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Sample records for 14c 32p 35s

  1. Safety with 32P- and 35S-labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials are commonly used as tracers in many biochemical procedures. Because of the potential for radiation exposure of the bench scientist using these tracers, this chapter has been written about the principles, techniques, and materials used in working safely with the two most commonly used radionuclides in molecular cloning, 32P and 35S. Both are pure ? emitters, i.e., there are no photons emitted by the nucleus during decay. 35S has a maximum ? energy of 167 keV and a half-life of 87.4 days. 32P, with a maximum ? energy of 1710 keV (or 1.7 MeV), is considerably more hazardous. Its half-life is 14.3 days

  2. Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

  3. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  4. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 ? alanines ? 14C; noradrenaline ? 14C (arterenol ? 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

  5. Lethal Effect on Bacterium of Decay of Incorporated Radioactive Atoms (3H, 14C, 32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effect of decay of 3H, 14C and 32P incorporated into a bacterium depends on the nature of the organic molecule labelled, on the position of the isotope within it and on the isotope itself. In sum, results obtained to date show that: The decay of 3H atoms incorporated into certain macromolecules of a bacterium causes sterilization through ionization by the ß- particle emitted; transmutation is of negligible importance. This self-irradiation is comparable in effect with X-rays and is affected in a similar manner by the same factors: temperature, presence of a radioprotector, radiosensitivity of the strain. Decay of 14C or 32P atoms incorporated into bacterial DNA is lethal because of the transmutation effect; ionizations produced by emitted ß- particles may be disregarded. Survival curves for 32P transmutations depend on the experimental conditions. Some of the results obtained with 32P are similar to those obtained with X-rays, e.g. effects of temperature, radical capture and oxygen, while others are similar to those of u.v. light, e.g., effect of growth conditions. Comparative tests made with 32P indicate that the recoil energy of transmutation is not the phenomenon responsible for the lethal effect observed. Comparison of the results obtained after X-irradiation or decay of 3H or 32P incorporated into the DNA of bacteria of the same strain of E. coli shows that the efficiency of a 32P transmutation is about four times greater than that of an ionization produced at random within the same DNA. (author)

  6. Origin of 14C and 32P labelled lipids moving to and from freshwater surface microlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and distribution of 14C and 32 labelled lipids were studied in laboratory model aquatic systems consisting of organisms, sediment and suspended particles. Using teflon impactor plates, transport of the lipids from the water to the atmosphere via jet drops from breaking bubbles in the surface microlayer was measured. Several solid materials were studied for recovery of artificial and natural surface microlayers. Hydrophilic teflon, which collects a layer 17-19 ?m thick, showed the best recovery in both cases. 14C and 32P added in inorganic form to sediment and subsurface water of the systems were biologically incorporated into neutral and complex lipids. The 14C labelled lipids were enriched in the surface microlayer to about 3500-5400 times the concentration found in the subsurface water. The corresponding enrichment for 32P labelled lipids was 16000 to 200 000. The 32P lipid material produced within the systems was strongly associated to microorganisms, particulate matter and sediment. However, during 5 d 0.3 to 16% of the labelled lipids left the systems via jet drops produced by breaking bubbles. (author)

  7. A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35S and 14C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35S and 14C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

  8. Technique for Simultaneous Determination of [35S]Sulfide and [14C]Carbon Dioxide in Anaerobic Aqueous Samples †

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Craig D.; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Molongoski, John J.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the simultaneous determination of [35S]sulfide and [14C]carbon dioxide produced in anaerobic aqueous samples dual-labeled with [35S]sulfate and a 14C-organic substrate is described. The method involves the passive distillation of sulfide and carbon dioxide from an acidified water sample and their subsequent separation by selective chemical absorption. The recovery of sulfide was 93% for amounts ranging from 0.35 to 50 ?mol; recovery of carbon dioxide was 99% in amounts up to ...

  9. Metabolism of 35S- and 14C-labeled 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously described an in vitro incubation system for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalyzed iodination by the antithyroid drug 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). Inhibition of iodination in this system may be reversible or irreversible, depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and MMI and on the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drug occurs under both conditions, and in the present investigation we used 35S- and 14C-labeled MMI together with reverse phase HPLC to examine the metabolic products associated with reversible and irreversible inhibition of iodination by MMI. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, MMI was rapidly metabolized and disappeared completely from the incubation mixture. With [35S]MMI, the earliest detectable 35S-labeled product was MMI disulfide, which reached a peak after a few minutes and then declined to undetectable levels. Coincident with the decrease in disulfide was the appearance of two 35S peaks, the major one corresponding to sulfate/sulfite, and the other to a component eluting at 7.5 min. Similar results were obtained for the disulfide and for the 7.5 min metabolite with [14C]MMI. The major 14C-labeled metabolite containing no S appeared to be 1-methylimidazole. Under conditions of irreversible inhibition, MMI disulfide was also the earliest detectable 35S-labeled metabolite. However, MMI decreased more slowly, and after reaching a nadir at about 6 min returned gradually to a le at about 6 min returned gradually to a level about halfway between the initial and the minimum value. The reformation of MMI appeared to involve the nonenzymatic disproportionation of MMI disulfide. Formation of the 7.5 min peak was also observed, but there was no formation of sulfate/sulfite

  10. Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with 14C-and 35S-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with 14C and 35S isotopes starting from L-[U-14C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[35S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-14C]-5 is converted into L-[U-14C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to (14C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[35S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[35S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [35S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of (14C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of (35S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author)

  11. Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein oof 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

  12. Use of radioisotopes (35S, 3H, 14C) in the study of the biochemistry of Trypanosoma congolense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using [35S]-diazoniobenzenesulphonate the surface coat of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma congolense could be specifically labelled. From the result of the labelling reaction it could be concluded that the surface coat is built up mainly from one type of protein with a mean molecular weight of 57,000. T. congolense can also be surface-labelled by mild periodate oxidation, followed by borotritide reduction. On SDS polyacrylamide gels the labelled surface antigen could be resolved into three closely neighbouring bands. Sialic acids are present in the surface antigen and are responsible for its heterogeneity in electric charge. Trypanosome motility can be enhanced by protein in the medium. Using radiolabelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) no protein degradation could be observed, indicating that the motility-enhancing effect of proteins is not simply produced by serving as energy substrates for the parasites. (author)

  13. Autoradiography of 32P and 14C incorporation into protoplasts as a means of determining the percentage of virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripping Film Autoradiography (SFA) was used to measure protoplast infection. Control and infected protoplasts were incubated in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate or [14C]leucine fixed onto glass slides and placed in contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. Infected protoplasts were distinguished by blackened areas of exposed film which coincided with protoplasts containing labelled virus products. The use of SFA is demonstrated for two different virus/protoplast systems, namely tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) in rape. The method detects infection as early as 12-16 h post-inoculation and UV irradiation is not necessary for reducing background interference from labelled host proteins. (Auth.)

  14. 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose and 3H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine, 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and 3H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10-4M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10-5 to 10-8M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos

  15. Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  16. Spectroscopy of 32P. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spins, parities and transition probabilities of levels in 32P at Esub(x)>3.5 MeV have been determined with the 29Si(?, p?)32P reaction at bombarding energies of Esub(?)=12.80, 12.93 and 16.30 MeV. Proton-gamma angular correlation experiments and DSA lifetime measurements lead to six unambiguous spin assignments and to many spin limitations. The measured mixing and branching ratios yield many transition strengths for dipole and electric quadrupole transitions. Five, sofar unknown, energy levels are reported. A doublet at 4.03 MeV excitation energy and a high-spin state (Esub(x)=4.27 MeV; Jsup(?)=5-) were observed. Shell-model predictions have been compared to the present experimental results. (Auth.)

  17. Preparation of [32P]phosphatidylcholine and [32P]lysophosphatidylcholine by using soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmann, F H

    1979-01-01

    This method describes a procedure that can be carried out easily to obtain large amounts of [32P]phosphatidylcholine and [32P]lysophosphatidylcholine. The method involves germinating soya beans in the presence of [32P]Pi. The yield was 0.58% for [P]phosphatidylcholine and 0.52% for [32P]lysophosphatidylcholine, and the specific radioactivity of both was 10(7) d.p.m./mumol. PMID:573119

  18. Syntheses of 32P-labelled nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequently used methods are described of the synthesis of nucleotides labelled with 32P (which is a beta decay radioisotope, half-life 14.3 days, max. decay energy 1.709 MeV). The possibilities are summed up of the preparation of ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates with different positions of 32P using enzyme, chemical, combined and biosynthetic methods of synthesis. The described syntheses of nucleotides proceed from the reaction of 32P-orthophosphate with the terminal phosphate group of ATP, from the reaction of (?-32P) ATP with NDP, phosphorylation in chloroplasts, the general Moffat method for chemical synthesis of ATP, the separation of 32P-RNA from cells of E. coli with subsequent phosphorolysis, etc. An extensive list of references is provided. (J.C.)

  19. Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide (35S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author)

  20. 35S-glycosaminoglycan and 35S-glycopeptide metabolism by diabetic glomeruli and aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Total 35S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. Whereas 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with 35SO4, a larger proportion of total 35S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. Both control and diabetic glomeruli synthesize 35S-labeled glycopeptides, the quantity from diabetic glomeruli being reduced. Aorta from 35SO4-injected diabetic rats also synthesized reduced quantities of 35S-glycosaminoglycans. There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of 35S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. These studies suggest that synthesis of 35S-glycosaminoglycans and 35S-glycopeptides by diabetic glomeruli are altered by disturbances of both synthetic as well as degradative pathways. An alteration of 35S-glycosaminoglycans interaction with matrix components in diabetes is postulated

  1. The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

  2. Reactor production of 32P for medical applications. An assessment of 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes a comparative study carried out on the reactor production of 32P by two different processes, namely, 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P with a view to determine the merits and bottlenecks of each method and assess the usefulness of 32P obtained from each of the processes. In a typical batch, 250 g of elemental sulfur when irradiated at a fast neutron flux of ?8 × 1011 n cm-2 s-1 for 60 days, after chemical processing provided about 150 GBq(4.05Ci) of 32P having specific activity of 200TBq(5500Ci)/mmole. On the other hand, irradiation of 0.35 g of red phosphorus at a fast neutron flux of ?7.5 × 1013 n cm-2 s-1 for a period of 60 days gave 75 GBq(2.02Ci) of 32P of specific activity 7 GBq(190mCi)/mol-1. While the specific activity of 32P obtained from 32S(n,p)32P is superior to that obtained from the 3lP(n,?)32P process, the requirement of elaborate target processing steps involving distillation and purification emerged as a deterrent that limits its widespread adaptability. Both the production routes offer 32P of acceptable quality amenable for medical applications although their specific activity differs. (author)

  3. Elastic scattering of 14C+12C, 14C+16O, and 14C+18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out highly detailed studies of the elastic scattering of 14C from 12C, 16O, and 18O, in a search for resonant phenomena in heavy-ion systems of non-zero isospin and zero spin. Angular distributions from 14C+12C and 14C+16O scattering were measured at 14C bombarding energies ranging from 20 to 40.3 MeV in 0.35 MeV steps. 14C+18O angular distributions were measured at 14C energies from 20 to 30 MeV in 0.40 MeV steps and from 22.5 to 32.5 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The great variety of behavior which characterizes heavy-ion scattering is clearly illustrated by our data. The 14C+12C and 14C+16O systems both exhibit marked gross structure in their excitation functions and deep oscillatory structure with a large backward angle rise in their angular distributions. They are in sharp contrast with the 14C+18O system, where structure is not apparent, and cross-sections fall steeply at larger angles and higher energies. However, only in the 14C+12C system are the excitation functions strongly fragmented by intermediate width structure. The anomalous appearance of the 14C+12C angular distributions near 17.5 MeV (cm) does suggest the existence of a resonant state tentatively identified as l = 10 by phase shift analysis= 10 by phase shift analysis

  4. Enzymatic synthesis of [beta-32P]ADP using adenylate kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzymatic method for the synthesis of [beta-32P]ADP from [gamma-32P]ATP is described. This substrate is required for the assay of ADPase and is not commercially available. The method described results in a preparation of [beta-32P]ADP of high purity with a yield of approximately 40% the theoretical obtainable

  5. Detection and identification of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts by [35S]phosphorothioate labeling and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H H; Baird, W M

    1991-05-01

    Two generally applicable [35S]phosphorothioate postlabeling procedures for the HPLC analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts have been developed based upon [32P]phosphate postlabeling assays described by Gupta and Randerath et al. In one procedure, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-modified DNA was digested to nucleoside 3'-phosphates by micrococcal nuclease and spleen phosphodiesterase and the adducted nucleotides were extracted with 1-butanol. The adducted nucleoside-3'-phosphates were 5'-thiophosphorylated by T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4PNK) and adenosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) to yield [35S]B[a]P-nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate-3'-phosphate adducts. Although thiophosphorylation of B[a]P-DNA adducts was slower than the corresponding phosphorylation reaction, similar recoveries of the postlabeled adducts were achieved with longer incubation times and higher concentrations of T4PNK. A major advantage of this procedure over the 32P-postlabeling procedure is that the resistance of phosphorothioates to degradation by phosphatases allows selective removal of the unlabeled 3'-phosphate from the [35S]B[a]P-nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate-3'-phosphate adducts by brief treatment with alkaline phosphatase. [35S]B[a]P-nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate adducts were also prepared using a nuclease P1/prostatic acid phosphatase DNA degradation method. For anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)-modified DNA, overall adduct recoveries were substantially higher with the nuclease P1/prostatic acid phosphatase method (48-51%) than with the micrococcal nuclease/spleen phosphodiesterase/alkaline phosphatase method (22-29%). There were no significant differences in the HPLC profiles of the [35S]phosphorothioate-postlabeled adducts obtained from these two procedures. HPLC analysis of B[a]P-DNA adducts formed in B[a]P-treated hamster embryo cell cultures demonstrated the formation of two major adducts, (+)syn-BPDE-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphorothioate and (+)anti-BPDE-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphorothioate, along with other minor adducts. Based upon an overall adduct recovery of 20% and 0.5 mol as the detection limit of this 35S-postlabeling/HPLC assay, the sensitivity of this assay is 1 adduct/10(8) nucleotides for a 60 micrograms DNA sample. This method offers the advantages of using 35S which has a longer half-life and lower radioactive decay energy than 32P and the ability to prepare PAH-DNA adducts at the monophosphorothioate level which greatly facilitates separation of individual 35S-postlabeled PAH-DNA adducts by HPLC. PMID:2029754

  6. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  7. Metabolic studies with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of C isotopes as a tracer in metabolic studies is considered. The radioactive or stable isotope is metabolized into CO2, eliminated in the respiratory process and quantified in function of time. 14C, 11C and 13C methods are discused. Clinical applications of 14C are presented, such as:malabsorption studies, hepatic disease, endocrine diseases and special metabolic diseases. (M.A.)

  8. Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

  9. Boll weevils: sterility induced by /sup 32/P tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, E.B.; McGovern, W.L.; Wilson, N.M.

    1977-08-15

    Beta particles arising from /sup 32/P in paint placed on the wing cover of females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman reduced longevity, egg production, and egg hatch. Egg hatch also was reduced in eggs collected from females mated with /sup 32/P-tagged males. Although /sup 32/P at the dosage used may be satisfactory for tagging boll weevils for movement studies, it is not satisfactory as a label for weevils that are expected to reproduce normally.

  10. Boll weevils: sterility induced by 32P tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta particles arising from 32P in paint placed on the wing cover of females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman reduced longevity, egg production, and egg hatch. Egg hatch also was reduced in eggs collected from females mated with 32P-tagged males. Although 32P at the dosage used may be satisfactory for tagging boll weevils for movement studies, it is not satisfactory as a label for weevils that are expected to reproduce normally

  11. Formation of thiosulfate [35S] by neutron irradiation of potassium chloride and preparation of elementary sulfur [35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium chloride was subjected to various kinds of pretreatments and irradiated in a nuclear reactor. Irradiated potassium chloride was dissolved in deaerated aqueous solution of several sulfur-salts. A portion of the solution was chromatographed on a thin layer chromatographic plate and the distribution of 35S-chemical species was determined. Irradiation of potassium chloride degassed at 3 x 10-4 Torr resulted in the formation of about 60% of 35S in the form of thiosulfate and remainder was distributed among sulfide, sulfate and elementary sulfur. Thiosulfate[35S] was converted to elementary sulfur[35S] first by reducing to hydrogen sulfide[35S] with nascent hydrogen and then by oxidizing the latter to elementary sulfur[35S] with hexacyanoferrate(III). Elementary sulfur [35S] was finally extracted into benzene. Radiochemically pure elementary sulfur[35S] could be produced by simple procedures with a yield of about 60%. Thiosulfate[35S] was decomposed with acid to elementary sulfur[35S] and sulfur [35S] dioxide. The former was separated by centrifuging and dispersed in boiling water to form colloidal suspension of elementary sulfur[35S]. Approximately 40% of 35S was recovered as colloid. (auth.)

  12. Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

  13. Ras p21 and other Gn proteins are detected in mammalian cell lines by [gamma-35S]GTP gamma S binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of guanine nucleotide binding proteins in mouse and human cell lines was investigated using [gamma-35S]GTP gamma S and [gamma-32P]GTP. Cell lysate polypeptides were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Incubation of the nitrocellulose blots with [gamma-35S]GTP gamma S identified 9 distinct GTP-binding polypeptides in all lysates. One of these is the ras oncogene product, p21, as demonstrated by subsequent immunochemical staining of the nitrocellulose blots. We have shown that this procedure provides a sensitive method for detection of p21 in culture cell lines

  14. Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were...

  15. Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

  16. Synthesis of [17-14C] nicergoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 1,6-dimethyl-8?-(5-bromonicotinoyl-[14C] oxymethyl)-10?-methoxy-ergoline ([17-14C] nicergoline) is reported. A five-step route starting from the addition of potassium [14C] cyanide to 1,6-dimethyl-8?-chloro-10?-methoxy-ergoline yielded the expected (17- 14C] nicergoline, 97% radiochemically pure, with a specific activity of 2,23 GBq/mmol. The overall radiochemical yield was about 10%. (Author)

  17. Oxidative chlorination of [U14C] phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of [U-14C] 2,4-dichlorophenol was formerly achieved by a Sandmeyer reaction with [U-14C] 2,4-dichloroaniline but this sensitive step gave unreproductive yields in our hands. We describe another route to [U-14C] 2,4-dichlorophenol by the oxidative chlorination of [U-14C] phenol. This shorter route is safer and gives satisfactory yields. The nature of the oxidizer is discussed. (author)

  18. Bioconversion of ?-[14C]Zearalenol and ?-[14C]Zearalenol into [14C]Zearalenone by Fusarium roseum Gibbosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of Fusarium roseum Gibbosum on rice were treated with [14C]zearalenone, ?-[14C]zearalenol, or ?-[14C]zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the ?-[14C]zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual ?-[14C]zearalenol was detectable. Most of the ?-[14C]zearalenol added was also converted into zearalenone within 14 days. In cultures treated with [14C]zearalenone, no radioactivity was noted in any other components

  19. A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

  20. Experimental study on 32P uptake in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disturbances in the development of the teeth which were caused by internal irradiation of 32P were studied using rats of Wister strain about one month old. The experiment with a dose of 7 ?c/g of 32P showed that 4 of 30 rats died within 90 days of observation. The experiment with a dose of 10 ?c/g of 32P showed that none of the rats survived longer than 18 days. Correlationship was found among increase and decrease of the body weight, myelogram of the femoral bone, and ability of the tooth development. The disturbances showed a peak about 20 days after the administration of 32P and then subsided. As regards the relationship between the mechanisms of tooth formation and tooth eruption, reformation of the dentine was noted but no recovery of tooth eruption was noted 30 days after 32P-administration. Some recovery from disturbance of the tooth formation could be observed after 30 days of the administration of 32P. 90 days after the administration, dentin formation could still be noted in the apical part, while germ cells of the tooth had been destroyed completely and peridental tissues had also been destroyed remarkably. Persistent osteoid dentin, characteristic of disturbance of the incisor due to internal irradiation, proliferated in a shape of a belt along the dentin blastocytes in the labial side, gradually infiltrating into the center of the dental pulp. The osteoid dentin proliferated in a shape ofsteoid dentin proliferated in a shape of lump in the dental germ of the lingual side. In the experiments with 7 ?c/g, there was left a possibility of maintaining vital power of rats judging from their weights and myelogram of the femoral bone, while the dose had destructive effects on the incisors. This was substantiated by the fact that the absorbed dose of the incisor was highest among those of the hard tissues. (Ueda, J.)

  1. Radioactivity measurements of 32P solutions by calorimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity of 32P solution is measured with a twin-cup heat-flow microcalorimeter. In order to convert whole decay energy evolved from the 32P solution in a glass vial into thermal power, 5 mm-thick lead container was used as a radiation absorber. Corrections for heat loss due to thermal radiation and bremsstrahlung escape as well as an effect of impurity (33P) are conducted. The overall uncertainty of the nondestructive measurement as a sample is in a container is estimated to be ± 1.5 %. Discussion about estimates of uncertainties is also given in detail. (author)

  2. Procedure for the preparation of [32P]phosphatidic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorylation procedure of F. Cramer, W. Rittersdorf, and W. Bohm [(1961) Chem. Ber. 654, 180] using bis(triethylammonium) phosphate and trichloroacetonitrile was shown to be effective in the synthesis of [32P]phosphatidic acid. From diacylglyceride and 0.5 mCi H332P4, 25-50 ?Ci of labeled material (sp act = 1 mCi/?mol) can be prepared in 2 h. The product was shown to be radiochemically pure by both TLC and HPLC. L- and DL-[32P]dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid prepared using this procedure were shown to be hydrolyzed by rat liver microsomes at approximately the same rates

  3. Investigation of /sup 35/S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enisz, J.; Orsos, S. (Nehezvegyipari Kutato Intezet, Veszprem (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    The mobility of /sup 35/S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus /sup 35/S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection.

