WorldWideScience
1

Synthesis of Letosteine labelled with 14C and 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LETOSTEINE, 2-[1(ethoxy carbonyl methylthio)-ethyl] 4-hydroxycarbonyl thiazolidine is labelled with either carbon-14 on the carboxylic carbon of the ester function by means of chloro (1-14C)-acetic acid or with sulfur-35 on the thiazolidinyl group by means of L-(35S)-cysteine. Specific activities are 0,373 mCi/mMole or 13,8 MBq/mMole for 14C-LETOSTEINE and 9,90 mCi/mMole or 366 MBq/mMole for 35S-LETOSTEINE. (author)

2

Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

3

Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

4

Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 ? alanines ? 14C; noradrenaline ? 14C (arterenol ? 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

5

Comparison of radioactive (32P and 35S) and biotinylated probes for detection of cytomegalovirus DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected in a dot-blot assay by hybridization to a DNA probe labeled with radioisotopes (32P or 35S) or biotin. Limits of detection were established for both the radioisotopically labeled DNA probes as well as the biotin-labeled probe. Hybridization of the radioisotopically labeled probes was detected by autoradiography and liquid scintillation while the biotin-labeled probe was detected after coupling to one of three enzymes (e.g., horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, or acid phosphatase). In addition, several different substrates were evaluated with the nonisotopic detection enzymes. Detection limits (and times for detection) were 1 pg (4 h) for 32P, approximately 1 pg (96 h) for 35S, 5 pg (1-3 h) for the phosphatases, and 25-50 pg for peroxidase. Thus, 32P-labeled probes appear to provide the best sensitivity whereas the avidin-linked phosphatases provide the best sensitivity among the nonisotopic detection systems. PMID:2826048

Mifflin, T E; Bowden, J; Lovell, M A; Bruns, D E; Hayden, F G; Gröschel, D H; Savory, J

1987-08-01

6

A cytological analysis of the mutagenic action of 32P and 35S on the tea seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cytologic analysis of mutagenic effect of 32P and 35S aqueous solutions (specific activity of 0.05 mCi/ml) on the seeds of the ''Kolchida'' tea, is carried out. Seed treatment with the above solutions within 12 hours causes the inhibition of mitoses, more pronounced in the case of 32P effect. The maximum frequency of chromosomal aberrations is observed after 28 hours after the action (13.62% for 32P and 11.20% for 35S). Close to 180 hours, the frequency of aberrations reaches the level of control. A low amount of bridges as compared with the number of fragments is characteristic of 32P effect; while 35S effect causes the formation of a considerable number of bridges

7

The preparation of 14C, 35S and 13C labelled forms of omeprazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The syntheses of [benzimidazole-2- 14C]omeprazole, [benzimidazole-2-13C]omeprazole, [35S]omeprazole and [2-pyridyl- 14C-methyl]-omeprazole are described. The first three compounds were prepared from the appropriate isotopically labelled carbon disulphide. The key step in the synthesis of [2-pyridyl- 14C-methyl]omeprazole is nucleophilic alkylation of a l-ethoxypyridinium salt using [14C]methyl magnesium idodide. This is the first time that a reaction of this type has been used to prepare a 2-[methyl-14C]methylpyridine. (author)

8

Searches for heavy neutrinos from 35S, 14C, and 63Ni beta decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have searched for the effect of a neutrino of mass 17 keV/c2 in the beta decay of 35S with an apparatus incorporating a high resolution solid state detector and a super conducting solenoid. The experimental mixing probability of the 17keV neutrino is consistent with zero. The experimental sensitivity is verified by measurements with a mixed source of 35S and 14C, which artificially produces a distortion in the beta spectrum similar to that expected from the massive neutrino. Recently, we have performed similar searches in the beta decay of 14C and 63Ni. Results of these new measurements will be presented

9

Speciation of 14C/35S in the liquid effluent stream of a labelled compounds production laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The liquid scintillation counting method presently used for the analysis of low level liquid effluents from labelled compound production laboratory cannot separately estimate 14C and 35S due to their close ? spectrum. In order to develop a suitable method for the chemical separation of 35S and 14C it is necessary to have the information on the chemical species to which the radioactivity in the effluent is attached. Present work shows the results of ionic speciation of 35S/14C in the low level liquid effluents of a labelled compounds production plant. Equilibration of effluent samples with ion exchange resins has shown that major fraction of 35S/14C activity is attached to the anionic species (most likely sulphate, carbonate or carboxylates) and remaining species is attached to cationic or zwitterions (most likely amino acids and their oxidation products). (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

10

Radiochromatographic resolution of [14C]DL-tryptophan, [14C]DL-phenylalanine and [35S]DL-methionine on a cellulose column  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[14C]DL-Tryptophan, [14C]DL-phenylalanine and [35S]DL-methionine were resolved using cellulose column chromatography. The assignment for the resolved enantiomers was carried out by means of co-chromatography with non-labeled DL-amino acids after modification with fluorodinitrobenzene. The optical purity of the enantiomers was estimated to be greater than 99%. The resolved enantiomers were provided for bioassay, showing that the enantiomer was biochemically active. (author)

11

Technique for Simultaneous Determination of [35S]Sulfide and [14C]Carbon Dioxide in Anaerobic Aqueous Samples †  

OpenAIRE

A technique for the simultaneous determination of [35S]sulfide and [14C]carbon dioxide produced in anaerobic aqueous samples dual-labeled with [35S]sulfate and a 14C-organic substrate is described. The method involves the passive distillation of sulfide and carbon dioxide from an acidified water sample and their subsequent separation by selective chemical absorption. The recovery of sulfide was 93% for amounts ranging from 0.35 to 50 ?mol; recovery of carbon dioxide was 99% in amounts up to ...

Taylor, Craig D.; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Molongoski, John J.

1981-01-01

12

Gelation with N-lauroyl-L-glutamic-?, ?-dibutylamide for liquid scintillation counting of low specific activities of 35S and 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gelling agent, N-lauroyl-L-glutamic-?, ?-dibutylamide, was applied for liquid scintillation counting of inorganic 32P and 35S. The gel with toluene cocktail is transparent and rigid for a long time. Several grams of ammonium magnesium phosphate or barium sulfate can easily be measured without complicating procedures. (author) 7 refs.; 1 fig

13

Metabolism of 35S- and 14C-labeled propylthiouracil in a model in vitro system containing thyroid peroxidase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous communications we described an in vitro model system containing highly purified thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by the antithyroid drugs, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). We showed that inhibition of iodination of thyroglobulin in this system may be reversible or irreversible depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and drug and the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drugs occurred under both conditions, but was more limited under irreversible conditions of inhibition. It was of interest to examine the nature of the drug metabolites associated with reversible and irreversible conditions of inhibition. For this purpose we have employed the 35S- and 14C-labeled drugs and a recently developed reverse phase HPLC procedure. Results of a similar study with MMI were reported in an earlier communication. In the present study we report our findings with PTU. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, PTU was readily metabolized and by 15 min was reduced to a few percent of the starting value. The earliest detectable metabolite with both [35S]- and [14C]PTU was the disulfide, which reached a peak in about 15 min and then slowly declined. Coincident with the decline in the disulfide was the appearance of more polar metabolites. In the case of [35S]PTU, these corresponded to sulfate/sulfite, PTU sulfonate, and a product tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate.t tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate. The latter two were also observed as 14C-labeled metabolites produced from [14C]PTU. Two nonpolar desulfurated 14C-labeled metabolites were also observed. Surprisingly, these did not correspond to either propyluracil or propyldeoxyuracil, the anticipated most likely products of PTU desulfuration. The identity of these desulfurated metabolites of PTU in the TPO model system remains to be determined

14

Synthesis of organic substances labelled with {sup 14}C and {sup 35}S; Syntheses de molecules organiques marquees par le carbone-14 et le soufre-35  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the Frenchmic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alanines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (author)Fren. [French] Apres un bref historique du developpement de la Section des Molecules marquees du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique fran is, l'auteur donne un resume des syntheses des composes marques suivants: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alamines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, acide aminoethane sulfinique (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (auteur)

Pichat, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1958-07-01

15

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with 14C-and 35S-isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with 14C and 35S isotopes starting from L-[U-14C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[35S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-14C]-5 is converted into L-[U-14C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to (14C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[35S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[35S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [35S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of (14C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of (35S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author)

16

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with [sup 14]C-and [sup 35]S-isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with [sup 14]C and [sup 35]S isotopes starting from L-[U-[sup 14]C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[[sup 35]S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-[sup 14]C]-5 is converted into L-[U-[sup 14]C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[[sup 35]S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[[sup 35]S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [[sup 35]S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of ([sup 35]S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author).

Ferraboschi, Patrizia; Grisenti, Paride; Santaniello, Enzo (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Biochimica Medica); Giachetti, Claudio; Zanolo, Giovanni (Biomedical Research Inst. ' ' Antoine Marxer' ' , Turin (Italy)); Signorelli, Giovanni; Coppi, Germano (Poli Industrial Center, Milan (Italy). Research Center)

1992-12-01

17

Comparison of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves estimated by using 32P and 35S-labelled mixed rumen bacteria as a marker  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled bacteria were used to estimate their growth rate and a comparison has been made of the values obtained by using 35S labelled bacterial markers. Since 32P is a hard ?-emitter the radioactivity measurement can be made without scintillation fluid by Cherenkov counting which may be economical. (author)

18

Imaging of cerebral protein synthesis using [35S]-L-methionine, [1-14C]-L-methionine and [3H-methyl]-L-methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autographic brain imaging techniques using 35S-, 14C-and 3H-labelled L-methionone combined with biochemical measurements of labelled methionine and other amino acids in plasma, the free amino acid pool of the brain, aminoacyl-tRNAs, and proteins have been performed for quantitating protein synthesis rates in rat brain. A model for the metabolic fate of methionine in the brain is presented from which several metabolic pools of the amino acid involved in protein synthesis were determined in the rat tissue. Finally a general reaction model is deduced for the precursor-product relationship in cerebral protein synthesis employing radioactive amino acids. (UK)

19

Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein oof 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

20

Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

21

14C-leucine, 35S-methionine 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose and 3H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine, 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and 3H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10-4M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10-5 to 10-8M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos

22

Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

23

A study of {sup 32}P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as {sup 45}Ca, {sup 35}S, {sup 32}P and {sup 14}C as long as several days. The {beta}-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected {beta}-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the {sup 32}P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the {sup 32}P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of {sup 32}P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of {sup 32}P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of {sup 32}P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as {sup 32}P and {sup 32}S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

Yamawaki, M.; Kanno, S.; Ishibashi, H.; Noda, A.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

2011-07-01

24

A study of 32P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as 45Ca, 35S, 32P and 14C as long as several days. The ?-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected ?-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the 32P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the 32P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of 32P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of 32P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of 32ained from the analysis of 32P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as 32P and 32S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

25

Reference: CTRMCAMV35S [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available CTRMCAMV35S Pauli S, Rothnie HM, Che n G, He ... X, Hohn T. The ... cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter ... extends into the ... transcribed region. J Virol. 78: 12120-12128.(2004 ...

26

Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide (35S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author)

27

Synthesis of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S) has been prepared by exchange between elementary sulfur (35S) and sodium N-dithiocarbamate followed by an oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. The method allows to obtain rapidly a pure product with relatively high activity. The radioactive exchange is 82 per cent. (author)

28

35S-glycosaminoglycan and 35S-glycopeptide metabolism by diabetic glomeruli and aorta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Total 35S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. Whereas 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with 35SO4, a larger proportion of total 35S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. Both control and diabetic glomeruli synthesize 35S-labeled glycopeptides, the quantity from diabetic glomeruli being reduced. Aorta from 35SO4-injected diabetic rats also synthesized reduced quantities of 35S-glycosaminoglycans. There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of 35S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. These studies suggest that synthesis of 35S-glycosaminoglycans and 35S-glycopeptides by diabetic glomeruli are altered by disturbances of both synthetic as well as degradative pathways. An alteration of 35S-glycosaminoglycans interaction with matrix components in diabetes is postulated

29

Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

30

Evidence against a 17 keV neutrino from 35S beta decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have searched for the effect of a neutrino of mass 17 keV/c2 in the beta decay of 35S with an appartus incorporating a high-resolution solid-state detector and a superconducting solenoid. The experimental mixing probability, sin2?=-0.0004±0.0008(stat) ±0.0008(syst), is consistent with zero, in disagreement with several previous experiments. Our sensitivity to neutrino mass is verified by measurements with a mixed source of 35S and 14C, which artificially produces a distortion in the beta spectrum similar to that expected from the massive neutrino

31

Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole ({sup 35}S); Synthese du mercapto-2-benzothiazole ({sup 35}S)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole ({sup 35}S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide ({sup 35}S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author) [French] La synthese du mercapto-2-benzothiazole ({sup 35}S) par l'interaction du chloro-2-benzothiazole et I'hydrosurfure ({sup 35}S) de sodium a ete etudiee. On a trouve que dans les conditions determinees dans cette etude, on peut obtenir un produit pur avec un rendement radioactif de 79 pour cent. (auteur)

Bentov, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1958-07-01

32

Spectroscopy of 32P, ch. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spins, parities and transition probabilities of levels in 32P at Esub(x) 3.5 MeV have been determined with the 29Si(?,p?)32P reaction at bombarding energies of Esub(?)=12.80, 12.93 and 16.30 MeV. Proton-gamma angular correlation experiments and DSA lifetime measurements lead to six unambiguous spin assignments and to many spin limitations. The measured mixing and branching ratios yield many transition strengths for dipole and electric quadrupole transitions. Five, sofar unknown, energy levels are reported. A doublet at 4.03 MeV excitation energy and a high-spin state (Esub(x)=4.27 MeV; Jsup(?)=5-) were observed. Shell-model predictions have been compared to the present experimental results. (Auth.)

33

Structure in the reaction channels of 14C+14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction channels of 14C+14C have been studied from E/sub c.m./ = 12.5 to 32.5 MeV by ?-ray techniques. Correlated oscillatory structure has been observed in inelastic, transfer, and fusion-evaporation channels. These features are comparable to the behavior of 16O+16O where similar dynamical conditions prevail

34

Reactor production of 32P for medical applications. An assessment of 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes a comparative study carried out on the reactor production of 32P by two different processes, namely, 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P with a view to determine the merits and bottlenecks of each method and assess the usefulness of 32P obtained from each of the processes. In a typical batch, 250 g of elemental sulfur when irradiated at a fast neutron flux of ?8 × 1011 n cm-2 s-1 for 60 days, after chemical processing provided about 150 GBq(4.05Ci) of 32P having specific activity of 200TBq(5500Ci)/mmole. On the other hand, irradiation of 0.35 g of red phosphorus at a fast neutron flux of ?7.5 × 1013 n cm-2 s-1 for a period of 60 days gave 75 GBq(2.02Ci) of 32P of specific activity 7 GBq(190mCi)/mol-1. While the specific activity of 32P obtained from 32S(n,p)32P is superior to that obtained from the 3lP(n,?)32P process, the requirement of elaborate target processing steps involving distillation and purification emerged as a deterrent that limits its widespread adaptability. Both the production routes offer 32P of acceptable quality amenable for medical applications although their specific activity differs. (author)

35

Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

36

Synthesis of tetramethylthiuram disulfide ({sup 35}S); Synthese du disulfure de tetramethylthiurame ({sup 35}S)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tetramethylthiuram disulfide ({sup 35}S) has been prepared by exchange between elementary sulfur ({sup 35}S) and sodium N-dithiocarbamate followed by an oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. The method allows to obtain rapidly a pure product with relatively high activity. The radioactive exchange is 82 per cent. (author) [French] Le disurfure de tetramethylthiurame ({sup 35}S) a ete prepare par echange entre le soufre elementaire ({sup 35}S) et le N-dimethyldithiocarbamate de soude suivi d'une oxydation par le ferricyanure de potasse. La methode permet d'obtenir rapidement un produit pur avec une activite relativement haute. L'echange radioactif effectue est de 82 pour cent. (auteur)

Bentov, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1958-07-01

37

A mathematical analogue to calculate the counts from 32P in the choroidal blood during the 32P uptake test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A mathematical model has been developed to assess the contribution of 32P in the blood in the choroidal vessels to the count obtained from the eye during the 32P uptake test. Applying the model at 48 hours after the administration of 32P it was found that, at this time, between 4% and 7% of the control count on the eye was due to 32P activity in the choroidal blood. (author)

38

Enzymatic synthesis of [beta-32P]ADP using adenylate kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An enzymatic method for the synthesis of [beta-32P]ADP from [gamma-32P]ATP is described. This substrate is required for the assay of ADPase and is not commercially available. The method described results in a preparation of [beta-32P]ADP of high purity with a yield of approximately 40% the theoretical obtainable

39

Spring mobilization of storage /sup 32/P in gingko trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old gingko (Gingko biloba L.) trees during dormant period in the glass house and the mobilization of stored /sup 32/P determined in the following early growing season. /sup 32/P was detected in all growing tissues, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 4-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 0.44% of /sup 32/P was found in storage tissues although the accumulation of /sup 32/P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, /sup 32/P was transported from root tissues to new growing tissues. Eight percent of the initial /sup 32/P in storage tissues was transported to new growing tissues. During the period, the /sup 32/P in the bud tissues increased about 12 fold.

Shim, K.K. (City Univ. of Seoul, Korea); Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.

1978-01-01

40

Spring mobilization of storage 32P in gingko trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old gingko (Gingko biloba L.) trees during dormant period in the glass house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all growing tissues, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 4-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 0.44% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood and bud) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from root tissues to new growing tissues (buds). Eight percent of the initial 32P in storage tissues was transported to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the bud tissues increased about 12 fold. (author)

41

Spring mobilization of storage 32P in apple trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old apple trees during dormant period in the green house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all new root and shoot growth, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 5-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 2.5% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood, scion buds) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from storage tissues to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the scion shoot tissues increased about 348 fold. (author)

42

Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

43

Boll weevils: sterility induced by 32P tagging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta particles arising from 32P in paint placed on the wing cover of females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman reduced longevity, egg production, and egg hatch. Egg hatch also was reduced in eggs collected from females mated with 32P-tagged males. Although 32P at the dosage used may be satisfactory for tagging boll weevils for movement studies, it is not satisfactory as a label for weevils that are expected to reproduce normally

44

Formation of thiosulfate [35S] by neutron irradiation of potassium chloride and preparation of elementary sulfur [35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium chloride was subjected to various kinds of pretreatments and irradiated in a nuclear reactor. Irradiated potassium chloride was dissolved in deaerated aqueous solution of several sulfur-salts. A portion of the solution was chromatographed on a thin layer chromatographic plate and the distribution of 35S-chemical species was determined. Irradiation of potassium chloride degassed at 3 x 10-4 Torr resulted in the formation of about 60% of 35S in the form of thiosulfate and remainder was distributed among sulfide, sulfate and elementary sulfur. Thiosulfate[35S] was converted to elementary sulfur[35S] first by reducing to hydrogen sulfide[35S] with nascent hydrogen and then by oxidizing the latter to elementary sulfur[35S] with hexacyanoferrate(III). Elementary sulfur [35S] was finally extracted into benzene. Radiochemically pure elementary sulfur[35S] could be produced by simple procedures with a yield of about 60%. Thiosulfate[35S] was decomposed with acid to elementary sulfur[35S] and sulfur [35S] dioxide. The former was separated by centrifuging and dispersed in boiling water to form colloidal suspension of elementary sulfur[35S]. Approximately 40% of 35S was recovered as colloid. (auth.)

45

Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

46

Preliminary studies on the sorption kinetics of 35S on soil using L-35 S-methionine and sodium 35S-sulphate as tracers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of 35S radiotracer investigations carried out primarily on a typical clay type soil sample to study the sorption and desorption characteristics of 35S present in it in an organic form as L -35 S-methionine and in an inorganic form as sodium 35S-sulphate are presented. The results indicate that the sorption of sodium sulphate in the tested soil is comparatively very less than that of methionine whereas its desorption from the soil with water is much more than that of methionine. It is also found that L-methionine, unlike sodium sulphate, does not remain in the soil for long but gets lost by some processes, worthy of further study. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

47

Exchange of 31P-32P in phosphorus acid chlorides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are investigation results of 31P-32P isotope exchange between phosphorus acid dichloroanhydrides and radioactive trichlorated and thiotrichlorated phosphorus and phosphorus oxychloride. The results confirm the presence of the exchan.oe in the mixture of trichlorated phosphorus with phosphorus acid dichloranhydrides. The 31P-32P isotope exchange being observed can be explained by the redistribution of substituents at phosphorus atom and is determined by the structure of phosphorus acid dichloroanhydrides

48

Relative distribution of 32P malathion in chick  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of malathion after 2 months, on feed sprayed with 0.08% and 0.16% of 50% malathion emulsifiable was 63 and 64% respectively. The half life was 30 days. Chicks fed with 32P malathion did not show any signs of toxicity. With lower dosage at 10 days, the concentration of 32P was highest in the kidney (10 ppm), followed by liver (9 ppm), blood (8 ppm), heart and spleen (5 ppm), lung (4 ppm), intestine (3 ppm), and bone, brain and testes (2 ppm). With the lapse of time 32P was slightly increased in different organs and at 30 days, it was maximum in liver followed by other organs. With higher dosage (800 ppm) the concentration of 32P was correspondingly higher in various organs under study. On stopping the treatment, 32P was abruptly decreased in all the organs and at 10 days (post-treatment), liver and kidney had less than 1 ppm, whereas, no 32P was detected in other organs. (auth.)

49

Bioconversion of ?-[14C]Zearalenol and ?-[14C]Zearalenol into [14C]Zearalenone by Fusarium roseum Gibbosum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cultures of Fusarium roseum Gibbosum on rice were treated with [14C]zearalenone, ?-[14C]zearalenol, or ?-[14C]zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the ?-[14C]zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual ?-[14C]zearalenol was detectable. Most of the ?-[14C]zearalenol added was also converted into zearalenone within 14 days. In cultures treated with [14C]zearalenone, no radioactivity was noted in any other components

50

Synthesis of optically active cyphenothrin-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optically active cyphenothrins, ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-chrysanthemates, were labelled with 14C independently at the cyano and the benzyl carbons for use in metabolic studies. ?-Cyano-14C-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (4) prepared from potassium cyanide-14C (2) was condensed with (1R)-cis- or (1R)-trans-chrysanthemoyl chloride (5a or 5b) to give (1R)-cis- or (1R)-trans-cyphenothrin-(cyano-14C) (1a or 1b) in the yield of 82 or 95 % from 2, respectively. Similarly, ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-?-14C alcohol (12), which was synthesized from barium carbonate-14C (6) in four steps, was esterified with 5a or 5b to afford (1R)-cis- or (1R)-trans-cyphenothrin-(benzyl-14C) (1c or 1d). The overall yields of 1c and 1d were 61 and 69 % from 6, respectively. (author)

51

Experimental study on 32P uptake in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disturbances in the development of the teeth which were caused by internal irradiation of 32P were studied using rats of Wister strain about one month old. The experiment with a dose of 7 ?c/g of 32P showed that 4 of 30 rats died within 90 days of observation. The experiment with a dose of 10 ?c/g of 32P showed that none of the rats survived longer than 18 days. Correlationship was found among increase and decrease of the body weight, myelogram of the femoral bone, and ability of the tooth development. The disturbances showed a peak about 20 days after the administration of 32P and then subsided. As regards the relationship between the mechanisms of tooth formation and tooth eruption, reformation of the dentine was noted but no recovery of tooth eruption was noted 30 days after 32P-administration. Some recovery from disturbance of the tooth formation could be observed after 30 days of the administration of 32P. 90 days after the administration, dentin formation could still be noted in the apical part, while germ cells of the tooth had been destroyed completely and peridental tissues had also been destroyed remarkably. Persistent osteoid dentin, characteristic of disturbance of the incisor due to internal irradiation, proliferated in a shape of a belt along the dentin blastocytes in the labial side, gradually infiltrating into the center of the dental pulp. The osteoid dentin proliferated in a shape ofsteoid dentin proliferated in a shape of lump in the dental germ of the lingual side. In the experiments with 7 ?c/g, there was left a possibility of maintaining vital power of rats judging from their weights and myelogram of the femoral bone, while the dose had destructive effects on the incisors. This was substantiated by the fact that the absorbed dose of the incisor was highest among those of the hard tissues. (Ueda, J.)

52

Radioactivity measurements of 32P solutions by calorimetric methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity of 32P solution is measured with a twin-cup heat-flow microcalorimeter. In order to convert whole decay energy evolved from the 32P solution in a glass vial into thermal power, 5 mm-thick lead container was used as a radiation absorber. Corrections for heat loss due to thermal radiation and bremsstrahlung escape as well as an effect of impurity (33P) are conducted. The overall uncertainty of the nondestructive measurement as a sample is in a container is estimated to be ± 1.5 %. Discussion about estimates of uncertainties is also given in detail. (author)

53

Use of 32P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using 32P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C20-Mulatinho Paulista; C26-Ricobaio 1014 and C33-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C17-Jamapa; C28-Rio Tibagi and C34-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of 32P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars. (M.A.C.)

54

Solidification and 35S distribution in continuous copper casting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solidification and 35S distribution in continuous copper casting have been investigated by the aid of autoradiography and metallography. Based on these studies the technical conditions for obtaining homogeneous and fine-grain casting material are discussed

55

Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mobility of 35S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

56

Formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-precursor in mulberry leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. 14C-aspartic acid and 14C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and 14C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although 14C-succinic acid was actively converted to 14C-asparagine, no significant amount of 14C-asparagine was formed from 14C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired 14C from 14C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ?-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before 14C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of 14C-asparagine froormation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of 14C-asparagine formation from 14C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves. (author)

57

14C uncovers the past  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radio-carbon dating, a method of dating prehistoric remains that has been developed since the Second World War, is based on the fact that all organic matter contains a radioactive isotope of carbon -14C- which, because it decays at a fixed rate, gives a good indication of the age of the substance. The CSIR's National Physical Research Laboratory entered the field of radio-carbon dating in 1967, when the Nature Isotopes Division was established. The division has become a world centre of excellence and much has been done to clear up the chronology of southern African prehistory. It has been found, for instance, that anatomically modern man appeared in southern Africa some 40000 years earlier than in Europe, and that the Zimbabwe ruins were built mainly around the year 1350 AD. The radio-carbon method can also be used to determine the age and flow rate of underground water and the rate at which tracer gases dissolve in the oceans, i.e. the efficiency with which the oceans cleanse the atmosphere from pollutants

58

An alternative approach to 32P radiation protection: source shielding.  

OpenAIRE

32P is the most widely used isotope in molecular biology laboratories and a high-energy beta-emitter. Local doses are often underestimated and plexiglass shielding converts some energy into penetrating gamma radiation. We describe a series of equipment that reduces local doses and gamma radiation more efficiently than traditional equipment and at the same time facilitates the handling of the isotopes.

Josefsen, K.; Wøllike, M.; Buschard, K.

