers to give the bis-silyloxy derivative 4. Compound 4 was then hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ?4-3-oxo steroid 5 which was then converted to the enol-lactone 7 under selective reaction conditions. The enol-lactone 7 was subjected to Grignard reaction with 14C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 8a which on subsequent treatment with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide gave 4-14C-?4-3-oxo derivative 9. Compound 9 was heated with selenium dioxide in t-butanol containing pyridine to give the ?sup(1,4)-3-oxo derivative 10. Removal of the silyl protecting groups was readily accomplished by heating 10 with hydrochloric acid in methanol-tetrahydrofuran solution to give the title compound 11. (author)

375

A critical review of atmospheric 14 C activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14 C activity of atmospheric CO2 has been measured at the Rudjer Boskovi Institute as a part of environmental monitoring in order to determine possible differences between clean-air sites, industrialized city and sites in the vicinity of nuclear power plant. Samples of CO2 from the atmosphere have been collected by absorption of CO2 on the saturated carbonate-free NaOH solution for a period of 1 month under stationary conditions. The obtained Na2 CO3 has been dissolved in HCl and the produced CO2 used for CH4 preparation by catalytic reaction with H2 at 450 degrees Celsius. A gas proportional counter filled with CH4 has been used for 14 C activity measurement. The method of collection of CO2 does not require any power source and can be therefore used for sampling at the remote sites, such as mountains or forests. However,due to the lack of mixing of the Na OH solution, the absorption process is limited on the surface of the solution, and there exists the possibility of fractionation of carbon isotopes due to different reaction rate constants of 12 C and 13 C. A continuous record of atmospheric 14 CO2 activity exists for the city of Zagreb (1986 to 2005), while shorter records (1-2 years) exist for several other sites of various characteristics: two clean-air sites (Mt. Medvednica, altitude about 1000 m a.s.l., for period 1995 to 1996, and the Plitvice National Park for period 2003 to 2005), and a site close to the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (1984 to 1986).Within the bilateral Croatian-Slovene project we have recently measured also the stable isotope composition (?13 C) of Na2CO3 collected at two different sampling sites in order to determine seasonal fluctuations in both 14 C and 13 C isotope composition. Unexpectedly low ?13 C values have been obtained about (-25±2)0/00 instead of expected (-7±1)0/00. Such low values have been attributed to the carbon isotope fractionation during the CO2 absorption on the highly alkaline medium because of different reaction rate constants of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 with OH. Since the reported 14 C activities have to be corrected for the ?13 C content of the sample, the low ?13 C values of the collected Na2CO3 have to be taken into account. Therefore, our complete database on atmospheric 14 C activities has been recalculated. The change of ?13 C from-7 to -25 increases the reported 14 C activity (?14 C) for 36 nd this difference could explain previously reported rather low atmospheric 14 C activity as compared to other similar sites in Europe. In this paper we present the revised data for all sampling sites and we discuss the differences. (authors)

376

Which is better and more effective to use in patients with painful bone metastasis - 89Sr or 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of application of 89Sr-chloride and 32P-orthophosphate in 182 patients with painful bone metastases due to breast, prostate and lungs carcinoma. A total of 36 patients (pts) were treated only with 89Sr (I group); 121 pts - only with 32P (II group) and 25 pts - both with 89Sr and 32P (III group). 89Sr was administered i.v. in activity of 148 MBq, 32P - orally in activities starting from 37 MBq and increasing up to total dose of 222 MBq at 30-60 day intervals and when they were used in combination - 74 MBq of 89Sr was given i.v. and 37 MBq of 32P - orally. A symptomatic reduction of the pain was achieved in 76% of the pts from I group (in 27% there was a full response), in 78% from II group (in 12% there was a full response) and in 84% from III group (in 28% there was a full response). Adverse effects were between 17% and 30%, less in III group. The duration of the response was comparable - 3.3 months in I group, 3.4 months in II group and 3.4 months in III group. As it is well known, the main disadvantage of 89Sr is its high cost and the disadvantage of 32P- its higher myelotoxicity. With the combined application of both radiopharmaceuticals we have tried to overcome these disadvantages, using a half of the usual activity and we have anticipated that the different energies of the beta particles would have more pronounced effect pain palliation. Conclusion: Both 89Sr and 32P, when used separately, have comSr and 32P, when used separately, have comparable effect concerning degree and duration of pain relief, with more favorable full response effect and less haematological toxicity of 89Sr than 32P. Because of the low cost of 32P it could be used with success especially in nuclear medicine centers with limited budget. The application of both radiopharmaceuticals in one and the sane patient is a good choice because of the high efficacy on bone pain with less financial investments