  4. Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mobility of 35S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

  5. Synthesis of [3-14C]- and [phenyl-U-14C] olaquindox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaquindox is a new feed additive. [14C]Olaquindox, labelled in different positions, was needed for tracer-studies of pharmacokinetics, biotransformation and residues in several species of animals. 2-[N-(2-hydroxethyl)-carbamoyl]-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide([3-14C]Olaquindox) was synthesized from barium[14C]carbonate (22 mmoles; 1.15 Ci) via [1-14C]acetic acid, sodium[1-14C]acetate, [1-14C]acetylchloride, ethyl[3-14C]acetoacetate and 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide with an overall yield of 10%, based on barium[14C]carbonate. The radiochemical purity was better than 98% (tlc). The specific activities of three preparations were 10.5, 8.4 and 5.45 ?Ci/mg respectively. [phenyl-U-14C]Olaquindox was synthesized starting from [U-14C]aniline (19.8 mmoles; 284.4 mCi). Intermediate products were N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro-N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro[U-14C]aniline and [U-14C]benzofurazanoxide. The total yield was 50% as calculated for [U-14C]aniline. At calibration samples of two preparations showed specific activities of 49.5 and 11.1 ?Ci/mg respectively. The radiochemical purity was checked by tlc and exceeded 98%. (author)

  6. Incorporation of 14C from [14C]phenylalanine into condensed tannin of sorghum grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is described for obtaining condensed tannin from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seeds metabolically labeled from [14C]phenylalanine. The [14C]tannin should be useful in determining the metabolic fate of dietary condensed tannin

  7. Synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium [14C]cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies. (author)

  8. Preparation of arginine (guanide 14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of anhydrous ammoniac at 800 deg. C on 14CO3Ba gives rise to barium cyanamide 14C with a yield of about 98 per cent. Addition on H2S on cyanamide 14C leads to thiourea 14C with a 85 per cent yield, which is quantitatively transformed into S-ethyl-isothiouronium iodide by treatment with methyl iodide. This 14C-isothiouronium salt is used to introduce 14C guanide group in ?-N-tosyl-ornithine; tosyl group in ?-N-tosyl-arginine thus obtained is then removed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Arginine is separated as flavianic acid salt and is purified on exchange resin Dowex-50. The overall yield based on 14CO3Ba is 25 per cent. (author)

  9. Studies on rooting pattern of sugarcane using 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies employing 32P injection in sugarcane shoot and assay of 32P activity in soil cores both in horizontal and vertical directions from the centre of the clumps revealed that most of the roots are restricted within the first 15 cm depth and their horizontal spread is confined largely to 25cm. The technique has been standardised for use with other types of studies involving root foraging or activity. The above findings are in confirmation of the earlier data obtained by actual excavation of the roots and also observations made by exposing the roots in-situ. The advantage of the radioactive technique lies in accessing, with better precision, the zone of feeding of active roots, an information which could not be obtained by actual excavation of the roots which may include even the dead ones. (author)

  10. Leaf absorption of 32P in the pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a method to study the influence of various factors of the absorption of 32P applied under the form of phosphates by a plant cultivated in conditions ensuring a normal development. Experiments provided indications on leaf absorption and 32P transport by pumpkin leaves: phosphor 32 is absorbed and then quickly transported into the different organs of the plant (24 hours after treatment, it is present in aerial and underground parts), the quantity of absorbed phosphor increases with phosphor concentration in the applied solution, atmosphere humidity is an important factor for phosphor penetration into the leaves, plants absorb phosphor in darkness as well as in light, and the absorption of phosphor is not modified when applied with low glucose concentrations

  11. Synthesis of 14C labelled acrylic derivatives: diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate and isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate and diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate were synthesized by the intermediate of their protective Diels-Alder adduct with anthracene. These adducts were obtained in a one-pot procedure by Knoevenagel condensation of [14C] paraformaldehyde with isobutyl cyanoacetate and diethyl malonate respectively in the presence of a basic catalyst and anthracene. The adducts are stable crystalline compounds easily purified by recrystallization. The olefinic target compounds were obtained in high chemical and radiochemical purity (>99%) by thermolysis at 2200C in mineral oil in the presence of maleic anhydride. (author)

  12. Genomic 5-methylcytosine determination by 32P-postlabeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive method for the quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine in DNA has been developed by the adaptation of the Randerath 32P-postlabeling technique. Nucleic acids were digested to 3'-monophosphate nucleotides, which were converted to 32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotides, the 3'-phosphate was cleaved by the action of nuclease P1, and the resultant 5'-[32P]-monophosphate nucleotides were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Less than 1 microgram of DNA was required for the precise quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine content to a detectable limit of 0.01% of the total cytidine residues methylated. The genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content may thus be quantitated in tissue samples, small or selective cell populations, senescing or terminally differentiating cells, or DNA from any source. We report here, for the first time, the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial and normal human pulmonary mesothelial cells. The chromatographic separation of all of the normal and some of the rare monophosphate deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides has been characterized. Thus, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and the RNA contamination of DNA or the DNA contamination of RNA can also be quantitated during the same analysis

  13. Monitoring carcinogen actions on DNA by 32P-postlabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerath, K; Randerath, E

    1990-01-01

    Among several recently developed analytical methods, 32P-postlabeling analysis is a highly sensitive method for the detection and measurement of covalent carcinogen-DNA adducts and other DNA modifications. Since the method does not require radioactive carcinogens, it is suitable for DNA of humans exposed to environmental or occupational genotoxicants. The basic procedure entails the enzymatic incorporation of 32P-label into monomeric or dimeric hydrolysis products of DNA, followed by chromatographic mapping and autoradiography of the 32P-labeled digestion products and quantitation by scintillation spectrometry. Microgram amounts of DNA are analyzed; thus the assay is well suited for limited amounts of cells or tissue. Various versions of the assay afford different sensitivities of adduct detection. Under optimal conditions, one aromatic or bulky/hydrophobic adduct in 10(8)-10(10) nucleotides can be detected and measured (corresponding to 0.3-30 amol adduct/microgram DNA or 0.1-10 nmol adduct/mol DNA-P). The assay has been successfully applied to a variety of mutagenic (genotoxic) as well as non-mutagenic carcinogens. In humans, the 32P-postlabeling assay has been applied to DNA specimens from cigarette smokers, iron foundry workers, and coke oven workers. Estimation of total aromatic adduct levels in exposed individuals gave values of 1 adduct in 10(6)-10(8) DNA nucleotides. These values are similar to the total levels of persistent adducts in tissues of animals after exposure to initiating or carcinogenic doses of authentic aromatic genotoxicants. Among the non-mutagenic carcinogens investigated are estrogens, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), choline-devoid diet, carbon tetrachloride, and peroxisome proliferators. In addition, age-dependent DNA modifications (I-compounds) are being detected by 32P-postlabeling in animals that have not been knowingly exposed to mutagens/carcinogens. I-compound profiles and levels are dependent on species, tissue, sex, and diet. Reduced levels of I-compounds have been consistently noted in the target organ of carcinogen-exposed animals and in resulting neoplasms, suggesting that I-compound loss may play a role in carcinogenesis. PMID:2134685

  14. 14C Records from Indonesian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

  15. Synthetic heparinoids labelled with 125I and 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of a water-soluble synthetic polyelectrolyte, having anticoagulant activity, has been studied. The polyelectrolyte is derived from cis-1,4-polyisoprene and contains N-sulfate and carboxylate groups. [125I]-Iodination of the polyelectrolyte, using the Chloramine-T method and an electrolytic method, resulted in a [125I]-labelled polyelectrolyte from which release of the label occurred. Resulfation of a partially desulfated polyelectrolyte with a [35S]-sulfur trioxide trimethylamine complex resulted in a [35S]-labelled polyelectrolyte which showed no release of the label. (author)

  16. Biodegradation mechanism of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodegradation of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate-14C (LAS-14C) tagged with 14C at the linear side chain was studied on activated sludge by tracer method in addition to the methylene blue method which is widely employed in the biodegradation of LAS. It was found that there were three periods of rapid adsorption period, acclimation period, and degradation process. The radiolysis of dodecylbenzenesulfonate was studied on irradiating by 5000 Ci 60Co source. The decomposition products were identified by GLC and GC-MS spectrometry after desulfonation. 1-Tetralone, 1-indanone, 4-methyl-1-tetralone, naphthalene et al. were found in them. (author)

  17. 14C levels in Trombay environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive air sampling method has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the specific activity of 14C in air samples collected within the Trombay complex. The samples collected within radial distance of about 0.5 km from Cirus showed 3 to 5 times higher specific activity of 14C over the natural background level of 6.2 pCi/g C. The same decreased with the distance and approached the value of natural level at the site boundary (1.6 km). The specific activity of 14C in leaf samples collected within the complex showed the similar pattern. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  18. [14C]Virginiamycin residues in eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laying hens were fed ab libitum a diet supplemented at 40, 10, and 0 mg/kg with [14C]virginiamycin, to determine whether or not virginamycin or its metabolites were transferred to the eggs. About 0.05% of the ingested 14C dose was recovered in the eggs. Radiolabeled residues expressed in terms of virginiamycin equivalents were found to be 5.1 ng/g in the albumen and 31.8 ng/g in the yolk from hens fed a 10 mg/kg diet. No antibiotic activity could be detected in the eggs. Tentative identifications showed that in the albumen about 17% of the 14C behaved chromatographically like virginiamycin and 18% was associated to the ovalbumin. In the yolk 31% of the 14C was associated to proteins, 58% to fatty acids, and 4% to unsaponifiable matter

  19. Deposition of [35S]-carbonyl sulphide to vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the principal form of 35S in the coolant of CO2-cooled nuclear reactors under operational conditions. Measurements were made of the deposition velocity (Vg) of [35S]-COS (on a single-side leaf area basis) to a range of vegetable cultivars under turbulent conditions simulating maximal deposition in the field. The Vg for all the cultivars was -4 m.s-1. Uptake was greatest for brassicas and radishes (mean Vg 4.60-5.79x10-4m.s-1) and least for lettuces, onions and spinach (mean Vg 2.48-3.96x10-4m.s-1). Under illuminated conditions, when the stomata are open, differences in stomatal resistance accounted for -3, about seven times ambient) had no effect on the stomata. The results show that the use of Vg values of [35S]-COS to ryegrass in models to estimate ingested radiation dose following the consumption of green vegetables would increase the margin of safety by overestimating the 35S content of the crop by 30-300%. (author)

  20. Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)

  1. Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

  2. Nonenzymatic radiolabeling of protein by 32P-containing nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a nonenzymatic reaction which results in the radiolabeling of proteins by 32P-containing nucleoside triphosphates. The labeling reaction does not require any cofactors, but is greatly enhanced by the presence of alcohols. Even under optimal conditions, less than 1% of the protein molecules undergo modification. This nonspecific labeling represents a serious artifact which may become significant in systems involving low levels of specific labeling, such as photoaffinity labeling. Since the reaction is not limited to specific proteins, this may, however, provide a simple and rapid procedure for the preparation of labeled proteins. (Auth.)

  3. Method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate by chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with [32P]-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-[32P]ATP

  4. Neointimal responses 3 months after 32P ?-emitting stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies have shown a potential benefit of brachytherapy in preventing restenosis. However, the effects of intravascular radiation on arterial healing have not been well-established. The purpose of this study was to explore the histologic changes following placement of ?-emitting radioactive stents in arteries focusing on intimal responses and endothelialization. Methods and Materials: 3.0-mm ?-emitting 32P stents (6-?Ci and 24-?Ci) were placed in rabbit iliac arteries with nonradioactive stents serving as controls. Animals were euthanized at 3 months and histologic assessment, morphometry, and analysis of endothelialization were performed. Results: The lumen areas of 24-?Ci stents (4.24 ± 0.22 mm2, p 2, p 2). The mean lumen percent stenosis was 11.4 ± 3.0% in the 24-?Ci stents (p 32P ?-emitting stents reduce neointimal growth, but healing is incomplete with poor endothelialization at 3 months. Longer-term studies with complete arterial healing are needed to determine whether there is sustained neointimal inhibition by stent-delivered brachytherapy

  5. Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

  6. Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-[35S]cysteine or L-[35S]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-[35S]cysteine and L-[35S]methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of [35S]OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of [35S]cysteine or [35S]methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine

  7. Analytical Method for Measuring Cosmogenic (35)S in Natural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urióstegui, Stephanie H; Bibby, Richard K; Esser, Bradley K; Clark, Jordan F

    2015-06-16

    Cosmogenic sulfur-35 in water as dissolved sulfate ((35)SO4) has successfully been used as an intrinsic hydrologic tracer in low-SO4, high-elevation basins. Its application in environmental waters containing high SO4 concentrations has been limited because only small amounts of SO4 can be analyzed using current liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques. We present a new analytical method for analyzing large amounts of BaSO4 for (35)S. We quantify efficiency gains when suspending BaSO4 precipitate in Inta-Gel Plus cocktail, purify BaSO4 precipitate to remove dissolved organic matter, mitigate interference of radium-226 and its daughter products by selection of high purity barium chloride, and optimize LSC counting parameters for (35)S determination in larger masses of BaSO4. Using this improved procedure, we achieved counting efficiencies that are comparable to published LSC techniques despite a 10-fold increase in the SO4 sample load. (35)SO4 was successfully measured in high SO4 surface waters and groundwaters containing low ratios of (35)S activity to SO4 mass demonstrating that this new analytical method expands the analytical range of (35)SO4 and broadens the utility of (35)SO4 as an intrinsic tracer in hydrologic settings. PMID:25981756

  8. Photoneutron cross sections for 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pywell, R. E.; Berman, B. L.; Woodworth, J. G.; Jury, J. W.; McNeill, K. G.; Thompson, M. N.

    1985-08-01

    The photoneutron cross sections for 14C [?(?,1n) and ?(?,2n)] have been measured up to 36 MeV using monochromatic photons. The cross section for the emission of a single neutron displays a very prominent resonance near 15 MeV which appears to decay primarily to the ground state of 13C. The (?,2n) cross section is sharply peaked at 26 MeV and is large compared with those for 12C and 13C. The integrated total photoneutron cross section up to 36 MeV is 126+/-12 MeV mb (61% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum-rule value). The 14C photoneutron cross sections are interpreted in terms of the reaction kinematics and the competition among the particle channels in order to provide information on the isospin properties of the major E1 states in 14C and on the validity of the weak core-coupling model.

  9. Photoneutron cross sections for 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoneutron cross sections for 14C [sigma(?,1n) and sigma(?,2n)] have been measured up to 36 MeV using monochromatic photons. The cross section for the emission of a single neutron displays a very prominent resonance near 15 MeV which appears to decay primarily to the ground state of 13C. The (?,2n) cross section is sharply peaked at 26 MeV and is large compared with those for 12C and 13C. The integrated total photoneutron cross section up to 36 MeV is 126 +- 12 MeV mb (61% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum-rule value). The 14C photoneutron cross sections are interpreted in terms of the reaction kinematics and the competition among the particle channels in order to provide information on the isospin properties of the major E1 states in 14C and on the validity of the weak core-coupling model

  10. 17 CFR 240.14c-101 - Schedule 14C. Information required in information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...14(c) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ...for Use of the Commission Only (as permitted...table below per Exchange Act Rules 14c-5...of each class of securities to which transaction...Requested Not To Send Us a Proxy...

  11. PUKAMS facilities and 14C measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the prominent advantages of super sensitivity, small sample and high throughput, AMS has been developed rapidly during the past two decades in the world. Its application covers a large variety of fields including earth science, archaeology, physics, environment, material and biological science. Peking University Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (PKUAMS) facilities were established in 1991 and have been put into routine 14C measurement since May, 1993. Since then over 650 samples in diverse application fields have been measured and a series of valuable achievements have been gotten. The authors introduce the facilities systematically and present the methods of 14C measurement in detail

  12. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

  13. Translocation of 14C-assimilates and 14C-herbicides in cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondylium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cow parsnip translocation fo 14CO2, 14C-2,4-D and 14C-2,4,5-T was investigated during four growth phases. It was intended to find out the quantitative correlation between the translocation of phenoxy herbicides and assimilates. The gas exchange used for 14CO2 application is described. Before shoot extension, the root of the plants is the prefered target for assimilates and 2,4-D. Close quantitative correlation was found between the respective 14C activities as regards direction of translocation and radioactivity per dry weight. Similar results were found with 2,4,5-T. At flowering 14C activity moves clearly into the shoot and the inflorescence. At seed maturity, rhizomes and roots take in the 14C activity preferably. Consequently, two growing phases are recommended for optimal weed control by phenoxy compounds, especially 2,4-D: before shooting or after flowering, if sufficient assimilating leaves are left. (orig.)

  14. Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

  15. Phosphate fertilizer studies using 32P dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agronomic effectiveness of highly soluble phosphate fertilizers for annual crop production is well known and documented. In recent years considerable research effort has been focused on search for alternative means of cheaper forms of P fertilizers to fill the needs of poor farmers, who has limited capital availability for purchase of fertilizers. Since some countries in the world have naturally occurring phosphate rocks (PR), the most appealing alternative is for direct application of PR. The low capital and energy inputs required to prepare these PR for use makes it the cheapest mineral P fertilizers possible. Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam are some countries in the Asian region blessed with natural PR. Coupled with the inherently acidic and P deficient soils found in this region, research on direct application of these PR for crop production is indeed timely. Studies done in the temperate regions on direct application of PR have concluded that PR are not suitable for use in intensive agricultural system, because PR cannot maintain a sufficiently high P concentration in the soil solution for high crop yields. Research in direct application of PR to acidic soils of the Asian region have proven otherwise. The use of radioactive 32P isotope has helped in quantification of the amounts of P from the PR tested being utilized by the crop, and its distribution in the plant can also be monitored. In Malaysia, highly reactive North Carolina phosphate roighly reactive North Carolina phosphate rock has been found to be as effective as triple superphosphate, where a total of about 18% of the P fertilizer applied was utilized by three consecutive crops of sweet corn grown under field conditions. Initial glasshouse screening of efficacy of PR can also be determined by the use of the 32P isotope. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Pion single exchange on 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this experiment is to provide a complete set of forward-angle, single-charge-exchange (SCX) differential cross sections for the isobaric-analog state (IAS) of 14C. These data complement those taken at the same energies on elastic scattering and double-charge-exchange (DCX) scattering. The sharp minimum in the 00 excitation function is evident, which shows the measured spectra in the most forward angle theta bin (theta approx. = 100) for energies 35, 50, and 65 MeV. At 50 MeV the IAS nearly vanishes. At 35 and 65 MeV the IAS is a prominent feature of the spectrum. Preliminary values of the measured 00 differential cross sections (c.m.) are shown. The data are compared to the free-nucleon cross sections (c.m.) as calculated with a 1984 phase-shift analysis (FP84) of Arndt. One sees that the 14C data follow the shape of the ?-p ? ?0n reaction quite closely. The minimum is sharper with energy in 14C than on the free nucleus, and the position of the minimum appears to occur at several million electron volts higher energy in 14C

  17. Bomb 14C and human radiation burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the publication (Stenhouse and Baxter, Nature; 267:828 (1977)) of the levels of bomb 14C and the residence times of carbon in the human body, excess radiation burdens from this radioisotope are evaluated under the assumption that no radiation dose, however small, can be regarded as entirely harmless biologically. The estimated annual absorbed dose attributable to 14C both natural and man-made for 1953-1973 and similar predicted figures for 1975-2025 are shown graphically. The cumulated doses to gonads (over 30 yr) and to bone marrow and bone-lining cells (over 60 yr) and also estimates of the biological damage to reproductive cells from 14C ?-irradiation (30 yr accumulated dose) are presented. It is concluded from both genetic and somatic considerations, that the potential human radiation burden due to artificially produced 14C calculated using the assumptions stated is certainly significant and, therefore, cannot be dismissed. However, relative to the world population and in view of the time span over which this dose is delivered, some three to four generations, the conclusion of this study must be that such effects will occur unnoticed. (U.K.)

  18. Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

  19. Sulfur mineralization of different plant materials labelled with 35 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out, in green house conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effect of incorporation in soil of different plant materials labelled with 35 S and of incubation periods on the availability of sulfur to the bean test plants and on the dynamic of this element in the soil. The bean test plants dry matter yield ranged from 2.00 to 3.79 g/plant, the S content and absorption ranged from 118.20 to 194.04 mg/100 g and 2.61 to 6.34 mg/plant respectively. The 35 S derived from the incorporated bean plant material contributed with 12 to 256% of total S absorbed by bean test plant; rice plant material contributed with 12 to 22%; soybean plant material contributed 11 to 18%; corn plant material at rate of 7 g with, 11 to 19% and corn at rate of 3.5 g; with 7 to 1%. Plant material incorporation showed 35 S using efficiency by bean test plant of 21.41 to 9.94% by incorporated rice plant material, of 16.12 to 7.79% by rice material, of 13.11 to 6.49% by soybean material, of 10.24 to 6.21% by corn at rate of 3.5 g and of 7.41 to 3.81% by corn at rate of 7 g.Incorporated plant material with C/S relationship near 120, such as bean and rice, promoted desirable and favorable alteration in soil, while materials with C/S higher than 250, such as soybean and corn, led to unsatisfactory and undesirable alteration. The characteristic of incorporated plant materials which more affected its behavior was the C/S relationship, which dephavior was the C/S relationship, which depended on its physiological stage on collect timing. (author)

  20. The synthese of compounds labelled with 14C. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium carbonate (14C) is the only material for the syntheses of compounds labelled with 14C. The syntheses of compounds of 14C were considered for their individual features and specificities in respect of double - lined character of chemical and radiochemical phenomena. It was stated that compounds of 14C obtainable directly from barium carbonate (14C) will be called basis compounds of 14C. The methods of adaptations of some syntheses of 14C elaborated previously in other laboratory were considered. The aim of this adaptation was to obtain a method flexible in respect with amount of products 14C and repeatable concerning yield and purity of compounds labelled with 14C. The methods of the microsyntheses of compounds labelled with 14C were discussed. (author)

  1. Synthesis of metnyl-2-/2-14C/benzimidazolecarbamate and 2-amino/2-14C/benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl-2-[2-14C] benzimidazolecarbamate ([2-14C]MBC) was synthesized from [14C] thiourea in three stage synthesis. S-methyl [14C] thiourea was obtained in the first stage, and treated with methyl chloroformiate giving carbamate derivative. Condensation of this compound with o-phenylenediamine led to [2-14C]MBC in radiochemical yield 66.9% and with radiochemical purity 98.5%. Hydrolysis of the [2-14C]MBC furnished 2-amino [2-14C] benzimidazole in radiochemical yield 65,8% and with radiochemical purity 97.3%

  2. Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17?g P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ?94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (?68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (?48%) and all other fractions were ?9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ? 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

  3. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

  4. Parathyroid hormone-induced phosphate excretion following preequilibration with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates a secretory component of avian renal inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) transport, but the secreted P/sub i/ does not appear to be derived directly from peritubular (plasma) P/sub i/. In the present study, experiments were conducted to determine whether differences in parathyroid status during 32P infusion influenced entry of the isotope into the P/sub i/ secretory pool. Fractional excretion values for P/sub i/ (FE/sub P//sub i/ and 32P (FE/sub 32P/) were compared in normal and parathyroidectomized (PTX) anesthetized birds that had been preinfused with 32P for 0, 90, and 240 min before PTH infusion. The results demonstrate that in the absence of exogenous PTH, FE/sub P//sub i/ is identical to FE/sub 32P/ in normal and PTX birds, reflecting full equilibration of FE32P with excreted P/sub i/ under these conditions; and, regardless of the duration of 32P preequilibration or the parathyroid status of the experimental animals, exogenous PTH always causes FE/sub p//sub i/ to exceed FE/sub 32P/. It is concluded that the P/sub i/ secretory pool is inaccessible to 32P under conditions that should markedly alter cellular P/sub i/ influx and efflux

  5. The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

  6. Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

  7. Flow sheet development for the production of 32P in KAMINI reactor using strontium sulphate target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P (a pure beta emitter, T1/2 = 14.3 d, ?-max = 1.7 MeV) is useful in treatment of various diseases like bone metastases, polycythemia vera and thrombocythaemia and can be produced in fast reactors using the 32S(n,p)32P reaction. SrSO4 has been identified as a good target material for 32P production in fast reactors. This paper describes the development of a flow sheet for the chemical processing of the irradiated strontium sulphate target. A flow sheet for separation of 32P with near quantitative recovery from SrSO4 target was established

  8. 14C accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. Ages from hundreds to hundred thousand years can be determined by this method, and tracing of one particle in 10 to 15 can be performed. AMS has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. The most used isotope in AMS is 14C. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. Our group at the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) has been developing projects on 14C-AMS in the last years, in collaborative experiments using external facilities such as Australian National University, Purdue University and University of California-Irvine. Recently we have installed our own sample preparation laboratory, where samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide, and later their graphitization is performed. More recently we have bought from NEC one 250 KV single stage AMS system (SSAMS), which started to operate in March 2012. With the laboratory for 14C sample preparation and running the SSAMS system, we became the first fully dedicated 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. We believe that the number of researchers from Brazil and Latin America who will use our facilities will increase one or two orders of magnitude, comparing with the number that nowadays use the AMS technique. In this talk the technique and our facilities will be presented. (author)

  9. Angular distributions for 14C,26Mg(?+,?-)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections at theta = 50 (lab) were obtained at seven energies for 14C(?+,?-) 14 O(g.s.) and at four energies for 26Mg(?+,?-) 26 Si(g.s.). Angular distributions have been measured for both reactions at energies of 140 and 200 MeV. The results are compared to previous angular distributions at other energies on these two nuclei, and to a series of angular distributions measured for 18O(?+,?-)

  10. Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon (14C) AMS measurements (?R/R 14C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the “Acerenza portrait” is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-14C dating on the lipid b-14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459–1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571–1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559–1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452–1519) to the support.