1993-01-01

59

Synthesis of optically active cyphenothrin-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optically active cyphenothrins, ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-chrysanthemates, were labelled with 14C at the vinyl position for use in metabolic studies. The key intermediates, (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic-(propenyl-2-14C) acids, were synthesized stereospecifically by applying the Witting reaction of 14C-labelled phosphorane with optically active formyl esters. (author)

60

7Be and 32P in the Antarctic atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since March 1977 the atmospheric concentration of 7Be aerosols has been monitored daily at Dumont-Durville station (Terre Adelie - 66040 South, 1400 East). These data were completed after January 1978 by 32P measurements. These two nuclides appear to be in good correlation (r = 0.9). Mean monthly 7Be concentrations of about 0.4 dpm/m3 were measured, therefore 1.5 time higher than at the South Pole. This result could be explained by the proximity of Dumont Durville to the geomagnetic pole. A small seasonal variation was observed, with maxima during the Austral Summer. This last effect is much more marked in the case of 32P, whose mean annual concentration is about 6 x 10-3 dpm/m3. Conclusions drawn from the 7Be/32P activity ratios are discussed. The mean monthly ratio is always greater than 40 at Dumont Durville. This result can only be explained by a stratospheric origin of 7Be and 32P, measured at sea level, in this station. Theoretical considerations show that, in the case of stratospheric air masses injected into the troposphere, the 7Be/32P activity ratio should be greater than the stratospheric limit of 100, and reach even about 200. This last value was actually observed a few times during our 2 year records. Good negative correlations observed between 7Be concentrations and both 222Rn conccentrations and both 222Rn concentrations and air humidity show that stratosphere to troposphere injections of spallation products happen at polar latitudes. This result would mean that most of the stratospheric materials detected in Antarctica are not transported at low altitude after an injection into the troposphere at mid-latitudes, but rather directly exchanged over the Antarctic continent

61

Synthesis of [14C]methyl sulfometuron and [14C]methyl metsulfuron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of C14 methyl sulfometuron and C14 methyl metsulfuron [[2-14C] pyridimyl] sulfometuron methyl and [2-14C) - triazinyl] metsulfuron methyl, two sulfonylurea herbicides have been prepared by multistep synthesis. [2-14C] 2-amino-4,6 dimethyl pyrimidine was obtained by two steps from [14C] guanidine and [2-14C] 2-amino-4 methoxy-4 methyl 1,3,5 triazine was obtained from [14C] cyanamide. The two herbicides were prepared by condensation of heterocycle with methyl-2 (sulfonylisocyanate) benzoate. (Author)

62

Synthesis and affinity purification of ?-32P-labeled [?-S]GTP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the synthesis and purification of guanosine 5'-[?-S]triphosphate labeled with 32P in the ?-position is described. The first step in the synthesis involves the quantitative transfer of 32P/sub i/ from [?-32P]dATP to 5'-GMP catalyzed by GMP kinase. Further incubation of the [?-32P]GDP product with [?-S]GTP and nucleoside diphosphate kinase results in the synthesis of [?-32P][?-S]GTP with a yield of 10 to 18%. The 32P-labeled [?-S]nucleotide is purified by binding to mercury-agarose and eluting with buffer containing ?-mercaptoethanol. Specific incorporation of 32P into the ?-position was demonstrated by treating [?-32P][?-S]GTP with 7% formic acid to remove the ?-thiophosphate and digesting the remaining [?-32P]GDP with nucleotide pyrophosphatase. Although 5'-GMP was released after pyrophosphatase digestion, the only 32P radioactivity detected was as inorganic phosphate

63

Synthesis of [3-14C]- and [phenyl-U-14C] olaquindox  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olaquindox is a new feed additive. [14C]Olaquindox, labelled in different positions, was needed for tracer-studies of pharmacokinetics, biotransformation and residues in several species of animals. 2-[N-(2-hydroxethyl)-carbamoyl]-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide([3-14C]Olaquindox) was synthesized from barium[14C]carbonate (22 mmoles; 1.15 Ci) via [1-14C]acetic acid, sodium[1-14C]acetate, [1-14C]acetylchloride, ethyl[3-14C]acetoacetate and 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide with an overall yield of 10%, based on barium[14C]carbonate. The radiochemical purity was better than 98% (tlc). The specific activities of three preparations were 10.5, 8.4 and 5.45 ?Ci/mg respectively. [phenyl-U-14C]Olaquindox was synthesized starting from [U-14C]aniline (19.8 mmoles; 284.4 mCi). Intermediate products were N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro-N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro[U-14C]aniline and [U-14C]benzofurazanoxide. The total yield was 50% as calculated for [U-14C]aniline. At calibration samples of two preparations showed specific activities of 49.5 and 11.1 ?Ci/mg respectively. The radiochemical purity was checked by tlc and exceeded 98%. (author)

64

Synthesis of (/sup 14/C)Zolpidem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of (/sup 14/C)Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium (/sup 14/C)cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies.

Allen, J.; Tizot, A.

1986-04-01

65

Synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium [14C]cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies. (author)

66

Synthesis of (dimethylamine-14C) aminopyrine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Method of (dimethylamine-14C) aminopyrine synthesis based on methylation of 4-aminoantipyrine with (14C) methyl iodide in the presence of sodium hydroxide was elaborated. The product was purified on a chromatographic column filled with alumina. Radiochemical purity of 98% has been achieved. Radiochemical yield was 29.8%

67

Synthesis of 14C-labelled milrinone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A synthetic procedure for producing 14C-labelled milrinone, a potent new cardiotonic agent, is described. The synthesis was achieved in two steps from 1-(4-pyridyl)propan-2-one utilising [2-14C]cyanoacetamide as the source of the radiolabel. The overall chemical yield was 46% and the radiochemical yield 35%. (author)

68

Preparation of arginine (guanide 14C)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reaction of anhydrous ammoniac at 800 deg. C on 14CO3Ba gives rise to barium cyanamide 14C with a yield of about 98 per cent. Addition on H2S on cyanamide 14C leads to thiourea 14C with a 85 per cent yield, which is quantitatively transformed into S-ethyl-isothiouronium iodide by treatment with methyl iodide. This 14C-isothiouronium salt is used to introduce 14C guanide group in ?-N-tosyl-ornithine; tosyl group in ?-N-tosyl-arginine thus obtained is then removed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Arginine is separated as flavianic acid salt and is purified on exchange resin Dowex-50. The overall yield based on 14CO3Ba is 25 per cent. (author)

69

Studies on rooting pattern of sugarcane using 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies employing 32P injection in sugarcane shoot and assay of 32P activity in soil cores both in horizontal and vertical directions from the centre of the clumps revealed that most of the roots are restricted within the first 15 cm depth and their horizontal spread is confined largely to 25cm. The technique has been standardised for use with other types of studies involving root foraging or activity. The above findings are in confirmation of the earlier data obtained by actual excavation of the roots and also observations made by exposing the roots in-situ. The advantage of the radioactive technique lies in accessing, with better precision, the zone of feeding of active roots, an information which could not be obtained by actual excavation of the roots which may include even the dead ones. (author)

70

Radioactive 32P produced in sulfur in Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was expected that when the A-bomb was exploded over Hiroshima fast neutrons would be emitted from the bomb. In the survey made in Hiroshima during the first part of September 1945, the presence of 32P radiation in sulfur due to the reaction 32S(n,p) 32P was confirmed. Therefore sulfur used as adhesive material in binding the porcelain insulators to the metallic holder on power poles was collected at various parts of the city. The sulfur thus obtained was powdered and 1 g was spread over a 10 cm2 glass plate. The radioactive intensity was measured with a Lauritsen electroscope through a 0.015 mm aluminum window. These measurements were made in Tokyo on 20 September 1945

71

32P detection in animal and plant samples using Cerenkov  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P detection methodology in animal and plant tissue using the Cerenkov effect, liquid scintillation and Geiger-Muller techniques is studied. The Cerenckov effect shows to be more satisflying as to sensitivity, sample preparation, back ground and negligible cost per sample. Comparing the detection by means of Cerenkov effect with that by GM, the relative counting efficiency is about 100 times and 1,5 to 4 comparing to liquid scintillation detection

72

Internal 32P-labeling of l-deoxyoligonucleotides  

OpenAIRE

A general two step procedure for the internal labeling of l-deoxyoligonucleotides, Spiegelmers, has been developed. Through radioactive labeling oligonucleotides can easily be detected and monitored in biological samples. T4 polynucleotide kinase is shown to efficiently phosphorylate strands of l-nucleic acids which allows the labeling with phosphorous isotopes such as 32P. In order to protect the terminal phosphate label against unspecific phosphatases, one of two fragments of a Spiegelmer i...

Frauendorf, Christian; Hausch, Felix; Ro?hl, Ingo; Lichte, Andrea; Vonhoff, Stefan; Klussmann, Sven

2003-01-01

73

Measurement of 32P activity induced in sulfur in Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a period of about two months after the Hiroshima bomb, several groups of investigators made measurements on radioactivity. Among these, data on the activity of 32P in sulfur was prepared by Yamasaki et al1 and seem useful for the present reevaluation of doses. Sulfur taken from porcelain electric pole insulators was measured for 32P with a Lauritsen electroscope. In 1959 Dr. Yamasaki recalculated his data using new values of 238U half-life and taking into consideration the difference of beta ray energy of 32P and protoactinium-234m. Also in 1959 Tajima and Oda determined the fast neutron transmission coefficient of porcelain insulators using D-D neutrons from a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and Be-D neutrons from a cyclotron. A map prepared by Dr. yamasaki at the time of sampling and also a map brought from the US by Dr. Hubbell on which Dr. Yamasaki plotted the location of the porcelain insulators are available. (author)

74

32P-labeling test for DNA damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, ?-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with [?-32P]ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'-32P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 105 DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent bindingnding

75

Genomic 5-methylcytosine determination by 32P-postlabeling analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple and sensitive method for the quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine in DNA has been developed by the adaptation of the Randerath 32P-postlabeling technique. Nucleic acids were digested to 3'-monophosphate nucleotides, which were converted to 32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotides, the 3'-phosphate was cleaved by the action of nuclease P1, and the resultant 5'-[32P]-monophosphate nucleotides were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Less than 1 microgram of DNA was required for the precise quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine content to a detectable limit of 0.01% of the total cytidine residues methylated. The genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content may thus be quantitated in tissue samples, small or selective cell populations, senescing or terminally differentiating cells, or DNA from any source. We report here, for the first time, the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial and normal human pulmonary mesothelial cells. The chromatographic separation of all of the normal and some of the rare monophosphate deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides has been characterized. Thus, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and the RNA contamination of DNA or the DNA contamination of RNA can also be quantitated during the same analysis

76

Monitoring carcinogen actions on DNA by 32P-postlabeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among several recently developed analytical methods, 32P-postlabeling analysis is a highly sensitive method for the detection and measurement of covalent carcinogen-DNA adducts and other DNA modifications. Since the method does not require radioactive carcinogens, it is suitable for DNA of humans exposed to environmental or occupational genotoxicants. The basic procedure entails the enzymatic incorporation of 32P-label into monomeric or dimeric hydrolysis products of DNA, followed by chromatographic mapping and autoradiography of the 32P-labeled digestion products and quantitation by scintillation spectrometry. Microgram amounts of DNA are analyzed; thus the assay is well suited for limited amounts of cells or tissue. Various versions of the assay afford different sensitivities of adduct detection. Under optimal conditions, one aromatic or bulky/hydrophobic adduct in 10(8)-10(10) nucleotides can be detected and measured (corresponding to 0.3-30 amol adduct/microgram DNA or 0.1-10 nmol adduct/mol DNA-P). The assay has been successfully applied to a variety of mutagenic (genotoxic) as well as non-mutagenic carcinogens. In humans, the 32P-postlabeling assay has been applied to DNA specimens from cigarette smokers, iron foundry workers, and coke oven workers. Estimation of total aromatic adduct levels in exposed individuals gave values of 1 adduct in 10(6)-10(8) DNA nucleotides. These values are similar to the total levels of persistent adducts in tissues of animals after exposure to initiating or carcinogenic doses of authentic aromatic genotoxicants. Among the non-mutagenic carcinogens investigated are estrogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), choline-devoid diet, carbon tetrachloride, and peroxisome proliferators. In addition, age-dependent DNA modifications (I-compounds) are being detected by 32P-postlabeling in animals that have not been knowingly exposed to mutagens/carcinogens. I-compound profiles and levels are dependent on species, tissue, sex, and diet. Reduced levels of I-compounds have been consistently noted in the target organ of carcinogen-exposed animals and in resulting neoplasms, suggesting that I-compound loss may play a role in carcinogenesis. PMID:2134685

Randerath, K; Randerath, E

1990-01-01

77

14C-carbaryl residues in hazelnut.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hazelnut ocak (shrub growing form) in the field in Black Sea region of Turkey was treated with commercial carbaryl insecticide spiked with 14C-carbaryl. Three months later, the harvested hazelnuts were separated into husk, shell, and kernel components, then homogenized and analyzed. The total and unextractable (bound) 14C-residues were determined by combustion and the extractable 14C-residues were obtained by extracting the samples with methanol. Concentrated extracts were first analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extracts were also subjected to a series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures for clean-up and the final extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crude hazelnut oil was also extracted with hexane and analyzed for total 14C-residue. A total of 1.3% of applied radioactivity was recovered from the total nut harvested, with 0.04%, 0.06%, and 1.2% present in shell, kernel, and husk, respectively. The results show that the inedible husk and shell contained 95.7% 14C, whereas the edible kernel contained 4.3% of the total 14C recovered. The terminal 14C-residue in hazelnut kernel and oil did not contain carbaryl and/or its metabolite naphthol. PMID:16785168

Yücel, Ulkü; Ilim, Murat; Aslan, Nazife

2006-01-01

78

Synthesis of optically active cyphenothrin-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optically active cyphenothrins, ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-chrysanthemates were labelled with 14C at the carbonyl carbon for use in metabolic studies. Ethyl glycinate-1-14C hydrochloride (6), prepared from potassium cyanide-14C (2) in the three steps, was condensed with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene via the diazo intermediate to give ethyl cis, trans-chrysanthemate-14C (7). Hydrolysis of the ester 7 followed by geometrical separation gave cis- and trans-chrysanthemic-14C acid (8a and 8b). Each geometrical isomer (8a or 8b), was optically resolved to afford (1R)-cis- or (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic-14C acid (8c or 8d). Esterification of 8c and 8d with ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl bromide (9) gave (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-cyphenothrin-(carbonyl-14C) (1a and 1b) in the yields of 4 and 6 % from 2, respectively. (author)

79

Deposition of [35S]-carbonyl sulphide to vegetable crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the principal form of 35S in the coolant of CO2-cooled nuclear reactors under operational conditions. Measurements were made of the deposition velocity (Vg) of [35S]-COS (on a single-side leaf area basis) to a range of vegetable cultivars under turbulent conditions simulating maximal deposition in the field. The Vg for all the cultivars was -4 m.s-1. Uptake was greatest for brassicas and radishes (mean Vg 4.60-5.79x10-4m.s-1) and least for lettuces, onions and spinach (mean Vg 2.48-3.96x10-4m.s-1). Under illuminated conditions, when the stomata are open, differences in stomatal resistance accounted for -3, about seven times ambient) had no effect on the stomata. The results show that the use of Vg values of [35S]-COS to ryegrass in models to estimate ingested radiation dose following the consumption of green vegetables would increase the margin of safety by overestimating the 35S content of the crop by 30-300%. (author)

80

Analysis of ?14C variations in atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?14C in the atmosphere have been measured and studied in two localities of Slovakia. The accomplished analysis proved the existence of the annual variations of the ?14C with the attenuating amplitude and decreasing mean value. It seems to be logical and physically correct to describe the ?14C time-dependence by the equation: y = Ae-at + Be-bt cos(?1t + (?)). The coefficients A, a, B, b, (?) are listed in the table for both the localities. The observed variations of the ?14C have a maximum in summer and minimum in winter .Probably it is caused by the higher requirement of the heat supply in winter season which is connected directly with the fossil CO2 emissions and more intensive Suess effect. Summer maximum could be explained by the combination of the lower CO2 emission rate and higher turbulent transport of the stratospheric 14C to the troposphere. Using the Fourier harmonic analysis the amplitude spectra of the average annual variations were plotted. The obtained result shows that the variations have the high degree of symmetry. Furthermore, the obtained basic frequency ?1 = 2?/12 [month-1] proves that the cyclic processes with the period of T = 12 [month] have a major influence on the 14C amount in the troposphere. The presence of some higher-order harmonics is significant, but a physical interpretation has not yet been clear. In addition to the main frequency there are presented also 2?1 and 3?1 in Bratislava and 4?1 in Zlkovce data-set. The long-time average of the ?14C in Zlkovce during years 1995-2004 is higher of about 6.6 o/oo than in Bratislava. It represents an unique evidence that the local CO2 pollution affects the 14C activity . The correlation on the level R2 = 0,43 was found between Bratislava and Zlkovce atmospheric ?14C data. (authors)

81

14C Records from Indonesian Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

82

14C levels in Trombay environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive air sampling method has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the specific activity of 14C in air samples collected within the Trombay complex. The samples collected within radial distance of about 0.5 km from Cirus showed 3 to 5 times higher specific activity of 14C over the natural background level of 6.2 pCi/g C. The same decreased with the distance and approached the value of natural level at the site boundary (1.6 km). The specific activity of 14C in leaf samples collected within the complex showed the similar pattern. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

83

The enzymatic preparation of [?-32P] ATP with high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modified procedure for preparing [?-32P]ATP is described with which [?-32P]GTP is used as phosphate donor instead of [?-32P]ATP. The specific activity of the resulted [?-32P]ATP in other experiments is raised greatly as to 148 PBq/mol or more, without decreasing the yield of [?-32P]ATP which is over 93% based on 32Pi. The specific activity is measured by HPLC and the factors that affect the specific activity of [?-32P]ATP are discussed

84

[14C]Virginiamycin residues in eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laying hens were fed ab libitum a diet supplemented at 40, 10, and 0 mg/kg with [14C]virginiamycin, to determine whether or not virginamycin or its metabolites were transferred to the eggs. About 0.05% of the ingested 14C dose was recovered in the eggs. Radiolabeled residues expressed in terms of virginiamycin equivalents were found to be 5.1 ng/g in the albumen and 31.8 ng/g in the yolk from hens fed a 10 mg/kg diet. No antibiotic activity could be detected in the eggs. Tentative identifications showed that in the albumen about 17% of the 14C behaved chromatographically like virginiamycin and 18% was associated to the ovalbumin. In the yolk 31% of the 14C was associated to proteins, 58% to fatty acids, and 4% to unsaponifiable matter

85

14C Analysis via Intracavity Optogalvanic Spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity...

Murnick, Daniel; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

2010-01-01

86

Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)

87

Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

88

Phosphorus 32P test in primary retinal detachment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 20 patients with primary retinal detachment the 32P radioisotope test was performed injecting intravenously 500-750 ?Ci of the isotope and doing measurements with a F-Messeelektronik counter after 48 and 72 hours. The radioisotope index calculated at the site of greater detachment in 17 eye-balls in relation to the sites with apposed retina in the same eye or the other eye differed in these cases. Among the obtained results the large number of negative indices calls for attention (12 out of 17 cases) and in 2 cases the obtained values were +30 and +59 which may cause diagnostic errors in cases with suspected intraocular neoplasm. (author)

89

An improved synthesis of catechol-U-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The high yield, four-step synthesis of catechol-U-14C from benzene-U-14C is described. Intermediates in the preparation include phenol-U-14C and o-methoxyphenol-U-14C [guaiacol-(phenyl-U-14C]. (author)

90

Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-[35S]cysteine or L-[35S]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-[35S]cysteine and L-[35S]methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of [35S]OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of [35S]cysteine or [35S]methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine

91

32P uptake and translocation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P uptake in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars L-550 and C-235 as affected by vesicualr-arbuscular mycorrhiza (G. caledonicum) and Rhizobium was investigated in P deficient soils. Test plants coinoculated with the above two symbionts exhibited higher 32P uptake than inoculated with either symbiont alone. Uninoculated plants showed minimum level of 32P uptake. (author). 1 tab., 7 refs

92

Chemical synthesis of [32P]pyrophosphate with high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple procedure for synthesizing [32P]pyrophosphate with high specific activity (about 100 Ci/mmol) is described. [32P]pyrophosphate was formed by simple dehydration of inorganic [32P]phosphate and subsequently purified by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 chromatography. The yield was 20 to 40%

93

A rapid and convenient method for preparing salt-free [?-32P]ATP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[?-32P]ATP is prepared by an existing enzymatic method that yields approximately 95% incorporation of 32P into ATP. A rapid and convenient method for purifying the [?-32P]ATP which results in a product free of both salt and buffer is reported

94

Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

95

Effects of ethanol on recombinant rat GABAA receptors. [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determone the roles of the alternatively spliced short and long forms of the ?2 subunit in the effect of ethanol on the GABAA receptor function, picrotoxin-sensitive [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding was studied in recombinant rat ?1?2?2 and ?6?2?2 recepto expressed in human embryonic kidney 392 cells. Ethanol (10-500 mM) in the absence of added GABA had only minor effects on [35S]TBPS binding irrespective of the ?2 splice variant, its effects being greater in ?6?2?2 than in ?1?2?2 receptors. Ethanol (100 mM) decreased the binding in all four subunit combinations at various concentrations of GABA, again an effect independent of the ?2 variant. The two ?2 variants had different effect on GABA modulation of the binding, with the long ?2 variant decreasing the efficiency of GABA inhibition in ?6?2 receptors and enhancing the biphasic GABA stimulation and inhibition in ?1?2?2 receptors. The findings confirm the importance of the ? subunits in the allosteric interactions between the convulsant binding site and other effector sites, which can be modified only to a minor extent by the tupe of the ?2 splice variant. (au) 31 refs

96

Synthesis of [carbonyl-14C]sparfloxacin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new antimicrobial quinolone, sparfloxacin (5-amino-1-cyclopropyl-7- (cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline -3- carboxylic acid, AT-4140; CAS 110871-86-8), was labeled by 14C for studies of disposition and metabolism. Ethyl pentafluoro[carbonyl-14C]benzoylacetate (I) was reacted with ethyl orthoformate, cyclopropylamine and then potassium tert-butoxide to give a quinolone intermediate (IV). A benzylamino derivative (V) obtained by condensation of IV and benzylamine was subject to catalytic hydrogenolysis and hydrolyzed to give the carboxyl derivative (VII), which was condensed with cis-2,6-dimethylpiperazine to form [carbonyl-14C]sparfloxacin. The average yield of 3 preparations was 41.5% and specific activities were 310.8-366.3 MBq (8.4-9.9 mCi)/mmol. Both chemical and radiochemical purities were greater than 99%. PMID:1663353

Kagemoto, A; Negoro, T; Nakao, M; Ochi, T; Chiba, K; Kataoka, M; Sekine, Y

1991-07-01

97

Dosimetry of an incident involving 14C.  

Science.gov (United States)

High level contamination was observed on two workers during a routine hand check of personnel leaving a laboratory where barium carbonate labeled with 14C was handled. A third worker was found to have been exposed to airborne 14C (carbonate) aerosol during the investigation. Urinary excretion analysis and in vivo monitoring were carried out. This paper presents the results of more than one year of lung counting using phoswich detectors and gives some indication about the metabolism of the 14C over that period. Doses were difficult to estimate due to lack of information in the literature. Estimates were based on default parameters and information gathered in this study using ICRP 30 and the new ICRP lung models. These ranged from 0.3 mSv to 3 mSv depending on the assumptions and models. PMID:8609036

Kramer, G H; Badreddine, A; Tran, T; Meyerhof, D

1996-03-01

98

Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm/sup 3/) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO/sub 4/) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m/sub 2/) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition.

Yu, H.D.; Oh, B.S.; Jang, W.S.; Roh, K.H.; Park, B.I.; Cho, M.K. (National Police Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea))

1983-04-01

99

Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

100

Root distribution pattern of Colocasia- 32P plant injection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 32P plant injection technique was employed to study the variation in the root production and distribution patterns of colocasia var. Cheruchempu grown in the coconut garden and in the open. Root production of colocasia was more with the plants grown in the open compared to the plants grown in the coconut garden. The root distribution pattern of colocasia differed with light environments under which the plants are grown. Colocasia grown in the coconut garden developed a compact root system while that grown in the open condition developed a spreading root system. The root zone comprising 20 cm laterally around the plant and 40 cm vertically from the surface (L0-20 D0-40) can be considered as the active root zone of colocasia. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

101

Phosphate fertilizer studies using 32P dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agronomic effectiveness of highly soluble phosphate fertilizers for annual crop production is well known and documented. In recent years considerable research effort has been focused on search for alternative means of cheaper forms of P fertilizers to fill the needs of poor farmers, who has limited capital availability for purchase of fertilizers. Since some countries in the world have naturally occurring phosphate rocks (PR), the most appealing alternative is for direct application of PR. The low capital and energy inputs required to prepare these PR for use makes it the cheapest mineral P fertilizers possible. Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam are some countries in the Asian region blessed with natural PR. Coupled with the inherently acidic and P deficient soils found in this region, research on direct application of these PR for crop production is indeed timely. Studies done in the temperate regions on direct application of PR have concluded that PR are not suitable for use in intensive agricultural system, because PR cannot maintain a sufficiently high P concentration in the soil solution for high crop yields. Research in direct application of PR to acidic soils of the Asian region have proven otherwise. The use of radioactive 32P isotope has helped in quantification of the amounts of P from the PR tested being utilized by the crop, and its distribution in the plant can also be monitored. In Malaysia, highly reactive North Carolina phosphate roighly reactive North Carolina phosphate rock has been found to be as effective as triple superphosphate, where a total of about 18% of the P fertilizer applied was utilized by three consecutive crops of sweet corn grown under field conditions. Initial glasshouse screening of efficacy of PR can also be determined by the use of the 32P isotope. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

102

Sulfur mineralization of different plant materials labelled with 35 S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out, in green house conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effect of incorporation in soil of different plant materials labelled with 35 S and of incubation periods on the availability of sulfur to the bean test plants and on the dynamic of this element in the soil. The bean test plants dry matter yield ranged from 2.00 to 3.79 g/plant, the S content and absorption ranged from 118.20 to 194.04 mg/100 g and 2.61 to 6.34 mg/plant respectively. The 35 S derived from the incorporated bean plant material contributed with 12 to 256% of total S absorbed by bean test plant; rice plant material contributed with 12 to 22%; soybean plant material contributed 11 to 18%; corn plant material at rate of 7 g with, 11 to 19% and corn at rate of 3.5 g; with 7 to 1%. Plant material incorporation showed 35 S using efficiency by bean test plant of 21.41 to 9.94% by incorporated rice plant material, of 16.12 to 7.79% by rice material, of 13.11 to 6.49% by soybean material, of 10.24 to 6.21% by corn at rate of 3.5 g and of 7.41 to 3.81% by corn at rate of 7 g.Incorporated plant material with C/S relationship near 120, such as bean and rice, promoted desirable and favorable alteration in soil, while materials with C/S higher than 250, such as soybean and corn, led to unsatisfactory and undesirable alteration. The characteristic of incorporated plant materials which more affected its behavior was the C/S relationship, which dephavior was the C/S relationship, which depended on its physiological stage on collect timing. (author)

103

Studies on 14C-extractable residue, 14C-bound residue and mineralization of 14C-labeled metsulfuron-methyl in soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate 14C-extractable residue (14C-ER), 14C-bound residue (14C-BR) and mineralization of 14C-labeled metsulfuron-methyl in soils. The main factors affecting 14C-BR formation and the distribution pattern of 14C-BR in humus were also discussed in details. The results were as follows: (1) The total 14C-ER content of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in seven kinds of soil was positively related to soil pH and negatively related to clay content significantly during the initial 20 days of incubation, however, only positively relation to soil pH was found after 30 days of incubation. Moreover, the half-life values of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl parent compound derived from 14C-ER in Soils tested ranged from 13.3 to 66.6 days. The degradation rate conefficient ? (day-1) was negatively related to soil pH. (2) The 14C-BR content of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in soils was significantly negatively related to soil pH and positively related to the clay content during the initial 20 days of incubation, but only was significantly negatively related to soil pH after 30 days incubation. Again, the soil pH was found to be the dominant factor affecting BR formation of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl among the basic properties of soil. The maximum content of 14C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-mesup>C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in the soils accounted for 19.3%-52.6% of applied amount. (3) During the whole periods of the incubation, the 14C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in the soils was found to be mainly associated with fulvic acid and humin. The relative percentage of 14C-BR in fulvic acid was higher than in humin, while the content of the 14C-BR distributed in humic acid only account for less than 1% of applied amount. Therefore, fulvic acid played an important role in the process of BR formation of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl. (4) About 12.9%-27% of applied amount of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl was mineralized to 14CO2 through opening 14C-triazine ring in soils tested after 180 days of the incubation. It was difficult for 14C-metsulfuron-methyl to mineralize to 14CO2 in an alkaline soil. (authors)

104

14C tebuconazole degradation in Colombian soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tebuconazole is a fungicide used on onion crops (Allium Fistulosum L) in Colombia. Persistence of pesticides in soils is characterized by the half-life (DT50), which is influenced by their chemical structure, the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the previous soil history. Based on its structural and chemical properties, tebuconazole should be expected to be relatively persistent in soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to evaluate persistence and bond residues of 14C tebuconazole in three soils, two inceptisol (I) and one histosol (H). Textural classifications were: loam (101), loamy sand (102) and loam (H03), respectively. Data obtained followed a first-order degradation kinetics (R2 > or = 0.899) with DT50 values between 158 and 198 days. The production of 14CO2 from the 14C-ring-labelled test chemicals was very low and increased slightly during 63 days in all cases. The methanol extractable 14C-residues were higher than aqueous ones and both decreased over incubation time for the three soils. The formation of bound 14C-residues increased with time and final values were 11.3; 5.55 and 7.87% for 101, 102 and H03 respectively. Soil 101 showed the lowest mineralization rate and the highest bound residues formation, which might be explained by the clay fraction content. In contrast, an inverse behavior was found for soils 102 and H03, these results might be explained by the higher soil organic carbon content. PMID:21542480

Mosquera, C S; Martínez, M J; Guerrero, J A

2010-01-01

105

14C Analysis via Intracavity Optogalvanic Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity, and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10?15 14C/12C ratios have been obtained with theoretical limits much lower. Using a 15 W 14CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 5 × 10?15 to >1.5 × 10?12 in 14C/12C ratios, as determined by AMS, was demonstrated. Calibration becomes non linear over larger concentration ranges due to interactions between CO2 and buffer gas, laser saturation effects and changes in equilibration time constants. The instrument is small (table top), low maintenance and can be coupled to GC or LC input. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon. PMID:20448803

Murnick, Daniel; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

2010-01-01

106

Photoproton cross section for 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using bremsstrahlung, the 14C(?,p) reaction cross section has been measured from threshold to 29 MeV. The integrated cross section up to 30 MeV is 18±3 MeV mb. Above 23.5 MeV, the reported cross section includes a contribution, estimated at 3.5 MeV mb, due to the 14C(?,d) and 14C?,pn) reactions. Essentially the entire 14C(?,p) cross section results from decay of T> dipole states. From knowledge of other decay channels estimates of the cross section, integrated to 30 MeV for the T and T> components of the giant resonance (GDR) of 81 MeV mb and 43 MeV mb are obtained. The splitting of the mean energies of the GDR isospin components is 8.5 MeV. Comparisons with several shell-model calculations are made with the data, and general agreement is found. A comparison of photonuclear absorption cross sections for 12,1314C and 16,17,18 O shows dramatic redistribution of dipole strength as neutrons are added to the core nuclei. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

107

Synthesis and affinity purification of. beta. -/sup 32/P-labeled (. gamma. -S)GTP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the synthesis and purification of guanosine 5'-(..gamma..-S)triphosphate labeled with /sup 32/P in the ..beta..-position is described. The first step in the synthesis involves the quantitative transfer of /sup 32/P/sub i/ from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)dATP to 5'-GMP catalyzed by GMP kinase. Further incubation of the (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GDP product with (..gamma..-S)GTP and nucleoside diphosphate kinase results in the synthesis of (..beta..-/sup 32/P)(..gamma..-S)GTP with a yield of 10 to 18%. The /sup 32/P-labeled (..gamma..-S)nucleotide is purified by binding to mercury-agarose and eluting with buffer containing ..beta..-mercaptoethanol. Specific incorporation of /sup 32/P into the ..beta..-position was demonstrated by treating (..beta..-/sup 32/P)(..gamma..-S)GTP with 7% formic acid to remove the ..gamma..-thiophosphate and digesting the remaining (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GDP with nucleotide pyrophosphatase. Although 5'-GMP was released after pyrophosphatase digestion, the only /sup 32/P radioactivity detected was as inorganic phosphate.