377

Degradation of 14C-glyphosate in compost amended soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine), the active ingredient in several herbicide formulations, is a non-selective, post-emergent herbicide used in a variety of crop and non-crop situations. Glyphosate is a non-volatile herbicide that is relatively immobile in soil. Its degradation is due to microbiological processes and most laboratory studies have been conducted with 14C-glyphosate with the rate of 14CO2 evolution being used as an indication of herbicide breakdown. In this paper we have studied the glyphosate degradation in compost amendment soils using Scientilator Liquid TRIATHLER and Glyphosate-phosphonomethyl-14C-labeled with specific activity 2,2mCi/mmol. Four types of soils have been taken under study: Black Chernozem, Vertisol, Gleysol and Phaeozem with different characteristics. For the each type of soil have been realized four experimental variants (glyphosate blind sample with 1,5 ppm, concentration, autoclaved soil, soil with glyphosate and addition of compost in field concentration of 40 t/ha, respectively 60 t/ha. The mineralization curves of 14CO2 accumulated were compared during of 40 days. All the mineralization curves for the soils exhibited same patterns, with only two phases, the initial rapid phase of degradation, for about 20 days, attributed to microbial action on the free glyphosate and the second slow phase, when the curves attained plateaus. Compost applied with different concentrations to Vertisol and Black Chernozem did not appear to stimulate the microbial degradation of glyphosate. In Gleysol and Phaeozem with lower humus content, the mineralization curve of 14C indicate the increase degradation capacity, expressed as accumulated 14CO2 as % total 14C, with the increase of compost concentration. PMID:20218528

Alexa, E; Bragea, M; Sumalan, R; Negrea, M; Lazureanu, A

2009-01-01

378

Synthesis of DL-(carboxyl-14C)tyrosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method developed for the synthesis of DL-(carboxyl-14C)tyrosine by the Strecker route, with a yield of about 45% based on cyanide on half a millimolar scale of operation, is reported. Studies conducted for finding out the ideal reagent and the proper conditions to be employed for affecting the complete demethylation of p-methoxy phenylalanine - the reaction intermediate - to yield tyrosine of high purity are also presented. (author)

379

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

380

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Determination of 14C-lindane residues in stored rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-lindane was applied as dust to paddy rice. Surface, extractable and bound residues were determined in paddy rice up to a storage period of nine months. The surface and methanol-extractable residues decreased with storage time. The husk contained a greater amount of lindane compared to the grains. After removing surface residues, the grain was found to contain 2.7 mg/kg of extractable lindane and/or equivalent residues after nine months from treatment. (author)

382

May 14C be used to date contemporary art?  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

Fedi, M. E.; Caforio, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Petrucci, F.; Taccetti, F.

2013-01-01

383

Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

384

May {sup 14}C be used to date contemporary art?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, {sup 14}C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, {sup 14}C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to 'precisely' date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured {sup 14}C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the {sup 14}C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caforio, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mando, P.A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Petrucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Taccetti, F. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2013-01-15

385

May 14C be used to date contemporary art?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963–1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results t the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