  11. 14C accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. Ages from hundreds to hundred thousand years can be determined by this method, and tracing of one particle in 10 to 15 can be performed. AMS has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. The most used isotope in AMS is 14C. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. Our group at the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) has been developing projects on 14C-AMS in the last years, in collaborative experiments using external facilities such as Australian National University, Purdue University and University of California-Irvine. Recently we have installed our own sample preparation laboratory, where samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide, and later their graphitization is performed. More recently we have bought from NEC one 250 KV single stage AMS system (SSAMS), which started to operate in March 2012. With the laboratory for 14C sample preparation and running the SSAMS system, we became the first fully dedicated 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. We believe that the number of researchers from Brazil and Latin America who will use our facilities will increase one or two orders of magnitude, comparing with the number that nowadays use the AMS technique. In this talk the technique and our facilities will be presented. (author)

  12. Translocation of 14C photosynthates in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on translocation of 14C photosynthates in some of the high yielding rice varieties indicated the following: (1) the translocation of photosynthates from leaf to stem was faster in early varieties like Bala than in early to medium types, Hamsa or IR.8 (2) the fixation of 14CO2 in leaves was more in Vijaya and its sister selections (CR.10 cultures, T.90xIR.8) than in IR.8 or Jaya at the early stages of panicle development. However, the movement of 14C photosynthates to panicle was faster in IR.8 and Jaya while in CR.10 cultures they accumulated initially to stem and sheath and (3) low light enhanced translocation of 14C photosynthates from leaf to panicle in Bala, Hamsa, IR.8 and Jaya while in Padma it was impaired. In general, CR.10 cultures (Vijaya, CR.10-5071) were found to be efficient in photosynthesis and translocation under low light intensity and such character was possibly derived from the local parent, T.90. (author)

  13. An experimental study of targeting therapy with 35S-SZ39 against glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To prepare a pure ?-emitting immunoradiotherapeutics agent 35S-MAb SZ39, and validate its special therapeutic efficacy against glioma. Methods: MAb SZ39 was labelled with 35S using a carbodiimide method. Using 35S-nIgG, 35S + MAb SZ39 and sustained 35S as control agents, and human brain glioma cell line SHG-44 as target cell, the injury rate and 50% inhibitory concentration of 35S-MAb SZ39 were evaluated with MTT method. 35S-MAb SZ39 and its control agent 35S-nIgG or PBS were i.p. injected into glioma-bearing nude mice. The tumor inhibitory rate (I) was determined according to the formula: I = [1-(TV35S-MAb/TVPBS)] x 100% (TV: tumor volume). Flowcytometry was used to analyse the cell cycle of glioma after treatment. Results: 35S-MAb SZ39 had a strong cytotoxic effect to glioma cells with 4.2-fold and 4.0-fold more toxic than 35S-nIgG and 35S + MAb SZ39, as strong as the sustained 35S control group. Tumor growth blocking for one week was obtained with 103.6 MBq 35S-MAb SZ39 treatment. The inhibitory rate was 50% 26 days after 35S-MAb SZ39 administration. DNA synthesis of glioma cells was inhibited, cells were accumulated in S period and the road to G1 period was blocked. There was a trend of cell cycle synchronization. No obvious toxicity was found on zation. No obvious toxicity was found on bone marrow while 35S-MAb SZ39 made the glioma growth block. Conclusions: 35S-MAb SZ39 has a strong selective injurious effect on glioma and is of good prospect to be an immunoradiotherapeutics agent

  14. Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

  15. Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

  16. Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic [35S]sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of [35S]sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl[35S]sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed

  17. Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

  18. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  19. Transformation of the herbicide [14C]glufosinate in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of 2 ?g/g [14C]glufosinate (DL-homoalan-4-ylmethylphosphinic acid) was studied in clay, clay loam, and sandy loam soils at 85% field capacity and at 20 degree C. Over a 4-week period the soils were extracted and analyzed for transformation products by radiochemical and gas chromatographic techniques. In all soils there was release of [14C]carbon dioxide and formation of [14C]-3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPPA) as major degradation products. Within 21 days, about 55% of the applied 14C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the sandy loam and 19% to [14C]carbon dioxide. After 28 days, approximately 45% of the 14C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the clay and clay loam and 10% released as [14C]carbon dioxide. At all samplings, other 14C transformation products appeared to be insignificant

  20. Synthesis of the fungicide [14C]triadimefon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of the fungicide [14C]triadimefon is described. Bromine transformed pinacolone into ?-bromopinacolone; this reacted with 4chloro-[U-14C] phenol yielding 1(4-chloro [U-14C]phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this was transformed by bromine into 1-(4-chloro[U-14C]phenoxy)-1-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this last compound reacted with 1,2,4-triazole to yield [14C]triadimefon, i.e., 1-(4-chloro[U-14C]phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanone. [14C]Triadimefon, having the specific activity 0.88 mCi/mmol, was obtained in 58% overall yield from 4-chloro [U-14C]-phenol. (author)

  1. Synthesis of dexamethasone-4-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bismethylenedioxy (BMD) derivative of dexamethasone 2 was silylated with trimethylchlorosilane and imidazole in dimethylformamide to give the 11?-trimethylsilyloxy BMD derivative 3. The ?1-double bond in 3 was hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ?4-3-oxo steroid 4. Oxidation of 4 with potassium permanganate-sodium metaperiodate gave the seco-acid 5 which on subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride; sodium acetate and triethylamine gave the enol-lactone 6. The enol-lactone 6 was reacted with 14C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 7a which on heating at reflux with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide in dioxane gave the ?4-3-oxo derivative 8. Compound 8 was heated at reflux with m-iodylbenzoic acid and diphenyl diselenide in toluene to give the ?sup(1,4)-3-oxo steroid 9. The protecting BMD and silyl groups were removed in a single step by reaction with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid containing 2N hydrochloric acid at room temperature to give dexamethasone-4-14C 10. (author)

  2. Decomposition of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine in soils; immobilization in soils and uptake by plants of these 14C herbicides and their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of phenmedipham and atrazine occured by biological way. The mineralisation of phenmediphame started by a dealkylation followed by a cleavage of the aromatic ring disposed between the two carbamoyl linkages and finished by a very weak degradation of the second benzenic ring. The percentage of mineralisation was always more important when lower levels of herbicides were applied. Free phenmedipham and atrazine were still detected after one year incubation. Adsorption on soil constituents of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues was partially biological; that of 14C atrazine and its 14C residues was solely chemical. The complexation was less strong when higher levels of pesticides were applied. Aerian parts as well as radicular systems of wheat, oat and maize sown on soils incubated during one year in presence of 10 and 100 ppm of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine were radioactive

  3. Catalytic reduction of 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C with hydrogen on palladium catalyst is described. The process was controlled by measuring the concentrations of reduction products by means of thin-layer chromatography. According to reactant and medium of the reaction, three compounds were obtained: N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-9-14C, 2-acetylaminofluorene-9-14C and 2-aminofluorene-9-14C, with radiochemical yield in relation to 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C 27%, 76% and 63% respectively. (author)

  4. Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to ?-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring ?-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, ?-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or ?-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  5. High precision 14C AMS at CIRCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CIRCE AMS system started operation in March 2005. The measurement of isotopic ratios 14C/12C in samples of archaeological and environmental interest has rapidly attained high precision and accuracy levels in routine operation. The results of the intercomparison campaign in the framework of the VIRI program, as well as the outcome of a statistical analysis of the about 200 control measurements performed with standard samples, have shown the capability of the whole system for high precision measurements (?R/R 26Al AMS has been implemented for the measurement of the astrophysically relevant 25Mg(p,?)26Al reaction cross section, while a beam line is under construction for the measurement of actinides isotopic ratios

  6. A modified method for synthesis of [?-32P] labelled adenosine triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of [?-32P]-ATP using three glycolysis enzymatic reaction i.e. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglyceric phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase has been conducted. dl-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate and H332PO4 was used as precursors for this reaction. Purification of [?-32P]-ATP was performed by using DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography. The result suggested that this simple method could be used for producing [?-32P]-ATP to support the provision of radiolabeled nucleotide for biotechnology research in Indonesia. (author)

  7. Study on the dynamics in absorption of 32P by hybrid wheat at elongate stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of absorbing 32P of hybrid wheat at elongate stage is studied under pot culture conditions. The results show that the absorption capacity of hybrid wheat to 32P is in agreement with regression equation. The increased extent of absorption for them is greater than that for parent with time, and the reduction rate of absorption is lower than the parent significantly. Their root activity is much higher than that of the parent, too. The overall heterotic vigor of hybrid wheat on the absorption capacity to 32P is the sum of that of all organs

  8. Study on labelling of rapeseed mustard plants by 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation was done to label rapeseed-mustard plants (Brassica campestris cv. YST-151 and Brassica juncea cv. Varuna) by using 32P radiotracer technique by different methods. Phosphorous being an essential nutrient, plant absorb reasonable amount of 32P thus enabling an easy way of detection. Different methods were used to label the host plant with 32P namely application of radioisotope in soil; injection of radioisotope into plant stem and application of radioisotope in nutrient solution. The best method was found by application of radioisotope in the nutrient solution as it gave highest uptake and required least time out of the 3 given methods for labeling of plants. (author)

  9. The percutaneous absorption of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors had reported that L-cysteine probably was formed from acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine through cystathionine pathway by the skin enzyme of rabbit, and the solution composed of acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine exhibited the effectiveness to the hair growth in rabbit. This report shows that, by the application of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine to the skin of rabbit and in vitro analysis of the metabolites of 35S-compounds, 35S-acetyl-L-methionine was absorbed into the hair tissues for many hours, and half 35S-L-cystine was formed in vitro and in vivo. When total amount of 35S in the hair was measured, the radiochemical activities were clearly shown as almost 35S-L-cystine. (auth.)

  10. The measurement of phosphorus release rate for medical 32P labelled glass microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement methods of phosphorus release rate for medical 32P labelled glass microspheres are described. The definition of phosphorus release rate is also discussed. The measuring results indicate that the phosphorus release rate is less than 0.01%

  11. PEMANFAATAN RADIOISOTOP 32P UNTUK PENANDAAN (LABELLED COMPOUND PADA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhid Darwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling with Radioisotop 32P was performed at various dose application. The research conducted by Insitute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development, Salatiga in collaboration with The National of Atomic Agency that aimed to know the effective dose and radioactivity disposal of the Radioisotop 32 P. The research used several doses: 0,3 µCi (micro currie; 0,5 µCi; and 0,7 µCi of each 25 gr larvaefood for 50 larvae with dry and wet radiation then observed the effect of radiation against larvae stadium and mosquitoes. The result shows that at 0,5 pCi isotop 32P dose application, Ae. aegypti mosquitoe can survive with 333,3 cps (currie per second residual radioactivity and detected in 75 cm distance. The Radioisotop 32P can be used as Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling/marking.

  12. Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, A M; Paape, M J; Weinland, B T

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined. PMID:6731995

  13. Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

  14. 32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

  15. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  16. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  17. Developing a flow sheet for the production of 32P using magnesium sulphate target in KAMINI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P is a widely used radio-nuclide in bone pain palliation therapy. 32P can be produced in FBTR through 32S (n, p) 32P. In order to investigate the feasibility of the production and develop a flow sheet for the chemical processing of the irradiated target, a trial run was carried out using KAMINI reactor. This paper describes the irradiation of sulphate target in KAMINI reactor and chemical processing of the target to separate 32P. (author)

  18. Cerenkov counting of 32P in plant samples using Cr2O3 as a quencher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P radionuclide is widely used as radiotracer for phosphorous in plant and animal research. Cerenkov counting of 32P using LSC is found much more efficient and convenient. Cr2O3 aqueous solution was found good quencher for the developing quench calibration curve using SCR method. The optimal, volume of sample solution was found for 10-12 ml and concentration of 4-methylumbelliferone at 0.050-0.100 g L-1. (author)

  19. Validation of 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, 32P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, 32P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for 32P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using 32P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate 32P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for 32P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using 32P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed

  20. The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received 35S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of 35S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of 35S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for 35S administered as methionine compared with 35S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of 35S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of 35S to milk of a further group of goats receiving 35S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed

  1. Contamination of 32P with 33P and some possible consequences in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus-32 is often used in biological research because phosphorus (usually as phosphate) is used in many important biological compounds (DNA and RNA), in biological control mechanisms (phosphorylation of proteins, cycle AMP), and a cellular energy source (nucleotide triphosphates). However, there are some subtle problems in counting 32P that could greatly affect the experimental analysis. A number of questions have come from LS users regarding anomalous results using 32P. The usual observation is that in dual-label dpm (disintegrations per minute) counting, the spillover of 32P into the 3H channel becomes unusually high. This particular problem was traced to 32P phosphate sticking to the vial walls. This shifted the 32P spectrum into the 3H window. This is a rapid effect occurring within a few days of sample preparation. However, there is another effect that occurs over a longer period of time and results from a small contaminant of 33P with 32P samples. This effect is described in detail in the paper

  2. 14C concentration of aerosols collected at Fukuoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the contribution of carbon originated from fossil fuel to carbon in aerosols by using 14C concentration as an indicator for contamination of fossil fuel. The 14C concentration of contemporary material is comparable to the atmospheric concentration at the time it was formed, while fossil fuel such as petroleum and coal contains essentially no 14C, because its age is much greater than the 5730-yr half-life of 14C. Therefore, the contribution of carbon originated from fossil fuel to carbon in aerosols would be estimated by measuring the ratio of the 14C concentration in aerosols to that in a contemporary material. We measured 14C concentrations of aerosols (total and aerodynamic class sizes) collected at Fukuoka from January 1999 to January 2000, and evaluated the monthly variations of the contribution and the size dependence. (author)

  3. Catalytic reduction of 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic reduction of 0,85 mol of 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C with gaseous hydrogen in the presence of triethylamine and acetanhydride and 5% palladium was investigated. The course of the reaction was controlled by thin-layer chromatography of the reaction mixture. N-oxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene-9-14C was separated after hydrolysis from the reaction mixture with a yield of 25,3 %. Thin-layer chromatography of the residue gave 2-acetylaminofluorene-9-14C with the yield of 25,0 %. Under changed reaction conditions, the 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C was reduced directly to 2-acetylaminofluorene-9-14C or 2-aminofluorene-9-14C with the yield of 76 % and 63 %, respectively

  4. 14C Carbofuran residue in rice-fish ecosystem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14-C-carbofuran in the form of 14-C-Furada 3G was applied with doses of 0, 2, and 4 g/m2 to a rice-fish ecosystem model consisting of water, soil, rice, plant, and fish (Cyprinus carpio) in tanks of the size 1 m length, 1 m width, and 0.5 m depth. 14-C-carbofuran was released from 14-C-Furadan 3G, entered into the water, absorbed by plant root, and then distributed into the whole plant. A part of the 14-C-carbofuran was absorbed and retained by soil. In both doses of 4 and 2 g/m2, the 14-C-Furadan 3G was toxic to Cyprinus carpio under this experiment condition. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Structure in heavy ion reactions involving 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experiment we tried was 14C + 16O using the oxygen beam at Strasbourg and a 14C target procured from Munich. The strongest structure we found for this system was in the channel to 18O. Resonances began to appear at energies superior to Esub(c.m.) = 20 MeV. Later we went to Munich where there was a 14C beam available to study the 12C + 14C reaction. Over the limited range of bombarding energies studied in this experiment two of the binary channels were found to resonate strongly. (orig./HSI)

  6. Distribution of 14C-labelled carbofuran in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was done to determine the absorption of 14-C-carbofura in four soil samples, namely aluvial (Bekasi, Pulogadung, Bali), latosol (Gambung-West Java), and podzolik (Sukamandi). The constant of distribution of 14-C-carbofuran in soil-water system was measured after shaking the system for: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours. By counting the 14-C-carbofuran in water fraction, the 14-C-carbofuran absorbed by soil could be determined. The results showed that equilibrium was reached after 1 hour shaking. Soil containing higher organic matter absorbed more carbofuran. (authors). 5 refs, 1 fig, 2 tab

  7. Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralization of 14C-carbofuran (2,3 dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-methylcarbamate) to 14CO2 as well as the formation of extractable and bound 14C-residues in clay loam soil were investigated under laboratory conditions. The 14C-carbofuran rapidly mineralized to 14CO2 and, after 20 days of incubation, 35.6% of the applied 14C was lost as 14CO2. The steady decrease of extractable 14C-residues was accomplished by a corresponding increase of bound 14C-residues over a 20-day incubation period. At the end of the experiment, the extractable and bound 14C-residues amounted to 7% and 59%, respectively, of applied radiocarbon. The soil containing bound 14C-residues was fractionated into humic substances. The humic acid, fulvic acid and humin fractions contained 22.39%, 26.04% and 17.56%, respectively, of the applied radiocarbon. The amount of 14C in microbial biomass was 15%. (author)

  8. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  9. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating mence dates when comparing other dating methods.

  10. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  11. Facile conversion of [1-14C]lauronitrile to [1-14C]lauric acid under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly efficient and an optimized synthesis of [1-14C]lauric acid with high specific activity (50 mCi/mmol) is described. [1-14C]lauric acid was prepared from [1-14C]lauronitrile, in 2 minutes with a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid: propionic acid (1: 2 v/v) under microwave irradiation, in quantitative yield. (author)

  12. Method of preparing D-mannose(U-14C) from glucons(U-14C) separated from natural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucans(U-14C) separated from green or blue-green algae are hydrolysed using diluted mineral acids in the presence of small amounts of molybdate ions to D-glucose(U-14C) which, at a temperature of 60 to 100 degC epimerizes to D-mannose(U-14C). The epimeric aldoses are separated from the reaction mixture by paper chromatography. (H.S.)

  13. Environmental background 14C levels in Japan in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessment of radiation doses due to 14C released from nuclear facilities, it is necessary to know the background level of environmental 14C originated from the natural cosmic-ray production and the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The authors selected grapes as an indicator of 14C levels in the environment including atmosphere, and determined the specific activities of 14C in ethanol extracted from wine made from grapes cultivated in several prefectures or unknown places in Japan in each year from 1990 to 2000. The specific activities of 14C were almost uniform all over Japan in each year, though they showed the weak tendency to slightly decrease with increasing population densities in the prefecture where the wine grapes were cultivated. It is considered that this small regional variation in the specific activities of 14C arose from Suess effect, because population densities can be regarded as an index of the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The specific activities of 14C gradually decreased in the 1990s. That is, they were 260 mBq/gC in 1990, and became 244 mBq/gC in 2000. This 14C level in 2000 was still about 7% higher than the pre-bomb level. The decrease in 14C originated from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-timtime of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-time was shorter than that in the Europe, Canada and the South Pacific. This difference in the decreasing rate between Japan and other countries may be explained by a fact that the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion continued to increase in Japan in this period. The specific activities of 14C in wine ethanol determined in this study showed good agreement with those in atmospheric CO2 predicted by a mathematical model. They were also in the same levels as the 14C specific activities in atmospheric CO2, tree leaves, grass and plant food in Japan and other countries, which were determined by the benzene synthesis-liquid scintillation counting or other methods. These methods of 14C determination are not so simple as the method adopted in this study. It is therefore considered that the method of determination of the 14C activities in wine ethanol is simple and precise enough to estimate the 14C activities in atmospheric CO2 and plants including crops, and thus contributes to assessment of doses due to environmental 14C. (author)

  14. Synthesis of [14C]-62514, a radiolabelled derivative of erythromycin A, via [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C]A-62514, 11-deoxy-11[carboxy(2-dimethylamino-[1-14C]ethyl)amino]-6-0-methyl-e rythromycin A 11,12-(cyclic ester), was performed in five steps. The key intermediate, [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethyl-enediamine, was obtained in 80% yield by reacting Eschenmoser's salt with K14CN and reducing the resulting [1-14C]N,N-dimethylglycinonitrile with H2 and Raney Ni in methanol and ammonium hydroxide. The final product was obtained 97% radiochemically pure in an overall radiochemical yield of 14%, with a specific activity of 39 mCi/mmol. (author)

  15. Determination of 35S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to [35S]methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of 35S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of [35S]methionine. The use of [35S]methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of 35S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed

  16. Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

  17. Bioevaluation of 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The patch was prepared from chromic phosphate 32P and silicone. Bioelimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals, and the therapeutic efficacy of two treatment schemes (single dose and fractionated dose) in an animal model of skin cancer were studied. Results: Based on the bioelimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single-dose therapeutic scheme showed a higher number of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: The 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for use in brachytherapy treatments

  18. Bioevaluation of {sup 32}P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgueiro, Maria Jimena [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jsalgueiro@ffyb.uba.ar; Duran, Hebe [Radiobiology Department, National Energy Atomic Commission, 1150 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, Monica [Biodiversity and Experimental Biology Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pirchio, Rosana [Dosimetry Department, National Energy Atomic Commission, 1150 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Medina, Vanina [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ughetti, Ricardo [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, 1603 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Croci, Maximo [Institute of Immunooncology, Dr. E. Crescenti, 1187 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nicolini, Jorge [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, 1603 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, Marcela [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-02-15

    Objective: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a {sup 32}P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The patch was prepared from chromic phosphate {sup 32}P and silicone. Bioelimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals, and the therapeutic efficacy of two treatment schemes (single dose and fractionated dose) in an animal model of skin cancer were studied. Results: Based on the bioelimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of {sup 32}P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single-dose therapeutic scheme showed a higher number of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: The {sup 32}P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the {sup 32}P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for use in brachytherapy treatments.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

  20. Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

  1. Estimating the number of contemporaneous houses from 14C dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for estimating the number of contemporaneous units, such as houses, at a given time from a set of 14C dates, is proposed. It is argued that the method is useful because the longevity of the units is taken into account. The method is illustrated on 14C dates from Late Stone Age houses in Arctic Norway. (author)

  2. Pilot study of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C, in order to produce material suitable for intercomparison exercises. Approximately 1 kg of tissue was prepared by grinding, blending, labelling with 14C-methylated bovine haemoglobin and thoroughly mixing by repeated blending. The product was sealed in cans and sterilized to preserve it. Portions of raw material were dried to test the homogeneity of moisture content. Homogeneity of 14C in the natural and labelled materials was tested by analyzing sub-samples of 2-3 g in weight of the freeze-dried materials. The 14C content was determined by combusting and collecting the CO2 for liquid scintillation counting. The material was found to be homogeneous to the extent of 2-4% (R.S.D.), which is comparable with the R.S.D. of the 14C measurements. The 14C concentration in the labelled material was 8190 ±220 Bq·kg-1 of carbon. It was concluded that bovine muscle prepared in this manner would be suitable for intercomparison exercises. The 14C level in unlabelled tissue was found to be 260 ±7 Bq·kg-1 of carbon, which is similar to the level of 14C previously determined in milk and both are consistent with levels measured in vegetation in Eastern Ontario

  3. First-order 14C dating Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-order 14C dating was developed to facilitate quantitative neotectonic analysis on coasts. The technique relies on liquid scintillation counting of absorbed CO2 derived from carefully pretreated shell carbonate. It usefully complements conventional 14C assay in the construction of Holocene deformation chronologies and their use in structural interpretation. (Author)

  4. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous fraction of living materials, such as collagen from tooth and bone, tissue, skin, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human body samples formed in this time intervals, we can establish a relationship of their 14C concentrations with calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the chemicals that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified, by their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination has been applied to a forensic study, i.e., two criminal cases of murder. For each case, by comparing the measured 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C, the time of death of the body and the age of the victim were estimated. The estimated values were consistent with the real ones that were revealed by the confession of the real murderers. (author)

  5. Assimilation and utilization of 14C assimilates in chickpeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Translocation, distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in two genotypes of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) during winter of 1974-75 and 1975-76. Plants were allowed to assimilate CO214 at pre-flowering, flowering and initial pod filling stages, and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During vegetative phase, most of 14C was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissues. Sixty three days after assimilation pod accumulated about 7 percent 14C while nodules gained only 1.7 percent in 'Pant G-104'. Similar pattern was observed in case of variety 'K-4'. During reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was linearly translocated from leaves to other plant parts with time. Since stem was actively growing it accumulated a major portion of carbon. Pod also accumulated 14C linearly as time after assimilation elapsed. Respiratory losses during one week after exposure were about 30 percent in both varieties. Photosynthate within a branch was translocated readily, while movement from one branch to another was restricted. Leaf at axial of pod was major source of photosynthate to pod. (author)thate to pod. (author)

  6. The preparation of 14C-labeled FK-506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing sodium [1-14C]propionate as a precursor, [14C]FK-506, labeled at carbon atoms 10, 16, 18, 21a, 24, and 26, was produced by fermentative biosynthesis. Extractive isolation followed by chromatographic purification provided material of purity suitable for metabolism studies. (Author)

  7. Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-35S-cysteine and L-35S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity L-35 S-cysteine and L-35 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na235 SO4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-35 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na235 SO4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

  8. Migration behavior of carbonate-14C in tuffaceous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple closed column system was developed to study migration of bicarbonate and carbonate 14C in a soil layer. Experimental data for glass beads having less 14C adsorption was used to test the system in keeping a mass balance of 14C. Migration behavior of bicarbonate and carbonate 14C in a tuffaceous sandy soil was investigated by this column system in the pH range from 8 to 12. The 14C was delayed to tritiated water, and the retardation became stronger in order, pH 12 < pH 10 < pH 8. This is considered to be due to pH-dependent adsorption of bicarbonate and carbonate ions onto the soil sample

  9. Behavior of 14C-BHC residues in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-(U-14C)-BHC was applied to rice plants grown in a pot and its fate in the growth, polishing and oil-extraction processes of the grain was investigated. The 14C-activity was absorbed and translocated widely in the plant and the recovery of applied 14C-activity in the straw and grain was about 2.8%, of which 9.4% was found in the brown rice. The % partitioning of 14C-residues in bran and polished rice was 12:88 and that in oil and oilcake was 37:63. Characterization of 14C-residues the presence of ?-BHC, pentachlorocyclohexene, trichlorobenzene and hydrophilic metabolites, whose proportions were different in the straw and grain. (Author)

  10. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

  11. Behaviour of 14C-sulfadiazine and 14C-difloxacin during manure storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence of sulfadiazine, difloxacin, and their metabolites has been investigated in stored manure. The manure collected from sulfadiazine (14C-SDZ) and difloxacin (14C-DIF) treated pigs contained N-acetylsulfadiazine (Ac-SDZ), 4-hydroxy-SDZ (4-OH-SDZ), and sarafloxacin (SARA) as the main metabolites, respectively along with their parent compounds. Manures were stored separately at 10 oC and 20 oC at various moisture levels. About 96-99% of the radioactivity remained in extractable parent compounds and their metabolites after 150 d of storage. The formation of non-extractable residue and the rate of mineralization were both negligible in manure containing SDZ and DIF. During storage SDZ concentration increased as a result of the deacetylation of Ac-SDZ, whose concentration decreased proportionally. Hence the environmental effects may be underestimated if the parent compound alone is considered for environmental risk assessment. About 11% and 14% of 4-OH-SDZ were lost after 20 and 40 d of storage; thereafter its concentration increased relatively, highlighting hydroxylation of SDZ. DIF degraded very slowly (7% loss after 150 d) during the storage of manure; in contrast the concentration of SARA decreased rapidly (72-90% loss after 150 d). Dilution of manure and storage at higher temperatures for a reasonable period of time enhanced the rate of reactions of SDZ, DIF and their related metabolites.lated metabolites.