Reeve, A.E.; Huang, R.C.

1983-04-01

108

Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

109

[Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit (14c)5-Aminolävulinat und (14c)Uroporphyrinogen (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell-free extracts from Clostridium tetanomorphum, a microorganism which synthesizes corrins but no heme, are capable of converting both 5-aminolevulinate and uroporphyrinogen III into cobyrinic acid. Comparative examinations with (14C)5-aminolevulinate and (14C)uroporphyrinogen yielded corresponding results. Cell-free extracts from Clostridium tetanomorphum contain uroporphyrinogen III. To obtain good radiochemical yields it is therefore necessary to use substrates of high specific radioactivity. A method for the preparation of 14C-labelled uroporphyrin I-IV with high specific radioactivity is described. PMID:1176095

Dauner, H O; Müller, G

1975-09-01

110

Accumulation of 32P by fish in the Yenisei river and reconstruction of public exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental and theoretical investigations into behavior of 32P in the Yenisei river being admitted more 30 years with effluents of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Plant are performed. It is shown that 32P is actively accumulated by water organisms, among other factors, its concentration in fish is thousand times higher than its concentration in water. Content of 32P in fish depends on the season of year accomplishing maximum value in August. Model of dynamics of thr 32P contamination of fishes of the Yenisei river during 25-year period of work of the Plant was developed and verified. Radiation dose of fisherman and members of their families through 32P ranged 0.4-1.6 mSv/year in 1975-1992. For rural population radiation dose from 32P was in the ranges of 0.14-0.5 mSv/year at the same time

111

Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17?g P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ?94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (?68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (?48%) and all other fractions were ?9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ? 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

112

Placental transfer of 14C-hexoprenaline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The placental transfer of a single intravenous injection of 14C-hexoprenaline was studied in eight pregnant New Zealand white rabbits. Maternal and fetal blood was sampled intermittently for 60 minutes after the injection. An initial rapid decrease in the levels of 14C-hexoprenaline in maternal blood was followed by a second slower phase, whereas fetal levels remained insignificant. The conclusion, therefore, is that the rapid improvement in fetal heart rate after the administration of a single maternal intravenous injection of hexoprenaline in the treatment of fetal distress is due to the action on the uterus and/or on maternal cardiovascular function, and not to direct stimulation of the fetus

113

180 degree electron scattering from 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inelastic electron scattering cross sections for 14C have been measured at a scattering angle of 180 degree, with incident beam energies ranging from 81.9 to 268.9 MeV. Transverse form factors were measured for transitions to low-lying natural-parity states, to unnatural-parity ''stretched'' J?=4- states, and to the J?=2- analog to the 14B ground state. Cross sections for 4- states at 11.7 and 17.3 MeV are combined with pion scattering data to determine the isoscalar and isovector transition amplitudes. Form factors for other states are compared to shell-model calculations. From the excitation energy of the newly discovered J?T=2-2 state at 22.1 MeV, the 14C-14B Coulomb energy difference is determined to be 2.25±0.10 MeV

114

Synthesis of cinnarizine (methyl-14C) (1-cinnamyl-4-diphenylmethylpiperazine (methyl-14C))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From benzoic acid (carboxyl-14C) as a starting material, cinnarizine (methyl-14C) was synthesized by the known synthetic paths. One mCi of benzoic acid (5.43 mmol, 0.184mCi/mmol) was converted to 35.3?Ci of pure cinnarizine (0.214mmol, 0.164mCi/mmol). The overall yield was 3.9%. (auth.)

115

Angular distributions for 14C,26Mg(?+,?-)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cross sections at theta = 50 (lab) were obtained at seven energies for 14C(?+,?-) 14 O(g.s.) and at four energies for 26Mg(?+,?-) 26 Si(g.s.). Angular distributions have been measured for both reactions at energies of 140 and 200 MeV. The results are compared to previous angular distributions at other energies on these two nuclei, and to a series of angular distributions measured for 18O(?+,?-)

116

14C accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. Ages from hundreds to hundred thousand years can be determined by this method, and tracing of one particle in 10 to 15 can be performed. AMS has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. The most used isotope in AMS is 14C. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. Our group at the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) has been developing projects on 14C-AMS in the last years, in collaborative experiments using external facilities such as Australian National University, Purdue University and University of California-Irvine. Recently we have installed our own sample preparation laboratory, where samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide, and later their graphitization is performed. More recently we have bought from NEC one 250 KV single stage AMS system (SSAMS), which started to operate in March 2012. With the laboratory for 14C sample preparation and running the SSAMS system, we became the first fully dedicated 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. We believe that the number of researchers from Brazil and Latin America who will use our facilities will increase one or two orders of magnitude, comparing with the number that nowadays use the AMS technique. In this talk the technique and our facilities will be presented. (author)

117

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon (14C) AMS measurements (?R/R 14C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the “Acerenza portrait” is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-14C dating on the lipid b-14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459–1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571–1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559–1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452–1519) to the support.

118

Metabolism of [14C]acetylisoniazid and [14C]acetylhydrazine by the rat and rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rats and rabbits were singly dosed with either 1-[14C]acetyl isoniazid (acetylisonicotinoylhydrazine, acetyl-INH, 200 mg/kg po) or 1-[14C]acetylhydrazine (50 or 100 mg/kg ip). Urine and expired 14CO2 were collected, and after 6 hr the animals were killed for the analysis of tissue 14C concentrations and covalent binding of 14C to hepatic protein. Rats excreted proportionately more 14C in urine and had lower 14C levels in their tissues compared to rabbits. When acetyl-INH was administered, covalent hepatic protein binding of the acetyl moiety was greater in the rabbit than the rat, but the opposite was observed when acetylhydrazine was administered. Analysis of blood and urine by TLC revealed that the rabbit more rapidly metabolized both acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine, and acetylhydrazine to diacetylhydrazine than did the rat. These observations suggest that higher amidase activity in the rabbit compared to the rat leads to faster conversion of acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine which in turn leads to greater covalent binding and hepatotoxicity

119

14C analysis via intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity, and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10-1514C/12C ratios have been obtained with theoretical limits much lower. Using a 15 W 14CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 5 x 10-15 to >1.5 x 10-12 in 14C/12C ratios, as determined by AMS, was demonstrated. Calibration becomes non-linear over larger concentration ranges due to interactions between CO2 and buffer gas, laser saturation effects and changes in equilibration time constants. The instrument is small (table top), low maintenance and can be coupled to GC or LC input. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub-therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon.carbon.

120

The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

121

Upward and lateral translocation of 32P supplied to roots of apple and citrus trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. 32P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of 32P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of 32P supplied to roots is through the xylem. (author)

122

Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

123

Convenient one-pot synthesis of benzoquinone-[U-14C] and hydroquinone-[U-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzoquinone-[U-14C] was synthesized in 90% yield from benzene-[U-14C] via a three step sequence. Conditions were developed which allowed this conversion to be accomplished in a one pot closed system. The benzoquinone-[U-14C] thus obtained could be reduced to hydroquinone-[U-14C] in quantitative yield. Preparation of benzene-[U-14C] is also described. (author)

124

A land surface 14C transfer model and numerical experiments on belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model simulating transport and exchange for 14C (or 14CO2) in a land surface ecosystem was developed and the belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C accumulation at a hypothetical cultivated field were studied with the model through numerical experiments. The developed model involved physical 14CO2 transport in surface atmosphere and soil and physiological 14CO2 exchanges in leaves, and was incorporated into a dynamical model (SOLVEG-II) that calculates transport and exchange for heat, water and CO2. The model was tested through a simulation of an existing-experiment on an acute exposure of grape plants to 14CO2. The calculated 14C amount in leaves agreed with the observations within a factor of 1.7. A hypothetical scenario used for the numerical experiments considered an annual 14C input into surface soil layers via 14C-enriched foliage or root litter under a continually heightened atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. The specific activity of 14C in the surface soil layers increased with time and several decades after the start of accumulation it eventually converged to eight times the initial specific activity. At this equilibrium state, the increased belowground 14CO2 production enhanced the atmospheric 14CO214CO2 level and, consequently, 14CO2 uptake by vegetation increased to 1.1 times the control calculated without belowground 14C accumulation. The model results also demonstrated that 14C accumulated in soil can maintain an enhanced vegetation 14C level for at least several decades even after the end of accumulation. - Highlights: ? A numerical model for 14C transport in land surface ecosystem was developed. ? Impact of belowground 14C accumulation on vegetation 14C level was studied through numerical experiments with the model. ? 14C accumulation in surface soil enhanced vegetation 14C level by a factor of 1.1.

125

Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

126

Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate with high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic [35S]sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of [35S]sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl[35S]sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed

127

Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

128

Two-three steps syntheses of [14C-ring]o-xylene, [14C-ring]o-toluic acid; [14C-ring]-phthalic acid from [14C] barium carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cocyclotrimerisation of [14C2] acetylene with 2-butyne gave [3,4,5,6-14C4] ortho-xylene (50 % overall yield based on [14C] BaCO3. 93 % Nitric acid oxidation at 145 oC for 55 hours of the crude [3,4,5,6-14C4] ortho-xylene gave [3,4,5,6-14C4] ortho-toluic acid (25 % overall yield based on [14C] BaCO3). Under the same set of reaction conditions but in a sealed tube the crude [3,4,5,6-14C4] ortho-xylene gave [3,4,5,6-14C4] phthalic acid (50 % overall yield based on [14C] BaCO3) (specific activity 1.6 GBq.mmol-1). (author)

129

Brachytherapy on restenosis. 32P radioisotope in animal model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rawas to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope (32P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by fluoroscopy when rabbits had reached 3,0-3,5 Kg body weight. Studies were done with different doses (10 and 20 Gy) of beta ionizing radiation (32P sources) administered with balloon dilatation. Animals were sacrificed at the same time after irradiation; vasodilation, edema, hemorrhages, mononuclear infiltrate in the periadventitial tissue and other biological changes were analyzed and compared with control. Evaluation of Absorbed dosis and Dosis Equivalent on different tissues were done by Montecalo and appropriate equations. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation into the different layers of the arterial wall (i.e. histological percent stenosis area and number of neointimal cell layer), microscopic observation and computational count with the adequate software indicated that imflamatory elementsaccumulation and neointimal cell proliferation (demonstrated through PCNA+ and apoptotic cells detection) were milder in irradiated rabbits and that the inhibition of cell proliferation was proportional to the applied Absorbed dose. The ionizing radiation produce inhibitory effect on restenosis in New Zealand rabbits. Results obtained may open the possibility to apply this technique in human patients in Argentina. (author)

130

Distribution of radioactive phosphorus (32 P) in sheep tissue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twelve male lambs (Corriedale) were separated in two groups according to their average age (114 days and 208 days). The animals of each group were selected in twos according to weight to provide duplicates. After a 7 days period of adaptation, during which time the lambs received anunrestricted mineral supplement, they were given intravenous injections of 1 ml of Na2H32PO4. The amount of radioactivity administered varied with time; from 500 ?ci to 225.9 ?ci for the 6 younger animals, and from 500 ?ci to 87.5 ?ci for the 6 older ones. At 8, 16, and 24 hours after the injections, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed by bleeding. As well as the serum and blood, pieces of tongue, brain, heart, diaphragm spleen, kidney, liver and bone were collected. These tissues were dried, incinerated and the extracts obtained with H2SO4 counted by Cerenkov radiation in a liquid scintillation counter. The level of inorganic phosphorus in the serum was determined with material obtained the day before the experiment. The younger animals had lower levels of serum inorganic phosphorus and retained higher levels of 32P on their tissues. The isotope was found in a decreasing order in the following tissues: liver, kidney, spleen heart, and tongue. The brain presented the least retention. The order of magnitude by which the tissues retained the isotope was not influenced by the age of the animals, by the experimental period, or by the level of serum inorganic phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus retained by the tissues was affected not only by the age of the animals, but also by the level of phosphorus in the blood and, for some tissues, by the experimental period

131

Pharmacokinetics of [35S]PI-88 in male rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: PI-88 is a mixture of highly sulfated mannose oligosaccharides, mainly pentasaccharide. It inhibits angiogenesis and heparanase, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of basement membrane and extracellular matrix (Parish et al 1999), and is currently being developed as an anticancer drug. A suitable analytical method for measuring PI-88 in biological samples is not currently available, and the aim of this study was to investigate the disposition of the drug by measuring concentrations of radioactivity in plasma, tissues and excreta following administration of [35S]-labelled drug. [35S]PI-88 of high specific activity (1.6 MBq/mg) was synthesised for the study. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed iv at 2.5, 10 or 25 mg/kg, sc at 25 mg/kg or po at 25 mg/kg (4 rats/group). The target dose of radioactivity was 370 kBq/rat in all groups. Plasma, urine and faeces were collected up to 48 h after dosing. Linear plasma kinetics were observed after iv dosing, with mean AUC values of 13 ± 1, 62 ± 3 and 143 ± 6 ?g-equiv.h/ml at 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/kg respectively. Corresponding elimination half-lives were 1.8 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.1 h. [35S]PI-88 was rapidly absorbed following sc dosing, with Cmax of 51 ±5 ?g-equiv/ml at 15-45 min. Plasma AUC after sc dosing was 171 ± 12 ?g-equiv.h/ml, indicating complete absorption of the sc dose. In contrast, po absorption was low, slow and variable (Cmax of 1.5 ± 1le (Cmax of 1.5 ± 1.1 ?g-equiv/ml at 2-8 h and AUC of 9 ± 6 ?g-equiv.h/ml). Excretion was predominantly renal, with 47 ± 8 % and 3 ± 1 % of dose being excreted in urine and faeces respectively within 48 h after sc dosing. Incomplete recovery of radiolabel at 48 h suggests that a substantial fraction of the dose is retained in tissues. After iv dosing, urinary excretion increased with dose (32 ± 4, 47 ± 4 and 57 ± 4 % of dose at 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/kg respectively). Total recovery showed a similar pattern, suggesting that tissue retention of radiolabel is saturable. Tissue distribution experiments showed high levels of drug-related material in the kidneys, bone (periosteum and marrow), lymph nodes, spleen and liver. Drug-related material in these tissues persisted until at least 7 days after a single subcutaneous dose. These persistent high levels in tissues may be important for anticancer activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

132

Synthesis of [[sup 14]C]methyl sulfometuron and [[sup 14]C]methyl metsulfuron. Synthese de [[sup 14]C] - sulfometuron methyle et de [[sup 14]C] -metsulfuron methyle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Synthesis of C[sup 14] methyl sulfometuron and C[sup 14] methyl metsulfuron [[2-[sup 14]C] pyridimyl] sulfometuron methyl and [2-([sup 14]C) - triazinyl] metsulfuron methyl, two sulfonylurea herbicides have been prepared by multistep synthesis. [2-[sup 14]C] 2-amino-4,6 dimethyl pyrimidine was obtained by two steps from [[sup 14]C] guanidine and [2-[sup 14]C] 2-amino-4 methoxy-4 methyl 1,3,5 triazine was obtained from [[sup 14]C] cyanamide. The two herbicides were prepared by condensation of heterocycle with methyl-2 (sulfonylisocyanate) benzoate. (Author).

Bastide, J.; Badon, R. (Perpignan Univ. (France). G.E.R.A.P.)

1989-06-01

133

A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes a method for separating 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K2HPO4, Mg(C2H3O2)2, ovalbumen, Na2ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14C-hexose and 14C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

134

Clinical observation of 5686 cases of infant hemangioma treated by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the therapeutic method of treating infant hemangioma by radioisotopes 32P. Methods: Simple hemangiomata were treated by 32P dermal application method. The authors prepared 32P at the activity of 165.98 kBq/cm2/h, diluted it with 2 ml water, and then dropped it on filter paper. The authors applied the paper to the impaired site according to the shape and the size of hemangioma. The impaired site received 32P radiation at the dosage of 9.41 Gy/cm2 each time. The treatment was repeated once every month. Cavernous hemangiomata were treated by local injections of colloid 32P at the dosage of 370 kBq/cm3 once every 2-3 months. Mixed hemangiomata received combined treatment mentioned above. Results: 3383 cases (99.0%) of simple hemangioma were cured by 32P dermal application method. 1241 case (98.7%) of cavernous hemangioma were cured. 397 cases (83.0%) of mixed hemangioma were cured. 534 cases (98.1%) of naevus flammeus were improved by 32P application method. The total effective rate was 99.8%. The cure rate was 88.3%. Conclusion: Treating hemangioma with 32P is satisfactory for its high efficiency and low toxicity. It may be advisable for infant skin disease

135

Incorporation of [32P] orthophosphate into histones of chick embryo brain and liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[32P] Orthophosphate was introduced intra-amnionally to 14-day-old chick embryos, and after 4, 10 and 20 h the nuclear histone fractions of brain and liver were isolated. The highest radioactivity was observed after 10 h. The kinetics of 32P incorporation into particular histone fractions of both tissues were somewhat different. (author)

136

Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

137

Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

1989-01-01

138

Transformation of the herbicide [14C]glufosinate in soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of 2 ?g/g [14C]glufosinate (DL-homoalan-4-ylmethylphosphinic acid) was studied in clay, clay loam, and sandy loam soils at 85% field capacity and at 20 degree C. Over a 4-week period the soils were extracted and analyzed for transformation products by radiochemical and gas chromatographic techniques. In all soils there was release of [14C]carbon dioxide and formation of [14C]-3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPPA) as major degradation products. Within 21 days, about 55% of the applied 14C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the sandy loam and 19% to [14C]carbon dioxide. After 28 days, approximately 45% of the 14C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the clay and clay loam and 10% released as [14C]carbon dioxide. At all samplings, other 14C transformation products appeared to be insignificant

139

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-5-aminosalicylic acid (14C-5-ASA) in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. As part of a preclinical metabolism profile with 5-ASA, we evaluated the tissue level and distribution of 14C-5-ASA in rats. Biodistribution of 14C-radioactivity was determined in the major organs of rats after a single oral dose (34 mg/kg; 15 uci/rat). Data from tissue area under the curve (AUC 0-72) indicated that the highest amounts of radioactivity were retained in cecum (481.1 hr.ug.equ/gm), colon-rectum (178.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), ileum (166.7 hr.ug.equ/gm), jejunum (65.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), followed by kidneys (58.0 hr.ug.equ/gm) and liver (14.8 hr.ug.equ/gm). The radioactivity retained in tissues at 72 hours postdose was wither nondetectable or less than 0.1 ppm. The radioactivity concentration in blood was highest at 0.5 hr (tmax) postdose and the terminal half-life (t1/2) of 14C-radioactivity (5-ASA + metabolite) was 2.7 hours. 14C-5-ASA is absorbed and distributed in the body. The greatest amount of 14C-radioactivity was found in the stomach and GI tract. 14C-5-ASA was eliminated completely (44.9% in the urine, 51.7% in the feces) 72 hours after administration without significant tissue retention

140

Decomposition of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine in soils; immobilization in soils and uptake by plants of these 14C herbicides and their residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of phenmedipham and atrazine occured by biological way. The mineralisation of phenmediphame started by a dealkylation followed by a cleavage of the aromatic ring disposed between the two carbamoyl linkages and finished by a very weak degradation of the second benzenic ring. The percentage of mineralisation was always more important when lower levels of herbicides were applied. Free phenmedipham and atrazine were still detected after one year incubation. Adsorption on soil constituents of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues was partially biological; that of 14C atrazine and its 14C residues was solely chemical. The complexation was less strong when higher levels of pesticides were applied. Aerian parts as well as radicular systems of wheat, oat and maize sown on soils incubated during one year in presence of 10 and 100 ppm of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine were radioactive

141

Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to ?-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring ?-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, ?-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or ?-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

142

Synthesis of Dl-methionine carboxyl 14C and its enzymatic optical resolution into L-methionine carboxyl 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DL-methionine carboxyl 14C has been prepared by Strecker reaction from 14C N K and ?-methylmercapto-propionaldehyde with 61 per cent yield. The enzymatic resolution of N-acetyl DL-methionine gives rise to L-methionine carboxyl 14C with 78 per cent yield. (authors)

143

The percutaneous absorption of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine in rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors had reported that L-cysteine probably was formed from acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine through cystathionine pathway by the skin enzyme of rabbit, and the solution composed of acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine exhibited the effectiveness to the hair growth in rabbit. This report shows that, by the application of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine to the skin of rabbit and in vitro analysis of the metabolites of 35S-compounds, 35S-acetyl-L-methionine was absorbed into the hair tissues for many hours, and half 35S-L-cystine was formed in vitro and in vivo. When total amount of 35S in the hair was measured, the radiochemical activities were clearly shown as almost 35S-L-cystine. (auth.)

144

Strict De Novo Methylation of the 35S Enhancer Sequence in Gentian  

OpenAIRE

A novel transgene silencing phenomenon was found in the ornamental plant, gentian (Gentiana triflora × G. scabra), in which the introduced Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter region was strictly methylated, irrespective of the transgene copy number and integrated loci. Transgenic tobacco having the same vector did not show the silencing behavior. Not only unmodified, but also modified 35S promoters containing a 35S enhancer sequence were found to be highly methylated in the single c...

Mishiba, Kei-ichiro; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Oda, Masayuki; Nishihara, Masahiro

2010-01-01

145

The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received 35S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of 35S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of 35S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for 35S administered as methionine compared with 35S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of 35S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of 35S to milk of a further group of goats receiving 35S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed

146

The transfer of different forms of {sup 35}S to goat milk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of {sup 35}S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received {sup 35}S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of {sup 35}S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of {sup 35}S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for {sup 35}S administered as methionine compared with {sup 35}S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of {sup 35}S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of {sup 35}S to milk of a further group of goats receiving {sup 35}S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed.

Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Mayes, R.W.; Lamb, C.S. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15

147

Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with ?-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with ?-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

148

Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

1984-04-01

149

Radiation dose and biological effects to mouse testis from sodium 32P-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation dose to mouse testis was estimated to be about 1.65 rad per ?Ci of intravenously injected 32P. This high dose to the organ was due to the incorporation of this isotope into the macromolecules of the testis. Up to 30% of the total testis activity was in DNA molecules. Biologic effects on mouse testis from 32P were determined by testis weight loss and the decrease in the number of sperm heads in the testis. Number of sperm heads reached a minimum of 1.3% of control 36 days after injection of 3.5 ?Ci/g body weight of 32P. Significant decreases in sperm head counts were observed after as little as 0.2 ?Ci/g body weight of 32P. (author)

150

Effect of GA transportation and distribution of 32P in cotton plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the effect of GA on transportation and distribution of 32P in cotton plant and boll abscission was studied using isotope tracer method. It showed that after treatment of dipping GA on ovaries of fertile and unfertile yellow flowers opened in the same day, the total 32P transported to young boll were notably higher than that of the control. Whereas single spraying treatment with GA decreased the transportation of 32P to young boll. Spraying both GA and CCC greatly increased 32P transported to young boll and considerable decreased boll abscission rate. It indicated that mixed spraying of GA and CCC could be used in the fields for preventing the boll abscission

151

Uptake and distribution of 32P in the budded and self-rooted grape varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the self-rooted and budded varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the total P and 32P contents were high in 'Anabee-Shahi', but low in in 'Muscat'. The growing shoots contained more P than old stems and roots in all the varieties. In the budded plants, 'Kali Sahebi' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shani showed the maximum 32P and total P in the shoots, but 'Muscat' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shahi' accumulated more P in the roots and very low 32P in the growing shoots. Auto-radiographs of shoots also showed that 'Kali Sahebi' budded on 'Anab-e-Shani' rootstock accumulated more 32P in the shoots. (author)

152

32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

153

PEMANFAATAN RADIOISOTOP 32P UNTUK PENANDAAN (LABELLED COMPOUND PADA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti  

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Full Text Available An Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling with Radioisotop 32P was performed at various dose application. The research conducted by Insitute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development, Salatiga in collaboration with The National of Atomic Agency that aimed to know the effective dose and radioactivity disposal of the Radioisotop 32 P. The research used several doses: 0,3 µCi (micro currie; 0,5 µCi; and 0,7 µCi of each 25 gr larvaefood for 50 larvae with dry and wet radiation then observed the effect of radiation against larvae stadium and mosquitoes. The result shows that at 0,5 pCi isotop 32P dose application, Ae. aegypti mosquitoe can survive with 333,3 cps (currie per second residual radioactivity and detected in 75 cm distance. The Radioisotop 32P can be used as Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling/marking.

Akhid Darwin

2012-07-01

154

Recalculation of data on 32P activity induced in sulfur in Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historical data for 32P activity induced in sulfur by fast neutrons have been corrected for decay with a recent half-life value of 32P and recalculated with an experimentally determined efficiency ratio of the electroscope for beta rays from 32P and natural uranium used as a standard. Most samples would have been pure enough so that no correction for the weight of sulfur has been made. The possibility of interference with 32P activity measurements due to induced activity of other elements in the samples could also be excluded. The revised data show little difference from the original ones except for one sample which contained much impurity. Uncertainty of the data was also discussed. (author)

155

Method of preparing orotic acid labelled with radioisotope 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method is presented of universally labelled (U-14C)-orotic acid of a mole activity higher than 250 mCi/mMole. The Claisen condensation with (1,2-14C)-oxalic acid ethylester and (1,2-14C)-acetic acid ethylester having mole activities higher than 50 mCi/milliatom 14C results in the sodium salt of (U-14C)-oxalacetic acid ethylester. When reacted with S-methyl-(14C)-isothiouronium iodide (having an activity higher than 50 mCi/mMole), the substance yields S-methyl-(U-14C)-2-thioorotic acid ethylester whose hydrolysis in an acid medium results in (U-14C)-orotic acid. The (U-14C)-orotic acid can easily be separated from the reaction mixture in the form of precipitate which chemically and radiochemically is almost pure. When an inactive oxalic acid ethylester is used for synthesis, (2,4,5-14C)-orotic acid of a mole activity higher than 150 mCi/mMole can be prepared using the procedure described. (B.S.)