386

Chromosome Studies in Patients with Polycythaemia Vera after Treatment with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chromosomes of bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of forty-six patients with polycythaemia vera were analysed to trace the sequence of events leading to the development of bone-marrow failure or 'leukaemia'. All except one of the patients had received radiophosphorus (32P). It might be expected that the yield of chromosomal aberrations of the two-break type (translocations etc.) from the low dose-rate beta radiation of 32P would be small. However, 'unstable' types of abnormality (dicentrics, fragments) and stable types (translocations, inversions, deletions) were observed in 6-25% of the blood lymphocytes; there was no evidence of clones of abnormal cells. In the majority of patients the bone marrow was predominantly normal diploid; occasional sporadic cells with 'stable' chromosomal abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of the cases, but 'unstable' aberrations were rare. In seven cases there were clones of cells characterised by deletions or translocations. All these chromosomal changes are probably radiation-induced. Clones of cells with a similar abnormality, an apparent deletion of one of the F-group chromosomes, were observed in the bone marrow in ten patients. Eight of these had received 32P and two busulphan. In two cases the clone appeared to develop after treatment. A similar anomaly has been reported in several cases of idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia who had not been irradiated. Progression into the leukaemic phase of the disease is associated in some cases with gross chromosomal abnormalities, such as shift of the stem line chromosome number and bizarre chromosome 'markers'. In other cases, some of whom have not been irradiated for several years, the chromosomal changes are less pronounced and may result from non-disjunctional gain of one or more chromosomes or chromosome loss. One case showed a step-by-step clonal evolution over a two-year period. None of the chromosomal abnormalities in the 'leukaemic' phase appear to be a direct result of radiation-induced chromosomal breakage. (author)

387

Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of 32P chromic phosphate  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracavitary injections of 32P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous 32P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V30) for 340 MBq 32P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V30 relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V30 of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V30 stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm2. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Olch, Arthur

2010-10-01

388

Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of 32P chromic phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracavitary injections of 32P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous 32P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V30) for 340 MBq 32P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V30 relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V30 of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V30 stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleurautic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm2. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

389

Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of {sup 32}P chromic phosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intracavitary injections of {sup 32}P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous {sup 32}P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V{sub 30}) for 340 MBq {sup 32}P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V{sub 30} relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V{sub 30} of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V{sub 30} stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm{sup 2}. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

Konijnenberg, Mark W [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Olch, Arthur, E-mail: M.Konijnenberg@erasmusmc.n [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, CA (United States)

2010-10-07

390

Disposition of (/sup 14/C)dimercaptosuccinic acid in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dimercaptosuccinic acid labeled with /sup 14/C ((/sup 14/C)DMSA) was administered to mice iv; the mice were frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane at 6 and 20 min and 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after injection. The frozen mice were sectioned and processed for whole-body autoradiography for soluble substances. The radioactivity was highly localized in extracellular fluids such as the subcutaneous, intrapleural, intraperitoneal, and periosteal spaces. There was a pronounced accumulation in the periosteal fluid above that in other fluids during the first hour after injection. Most of the radioactivity was eliminated by the kidney and liver. Pretreatment of a mouse with HgCl/sub 2/ subcutaneously 1 hr before (/sup 14/C)DMSA produced an increase in radioactivity in the liver and a decrease in the lungs. A high concentration of radioactivity was seen at the subcutaneous site of injection of the HgCl/sub 2/. The results are interpreted to indicate that most of the DMSA is in the extracellular space but that it can cross cellular membranes to some extent. The pronounced accumulation in periosteal fluid may be an interaction of DMSA with Ca2+ in this space. No tissue had a pronounced retention of the compound, but the lungs retained more than most other tissues.

Liang, Y.Y.; Marlowe, C.; Waddell, W.J.

1986-04-01

391

Disposition of [14C]dimercaptosuccinic acid in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimercaptosuccinic acid labeled with 14C ([14C]DMSA) was administered to mice iv; the mice were frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane at 6 and 20 min and 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after injection. The frozen mice were sectioned and processed for whole-body autoradiography for soluble substances. The radioactivity was highly localized in extracellular fluids such as the subcutaneous, intrapleural, intraperitoneal, and periosteal spaces. There was a pronounced accumulation in the periosteal fluid above that in other fluids during the first hour after injection. Most of the radioactivity was eliminated by the kidney and liver. Pretreatment of a mouse with HgCl2 subcutaneously 1 hr before [14C]DMSA produced an increase in radioactivity in the liver and a decrease in the lungs. A high concentration of radioactivity was seen at the subcutaneous site of injection of the HgCl2. The results are interpreted to indicate that most of the DMSA is in the extracellular space but that it can cross cellular membranes to some extent. The pronounced accumulation in periosteal fluid may be an interaction of DMSA with Ca2+ in this space. No tissue had a pronounced retention of the compound, but the lungs retained more than most other tissues