  12. Determination of basal and stimulated levels of inositol triphosphate in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies indicated that thrombin-stimulation of platelets prelabeled with [3H]inositol or [32P]orthophosphate results in an increase of radioactive inositol triphosphate, a substance thought to modulate the levels of free intracellular calcium. In the present study, we improved the method of resolution of inositol triphosphate from other compounds that are also labeled with [32P]orthophosphate using a combination of enzyme treatment and electrophoresis. We have further demonstrated that the specific activities of metabolic ATP and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (the precursor of inositol triphosphate) are identical in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets. It follows that the amount of inositol triphosphate is proportional to its radioactivity in the metabolic compartment of the cells. Using this protocol, the concentration of inositol triphosphate in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets were determined to be 1-4 and 10-30 pmol/108 cells, respectively

  13. Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population

  14. Movement of 32P between intact grassland plants of the same age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In three experiments Lolium perenne was grown in pots of soil, either with Plantago lanceolata or with another L. perenne. The plants were of the same age and they were infected with VA mycorrhizas. One L perenne plant in each pot was labelled with 32P by foliar feeding; radioactivity was subsequently detected in the other plant. Nondestructive measurements made using a scintillation probe showed that after an initial lag, transfer between the plants continued steadily up to 22 d. The mean rate of transfer was 0.7-2.8 x 10-3 units of 32P per day per unit of 32P in the donor plant's root-system. When transfer occurs between plants of the same species, age and size this indicates exchange rather than net transfer. The ecological significance of the results is discussed. (author)

  15. Radiotracer studies for determining the active root distribution of Hevea brasiliensis using 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus uptake by mature Hevea trees from the soil was studied using 32P tracer. The soil injection of 32P in solution was used. Latex and leaf assay were compared for detecting 32P uptake and latex was found to be more convenient and reliable than leaf assay for determining the distribution of active roots with respect to vertical and lateral distances from the tree. Latex radioactivity tended to be higher at 8 weeks than at 4 weeks. Latex assay made after 8 weeks was therefore used in this study. The activity of the latex was higher when the tracer was placed at a depth of 15 cm. Of the five lateral distances compared, the highest root activity was observed at a distance of 0.75 m from the tree. (author)

  16. The effect of different doses of 32P in the treatment of primary thrombocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a follow up in 23 patients with primary thrombocytosis treated with two different doses of 32phosphorus phosphate (32P). Ten patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) received 2 mCi and 13 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) received the standard dose of 0.1 mCi/kg b.w. The patients were listed as having a complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or no response (NR) considering platelet count at 3 and 12 months after 32P injection. The results indicate the existence of a clear correlation of the rate of remission with the 32P injected dose. PV patients show, in fact, a percentage of complete remission higher than ET patients. However, the use of higher doses induces more early and long-term complications. (author)

  17. The absolute standardization of 32P and 204Tl at LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P and 204Tl solutions were standardized within the frame of the international key comparisons organized by bureau international des poids et mesures, in 2002. The activity concentration of 32P was measured by counting solid sources in a 4?? proportional gas flow counter and by liquid scintillation counting. The self-absorption in solid sources for 4?? counting and the presence of 33P as an impurity were evaluated. The combined standard uncertainty for 32P was 0.59% in the 4?? counting and 0.38% in the liquid scintillation counting. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure the activity concentration of 204Tl with combined standard uncertainty of 0.35%

  18. Organic synthesis of 14C-uniformly labelled saccharides using D-[U-14C]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is presented and the principles of methods described of the preparation of saccharides uniformly labelled with 14C which are presently produced at the UVVVR by organic synthesis using D[U-14C] glucose as the starting substance. (author). 1 fig., 11 refs

  19. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte A, C

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  20. Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection studies using 14C UBT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of 14C is about 5,730 years, and it decays by emitting a low energy beta (â) particle of mean energy 49 KeV. The biological half life of 14C is 10 to 12 days. 14C is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, 14C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult 'gigantism'), and for diagnosis of Helicobacterpylori (H pylori), The discovery H Pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Since then H pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established, H pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. By the application of radiation much progress has been made worldwide in the field of medicine. This article presents the application of 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum, 14C UBT relies on the urease activity of H pylori to detect the presence of active infection. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT)f Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai has developed 14C UBT method and already in regular practice in many hospitals across the country. Orally administered 14C urea will be hydrolyzed into ammonia (NH4) and 14C labelled carbon dioxide (14CO2). The presence of a significant amount of (14CO2) in the exhaled breath indicates active H pylori infection. 14C UBT is relatively inexpensive, is easy to perform, and does not require endoscopy. 14C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low, much lower than the radiation dose due to natural sources. Nearly 100 samples collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic persons of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka were analysed and the results with discussion are presented in this paper. (author)

  2. The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

  3. Studies on degradation and excretion of 32P-methamidophos by lactating cattle, following oral application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-labelled methamidophos (thiophosphoric acid O,S-dimethylester amide) was orally applied to lactating cattle, with the dosage being 2 mg/kg body weight. The half-life of the active agent in blood serum was 10 +- 2 hours. As long as after six hours, up to 1 ppm of extracable 32P activity with components of unmetabolized active agent was recorded in vivo from blood and milk. Active agent was excreted also in urine. Its concentration declined rapidly after 24 hours, though clearly detectable quantities were still present in the circulation. Metabolites were not identified. Binding of methamidophos to proteins and pharmacokinetics measured are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Effect of Mn deficiency on uptake, transport and distribution of 32P in cauliflower and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of 32P uptake, transport and distribution has been recorded in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis cv. Late Maghi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Marglobe) plants grown at deficient (0.00055 ppm) and optimal (0.55 ppm) levels of Mn supply in refined sand culture. Manganese deficiency enhanced the transport of 32P from roots to tops in both the species but the uptake and distribution pattern was found to vary with the species, plant parts and in terms of concentration and total uptake. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  5. Study of sulphur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32P as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of SO2 on the phosphorus metabolism of bean plants were studied under controlled conditions by measuring the uptake and distribution of 32P in the plant. The results indicate that low SO2 concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm) during 24-72 h stimulate the metabolism of phosphorus in bean plants in different phases of their development without affecting total phosphorus content. Before the appearance of any visible symptom of damage the changes were registered in the metabolism of RNA and DNA phospholipid and acid-soluble compounds. This investigation has contributed to identifying early invisible effects of SO2 on plants by using radioactive 32P. (author)

  6. 3'-end labeling of DNA with [?-32P]cordycepin-5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to 5'-end labeling of complementary DNA strands, the authors have used [32P]cordycepin-5'-triphosphate labeling of 3'-ends to confirm the nucleotide sequence of a HhaI-endonuclease-generated pTU4-plasmid DNA fragment that contains several hot spots for insertions of the transposable genetic element Tn3. 3'-End labeling with [32P]cordycepin-5'-triphosphate has also proved useful in determining the sequence of the pTU4 DNA in the vicinity of a strategically located SstII endonuclease cleavage site in the replication region of the plasmid. (Auth.)

  7. Transport of 14C-IAA and 14C-ACC within floral organs of Ipomoea nil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of 14C-IAA ampersand 14C-ACC from agarose donor blocks applied to I. nil filaments ampersand their recovery as 14C-accumulation into floral organs was examined. The accumulation of the isotopes in the corolla tissue was greater when 14C-ACC was applied than 14C-IAA in intact ampersand isolated flower buds. Greater levels of the isotopes accumulated in the pistil, with minimal levels in receptacle and calyx tissues from isolated buds. With intact buds, greater levels of the isotopes were recovered in pistil, calyx ampersand receptacle tissues. This study provides further evidence for the role of the filaments as transport vectors for IAA ampersand ACC for the production of ethylene

  8. Transport of sup 14 C-IAA and sup 14 C-ACC within floral organs of Ipomoea nil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, H.G. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA)); Maurice, H.R. (Upper Iowa Univ., Fayette (USA)); Koning, R.E. (East Connecticut State Univ., Willimantic (USA)); Daie, J. (Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The transport of {sup 14}C-IAA {sup 14}C-ACC from agarose donor blocks applied to I. nil filaments their recovery as {sup 14}C-accumulation into floral organs was examined. The accumulation of the isotopes in the corolla tissue was greater when {sup 14}C-ACC was applied than {sup 14}C-IAA in intact isolated flower buds. Greater levels of the isotopes accumulated in the pistil, with minimal levels in receptacle and calyx tissues from isolated buds. With intact buds, greater levels of the isotopes were recovered in pistil, calyx receptacle tissues. This study provides further evidence for the role of the filaments as transport vectors for IAA ACC for the production of ethylene.

  9. Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of bound (nonextractable) 14C residues from soil previously treated with [14C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

  10. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  11. Autoradiographic visualization in comparison with the incorporation of 35S-methionine by various tissue protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the incorporation level of 35S-methionine by various tissue protein in organism. By the use of the macro- and micro-autoradiographic technique, the incorporation of 35S-methionine by the tissues has been utilized as an index of tissue protein synthesis. Further experiments showed that 35S-methionine was dominantly incorporated in the liver, kidney and spleen. It indicated that a strong protein metabolism produced in these tissues. In spite of the important physiological function of the heart, lung and skeletal muscle, the protein metabolism in those tissues was in a low level

  12. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [14C]erythritol and [3H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [14C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [14C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [3H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [14C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [3H]inulin clearance. The increase in [14C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [14C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [14C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  13. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced 14C had doubled the 14C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO2 cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing 14C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing 14C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the 14C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, 14C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of 14C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  14. 14C in the deep water of the east Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewal of east Atlantic deep water and its large-scale circulation and mixing have been studied in observed distributions of temperature, silicate, ?CO2, and 14C. 14C variations in northeast Atlantic deep water below 3500m depth are small. ?14C values range from - 100 per thousand to - 125 per thousand. 14C bottom water concentrations decrease from ?14C = -117 per thousand in the Sierra Leone Basin to ?14C = -123 per thousand in the Iberian Basin and are consistent with a mean northward bottom water flow. The characteristic of the water that flows from the west Atlantic through the Romanche Trench into the east Atlantic was determined by inspection of theta/?14C and theta/SiO2 diagrams. A mean potential temperature of theta = 1.50 +/- .050C was found for the inflowing water. A multi-box model including circulation, mixing, and chemical source terms in the deep water has been formulated. Linear programming and least-squares techniques have been used to obtain the transport and source parameters of the model from the observed tracer fields. Model calculations reveal an inflow through the Romanche Trench from the west Atlantic, which predominates over any other inflow (5 +/- 2) Sv (potential temperature 1.500C), a convective turnover of (150 +/- 50) years and a vertical apparent diffusivity of (4 +/- 1) cm2/s. Chemical source terms2/s. Chemical source terms are in the expected ranges

  15. Distribution and utilization of 14C assimilate in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in lentil (Lens esculentum L.) during winter of 1975 and 1976. Plants were allowed to assimilate 14CO2 at the pre bloom, flower initiation and early pod formation stage in 1975 and initial pod formation and mid pod filling stage in 1976 and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C (74 percent) was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During the vegetative phase, most of 14C (77 percent) was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissue and relatively low amount in root and nodules. Seventy two days after assimilation, pod accumulated about 8 percent of 14C. During the early reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was translocated from leaves to stem, pod and roots. Since stem was actively growing, it accumulated a considerable amount (38 percent) of assimilates. This resulted in a severe competition for assimilate supply for pod growth during early pod filling stage. At mid pod filling stage, most of the assimilate (65 percent) was utilized in pod growth. The pattern of carbon utilization and redistribution revealed that a part of assimilate utilized in stem and leaves was remobilised during the process of mas was remobilised during the process of maturation. (author)

  16. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  17. Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

  18. 14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

  19. Asymmetric synthesis of 14C-labeled L-propargylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-Propargylglycine was efficiently labeled with 14C at the 1- and 2- positions. The synthesis was achieved according to the scheme illustrated in Fig.1. Ni-complex of Schiff's base, Gly-Ni-BPB(4) was derived from [U-14C]glycine(2) and (S)-BPB(3). Diastereoselective alkylation of 4 with propargyl bromide followed by acid hydrolysis afforded L-propargyl[1, 2-14C]glycine(1). The optical purity of 1 was proved to be 97.0% and the overall yield of 1 from 2 was 28.2%. (author)

  20. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subspeciation of total cell proteins from multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids labelled with [35S]methionine or [35S]thioATP and of coagulase negative staphylococci labelled with [35S]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors demonstrate that [35S]methionine labelling of proteins followed by PAGE can be used to distinguish biochemically similar, multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids; thirty-one isolates fell into four subgroups. The method also distinguished ten separate electrophoretypes of coagulase-negative staphylococci which correlated approximately with eight biotypes; the fifty-one isolates of biotypes SII, the commonest clinical isolate, were electrophoretically identical, thus suggesting that they are, indeed, members of a single subgroup. The authors also report a novel method of radiolabelling the phosphoproteins using [35S]thioATP and have demonstrated the method using the above diphtheroids. These were again distinguished into the same four subgroups although the patterns of phosphoproteins were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the proteins. This thioATP labelling method should have wide application also. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 {sup 14}C and alloxan-2 {sup 14}C from urea {sup 14}C; Synthese de l'acide barbiturique {sup 14}C-2 et de l'alloxane {sup 14}C-2 a partir d'uree {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, M.; Pichat, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Pochon, F. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Chimie Biologique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1961-07-01

    Urea {sup 14}C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 {sup 14}C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author) [French] L'uree {sup 14}C condensee sur le malonate d'ethyle a conduit a l'acide barbiturique {sup 14}C-2 avec un rendement de 93 pour cent. Ce dernier a ete transforme en acide benzylidenebarbiturique avec un rendement de 81 pour cent. L'oxydation de ce compose par l'acide chromique en milieu acetique a fourni l'alloxane monohydrate {sup 14}C-2 avec un rendement de 70 pour cent. La purete des produits a ete controlee par chromatographie sur papier. (auteur)

  2. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to e applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  3. Chromium(III) phosphate labelled with 32P for use in metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was obtained for the first time a suspension of chromium Phosphate (III) labelled with 32P, with predominant size of particles among 5-10 ?m, potentially useful in the treatment of solid tumors and Radiosynoctomy. A dispersion was obtained with prevalence of sizes of the colloidal order with 80% above 0,2 ?m, potentially useful for Radiosynovectomy

  4. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 42-43M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 31-32M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 15-16M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 7-8M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pain treatment of bone metastases using 32P and 89Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    22 patients with incurable bone pains in metastasizing carcinoma were treated with radioisotopes. 32P and 89Sr were used in a dosage of 3 times 111 MBq and once 37 MBq. A reaction to the therapy could be proved in 46% of all cases and in 23% there was a very good result. (author)

  9. 32P-pyrophosphate in the treatment of persistent metastatic bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight patients with persistent pain due to disseminated bone metastases from mammary carcinoma were given about 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 32P-pyrophosphate on 10 occasions. All but one of the patients experienced alleviation of pain lasting 1 to 4 months. The side effects, which derived mainly from haematopoetic tissue, prevent the routine use of this compound. (Auth.)

  10. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  11. Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for 32P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

  12. Solvent Extraction Separation of Phosphorus for the Measurement of {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Heung N.; Ahn, Hong Joo; Han, Sun ho; Jee, Kwang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Phosphorus is a major element in life and plays essential roles in the human body. On the other hand, phosphorus organic compound has high toxicity, therefore, the determination of trace amount of phosphorus is important in environment studies. Development of an analytical method for the determination of low levels of phosphorus is very important as a very few analytical techniques yield reliable results for this element at trace levels. Radioactive phosphorus, {sup 32}P (T1/2 = 14.3 d, Emax 1.71 MeV) is the highest energy beta-emitting radionuclides and now generally accepted as an effective therapeutic agent for chronic leukemia and excess red blood cells. But, {sup 32}P used in diagnosis and treatment are generated radioactive waste such as pipette tips, latex gloves, angioplastic balloons, Kimwipes etc.. We'll analyze {sup 32}P in medical radioactive waste in the future. Even if {sup 32}P has low level activity and short halflife, we have to control radioactive materials in medical waste. In this work, experiment separation using solvent extraction of inactive phosphorus as preliminary experiments for the establishment of analysis. Phosphorus is extracted tri-n-octylamine (TNOA)/ xylene, which is the most suitable solvent and then is measured by UV-visable spectrophotometer.

  13. A pre-concentration technique for determination of 32P in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial 32P (T1/2 = 14.28 days) can be used to trace behavior of a major nutrient, phosphate, in aquatic systems. Although liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting of high energy betas of 32P is very sensitive, its usefulness for low level activities is limited by inefficient pre-concentration techniques. Precipitation of ZrPO4 was found is an excellent method for pre-concentration of 32P from natural waters. After acidification (pH ? 2) of a 1-liter sample, about 1 ml 20 mM phosphate carrier is added and equilibrated with natural phosphates. Excess Zr carrier (about 40 mg) is then added to fully precipitate both the natural and added phosphates in the sample. The ZrPO4 precipitates are collected onto a Whatman GF/B type filter which becomes translucent in Ultima Gold A/B cocktail. Constantly high 32P recoveries (about 97%) were obtained through the entire procedure for hundreds of samples during a hydrologic tracer test. Furthermore, about one dozen samples per hour could be processed, and when counting with a portable liquid scintillation counter the results are about 500-fold more sensitive than direct Cerenkov counting. (author)

  14. Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90Sr/90Y and 204Tl and non-calibrated source of 32P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32P and 90Sr/90Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 4-5M

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. /sup 32/P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

    1978-08-01

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi /sup 32/P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of /sup 32/P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to /sup 32/P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of /sup 32/P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition.

  17. Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-70C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

  18. 14C in human diet in three Spanish locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C reach humans via the diet. In this study we present the results of diet samples from three locations type Spanish, Seville, Caceres and Tenerife. These diets are collected quarterly and historical dates back to early 2008.

  19. Patient risk of 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter Pylori bacteria infection is determined by activity measurement of the exhaled 14C-carbon dioxide formed from 14C-urea in stomach. About 37 kBq of capsulated 14C -urea is administered to the patient. Because 14C is a weak beta emitter, patients receive certain radiation dose. This could be the only drawback of this method. Because of that in this paper the effective dose has been determined. On that basis the patient risk has been estimated. The results show that the patient effective dose is at the level of the daily background radiation. So, from the radiation protection point of view this method is very safe. Including other excellent performances of the method like sensitivity, selectivity, noninvasivity, fastness and low costs, it could be recommended in diagnosis and eradication of Helicobacter Pylori infections. (author)

  20. 14C in air over the Arabian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global monitoring of radiocarbon in atmospheric CO2 began during the mid fifties to determine the time scales of exchange of radiocarbon (and CO2) between the atmosphere and other terrestrial reservoirs. The distribution of natural radiocarbon in the environment was perturbed significantly during the 1960s through injection of 14C from nuclear weapon tests. This bomb 14C has proved to be an excellent tracer to characterize and quantify CO2 exchange between various reservoirs. We have measured radiocarbon activity of marine air over the central and eastern Arabian sea during 1993-95. The mean ?14C values are 121±6, 116±6 and 105±5% respectively for these three years. These values, in conjunction with those reported in the literature for troposphere for the decades of 60s through 80s, show that the 14C activity in the tropospheric air has been decreasing exponentially with an e-folding time of ? 16 years. (author)

  1. Studies on residues of 14C malathion in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extractability, the mobility and formation of bound 14C labelled residues in two soils under normal conditions were investigated with malathion. Comparison is made between irradiated and autoclaved soils. The highest concentration of the product is found in the first section (0-4cm) after experiment. Three compounds were found in the soils. 14C malathion is decomposed to 14C02. The degradation is more important in organic matter rich soil. In rich soil, 50% of 14C product is degradated after 17 days. This percentage is only 10%, for poor soil. The 14CO2 produced in non-sterile soil is 33,05%. This percentage is respectively 10,92% and 3,57% only for irradiated and autoclaved soils

  2. Microanalytical 14C AMS measurements on carbonaceous particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaceous particles are increasingly recognized as an important atmospheric constituent. These small atmospheric particles, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), are produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and outdoor biomass. It has been suggested, that climate forcing by BC contributes substantially to global warming although OC might partly reduce warming effects due to indirect effects such as cloud brightness and cloud cover. Current investigations aim at a partitioning of BC and OC to biogenic and anthropogenic sources to improve our knowledge on the contribution of each fraction to the ambient atmosphere. One approach to solve this problem is a determination of the 14C concentration. The 14C activity in ambient, biogenic carbon is 227 Bq/kg C and the corresponding atomic ratio for 12C/14C approx. 1012:1. OC and mainly BC are also produced in fossil fuel burning. In this fraction 14C is extinct. (orig.)