156

Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

157

Accumulation and elimination of radioactive phosphorus (32P) in some organs of the Tilapia Nilotica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of accumulation and elimination of 32P was measured in five organs, i.e., brain, bone, heart, muscle and small intestines of the Tilapia nilotica at 190C or 280C. There was a faster rate of uptake at 280C, with the small intestines having the highest concentration of radioactive material. Elimination rates, however, indicate that bone retains 32P longest. (Auth.). 10 refs.; 2 figs

158

Biodistribution of intravenously injected [14C] doxorubicin and [14C] daunorubicin in mice: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[14C] doxorubicin (adriamycin) and [14C] daunorubicin (daunomycin) are cardiotoxic antibodies used in cancer therapy. These drugs were examined as possible agents for the measurement of regional myocardial blood flow. The antibiotics were injected intravenously into mice, which were then killed after various intervals. At a chemical dosage of 0.5 mg per kilogram, the content of the heart never exceeded 0.60 percent of the administered dose for doxorubicin and 0.55 percent for daunorubicin. The cardiotoxic effect of these drugs, therefore, is probably related to a specific sensitivity of the heart, rather than to an avid uptake of the drugs by the cardiac muscle. Further studies seem warranted, using a lower chemical dosage and higher specific activity

159

32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7#betta#,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [#betta#-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or speciuiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies

160

32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7?,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antiboactive carcinogens or specific antibodies. (author)

161

Disposition of 14C-acetohydroxamic acid and 14C-acetamide in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been identified as a potential agent for the treatment of infection-induced staghorn renal calculi in patients. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of 14C-acetamide have been evaluated in rats following iv and oral administration. The results of these experiments suggest that, following oral administration to rats, AHA is absorbed very rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and is metabolized to acetamide and CO2. Approximately 50-56% of the iv dose and 40-49% of the oral dose of 14C-AHA is excreted in the urine, suggesting a significant nonrenal elimination pathway for AHA and metabolite(s). Administration of 14C-acetamide to rats revealed that the compound is predominantly eliminated via the renal route, accounting for 68% of the administered radioactive dose. However, approximately 30% of the dose in the case of both AHA and acetamide could not be recovered, either in the urine or in the breath, during the 72-hr period of the experiment. This suggests that acetamide, may undergo further metabolism to get incorporated into the acetate pool. This would result in very slow elimination of the remaining activity as 14CO2 or as another unknown metabolite

162

Improved microcatalytic procedure for preparing 14C-labelled hydrocarbons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heterogeneously catalyzed hydrocarbon converting reactions may be used for the highly efficient production of 14C-hydrocarbons using the microcatalytically pulsed mode of operation with product recycling in connection with the now available highly active and selective catalysts. The further development of the procedure by its extension to multicomponent feedstocks and/or multistep reactions, i.e. to the combiation of several reaction and separation cycles in one compound apparatus, is reported. This allows the simultaneous production of several 14C-hydrocarbons in parallel in one apparatus from one 14C-feedstocks. The procedure is discussed in detail for the preparation of [ring-U-14C]toluene, [ring-U-14C]methylcyclohexane, and [G-14C]dimethylcyclopentane. (author)

163

Method and use of recycled [35S]sulphate in metabolic labelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efficiency of [35S]sulphate incorporation into macromolecules in metabolic labelling experiments has been uniformly poor, 0.0005-0.35%. A procedure is described for recovering approximately 90% of the unused [35S]sulphate from such a labelling experiment in a form in which it can be used again, thus improving (asymptotic) incorporation efficiency up to tenfold. (author)

164

Long term 14C-labelling of beech foliage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-labeled leaf material was prepared by growing beech plants in a [14C] carbon dioxide-containing atmosphere during (one and) two growth periods. Using sodium [14C]carbonate (1.3 MBq/g C corresponding to 35 ?Ci/g C) as a source of carbon dioxide, leaf material containing >0.85 MBq/g C (23 ?Ci/g C) was prepared. (author)

165

Incorporation of 14C in chemical constituents of algal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two marine algal species Dunaliella premodecta, Chlamydemonas sp. and one fresh water species Scenedesmus obliquus were studied for 14C incorporation under laboratory conditions. The uptake of 14C in dry marine algal species was found to be more compared to that in fresh water species for the same initial concentration in the respective media. A sequential extraction technique was employed to study the distribution of 14C in different organic constituents. 14C fixation was found to be more in fatty acid fractions followed by protein and nucleoprotein fraction. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

166

14C emission fine structure by Radium isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First works have shown the fine structure in the 14C spectra emitted by 223Ra and have confirmed the similitude between this emission and ? emission. In this thesis, the author has measured the 14C energy spectra emitted by 222Ra even-even nucleus. In all these experiments, the number of detected carbon has been more important that in the experiment of discovery of these radioactivities. The author states precisely the 14C/? branching ratios and the 14C emission decay for the two studied isotopes

167

The preparation of 14C-chlorophenamidine-base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of preparation of 14C-chlorophenamidine-base is described in this paper. The intermediates 14C-formic acid(I) and [14C]-N1N-dimethylformamide(II) were synthesized from 14C-barium carbonate, then the proposed compound was obtained when (II) was treated with P-chloro-O-methyl-aniline. Its radiochemical recovery rate was 41.5% (based on Ba 14CO3) and specific activity was 2.85-6.4 mCi/g. The product was suitable for tracer studies

168

Estimation of the 14C production in a HTR reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In reprocessing HTR fuel elements, it is very important to know the 14C fraction in the graphite, as the 14C is combusted and emitted into the atmosphere as off-gas together with the other carbon isotopes. The present paper estimates the annual 14C production in an HTR. The main source results from the activation of the nitrogen contained in the fuel elements. Other sources are the natural 13C content of the graphite used in the reactor and the 17O content of the oxidic fuel elements. The resulting 14C values calculated for these sources show a good agreement with the values measured in AVR fuel elements. (orig.)

169

Structure in heavy ion reactions involving 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first experiment we tried was 14C + 16O using the oxygen beam at Strasbourg and a 14C target procured from Munich. The strongest structure we found for this system was in the channel to 18O. Resonances began to appear at energies superior to Esub(c.m.) = 20 MeV. Later we went to Munich where there was a 14C beam available to study the 12C + 14C reaction. Over the limited range of bombarding energies studied in this experiment two of the binary channels were found to resonate strongly. (orig./HSI)

170

14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave  

Science.gov (United States)

The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

Lee, J. H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J. C.; Choi, S. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y. M.; Jang, J. G.

2013-01-01

171

{sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-15

172

Behaviour of 14 C-Maneb and 14 C-ETU in soils under field and laboratory conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon14-Maneb or 14 C-ETU was applied to soil contained in polyethylene tubes driven into the ground under field conditions. Most of the activity was found in both cases only in the top soil layers: 0-5 cm for Maneb: 0-10 cm for ETU. Half-life of total radiochemical 14 C-labeled residues was of 6 weeks for ETU and 18 weeks for Maneb. High percentage of bound residue (non-extracted activity) was detected in soil treated with 14 C-Maneb. When soil samples (Humic Gley and Purple Latosoil) were incubated with 14 C-ETU in laboratory conditions, microbial degradation occurred with 28% 14 C O2 evolved from both soil samples; no 14 C O2 was detected on sterilized soil samples. (author)

173

Distribution and tissue dose of intraperitoneally administered radioactive chromic phosphate (32P) in New Zealand white rabbits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiophosphorus (32P) has become the preferred radioisotope for intraperitoneal radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of ovarian cancer. In a study of the distribution and tissue dose of intraperitoneally administered 32P in rabbits, effective half-lives of 32P and the radiation dose absorbed by intra-abdominal tissues were determined. Results show that 32P is not uniformly distributed over the peritoneal surfaces and that many areas are minimally irradiated. It is concluded that a significant fraction of the 32P distribution is systemic and that the beta-ray dose for intra-abdominal tissues is much lower than suggested by theoretical models

174

Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-35S-cysteine and L-35S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity L-35 S-cysteine and L-35 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na235 SO4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-35 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na235 SO4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

175

Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity (32P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus7 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

176

Bioaccumulation factor for /sup 32/P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for /sup 32/P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity (/sup 32/P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The /sup 32/P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of /sup 32/P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to /sup 32/P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of /sup 32/P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for /sup 32/P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish.

Kahn, B.; Turgeon, K.S.; Martini, D.K.; Dunkerly, S.J.; el-Shinawy, R.M.; Wilson, M.D.

1987-10-01

177

Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

2010-02-15

178

Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to beplant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

179

Facile [14C]methane preparation using the reduction of [14C]methyl iodide by sodium borohydride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[14C]Methane (440 mCi) was prepared using the reduction of [14C]methyl iodide by sodium borohydride in diglyme in quantitative yield. The diborane formed was trapped as nonvolatile 9-BBN. [14C]Methane free of any accompanying gases was conveniently distributed into calibrated glass ampoules by the aid of capillary vacuum manifold and freezing out by liquid nitrogen. (author)

180

Facile conversion of [1-14C]lauronitrile to [1-14C]lauric acid under microwave irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly efficient and an optimized synthesis of [1-14C]lauric acid with high specific activity (50 mCi/mmol) is described. [1-14C]lauric acid was prepared from [1-14C]lauronitrile, in 2 minutes with a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid: propionic acid (1: 2 v/v) under microwave irradiation, in quantitative yield. (author)

181

Environmental background 14C levels in Japan in 1990s  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For assessment of radiation doses due to 14C released from nuclear facilities, it is necessary to know the background level of environmental 14C originated from the natural cosmic-ray production and the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The authors selected grapes as an indicator of 14C levels in the environment including atmosphere, and determined the specific activities of 14C in ethanol extracted from wine made from grapes cultivated in several prefectures or unknown places in Japan in each year from 1990 to 2000. The specific activities of 14C were almost uniform all over Japan in each year, though they showed the weak tendency to slightly decrease with increasing population densities in the prefecture where the wine grapes were cultivated. It is considered that this small regional variation in the specific activities of 14C arose from Suess effect, because population densities can be regarded as an index of the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The specific activities of 14C gradually decreased in the 1990s. That is, they were 260 mBq/gC in 1990, and became 244 mBq/gC in 2000. This 14C level in 2000 was still about 7% higher than the pre-bomb level. The decrease in 14C originated from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-timtime of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-time was shorter than that in the Europe, Canada and the South Pacific. This difference in the decreasing rate between Japan and other countries may be explained by a fact that the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion continued to increase in Japan in this period. The specific activities of 14C in wine ethanol determined in this study showed good agreement with those in atmospheric CO2 predicted by a mathematical model. They were also in the same levels as the 14C specific activities in atmospheric CO2, tree leaves, grass and plant food in Japan and other countries, which were determined by the benzene synthesis-liquid scintillation counting or other methods. These methods of 14C determination are not so simple as the method adopted in this study. It is therefore considered that the method of determination of the 14C activities in wine ethanol is simple and precise enough to estimate the 14C activities in atmospheric CO2 and plants including crops, and thus contributes to assessment of doses due to environmental 14C. (author)

182

Preparation of methylbenzene-ring-14C from benzene-14C on the basis of a microcatalytic process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The known processes of benzene alkylation are relatively non-selective and give low yields. Therefore, they are not very suitable for the preparation of toluene- and xylene-ring-14C. Since the catalytic disproportionation of toluene into benzene and xylene is already used it was attempted to develop a procedure for the preparation of the above-mentioned 14C-compounds by reversing this reaction and using benzene-14C. The obtained results are presented and the developed synthesis is explained, using the preparation of toluene-ring-14C as an example. The average activity yield is 58%. (author)

183

A modification to an enzymatic method for the preparation of (?-32P) ATP with a high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modification of the procedure reported by Johnson and Walseth for the preparation of (?-32P)ATP:(?-32P)GTP with a specific activity of more than 5000 Ci/mmol was made firstly, then it was used as the phosphate donor in the reaction catalyzed by the polynucleotide kinase, to transfer its radioactive phosphate to the 5'-position of the 3'-AMP, resulting (5'-32P)3'-ADP. After that, (5'-32P)3'-ADP was hydrolysed to (5'-32P)AMP under the catalysis of Nuclease P1, the late was then phosphorylated to produce (?-32P)ATP by the action of myokinase and pyruvate kinase. By this method, we firstly prepared (?-32P)ATP with a specific activity of more than 4000 Ci/mmol which was measured by HPLC analysis. (author)

184

Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

185

Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

186

Bioevaluation of {sup 32}P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a {sup 32}P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The patch was prepared from chromic phosphate {sup 32}P and silicone. Bioelimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals, and the therapeutic efficacy of two treatment schemes (single dose and fractionated dose) in an animal model of skin cancer were studied. Results: Based on the bioelimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of {sup 32}P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single-dose therapeutic scheme showed a higher number of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: The {sup 32}P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the {sup 32}P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for use in brachytherapy treatments.

Salgueiro, Maria Jimena [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jsalgueiro@ffyb.uba.ar; Duran, Hebe [Radiobiology Department, National Energy Atomic Commission, 1150 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, Monica [Biodiversity and Experimental Biology Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pirchio, Rosana [Dosimetry Department, National Energy Atomic Commission, 1150 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Medina, Vanina [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ughetti, Ricardo [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, 1603 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Croci, Maximo [Institute of Immunooncology, Dr. E. Crescenti, 1187 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nicolini, Jorge [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, 1603 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, Marcela [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-02-15

187

Bioevaluation of 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The patch was prepared from chromic phosphate 32P and silicone. Bioelimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals, and the therapeutic efficacy of two treatment schemes (single dose and fractionated dose) in an animal model of skin cancer were studied. Results: Based on the bioelimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single-dose therapeutic scheme showed a higher number of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: The 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for use in brachytherapy treatments

188

Synthesis of specific labelled [methyl-14C]sarin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [methyl-14C]sarin ([14C]methylphosphono-fluoridic acid 1-methylethyl ester) was accomplished by another approach as for nonlabelled sarin in a tele-conducted reaction vessel. The purity was estimated by IR, GC, and GC-MS and the stability in different media was examined. (author)

189

Bound residues of 14C-malathion in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of soil-bound 14C-residues of malathion to maize plants and microbes was investigated under laboratory conditions. Maize plants were grown in clay loam soil treated with 14C-malathion and it was found that 2.5% of the total bound 14C and 6.6% of the freshly added 14C was removed by the maize plants. In both cases the shoots contained more radioactivity than the roots and the uptake rate from freshly treated soil was three times higher than from soil containing bound residues. The analysis of the residual soil after harvesting the plants showed that 6.17% and 12.02% of the residual 14C from bound and freshly applied malathion, respectively, could be extracted. This indicates that a part of the bound 14C-residues was released during plant growth. The results further indicate that microbes can incorporate bound residues into their cellular mass more effectively than the plants and that microbial biomass can be used as an index for studying the bioavailability of agrochemicals applied to soil. In the soil containing bound 14C-residues, no malathion was detected by high-temperature distillation and gas chromatography. When the methanol-extractable 14C-residues were analysed with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography, an unidentified compound was found which did not correspond to either malathion or malaoxon. (author)r)

190

Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous fraction of living materials, such as collagen from tooth and bone, tissue, skin, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human body samples formed in this time intervals, we can establish a relationship of their 14C concentrations with calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the chemicals that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified, by their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination has been applied to a forensic study, i.e., two criminal cases of murder. For each case, by comparing the measured 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C, the time of death of the body and the age of the victim were estimated. The estimated values were consistent with the real ones that were revealed by the confession of the real murderers. (author)

191

Applications of 14C-AMS in biomedical sciences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultrasensitive nuclear analytical technology. It is used for tracing 14C labelled molecules in vivo or detecting the bio-marker for assessment of carcinogenesis. In this review, wide applications in biomedical sciences and new progresses of 14C-bio-AMS have been presented

192

Assimilation and utilization of 14C assimilates in chickpeas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Translocation, distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in two genotypes of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) during winter of 1974-75 and 1975-76. Plants were allowed to assimilate CO214 at pre-flowering, flowering and initial pod filling stages, and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During vegetative phase, most of 14C was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissues. Sixty three days after assimilation pod accumulated about 7 percent 14C while nodules gained only 1.7 percent in 'Pant G-104'. Similar pattern was observed in case of variety 'K-4'. During reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was linearly translocated from leaves to other plant parts with time. Since stem was actively growing it accumulated a major portion of carbon. Pod also accumulated 14C linearly as time after assimilation elapsed. Respiratory losses during one week after exposure were about 30 percent in both varieties. Photosynthate within a branch was translocated readily, while movement from one branch to another was restricted. Leaf at axial of pod was major source of photosynthate to pod. (author)thate to pod. (author)

193

Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

194

Preparation of 35S-labelled L-cystine by biosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modified method for the biosynthesis of L-cystine-35S from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) is described. The yeast was cultivated in a sulphur-depleted medium containing carrier-free Na2 35SO4 under bubbling of air during 48 hours, yeast proteins were hydrolysed enzymatically into aminoacids, and L-cystine-35S was isolated by ion exchange chromatography on a column. Radioactive yield for L-cystine-35S is 16-19% and the obtained products have specific activities of 15-22 mCi/mmol and radiochemical purity better than 95%

195

Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

196

Rectal absorption of homatropine [14C] methylbromide in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Homatropine [14C]methylbromide (HMB-14C) was administered to rats by intramuscular injection, oral gavage and rectal suppository. Plasma concentrations of 14C were measured over the subsequent 12 h. Peak plasma concentrations were higher and achieved more rapidly after rectal administration than by other routes whether HMB-14C was administered in a water-soluble suppository base or in aqueous solution. Twelve h after the suppositories were inserted and retained 28% of the 14C had been excreted in the urine while 56% remained in the large intestine. Unlabelled HMB, given in rectal suppositories to anaesthetized rats, caused prompt blockade of the effects of vagal stimulation on pulse rate and of intravenous acetylcholine on blood pressure. These results confirm the rapid rectal absorption of the drug. (author)

197

Behaviour of 14C-sulfadiazine and 14C-difloxacin during manure storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The persistence of sulfadiazine, difloxacin, and their metabolites has been investigated in stored manure. The manure collected from sulfadiazine (14C-SDZ) and difloxacin (14C-DIF) treated pigs contained N-acetylsulfadiazine (Ac-SDZ), 4-hydroxy-SDZ (4-OH-SDZ), and sarafloxacin (SARA) as the main metabolites, respectively along with their parent compounds. Manures were stored separately at 10 oC and 20 oC at various moisture levels. About 96-99% of the radioactivity remained in extractable parent compounds and their metabolites after 150 d of storage. The formation of non-extractable residue and the rate of mineralization were both negligible in manure containing SDZ and DIF. During storage SDZ concentration increased as a result of the deacetylation of Ac-SDZ, whose concentration decreased proportionally. Hence the environmental effects may be underestimated if the parent compound alone is considered for environmental risk assessment. About 11% and 14% of 4-OH-SDZ were lost after 20 and 40 d of storage; thereafter its concentration increased relatively, highlighting hydroxylation of SDZ. DIF degraded very slowly (7% loss after 150 d) during the storage of manure; in contrast the concentration of SARA decreased rapidly (72-90% loss after 150 d). Dilution of manure and storage at higher temperatures for a reasonable period of time enhanced the rate of reactions of SDZ, DIF and their related metabolites.lated metabolites.

198

Impact of atmospheric 14C to the karst environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Naturally cosmic-ray produced radiocarbon 14C is a part of the CO2 cycle and through the atmosphere-biosphere-hydrosphere exchange process it has been introduced to the environment. Anthropogenic disturbance of the natural 14C activity caused by nuclear tests, nuclear power plants and also by fossil fuel combustion has been recorded in the atmospheric CO2. The karst environment including water, carbonate sediment and soil, where exchange processes within the CO2-HCO3 -CaCO3 system play an important role, is very sensitive to any change in the atmosphere and response to the contamination is very fast. 14C activity of atmospheric CO2 has been continuously measured in monthly samples in Zagreb area since 1983. Seasonal variations have been observed, as well as steady decrease of yearly mean values. Influence of fossil fuel combustion in the city area during winter months was also observed. Few examples of isotopic study in karst environment in Croatia and Slovenia will be presented: 1) The influence of atmospheric 14C activity to the recent carbonate precipitated in the surface water in form of tufa in the Plitvice Lakes, Korana, Krka and Zrmanja rivers in Croatia, and Krka river in Slovenia; 2) 14C activity in recent speleothems from several caves in Croatia and Postojna Cave in Slovenia; 3) Distribution of 14C activity in the surface soil in Plitvice Lakes and Postojna areas; 4) 14C activity of atmospheric CO2 inside and outside the Postojna Cave, 5) 14C activity in recent plants (aquatic and terrestrial) and shells. The stable isotopes ? 13C and ? 18O for some of the samples above will be presented too. Distribution of 14C in the karst environment will be discussed and compared with 14C activity of atmospheric CO2

199

Influence of cycloheximide on translocation of 32P in Laminaria digitata (Linne) Lamouroux  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cycloheximide strongly reduced translocation of 32P when applied to various regions of Laminaria digitata thallus. In addition, the part of the different organs is demonstrated. The results show that CHM action was restricted to the treated zone since 32P migrations were not reduced in surrounding regions. At the same time, CHM influence on other metabolic processes possibly involved in translocation, was studied. Thus, as concerns 32P uptake by thallus pieces, CHM inhibition took effect but after a 4 hour action period. Moreover, no effect on O2 uptake was observed. These results are believed to favour an inhibitory action on protein synthesis more than to affect oxidative phosphorylations. The present data are considered to support the view that in algae as well as in higher plants, the mechanisms of the translocation of inorganic substances depend on the protein metabolism. (orig.)

200

Exchange of radioactive phosphorus 32P between the components of an artificial plant community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil) the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens) and Carex pilosa Scop.; cases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L.) Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Padus avium Mill., Aegopodium podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold) between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%. (author)

201

The foliar radiophosphorus 32-P application and its distribution in mungbean plant (Phaseolus radiatus L)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experiment carried out in greenhouse were intended to investigate radiophosphorus 32-P distribution and accumulation in mung bean at various plant ages. Radiophosphorus 32-P was applied foliarly in the mung bean plant of several weeks (ie. 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks) of age. The sampling has been done within 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after treatment. The relative phosphorus accumulation (%) in various parts of the plant ie. roots, stem, leaves, leave stalks, flower stalk, pods, and pod stalk was determined. The design used in the experiment was the randomized block design with factorial calculation. The experimental results points out that the 32-P was taken up by any plant organ. This highest mean value of 4.58%/g sample was observed in the leaves of 2 weeks of age; meanwhile the lowest mean value of 0.09%/g sample was obtained in the pods of 10 weeks of age. (author). 9 refs.; 15 tabs

202

Movement of 32P in sunflower plants inoculated with single and dual inocula of VAM fungi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunflower plants were inoculated with single and dual inocula of Glomus intraradix and Glomus mosseae. 32P-labelled phosphate was applied after sufficient infection was obtained in all treatments. Plants inoculated with dual inocula of the two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi showed significantly higher shoot weight than those inoculated with single inocula and control treatments. Of the 32P transported to the plants, the percentage of 32P transported to the shoot was 59.9 in G. intraradix + G. mosseae, 25.12 in G. intraradix, 33.31 in G. mosseae and 35.2 in uninoculated control. The present study reveals that the increased growth in plants inoculated with dual inocula compared to those inoculated with single inocula of VAM fungi may be due to the increased transfer of P to the shoot from the root. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

203

The effect of different doses of 32P in the treatment of primary thrombocytosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on a follow up in 23 patients with primary thrombocytosis treated with two different doses of 32phosphorus phosphate (32P). Ten patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) received 2 mCi and 13 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) received the standard dose of 0.1 mCi/kg b.w. The patients were listed as having a complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or no response (NR) considering platelet count at 3 and 12 months after 32P injection. The results indicate the existence of a clear correlation of the rate of remission with the 32P injected dose. PV patients show, in fact, a percentage of complete remission higher than ET patients. However, the use of higher doses induces more early and long-term complications. (author)

204

Enzymatic synthesis of [-32P]ATP of high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[?-32P] adenosine triphosphate is exceedingly important substrate in the end-labeling and sequencing of nucleic acids as well as in protein kinase reactions. [-32P]ATA is prepared from 1-?-glycerophosphate and ADP by a series of enzymatic reactions in the presence of NAD+ which is preferably regenerated by lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate. The product is separated by ion-exchange column chromatography on DEAE-sephadex A-25 Cl- form or by the preparation chromatography. The radio-chemical purity obtained is 96-97%. The yield of the product is >90% relative to 32P. The sample prepared by this method is comparable with the Amersham product. This method is rapid, simple and convenient

205

Changes in lymphoid cell distribution after intraperitoneal administration of 32P colloids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of intraperitoneal administration of 32P colloids on the distribution of T lymphocyte subpopulations and monocytes was studied using monoclonal antibodies and a flow cytometry technique. Thirty-nine patients with ovarian carcinoma without residual tumor after primary operation were examined either before the administration of 260 to 370 MBq of 32P, 4 to 6 days after therapy, or 4 to 10 months after therapy. A significant reduction of circulating OKT4+ (T helper) cells occurred after therapy, and the reduction lasted throughout the observation period. Monocyte numbers were not significantly changed. It is concluded that intraperitoneal installation of the 32P isotope may induce the same type of changes in circulating lymphoid cells as those seen after external field irradiation. (orig.)

206

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

Duarte A, C

2003-07-01

207

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subspeciation of total cell proteins from multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids labelled with [35S]methionine or [35S]thioATP and of coagulase negative staphylococci labelled with [35S]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors demonstrate that [35S]methionine labelling of proteins followed by PAGE can be used to distinguish biochemically similar, multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids; thirty-one isolates fell into four subgroups. The method also distinguished ten separate electrophoretypes of coagulase-negative staphylococci which correlated approximately with eight biotypes; the fifty-one isolates of biotypes SII, the commonest clinical isolate, were electrophoretically identical, thus suggesting that they are, indeed, members of a single subgroup. The authors also report a novel method of radiolabelling the phosphoproteins using [35S]thioATP and have demonstrated the method using the above diphtheroids. These were again distinguished into the same four subgroups although the patterns of phosphoproteins were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the proteins. This thioATP labelling method should have wide application also. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

208

Lung retention of inhaled 14C-BaP and 14C-NP when adsorbed on carbon particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of particle association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on their retention in the respiratory tract. Vaporization and condensation of premixed powders dispersed from a Wright dust feeder were used to produce submicron aerosols of 2% (by mass) 14C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 2% 14C-nitropyrene adsorbed on carbon black (CB). There was close correspondence of the particle size distributions of the 14C radiolabel, specific for the organic compounds, and the total mass, representative primarily of the carbon black particles. Following 2 h nose only exposure of rats to these aerosols, lung retention of 14C was biphasic. Percentages in the long-term retention component (1.2% for 14C-BaP-CB and 3.7% for 14CC-NP-CB) were much greater than those previously measured for aerosols of the organic compounds alone (0.014% for 14C-BaP and 0.065% for 14C-NP). The amount of 14C covalently bound to lung macromolecules (as a percentage of inhaled activity) were also much greater for the BaP-CB and NP-CB than for the pure compounds. These data suggest that adsorption of BaP and NP on carbon black enhances interactions with target molecules. 4 references, 4 figures, 1 table

209

High yield synthesis of 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids with high specific radioactivity using potassium ?14C] cyanide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the tumor specificity of synthetic nonmetabolizing amino acids, 10 different 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids (3a-3j) were synthesized in high yield and with high specific radioactivity. Carbon-14 labeled alicyclic hydantoins (2a-2j) were synthesized from a small amount of radioactive potassium [14C]cyanide and corresponding ketones (1a-1j). The 14C hydantoins (2a-2j) thus obtained were hydrolyzed without isolation to give 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids (3a-3j). The overall radiochemical yields of the amino acids (3a-3j) from potassium [14C]cyanide were 55.6 - 93.2 % with radiochemical purity more than 99 %. Specific activities of these 14C labeled compounds (3a-3j) were 209 - 250 MBq/mmol (5.66 - 6.75 mCi/mmol). When non-radioactive potassium cyanide was not added as a carrier, 1-aminocyclopentane [14C]carboxylic acid (3b) and 1-aminocyclooctane [14C]carboxylic acid (3e) were synthesized in the yield of 64.9 and 19.0 % respectively with the specific activity exceed more than 1.85 GBq/mmol (50 mCi/mmol). (author)

210

Synthesis of 2-acetoxy 4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid [ring U-14C] or '[ring U-14C] triflusal'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(Ring-U-14C) Aniline (1) was converted into (ring U-14C) idobenzene (2) through the (ring U-14C) phenyldiazonium chloride. Trifluoromethylation of (2) with iodotrifluoromethane in presence of copper gave (ring U-14C) trifluoromethylbenzene (3) with a 64% yield. Nitration of (3) with sodium nitrate + trifluoromethane sulfonic acid in dichloromethane gave a 86% yield of (ring U-14C) 3-nitro trifluoromethyl benzene (4) which was reduced by iron and HCl into the corresponding amine (5). The latter was transformed into the phenol (6) with a 85% yield by action of Cu (NO3)2 and CuO on (ring U-14C) 3-trifluoromethyl phenyldiazonium sulfate. Kolbe reaction of phenol (6) with carbon dioxide and K2CO3 gave (7) with a 59% yield. Acetylation of (7) gave (ring U-14C) Triflusal (8) with a quantitative yield and a specific activity of 14 mCi/mMole radiochemical purity 98.5%. The overall yield from 14C barium carbonate was 10%. (author)

211

Enzymatic synthesis of [?-32P]dATP of high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report described a methd for enzymatic preparation of [?-32P] dATP of high specific activity through a series of enzymatic reactions. The method is simple and convenient, transfer and purification of intermediate products is not necessary. It reduces manipulations of large amounts of radioactivity. The product was isolated by preparation HPLC. Its radiochemical purity is higher than 98%. The [?32P]dATP of high specific activity prepared by enzymatic method is satisfactorily used for the labelling of DNA (probe) by nick translation and molecular hybridization

212

3'-end labeling of DNA with [?-32P]cordycepin-5'-triphosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an alternative to 5'-end labeling of complementary DNA strands, the authors have used [32P]cordycepin-5'-triphosphate labeling of 3'-ends to confirm the nucleotide sequence of a HhaI-endonuclease-generated pTU4-plasmid DNA fragment that contains several hot spots for insertions of the transposable genetic element Tn3. 3'-End labeling with [32P]cordycepin-5'-triphosphate has also proved useful in determining the sequence of the pTU4 DNA in the vicinity of a strategically located SstII endonuclease cleavage site in the replication region of the plasmid. (Auth.)