392

Exotic heavy-ion reactions on 40Ca: (14C,14O) double charge exchange and (14C,15O) rearrangement transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Double charge exchange is observed for the first time with heavy ions by using the reaction 40Ca(14C, 140)40Ar at 51 MeV incident energy. Angular distributions for the rear-rangement-transfer reaction 40Ca(14C, 150)39Ar were also measured, and both exotic reactions are compared with the more usual one- and two-proton transfer reactions (14C, 15N) and (14C, 160). Cross sections for the exotic processes are surprisingly large: ?10 ?b/sr for (14C, 140) and approx.200 ?b/sr for

393

Implants with {sup 32}P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology; {sup 32}P-haltige Folien als Implantate fuer die LDR-Brachytherapie gutartiger Stenosen in der Urologie und Gastroenterologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting {sup 32}P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of {sup 32}P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the {sup 32}P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of {sup 32}P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated {sup 32}P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

Assmann, Walter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern (Germany). Laser-Forschungslabor] [and others

2013-03-01

394

Separation of phosphorous by liquid-liquid extraction for the measurement of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorous containing radioisotope waste was separated and determined by liquid-liquid extraction method through liquid scintillation counter (LSC). In this process, ammonium phosphate was converted to phosphomolybdate (PMo) by the reaction of ammonium molybdate (Mo) in HCl solution (0.02 M) and maximum UV/VIS absorbance (?max) 218 nm was observed. The PMo solution was extracted with TOA (Tri-n-Octylamine)/xylene mixture and ?max 290 nm was found for this organic layer. Absorbance of aqueous and organic layer was linear through concentration. The impurities such as Co, Cr, Gd, etc. remain in aqueous layer by treating with Mo which was determined by ICP-AES and AAS. The quenching correction curve for 32P was calculated using LSC results. No counting change was observed as the volume of quenchers increased. The recovery was 98% and 81% for the extraction and separation process from the test using H332PO4 as standard tracer. (author)

395

/sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in human oral mucosal cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exfoliated mucosal cells were collected from the oral cavity of three groups at high risk for oral cancer: Indian betel nut chewers, Filipino inverted smokers (burning end of cigar in mouth) and Indian Khaini tobacco chewers. DNA was extracted from these samples, as well as from samples of exfoliated cells of Canadian non-smoking controls. DNA was analyzed for the presence of aromatic DNA adducts using /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis. Five chromatographically distinct adducts were found in samples from both the high risk groups and the nonsmoking controls. Individual adducts were detectable in approximately 30-95% of samples, depending on the adduct and population group. Estimated levels of specific adducts ranged from non-detectable (prevalence relative to normal nucleotides less than 1 X 10(-9)) to occasionally greater than 1 X 10(-7). No adducts were found in high risk groups which did not also appear in control subjects.

Dunn, B.P.; Stich, H.F.

1986-07-01

396

Detection of methylation damage in DNA of gastric cancer tissues using 32P-postlabelling assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. The causes are still unknown but it has been speculated that gastric cancer is associated with consumption of foods rich in nitrates/nitrites or a high dietary intake of salt or pickled food. In the present study, we studied the level of alkylated DNA adducts formed in gastric cancer tissues in comparison with that in normal gastric mucosa. DNA was extracted from surgically removed gastric cancer tissues and patient-matched normal gastric mucosa. The level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine was measured by 32P-postlabelling assay after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enrichment. We found that the level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine of gastric cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that of normal gastric mucosa (P=0.01685). (author)