  3. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  4. Preparation of (N-methyl-14C) Erythromycin and (N-methyl-14C) Erythromycin cyclic carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (N-methyl-14C)Erythromycin was obtained by methylation of des-N-methylerythromycin with (14C)formaldehyde in the presence of Pd-catalyst. Radiochemical yield reached 42.3%, radiochemical purity 95.1%. Condensation of this compound with ethylene carbonate led to (N-methyl-14C)erythromycin cyclic carbonate with radiochemical yield of 71% and radiochemical purity of 98.5%. Both products were purified on a chromathografic column with aluminium oxide or silica gel bed

  5. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

  6. Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 ± 19.5 (x-bar ± s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features sple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

  7. Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a demia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

  8. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

  9. 14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Genetic consequences of the 14C-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are only few investigations on the biological and genetic consequences of 14C decay especially due to the long half-life of 14C. Naturally, the consequences of the decay of 14C incorperated in DNA is of particular interest. Due to the thus occuring conversion into nitrogen, either opening of the ribose residue ring and base occurs or conversion into base analogue. The present work gives a survey on the investigational results on this topic which were obtained by various authors on phages, bacteria, algae and animal cells, as well as on molecular level. It was shown that the transmutation for the occurence of a lethal effect is many times more effective than ?-radiation. Investigations of the mutagenic effects and other genetic effects of the 14C decay were carried out on micro-organisms, however also on higher forms of life, plants, insects and mice. An analysis of the mutations showed that transitions as well as transversions occur. As example for genetic effects of 14C decay, the two following are named. In the case of mice which were exposed to 14CO2 atmosphere, it was seen that the number of polyptoidal chromosome sets in the first spermotacytes increased considerably, an increase of the chromosome conversion rate was however not observed. When treating gryllus larvae with 14C, it was interesting to note that the crossing of 14C-contained females with normal males produced viable eggs, whereas normal females after crossing with 14C contained males, laid no more eggs. (MG) 891 MG

  11. Optimising the value of 14C breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the factors that may influence the final result of the 14C breath test was undertakken to optimise the value of 14C breath test technique. The significant observations included the maintenance of cut-off point to just decolorization and elimination of redevelopment of colour by adjusting the concentration of the indicator. The results have great utility in wider application of the technique. (author)

  12. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  13. Clinical investigation of 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate clinical value of 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori(Hp), 70 patients were both performed gastroscopy (taking gastric mucosae biopsy for rapid urease test and histology) and 14C-UBT (some patients by Hp-IgG or DNAHp test also) within two days. The positive cases of both rapid urease test and histology was defined as 'gold standard' of Hp-positive, whereas the negative cases of both rapid urease test and histology as 'gold standard' of Hp-negative. The sensitivity of 14C-UBT was 93.2%, the specificity 73.1%, and the diagnostic accuracy 85.7%. The difference (comparing with 'gold standard') was not marked (x2 = 0.90.05(1)2 = 3.84, P>0.05). But the diagnostic accuracy of 14C-UBT (85.7%) and Hp-IgG (50%) had a marked difference (x2 13.80>x0.01(1)2 = 6.64, P14C-UBT was easy to operate, reliable and suitable for clinical application

  14. Turnover of eastern Caribbean deep water from 14C measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14C balance for the Eastern Caribbean deep water indicates the average inflow of Atlantic water into the basin to be 2.3 X 105 m3/sec (+-30%), or about 2-4 times the values estimated previously. The balance uses a model representation of the deep-water turnover, and is based on 14C concentrations at a station in the Venezuelan Basin which average ? 14C = 89% below 800 m depth with a total range of only 9%, as well as on a 14C concentration of the Atlantic inflow of ? 14C = -71% as obtained from measurements outside the Antilles Arch. The turnover time of the basin water below 2500 m depth is 55 years, which corresponds to an average upwelling velocity at this depth of about 35 m/year. With such upwelling, the temperature profile below 1800 m (the depth of the sill determining the inflow of new water) requires a vertical eddy diffusivity of about 5 cm2/sec. The oxygen consumption, and silica and CO2 regeneration, rates below 2500 m depth are obtained as -0.18, +0.08, and +0.2 ?mole kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The CO2 regeneration has but a negligible effect on the 14C balance. (Auth.)

  15. Anthropogenic influences on 14C activity level in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic influences on the 14C activity level in the environment are briefly discussed. The largest increase in 14C activity was due to nuclear weapon tests during the 1960s, when this activity doubled as compared to the 1963 natural level. Current releases of 14C from nuclear facilities are only about 10 % of natural production. Another anthropogenic effect is associated with CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (dilution of 14C in carbon isotopic mixture - Suess effect). Determination of 14C in various types of sample can enhance our knowledge about natural carbon cycling. Hence, radiocarbon provides tool for the calculation of the local/regional/global Suess effect or determination of carbon delay in various types of sinks. Our monitoring of atmospheric 14CO2 at sites with different stress from fossil fuel combustion is aimed to estimate local and regional Suess effect and associated phenomena. Extrapolated data from the Jungfraujoch monitoring station were used to establish a reference 'background' 14C activity level for the years of monitoring

  16. Studies on absorption, conversion of sulfate by rape seedling and accumulation of glucosinolate in rape seed by using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings grown in sandy culture absorbed 35SO42- from cultural solution rapidly and the 35S was incorperated into glucosinolates, amino acids and proteins. Percentage of glucosinolates-35S in extractable 35S with 70% methanol declined and those of amino acid-35S rose regularly with time after labelling. The relative content of 35S incorperated into bound constituents as well as extractable components was constant after 5 days of labelling. From two weeks after flowering, the relative content of GS-35S in pods and seeds increased linearly with time until eight weeks after flowering when all 35S extracted with 70% methanol in seeds were in form of glucosinolate. The amount of 35S-GS per pod increased linearly from the first week to the eighth week after flowering. It seems that the accumulation of GS in seeds is related to the accumulation of dry matter in seeds

  17. 14-C-NAPHTHYL, 14-C-METHYL AND 14-C-CARBONYL CARBARYL DISTRIBUTION IN THE PREGNANT MOUSE AND RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of carbaryl labeled with 14C in the ring, methyl or carbonyl groups was determined in pregnant mice and rats. Three identical concurrent experiments were performed using each of the three radiolabeled compounds in each of the species so that the different moietie...

  18. Lymphokine-induced uptake of [14C]glucosamine, [14C]glucose, and [3H]leucine by macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphokine-activated (LK+) and control (LK-) macrophages were cultured for 66 h and then pulsed with [14C]glucosamine. Uptake of [14C]glucosamine was greater in LK+ than in LK- cultures. If, after 66 h, the medium was replaced with fresh medium and then pulsed with either [14C]glucose or [14C]glucosamine, the uptake of isotope was greatly reduced compared to cultures with no change of medium. However, uptake of both radiolabeled substances was still found to be greater in LK+ cultures than in LK- cultures. Although uptake of both substances was enhanced by lymphokines, the uptake kinetics of each isotope was different. Under similar conditions the uptake of [3H]leucine was not enhanced by lymphokine activation. These data are interpreted to mean that LK+ macrophages are metabolically stimulated and utilize more glucose and glucosamine. The difference in kinetics implies a different utilization by macrophages for each substance

  19. 14C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the 14C levels in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide 14C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen (17O), nitrogen (14N) and carbon (13C). Part of the 14C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO2, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of 14C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The 14C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background 14C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of 14C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the 14C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of 14C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of 14C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of 14C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of 14C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada

  20. The incorporationof 35S in the hypophysis and some brain structures following intracisternal 35S-cystine administration in hydrated and dehydrated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-cystine, in doses of 12.5 ?Ci, was injected intracisternally to hydrated and dehydrated rats. The whole radioactivity of the hypophysis, hypothalamus, mesencephalon and frontal lobe was determined three and twenty four hours following the injection. The uptake of 35S in the hypophysis as well as in the hypothalamus was higher in dehydrated than in hydrated aniamls, both three and twenty four hours after the injection. In hydrated aniamls, the isotope markage of hypothalamic tissue was similar to that of mesencephalon and frontal lobe. Basing on the obtained data, the axonal transport rate in influndibular axons has been calculated and found to be not below 48 mm/day. (author)

  1. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous materials of human body, such as collagen fractions from teeth and bone, tissue, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans dead or alive, are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human tissue samples formed in this time ranges, we can establish a relation between their 14C concentrations and calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the drugs that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified by the analysis of their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination was applied to a forensic study; i.e., to two similar cases of murder. One of the two cases is for a dead body of a modern human who was killed in 1978 and buried under the floor of the house owned by the murderer. The body was excavated in 2004 according to the confession by the murderer. 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and compared with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C. The time of death of tced 14C. The time of death of the body was estimated to be at around 1977, and her age was from 30 to 37 years old at that time. These estimations were consistent with the real values that were revealed after the case was solved by the confession of the real murderer who gave himself up to the police. For the other case, 14C analysis was also consistent with the fact revealed by police investigations as well as by the confession of the real murderer.

  2. Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho(35S)sulfate with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, F.

    1988-07-01

    The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho(35S)sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic (35S)sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of (35S)sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl(35S)sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed.

  3. Bioavailability in rats of bound 14C residues from corn plants treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn plants grown to the silage stage were treated with 14C ring-labeled and unlabeled atrazine. The aerial portion of the plants was exhaustively extracted with solvents and the extracted material containing bound 14C residues was fed to rats. For comparison extracted material from control plants fortified with [14C]atrazine was also fed to rats. After 4 days, 88% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 10% in the urine from rats fed plant material containing bound 14C residues. In contrast, only 32% of the dose was eliminated in the feces while 60% was voided via the urine when the corn material fortified with [14C]atrazine was fed to rats. Most of the 14C residues in feces from rats fed bound diet remained nonextractable and their amounts and nature were similar to those in the corn material. Atrazine added to the corn material before feeding was metabolized effectively when consumed by rats. The data demonstrated that bound residues in corn plant treated with atrazine have a low degree of bioavailability in rats

  4. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. PMID:24814329

  5. Investigating atmospheric transport processes using cosmogenic 35S and oxygen isotopic anomaly (?17O) in sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Falkenthal, J. C.; Pandey, A.; Coupal, E.; Kim, S. D.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have been recognized to possess hazardous impact on both climate and human health. Improved understanding of the SO2 residence time and sulfate aerosol transport is needed for assessing its influences on climate. Cosmogenically produced 35S (half-life~87 days)1 measurements have been used to understand the atmospheric transport process, boundary layer dynamics and its effect on the tropospheric SO2 oxidation rate constant. Our method involves determining 35S in gaseous SO2 and aerosol sulfate samples collected twice a week at Scripps Institute of Oceanography Pier (La Jolla, CA) for a year along with the determination of oxygen isotopes in both coarse and fine particle samples. The oxygen isotopes measurement in sulfate and 35S measurements were done by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and low-noise liquid scintillation spectroscopy2, respectively. The data show that 35S activity is significantly different for coarse and fine particles, with the latter possessing higher activity as it is mainly produced from the gas phase oxidation of SO2 at higher altitude. The fluctuation in 35S activity in fine particles indicates mixing of air masses from higher altitude. The coarse particles show nearly constant 35S activity which is either due to the constant uptake rate of SO2 by sea salt aerosol or the coagulation of fine particles together. The normalized activity 35S/S is about 5 times higher in both coarse and fine particles during Santa Ana wind event. Santa Ana wind is characterized by low humidity (SO2 oxidation. We are investigating the sulfate oxygen isotope signature and the correlation between oxygen anomaly and 35S activity in sulfate. 1. Lal D., P. K. Malhotra, and B. Peters, On the production of radioisotopes in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation and their application in meteorology, J. Atmos. AndTerrest. Phys. 12, 306, 1958 2. Brother, L.A., G. Dominguez, A. Abramian, A. Corbin, Ben Bluen, and M. H. Thiemens, Otimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications, Proceedings National Acad. Sci. 107, 5311, 2010

  6. Synthesis of [16-14C]trichodiene the precursor to trichothecenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of radiolabelled trichodiene with 14C at the olefinic methyl (C-16) is described. The isotope was introduced using a 14C-Wittig reagent prepared in situ from triphenyl phosphine and 14C-methyliodide. (author)

  7. The uptake and metabolism of 35S02 in plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide were exposed simultaneously to 35S02. The total quantity of gas taken up, and its distribution between a surface leachate, an ethanol-soluble fraction and an insoluble fraction were compared. The sensitive Medicago sativa took up more gas per unit leaf area than Phaseolus vulgaris or two strains of Lolium perenne (S24, and the native 'Hemlmshore' strain). Fifteen to thirty-eight percent of the radioactivity was removed from all leaves by leaching, and this proportion changed little with time. The leachate contained 35S032-and 35S042-. The proportion of 35S032-was greatest in P.vulgaris and least in M. sativa. The internal radioactivity was largely soluble in L. perenne, but insoluble in M. sativa. In P. vulgaris, most soluble activity was found in expanding leaves. Little difference in the uptake or metabolism of 35S02 was found in the two Lolium strains. The results are discussed with reference to possible roles of 'avoidance' and 'tolerance' in determining resistance to S02. (author)

  8. Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-?-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ?M, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ?M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

  9. Cerenkov and liquid scintillaton analysis of the triple label 86Rb-35S-33P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for the analysis of 86Rb-35S-33P as a triple-label. The analysis of the total activity of composite mixtures of the three radionuclides was demonstrated to be quantitative by the liquid scintillation efficiency tracing technique with recoveries between 99.7-100.4%. The activity of 86Rb in the triple label was determined by Cerenkov counting in water with a 52% counting efficiency. The combined activities of 35S + 35P were determined by subtracting the activity of 86Rb from the total activity of the triple label. The separate activities of 35S and 33P are obtained by difference after a period of time sufficient for the decay of 33P to negligible levels leaving only residual 35S in the sample. The method described is useful for the analysis of 86Rb-35S-33P as a triple label for the elements K-S-P in studies of fertilizer use efficiency. (Author)

  10. Preparation of highly concentrated super-hot (?-32P)ATP using small-scale ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain a highly concentrated, pure and super-hot [?-32P]ATP, we improved the purification method of super-hot [?-32P]ATP which was synthesized by the method of Johnson and Walseth (1979). The super-hot [?-32P]ATP was synthesized in a relatively large volume (2 ml) of reaction mixture and purified using semi-micro scale anion exchange chromatography (Dowex 1 x 2, 60 - 70 ?l column volume). In combination with washing the reaction product with certain organic solvents, this chromatography technique makes it possible to obtain a highly concentrated and pure super-hot [?-32P]ATP (approx. 7000 Ci/mmol; 20 - 30 mCi/ml) from [32P]Pi of any commercial source in a good yield. (author)

  11. 32 P-patch contact brachyradiotherapy in the management of recalcitrant keloids and hypertrophic scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivante H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Keloids are the result of excessive fibroblast proliferation and then over-abundant collagen deposition. There is no method able to guarantee absolute success in the therapeutic approach to keloids. Our case report involves a female patient with six lesions treated with a 32 P-patch bracyradiotherapy. Pre-treatment and adjuvant treatment of the lesions were performed with thiomucase, 5-fluoruracil, procaine and triamcinolone. Taking into account the activity contained in each of the patches and the total radiation dose to be administered according to clinical practice, dosimetric calculations were done for each lesion. Seperate silicone patches with chromic [ 32 P] phophate were designed for each lesion based on these calculations. Total remission was achieved in three treated lesions. The other lesions did not achieve total remission yet, but their sizes are diminishing. The differences observed in treatment outcome may be related with lesion features, adjuvant treatments and/or treatment schedule

  12. Single-Well Technique using 32P for Determining Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic method for determining the direction, ?, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ?. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

  13. Soil tagging as a technique for nutrient uptake studies with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and green house studies were carried out to find out the minimum period required for equilibrating soil 31P with added 32P using an alkaline alluvial soil and an acid laterite soil. From the laboratory study, it was found that the minimum period required for equilibration was 14 and 35 days for the alluvial and laterite soils, respectively. Green house study showed that the period at which a constancy of specific activity was obtained in the plant, growing on the equilibrating soil, was an unsuitable criterion for assessing the period required for 32P equilibration in soil-tagging technique. The study also revealed, significant differences between the specific activities in the laminae and petiole/stem of the same plant. (author)

  14. Study of optimum condition for synthesis of [?-32P]ATP with high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [?-32P]ATP with high specific radioactivity was investigated by the enzymatic method. We utilized a part of the glycolytic pathway which consists of three reaction steps. First, we examined the maximum radioactivity of H332PO4 without the decrease of labeling yield. Next, we examined the minimum amount of reagent without the decrease of labeling yield, because some reagents contain the phosphorus species as impurity. In this paper, we propose the optimum condition for synthesis of [?-32P]ATP with high specific radioactivity. As our calculation, we will be able to obtain about 220 TBq/mmol specific radioactivity using 1.5 GBq of H332PO4. (author)

  15. Enzymatic Determination of Choline in Brain with Choline Phosphokinase and 32P-Labelled ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzymatic assay for free choline in brain has been developed. Rats or mice were killed by freezing in liquid nitrogen and the frozen brain was extracted with trichloroacetic acid. Interfering compounds were removed on an-anion-exchange resin and choline was converted to 32P- phosphorylcholine by the action of choline phosphokinase and 32P-ATP. The labelled phosphorylcholine obtained was separated by chromatography on Amberlite CC-400 (chloride form), and its radioactivity determined. The choline levels in rat and mouse brain were found to be 39 nmole/g and 42 nmole/g respectively. These values are considerably lower than those previously reported in the literature, apparently because of the increased specificity of the present method. (author)

  16. Residual ratio of assimilated 14C in rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual ratio of 14C assimilated in each vegetation period of rice plant in Hokkaido at harvest time and the rate of distribution in rice ears were investigated. When a certain amount of 14CO2 was administered to stocks, almost the same amount of 14C was assimilated regardless of the dry weight of each stock, and the assimilated amount of 14C among stocks showed less dispersion. The residual ratio of 14C at harvest time increased with progress of vegetation, being about 45% in the assimilation in young ear formation period, about 60% in the assimilation in flowering period, and 85% in the assimilation in maturing period. When the content of carbohydrate in stem-leaves is high in maturing period, the residual ratio at harvest time of 14C assimilated before that period tends to be low. The reasons were pointed out as follows; the products assimilated during ear maturing period accumulated in ears efficiently, and the respiration of stem-leaves during this period may make the previously assimilated products as the substrates. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice. Methods: Mice received one dose of 14C-urea orally. 14C concentrations in blood, organs and excrements of mice were measured by a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Results: Mice received one dose of 2.96 MBq/kg of 14C-urea orally, the blood concentration-time curve conformed to two compartment open model, T1/2(?) was 0.72 h, T1/2(?) was 5.15 h, Tmax was 0.11 h, Cmax was 1.57 kBq/ml, plasma clearance was 0.617 L·kg-1·h-1, respectively. Measurements conducted at 0.25, 2, 24 h after deglutition, respectively. In the 12 organs measured, radioactivity was found most intensive in kidney, liver, lung and spleen, less in heart, stomach, intestines and muscles, and least in brain and fat tissue. The peak was found at 2 h in lung. Radioactivity in the 12 organs measured reduced by time in 24 h but relatively higher concentration standing in liver. In 24 h, excretion via urine was 45.45%, stool excretion 19.30%, and that was 64.75% of intake dosage in total. Conclusion: Orally administrated 14C-urea will be quickly absorbed and cleaned out, mainly via urine, no specific accumulation in 12 organs was found

  18. Studies of phosphorus-containing fertilizer uptake in soils by 32P isotope labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding experiments were carried out with rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.) on two soil types to determine the plant uptake of phosphorus from naturally occuring element and from that added to the soil by superphosphate fertilizers. 32P isotope labelling and radiometric measuring method were applied. In addition to the determination of phosphorus uptake, the phosphorus contents of the soil from its natural stock and from the fertilizer for both soil types can be determined by this method. (A.L.)

  19. Genotoxicity of Colloidal 32P Chromic Phosphate in the Mouse Bone Marrow Analyzed by Micronuclei Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate is used to prevent hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. It is speculated that the intravenous injection of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate can cause genotoxicity. To evaluate the genotoxicity of intravenously injected colloidal 32P chromic phosphate, authors performed a micronuclei test in mice bone marrow. Mice(ICR strain, 25 ? 30 g) were divided to 4 groups: control, group 1 (19.166 KBq/g, usual therapeutic dose in human), group 2 (191.66 KBq/g), and group 3 (1916.6 KBq/g). Five mice of each group were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Bone marrow were smeared and stained with Wright-Giemsa method. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were counted under the light microscope, and the number of micronucleated PCEs and NCEs were recorded. The frequency of micronuclei in PCE and NCE in the control group was 0.3 ± 0.06% and 0.45 ± 0.10%, respectively. At group 1, frequency of micronuclei is not different from the control. However, frequencies of micronuclei in PCE at groups 2 and 3 were significantly increased from day 1 and persisted to day 14. The frequency of micronuclei in NCE was increased only at group 3. In conclusion, the frequency of micronuclei increases as the dose of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate increases, while micronuclei was not induced at the usual therapeutic dose. And the frequency of micronuclei persistently elequency of micronuclei persistently elevated for 14 days in the cases of higher doses.

  20. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  1. The use of Cherenkov-radiation for the assay of 32P in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherenkov-radiation produced by the ?-emitter 32P extracted from plant tissues was applied to check the translocation of the radioactive fertilizer in maize. The paper deals with the influence of the dry material concentration on the efficiency of the measurement. To calculate the absolute radioactivity (dpm) the channel ratio method was used for the quench correction. The experiments show the range of the dry material concentration in which the method was applicable. (author)

  2. Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

  3. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-12-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  4. The efficiency of 32P, 15N foliage spray upon winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of foliage spray of KH2PO4 open wheat in heading stage is related to the content of effective P in the soil. In the irrigation field with high content of effective P and under the conditions of foliage spray of KH2PO4 (3/1000), the wheat grain output was increased by 4.5-12.93% in comparison with control plot. It was increased by 7-16.07% in the soil with low content of effective P. By using 32P-tracer determination it has been shown that the foliage spray of KH2PO4 could increase the content of 32P in the plant. The utilization coefficient of 32P by plant was 19.8% while N and P were sprayed together the utilization coefficient was 28.6%, but the absolute value of absorbing capacity, however, only amounted to 0.65-0.91% of the total content of P in the plant observed. By using 15N-tracing assay, it was found that the availability of 15N-fertilizer to the roots of wheat after heading stage was rather high. The efficiency of foliage spray of N-fertilizer were not significant

  5. DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([?- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

  6. Colloidal chromic phosphate 32P synovectomy in antigen-induced arthritis in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been employed in the therapy of chronic arthritis, in particular, rheumatoid arthritis for many years. A variety of isotopes have been popularized, and in the last ten years a colloidal solution of radioactive chromic phosphate 32P has been in use apparently with equivalent efficacy to others such as 169erbium, 90yttrium, and 165dysprosium. No controlled studies on this modality have been reported and few animal studies were found. The efficacy of therapeutic doses of 32P as a medical synovectomy and its effect on rabbit joints with antigen-induced arthritis were observed in 62 arthritic knee joints in 31 adult rabbits treated on one side with 0.1 microCi of 32P, the opposite serving as control. The animals were observed over a period of 11 months and examined by histologic and biochemical means. The synovium showed no evidence of radiation necrosis in treated joints. Cartilage of treated and control joints showed similar changes consistent with chronic arthritis, persistent synovitis, progressive chondrocyte degeneration, and decreased matrix metachromasia. The radiosynovectomy had neither removed synovium nor protected the cartilage. Its efficacy in humans is therefore questionable

  7. Dose Assessment of Phosphorus-32 (32P for the Treatment of Recurrent Pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nazempoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pterygium is a wing-shaped, vascular, fleshy growth that originates from the conjunctiva and can spread into the corneal limbus and beyond. Beta irradiation after bare sclera surgery of primary pterygium is a simple, effective, and safe treatment, which reduces the risk of local recurrence. Materials and Methods Dosimetric components of strontium-90 (90Sr, phosphorous-32 (32P, and ruthenium-106 (106Ru, in form of ophthalmic applicators, were evaluated, using the Monte Carlo method. Results The obtained results indicated that 32P applicator could deliver higher doses (about 10 Gy to a target, located within a close distance from the surface, compared to 90Sr and 106Ru; it also delivered a lower dose to normal tissues. Conclusion The risk of pterygium has increased given the geographical location and climate of Iran. Spread of dust in the country over the past few years has also contributed to the rising rate of this condition. Our results showed that using 32P applicator is a cost-effective method for pterygium treatment.