213

Effect of Mn deficiency on uptake, transport and distribution of 32P in cauliflower and tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of 32P uptake, transport and distribution has been recorded in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis cv. Late Maghi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Marglobe) plants grown at deficient (0.00055 ppm) and optimal (0.55 ppm) levels of Mn supply in refined sand culture. Manganese deficiency enhanced the transport of 32P from roots to tops in both the species but the uptake and distribution pattern was found to vary with the species, plant parts and in terms of concentration and total uptake. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

214

The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

215

Comparative pharmacokinetics of 35-S and 99m-Tc-labeled heparin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experimental work demonstrated a significative difference between 99m-Tc and 35-S-labeled Heparin pharmacokinetics which might be related to a differential tissular accumulation of the labeled molecules

216

In vivo biosynthesis and turnover of 35S-labeled glomerular basement membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renal glomerular basement membrane was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of radioactive sulfate into normal adult rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of [35S]glycosaminoglycans in purified basement membrane was determined from the specific activity of 35S in pronase digests of basement membranes isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radioactive labeling occurred 24 h after injection following which the specific activity of basement membrane sulfate, expressed as cpm/?g uronic acid, progressively declined over the ensuing period of study. The biologic half-life of radioactive sulfate in basement membrane was estimated at about 7 days, which is within the range previously reported for [35S]glycosaminoglycans in whole renal cortex. The findings indicata that 35S-labeled components of glomerular basement membrane have a relatively rapid turnover. (orig.)

217

The uptake of brace35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of [35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices has been shown to be activated in the presence of iodide. The total uptake (Q) of [35S] methimazole was shown to be the sum of a saturable process and a non-saturable process. The constants Qsub(max), K3 and P in the two-term equation were determined using a published statistical method and a Fortran IV computer programme. Diiodotyrosine (DIT) at a 0.1 mM concentration stimulated the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole appreciably in the absence of iodide, whilst thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) inhibited uptake in the presence of iodide and was of no effect in the absence of iodide. Propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibited the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole whilst perchlorate had no effect. (author)

218

Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of bound (nonextractable) 14C residues from soil previously treated with [14C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

219

Quantification of Sulfur by the Wet Oxidation for the Determination of 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural sulfur contains four stable isotopes. The main isotopes are 32S (95.02%) and 34S (4.21%). Beside the stable isotopes, there exist also a radioactive one 35S (T1/2 = 87.4 d, Emax = 167 keV, pure ?- emitter). Sulfur- 35 is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides generated by cosmic rays through spallation of argon atoms. 35S for the labeled compound such as 35S-thiourea is produced from the pile irradiation of the neutron (35Cl(n,p)35S). Most 35S produced by cosmic rays is rapidly converted to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate (SO42-), and attached on the ambient aerosols. The quantities of 35S do not present a significant external exposure hazard since the low-energy emissions barely penetrate the outer dead layer of skin. For uptakes of inorganic sulfur, 15% is assumed to be retained with a 20 day biological half-life and 5% retained with a 2,000 day biological half-life. The remaining 80% is assumed to be rapidly excreted. Because of its relatively weak emission, 35S is primarily an internal radiation hazard. TLDs are not effective and Geiger-Muller detectors can measure to low efficiency (?10%) for detecting 35S. Therefore, it is important to use careful handling and frequent monitoring, either with survey meters with thin- windows probes or by taking wipe samples and counting in a liquing wipe samples and counting in a liquid scintillation counter (LSC)

220

Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [14C]erythritol and [3H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [14C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [14C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [3H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [14C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [3H]inulin clearance. The increase in [14C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [14C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [14C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

221

TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias. PMID:25157825

Yien, Yvette Y; Robledo, Raymond F; Schultz, Iman J; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel E; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Cooney, Jeffrey D; Pierce, Eric L; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A; Miyata, Non; Kingsley, Paul D; Garone, Caterina; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Huang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Keenan, Ellen M; Shah, Dhvanit I; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; DiMauro, Salvatore; Orkin, Stuart H; Cantor, Alan B; Palis, James; Koehler, Carla M; Lodish, Harvey F; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M; Dailey, Harry A; Phillips, John D; Peters, Luanne L; Paw, Barry H

2014-10-01

222

Distribution and utilization of 14C assimilate in lentil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in lentil (Lens esculentum L.) during winter of 1975 and 1976. Plants were allowed to assimilate 14CO2 at the pre bloom, flower initiation and early pod formation stage in 1975 and initial pod formation and mid pod filling stage in 1976 and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C (74 percent) was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During the vegetative phase, most of 14C (77 percent) was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissue and relatively low amount in root and nodules. Seventy two days after assimilation, pod accumulated about 8 percent of 14C. During the early reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was translocated from leaves to stem, pod and roots. Since stem was actively growing, it accumulated a considerable amount (38 percent) of assimilates. This resulted in a severe competition for assimilate supply for pod growth during early pod filling stage. At mid pod filling stage, most of the assimilate (65 percent) was utilized in pod growth. The pattern of carbon utilization and redistribution revealed that a part of assimilate utilized in stem and leaves was remobilised during the process of mas was remobilised during the process of maturation. (author)

223

Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced 14C had doubled the 14C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO2 cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing 14C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing 14C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the 14C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, 14C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of 14C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

224

Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2013-07-01

225

Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

226

Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into inorganic and organic constituents of two forest soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into phosphate-extractable S, hydriodic acid-reducible S (HI-S), and total S was measured in three horizons of Spodosols from the Huntington Forest, New York and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. After 56 d 35S incorporated into nonwater-extractable S constituents was 92, 65, 92, 63, 72, and 91% of the total 35S-activity for the Huntington Forest Oa, Bh, Bsl, and Hubbard Brook Oa, Bh, and Bsl horizons, respectively. Immobilization of 35S-sulfate into carbon-bonded S (total S - HI-S) was the major incorporation pathway in the Oa horizons. Adsorption of 35S-sulfate (phosphate-extractable) was most evident in the Bh and Bsl horizons. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into ester sulfate (HI-S - inorganic S) occurred in all horizons. The influence of immobilization-mineralization and adsorption-desorption on S dynamics of these forest soils was evaluated

227

The uptake of (35S)-carbonyl sulphide by plants and soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition velocity (Vg) of CO35S to young swards of L. perenne and to more mature swards grown at different densities was similar, with an overall mean value of 0.082 cm s-1, under illuminated conditions and of 0.029 cm s-1 in the dark. Total deposition increased with LAI but Vg/w values were consistently lower at higher plant densities. The mean Vg of CO35S to three soil types at field capacity was 0.085 x 10-3 cm s-1. In all instances, there was a reduction in 35S activity in foliage after the termination of the fumigation, most losses occurring within 24 h. The distribution of 35S in leaves was similar following fumigation under either illuminated or dark conditions. The majority of the 35S activity directly after exposure was located in the foliage as both a soluble non-volatile fraction, and an insoluble fraction. After 24 h, the activity in the soluble fraction fell from 64% to 27% of the original activity, whilst the insoluble fraction essentially remained unchanged. Translocation of 35S in a soluble non-volatile form from shoots to roots is the main factor responsible for observed losses of activity from foliage. (author)

228

Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of 14C-Labelled Dichlobenil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autoradiographs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) indicated that 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) was slightly absorbed by the leaf and some translocation occurred following foliar application. Plants with roots submersed in radioactive aqueous solution absorbed and translocated the 14C throughout the plant. An investigation of some of the chemical and physical properties of 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil was conducted. Loss because of volatilization from counting planchets was considerably reduced by application of acrylic plastic immediately after the solution dried. The plastic coating also eliminated contamination of counting chambers and windows. Two higher plants (bean and alligatorweed ) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) were selected for metabolism studies. Dichlobenil- 14C was added to Hoagland and Arnon's nutrient solution containing beans or alligatorweed and to liquid cultures containing the other organisms for 12 to 120 h. Extracts from the plants or fungi were chromatographed on silica gel thin-layers. Autoradiographs of the thin-layer chromatographed aqueous extracts revealed a C-labelled compound of Rf 0.25 that differed from that of dichlobenil, which was 0.6. After esterification of the extracts, a 14C-labelled compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thind compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the 14C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of 14C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil -14C. Other metabolites of dichlobenil -14C. were not resolved by these chromatographic procedures. (author)

229

Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to e applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

230

On the estimation of 14C mutagenic efficacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A formal calculated estimate of total mutagenic effectivity of 14C evenly distributed in the carbon of organism is presented as a statement of the problem. The value obtained is at least 4000 which is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than the experimental values for 14C found by other authors. Possible reasons for such discrepance are presented. It is suggested that natural radiocarbon may be one of the basic natural mutagens and sources of gene pool replenishment. The use of 14C as an effective mutagen in radiation selection is proposed

231

Asymmetric synthesis of 14C-labeled L-propargylglycine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L-Propargylglycine was efficiently labeled with 14C at the 1- and 2- positions. The synthesis was achieved according to the scheme illustrated in Fig.1. Ni-complex of Schiff's base, Gly-Ni-BPB(4) was derived from [U-14C]glycine(2) and (S)-BPB(3). Diastereoselective alkylation of 4 with propargyl bromide followed by acid hydrolysis afforded L-propargyl[1, 2-14C]glycine(1). The optical purity of 1 was proved to be 97.0% and the overall yield of 1 from 2 was 28.2%. (author)

232

Method of preparing pyrimidine derivatives universally labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium salts of beta-keto acid ethyl esters having mole activity higher than 40 mCi/milliatom 14C are condensed with 14C-thiourea having mole activity higher than 40 mCi/milliatom 14C. Condensation proceeds in an anhydrous ethanol medium at a 1:1 molar ratio, with a 40 to 50% yield. Under the above reaction conditions, the radiochemical yield is higher than 20% while in biosynthesis it is 1% and in the chemical synthesis it is 10%. (J.P.)

233

Preparation and supply of custom shaped 32P-patches for their application in the treatment of superficial cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quick and facile method to prepare 32P radiolabeled paper or patches for the mould brachytherapy treatment of superficial cancers has been developed. Intricate custom sized sources, containing upto ? 37 MBq/cm2 of 32P were prepared and immobilized between plastic sheets of 40-micron thickness by lamination. The homogeneity and stability of the patches were investigated. 32P-patches after quality assurance were supplied to AIIMS, Delhi for clinical evaluation. (author)

234

Synthesis of 14C labelled lidocaine (?-diethylamino acet-2,6-dimethylanilide)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-lidocaine was composed by 14C-diethylamine reaction with ?-chloroacetic-2,6-dimethylaniline. 14C-diethylamine was prepared from Ba14CO3 via K14CN and 14C-acetonitrile which was hydrogenated. Radiochemical purity of 14C-diethylamine and 14C-lidocaine is >99% by HPLC and TLC respectively. 14C-lidocaine is needed for breath assay of mouse for measuring liver function

235

The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32P in the form of carrier free KH2 32PO4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in ?% arcsin converted from 32P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

236

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2014-10-01

237

Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90Sr/90Y and 204Tl and non-calibrated source of 32P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32P and 90Sr/90Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

238

The absorbed dose to bone marrow in the treatment of polycythaemia by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made of absorbed dose to bone marrow in the treatment of polycythaemia by 32P, based on the determination of activities in bone and marrow biopsies taken at various times from 1 to 27 days after injection of the radionuclide. Activities were measured in the cortex, trabeculation and marrow of biopsies taken from the iliac crest, and also in sternal marrow. The biological half-life of 32P in marrow from the iliac crest was found to be nine days; that derived for sternal marrow was lower, but the difference was not statistically significant; the value for trabecular bone was 27 days. The biological half life for 32P in the body, as measured by whole-body counting, was 39 days. Calculations of the dose-rate to trabecular marrow have been made by a method based on that of Whitwell and Spiers (1971, Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the French Society for Radioprotection, Grenoble, France, 401), but modified to allow for the presence of 32P in the marrow as well as in trabecular bone. The dose-rates followed a single exponential decay with a half-life of 6.7 days. The integrated dose including that during the first day was 24 rad per mCi injected. (author)

239

Photoaffinity labelling of tobacco subcellular fractions with [32P]-azido-UDP-glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subcellular fractions from tobacco (N. rustica) leaves were photolabelled with the UDPG analog, [32P]-N3 UDPG. Two stromal polypeptides (Mr = 42 and 21 kD) were the major photolabelled chloroplast polypeptides. UDPG protected the 42 but not the 21 kD polypeptide against photoincorporation of [32P]-N3 UDPG. In a cytosol-enriched fraction, the major photolabelling polypeptides had Mr of 92, 50, 42, 30 and 17 kD. Photolabelling of the 42, 30, and 17 kD polypeptides was unaffected by UDPG, but UDPG blocked incorporation into the 92 and 50 kD polypeptides. In addition to photolabelled polypeptides, a polypeptide identified as phosphoglucomutase (PGM) was labelled in both the chloroplast and cytosol fraction. 32P-labelling of PGM was independent of UV irradiation, occurring via phosphoryl transfer from contaminating [32P]G-I-P. The plastid and cytosolic PGM isozymes had Mr of 69 and 62.8 kD, respectively, and both were labelled in a leaf extract

240

Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

241

Labeling of specific proteins in rat ovarian plasma membranes with [?-32P]GTP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report evidence that [?-32P]GTP preferentially labels two proteins in rat ovary and parotid membranes that differ structurally from the proteins that are substrates for ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin and which are thought to be involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP. (Auth.)

242

/sup 32/P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi /sup 32/P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of /sup 32/P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to /sup 32/P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of /sup 32/P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition.

Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

1978-08-01

243

Chromium(III) phosphate labelled with 32P for use in metabolic radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was obtained for the first time a suspension of chromium Phosphate (III) labelled with 32P, with predominant size of particles among 5-10 ?m, potentially useful in the treatment of solid tumors and Radiosynoctomy. A dispersion was obtained with prevalence of sizes of the colloidal order with 80% above 0,2 ?m, potentially useful for Radiosynovectomy

244

Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques for 32P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

245

New 14C-labelled products by UVVVR: [14C]methyl iodide and L-[methyl-14C]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of preparation and analysis of are outlined. The [14C]methyl iodide with molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol-1 is delivered with radiochemical and chemical purity exceeding 98% and these parameters are guaranteed, if the product stored under conditions specified by the producer, for one year after delivery. The L-[methyl-14C]methionine of molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol-1 is delivered in stabilized solution, its radiochemical purity is better than 98% and enantiomeric purity (assayed by radio-g.l.c.) is better than 96%

246

Assessment of chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during production of H332Po4 and effective reduction of 35S release  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during the production of H332PO4 was characterized in order to reduce 35S release from the radioisotope production laboratory. An air sample was evacuated from the cell in which the H332PO4 production was being carried out, and collected in a sample gas reservoir. Gaseous sulfur species contained in the sample was condensed in a cold trap maintained at -180 degree C and analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was the only sulfur species detected. Equilibrium constant calculations showed that SO2 would be expected to be the predominant species produced by reactions of sulfur molecules (Sn : n = 2 ? 8) with oxygen in air. Release of 35SO2 was remarkably reduced by revised production procedures that prevent the reaction between the sulfur vapor and oxygen. (4 figs., 1 tab.)

247

14C/12C ratios as tracers of urban pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since fossil carbon is '14C-free', environmental materials influenced by industrial activity have 14C/12C ratios which are measurably depressed below natural values. In this study 14C/12C ratios in samples from an industrial region are compared with those in relatively unpolluted materials. It is shown that artificial sedimentation rates in the coastal sewage dumping area off the West of Scotland are an order of magnitude higher than the natural rate for this region. The 14C/12C ratio in the normal industrial atmosphere shows that up to 20% of the total carbon dioxide content is derived from local combustion of fossil fuels. This may be compared with a circa 6% contribution on a world wide basis. (author)

248

Determination of 14C content in fermentation alcohols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measuring of activity in 14C of ethylic alcohol permits to distinguish fermentation alcohol from synthetic alcohol. This activity is used to determine the corresponding percentages of these alcohols in cases of mixture

249

Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

2004-08-01

250

Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

251

Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

252

Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a demia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

253

14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

W. Koeve

2014-10-01

254

Genetic consequences of the 14C-decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are only few investigations on the biological and genetic consequences of 14C decay especially due to the long half-life of 14C. Naturally, the consequences of the decay of 14C incorperated in DNA is of particular interest. Due to the thus occuring conversion into nitrogen, either opening of the ribose residue ring and base occurs or conversion into base analogue. The present work gives a survey on the investigational results on this topic which were obtained by various authors on phages, bacteria, algae and animal cells, as well as on molecular level. It was shown that the transmutation for the occurence of a lethal effect is many times more effective than ?-radiation. Investigations of the mutagenic effects and other genetic effects of the 14C decay were carried out on micro-organisms, however also on higher forms of life, plants, insects and mice. An analysis of the mutations showed that transitions as well as transversions occur. As example for genetic effects of 14C decay, the two following are named. In the case of mice which were exposed to 14CO2 atmosphere, it was seen that the number of polyptoidal chromosome sets in the first spermotacytes increased considerably, an increase of the chromosome conversion rate was however not observed. When treating gryllus larvae with 14C, it was interesting to note that the crossing of 14C-contained females with normal males produced viable eggs, whereas normal females after crossing with 14C contained males, laid no more eggs. (MG) 891 MG

255

14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

256

Method to produce 14C-labelled compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method to produce 14C labelled compounds by aerobic growth of an alga of the anacystis kind in a medium containing 14C in such a form that it is taken up by the microorganism, is described according to the invention. The alga anacystis nidulans has some advantages over the green alga chlorella so far commonly used to produce labelled compounds: The generation time is considerably shorter, the radiation resistance greater, the production of nuclei acids and proteins is higher. (VJ)

257

Method of preparing (U-14C)-D-glucosamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(U-14C)-D-glucosamine is prepared from whole Chlorella algae cells cultivated in a 14CO2 medium. These cells are subjected to a solution of the enzymes chitinase and lysozyme buffered (e.g., using a citrate-phosphate buffer) to pH=4.5 to 6.0. The released (U-14C)-D-glucosamine is separated from the solution by paper chromatography. (E.S.)

258

Structure of newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans and (35S)-proteoglycan turnover products of cartilage explant cultures from dogs with experimental osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of newly synthesized proteoglycans from explant cultures of cartilage from joints subjected to transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (osteoarthritic) and from normal (non- or sham-operated) joints was examined. The structure of the products of proteoglycan turnover was also examined using explants of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage maintained in culture for a 48 h chase period. The findings were as follows: Newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans extracted from cartilage explants from osteoarthritic joints whether examined 3 weeks, 3 months, or 6 months after surgery were larger than those from corresponding normal cartilage. This can be explained by the synthesis in osteoarthritic cartilage of abnormally long chondroitin sulfate chains on newly synthesised proteoglycans. The extracts also contained a newly formed small proteoglycan species that was unable to interact with hyaluronic acid. The proportion of this species was higher in osteoarthritic cartilage compared with normal, examined 3 weeks after surgery, but was generally absent from cartilage obtained 3 and 6 months after surgery. Compared with controls, a smaller proportion of the (35S)-proteoglycans released into the maintenance medium of explant cultures of osteoarthritic cartilage during a 48 h chase period was able to interact with hyaluronic acid. However, although furnished with longer (35S)-glycosaminoglycan chains, these proteoglycans were smallcan chains, these proteoglycans were smaller than those from control explants

259

Turnover of eastern Caribbean deep water from 14C measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 14C balance for the Eastern Caribbean deep water indicates the average inflow of Atlantic water into the basin to be 2.3 X 105 m3/sec (+-30%), or about 2-4 times the values estimated previously. The balance uses a model representation of the deep-water turnover, and is based on 14C concentrations at a station in the Venezuelan Basin which average ? 14C = 89% below 800 m depth with a total range of only 9%, as well as on a 14C concentration of the Atlantic inflow of ? 14C = -71% as obtained from measurements outside the Antilles Arch. The turnover time of the basin water below 2500 m depth is 55 years, which corresponds to an average upwelling velocity at this depth of about 35 m/year. With such upwelling, the temperature profile below 1800 m (the depth of the sill determining the inflow of new water) requires a vertical eddy diffusivity of about 5 cm2/sec. The oxygen consumption, and silica and CO2 regeneration, rates below 2500 m depth are obtained as -0.18, +0.08, and +0.2 ?mole kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The CO2 regeneration has but a negligible effect on the 14C balance. (Auth.)

260

Localization and characterization of 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in rat brain: An autoradiographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding to slide-mounted rat brain sections was characterized for subsequent autoradiographic analysis. Cortical brain mash slices, preincubated with EDTA to remove endogenous GABA, were used for biochemical characterization. Steady state for 35S-TBPS binding was reached by 3 hr of incubation at 22 degrees C. The association rate constant (K1) and dissociation rate constant (K2) were 0.377 min-1 microM-1 and 0.011 min-1, respectively. Dissociation was monophasic and slow (t1/2 = 80 min). The kinetically derived KD was 29.4 nM. Scatchard analysis indicated a single population of binding sites with a KD of 21.0 +/- 2.2 nM and a Bmax of 1.59 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein. Both picrotoxin and muscimol inhibited 35S-TBPS binding completely with IC50s of 251 +/- 13 nM and 203 +/- 41 nM and nHs of 0.98 and 1.4, respectively. The distribution of 35S-TBPS binding sites in the rat brain resembles that of other ligands that bind to GABAA receptor complex with some regionally specific differences. Regions with a high degree of 35S-TBPS binding included the inferior colliculus, medial septal nucleus, central and paracentral nuclei of the thalamus, olfactory tubercle, zona incerta, dentate gyrus, and substantia nigra. 35S-TBPS preferentially bound to the molecular vs granular layer of the cerebellum. Omission of the preincubation markedly but variably decreased 35S-TBPS binding. The greatest regional decreases occurred in areas with a high degrcreases occurred in areas with a high degree of GABA synthesis. In addition, 35S-TBPS binding was inhibited to different degrees in the cell layers of the cerebellum. The addition of 1 microM GABA to the incubation medium of preincubated slices also produced variable decreases in 35S-TBPS binding to cerebellar layers. These findings support previous studies that demonstrate GABAA receptor heterogeneity

261

Synthesis of [14C]-labelled dihydropyridine calcium channel entry blockers: nicardipine-[4[14C] and RS-93522-[4-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hantzsch synthesis has been applied to the general preparation of 4-aryl-dihydropyridines labelled in the metabolically stable 4-position of the dihydropyridine ring. The synthesis is based on the preparation of a key common intermediate, m-nitrobenzaldehyde-[formyl-14C], in high yield from Ba14CO3. (author)

262

Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-?-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ?M, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ?M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

263

(35S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (35S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (35S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. 35S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (3H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (35S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (35S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures. (author)

264

Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ? 35S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ? Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. ? Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35S activity in the 4??(PC)-? coincidence system

265

Lymphokine-induced uptake of [14C]glucosamine, [14C]glucose, and [3H]leucine by macrophages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lymphokine-activated (LK+) and control (LK-) macrophages were cultured for 66 h and then pulsed with [14C]glucosamine. Uptake of [14C]glucosamine was greater in LK+ than in LK- cultures. If, after 66 h, the medium was replaced with fresh medium and then pulsed with either [14C]glucose or [14C]glucosamine, the uptake of isotope was greatly reduced compared to cultures with no change of medium. However, uptake of both radiolabeled substances was still found to be greater in LK+ cultures than in LK- cultures. Although uptake of both substances was enhanced by lymphokines, the uptake kinetics of each isotope was different. Under similar conditions the uptake of [3H]leucine was not enhanced by lymphokine activation. These data are interpreted to mean that LK+ macrophages are metabolically stimulated and utilize more glucose and glucosamine. The difference in kinetics implies a different utilization by macrophages for each substance

266

14C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the 14C levels in the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclide 14C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen (17O), nitrogen (14N) and carbon (13C). Part of the 14C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO2, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of 14C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The 14C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background 14C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of 14C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the 14C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of 14C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of 14C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of 14C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of 14C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada

267

Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous materials of human body, such as collagen fractions from teeth and bone, tissue, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans dead or alive, are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human tissue samples formed in this time ranges, we can establish a relation between their 14C concentrations and calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the drugs that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified by the analysis of their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination was applied to a forensic study; i.e., to two similar cases of murder. One of the two cases is for a dead body of a modern human who was killed in 1978 and buried under the floor of the house owned by the murderer. The body was excavated in 2004 according to the confession by the murderer. 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and compared with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C. The time of death of tced 14C. The time of death of the body was estimated to be at around 1977, and her age was from 30 to 37 years old at that time. These estimations were consistent with the real values that were revealed after the case was solved by the confession of the real murderer who gave himself up to the police. For the other case, 14C analysis was also consistent with the fact revealed by police investigations as well as by the confession of the real murderer.

268

Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells.  

OpenAIRE

At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose (H.M. Giaeyer, B.O. Styrvold, I. Kaasen, and A.R. Strøm, J. Bacteriol. 170:2841-2849, 1988). This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria ...

Brand, B.; Boos, W.