397

Translocation, distribution and degradation of the systemic organophosphorus insecticide 32P-methamidophos in conifers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systemic organophosphate methamidophos has been studied in conifers (spruce, pine, larch, and dauglas-fir) with regard to the translocation, distribution and degradation. The 32P-labelled insecticide was spread on the pretreated bark as an adhesive paste, and the following behaviour was investigated by counting and autoradiography during at most 48 d in trees up to 80 years of age. The localization of the insecticide in the phloem/xylem region of the trunk and the fixation of quantitative amounts of the insecticide and metabolites in the treated tree was the base for developing a new and effective method for control of the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) including the use of pheromone dispensers. (author)

398

Studies on the quantitative uptake of 32P-labelled Trakephone by aphids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper reports methodical studies concerning the quantitative uptake of active substances by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba L. enriched by 32P-labelled Trakephone. Aphids increasing in size were found to take up rising quantities of active substance. The uptake is the more continuous the more sessile the pests are. Feeding is delayed by the presence of Trakephone in the plant. The quantification of the active substance amounts is only practical in parts per million using the weight of the aphids. Higher concentrations of active substances in the plant will increase the uptake by the aphids. The autoradiogram qualitatively demonstrates the beginning of the uptake of active substances. It may be taken into consideration for examining the repellent properties of chemical compounds towards aphids. (author)

399

Contact curietherapy with 32P used in diseases of the skin and visible mucous membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contact curietherapy with 32P is conducted in sixty-one patients affected with keratoma senile (34), leukoplakia vulvae (15), chronic eczema (10), Bowen's disease (1) and Queyrat's disease (1). A contact technique with applicator is used. The single skin dose amounts to 5 Gy/hour. Irradiation rhythm is: alternating 5 consecutive days with 2 days rest period. The total dose per course leading to a permanent therapeutic effect (3 years) varies in the range 35 to 100 Gy/h. Optimal results are recorded in 42% of cases, very good - in 52%, and satisfactory - in 6%. A wider application of the method in hematological practice is recommended because of the low radiation exposure and absence of complications. 12 refs. (orig.)

400

Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)

402

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated S?. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S? in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

403

Amount and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to [14C]triclopyr  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L [14C] triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed

404

Amount and identity of (/sup 14/C) residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to (/sup 14/C)triclopyr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The level and identity of (/sup 14/C) residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L (/sup 14/C) triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed.

Lickly, T.D.; Murphy, P.G.

1987-01-01

405

Persistence of the herbicides [14C]chlorsulfuron and [14C]metsulfuron methyl in prairie soils under laboratory conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of [14C]metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of [14C]chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils

406

Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

407

32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from ca indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides

408

Metabolism of (2-14C)thymine and (2-14C)thymidine in germinating black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seedlings was investigated. Both [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine degraded extensively into [14C]CO2. The rate of release of [14C]CO2 from [2-14C]thymine was much greater than that from [2-14C]thymidine. Radioactivity from both precursors was also observed ?-ureidoisobutyric acid. This indicated that thymine was degraded by the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation. Small amounts of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine were salvaged for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis. The highest incorporation of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine into the DNA fraction was observed in 24 hour-old cotyledons where net DNA synthesis was not observed. These precursors seem to be utilised for DNA synthesis of organelles of the cotyledonary cells, probably mitochondria. In embronic axes, [2-14C]thymine is more effectively salvaged for DNA synthesis than [2-14C]thymine. The incorporation rate increased during the early phase of germination and attained its maximum at 48 h after which it decreased. No thymidine kinase activity was detected in either cotyledons or in the embryonic axes. Thymidine salvage seems to be catalysed by nucleoside phosphotransferase which is present both in the cotyledons and in the embryonic axes. This suggests that, in contrast to other pyrimidine and purine bases and nucleosides, no specific salvage system for thymine and thymidine is present in black gram seedlings. (author)