  8. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

  9. Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

  10. Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

  11. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following 32P treatment for polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orally administrated NA2 32PO4 mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits ?-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that 32P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of 32P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by 32P treatment in PCV. (author)

  12. Electron microscopic autoradiography of 35S during dentinogenesis in young cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of 35S from the dental pulp to the predentin and the dentin was studied by means of quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography in the tooth-germs of new-born cats following intravenous injection of 35S. Autoradiographs at 5 minutes, 20 minutes and 5 hours after injection consistently showed the uptake of 35S by the Golgi apparatus, indicating that the apparatus is a site of sulfation of the mucopolysaccharides in the predentin and dentin. At 5 hours, silver grains aggregated in the cytoplasm of the odontoblastic process and the predentin. No silver grains were observed in the Golgi areas, and the odontoblastic process was associated with the elongated dense vesicles which were formed by the Golgi apparatus. At 24 hours after injection, a random distribution of many silver grains was observed throughout the predentin and the interodontoblastic space. (auth.)

  13. Dosimetry of an incident involving {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Meyerhof, D. [Human Monitoring Lab., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Badreddine, A. [and others

    1996-03-01

    High level contamination was observed on two workers during a routine hand check of personnel leaving a laboratory where barium carbonate labeled with {sup 14}C was handled. A third worker was found to have been exposed to airborne {sup 14}C (carbonate) aerosol during the investigation. Urinary excretion analysis and in vivo monitoring were carried out. This paper presents the results of more than one year of lung counting using phoswich detectors and gives some indication about the metabolism of the {sup 14}C over the period. Doses were difficult to estimate due to lack of information in the literature. Estimates were based on dafault parameters and information gathered in this study using ICRP 30 and the new ICRP lung models. These ranged from 0.3 mSv to 3 mSv depending on the assumptions and models.

  14. Method of preparing (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial compound for the preparation of (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate is a water-soluble polysaccharide (e.g., branched polysaccharide of the 1?4,6 glycan type) separated from radioactive biological material (e.g., from green or blue-green algae). The polysaccharide is gradually reacted to a number of enzymes to obtain glucose-6-phosphate (U-14C). This intermediate product is exposed to the action of the mannosephosphate isomerase enzyme in a buffered medium of pH of 7.2. The resulting mannose-6-phosphate(U-14C) is separated with paper chromatography. The reaction yield is up to 38%. The advantage of the said method of preparation is that it involves directly the water-soluble polysaccharide obtained within the complex treatment of radioactive biomass. (E.S.)

  15. Evidence for a fine structure in 14C radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on the radioactivity of 223Ra by 14C emission has been performed, using an intense 227Th source of 150 MBq (4 mCi) and the spectrometer of large solid angle SOLENO. The measured energy spectrum of the emitted 14C nuclei clearly shows the presence of two peaks at the expected locations corresponding to transitions towards the ground state and the first excited state of the residual nucleus 209Pb. A few events fall on the second and/or the third excited state location. This result shows for the first time the existence of a fine structure in 14C radioactivity analogous to the one already known in ?-decay. The branching ratios of the transitions to the ground state and to the first excited state are 0.15±0.03 and 0.81±0.06 and the hindrance factors are 600 and 3, respectively

  16. Evidence for a fine structure in 14C radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment on the radioactivity of 223 Ra by 14 C emission has been performed, using an intense 227 Th source of 150 MBq (4 mCi) and the spectrometer of large solid angle SOLENO. The measured energy spectrum of the emitted 14 C nuclei clearly shows the presence of two peaks at the expected locations corresponding to transitions towards the ground state and the first excited state of the residual nucleus 209 Pb. A few events fall on the second and/or the third excited state location. This result shows for the first time the existence of a fine structure in 14 C radioactivity analogous to the one already known in ?-decay. The branching ratios of the transitions to the ground state and to the first excited state are 0.15 ± 0.03 and 0.81±0.06 and the hindrance factors are 600 and 3, respectively

  17. Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

  18. Comparison of fluorographic methods for the detection of 35S-labeled proteins in polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight different methods of fluorographic enhancement of sensitivity to 35S decay after gel electrophoresis were compared. Using Kodak X-Omat AR X-ray film, we found that some fluors were about equivalent to 2,5-diphenyloxazole/dimethyl sulfoxide embedding, whereas several other fluors were not quite as effective, but still were significantly more sensitive than control autoradiography. The most sensitive procedures can yield a detectable darkening of film with less than 1 dpm/mm2 of 35S after a 1-week exposure

  19. Verification of the dispersion model by airborne carbon 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides insight in the verification of the Lagrangean dispersion model for dose calculation in the environment. The verification method was based on the measurement of the airborne carbon 14C concentration which can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. The results proved that this method is sensitive enough and that the sensitivity analysis can be used for model verification or for identification of possible improvements of the used meteorological data. The Lagrangean model is used at Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP) for calculation of dispersion coefficients and dose in the environment. To show compliance with the authorized dose limits it is required to present a realistic calculation of the dose to the public. This is a numerical model designed to calculate air pollution dispersion in the area of 25km x 25km. The model uses on-line local meteorological measurements. The same model was already verified for another location around a coal- fired power plant based on emission and environmental measurements of SO2. Krsko NPP is placed near the Sava River in a semiopened basin surrounded by several hills. The region is characterized by low winds and frequent thermal inversions. This paper presents a verification of the short range dispersion model based on the fact that the airborne carbon 14C concentration can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. Other radioactive effluents are not detectable in the environment and carbon 14C measurements are accurate enough to detect small deviations from natural 14C levels and to compare them with the calculated concentration based on 14C effluents. The most of airborne 14C is released during the refuelling outage. Within the pre-selected period of ten days, increased effluents of 14C in the form of CO2 were sampled from the plant ventilation. The average atmospheric dispersion parameters were calculated for two locations in the environment where CO2 sampling plates were installed. Increased 14C activities were detected at both locations close to the plant for this relatively short time period. (author)

  20. 14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rauws, E. A.; Royen, E. A.; Langenberg, W.; Woensel, J. V.; Vrij, A. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled breath of Campylobacter pylori culture positive individuals within 20-30 minutes. Likelihood analysis reve...

  1. The glyceryl [14C] tripalmitate breath test: A reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several reports have been published commending the use of 14C-labelled triglyceride breath tests in the assessment of fat malabsorption. The authors report further studies using glyceryl [14C]tripalmitate. Corrections for age, weight or metabolic rate failed to improve the test's ability to discriminate between malabsorbers and control subjects. A correction for respiratory quotient improved the linear correlation observed between the breath test results and daily faecal fat excretion. The significance of these findings is discussed and a number of problems identified which, at present, are preventing the introduction of breath tests for fat malabsorption into routine clinical practice. (Auth.)

  2. The 14C distribution in West Atlantic abyssal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C specific activities in the western Atlantic show aging of about 160 years between 420N and 300S for southward-moving North Atlantic Deep Water. Most of the aging occurs in the North Atlantic, with a small increase in 14C level for abyssal water near the equator. The northward-flowing Antarctic Bottom Water component ages about 80 years between 500S and the equator. The rate of Atlantic bottom water formation is estimated at 18 Sverdrups; the rate of flow for northward-moving Antarctic Bottom Water at about 6 Sverdrups. (Auth.)

  3. Study of 16O + 14C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of the elastic scattering cross sections are accomplished for the 16O + 14C nuclei asymmetric system by the energy of the 16O colliding particles of 132 and 281 MeV and 14C ones - of 334.4 MeV. The scattering by all energy values is of the refractive character. The voluminous integrals from the actual and imaginary parts of the potentials correspond to the systematics, obtained for the neighboring combinations of the 16O + 12C and 12C + 12C nuclei

  4. Method of preparing D-maltose(U-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labelled D-maltose is prepared from a polysaccharide soluble in water, separated from green and/or blue-green algae in the course of the complex processing of the radioactive biomass. A buffered solution of the said polysaccharide is hydrolyzed with beta amylase. The maltose obtained is separated from the unconverted dextrin using paper chromatography. The radiochemical yield is about 35%. The method allows preparing 14C-labelled D-maltose with an activity of about 100 mCi/millimole. (Ha)

  5. AMS of {sup 14}C at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. [ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    At the ETH/PSI AMS facility {sup 14}C test measurements have been performed at low terminal voltages of 0.5 and 1 MV in order to study the feasibility of AMS with very small accelerators. These experiments have demonstrated that interfering molecules ({sup 13}CH and {sup 12}CH{sub 2}) in charge states 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} can be destroyed in an adequate Ar gas stripper. These new results imply the feasibility of a new generation of very small accelerator systems for {sup 14}C. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  6. 14C and 129I measurements in spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques were defined, tested and validated to determine the amount of 14C and 129I in spent fuel. Two types of spent fuel were examined: BWR UOX fuel with a burnup of 41.4 GWd/tHMi cooled for 9 years, and MOX fuel with 5.6 wt% Pu/(U+Pu) enrichment and a burnup of 25 GWd/tHMi, cooled for 13 years. The measured values for the UOX and MOX samples were, respectively, 1371 and 1066 Bq 129I/t-oxide, 17212 and 6660 Bq 14C/t-oxide. (authors)

  7. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S ? with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S ?, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S ?. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S ? irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  8. The influence of 14C-urea breath test on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) is introduced briefly, which shows that 14C-UBT is a excellent noninvasive method for detecting helicobacter pylori (Hp) with safety, simplicity, and speed. The amount of 14C released to environment by practising 14C-UBT is much less than that of 14C in environment from both natural and artificial sources. The 14C released by 14C-UBT with 27.75 kBq each time and 107 times per year is only 0.028% of 14C generated from natural sources per year, if this quantity of 14C-UBT is used per year for ever, it brings an individual person to bear an extra effective radiation dosage of 3.33 x 10-3 ?Sv. So the influence of 14C-UBT on environment could be negligible

  9. An experimental study on effect of 32P colloid on lymphatic metastasis of transplanted H22 hepatoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the anticancer effects and biodistribution of chromic 32P phosphate colloid in mice with lymphatic metastasis of hepatoma after intratumoral injection. Methods: Forty-eight Km mice with H22 ascites hepatoma were injected with 32P colloid intratumorally. The distribution of 32P in regional lymph nodes and other organs was observed dynamically, and its anticancer effectiveness was investigated in the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Results: 32P mainly remained in the tumor and regional lymph nodes, while the 32P of organs, such as liver, spleen, lung, only retained a mild activity. By histopathologic observation, neoplasm foci could be found in pad, right popliteal lymph node and groin lymph node, and necrosis was seen in the tumor and its metastatic foci in right popliteal lymph node. On day 17 after 32P treatment, the transplanted tumor foci necrosed thoroughly, and normal structure of regional lymph nodes disappeared, which was replaced by necrotic tissue and hemorrhage. Conclusion: The intratumoral administration of chromic [32P] colloid could be used for treatment of the primary tumor, and lymphatic metastatic focus as well, in order to produce obvious anticancer effects

  10. Incorporation of U-14C-glucose into the lipids U-14C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of U-14C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with 14C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The 14C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. (author)

  11. Decommissioning of a Small Laboratory that Used 14C for Research Activities in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Centre for Neurological Restoration (CIREN) used 14C unsealed sources for radiochemical research. This practice was authorized by the Regulatory Authority through a registration granted in 2003 and valid for 4 years. The institution decided to use an alternative non-radiological technique, so the institution requested release of the radiochemical laboratory from regulatory control. For decommissioning operations, the CIREN contracted the services of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR), which included the collection of radioactive wastes remaining in the facility, the radiological survey and characterization of the facility. It was fortunate that the historical records of CIREN were generally very good. A thorough revision of the available documentation (authorization, source inventories, inspection reports, radioactive waste collection reports) revealed that the only radionuclide used in the last 3 years was 14C; but between 1993 and 1996, other radionuclides, such as: 3H, 51Cr, 125I and 32P were used in the laboratory. The materials containing very short lived radionuclides had decayed to negligible levels. The activity of tritium that had been in use was very low, with the total activity received in the laboratory being only 9.25 MBq in 1993, 268 MBq in 1994 and 37 MBq in 1995. The total decay corrected activity for tritium remaining at the last audit carried out i remaining at the last audit carried out in 2005, based on activity received into the laboratory during 1993-1995 was estimated to be 174 MBq. This activity is below the clearance levels established in Cuban Regulation in terms of annual release rate for liquid discharges. Moreover, most of the materials contaminated with tritium had been previously collected as radioactive wastes. For these reasons, it was considered unnecessary to include tritium in the radiological characterization of the laboratory. From the decommissioning perspective only 14C was considered as the radiological inventory. Because of the radiological characteristics of this radionuclide, the reference levels for decommissioning were considered only in terms of surface contamination (fixed and non-fixed). The unconditional clearance levels for solid materials with low radioactive contents and for liquid and gas discharges to the environment are established in Cuban Regulation (National Nuclear Safety Centre - CNSN) in terms of activity concentration. For 14C the clearance level is 30 Bq/g for solid materials, 2 360 Bq/L for liquids and 47.6 Bq/m3 for gaseous discharges. An annual release of 10 GBq is authorized for liquid discharges. Unconditional clearance levels in terms of surface contamination are not contained in the regulations. For the radiological survey and decommissioning purposes it was necessary to derive surface contamination limits, in order to quantify the exposure risk due to non-fixed and/or fixed surface contamination. It was also necessary to define how to measure the derived surface contamination. The radiological characterization was carried out after all radioactive wastes were collected from the facility and transferred to the waste management facility. This waste consisted of unused solutions in vials and compressible solid waste.

  12. Sulfur utilization applied to the soil isotopic techniques: 34S (stable) and 35S (radioactive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotope technique is very important in soil fertility studies for the evaluation of sulfur utilization by plants from source applied to the soils. The objectives of this work were evaluate and compare the percentage of sulfur in aerial part of the soybean plants (Glycine max (L) Merrill) derived from the fertilizer - Sdff(%) -, by using: 34 S stable and 35 S radioactive isotopes. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at CENA/USP, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. using a random design. The treatments were: control, enriched 34 S, depleted 34 S and radioactive sulfur - 35 S , established in two types of soils, clay and sandy, with four replications. The Sdff (%) on sandy soil was larger than at clay one, indicating smaller availability of sulfur in the former. The Sdff values for sandy soil were: radioactive 35 S: 68.6 %, depleted 34 S: 61.3 % and enriched 34 S: 59.5%. The results on clay soil showed for treatments radioactive 35 S, depleted 34 S and enriched 34 S values of 45.3, 42.4 and 35.8 % respectively. The results indicated the importance of using tracer for this kind of evaluation. An other finding was the low mineralization of SO4-2 in the tested soils, especially in sandy one. (author)

  13. Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

  14. Synthesis of [35S]-labelled MK-0571, a potent antagonist of LTD4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 5-[3-{2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)ethenyl}-phenyl]-8-dimethylcarbamyl-4,6-[6-35S]dithiaoctanoic acid at a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmol is reported. This compound is a reagent suited for selective affinity binding studies at the LTD4 receptor. (Author)

  15. [(35)S]sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of [(35)S]-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. [(35)S] incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect [(35)S] incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences [(35)S] sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes

  16. Proteinases release 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with 35SO4 (50?ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable 35S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of 35S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released 35S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released 35S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW ? 106), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 105). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly

  17. Mineralization of 14C-labeled agrochemicals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labeled compounds were used to study the mineralization of methamidophos, 2,4-D and metsulfuron in soil. Mineralization rate was influenced by the type of soil, concentration of chemical in the soil, the initial soil microbial population and the nature of the chemical. (author)

  18. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

  19. Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

  20. Remarks on the 14C method of primary production measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of the primary production rate of phytoplankton by means of the 14C technique is discussed. With the introduction of the scintillation technique errors caused by filtration can be avoided. Further improvement of accuracy is reached by double measurement according to Gaechter and Mares

  1. Process for the production of 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes the production of 14C-labelled compounds from solution with the aid of algae. A microorganism of the Anacystic species is used, preferably Anacystis nidulans which is also known as 'Indiana 625'. The experiments and their results are described in detail. (UWI)

  2. Physical Research Laboratory radiocarbon 14C dates : CS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C dates of archaeological samples measured at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad are presented. Samples were converted into methane and measured in gas proportional counters. Ninety-five percent activity of NBS oxalic acid was used as modern standard. The dates in years B.P. are given for each sample based on the half-life values of 5568 +- 30 years and 5730 +- 40 years, the latter within parenthesis. The dates are not calibrated for 14C/12C variations. To convert the dates into AD/BC scale, 1950 AD should be used as reference year. A number of 14C dates (PRL-81, -83, -67, -68) now confirm that the Painted Grey Ware culture extended upto the 3rd century BC. Some of the dates from Barkhera (PRL-113), Bateshwar (PRL-200), Bhimbetka (PRL-17) and Koldihawa (PRL-100, 101) are older than normally expected, probably indicative of some hitherto unknown basal cultures in these regions. 14C dates on in situ Megalithic materials do not seem to go beyond 200 BC. (author)

  3. Production of a negative 14C beam from tantalum carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain several tens nano Amps negative 14C beam for the Orsay MP Tandem in good conditions of yield and safety, a method for fabrication of polycristalline Ta carbides (Ta2C, TaC) has been developped, allowing only one handling

  4. Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate

  5. AEROSOL ACIDITY DETERMINATION BY REACTION WITH 14C LABELED AMINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acidity of aerosol particles collected on Teflon membrane filters is analyzed by exposure to 14C labeled trimethylamine and by counting the resulting beta-ray emission. An accurate calibration is established by the use of known, laboratory generated sulfuric acid samples. For...

  6. Stanovení úrovn? aktivity 14C v biot? okolí JE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sv?tlík, Ivo; Michálek, V.; Tomášková, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 16, 3/4 (2008), s. 82-88. ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAAX00130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C * nuclear power plants * biota Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality

  7. Biomonitoring of 14C in the vicinity of NPPs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sv?tlík, Ivo; Molnár, M.; Svingor, E.; Rinyu, L.; Futó, I.; Michálek, V.

    Brasov : IRPA, 2007, s. 1-10. [IRPA Regional Congress for Central and Eastern Europe. Brasov (RO), 24.09.2007-28.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C excess * Suess effect * biota monitoring * nuclear power plants Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  8. 14C measurements in Bulgarian and Hungarian wines from 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of 14C in ethanol samples extracted from wines of different wine districts in Bulgaria and Hungary in 1986 showed that the atmospheric reservoir remained practically undisturbed by the emission due to the Chernobyl accident. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  9. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  10. Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro / Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A. de, Oliveira Jr.; I.C., Rêgo; W.B., Scivittaro; O.F. de, Lima Filho; R., Stefanutti; G.R., Gonzáles; A.E., Boaretto.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose), sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, [...] manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultados permitiram concluir que 33% do S adicionado foi absorvido, e desse total 27% foi translocado, não havendo influência dos aditivos sobre esses processos. O ácido sulfúrico e o sulfato de amonio destacaram-se como os melhores fornecedores de enxofre, via foliar, para o feijoeiro. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of sulphur sources, in the presence or absence of additives (urea and glucose), on the sulphur uptake by bean leaves. The treatments: solutions of sulphuric acid, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc sulphate [...] s labelled with 35S, containing or not the additives, were applied to the first trifoliate of the plants to assess the sulphur uptake and translocation. The results enable to conclude that 33% of the added sulphur was absorved, and 27% out of this total was translocated. The additives did not have any influence on uptake and translocation. The sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate solutions were the best sulphur suppliers for the bean plant.

  11. Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. de Oliveira Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose, sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultados permitiram concluir que 33% do S adicionado foi absorvido, e desse total 27% foi translocado, não havendo influência dos aditivos sobre esses processos. O ácido sulfúrico e o sulfato de amonio destacaram-se como os melhores fornecedores de enxofre, via foliar, para o feijoeiro.A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of sulphur sources, in the presence or absence of additives (urea and glucose, on the sulphur uptake by bean leaves. The treatments: solutions of sulphuric acid, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc sulphates labelled with 35S, containing or not the additives, were applied to the first trifoliate of the plants to assess the sulphur uptake and translocation. The results enable to conclude that 33% of the added sulphur was absorved, and 27% out of this total was translocated. The additives did not have any influence on uptake and translocation. The sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate solutions were the best sulphur suppliers for the bean plant.

  12. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  13. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber

  14. Radioactive sputter cathodes for 32P plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes (32P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H3 32PO4) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribu technique which enables a better distribution of 32P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in 32P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils

  15. Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5?M, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 ?M. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake ( 70%) indicating the presence of >10?M particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

  16. Synthesis of metabolites of the insecticide Deltamethrine: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acids and 3-phenoxy (hydroxymethyl-14C) benzyl alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures are described for the synthesis of the following metabolites of Deltamethrin, the pyrethroid insecticide: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acid, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acid, 3-(2'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acid and the corresponding 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohols, specific activity = 47-57 mCi/mmol. (author)

  17. Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 102 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

  18. Detection of irradiation induced modifications in foodstuff DNA using 32p post-labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA post-labelling has been used successfully to detect damage to DNA caused by a range of damaging agents. The assay results in a fingerprint of changes induced in DNA which might, in principle, be useful as a test for the detection of the irradiation of foods. The authors present their DNA extraction and 32p post-labelling methods from chicken or cooked prawn samples and their analysis method (High Performance liquid chromatography). It's hoped that these results could form the basis of a test to detect if foods have been irradiated

  19. Studeis on the immobilization of water soluble phosphatic fertilizer in some soils with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using superphosphate lablled with 32P, we studied immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer on 12 typies of soil. The experimental result showed that major factors to govern immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer are: quickly availible Fe that showed positive correlation with the immobilization when it was 4.64-65.72 ppm; and pH that showed negative correlation with the immobilization when it was between 5.35 and 8.88. CaCO3 and organic matter showed a great effect on the immobilization though there wasn't obvious correlation among them

  20. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  1. Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

  2. In vitro 32P-labelling of viroid RNA for hybridization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the in vitro labelling of viroid RNA for use in hybridization studies. The citrus exocortis viroid (approximately 350 nucleotides) is degraded by hot formamide hydrolysis to fragments ranging from small oligonucleotides to near full lengths, and subsequently labelled to high specific activities by enzymatically attaching 32P to the 5'-end of each molecule. The cleavage step leaves 5' hydroxyl groups which allows the polynucleotide kinase to directly label the RNA fragments without prior enzymatic dephosphorylation. The method is simple, requires no special equipment, and provides a radioactive RNA probe sufficient for most types of hybridization studies. (Auth.)