1989-01-01

269

Bioavailability in rats of bound 14C residues from corn plants treated with [14C]atrazine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corn plants grown to the silage stage were treated with 14C ring-labeled and unlabeled atrazine. The aerial portion of the plants was exhaustively extracted with solvents and the extracted material containing bound 14C residues was fed to rats. For comparison extracted material from control plants fortified with [14C]atrazine was also fed to rats. After 4 days, 88% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 10% in the urine from rats fed plant material containing bound 14C residues. In contrast, only 32% of the dose was eliminated in the feces while 60% was voided via the urine when the corn material fortified with [14C]atrazine was fed to rats. Most of the 14C residues in feces from rats fed bound diet remained nonextractable and their amounts and nature were similar to those in the corn material. Atrazine added to the corn material before feeding was metabolized effectively when consumed by rats. The data demonstrated that bound residues in corn plant treated with atrazine have a low degree of bioavailability in rats

270

Synthesis of phenyl[1-14C]acetylene and 1,4-diphenyl [1,4-14C2]butadiyne  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenyl[1-14C]acetylene (0.012mCi/mmole) was synthesized in 12.5% yield from [1-14C]acetic acid through [1-14C]acetophenone, its semicarbazone, and 4-phenyl-[4-14C]1,2,3-selenadiazole obtained by selenium dioxide oxidation. Oxidative coupling gave 1,4-diphenyl[1,4-14C2]butadiyne in 80% yield. (author)

271

Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

2008-08-01

272

Comparison of fluorographic methods for the detection of 35S-labeled proteins in polyacrylamide gels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight different methods of fluorographic enhancement of sensitivity to 35S decay after gel electrophoresis were compared. Using Kodak X-Omat AR X-ray film, we found that some fluors were about equivalent to 2,5-diphenyloxazole/dimethyl sulfoxide embedding, whereas several other fluors were not quite as effective, but still were significantly more sensitive than control autoradiography. The most sensitive procedures can yield a detectable darkening of film with less than 1 dpm/mm2 of 35S after a 1-week exposure

273

Concentrations of cosmic ray produced 7Be, 32P and 33P under mountain conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations and isotope ratio of the cosmogenic 7Be, 32P and 33P in the atmospheric air under mountain conditions were investigated in the Abastumani observatory area (Georgian SSR, 42 deg NL). Aerosol samples were taken by air filtration using the FPP-15-1.7 type filters at an altitude of 1700 m above the sea level. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma and beta radiation after the filter ashing and chemical separation. The measured 7Be, 32P and 33P concentrations fluctuated respectively from 1.0 to 31.6, 0.01-0.33 and 0.006-0.37 at/g. The upper limits of the concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with those obtained in Vilnius under mountain conditions were one order lower. A conclusion is drawn that the intensity of the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere is higher in mountain areas

274

Researches regarding the labelling of European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) by 32 P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Corn Borer (ECB) moths were labelled after they ate the semisynthetic diet in which 32 P was added as a colourless and transparent solution of NaH232 PO4. The 32 P radioactivities in the diet were 7.4 and 13 kBq/g. Both 7.4 and 13 kBq/g diets met our purpose for permanent moth labelling. The major part of radioactivity was contained by moths while the remnant by exuviae. The number of pupae/box, the number of moths/box, egg batches/female and the percentage of fertile eggs were registered . The radioactivity of pupae, moths and exuviae was was determined. The radioactivity of 7.4 and 13 kBq/g has a slight influence on the longevity of labelled ECB. (author)

275

Metabolism of 32P-phosphate in guinea pig cerebrum and cerebellum in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of intraventricularly administered 32P-phosphate in the cerebral and cerebellar tissue of guinea pigs was analyzed in the acute state of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. One and six hours following administration of 32P-phosphate into the right lateral ventricle of the brain no differences were found in the specific activity of phosphates of the acid-soluble fraction of the brain tissue in the compared series of guinea pigs. The cerebellar tissue in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis displayed the specific activity of the total phosphorus of the acid-soluble fraction reduced by 27% one hour after administration and by 37% after six hours, and the specific activity of inorganic phosphates was reduced by 40% and by 45%, respectively. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis does not affect the content of total phosphorus in the acid-soluble fraction and in the fraction of inorganic phosphates in the cerebrum and cerebellum of guinea pigs. (author)

276

Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

277

Single-well technique using 32P for determining direction and velocity of groundwater flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiographic method for determining the direction, ?, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ?. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

278

Single-Well Technique using 32P for Determining Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiographic method for determining the direction, ?, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ?. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

279

Preparation of highly concentrated super-hot (?-32P)ATP using small-scale ion-exchange chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain a highly concentrated, pure and super-hot [?-32P]ATP, we improved the purification method of super-hot [?-32P]ATP which was synthesized by the method of Johnson and Walseth (1979). The super-hot [?-32P]ATP was synthesized in a relatively large volume (2 ml) of reaction mixture and purified using semi-micro scale anion exchange chromatography (Dowex 1 x 2, 60 - 70 ?l column volume). In combination with washing the reaction product with certain organic solvents, this chromatography technique makes it possible to obtain a highly concentrated and pure super-hot [?-32P]ATP (approx. 7000 Ci/mmol; 20 - 30 mCi/ml) from [32P]Pi of any commercial source in a good yield. (author)

280

Pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice. Methods: Mice received one dose of 14C-urea orally. 14C concentrations in blood, organs and excrements of mice were measured by a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Results: Mice received one dose of 2.96 MBq/kg of 14C-urea orally, the blood concentration-time curve conformed to two compartment open model, T1/2(?) was 0.72 h, T1/2(?) was 5.15 h, Tmax was 0.11 h, Cmax was 1.57 kBq/ml, plasma clearance was 0.617 L·kg-1·h-1, respectively. Measurements conducted at 0.25, 2, 24 h after deglutition, respectively. In the 12 organs measured, radioactivity was found most intensive in kidney, liver, lung and spleen, less in heart, stomach, intestines and muscles, and least in brain and fat tissue. The peak was found at 2 h in lung. Radioactivity in the 12 organs measured reduced by time in 24 h but relatively higher concentration standing in liver. In 24 h, excretion via urine was 45.45%, stool excretion 19.30%, and that was 64.75% of intake dosage in total. Conclusion: Orally administrated 14C-urea will be quickly absorbed and cleaned out, mainly via urine, no specific accumulation in 12 organs was found

281

In vitro synthesis and purification of UDP-[14C] galacturonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pectins comprise a major component of the cell wall and much research has focused on degradation of pectins during ripening and senescence. However, little research has been conducted on pectin synthesis, partly due to a lack of commercial availability of UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid for use as a substrate in assaying galacturonan synthase. We report on the modification and integration of several procedures to synthesize UDP-[14C] galacturonic acid from commercially available UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid. A microsomal pellet containing UDP-D-glucuronate-4-epimerase was extracted from 5-day-old mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus) and radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.) by ultracentrifugation at 30,000 rpm for 50 min. The UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid produced was separated from remaining UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and other products by electrophoresis in pyridine:acetate:H2O on silica gel. Spots were detected by autoradiography, eluted with 80% ethanol, and purified using anion exchange chromatography

282

Pyrolysis-combustion 14C dating of soil organic matter  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiocarbon (14C) dating of total soil organic matter (SOM) often yields results inconsistent with the stratigraphic sequence. The onerous chemical extractions for SOM fractions do not always produce satisfactory 14C dates. In an effort to develop an alternative method, the pyrolysis-combustion technique was investigated to partition SOM into pyrolysis volatile (Py-V) and pyrolysis residue (Py-R) fractions. The Py-V fractions obtained from a thick glacigenic loess succession in Illinois yielded 14C dates much younger but more reasonable than the counterpart Py-R fractions for the soil residence time. Carbon isotopic composition (??13C) was heavier in the Py-V fractions, suggesting a greater abundance of carbohydrate- and protein-related constituents, and ??13C was lighter in the Py-R fractions, suggesting more lignin- and lipid-related constituents. The combination of 14C dates and ??13C values indicates that the Py-V fractions are less biodegradation resistant and the Py-R fractions are more biodegradation resistant. The pyrolysis-combustion method provides a less cumbersome approach for 14C dating of SOM fractions. With further study, this method may become a useful tool for analyzing unlithified terrestrial sediments when macrofossils are absent. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, K.C.; Panno, S.V.; Coleman, D.D.; Liu, J.C.-L.; Brown, J.

2003-01-01

283

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2003-12-15

284

Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

285

Diffusion on donor elements (125Sb, 32P, /sup 74(73)/As) in polycrystalline silicon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diffusion of donor elements in fine-grained and coarse-grained polycrystalline silicon is studied in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0C. The radioisotopes 125Sb, 32P, and /sup 74(73)/As are used to measure concentration-depth profiles by the sectioning technique. By autoradiography the lateral distribution of the radiotracers over the sample surface is made visible. An extensive comparison with literature data is given. (author)

286

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

287

Studies on 32P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on 32P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed

288

Novel dose calculation and characterization of {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Derived from AAPM task group No. 60/149 protocol, applicable in treatment planning In this study, the two-dimensional dose distributions in water for a {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent have been calculated. The pure beta emitter source {sup 32}P which has been coated on Palmaz-Schatz stent is discussed. The dosimetric parameters required by the AAPM TG-60/149 formalism are discussed and calculated. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate at the reference point is found to be 2.8 Gy/{mu}Ci. Also in this study, the geometry function, G(r,{theta}), radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), have been calculated at distances from 1.8 to 9 mm. The results of these calculations have been compared with other published calculated and measured values for an actual same source. High dose variants were visible near the {sup 32}P stent surface, but these values decreased with depth in water rapidly. There is an acceptable agreement between the calculated data in this study and other published data for the same source, which validate our simulations method. (orig.)

Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute; Kiavar, Omid; Saidi, Pooneh [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Fatehi, Rozhin [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

2011-11-15

289

Novel dose calculation and characterization of 32P intravascular brachytherapy stent source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Derived from AAPM task group No. 60/149 protocol, applicable in treatment planning In this study, the two-dimensional dose distributions in water for a 32P intravascular brachytherapy stent have been calculated. The pure beta emitter source 32P which has been coated on Palmaz-Schatz stent is discussed. The dosimetric parameters required by the AAPM TG-60/149 formalism are discussed and calculated. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate at the reference point is found to be 2.8 Gy/?Ci. Also in this study, the geometry function, G(r,?), radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r,?), have been calculated at distances from 1.8 to 9 mm. The results of these calculations have been compared with other published calculated and measured values for an actual same source. High dose variants were visible near the 32P stent surface, but these values decreased with depth in water rapidly. There is an acceptable agreement between the calculated data in this study and other published data for the same source, which validate our simulations method. (orig.)

290

Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

1981-12-01

291

Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

292

Dose rate table for a 32P intravascular brachytherapy source from Monte Carlo calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of intravascular brachytherapy to prevent restenosis following angioplasty have shown many promising results. Accurate dose rate tables based on detailed models of the brachytherapy sources are necessary for treatment planning. This work will present an away and along dose rate table for a 27 mm long catheter based 32P beta source. MD-55-2 radiochromic film has been exposed at five different depths (0.5 mm-4 mm) in a polystyrene phantom using a 27 mm long Guidant 32P beta source. The total dose to the active region of the film was determined using the absolute detector response of the MD-55-2 radiochromic film. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B2 was also used to calculate the dose to the active region of the film using a detailed model of the source, encapsulation, and radiochromic film. The dose to film calculations showed good agreement with the measurements presented in this work with an average difference of 7%. The Monte Carlo calculations were also verified against previously published depth dose in water measurements determined using radiochromic film and plastic scintillator. The depth dose calculations in water showed good agreement with the previously published measurements with the calculations being about 2.5% lower than the film measurements and about 2.5% higher than the scintillator measurements. This work then uses the verified Monte Carlo code to present a dose rate table for the 32P intravascular beta source2P intravascular beta source

293

Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32P exchange technique. (author)

294

The efficiency of 32P, 15N foliage spray upon winter wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of foliage spray of KH2PO4 open wheat in heading stage is related to the content of effective P in the soil. In the irrigation field with high content of effective P and under the conditions of foliage spray of KH2PO4 (3/1000), the wheat grain output was increased by 4.5-12.93% in comparison with control plot. It was increased by 7-16.07% in the soil with low content of effective P. By using 32P-tracer determination it has been shown that the foliage spray of KH2PO4 could increase the content of 32P in the plant. The utilization coefficient of 32P by plant was 19.8% while N and P were sprayed together the utilization coefficient was 28.6%, but the absolute value of absorbing capacity, however, only amounted to 0.65-0.91% of the total content of P in the plant observed. By using 15N-tracing assay, it was found that the availability of 15N-fertilizer to the roots of wheat after heading stage was rather high. The efficiency of foliage spray of N-fertilizer were not significant

295

Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following 32P treatment for polycythemia vera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orally administrated NA2 32PO4 mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits ?-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that 32P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of 32P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by 32P treatment in PCV. (author)

296

Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

1990-01-01

297

Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

1987-01-01

298

Screening method of varietal resistance to planthoppers labelled with radioisotope 32P; pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The screening method of varietal resistance on the planthoppers has generally been evaluated as a reaction of plant after infesting insects. However, feeding amount of insects to the varieties was investigated in this experiment. The new method using 32P for rice varietal resistance to planthoppers was carried out through the following method. Insects tested were caged for a few hours on the plant which has absorbed 32P solution in small vials for 24-48 hours. After feeding, insects were killed in the refrigerator with formalin solution, and then were measured by the feeding amount as a count per minute (CPM) with the G.M. Counter. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The optimum amount of H3PO4 solution was found to be 2-3 ml. 2. Radioactivity of 0.7 ?Ci.32P was sufficient to check varietal difference of feeding amount by the brown planthopper. 3. Radioisotope was found from the body of insects but not in the cuticular layer nymphs cast off. (author)

299

Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

300

Synthesis of paclitaxel-C3'-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reductive cleavage of the C13 side chain of paclitaxel (3) followed by regioselective silylation gave 7-triethylsilybaccatin lll (6). Successive reaction of L-threonine methyl ester hydrochloride (7) with tertbutoxydiphenylchlorosilane, benzaldehyde-C7-14C and acetoxyacetyl chloride/triethylamine gave a 92:8 ratio (NMR) of azetidinones in 57% yield from 7. Removal of the chiral auxiliary, and 3-O-triethylsilylation and N-benzoylation provided (3R,4S)-cis-1-benzoyl-3-O-(triethylsilyl)-4-phenylazetidin-2-one-C 4-14C (18). Coupling of 18 and 6 followed by deprotection gave 1.12 g of paclitaxel-C3'-14C having a specific activity of 16.4 mCi/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 96%. (Author)

301

Synthesis of 14C-labelled etintidine hydrochloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two 14C preparations of the H2-antagonist etintidine hydrochloride are reported. In one, the label is introduced by reacting [1-14C] propargylamine with the appropriate isothiourea, followed by hydrochloride formation. This afforded a material of 95% radiochemical purity whose specific activity was 1.5 mCi/mmol. To obtain material labelled in an alternate position, uniformly labelled 14C-cysteamine hydrochloride was reacted with 4-methyl-5-hydroxymethyl imidazole hydrochloride to produce 4-methyl-5-[(2-aminoethyl)thiomethyl]imidazole. This was converted in three additional steps to etintidine hydrochloride yielding material of 96% radiochemical purity and specific activity of 9.0 mCi/mmol. (author)

302

Preparation of 14C-gossypol by incorporation of acetate-1-14C and acetate-2-14C by biosynthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Details for the germination of cotton seedlings and their utilization for incorporating 14C-labeled acetate into gossypol are presented. Methods for the isolation and purification of the biosynthesized gossypol are given. The specific activity of the gossypol obtained from root tissue and cotyledons had mean values for 8 preparations of 428.6 x 103 and 6.3 x 103 dpm/mg, respectively. Corresponding incorporations were 5.42 and 0.32 percent

303

The 14C isotopic ratio survey in brackish lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We collected water, bottom mud, and organism (fish, eelgrass, plankton, and benthos) samples from Lake Obuchinuma and analyzed their carbon concentrations and carbon isotopic ratios. The results showed a carbon concentration ranged from 7.4 to 13.2% (wet) in fish while the 14C isotopic ratio was from 104.4 to 111 pMC. The 14C isotope ratios and ? 13C value of planktons ranged from 104.3 to 105.5 pMC and from -25.7 to -21.2 per mille, indicating a value close to the bottom mud of organic soil. As a result, the 14C isotopic ratios of the smelt, Starry flounder, and gobies sampled in Lake Obuchinuma are 111.0 pMC, 108.0 pMC, and 104.6 pMC, respectively. In contrast to this, the 14C isotopic ratio of inorganic carbon in the lake water is lower than organisms. The 14C isotopic ratio of bottom mud is 102.1 - 104.9 pMC, which is a value close to that of the plankton. The obtained correlation of ? 13C and ? 15N value can indicate the food chain structure in Lake Obuchinuma. The major primary production is originated from phytoplankton in Lake Obuchinuma, and the food chain leads to fish through benthos. The 13C and 14C isotopic ratios for the organism indicated that these two isotopes are correlative and show similar behavior in the food chain. (author)

304

Endosperm protein synthesis and L-[35S]methionine incorporation in maize kernels cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to examine protein synthesis and L-[35S]methionine incorporation into the endosperm of Zea mays L. kernels developing in vitro. Two-day-old kernels of the inbred line W64A were placed in culture on a defined medium containing 10 microCuries L-[35S]methionine per milliliter (13 milliCuries per millimole) and harvested at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 days after pollination. Cultured kernels attained a final endosperm mass of 120 milligrams compared to 175 milligrams for field-grown controls. Field and cultured kernels had similar concentrations (microgram per milligram endosperm for total protein, albumin plus globulin, zein, and glutelin fractions at most kernel ages. Sodium, dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing patterns for endosperm proteins were similar for field and cultured kernels throughout development. By 15 days, over 70% of the L-[35S]methionine taken up was present in endosperm proteins. Label incorporation visualized by fluorography generally followed the protein intensity of the stained gels. The high methionine content, low molecular weight zeins (i.e. 15 and 9 kilodaltons) were highly labeled. All of the radioactivity in hydrolyzed zein samples was recovered in the methionine peak indicating minimal conversion to L-[35S]cysteine. The procedure described here is suitable for long term culture and labeling experiments in which continued kernel deveexperiments in which continued kernel development is required

305

[(35)S]sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of [(35)S]-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. [(35)S] incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect [(35)S] incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences [(35)S] sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes

306

Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on agricultural environment and ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimehypo is a nereistoxin derivative, which was developed and manufactured in China. In order of appraise its environmeatal safety comprehensively, the radioisotopic tracer technique and other methods were applied to investigate on the effects of 35S-labelled dimehypo (35S-dimehypo) on agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorptivity and high mobility, especially water-carrying mobility in soil, fair stability in soil and water, and slowness in degradation. Its main product of degradation, nereistoxin, was of lower mobility than its material compound in soil. 35S-dimehypo could enter the bodies of grass carps Ctenopharyngodon idellus along with bails or via the respiratory tracts, and could be excreted fast after the fish were removed from the contaminated source. Liquid and granulated 35S-dimehypo were fed to quail and fowls respectively, and could also be excreted rapidly in excretion and urine. Its much less distribution coefficient in caprylalcoholwater system suggested no accumulation in the adipose tissue of organism. The release of its effective composition in the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete

307

Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO42--S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO42--S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 ?g/g dry needles. Translocation of 35S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

308

Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

309

Proteinases release 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with 35SO4 (50?ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable 35S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of 35S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released 35S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released 35S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW ? 106), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 105). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly

310

Field study on the initial 14C content as a limiting factor in 14C groundwater dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the depth distribution of 14C and 13C in multilevel wells installed in a shallow aquifer system in the area of Liedern/Bocholt, North-Rhine Westphalia are presented and discussed. Groundwater ages, determined from tritium, 3He and radiogenic 4He measurements, range from 20 years in the upper part of the profile (10 m) to some hundreds of years in lower groundwater layers (40 m). The surprisingly strong vertical variation of 14C and 13C partly related to spatial variations in carbon hydrochemistry in the infiltration area upgradient of the wells. However, extremely low 14C of about 40 pmc signalizes an influence of inactive carbon, originating from microbial oxidation of fossil organic deposits on pleistocene aquifer sediments, on the groundwater carbonate system. Even groundwater 14C at a depth of more than 15 metres below ground surface shows this influence of oxidized fossil organic carbon. The further decrease of 14C in the lower groundwater layers is due to radioactive decay. The existence of some hundred years old groundwater is supported by radiogenic 4He measurements and geohydraulic considerations. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

311

Incorporation of (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incorporation of (2-14C)acetate and (1-14C)palmitate into the lipids of washed ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa was followed up to 4 and 2 hr respectively. There was significant incorporation of acetate into the total lipids both in the presence and absence of glucose in the medium. The presence of glucose (0.5%) in the medium significantly stimulated the incorporation of acetate into the sperm lipids at 2 hr. Inclusion of 3% bovine serum albumin in the incubation medium significantly stimulated the acetate incorporation at 4 hr whereas no such effect was observed at 2 hr of incubation. The incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids was significantly high in the presence of glucose and was highest at 1 hr of incubation. No incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate was observed in the absence of glucose. The greater extent of palmitate incorporation than acetate suggested that the de novo synthesis of lipids using 14C-acetate was comparatively lower than utilization of 14-palmitate for esterification with sperm lipids in buffaloes. (author)

312

Verification of the dispersion model by airborne carbon 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides insight in the verification of the Lagrangean dispersion model for dose calculation in the environment. The verification method was based on the measurement of the airborne carbon 14C concentration which can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. The results proved that this method is sensitive enough and that the sensitivity analysis can be used for model verification or for identification of possible improvements of the used meteorological data. The Lagrangean model is used at Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP) for calculation of dispersion coefficients and dose in the environment. To show compliance with the authorized dose limits it is required to present a realistic calculation of the dose to the public. This is a numerical model designed to calculate air pollution dispersion in the area of 25km x 25km. The model uses on-line local meteorological measurements. The same model was already verified for another location around a coal- fired power plant based on emission and environmental measurements of SO2. Krsko NPP is placed near the Sava River in a semiopened basin surrounded by several hills. The region is characterized by low winds and frequent thermal inversions. This paper presents a verification of the short range dispersion model based on the fact that the airborne carbon 14C concentration can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. Other radioactive effluents are not detectable in the environment and carbon 14C measurements are accurate enough to detect small deviations from natural 14C levels and to compare them with the calculated concentration based on 14C effluents. The most of airborne 14C is released during the refuelling outage. Within the pre-selected period of ten days, increased effluents of 14C in the form of CO2 were sampled from the plant ventilation. The average atmospheric dispersion parameters were calculated for two locations in the environment where CO2 sampling plates were installed. Increased 14C activities were detected at both locations close to the plant for this relatively short time period. (author)

313

Biliary excretion of intravenous [14C] omeprazole in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the biliary excretion of [14C] omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of [14C] omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion

314

Method of preparing D-maltose(U-14C)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-labelled D-maltose is prepared from a polysaccharide soluble in water, separated from green and/or blue-green algae in the course of the complex processing of the radioactive biomass. A buffered solution of the said polysaccharide is hydrolyzed with beta amylase. The maltose obtained is separated from the unconverted dextrin using paper chromatography. The radiochemical yield is about 35%. The method allows preparing 14C-labelled D-maltose with an activity of about 100 mCi/millimole. (Ha)

315

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S ? with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S ?, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S ?. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S ? irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

316

Incorporation of U-14C-glucose into the lipids U-14C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of U-14C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with 14C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The 14C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. (author)

317

Migration of 14C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system after 14C-acetic acid breakdown by microorganisms below the plow layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Migration of 14C derived from 14C-acetic acid was examined by using soils sampled from paddies in four administrative areas in Japan (Aomori, Yamanashi, Ehime and Okinawa) and rice plant in a tracer experiment to understand the fate of 14C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system. The loss of 14C radioactivity levels derived from 14C-acetic acid was caused by soil microorganism breakdown. A part of the 14C fixation to soil was caused by microbial assimilation into the fatty acid fraction. 14C moved upward via two different types of 14C dynamics in soil: quick movement upward; and constant but slow movement upward. 14C was highly assimilated into the plant panicle and that was caused by the root-uptake and the transfer of 14C. Migration of 14C derived from 14C-acetic acid relied heavily upon changes of chemical forms and characteristics of 14C-compound as caused by microorganisms in soil.

318

Convenient preparative synthesis of ( sup 14 C)trehalose from ( sup 14 C)glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose. This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize ({sup 14}C)trehalose from exogenous ({sup 14}C)glucose by using intact bacteria of a mutant (DF214) that could not metabolize glucose. The total yield of radiochemically pure trehalose from glucose was routinely more than 50%.

Brand, B.; Boos, W. (Univ. of Konstanz (Germany, F.R.))

1989-09-01

319

Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose. This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria of a mutant (DF214) that could not metabolize glucose. The total yield of radiochemically pure trehalose from glucose was routinely more than 50%

320

Residues of 14C-lindane in stored faba beans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 70% of the applied 14C-lindane penetrated into stored faba beans during 30 weeks. The percentage of bound residues in the grains did not exceed 3%. Feeding of the bound residues to mice considerably reduced body weight gain. (author)

321

Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

322

Recent mass measurements by 14C induced transfer reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors describe the measurement of the mass and excited level energies of sup(67,68)Ni by the reaction of 14C with 70Ge together with the determination of the half-life of the O2+ state of 68Ni. (HSI)

323

Process for the production of 14C-labelled compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patent describes the production of 14C-labelled compounds from solution with the aid of algae. A microorganism of the Anacystic species is used, preferably Anacystis nidulans which is also known as 'Indiana 625'. The experiments and their results are described in detail. (UWI)

324

Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

325

14C measurements in Bulgarian and Hungarian wines from 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of 14C in ethanol samples extracted from wines of different wine districts in Bulgaria and Hungary in 1986 showed that the atmospheric reservoir remained practically undisturbed by the emission due to the Chernobyl accident. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

326

Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

327

Applications of AMS 14C on Climate and Archaeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with 14C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast

328

In vivo metabolism of (4.14C) dehydroepiandrosterone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hepatic metabolites of 4.14C-dehydroepiandrosterone in the rat, were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after administration via portal vein injection, intragastric gavage or intraperitoneally via an Alzet mini-pump. Ater intravenous administration of the radiolabelled steroid, the livers were removed at varying times, homogenized and the protein precipitated with alcohol. Forty-five seconds after intravenous administration, 75% of the 14C was present in the liver. The recovered radiometabolites consisted of 40% dehydroepiandrosterone, 48% 5-androsten-3?,17?-diol and 5?-androstan-3?,17?-diol, and 10% 16?-hydroxy dehydroepiandrosterone. Ninety seconds after injection, none of the administered radiolabelled dehydroepiandrosterone was found in the liver. After 3 minutes, only 20% of the injected 14C was recovered. In the first 24 hours, 75% of the 14C administered ntragastrically was recovered in the bile from the rats with cannulated bile ducts. The radiolabelled biliary metabolites from the peritoneal implant experiment were similar to those from the intragatric experiment. Dehydroepiandrosterone is rapidly and extensively metabolized in vivo. The radiometabolites found appear to be related to the hepatic tissue concentration/time

329

Decommissioning of a Small Laboratory that Used 14C for Research Activities in Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Centre for Neurological Restoration (CIREN) used 14C unsealed sources for radiochemical research. This practice was authorized by the Regulatory Authority through a registration granted in 2003 and valid for 4 years. The institution decided to use an alternative non-radiological technique, so the institution requested release of the radiochemical laboratory from regulatory control. For decommissioning operations, the CIREN contracted the services of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR), which included the collection of radioactive wastes remaining in the facility, the radiological survey and characterization of the facility. It was fortunate that the historical records of CIREN were generally very good. A thorough revision of the available documentation (authorization, source inventories, inspection reports, radioactive waste collection reports) revealed that the only radionuclide used in the last 3 years was 14C; but between 1993 and 1996, other radionuclides, such as: 3H, 51Cr, 125I and 32P were used in the laboratory. The materials containing very short lived radionuclides had decayed to negligible levels. The activity of tritium that had been in use was very low, with the total activity received in the laboratory being only 9.25 MBq in 1993, 268 MBq in 1994 and 37 MBq in 1995. The total decay corrected activity for tritium remaining at the last audit carried out i remaining at the last audit carried out in 2005, based on activity received into the laboratory during 1993-1995 was estimated to be 174 MBq. This activity is below the clearance levels established in Cuban Regulation in terms of annual release rate for liquid discharges. Moreover, most of the materials contaminated with tritium had been previously collected as radioactive wastes. For these reasons, it was considered unnecessary to include tritium in the radiological characterization of the laboratory. From the decommissioning perspective only 14C was considered as the radiological inventory. Because of the radiological characteristics of this radionuclide, the reference levels for decommissioning were considered only in terms of surface contamination (fixed and non-fixed). The unconditional clearance levels for solid materials with low radioactive contents and for liquid and gas discharges to the environment are established in Cuban Regulation (National Nuclear Safety Centre - CNSN) in terms of activity concentration. For 14C the clearance level is 30 Bq/g for solid materials, 2 360 Bq/L for liquids and 47.6 Bq/m3 for gaseous discharges. An annual release of 10 GBq is authorized for liquid discharges. Unconditional clearance levels in terms of surface contamination are not contained in the regulations. For the radiological survey and decommissioning purposes it was necessary to derive surface contamination limits, in order to quantify the exposure risk due to non-fixed and/or fixed surface contamination. It was also necessary to define how to measure the derived surface contamination. The radiological characterization was carried out after all radioactive wastes were collected from the facility and transferred to the waste management facility. This waste consisted of unused solutions in vials and compressible solid waste.