409

Detection of radioactive 35S at Fukushima and other Japanese sites  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fukushima nuclear power plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and concomitant tsunami during March 2011. An effect of this disaster was secondary formation of radioactive 35S via the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction, when neutrons from the partially melted reactor cores activated the coolant sea water. Here we report the first measurements of 35S in sulfate aerosols and rain water collected at six Japanese sampling sites, Hokkaido, Tsukuba, Kashiwa, Fuchu, Yokohama, and Fukushima, during March-September 2011. The measured 35SO42- concentrations in aerosols vary significantly. The Kashiwa (AORI) site shows the highest 35SO42- concentration (6.1 × 104 ± 200 atoms/m3) on 1 April 2011, which is nearly 100 times higher than the natural background activity. Considering the percentage loss of 35SO42- resulting from dry and wet deposition and dilution of the radiation plume in the boundary layer during transport, it was determined that the surface air concentration of 35SO42- at the Fukushima would have been 2.8 × 105 atoms/m3 during the week after the earthquake, which is in agreement with the model prediction [Priyadarshi et al.]. 35SO42- activity in rain water collected during March-May 2011 at Tokyo Tech Yokohama varies from 1.1 × 105 to 9.8 × 105 atoms/liter, whereas stream water collected near Fukushima was found to have 1.2 × 105 atoms/liter during April. Even after 6 months, 35SO42- activity remains very high (9.9 × 104 ± 770 atoms/m3) in the marine boundary layer in the Fukushima region, which implies that the reactor core was producing radioactive sulfur.

Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark H.; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Yamada, Keita; Mukotaka, Arata; Fujii, Ayako; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Noguchi, Izumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

410

Influence of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-hexadecane in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil was spiked with [9-14C]phenanthrene and [1-14C]hexadecane at 50 mg kg-1 and aged for 1, 25, 50, 100 and 250 d. At each time point, the microcosms were amended with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) at a range of concentrations (0-40 mM). Mineralisation assays and aqueous HP-?-CD extractions were performed to assess the effect of the amendments on microbial degradation. The results showed that amendments had no significant impact on the microbial degradation of either of the 14C-contaminants. Further, HP-?-CD extractions were correlated with the mineralisation of the target chemicals in each of the soil conditions. It was found that the HP-?-CD extraction was able to predict mineralisation in soils which had not been amended with cyclodextrin; however, in the soils containing the HP-?-CD, there was no predictive relationship. Under the conditions of this study, the introduction of HP-?-CD into soils did not enhance the biodegradation of the organic contaminants. - The amendment of HP-?-CD to phenanthrene and hexadecane amended soils does not enhance microbial biodegradation.

411

Measurement of cosmogenic radionuclide 35S in sulfate aerosol in Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first measurement of cosmogenically produced radionuclide 35S activity in sulfate aerosols collected at inland (Dome C: latitude 75.6, longitude 123.24, altitude 3233 m) and coastal site (Dumont D’Urville: latitude 66.39, longitude 140.01, altitude 43 m) in Antarctica. Sulfate aerosol samples were collected using a High-Volume aerosol sampler on a glass fiber filter paper for 7 days once a month for a year. The radioactivity was measured using low noise liquid scintillation spectrometer1.The measurements reveal a maximum abundance of 35SO4 in spring-summer (500-1200 35S atoms/m3) and minimum (50-200 atoms/m3) during winter. This variation is explained by considering the relative seasonality of the air circulation patterns prevailing at inland and the costal sites. Tropospheric-stratospheric air mixing in summer leads to higher 35SO4, whereas a lack of mixing within the winter polar vortex causes a significant decrease in 35SO4. The 35S activity was found to be higher in fine sulfate aerosol particle (PM 2.5) as compared to coarse (PM10) at DDU. The normalised activity, the ratio of 35SO4 to the total sulfate concentration, shows no link of 35SO4 (or activity) concentration to the local meteorological conditions responsible for sulfate aerosol formation. Rather, the observed high value indicates higher air mass mixing between the stratosphere and troposphere. A secondary 35SO4 peak is observed at both stations during July and August. Based on a preliminary model, an additional 4-6% stratospheric contribution, either due to the stratospheric air mass intrusion into the troposphere or evaporation of 35SO4 from cloud particles during Polar Stratospheric Cloud sedimentation is required to explain this enhancement during the polar winter. 1 Brother, L.A., G. Dominguez, A. Abramian, A. Corbin, Ben Bluen, and M. H. Thiemens, Otimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications, Proceedings National Acad. Sci. 107, 5311, 2010

Pandey, A.; Savarino, J. P.; Thiemens, M. H.