  3. Evaluation of phosphatic fertilizers on weltland paddy using 32P as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superphosphate, nitrophosphate and dicalcium phosphate tagged with 32P were tested on wetland paddy at two levels each in pot culture experiment. All the three fertilizers performed equally in respect of dry matter yield, total phosphorus uptake and fertilizer phosphorus uptake. A higher percent utilization of fertilizer phosphorus was noticed at lower level of fertilizer. Densitometric study of the plant autoradiographs showed maximum accumulation of fertilizer phosphorus in the culm, followed by in leaf sheath and accumulation in leaf blades being the least. (author)

  4. Implantation of ?-emitters on biomedical implants: 32 P isotropic ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of endovascular brachytherapy and the treatment of certain types of cancers (liver, lung, prostate) often require the use of beta-emitters, sometimes in the form of radioisotope-implanted devices. Among the most commonly used isotopes figures 32P, a pure beta-emitter (maximum energy: 1.7 MeV), of which the path in biological tissues is of a few cm, restricting the impact of electron bombardment to the immediate environment of the implant. Several techniques and processes have been tried to elaborate surfaces and devices showing strongly bonded, or implanted32P. Anodizing, vapor phase deposition, grafting of oligonucleotides, as well as ion implantation processes have been investigated by several research groups as methods to implant beta-radioisotopes into surfaces. A coaxial plasma reactor was developed at INRS to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects, such as coronary stents commonly used in angioplasty procedures. The dispersion of32P atoms on the interior surfaces of the chamber can be investigated using radiographs, contributing to image the plasma ion transport mechanisms that guide the efficiency of the implantation procedure. The amount of radioactivity on the wall liner, on the internal components, and on the biomedical implants are quantified using a surface barrier detector. A comparative study establishes a relationship between the gray scale of the radiographs, and dose measurements. A pro radiographs, and dose measurements. A program was developed to convert the digitized images into maps showing surface dose density in mCi/cm2. An integration process allows the quantification of the doses on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the32P dose is correlated to the initial amount of radioactivity inserted inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This method could be introduced as a fast and reliable way to test, qualify and assess the amount of radioactivity present on the as-produced implants. Moreover, the technique can be applied to image and retrace the contamination arising throughout the implantation procedure, for example on instruments and tools

  5. Micro-determination of hafnium using 32P as radioactive indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for micro-determination of hafnium in nitric acid medium using 32P as radio-active indicator has been developed. Trace amounts of hafnium in the range 2 x 10-6 - 10-3 g have been coprecipitated as hafnium pyrophosphate with thallous iodide in the presence of excess of labelled pyrophosphate. The effects of acid concentration and the presence of foreign ions like Al3+, Bi3+, La3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Sn3+, Ce3+ and Ti4+ on the determination of hafnium have been also studied. (author)

  6. Braquiterapia del Espacio Subaracnoideo y Ventrículos Cerebrales con el Radiocoloide Fosfato Crómic 32P (CROP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girado, Martín.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de Braquiterapia del espacio subaracnoideo mediante la introducción de un coloide de FostatoCrómico 32P (CROP en el LCR. Se usaron 90 conejos y los coloides fueron inyectados por vía cisternal. Se comprobó la distribución uniforme y permanencia del CROP en la pia-aracnoides de todo el espacio subaracnoideo y superficie cortical y en el epéndimo ventricular mediante autorradiografías y cortes histológicos con técnica de stripping film. La distribución del 32P en hígado (10%, bazo (7% y médula ósea (2% y otros órganos no provoca efectos significativos. Se comprueba la tolerancia neurológica perfecta para los coloides de partículas finas de menos de 100 nm (CROP, y la neurotoxicidad de los coloides de partículas grandes mayores a 100 nm.. Con altas dosis los estudios histológicos demostraron la ausencia de edema o de lesiones en células y tejido nerviosos. Hasta 6 meses de observación ninguno de los animales mostró trastornos neurológicos atribuíbles al CROP, ni con la repetición de sus aplicaciones.A method of brachitherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P in colloidal form (CROP introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%, spleen (7% and bone marrow (2% and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP was proved and no severe neurotoxic effets where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications.

  7. Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

  8. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal 32P uptake at various times of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid 32P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased

  9. Synthesis of [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loester, H.; Seim, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry

    1996-02-01

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to {gamma}-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring {gamma}-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, {gamma}-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or {gamma}-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-{sup 14}C]glycine betaine and [methyl-{sup 14}C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author).

  10. Synthesis of 5-acetylspiro [benzofuran-2-(3H), 1'-cyclopropan] - 3 -[14C] one (AG-629-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5-Acetylspiro(benzofuran-2(3H),1'cyclopropan-3-one (AG-629) has been found to have curative and prophylactic effects on experimental chronic and acute gastric ulcers. The synthesis of 14C-labelled AG-629 is described. The specific activity obtained was 1115 MBq/mmol. (UK)

  11. Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

  12. 32P-adduct assay: Comparative recoveries of structurally diverse DNA adducts in the various enhancement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A (32)P-adduct assay for the measurement of low levels (1 adduct per 10(sup 7) nucleotides) of binding of carcinogens to DNA has been reported previously. In this procedure, DNA is enzymatically hydrolyzed to 3'-monophosphates of normal nucleosides and adducts, which are 5'-(32)P-labeled by T4 polynucleotide kinase and (lambda(32)P)ATP. Labeled adducts are resolved by TLC. Enrichment of adducts by extraction in 1-butanol or digestion with nuclease P1 prior to (32)P-labeling, however, increased the sensitivity of detection for many adducts to a level of 1 per 10(sup 9-10) nucleotides, although adduct recovery particularly in the latter assay depended on the chemical nature of adducts. The observation that chemical structure of an adduct may be detrimental in its recovery in the enzyme- and extraction-mediated enrichment procedures may serve as a probe in the structural characterization of adducts of unknown carcinogens

  13. Co-isolation of in vivo 32P-labeled specific transcripts and DNA without phenol extraction of nuclease digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for isolation and quantitation of specific intact transcripts, for which a hybridization probe is available, from 32P-labeled bacterial cells. The RNA is extracted in the absence of R Nase activity by incorporating an inert, physically removable R Nase inhibitor throughout the spheroplasting, cell lysis, and pronase digestion steps. [/sup 32/P]RNA is separated from [32P]DNA, without recourse to phenol extraction of DNase treatment, on a Cs2SO/sub 4-/HCONH2 step gradient in which the precipitated RNA forms a sharp band. Specific transcripts are purified from [32P]RNA by physical separation of the transcript and hybridization probe using gel-exclusion chromatography. The gentleness of this technique enables the co-isolation of DNA and can facilitate the analysis of covalently joined RNA-DNA replication intermediates

  14. The inclusion of 35S sodium sulfate in tissues soluble proteins in feather keratin of broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ-tissue peculiarities of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into soluble tissue proteins of skin, muscles, liver, pancreas, duodenum were established in experiments with chickens of one, 23, 41 and 60 day age. It is shown that skin is the organ, accumulating 35S sodium sulfate. It was revealed that intensity of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into muscule proteins and feather keratin in 23- and 41-day age decreased. Specificity of isotope distribution in separate feather components was established

  15. Anthropogenic 14C in the natural (aquatic) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing global awareness of the radiological significance of 14C releases from the nuclear and radiochemical industries has resulted in a number of studies within the last decade investigating the atmospheric releases and their effect on the terrestrial biosphere. The basis of this study was to determine the behaviour and environmental distribution of anthropogenically produced 14C released to the aquatic environment from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Most sampling was undertaken in the Irish Sea with smaller scale studies being carried out in the Bristol Channel and the Grand Union Canal. Within the study area, from Earnse Point 40 km south of Sellafield, northwards to the Clyde Sea area, preliminary studies on intertidal biota samples ie. mussels, winkles and seaweed indicated enriched 14C specific activities in all the samples relative to the current ambient level of 115.4 pM. The highest activities were observed in the immediate vicinity of the discharge location; mussels with a measured activity of 787 pM, winkles of 613 pM and seaweed of 415 pM. The 14C specific activity observed at most sites appeared to be organism dependent with mussels>winkles>seaweed. This is the result of differences in the uptake mechanisms of the organisms and indicates that the dissolved inorganic carbon and the particulate material within the water column are enriched in 14C . However, on analysis of the bio4C . However, on analysis of the biogeochemical fractions of the water column, enriched 14C activities were observed only in the DIC fraction which could explain those activities found in the seaweed but not those in the mussels and winkles. Enriched 14C activities were found in the phytoplankton, indicating that there is a source of enriched organic particulate material within the water column as a result of photosynthetic uptake of enriched DIC, however this will be a seasonal effect. Nevertheless, this enrichment is still not high enough to support the activities observed in the mussels and winkles, although, this was only a single sample and may not be a true reflection of the activities present. A similar anomaly is present in the activities found in bottom-dwelling fish and the sediments on which they feed; the fish are more highly enriched than the organic fraction of the sediments. These discrepancies may point to higher discharges having occurred in the past and/or to areas within the Irish Sea which are of a more enriched nature and were not investigated during this study. The geographical distribution of Sellafield-derived 14C in the DIC was determined by extensive sampling within the Irish Sea and Scottish coastal water areas. 137Cs, a known conservative radioactive tracer of water movement, was also analysed at the sites to allow comparison with the chemical behaviour of 14C . The results indicate that the behaviour of 14C in seawater, like that of 137Cs, is largely conservative. There was, however, a slight increase in the 14C/137Cs ratio with increasing distance from Sellafield. This may be a reflection of biological uptake of carbon or the desorption of 137Cs from the sediments. A more complex treatment of the data was carried out using a compartmental model, based on the hydrography of the study area, which was initially developed from 137Cs data. The agreement between the predicted and observed values indicates that the 14C distribution (as DIC) is being determined by water movement and the local current system ie. 14C in the DIC is behaving in a relatively conservative manner in the water column. Similar observations were made in the Bristol Channel as a result of discharges from the radiochemical plant owned by Amersham International plc ie. intertidal biota and organic sediments were enriched, and the DIC of the water column was also enriched with decreasing activities observed with increasing distance from the point of release. However, at this site, the POC and DOC were also enriched in 14C, indicating that the discharges are in a different chemical form from those at Sellafield. Given the

  16. Model experiments for 14C water-age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C age of water samples is calculated by assuming that fossil carbonate is dissolved by biogenic CO2 according to the equation x1 · CaCO3 + (x1+y1) · CO2 + H2O = 2x1 · HCO3 + y1 · CO2 where x and y are the number of moles of the two carbon components before and after the dissolution process. In a closed system the relation y1 = K(T) (x1)3 must be satisfied additionally. The equilibrium constant K(T), which depends on the temperature, controls the concentrations of free CO2 and HCO3. To investigate the mechanism of the dissolution, laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were carried out. Non-radioactive CaCO3, which had a ?13C-value of +30 per mille, and radioactive CO2 with ?13C = -22 per mille were used. The purpose of these investigations was to check the validity of theoretical assumptions regarding the average 14C-activity and the ?13C-value of the total carbon which is dissolved as CO2 and HCO3. Furthermore, it was investigated whether, within the duration of the experiment, a possible exchange takes place between the undissolved carbon present in the CaCO3 and that present in the HCO3. The importance of this lies in the fact that the method of 14C age determination is based on the assumption that such an exchange does not take place. The experiments which have been performed up to now show that in case of the simple CaCO3 - CO2 system, which has been considered first, this assumption is not justified even for a constant water temperature. If variations in the water temperature occur during the history of the water sample, precipitation and redissolution processes influence the 14C- and ?13C -values differently. This is due to isotopic fractionation processes between the HCO3 and CO2 phase. A correction for the initial 14C-activity by means of the ?13C-value is no longer possible, and the reliability of the 14C-dating method becomes questionable. (author)

  17. Studies on the effects of acetylcholine and antiepileptic drugs on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phospholipids in rat brain synaptosomes. Of the four antiepileptic drugs investigated in the present study, namely phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate, only phenytoin blocked the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, and the acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. Phenytoin alone, like atropine alone, had no effect on the 32P labeling of phospholipids nor on the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP. Omission of Na+ drastically reduced both the 32P labeling of synaptosomal phospholipids and the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP and furthermore it significantly decreased the phosphoinositide effect. It was concluded that certain antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, could exert their pharmacological actions through their antimuscarinic effects. In addition the finding that phenytoin, which acts to regulate NA+ and Ca2+ permeability of neuronal membranes, also inhibited the phosphoinositide effects in synaptosomes, support the conclusions that Ca2+ and Na+ are probably involved in the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon in excitable tissues

  18. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  19. Differences in phospholipid incorporation of 32P relevant to alpha 1-receptor coupling events in rat and rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of membrane phospholipids with 32P was compared in rat and rabbit aorta under basal conditions and during alpha 1-receptor stimulation. Incorporation of 32P proceeded at a significantly higher rate in rat tissue. The ratio of basal labelling following 30 min of incubation for rat/rabbit arteries was 4.8 for phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PIP2), 6.0 for phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP), 9.0 for phosphatidylinositol (PI), 6.0 for phosphatidic acid (PA) and 18.7 for phosphatidylcholine (PC). Addition of 10(-5)M norepinephrine (NE) to labelled tissues resulted in a similar decrease in [32P]-PIP2 in both rat and rabbit tissues. Greater percent increases were seen in rabbit tissue of [32P]-PA (4-6 fold), and [32P]-PI (3-5 fold), when measured over the initial 10 minutes of agonist exposure. While NE caused a gradual increase of 32P incorporation into PC in rabbit aorta, reaching 180% above control after 10 minutes, PC labelling was not increased in rat aorta. Our findings provide evidence for the enhanced labelling of rat vs rabbit aorta phospholipids. This may account for differences in receptor responses and associated Ca+ movements which have been previously recognized to exist between aorta of these two species

  20. Comparison of 32P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium 32P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with 32P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with 32P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with 32P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while 32P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or 32P treatment

  1. Synthesis of the serotonin ligands, RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C from a common labelled intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two approaches towards the synthesis of 3-chloro-4-amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride-[14C], which served as the common intermediate in the preparation of the two compounds, RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C are described. Although nucleophilic incorporation of the label via KCN was superior to an electrophilic sequence using CO2, the latter approach was adopted since the nitrile could not be hydrolyzed to the desired acid. The specific activities of RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C were 56.8 mCi/mmol and 53.7 mCi/mmol, respectively. (Author)

  2. The 14C partitioning of [1,2-14C] sodium acetate in three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in Japanese agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon (14C) partitioning ratios in the soil solid, liquid, and gas phases was determined by batch sorption experiments using 63 paddy soil and 79 upland soil samples to understand the behavior of 14C in agricultural fields. The mean 14C partitioning ratios for all agricultural soil samples were 35 % for the soil solid phase, 5 % for the liquid phase, and 60 % for the gas phase. A comparison of the 14C partitioning between paddy and upland samples showed significant differences. This difference was caused by soil solution pH. Land use would affect the behavior of the 14C as the sodium acetate form. (author)

  3. Histological study of the early stage of {sup 32}P-induced experimental osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahagi, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shunzo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-04-01

    {sup 32}P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of {sup 32}P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

  4. Histological study of the early stage of 32P-induced experimental osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of 32P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

  5. Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

  6. Synthesis of triamcinolone acetonide-4-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free hydroxyl groups in triamcinolone acetonide (1) were protected as silyl ethers to give the bis-silyloxy derivative 4. Compound 4 was then hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ?4-3-oxo steroid 5 which was then converted to the enol-lactone 7 under selective reaction conditions. The enol-lactone 7 was subjected to Grignard reaction with 14C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 8a which on subsequent treatment with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide gave 4-14C-?4-3-oxo derivative 9. Compound 9 was heated with selenium dioxide in t-butanol containing pyridine to give the ?sup(1,4)-3-oxo derivative 10. Removal of the silyl protecting groups was readily accomplished by heating 10 with hydrochloric acid in methanol-tetrahydrofuran solution to give the title compound 11. (author)

  7. A critical review of atmospheric 14 C activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 C activity of atmospheric CO2 has been measured at the Rudjer Boskovi Institute as a part of environmental monitoring in order to determine possible differences between clean-air sites, industrialized city and sites in the vicinity of nuclear power plant. Samples of CO2 from the atmosphere have been collected by absorption of CO2 on the saturated carbonate-free NaOH solution for a period of 1 month under stationary conditions. The obtained Na2 CO3 has been dissolved in HCl and the produced CO2 used for CH4 preparation by catalytic reaction with H2 at 450 degrees Celsius. A gas proportional counter filled with CH4 has been used for 14 C activity measurement. The method of collection of CO2 does not require any power source and can be therefore used for sampling at the remote sites, such as mountains or forests. However,due to the lack of mixing of the Na OH solution, the absorption process is limited on the surface of the solution, and there exists the possibility of fractionation of carbon isotopes due to different reaction rate constants of 12 C and 13 C. A continuous record of atmospheric 14 CO2 activity exists for the city of Zagreb (1986 to 2005), while shorter records (1-2 years) exist for several other sites of various characteristics: two clean-air sites (Mt. Medvednica, altitude about 1000 m a.s.l., for period 1995 to 1996, and the Plitvice National Park for period 2003 to 2005), and a site close to the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (1984 to 1986).Within the bilateral Croatian-Slovene project we have recently measured also the stable isotope composition (?13 C) of Na2CO3 collected at two different sampling sites in order to determine seasonal fluctuations in both 14 C and 13 C isotope composition. Unexpectedly low ?13 C values have been obtained about (-25±2)0/00 instead of expected (-7±1)0/00. Such low values have been attributed to the carbon isotope fractionation during the CO2 absorption on the highly alkaline medium because of different reaction rate constants of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 with OH. Since the reported 14 C activities have to be corrected for the ?13 C content of the sample, the low ?13 C values of the collected Na2CO3 have to be taken into account. Therefore, our complete database on atmospheric 14 C activities has been recalculated. The change of ?13 C from-7 to -25 increases the reported 14 C activity (?14 C) for 36 nd this difference could explain previously reported rather low atmospheric 14 C activity as compared to other similar sites in Europe. In this paper we present the revised data for all sampling sites and we discuss the differences. (authors)

  8. Fate of 14C-monocrotophos in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-monocrotophos was fed daily to two groups of lactating goats for five days at 5 and 10 mg per goat per day. The radioactivity in urine and faeces accounted for 50% and 7%, respectively, 24 hours after the first dose. About 25% of the radiocarbon was found in various organs. About 1-2% of the administered radiocarbon was secreted in milk. It was concluded that monocrotophos was rapidly eliminated through urine and faeces of teddy goats. 14C-residues in milk and urine were tentatively identified as monocrotophos, dimethylphosphate and N-desmethyl monocrotophos. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to 50% 24 hours after treatment, but no toxic symptoms were observed. (author)

  9. The synthesis of nucleoside bases with 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelled organic compounds have been widely and diligently applied to research problems in life science and chemistry. In many laboratories they have lost their novelty and have been become conventional research tools since long time ago. these applications frequently require organic compounds substituted (or labelled) with isotopes, but the isotopes are (with certain exception) extracted in first place in simple inorganic forms. The conversion of these simple form into the more or less complex labelled compounds called for by research workers has become in effect a new branch of practical organic chemistry. The preparation of labelled compounds, carbon-14 is probably more extensively and variously used than any other isotope. It emits only beta-particles. In this project, two kinds of nucleoside bases under the name uracil-2-14 C and thymine (methyl-14 C) were prepared.(author). 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Control of radiochemical purity of sodium oxalate-14C preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method of radiochemical purity control of sodium oxalate-14C on Whatman ET-81 chromatography paper by developing with 0.125 M sodium chloride is elaborated. During the 2.5 hr developing-time the solvent front reaches 20 cm. Rsub(F) values of carbonate and propionate expected as radiochemical impurities are respectively 0.60 and 0.82; Rsub(F) value of oxalate is 0.42. It has been found that the sodium oxalate-14C preparations after dissolving in water decompose very slowly and they can be analysed even 3 days after dissolving. Accuracy of the determination of oxalate ranging from 75-100% is 0.9%, carbonate in quantities to 5% is 0.4% and propionate in quantities to 25% is 0.9%. (author)

  11. Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  12. Cluster structures of excited states in $^{14}$C

    OpenAIRE

    Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-en Yo, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    Structures of excited states in $^{14}$C are investigated with a method of $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed $3\\alpha$-cluster core structures are suggested in positive- and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ correlat...

  13. Low-level (submicromole) environmental 14C metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of environmental 14C have been employed during the past decade at the several micromole level (tens of ?g carbon), but advanced research in the atmospheric and marine sciences demands still higher (?g) sensitivity, an extreme example being the determination of 14C in elemental or 'black' carbon (BC) at levels of 2-10 ?g per kg of Greenland snow and ice (Currie et al., 1998). A fundamental limitation for 14C AMS is Poisson counting statistics, which sets in at about 1 ?g modern-C. Using the small sample (25 ?g) AMS target preparation facility at NOSAMS (Pearson et al., 1998), and the microsample combustion-dilution facility at NIST, we have demonstrated an intrinsic modern-C quantification limit (mQ) of ca. 0.9 ?g, based on a 1-parameter fit to the empirical AMS variance function. (For environmental 14C, the modern carbon quantification limit is defined as that mass (mQ) corresponding to 10% relative standard deviation (rsd) for the fraction of modern carbon, ?(fM)/fM.) Stringent control, required for quantitative dilution factors (DL), is achieved with the NIST on-line manometric/mass spectrometry facility that compensates also for unsuspected trace impurities from vigorous chemical processing (e.g., acid digestion). Our current combustion blank is trivial (mean: 0.16 ± 0.02 ?g C, n=13) but lognormally distributed (dispersioognormally distributed (dispersion [?]: 0.07 ± 0.01 ?g). An iterative numerical expression is introduced to assess the quantitative impacts of fossil and modern carbon blank components on mQ; and a new 'clean chemistry' BC processing system is described for the minimization of such blanks. For the assay of soot carbon in Greenland snow/ice, the overall processing blank has been reduced from nearly 7 ?g total carbon to less than 1 ?g, and is undetectable for BC

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

  15. Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2009-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  16. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

  17. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  18. t-(/sup 35/S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites in invertebrate tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.W.; Szamraj, O.; Miller, T.

    1989-04-01

    Specific high affinity binding of the cage convulsant t-(35S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) was observed in membrane homogenates of housefly heads and crayfish abdominal muscles. (35S)TBPS binding in these two invertebrate tissues was inhibited by biologically active cage convulsants, picrotoxin analogs, and barbiturates. The housefly binding sites were inhibited most potently by several insecticides. Approximately 50% of total binding was displaceable by excess (0.1 mM) nonradioactive TBPS, picrotoxinin, ethyl bicyclophosphate, or dieldrin. Optimal binding assay conditions for housefly homogenates included pH 7.5, 22 degrees C temperature, 0.3 M chloride concentration, and incubation for 60 min; for crayfish homogenates, 4 degrees C temperature and 150-min incubations were optimal. Scatchard plots of equilibrium binding indicated one site in both tissues (KD = 50 nM, Bmax = 250 fmol/mg protein in housefly; KD = 25 nM, Bmax = 100 fmol/mg protein in crayfish). Association kinetics in housefly were consistent with one rate constant (k+1 = 8 X 10(6) M-1 min-1), but dissociation was described better by two rate constants (k-1 = 0.28 min-1 and 0.042 min-1; calculated KD values of 80 nM and 12 nM). Displacement by cage convulsants showed Hill numbers near 0.5, also consistent with two populations of affinity, while displacement by other drugs showed Hill numbers near 1.0. (35S)TBPS binding in insects was most potently inhibited by the insecticides dieldrin (IC50 = 50 nM), aldrin, and lindane (200 nM), in a stereospecific manner, consistent with this binding site being the receptor for biological toxicity. (35S)TBPS binding was also inhibited by relatively high concentrations of some pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin and cypermethrin (1-2 microM).