330

Physicochemical behaviour of isolated DNA and 32P-incorporation in rat tissues following administration of iodine-125  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P-incorporation in testis and spleen and the effect of storage on the isolated spleen DNA of rats pre-exposed to iodine-125 for several weeks have been studied. Though a considerable decrease of 32P-incorporation in DNA and RNA occurs in testis, spleen shows enhanced incorporation of 32P in DNA and RNA. The studies on optical absorption and viscous flow of DNA indicated base changes and fragmentation on storage of DNA isolated from iodine-125 treated rats. (author)

331

32P plant injection and leaf smearing technique for root distribution studies of ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P plant injection and leaf smearing techniques were compared for root distribution studies of ragi in solution culture. Specific activity (activity/mgP) was more or less constant in different root sections after 7 days of plant injection and leaf smearing. 32P activity was 2.8 and 0.82 percent after 7 days in plant injected and leaf smeared roots. 32P plant injection technique seems to be better than leaf smearing as there was very little activity in roots in the latter technique as compared to the former. (author)

332

Potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant following administration of sodium 32P-phosphate to the mother  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 32P uptake test to diagnose an intraocular tumour was performed on a lactating woman. Breast feeding of her infant had been stopped and after injection of the 32P, a sample of breast milk on two consecutive days was collected. The concentration of 32P in the milk was greater in the second sample than the first, but it was calculated that the potential whole body radiation dose to her infant on the second day would not have exceeded 180 ?Sv(18 mrem). (author)

333

Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

2010-01-01

334

32P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. DNA was isolated from the livers of these wild fish and from control specimens which were raised in clean aquariums. DNA was enzymatically digested to normal and adducted nucleotides, and hydrophobic/bulky adducts were enriched in the digests either by preparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, or selective nuclease P1 dephosphorylation of normal nucleotides. Aromatic DNA-carcinogen adducts were then quantitated using 32P-postlabeling analysis. Using both adduct enrichment procedures, chromatograms derived from DNA of fish from polluted areas showed a diffuse diagonal radioactive zone not present in DNA from aquarium raised fish. The diagonal zone appeared to consist at least in part of multiple overlapping discrete adduct spots which could be partially separated by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography prior to 32P-postlabeling analysis, and most of which were more strongly retained on a reverse-phase column than the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct. The behavior of the adducts in the diagonal radioactive zone and of their unlabeled precursors is consistent with their identification as nucleotide adducts of a variety of bulky hydrophobic aromatic environmental compounds. Total pollutatic environmental compounds. Total pollution-related adduct levels as analyzed by HPLC adduct enrichment and 32P-postlabeling were 70.1 +/- 29 (SD) nmol/mol normal nucleotide in fish from the Buffalo River, and 52 and 56 nmol/mol for two specimens from the Detroit River

335

Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5?M, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 ?M. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake ( 70%) indicating the presence of >10?M particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

336

Direct preparation of 14C-labelled 5-allyl- and 5-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine from [2-14C]2'-deoxyuridine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[2-14C]5-Allyl-2'-deoxyuridine was synthesized directly from [2-14C]2'-deoxyuridine using mercury, palladium, and 3-chloropropene. [2-14C]5-Propyl-2'-deoxyuridine was obtained by hydrogenation of the [14C]5-allyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Advantages of the synthetic method and its application to the preparation of other radiolabeled 5-alkyl/alkenyl-2'-deoxyuridines are discussed. (author)

337

Irradiation of osseous tumors with 32P/33P-HEDP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this study is the development and clinical implementation of 1-hydroxy-ethylidine-diphosphonate (HEDP) labeled with ?- emitting isotopes of phosphorus as an agent for therapy of metastatic osteogenic sarcoma and skeletal metastases of other tumors. Studies conducted in the past year were developed to determine hematopoietic effects of 32P-HEDP alone and in combination with high dose methotrexate with citrovorum factor rescue in patients with metastatic osteogenic sarcoma. There appears to be no acute effects on the hematopoietic system which can be attributed to HEDP

338

The use of 32p labelled fertilizer in field and greenhouse [videorecording].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This training film deals with the use of 32p-labelled materials in field and greenhouse experimentation in soil-plant relationship studies. All technical aspects, including safe handling and radiation protection procedures to be considered in the layout and harvesting of field experiments are documented in detail.Procedures followed in the evaluation of P fertilizers (such as rock phosphates) under greenhouse conditions are described. Several soil injection techniques abvailable for the determination of the root activity pattern of trees are shown.

339

Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

340

32P tracer investigation on phosphorus utilization by soybean in vertisol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pot culture experiment was carried out with four levels of phosphorus using 32P tagged superphosphate (viz. 0,40,80 and 120 kg P2O5/ha) and three varieties of soybean namely Punjab-1, JS-2 and Gaurav to study the uptake and utilization of applied fertilizer phosphorus in vertisol of Jabalpur. Dry matter yield, total P uptake, and percent P derived from fertilizer increased significantly with increasing levels of phosphorus. But percent utilization of added P showed a reverse trend, at all the stages of crop growth. Grain and straw yield at harvest increased significantly with increasing P levels in all the three varieties. (author)

341

Braquiterapia del Espacio Subaracnoideo y Ventrículos Cerebrales con el Radiocoloide Fosfato Crómic 32P (CROP.  

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Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de Braquiterapia del espacio subaracnoideo mediante la introducción de un coloide de FostatoCrómico 32P (CROP en el LCR. Se usaron 90 conejos y los coloides fueron inyectados por vía cisternal. Se comprobó la distribución uniforme y permanencia del CROP en la pia-aracnoides de todo el espacio subaracnoideo y superficie cortical y en el epéndimo ventricular mediante autorradiografías y cortes histológicos con técnica de stripping film. La distribución del 32P en hígado (10%, bazo (7% y médula ósea (2% y otros órganos no provoca efectos significativos. Se comprueba la tolerancia neurológica perfecta para los coloides de partículas finas de menos de 100 nm (CROP, y la neurotoxicidad de los coloides de partículas grandes mayores a 100 nm.. Con altas dosis los estudios histológicos demostraron la ausencia de edema o de lesiones en células y tejido nerviosos. Hasta 6 meses de observación ninguno de los animales mostró trastornos neurológicos atribuíbles al CROP, ni con la repetición de sus aplicaciones.A method of brachitherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P in colloidal form (CROP introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%, spleen (7% and bone marrow (2% and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP was proved and no severe neurotoxic effets where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications.

Girado, Martín.

2003-07-01

342

Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

1982-01-01

343

Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

344

Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal 32P uptake at various times of injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid 32P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased

345

Evaluation of efficiency of P sources for rice using 32P as tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P tracer studies were conducted in micro-plot and pot experiments to evaluate the efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates containing 30, 50 and 70% of the P in the water-soluble form and tri- and tetra-ammonium polyphosphates, in comparison with water-soluble phosphate for rice grown on a light-textured acid alluvials oil. Ammonium nitrate phosphate containing 50% of the P in the water-soluble form was as efficient as water-soluble phosphates on this soil in respect of dry-matter production, P uptake and utilization of applied P. (author)

346

Studies on /sup 32/P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on /sup 32/P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed.

Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

1982-01-01

347

Synthesis of [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine  

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The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to {gamma}-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring {gamma}-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, {gamma}-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or {gamma}-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-{sup 14}C]glycine betaine and [methyl-{sup 14}C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author).

Loester, H.; Seim, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry

1996-02-01

348

Anthropogenic 14C in the natural (aquatic) environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing global awareness of the radiological significance of 14C releases from the nuclear and radiochemical industries has resulted in a number of studies within the last decade investigating the atmospheric releases and their effect on the terrestrial biosphere. The basis of this study was to determine the behaviour and environmental distribution of anthropogenically produced 14C released to the aquatic environment from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Most sampling was undertaken in the Irish Sea with smaller scale studies being carried out in the Bristol Channel and the Grand Union Canal. Within the study area, from Earnse Point 40 km south of Sellafield, northwards to the Clyde Sea area, preliminary studies on intertidal biota samples ie. mussels, winkles and seaweed indicated enriched 14C specific activities in all the samples relative to the current ambient level of 115.4 pM. The highest activities were observed in the immediate vicinity of the discharge location; mussels with a measured activity of 787 pM, winkles of 613 pM and seaweed of 415 pM. The 14C specific activity observed at most sites appeared to be organism dependent with mussels>winkles>seaweed. This is the result of differences in the uptake mechanisms of the organisms and indicates that the dissolved inorganic carbon and the particulate material within the water column are enriched in 14C . However, on analysis of the bio4C . However, on analysis of the biogeochemical fractions of the water column, enriched 14C activities were observed only in the DIC fraction which could explain those activities found in the seaweed but not those in the mussels and winkles. Enriched 14C activities were found in the phytoplankton, indicating that there is a source of enriched organic particulate material within the water column as a result of photosynthetic uptake of enriched DIC, however this will be a seasonal effect. Nevertheless, this enrichment is still not high enough to support the activities observed in the mussels and winkles, although, this was only a single sample and may not be a true reflection of the activities present. A similar anomaly is present in the activities found in bottom-dwelling fish and the sediments on which they feed; the fish are more highly enriched than the organic fraction of the sediments. These discrepancies may point to higher discharges having occurred in the past and/or to areas within the Irish Sea which are of a more enriched nature and were not investigated during this study. The geographical distribution of Sellafield-derived 14C in the DIC was determined by extensive sampling within the Irish Sea and Scottish coastal water areas. 137Cs, a known conservative radioactive tracer of water movement, was also analysed at the sites to allow comparison with the chemical behaviour of 14C . The results indicate that the behaviour of 14C in seawater, like that of 137Cs, is largely conservative. There was, however, a slight increase in the 14C/137Cs ratio with increasing distance from Sellafield. This may be a reflection of biological uptake of carbon or the desorption of 137Cs from the sediments. A more complex treatment of the data was carried out using a compartmental model, based on the hydrography of the study area, which was initially developed from 137Cs data. The agreement between the predicted and observed values indicates that the 14C distribution (as DIC) is being determined by water movement and the local current system ie. 14C in the DIC is behaving in a relatively conservative manner in the water column. Similar observations were made in the Bristol Channel as a result of discharges from the radiochemical plant owned by Amersham International plc ie. intertidal biota and organic sediments were enriched, and the DIC of the water column was also enriched with decreasing activities observed with increasing distance from the point of release. However, at this site, the POC and DOC were also enriched in 14C, indicating that the discharges are in a different chemical form from those at Sellafield. Given the

349

Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

350

32P-adduct assay: Comparative recoveries of structurally diverse DNA adducts in the various enhancement procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A (32)P-adduct assay for the measurement of low levels (1 adduct per 10(sup 7) nucleotides) of binding of carcinogens to DNA has been reported previously. In this procedure, DNA is enzymatically hydrolyzed to 3'-monophosphates of normal nucleosides and adducts, which are 5'-(32)P-labeled by T4 polynucleotide kinase and (lambda(32)P)ATP. Labeled adducts are resolved by TLC. Enrichment of adducts by extraction in 1-butanol or digestion with nuclease P1 prior to (32)P-labeling, however, increased the sensitivity of detection for many adducts to a level of 1 per 10(sup 9-10) nucleotides, although adduct recovery particularly in the latter assay depended on the chemical nature of adducts. The observation that chemical structure of an adduct may be detrimental in its recovery in the enzyme- and extraction-mediated enrichment procedures may serve as a probe in the structural characterization of adducts of unknown carcinogens

351

Stability studies of 14C-Cytostasan solutions and its extraction using dicarbolide of cobalt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of 14C-Cytostasan (1, bendamustine), in water solutions was investigated. In distilled water a rapid degradation of carrier-free 14C-1 occured. The degradation products of 14C-1 are 14C-mono-hydroxy-1 and 14C-dihydroxy-1 (evidence with TLC). The degradation rate of 14C-1 was reduced by addition of unlabelled 1 to the 14C-1 stock solution. The possibility of using distribution coefficient as a stability indicator of 14C-1 solutions was investigated. A number of organic solvents ranging from polar to nonpolar were used for extraction of 14C-1 from water solution. Only ethyl acetate was slightly effective. The distribution coefficient of 14C-1 was dramatically enhanced in presence of dicarbolide of cobalt (DC-H+) in benzene at extraction from HClO4 (0.5 mol·l-1). (author)

352

Combinatorial and synergistic properties of CaMV 35S enhancer subdomains.  

OpenAIRE

We have analyzed expression conferred by five subdomains of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S enhancer in mature transgenic plants. Expression was detected from subdomains that gave no expression at earlier stages of development indicating developmental regulation of expression and confirming the modular organization of the enhancer. In several cases the expression patterns are highly restricted in cell type, providing useful markers for developmental studies. Comparison of expression p...

Benfey, P. N.; Ren, L.; Chua, N. H.

1990-01-01

353

Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

354

The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride  

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The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

1989-01-01

355

Effect of some organic wastes on the absorption and translocation of 32P in Vigna mungo (L.) hepper seedling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aqueous extracts of all the organic wastes namely Lantana camara, Chromalaena odoratum and Trifolium spp. in general inhibited the uptake of 32P in Vigna mungo seedlings. The aqueous extract of all these organic wastes at all concentrations, on the other hand, promoted significantly the distribution of 3'2P to stem and leaves than roots. The extent of distribution in stem and leaves, however, varied with the organic wastes and its concentrations. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

356

The kinetics of 32P incorporation into brain and liver ribosomal proteins from 14-day old chick embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P - orthophosphate was introduced intraamnionally in 14 days old chick embryos. After 4, 10 and 20 hours of incubation specific activity of ribosomal proteins and their fractions were assayed in brain and liver tissues. The rate of liver ribosomal protein phosphorylation was higher than the rate of phosphorylation of brain ribosomal proteins. In both tissues f1 fraction had higher rate of turnover of 32P than f2 fraction. (author)

357

Biosynthesis of lutropin in ovine pituitary slices: incorporation of [35S]sulfate in carbohydrate units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulfate incorporation into carbohydrate of lutropin (LH) has been studied in sheep pituitary slices using H2(35)SO4. Labeled ovine LH was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-100 and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography from both the incubation medium and tissue extract. Autoradiography of the gel showed only two protein bands which comigrated with the alpha and beta subunits of ovine LH in both the purified ovine LH and the immunoprecipitate obtained with LH-specific rabbit antiserum. Furthermore, [35S]sulfate was also incorporated into several other proteins in addition to LH. The location of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ in the oligosaccharides of ovine LH was evidenced by its presence in the glycopeptides obtained by exhaustive Pronase digestion. The location and the point of attachment of sulfate in the carbohydrate unit were established by the isolation of 4-O-[35S]sulfo-N-acetylhexosaminyl-glycerols and 4-O-[35S] sulfo-N-acetylglucosaminitol from the Smith degradation products and by the release of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ by chondro-4-sulfatase. Thus, the present line of experimentation indicates the presence of sulfate on both the terminal N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine in the oligosaccharide chains of the labeled ovine LH

358

Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish System have been studied. The results show: (1) when 2 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the early rice, there is 0.01 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.55 ppm in the fish; (2) when 3 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the late rice, there is 0.04 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.40 ppm in the fish. ADI of methamidophos is 0.0006 mg/kg body according to FAD/WHO recommendation in 1985, so Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in the rice is 0.078 ppm, MRL in the fish is 2.3 ppm. The residue in the rice and fish does not exceed the MRL by FAO/WHO recommendation, when the amount of used methamidophos was controlled. 35S-methamidophos in the simulated system disappears as exponential function. The half-life of 35S-methamidophos on the Azolla, water, fish and straw are 1.5, 2.8, 6.2 and 2.2 days respectively

359

Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation  

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We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

1986-06-01

360

Differences in phospholipid incorporation of 32P relevant to alpha 1-receptor coupling events in rat and rabbit aorta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Labelling of membrane phospholipids with 32P was compared in rat and rabbit aorta under basal conditions and during alpha 1-receptor stimulation. Incorporation of 32P proceeded at a significantly higher rate in rat tissue. The ratio of basal labelling following 30 min of incubation for rat/rabbit arteries was 4.8 for phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PIP2), 6.0 for phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP), 9.0 for phosphatidylinositol (PI), 6.0 for phosphatidic acid (PA) and 18.7 for phosphatidylcholine (PC). Addition of 10(-5)M norepinephrine (NE) to labelled tissues resulted in a similar decrease in [32P]-PIP2 in both rat and rabbit tissues. Greater percent increases were seen in rabbit tissue of [32P]-PA (4-6 fold), and [32P]-PI (3-5 fold), when measured over the initial 10 minutes of agonist exposure. While NE caused a gradual increase of 32P incorporation into PC in rabbit aorta, reaching 180% above control after 10 minutes, PC labelling was not increased in rat aorta. Our findings provide evidence for the enhanced labelling of rat vs rabbit aorta phospholipids. This may account for differences in receptor responses and associated Ca+ movements which have been previously recognized to exist between aorta of these two species

361

Histological study of the early stage of 32P-induced experimental osteosarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of 32P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

362

Histological study of the early stage of {sup 32}P-induced experimental osteosarcoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 32}P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of {sup 32}P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

Yahagi, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shunzo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

1998-04-01

363

The 14C partitioning of [1,2-14C] sodium acetate in three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in Japanese agricultural soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocarbon (14C) partitioning ratios in the soil solid, liquid, and gas phases was determined by batch sorption experiments using 63 paddy soil and 79 upland soil samples to understand the behavior of 14C in agricultural fields. The mean 14C partitioning ratios for all agricultural soil samples were 35 % for the soil solid phase, 5 % for the liquid phase, and 60 % for the gas phase. A comparison of the 14C partitioning between paddy and upland samples showed significant differences. This difference was caused by soil solution pH. Land use would affect the behavior of the 14C as the sodium acetate form. (author)

364

Synthesis of the serotonin ligands, RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C from a common labelled intermediate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two approaches towards the synthesis of 3-chloro-4-amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride-[14C], which served as the common intermediate in the preparation of the two compounds, RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C are described. Although nucleophilic incorporation of the label via KCN was superior to an electrophilic sequence using CO2, the latter approach was adopted since the nitrile could not be hydrolyzed to the desired acid. The specific activities of RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C were 56.8 mCi/mmol and 53.7 mCi/mmol, respectively. (Author)

365

Synthesis of triamcinolone acetonide-4-/sup 14/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The free hydroxyl groups in triamcinolone acetonide (1) were protected as silyl ethers to give the bis-silyloxy derivative 4. Compound 4 was then hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ..delta../sup 4/-3-oxo steroid 5 which was then converted to the enol-lactone 7 under selective reaction conditions. The enol-lactone 7 was subjected to Grignard reaction with /sup 14/C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 8a which on subsequent treatment with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide gave 4-/sup 14/C-..delta../sup 4/-3-oxo derivative 9. Compound 9 was heated with selenium dioxide in t-butanol containing pyridine to give the ..delta..sup(1,4)-3-oxo derivative 10. Removal of the silyl protecting groups was readily accomplished by heating 10 with hydrochloric acid in methanol-tetrahydrofuran solution to give the title compound 11.

Rao, P.N.; Cessac, J.W.; Hill, K.A. (Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, San Antonio, TX (USA))

1982-10-01

366

Fate of 14C-monocrotophos in lactating goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-monocrotophos was fed daily to two groups of lactating goats for five days at 5 and 10 mg per goat per day. The radioactivity in urine and faeces accounted for 50% and 7%, respectively, 24 hours after the first dose. About 25% of the radiocarbon was found in various organs. About 1-2% of the administered radiocarbon was secreted in milk. It was concluded that monocrotophos was rapidly eliminated through urine and faeces of teddy goats. 14C-residues in milk and urine were tentatively identified as monocrotophos, dimethylphosphate and N-desmethyl monocrotophos. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to 50% 24 hours after treatment, but no toxic symptoms were observed. (author)

367

Feasibility studies of RFQ based 14C accelerator mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrostatic accelerators with terminal voltage less than 1 MeV have been successfully used for 14C AMS. This contribution shows that a small RFQ accelerator may also be suitable for AMS 14C measurements. A well-designed RFQ accelerator can realize a low energy spread and high isotopic selection with a length of less than 1 m and reasonable power consumption. Compared with small tandem accelerators, a RFQ does not need isolation gas and can accept much higher beam currents. Its stripper would be at ground potential and there would be no further acceleration after stripping, so the background from charge exchange processes should be lower. The RFQ design and system are described

368

Synthesis of triamcinolone acetonide-4-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The free hydroxyl groups in triamcinolone acetonide (1) were protected as silyl ethers to give the bis-silyloxy derivative 4. Compound 4 was then hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ?4-3-oxo steroid 5 which was then converted to the enol-lactone 7 under selective reaction conditions. The enol-lactone 7 was subjected to Grignard reaction with 14C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 8a which on subsequent treatment with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide gave 4-14C-?4-3-oxo derivative 9. Compound 9 was heated with selenium dioxide in t-butanol containing pyridine to give the ?sup(1,4)-3-oxo derivative 10. Removal of the silyl protecting groups was readily accomplished by heating 10 with hydrochloric acid in methanol-tetrahydrofuran solution to give the title compound 11. (author)

369

Dating of groundwater with tritium and 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shallow groundwater can be dated with some accuracy on the basis of its bomb tritium content if the unsaturated soil cover and the aquifer itself is sufficiently homogeneous. A few examples from the Rhine valley are presented. The decrease in tritium level from the water table to a few metres below is nearly two orders of magnitude. Agreement between the measured or estimated variation of bomb tritium in rain during the past decade and the tritium found in shallow groundwater can be obtained if one takes into account that (a) practically no summer rain reaches the water table, and (b) water is mixed by diffusion. Both effects can also be observed in the soil moisture of the unsaturated soil above the water table. Carbon-14 increase in groundwater due to bombs is delayed compared to tritium, the reasons being delay in the biological system and exchange with the carbonate in the soil. Nevertheless lysimeters show a marked increase of 14C, which depends on the plant cover, being high in a plant-covered lysimeter and low in a bare one. A simple model is presented, which allows the evaluation of the influence of exchange on the 14C age obtained. It turns out that the deviation from the true age depends on the ratio of the carbonate content in the aquifer material to the carbonate content of the water, on the specific contact surface or the grain size but not on the groundwater velocity. On the basis of this model the experimental finding that 1414C ages are usually in agreement with other age estimates despite the loss by exchange is plausible owing to the fact that only material of sufficiently coarse grain size can make up a reasonable aquifer. Assuming only exchange with a monomolecular surface layer of the carbonate grains one finds that the 14C age is likely to differ by not more than a factor of two in the most unfavourable case. Under natural conditions (steady state of cosmic-ray-produced 14C) the 14C content of shallow groundwater is hardly influenced at all by exchange, even within very finely grained soil. In the case where the 14C level is rising because of bomb testing, a new equilibrium with the monolayer must be established, by which the 14C increase in groundwater is delayed. The extent of carbonate exchange has been studied under laboratory conditions in a column. The delay of the 14C pulse in spiked water under the conditions chosen is such that the spike travels with approximately half the velocity of the water. From this and from the dispersion observed one can conclude that equilibrium with the surface monolayer is reached within a few hours. Further studies at elevated temperatures indicate the extent to which penetration into deep layers must be taken into account. (author)

370

Determination of 14C-lindane residues in stored rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-lindane was applied as dust to paddy rice. Surface, extractable and bound residues were determined in paddy rice up to a storage period of nine months. The surface and methanol-extractable residues decreased with storage time. The husk contained a greater amount of lindane compared to the grains. After removing surface residues, the grain was found to contain 2.7 mg/kg of extractable lindane and/or equivalent residues after nine months from treatment. (author)

371

Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

372

Degradation of 14C-glyphosate in compost amended soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine), the active ingredient in several herbicide formulations, is a non-selective, post-emergent herbicide used in a variety of crop and non-crop situations. Glyphosate is a non-volatile herbicide that is relatively immobile in soil. Its degradation is due to microbiological processes and most laboratory studies have been conducted with 14C-glyphosate with the rate of 14CO2 evolution being used as an indication of herbicide breakdown. In this paper we have studied the glyphosate degradation in compost amendment soils using Scientilator Liquid TRIATHLER and Glyphosate-phosphonomethyl-14C-labeled with specific activity 2,2mCi/mmol. Four types of soils have been taken under study: Black Chernozem, Vertisol, Gleysol and Phaeozem with different characteristics. For the each type of soil have been realized four experimental variants (glyphosate blind sample with 1,5 ppm, concentration, autoclaved soil, soil with glyphosate and addition of compost in field concentration of 40 t/ha, respectively 60 t/ha. The mineralization curves of 14CO2 accumulated were compared during of 40 days. All the mineralization curves for the soils exhibited same patterns, with only two phases, the initial rapid phase of degradation, for about 20 days, attributed to microbial action on the free glyphosate and the second slow phase, when the curves attained plateaus. Compost applied with different concentrations to Vertisol and Black Chernozem did not appear to stimulate the microbial degradation of glyphosate. In Gleysol and Phaeozem with lower humus content, the mineralization curve of 14C indicate the increase degradation capacity, expressed as accumulated 14CO2 as % total 14C, with the increase of compost concentration. PMID:20218528

Alexa, E; Bragea, M; Sumalan, R; Negrea, M; Lazureanu, A

2009-01-01

373

May 14C be used to date contemporary art?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963–1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results t the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

374

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

375

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

376

14C ages of the Quaternary strata in Japan, (130)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the area under investigation, Gotsu and Waki terraces lie with a cliff between these two. Therefore, it is considered that from the beginning of the alluvial period to the present sea level, two periods of high sea level and one period of low sea level between them existed. The Gotsu terrace was possibly formed in Jomon marine transgression confirmed across the country, but its height is somewhat high. Concerning the high sea level after the Jomon marine transgression, while there are much uncertainties, minor transgressions have been recognized. 14C age determination was made where Waki terrace spreads widely in Gotsu sand dunes, as an indication of the minor transgressions was anticipated. The 14C age measured with charcoal chips was 265 +- 80 Y.B.P. (260 +- 80 Y.B.P.) unexpectedly. There are sand dunes covering partly the terraces and hills, containing two layers of black sand. In the upper layer, the 14C age of charcoal chips contained in it was 955 +- 75 Y.B.P. (930 +- 75 Y.B.P.). (J.P.N.)

377

{sup 14}C analysis via intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of {sup 14}C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of {sup 14}C in sub micromole CO{sub 2} samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity, and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10{sup -1514}C/{sup 12}C ratios have been obtained with theoretical limits much lower. Using a 15 W {sup 14}CO{sub 2} laser, a linear calibration with samples from 5 x 10{sup -15} to >1.5 x 10{sup -12} in {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratios, as determined by AMS, was demonstrated. Calibration becomes non-linear over larger concentration ranges due to interactions between CO{sub 2} and buffer gas, laser saturation effects and changes in equilibration time constants. The instrument is small (table top), low maintenance and can be coupled to GC or LC input. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub-therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon.