2010-12-01

412

[Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology].  

Science.gov (United States)

For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting (32)P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of (32)P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the (32)P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of (32)P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated (32)P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. PMID:22917569

Assmann, Walter; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike; Bader, Markus; Clemente, Lucas; Reinhardt, Sabine; Schäfer, Claus; Schirra, Jörg; Uschold, Stephanie; Welzmüller, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

2013-02-01

413

Morphological and functional changes associated with serial iso- and xeno-transplantation of 32P induced rat osteosarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty Wistar strain rats, 3 weeks of age, were given 32P of 1.0 ?Ci/g body weight intraperitoneally every 3 weeks, and osteosarcoma was induced in 15 of 20 rats. A total amount of 32P administered to rats was 2,425 ?Ci per one rat on an average. 32P-induced osteosarcoma was observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was suggested that 32P-induced osteosarcoma of rats was available for basic studies of human osteosarcoma, because rats' osteosarcoma was very similar to human osteosarcoma. Regarding hetero- and homo-transplantation of 32P-induced osteosarcoma, osteoid tissue decreased after serial transplantation and disappeared finally. When tumor cells were classified into tumor cells having a plenty of intracellular small organs (type I cells) and those having a few intracellular small organs (type II cells), the percentage of type II cells increased after serial transplantation. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed that the uptake of proline into tumor cells decreased coupled with a decrease in osteoid formation capacity. As the uptake of proline into type II cells was poor, type II cells were thought to be undifferenciated mesenchimal cells and to have no influence on osteoid formation. (Tsunoda, M.)

414

Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

415

Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on the agricultural environment and ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimehypo is a new type of insecticide of the nereistoxin family of compounds which has been developed and manufactured in China. To appraise its environmental safety, radioisotope tracer techniques were applied to investigate the effects of 35S labelled dimehypo on the agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorption and high mobility in soil, stability in soil and water, and slow rate of degradation. The main product of degradation, nereistoxin has a lower mobility than the parent compound in the soil. Sulphur-35-dimehypo was taken up by the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon indellus) along with bait or via the respiratory tracts and was excreted rapidly after the fish were removed from the contaminated water. Liquid and granulated formulations of 35S-dimehypo were fed to quails and fowls, respectively. The radioactivity was excreted rapidly in faeces and urine. The low partition coefficient of the insecticide in caprylalcohol-water suggested no (or low) accumulation in the adipose tissue of the organism. The release of its active ingredients from the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

416

Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkin?s disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer.

Arjomand, A; Bucholz, B A; Clifford, A J; Duecker, S R; Johnson, H; Schneider, P D; Zulim, R A

1999-03-25

417

The synthesis of 2-14C-N-nitrosothiazolidine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2-14C-N-Nitrosothiazolidine was synthesized with a chemical purity of 99.6%, a radio chemical purity of 99.4%, and an overall yield of 30.7%. Unlabelled N-nitrosothiazolidine, synthesized using the same method, resulted in a purity of 99.85% by capillary GC and 99.7% by HPLC. Analysis of N-nitrosothiazolidine by GC was found to require a low injection port temperature of 1600C to prevent denitrosation in the injection port. During the nitrosation of thiazolidine, if the pH was reduced below 4 with hydrochloric acid, ring hydrolysis occurred, and chlorinated disulfide compounds formed. (author)

418

The synthesis of 2- sup 14 C-N-nitrosothiazolidine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2-{sup 14}C-N-Nitrosothiazolidine was synthesized with a chemical purity of 99.6%, a radio chemical purity of 99.4%, and an overall yield of 30.7%. Unlabelled N-nitrosothiazolidine, synthesized using the same method, resulted in a purity of 99.85% by capillary GC and 99.7% by HPLC. Analysis of N-nitrosothiazolidine by GC was found to require a low injection port temperature of 160{sup 0}C to prevent denitrosation in the injection port. During the nitrosation of thiazolidine, if the pH was reduced below 4 with hydrochloric acid, ring hydrolysis occurred, and chlorinated disulfide compounds formed. (author).

Cragin, D.W.; Shibamoto, Takayuki (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Environment