Murnick, Daniel, E-mail: murnick@newark.rutgers.ed [Physics Department, Rutgers, The State University of NJ, 101 Warren St., Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan [Physics Department, Rutgers, The State University of NJ, 101 Warren St., Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

2010-04-15

378

Mineralization of 14C atrazine in three Colombia soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of mineralization of l4C atrazine (6-chorine-N-ethyl-N-(1methyl ethyl) 1,3,5 triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed in three soils of different characteristics coming one of them from Mosquera, Cundinamarca (clay loam) and two of Saldana, Tolima (silty loam and sandy loam). Technical and radiolabel atrazine (specific activity 47,756 mCi/mg) mixture was applied to soil samples in a dose of 2.0 kg/ha. Results showed different behavior of the mineralization of the herbicide for each soil at the end of 17 weeks. The highest mineralization percentage, 15 %, was registered in the soil with higher organic matter content (12.1 %) and was the one coming from Mosquera, Cundinamarca. It was evaluated the bound and methanol extractable 14C in the fifth, ninth an seventeenth weeks and also it was analyzed atrazine and its metabolites in the extracts by thin layer chromatography. The extraction data revealed that the majority of the 14C was bound to the soil (62-83 %) and the minor fraction was methanol extractable in all the three soils. The analysis showed that the 14C in all soils was present as atrazine and hydroxy atrazine. In the sandy loam soil was observed the highest degradation of atrazine to hidroxyatrazine that it is not produced by biological process. It was not detectable other atrazine metabolites

379

Persistence of the herbicides [14C]chlorsulfuron and [14C]metsulfuron methyl in prairie soils under laboratory conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of [14C]metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of [14C]chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils

380

Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

381

Amount and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to [14C]triclopyr  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L [14C] triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed

382

Chromosome Studies in Patients with Polycythaemia Vera after Treatment with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chromosomes of bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of forty-six patients with polycythaemia vera were analysed to trace the sequence of events leading to the development of bone-marrow failure or 'leukaemia'. All except one of the patients had received radiophosphorus (32P). It might be expected that the yield of chromosomal aberrations of the two-break type (translocations etc.) from the low dose-rate beta radiation of 32P would be small. However, 'unstable' types of abnormality (dicentrics, fragments) and stable types (translocations, inversions, deletions) were observed in 6-25% of the blood lymphocytes; there was no evidence of clones of abnormal cells. In the majority of patients the bone marrow was predominantly normal diploid; occasional sporadic cells with 'stable' chromosomal abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of the cases, but 'unstable' aberrations were rare. In seven cases there were clones of cells characterised by deletions or translocations. All these chromosomal changes are probably radiation-induced. Clones of cells with a similar abnormality, an apparent deletion of one of the F-group chromosomes, were observed in the bone marrow in ten patients. Eight of these had received 32P and two busulphan. In two cases the clone appeared to develop after treatment. A similar anomaly has been reported in several cases of idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia who had not been irradiated. Progression into the leukaemic phase of the disease is associated in some cases with gross chromosomal abnormalities, such as shift of the stem line chromosome number and bizarre chromosome 'markers'. In other cases, some of whom have not been irradiated for several years, the chromosomal changes are less pronounced and may result from non-disjunctional gain of one or more chromosomes or chromosome loss. One case showed a step-by-step clonal evolution over a two-year period. None of the chromosomal abnormalities in the 'leukaemic' phase appear to be a direct result of radiation-induced chromosomal breakage. (author)

383

Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of 32P chromic phosphate  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracavitary injections of 32P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous 32P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V30) for 340 MBq 32P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V30 relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V30 of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V30 stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm2. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

Konijnenberg, Mark W.; Olch, Arthur

2010-10-01

384

Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of (32)P chromic phosphate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracavitary injections of (32)P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous (32)P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V(30)) for 340 MBq (32)P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V(30) relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V(30) of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V(30) stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm(2). Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy. PMID:20826905

Konijnenberg, Mark W; Olch, Arthur

2010-10-01

385

Implants with {sup 32}P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology; {sup 32}P-haltige Folien als Implantate fuer die LDR-Brachytherapie gutartiger Stenosen in der Urologie und Gastroenterologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting {sup 32}P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of {sup 32}P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the {sup 32}P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of {sup 32}P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated {sup 32}P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

Assmann, Walter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern (Germany). Laser-Forschungslabor] [and others

2013-03-01

386

Influence of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-hexadecane in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil was spiked with [9-14C]phenanthrene and [1-14C]hexadecane at 50 mg kg-1 and aged for 1, 25, 50, 100 and 250 d. At each time point, the microcosms were amended with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) at a range of concentrations (0-40 mM). Mineralisation assays and aqueous HP-?-CD extractions were performed to assess the effect of the amendments on microbial degradation. The results showed that amendments had no significant impact on the microbial degradation of either of the 14C-contaminants. Further, HP-?-CD extractions were correlated with the mineralisation of the target chemicals in each of the soil conditions. It was found that the HP-?-CD extraction was able to predict mineralisation in soils which had not been amended with cyclodextrin; however, in the soils containing the HP-?-CD, there was no predictive relationship. Under the conditions of this study, the introduction of HP-?-CD into soils did not enhance the biodegradation of the organic contaminants. - The amendment of HP-?-CD to phenanthrene and hexadecane amended soils does not enhance microbial biodegradation.

387

Autoradiography of [14C]paraquat or [14C]diquat in frogs and mice: accumulation in neuromelanin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The herbicide paraquat has been suggested as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease because of its structural similarity to a metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which may induce a parkinsonism-like condition. MPTP as well as its metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine have melanin affinity, and the parkinsonism-inducing potency of MPTP is much stronger in species with melanin in the nerve cells. Autoradiography of [3H]MPTP in experimental animals has shown accumulation in melanin-containing tissues, including pigmented neurons. In the present whole body autoradiographic study accumulation and retention was seen in neuromelanin in frogs after i.p. injection of [14C]paraquat or[14C]diquat. By means of whole body autoradiography of [14C]diquat in mice (a species with no or very limited amounts of neuromelanin) a low, relatively uniformly distributed level of radioactivity was observed in brain tissue. Accumulation of toxic chemical compounds, such as paraquat, in neuromelanin may ultimately cause lesions in the pigmented nerve cells, leading to Parkinson's disease

388

Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p) 14C using polarized proton beam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se midió la distribución angular de la sección eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersión elástica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energía sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El análisis de los datos en términos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la m [...] atriz "S" nos permite deducir los números cuánticos y parámetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energía de excitación. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas. Abstract in english Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers were measured for 14C(p, p)14C for proton energies between 3.7 and 11.0 MeV in very small energy steps. A number of strong resonances are seen. Phase-shift analysis of the elastic scattering data yielded level parameters of eleven states i [...] n 15N in the excitation energy region 13.7-21.0 MeV. Previous assignments of spin, parity and energy of levels are discussed.

G., Murillo; M., Fernández; J., Ramírez; M.G., Mejia-Gil; R., Policroniades; A., Varela; S.E., Darden; S., Sen; R.M., Prior; E., Chávez.

2011-02-01

389

In vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability using 35S to label the bacterial mass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was carried out in order to simplify a previously developed 15N-method for in vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability. Casein (Cas), whole soybeans (Sb) heated at 120oC for 20 min (SbTherm) and sunflower (Sfl) were incubated at 39oC for 4 hours in a water bathshaker with the following media: McDougall's buffer, strained and enriched with particle associated bacteria rumen fluid (2:1), rapidly (maltose, sucrose, glucose) and more slowly (pectin, soluble starch) degradable carbohydrates with final concentration of 815 mg/100 ml and 21.7 ?Ci/100 ml of35S (from Na235SO4). After the incubation had been ceased, a bacterial fraction was isolated through differential centrifugation and specific activity of bacterial (Bac) and high speed total solids (TS) nitrogen was measured. The ratio was used to calculate bacterial mass in TS and through the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in TS - the net bacterial growth (against control vessels without protein). The level of ammonia-N in the supernate after blank correction was used to find the ammonia-N released from protein degradation. The data showed that the rate (and extend) of degradation for the Cas (as a standard protein) was lower compared to those obtained through the 15N-method but it was higher than the rate derived through another in vitro method. The Cas equivalent of the Sb was higher than the figure we found in b was higher than the figure we found in a previous experiment with solvent extracted soybean meal suggesting that the 35S-method underestimated the degradability of the Cas. After being tested on a wider range of foodstuffs, the proposed 35S-method might be considered as an alternative procedure which is less laborous than the 15N-method. (author)

390

Detection of methylation damage in DNA of gastric cancer tissues using 32P-postlabelling assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. The causes are still unknown but it has been speculated that gastric cancer is associated with consumption of foods rich in nitrates/nitrites or a high dietary intake of salt or pickled food. In the present study, we studied the level of alkylated DNA adducts formed in gastric cancer tissues in comparison with that in normal gastric mucosa. DNA was extracted from surgically removed gastric cancer tissues and patient-matched normal gastric mucosa. The level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine was measured by 32P-postlabelling assay after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enrichment. We found that the level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine of gastric cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that of normal gastric mucosa (P=0.01685). (author)

391

Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

392

Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the 32P Dilution Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the 32P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

393

Contact curietherapy with 32P used in diseases of the skin and visible mucous membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contact curietherapy with 32P is conducted in sixty-one patients affected with keratoma senile (34), leukoplakia vulvae (15), chronic eczema (10), Bowen's disease (1) and Queyrat's disease (1). A contact technique with applicator is used. The single skin dose amounts to 5 Gy/hour. Irradiation rhythm is: alternating 5 consecutive days with 2 days rest period. The total dose per course leading to a permanent therapeutic effect (3 years) varies in the range 35 to 100 Gy/h. Optimal results are recorded in 42% of cases, very good - in 52%, and satisfactory - in 6%. A wider application of the method in hematological practice is recommended because of the low radiation exposure and absence of complications. 12 refs. (orig.)

394

Analysis of tamoxifen-DNA adducts in endometrial explants by MS and 32P-postlabeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonsteroidal antiestrogen tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer; however, the mechanism for the induction of these tumors is not known. Recently, Sharma et al. [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307 (2003) 157], using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with online postcolumn photochemical activation and fluorescence detection, reported the presence of (E)-?-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)tamoxifen in DNA from human endometrial explants incubated with tamoxifen. Inasmuch as the methodology used by these investigators does not allow unambiguous characterization of tamoxifen-DNA adducts, we have used two additional techniques (HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and 32P-postlabeling analyses) to assay for the presence of tamoxifen-DNA adducts in the human endometrial explant DNA. Tamoxifen-DNA adducts were not detected by either method

395

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated S?. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S? in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

396

Evaluation of P availability from Fe and A1 labelled (32P) phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthetically Fe and A1 labelled phosphates (32P) show a certain amount of available P to the plants when applied to Sao Paulo State soils. This availability decreases from considered amorphous A1-phosphate (A1-P sub(am)) to A1 phosphate with a certain cristalinity grade (A1-P sub(cr)) and than from this to Fe-P sub(am) followed by Fe-P sub(cr), and it is influenced by both the soil characteristics and mainly by the iron constituents of the samples. In this way, one can not expect that the 0,05 N2H SO4 and the CHANG and JACKSON (1957a) solutions can define properly the available P of these soils. The addition of lime to the soils do not drive to a better P absorption by the plants and its effects are dubious

397

Efficiency of (32P) triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes (Andepts) was evaluated. Experiments in greenhouse with rye grass was carried out. Three doses of superphosphate (150,300 and 600 kg P2O5/ha) labeled with 32P were used. The fertilizer was located 2.5 cm underneath the seed. The phosphorus derived from the fertilizer represented a 70 percent from the total P absorved by the plant. The utilization of aggregated nutrient ranged from 2.1 to 5.2, the lower values being obtained for the higher rates. Value 'A' increased with the rate applied but it evaluated comparatively the four soils studied. The isotopic method distinguished quantitatively the P coming from the soil in distinction to the P coming from the fertilizer. (Author)

398

32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)

399

New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

1986-04-01

400

Measurement of P Contribution from Several P Sources by Using 32P Method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

P-fertilizer other than chemical fertilizers has been used extensively in agriculture. However, the extent to which P-fertilizer contributes to the growth of plants has only been discussed a few, meanwhile the information will be very helpful to the use of P-fertilizer efficiently. The 32P method was used to distinguish P contribution from several sources, i.e soil, chemical fertilizer (Sp) and manure/organic fertilizer (Pk). The isotope carrier free solution of KH2 32PO4, which is contained of 98% 32P, was applied to the soil and thus making it as the only source of labeled-P. Radioactivity counting of soil samples will lead to the measurement of P-contribution from several sources of P given. The experiment result showed that most of the P taken up by the plants was from soil. Thus, the P from Sp (P-Sp) and Pk (P-Pk) became un-significantly support the plant growth expressed in lesser dry weight of straw, grain and plants compared to those who taken its P from soil. Although soil contributed most of its available P to straw and grain of lowland rice, but Sp and Pk still contributed P to both plant parts. It was obtained that in straw 64 - 82% P was derived from soil; 12 - 21% P was derived from Pk; and 18 - 29% P was derived from Sp. For grain 49 - 89% P was derived from soil; 11 - 15% P was derived from Pk; and 19 - 45% P was derived from Sp. (author)

401

The Use of 32P and 15N to Estimate Fertilizer Efficiency in Oil Palm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil palm has become an important commodity for Indonesia reaching an area of 2.6 million ha at the end of 1998. It is mostly cultivated in highly weathered acid soil usually Ultisols and Oxisols which are known for their low fertility, concerning the major nutrients like N and P. This study most conducted to search for the most active root-zone of oil palm and applied urea fertilizer at such soils to obtain high N-efficiency. Carrier free KH232PO4 solution was used to determine the active root-zone of oil palm by applying 32P around the plant in twenty holes. After the most active root-zone have been determined, urea in one, two and three splits were respectively applied at this zone. To estimate N-fertilizer efficiency of urea labelled 15N Ammonium Sulphate was used by adding them at the same amount of 16 g 15N plan-1. This study showed that the most active root-zone was found at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at 5 cm soil depth. For urea the highest N-efficiency was obtained from applying it at two splits. The use of 32P was able to distinguish several root zones: 1.5 m - 2.5 m from the plant-stem at a 5 cm and 15 cm soil depth. Urea placed at the most active root-zone, which was at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at a 5 cm depth in one, two, and three splits respectively showed difference N-efficiency. The highest N-efficiency of urea was obtained when applyinficiency of urea was obtained when applying it in two splits at the most active root-zone. (author)

402

Effect of tissue inhomogeneity on beta dose distribution of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a homogeneous medium of soft tissue the radiation dose distribution due to a nonuniformly distributed beta source can be calculated by convolution of the beta dose point kernel of the nuclide with the source distribution. A possible extension of the technique to the calculation of the dose distribution in heterogeneous media involving relatively simple geometric interfaces requires the knowledge of the resulting perturbation to the beta point kernels in individual media. We simulated a soft-tissue-bone planar interface by a polystyrene (PST)-aluminum junction and measured the change in beta dose from the dose value in homogeneous PST due to a point source of 32P using 7LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters. With the point source at the interface, the dose rates at 0-31, 125-156, and 283-314 mg/cm2 separations from the interface were increased by (12 +/- 3)%, (8 +/- 2)%, and (3 +/- 2)%, respectively, compared with homogeneous PST. With the point source at a PST-air planar interface to simulate a soft-tissue-air junction, the dose rates at 0-31, 139-170, and 283-314 mg/cm2 from the interface were decreased by (25 +/- 4)%, (11 +/- 7)%, and (5 +/- 2)%, respectively. The changes in dose rates for these two interfaces have also been measured with degraded spectra of 32P. Comparison of the experimental data with Monte Carlo calculation for a point source and the two-group method of calculation for a plane source is also presentedn for a plane source is also presented

403

Phosphorus use efficiency by cotton measured through 32P isotope technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), which is naturally poor in this nutrient. Most of the P applied by fertilizer in Cerrado soils are converted into low solubility forms and can not be easily absorbed by plants. This occurs for characteristics of adsorption, conditioned by the predominance of low pH and aluminum and iron oxides in the clay fraction. The development of genotypes and cultivars with greater capacity to grow up in soils with low P availability ('phosphorus efficiency') is interesting to improve the agriculture in these areas in a sustainable way. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main product for the fibers used nationally and globally in the textile chain. This study aim was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption and utilization of P by cotton cultivars/genotypes grown in Cerrado soil by the isotopic dilution technique. The soil classified as Ultisols, was labeled with the radioisotope 32P.The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design factorial 2 x 17. Factors were considered two levels of P (insufficient = 20 mg kg-1 and sufficient = 120 mg kg-1) and 17 genetic materials of cotton recommended for Cerrado region. Phosphorus levels influenced significantly the shoots dry matter production, the P content and accumulation, the 32P specific activity, the L value and L value less seed cotton P by cultivars and genotypes. The hierarchical clustering analysis used to verify the similarities between the cultivars and genotypes of cotton, classified them into internally homogeneous groups and heterogeneous between different groups. Cultivars FMT 523, FM 910 and CNPA GO 2043 were the most responsive to phosphate fertilizer in sufficient level of P, while the genotype Barbadense 01 and cultivars FM 966LL, IPR Jataí, BRS Aroeira and BRS Buriti were most efficient absorbing P in soils with insufficient level.

Marcante, N. C.; Muraoka, T.; Camacho, M. A.; César, F. R. C. F.; Bruno, I. P.

2012-04-01

404

32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from ca indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides

405

Comparative labelling of rat epididymal spermatozoa by intratesticularly administered 65ZnCl2 and [35S] cysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spermatozoa of rats injected intratesticularly with 65ZnCl2 and 35S-cysteine were collected from the caput and cauda of the epididymis from 2 to 28 days after injection. The highest specific activities were observed in spermatozoa from the caput on day 10. Maximal levels in spermatozoa from the cauda were obtained on days 14 and 18 for 35S and day 18 for 65Zn. The 65Zn/35S ratios suggested that: 1) 35S associated with spermatozoa arrived in the epididymis slightly in advance of 65Zn; 2) approximately 60% of 65Zn was lost from spermatozoa and 75% from isolated sperm heads during transit from caput to cauda, assuming total retention of 35S; and 3) retention of 65Zn by the seminiferous epithelium was superior to that of 35S-cysteine. Only small percentages of either isotope were recovered in isolated sperm heads, suggesting that the primary sites of labelling were in the sperm tail. Superior retention of 65Zn by testis was confirmed by increasing 65Zn/35S ratios in individual fractions of testicular homogenates between 2 and 10 days after injection. In addition, both isotopes appeared to be transferred from the testis cytosol to particulate material during this period. (author)

406

Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

407

Influence on the tumor after percutaneous intra-tumor injection of 32P-GMS in liver cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the influence on the tumor after percutaneous intra-tumor injection of 32P-GMS in liver cancer as well as its suitable dose. Methods: 24 New Zealand rabbits were used to establish the animal model of VX-2 liver cancer, and divided into A, B and D groups with individually 37, 74, 111 and 148 MBq of 32P-GMS being injected, respectively; and then pathological changes of tumor were observed by light and electron microscope respectively. Results: The dose of 32P-GMS was obviously correlated with the radioactivity damage of tumor cells. In the A and B groups, the tumor cells were not observed to disappear completely after injection of 32P-GMS, but in C group, tumor cells were almost completely disappeared and surrounded by a lot of connective tissue. Although the tumor cells were found to disappear completely in D group, normal liver tissues were also involved. Conclusion: Percutaneous intra-tumor injection of 32P-GMS with suitable dose that may induce the tumor tissue to be maximally damaged and may also provide some significances to prevent the tumor metastasis. (authors)

408

A new kind of 32P stent used for prevention of the restenosis after PTCA in rabbit iliac arteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effect and the mechanism of a new kind of 32P stents used for prevention of the restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA); to observe the 'edge effect' caused by radioactive stents. Methods: Six 32P-?-emitting stents made by compound plating, paired with 6 31P nonradioactive(control) stents, were placed separately, one in one iliac artery in 6 rabbits, respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 30 d. Angiography, morphometry and immunohistochemistry work-up were performed. Results: There were no aneurysm or thrombosis in the arteries with stents placed. Morphometric measurements demonstrated that the mean minimum lumen diameter (MLD) was greater in 32P stents than that in control stents (P32P stents was greater than that in control stents, but the later had marked neointimal area than the former (P32P-?-emitting stents made by compound plating could prevent in-stent restenosis significantly by inhibiting the neointimal growth even with low radioactivintimal growth even with low radioactivity; and it is safe, cheap and easy to make. But an unexpected increase in neointimal response, the so-called 'edge effect', was observed in the study

409

Morphological and functional changes associated with serial iso- and xeno-transplantation of 32P induced rat osteosarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty Wistar strain rats, 3 weeks of age, were given 32P of 1.0 ?Ci/g body weight intraperitoneally every 3 weeks, and osteosarcoma was induced in 15 of 20 rats. A total amount of 32P administered to rats was 2,425 ?Ci per one rat on an average. 32P-induced osteosarcoma was observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was suggested that 32P-induced osteosarcoma of rats was available for basic studies of human osteosarcoma, because rats' osteosarcoma was very similar to human osteosarcoma. Regarding hetero- and homo-transplantation of 32P-induced osteosarcoma, osteoid tissue decreased after serial transplantation and disappeared finally. When tumor cells were classified into tumor cells having a plenty of intracellular small organs (type I cells) and those having a few intracellular small organs (type II cells), the percentage of type II cells increased after serial transplantation. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed that the uptake of proline into tumor cells decreased coupled with a decrease in osteoid formation capacity. As the uptake of proline into type II cells was poor, type II cells were thought to be undifferenciated mesenchimal cells and to have no influence on osteoid formation. (Tsunoda, M.)

410

14C-lindane residues in palm processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was undertaken to identify the residue level in palm fruits and its products by spiking the fruits at 5 ppm with 14C-[UL]-lindane and following up on the residue during simulated commercial processes. The study concluded that steam distillation (deodorization) is an effective process in removing lindane residues. Under experimental conditions, commercial processes removed some 74% of insecticide residues from crude palm oil. Based on the oil content (up to 50%) of the pulp the residue concentration in the refined oil may exceed 2.5% mg/kg. The result suggest that the refined oil may retain one quarter of lindane received by the fruit. 1 tab

411

Metabolism of [14C]-lindane in plants and animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of several biodegradation studies on [14C]-lindane in plants and animals. These results together with those from previous studies indicate a common biodegradation pattern for lindane in plants, insects and animals, as chlorobenzene and chlorophenolic metabolites are formed in all cases. Various isomers of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobenzene and chlorophenols; pentachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol have been found in plants, insects and animals. ?-PCCH has been found in plants and insects but not in mammals. The chemical nature of terminal residues of lindane in several foods including wheat, bread, eggs and meat products are discussed. (author)

412

Gas ion sources for 14C analysis: Development and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CO2 gas accepting ion sources permit analytical instruments to be interfaced directly to an AMS system for 14C analysis. Instrumentation such as an elemental analyzer, gas bench, gas chromatograph and ampoule cracker have been implemented and routine gas measurements are performed and compliment traditional solid graphite measurements. Analysis of small samples with less than 50 ?g of carbon is readily achievable allowing molecular level radiocarbon data to be obtained for a range of sample types. Previous work using the microwave plasma gas ion source at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will be shown and discussed in the context of current work at ETH Zurich using a hybrid Cs sputter source. (author)

413

The anomalous $^{14}$C-dating $\\beta$ decay problem revisited  

OpenAIRE

The anomalous inhibition of $^{14}$C-dating $\\beta$ decay rate is restudied in terms of shell-model calculations in the $jj$ coupling scheme with both realistic and empirical Hamiltonians. It is seen that the accidental cancellation of the decay strength is dominated by the mixing effect of two configurations of the final state wave function, $|0p^{-2}_{1/2}>$ and $|0p_{3/2}^{-1}0p_{1/2}^{-1}>$. By decomposing the effective interactions into different tensor components, it i...

Qi, Chong

2010-01-01

414

14C-coumaphos residues in Egyptian lactating goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-coumaphos was applied dermally to two lactating goats, with 2 weeks interval. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results showed that coumaphos has a slow penetration rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. Milk residues were 0.20-0.25 ppm following appication, declining gradually to 0.03-0.06 ppm after 2 weeks. The liver and kidney were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other organs and milk after the withdrawal period. (author)

415

Studies on 14C labelled chlorpyrifos in model marine ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorpyrifos is one of the widely used organophosphorus insecticides in tropical countries. Experiments were conducted with 14C labelled chlorpyrifos to study the distribution of this compound in model marine ecosystem. Less than 50 per cent of the applied activity remained in water in 24 h. Major portion of the applied chlorpyrifos (about 4.2 % residue per g) accumulated into the clams with sediment containing a maximum of 5 to 6 per cent of applied compound. No degradation of chlorpyrifos was observed in water or sediment samples. However, metabolic products were formed in clams. (author). 4 refs., 3 tabs

416

Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on the agricultural environment and ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dimehypo is a new type of insecticide of the nereistoxin family of compounds which has been developed and manufactured in China. To appraise its environmental safety, radioisotope tracer techniques were applied to investigate the effects of 35S labelled dimehypo on the agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorption and high mobility in soil, stability in soil and water, and slow rate of degradation. The main product of degradation, nereistoxin has a lower mobility than the parent compound in the soil. Sulphur-35-dimehypo was taken up by the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon indellus) along with bait or via the respiratory tracts and was excreted rapidly after the fish were removed from the contaminated water. Liquid and granulated formulations of 35S-dimehypo were fed to quails and fowls, respectively. The radioactivity was excreted rapidly in faeces and urine. The low partition coefficient of the insecticide in caprylalcohol-water suggested no (or low) accumulation in the adipose tissue of the organism. The release of its active ingredients from the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

417

[35S]cysteamine: facile synthesis, in vivo biokinetics, and subcellular distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whereas chemical radioprotection against external beams of ionizing radiation is well studied in radiobiology, the aspects relating to tissue incorporated radionuclides have received little attention. The increased use of radionuclides in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, as well as the presence of both manmade and natural radioactivity in the environment, indeed call for such investigations. Our ongoing work on a variety of radioprotectors has revealed that cysteamine (MEA), S-2-aminoethylisothio uroniumbromide hydrobromide (AET), and others (e.g. ascorbic acid), protect spermatogonial cells in mouse testis from the effects of chronic irradiation with intratesticularly localized radionuclides. In these experiments, dose modification factors ranging from 2 to 4 and 10 to 14 were obtained using spermhead survival and induction of spermhead abnormalities, respectively, as the biological end points. Similar experiments were carried out by changing the mode of administration of cysteamine to oral intubation. In these studies a dose modification factor of ? 3 was observed in the spermhead survival assay. In an effort to understand the protection offered by MEA, the present work describes a one-pot synthesis of high specific activity [35S]cysteamine from elemental [35S]sulphur and its use in determining the biokinetics and biodistribution of MEA following intratesticular (i.t.) or oral administration in mice. (Author) in mice. (Author)

418

[35S]autoradiographic study of sulfated GAG accumulation and turnover in embryonic mouse tooth germs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans(GAG) in embryonic mouse molars before, during, and after terminal differentiation of odontoblasts was localized by [35S]autoradiography combined with the use of chondroitin ABC lyase. Much more sulfated GAG were accumulated in the dental papilla than in the dental epithelium. High incorporation of [35S]sulfate occurred at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction, which is the site of dental basement membrane and predentin. Before terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, the distribution of sulfated GAG was uniform at the basement membrane. After the onset of terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, much more sulfated GAG accumulated at the tip of principal cusps than at the apical (inferior) parts of cusps, and sulfated GAG were then found to be degraded more rapidly at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction than at other parts of the tooth germ. Thus regional variation in the rate of degradation of GAG exists in the tooth germs. Trypsin-isolated dental epithelia cultured in vitro synthesized a new basement membrane that could be labeled with [3H]glucosamine but not with 35SO4(-2). The epithelial-derived basal lamina contains little or no sulfatated GAG

419

Preparation of tyrosine-O-[35S]sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide from a nonsulfated precursor peptide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid and simple one-pot method for O-sulfation of nonsulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was developed using sulfuric acid and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) without protection of the amino acid side chains. The extent of sulfation was increased with increasing the amount of reactants, sulfuric acid, and DCC, and reached maximum (40%) with fourfold molar excess of sulfuric acid and 40-fold molar excess of DCC. The excess of nonsulfated peptide inhibited the sulfation. The sulfation product was purified by HPLC or TLC to give a pure sulfated substance which showed exactly the same behavior as that of an authentic O-sulfated CCK-8 on HPLC or TLC. The purified sulfated peptide was active in stimulating amylase secretion from rat pancreatic fragments, and amino acid analysis showed that the tyrosine residue in the peptide existed in O-sulfated form. Sulfation with [35S]sulfuric acid-DCC produced a radioactive substance, from which O-[35S]sulfated CCK-8 could be easily purified by two-dimensional TLC

420

Level of 14C in the tree rings in the vicinity of Qinshan nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C specific activities in the annual tree rings (corresponding to the years 1980-2009) from the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (Qinshan NPP) surroundings are presented. The tree rings sectioned from a pine tree which located 2 km away from the Qinshan NPP showed negligible enhanced 14C activity due to the operation of the Qinshan NPP Phase I. However, the data indicates a relative increase in the specific activity (2.6-63.4 Bq/kg C) after the operation of Qinshan NPP Phase II and Phase III. The enhanced values were primarily affected by the 14C discharged from Phase III (CANDU-type reactor), and a good correlation between the annual 14C discharge and the 14C excess value was found. The excess 14C activities declined after 2005 for improvement of the 14C pollutant management, and the 14C specific activity in 2009 was close to the background level. (authors)