  19. Behaviour of 14C-DDT in Sudan Gezira soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field cylinders as described in the model experiment for determination of 14C-DDT in Sudan Gezira soil were prepared and samples were collected for determination of 14C-activity at various intervals. About 83-87% of the applied radioactivity was recovered in the extracts from the top 10 cm layer of soil. The loss rate of the chemical from soil increased with time apparently by volatilization and thermal degradation due to high soil temperature, intensive solar radiation and low soil organic matter. This resulted in a half-life of approx. 5 weeks. The major part of the chemical and possible metabolites were detected in the top 10 cm layer. Approximately 8-10% of the applied 14C was detected in samples collected after 16-20 weeks. TLC and autoradiography indicated the presence of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE as the major metabolite. Also traces of TDE were detected in some samples. These results showed that under Sudanese tropical conditions, DDT dissipates very rapidly in soils compared to dissipation in temperate regions. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Mineralization of 14C atrazine in three Colombia soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of mineralization of l4C atrazine (6-chorine-N-ethyl-N-(1methyl ethyl) 1,3,5 triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed in three soils of different characteristics coming one of them from Mosquera, Cundinamarca (clay loam) and two of Saldana, Tolima (silty loam and sandy loam). Technical and radiolabel atrazine (specific activity 47,756 mCi/mg) mixture was applied to soil samples in a dose of 2.0 kg/ha. Results showed different behavior of the mineralization of the herbicide for each soil at the end of 17 weeks. The highest mineralization percentage, 15 %, was registered in the soil with higher organic matter content (12.1 %) and was the one coming from Mosquera, Cundinamarca. It was evaluated the bound and methanol extractable 14C in the fifth, ninth an seventeenth weeks and also it was analyzed atrazine and its metabolites in the extracts by thin layer chromatography. The extraction data revealed that the majority of the 14C was bound to the soil (62-83 %) and the minor fraction was methanol extractable in all the three soils. The analysis showed that the 14C in all soils was present as atrazine and hydroxy atrazine. In the sandy loam soil was observed the highest degradation of atrazine to hidroxyatrazine that it is not produced by biological process. It was not detectable other atrazine metabolites

  1. Biodegradation of 14 C-atrazine under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly 14 C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The 14 C O2 was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the 14 CO2 evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with 14 C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

  2. Which is better and more effective to use in patients with painful bone metastasis - 89Sr or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of application of 89Sr-chloride and 32P-orthophosphate in 182 patients with painful bone metastases due to breast, prostate and lungs carcinoma. A total of 36 patients (pts) were treated only with 89Sr (I group); 121 pts - only with 32P (II group) and 25 pts - both with 89Sr and 32P (III group). 89Sr was administered i.v. in activity of 148 MBq, 32P - orally in activities starting from 37 MBq and increasing up to total dose of 222 MBq at 30-60 day intervals and when they were used in combination - 74 MBq of 89Sr was given i.v. and 37 MBq of 32P - orally. A symptomatic reduction of the pain was achieved in 76% of the pts from I group (in 27% there was a full response), in 78% from II group (in 12% there was a full response) and in 84% from III group (in 28% there was a full response). Adverse effects were between 17% and 30%, less in III group. The duration of the response was comparable - 3.3 months in I group, 3.4 months in II group and 3.4 months in III group. As it is well known, the main disadvantage of 89Sr is its high cost and the disadvantage of 32P- its higher myelotoxicity. With the combined application of both radiopharmaceuticals we have tried to overcome these disadvantages, using a half of the usual activity and we have anticipated that the different energies of the beta particles would have more pronounced effect pain palliation. Conclusion: Both 89Sr and 32P, when used separately, have comSr and 32P, when used separately, have comparable effect concerning degree and duration of pain relief, with more favorable full response effect and less haematological toxicity of 89Sr than 32P. Because of the low cost of 32P it could be used with success especially in nuclear medicine centers with limited budget. The application of both radiopharmaceuticals in one and the sane patient is a good choice because of the high efficacy on bone pain with less financial investments

  3. Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish System have been studied. The results show: (1) when 2 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the early rice, there is 0.01 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.55 ppm in the fish; (2) when 3 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the late rice, there is 0.04 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.40 ppm in the fish. ADI of methamidophos is 0.0006 mg/kg body according to FAD/WHO recommendation in 1985, so Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in the rice is 0.078 ppm, MRL in the fish is 2.3 ppm. The residue in the rice and fish does not exceed the MRL by FAO/WHO recommendation, when the amount of used methamidophos was controlled. 35S-methamidophos in the simulated system disappears as exponential function. The half-life of 35S-methamidophos on the Azolla, water, fish and straw are 1.5, 2.8, 6.2 and 2.2 days respectively

  4. Biosynthesis of lutropin in ovine pituitary slices: incorporation of [35S]sulfate in carbohydrate units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfate incorporation into carbohydrate of lutropin (LH) has been studied in sheep pituitary slices using H2(35)SO4. Labeled ovine LH was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-100 and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography from both the incubation medium and tissue extract. Autoradiography of the gel showed only two protein bands which comigrated with the alpha and beta subunits of ovine LH in both the purified ovine LH and the immunoprecipitate obtained with LH-specific rabbit antiserum. Furthermore, [35S]sulfate was also incorporated into several other proteins in addition to LH. The location of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ in the oligosaccharides of ovine LH was evidenced by its presence in the glycopeptides obtained by exhaustive Pronase digestion. The location and the point of attachment of sulfate in the carbohydrate unit were established by the isolation of 4-O-[35S]sulfo-N-acetylhexosaminyl-glycerols and 4-O-[35S] sulfo-N-acetylglucosaminitol from the Smith degradation products and by the release of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ by chondro-4-sulfatase. Thus, the present line of experimentation indicates the presence of sulfate on both the terminal N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine in the oligosaccharide chains of the labeled ovine LH

  5. Handling of L-[35S]cystine by cysteamine-pretreated cystinotic and normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In short incubations with 0.1 mM L-[35S]cystine in phosphate-buffered saline medium, and long incubations with label in complete minimum Eagle's medium with Earle salts, cystine-depleted cystinotic cells reaccumulate labeled cystine more rapidly than pretreated normal cells. Cysteamine pretreatment of both normal and cystinotic cells resulted in an initial increased conversion of exogenous cystine to intracellular cysteine. In 24-h incubations in complete medium, cysteamine-pretreated cells showed enhanced conversion of 0.1 mM L-[35S]cystine to cysteine and reduced glutathione. Addition of cycloheximide to the incubation media decreased the incorporation of 35S into cellular protein by more than 90% but did not affect the accumulation of intracellular labeled cystine in cystinotic cells. Therefore, the incorporation and release of cystine from protein is not an obligatory source of accumulated cystine and researchers speculate that there may be early extralysosomal entrapment of cystine in cystinotic cells

  6. Metabolism of (2-14C)thymine and (2-14C)thymidine in germinating black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seedlings was investigated. Both [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine degraded extensively into [14C]CO2. The rate of release of [14C]CO2 from [2-14C]thymine was much greater than that from [2-14C]thymidine. Radioactivity from both precursors was also observed ?-ureidoisobutyric acid. This indicated that thymine was degraded by the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation. Small amounts of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine were salvaged for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis. The highest incorporation of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine into the DNA fraction was observed in 24 hour-old cotyledons where net DNA synthesis was not observed. These precursors seem to be utilised for DNA synthesis of organelles of the cotyledonary cells, probably mitochondria. In embronic axes, [2-14C]thymine is more effectively salvaged for DNA synthesis than [2-14C]thymine. The incorporation rate increased during the early phase of germination and attained its maximum at 48 h after which it decreased. No thymidine kinase activity was detected in either cotyledons or in the embryonic axes. Thymidine salvage seems to be catalysed by nucleoside phosphotransferase which is present both in the cotyledons and in the embryonic axes. This suggests that, in contrast to other pyrimidine and purine bases and nucleosides, no specific salvage system for thymine and thymidine is present in black gram seedlings. (author)

  7. Uptake of (2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid and distribution of /sup 14/C in apple embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthe, P.; Bulard, C.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-(2-/sup 14/C) abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of (/sup 14/C) ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10/sup -5/ M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium.

  8. Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

  9. Persistence of the herbicides [14C]chlorsulfuron and [14C]metsulfuron methyl in prairie soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of [14C]metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of [14C]chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils

  10. Chromosome Studies in Patients with Polycythaemia Vera after Treatment with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromosomes of bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of forty-six patients with polycythaemia vera were analysed to trace the sequence of events leading to the development of bone-marrow failure or 'leukaemia'. All except one of the patients had received radiophosphorus (32P). It might be expected that the yield of chromosomal aberrations of the two-break type (translocations etc.) from the low dose-rate beta radiation of 32P would be small. However, 'unstable' types of abnormality (dicentrics, fragments) and stable types (translocations, inversions, deletions) were observed in 6-25% of the blood lymphocytes; there was no evidence of clones of abnormal cells. In the majority of patients the bone marrow was predominantly normal diploid; occasional sporadic cells with 'stable' chromosomal abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of the cases, but 'unstable' aberrations were rare. In seven cases there were clones of cells characterised by deletions or translocations. All these chromosomal changes are probably radiation-induced. Clones of cells with a similar abnormality, an apparent deletion of one of the F-group chromosomes, were observed in the bone marrow in ten patients. Eight of these had received 32P and two busulphan. In two cases the clone appeared to develop after treatment. A similar anomaly has been reported in several cases of idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia who had not been irradiated. Progression into the leukaemic phase of the disease is associated in some cases with gross chromosomal abnormalities, such as shift of the stem line chromosome number and bizarre chromosome 'markers'. In other cases, some of whom have not been irradiated for several years, the chromosomal changes are less pronounced and may result from non-disjunctional gain of one or more chromosomes or chromosome loss. One case showed a step-by-step clonal evolution over a two-year period. None of the chromosomal abnormalities in the 'leukaemic' phase appear to be a direct result of radiation-induced chromosomal breakage. (author)

  11. Influence of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-hexadecane in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil was spiked with [9-14C]phenanthrene and [1-14C]hexadecane at 50 mg kg-1 and aged for 1, 25, 50, 100 and 250 d. At each time point, the microcosms were amended with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) at a range of concentrations (0-40 mM). Mineralisation assays and aqueous HP-?-CD extractions were performed to assess the effect of the amendments on microbial degradation. The results showed that amendments had no significant impact on the microbial degradation of either of the 14C-contaminants. Further, HP-?-CD extractions were correlated with the mineralisation of the target chemicals in each of the soil conditions. It was found that the HP-?-CD extraction was able to predict mineralisation in soils which had not been amended with cyclodextrin; however, in the soils containing the HP-?-CD, there was no predictive relationship. Under the conditions of this study, the introduction of HP-?-CD into soils did not enhance the biodegradation of the organic contaminants. - The amendment of HP-?-CD to phenanthrene and hexadecane amended soils does not enhance microbial biodegradation.

  12. Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p) 14C using polarized proton beam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Murillo; M., Fernández; J., Ramírez; M.G., Mejia-Gil; R., Policroniades; A., Varela; S.E., Darden; S., Sen; R.M., Prior; E., Chávez.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se midió la distribución angular de la sección eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersión elástica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energía sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El análisis de los datos en términos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la m [...] atriz "S" nos permite deducir los números cuánticos y parámetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energía de excitación. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas. Abstract in english Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers were measured for 14C(p, p)14C for proton energies between 3.7 and 11.0 MeV in very small energy steps. A number of strong resonances are seen. Phase-shift analysis of the elastic scattering data yielded level parameters of eleven states i [...] n 15N in the excitation energy region 13.7-21.0 MeV. Previous assignments of spin, parity and energy of levels are discussed.

  13. Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate or potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a single intravenous dose of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate [( 14C]PFO, 13.3 mg/kg) or of potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate [( 14C]PFOS, 3.4 mg/kg) to rats, cholestyramine fed daily as a 4% mixture in feed was shown to increase the total carbon-14 eliminated via feces and to decrease liver concentration of carbon-14. Rats were fed cholestyramine in feed for 14 days after administration of [14C]PFO and for 21 days after administration of [14C]PFOS. Control rats were administered radiolabeled fluorochemical but were not treated with cholestyramine. Cholestyramine treatment increased mean cumulative carbon-14 elimination in feces by 9.8-fold for rats administered [14C]PFO and by 9.5-fold for rats administered [14C]PFOS. After [14C]PFO, a mean of 4% of the dose of carbon-14 was in liver of cholestyramine-treated rats at 14 days versus 7.6% in control rats; after [14C]PFOS, 11.3% of the dose was in liver at 21 days versus 40.3% in control rats. After administration of either radiolabeled compound, plasma and red blood cell carbon-14 concentrations, which were relatively lower than liver concentrations, were also significantly reduced by cholestyramine treatment

  14. Cannabinoid receptor stimulation of guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate binding in rat brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selley, D E; Stark, S; Sim, L J; Childers, S R

    1996-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors belong to the class of G-protein-coupled receptors which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Coupling of receptors to G-proteins can be assessed by the ability of agonists to stimulate guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTP gamma S) binding in the presence of excess GDP. The present study examined the effect of cannabinoid agonists on [35S]GTP gamma S binding in rat brain membranes. Assays were conducted with 0.05 nM [35S]GTP gamma S, incubated with rat cerebellar membranes, 1-30 microM GDP and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2. Results showed that the ability of WIN 55212-2 to stimulate [35S]GTP gamma S binding increased with increasing concentrations of GDP, with 10-30 microM GDP providing approximately 150-200% stimulation by the cannabinoid agonist. The pharmacology of cannabinoid agonist stimulation of [35S]GTP gamma S binding paralleled that of previously reported receptor binding and adenylyl cyclase assays, and agonist stimulation of [35S]GTP gamma S binding was blocked by the cannabinoid antagonist SR141716A. Brain regional studies revealed widespread stimulation of [35S]GTP gamma S binding by WIN 55212-2 in a number of brain areas, consistent with in vitro [35S]GTP gamma S autoradiography. These results demonstrate that [35S]GTP gamma S binding in the presence of excess GDP is an effective measure of cannabinoid receptor coupling to G-proteins in brain membranes. PMID:8761016

  15. Contact curietherapy with 32P used in diseases of the skin and visible mucous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contact curietherapy with 32P is conducted in sixty-one patients affected with keratoma senile (34), leukoplakia vulvae (15), chronic eczema (10), Bowen's disease (1) and Queyrat's disease (1). A contact technique with applicator is used. The single skin dose amounts to 5 Gy/hour. Irradiation rhythm is: alternating 5 consecutive days with 2 days rest period. The total dose per course leading to a permanent therapeutic effect (3 years) varies in the range 35 to 100 Gy/h. Optimal results are recorded in 42% of cases, very good - in 52%, and satisfactory - in 6%. A wider application of the method in hematological practice is recommended because of the low radiation exposure and absence of complications. 12 refs. (orig.)

  16. Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for 32P, 89Sr and 90Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M. J.; Munster, A. S.; Sephton, J. P.; Lucas, S. E. M.; Walsh, C. Paton

    1996-02-01

    Pure beta particle emitting radionuclides have many therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The response of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator to 32P, 89Sr and 90Y has been measured using accurately calibrated solutions. For this purpose, high efficiency solid sources were prepared gravimetrically from dilute solutions of each radionuclide and assayed in a 4? proportional counter; the source activities were determined using known detection efficiency factors. Measurements were made of the current response (pA/MBq) of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator using the original concentrated solutions. Calibration figures have been derived for 2 and 5 ml British Standard glass ampoules and Amersham International plc P6 vials. Volume correction factors have also been determined. Gamma-ray emitting contaminants can have a disproportionate effect on the calibrator response and particular attention has been paid to this.

  17. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  18. Studies on the quantitative uptake of 32P-labelled Trakephone by aphids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reports methodical studies concerning the quantitative uptake of active substances by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba L. enriched by 32P-labelled Trakephone. Aphids increasing in size were found to take up rising quantities of active substance. The uptake is the more continuous the more sessile the pests are. Feeding is delayed by the presence of Trakephone in the plant. The quantification of the active substance amounts is only practical in parts per million using the weight of the aphids. Higher concentrations of active substances in the plant will increase the uptake by the aphids. The autoradiogram qualitatively demonstrates the beginning of the uptake of active substances. It may be taken into consideration for examining the repellent properties of chemical compounds towards aphids. (author)

  19. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the 32P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

  20. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated S?. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S? in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  1. Efficiency of (32P) triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes (Andepts) was evaluated. Experiments in greenhouse with rye grass was carried out. Three doses of superphosphate (150,300 and 600 kg P2O5/ha) labeled with 32P were used. The fertilizer was located 2.5 cm underneath the seed. The phosphorus derived from the fertilizer represented a 70 percent from the total P absorved by the plant. The utilization of aggregated nutrient ranged from 2.1 to 5.2, the lower values being obtained for the higher rates. Value 'A' increased with the rate applied but it evaluated comparatively the four soils studied. The isotopic method distinguished quantitatively the P coming from the soil in distinction to the P coming from the fertilizer. (Author)

  2. The Use of 32P and 15N to Estimate Fertilizer Efficiency in Oil Palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil palm has become an important commodity for Indonesia reaching an area of 2.6 million ha at the end of 1998. It is mostly cultivated in highly weathered acid soil usually Ultisols and Oxisols which are known for their low fertility, concerning the major nutrients like N and P. This study most conducted to search for the most active root-zone of oil palm and applied urea fertilizer at such soils to obtain high N-efficiency. Carrier free KH232PO4 solution was used to determine the active root-zone of oil palm by applying 32P around the plant in twenty holes. After the most active root-zone have been determined, urea in one, two and three splits were respectively applied at this zone. To estimate N-fertilizer efficiency of urea labelled 15N Ammonium Sulphate was used by adding them at the same amount of 16 g 15N plan-1. This study showed that the most active root-zone was found at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at 5 cm soil depth. For urea the highest N-efficiency was obtained from applying it at two splits. The use of 32P was able to distinguish several root zones: 1.5 m - 2.5 m from the plant-stem at a 5 cm and 15 cm soil depth. Urea placed at the most active root-zone, which was at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at a 5 cm depth in one, two, and three splits respectively showed difference N-efficiency. The highest N-efficiency of urea was obtained when applyinficiency of urea was obtained when applying it in two splits at the most active root-zone. (author)

  3. Morphological and functional changes associated with serial iso- and xeno-transplantation of 32P induced rat osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty Wistar strain rats, 3 weeks of age, were given 32P of 1.0 ?Ci/g body weight intraperitoneally every 3 weeks, and osteosarcoma was induced in 15 of 20 rats. A total amount of 32P administered to rats was 2,425 ?Ci per one rat on an average. 32P-induced osteosarcoma was observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was suggested that 32P-induced osteosarcoma of rats was available for basic studies of human osteosarcoma, because rats' osteosarcoma was very similar to human osteosarcoma. Regarding hetero- and homo-transplantation of 32P-induced osteosarcoma, osteoid tissue decreased after serial transplantation and disappeared finally. When tumor cells were classified into tumor cells having a plenty of intracellular small organs (type I cells) and those having a few intracellular small organs (type II cells), the percentage of type II cells increased after serial transplantation. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed that the uptake of proline into tumor cells decreased coupled with a decrease in osteoid formation capacity. As the uptake of proline into type II cells was poor, type II cells were thought to be undifferenciated mesenchimal cells and to have no influence on osteoid formation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  5. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [14C]albumin crosseother hand, [14C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  6. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkins disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can ddioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer

  7. Distribution of [14C]aztreonam in rat tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Singhvi, S M; Ita, C E; Shaw, J. M.; Migdalof, B H

    1984-01-01

    [14C]aztreonam was administered intramuscularly (50 mg/kg) to male and female rats. Groups of 10 rats (five male and five female) were sacrificed at 0.25, 2, 6, and 24 h after dosing. Blood and various tissues were removed from six rats (three male and three female) in each group for determination of total radioactivity and unchanged aztreonam by liquid scintillation counting and thin-layer radiochromatography. The remaining rats were prepared for whole-body autoradiography. Radioactivity was...

  8. 4He decay of excited states in 14C

    OpenAIRE

    Soic, N.; Freer, M.; Donadille, L.; Clarke, N. M.; Leask, P. J.; Catford, W. N.; Jones, K. L.; Mahboub, D.; Fulton, B. R.; Greenhalgh, B. J.; Watson, D. L.; Weisser, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the 7Li(9Be,4He 10Be)2H reaction at E{beam}=70 MeV has been performed using resonant particle spectroscopy techniques and provides the first measurements of alpha-decaying states in 14C. Excited states are observed at 14.7, 15.5, 16.4, 18.5, 19.8, 20.6, 21.4, 22.4 and 24.0 MeV. The experimental technique was able to resolve decays to the various particle bound states in 10Be, and provides evidence for the preferential decay of the high energy excited states into s...

  9. 14C-coumaphos residues in Egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-coumaphos was applied dermally to two lactating goats, with 2 weeks interval. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results showed that coumaphos has a slow penetration rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. Milk residues were 0.20-0.25 ppm following appication, declining gradually to 0.03-0.06 ppm after 2 weeks. The liver and kidney were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other organs and milk after the withdrawal period. (author)

  10. First order 14C dating of Holocene molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of many problems in geology requires radiometric ages which need not be precise provided they are reliable and preferably cheap and quick. Such first-order ages can be determined on Holocene molluscs at 1/100 the cost of conventional 14C ages and in the space of a few hours by trapping CO2 from the shell carbonate in an organic base for assay in a liquid scintillation counter. Using standard laboratory glassware and a counter with preset channels the technique gives ages for the last 8000 years with a standard error (2 sigma) of 1500 years or less. (orig.)

  11. Detection of radioactive 35S at Fukushima and other Japanese sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark H.; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Yamada, Keita; Mukotaka, Arata; Fujii, Ayako; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Noguchi, Izumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and concomitant tsunami during March 2011. An effect of this disaster was secondary formation of radioactive 35S via the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction, when neutrons from the partially melted reactor cores activated the coolant sea water. Here we report the first measurements of 35S in sulfate aerosols and rain water collected at six Japanese sampling sites, Hokkaido, Tsukuba, Kashiwa, Fuchu, Yokohama, and Fukushima, during March-September 2011. The measured 35SO42- concentrations in aerosols vary significantly. The Kashiwa (AORI) site shows the highest 35SO42- concentration (6.1 × 104 ± 200 atoms/m3) on 1 April 2011, which is nearly 100 times higher than the natural background activity. Considering the percentage loss of 35SO42- resulting from dry and wet deposition and dilution of the radiation plume in the boundary layer during transport, it was determined that the surface air concentration of 35SO42- at the Fukushima would have been 2.8 × 105 atoms/m3 during the week after the earthquake, which is in agreement with the model prediction [Priyadarshi et al.]. 35SO42- activity in rain water collected during March-May 2011 at Tokyo Tech Yokohama varies from 1.1 × 105 to 9.8 × 105 atoms/liter, whereas stream water collected near Fukushima was found to have 1.2 × 105 atoms/liter during April. Even after 6 months, 35SO42- activity remains very high (9.9 × 104 ± 770 atoms/m3) in the marine boundary layer in the Fukushima region, which implies that the reactor core was producing radioactive sulfur.

  12. Synthesis of uniformly labelled organic compounds by polymerization of 14C ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C uniformly labelled compounds is described. By polymerization of 14C ethylene, linear olefins with a double bond at ? position were obtained. From these olefins, uniformly labelled alkanes, alcohols and acids were prepared

  13. Defective [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation. [1-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

  14. Numerical calculation of relative dose rates from cylindrical 32P and 90Y beta sources used in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-particle sources can be used in radiotherapy to treat several diseases. In particular cylindrical (seed) beta-minus sources have been used in cardiology for the prevention of restenosis of coronary artery. Two radioisotopes suitable to be used in intravascular brachytherapy treatment of arteries are the pure beta emitters 32P and 90Y. In this work a routine calculation to estimate absorbed dose rate distributions around cylindrical sources containing the beta emitters 32P and 90Y has been developed in order to handle with various configurations of radii, lengths and distances in a faster and simple way. The results of relative dose rates are compared with published dose distributions for 32P and 90Sr/90Y sources using the Monte Carlo method and a good agreement (differences < 6 %) has been found in the region of clinical interest measured from the cylindrical source center. (author)

  15. Comparative labelling of rat epididymal spermatozoa by intratesticularly administered 65ZnCl2 and [35S] cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spermatozoa of rats injected intratesticularly with 65ZnCl2 and 35S-cysteine were collected from the caput and cauda of the epididymis from 2 to 28 days after injection. The highest specific activities were observed in spermatozoa from the caput on day 10. Maximal levels in spermatozoa from the cauda were obtained on days 14 and 18 for 35S and day 18 for 65Zn. The 65Zn/35S ratios suggested that: 1) 35S associated with spermatozoa arrived in the epididymis slightly in advance of 65Zn; 2) approximately 60% of 65Zn was lost from spermatozoa and 75% from isolated sperm heads during transit from caput to cauda, assuming total retention of 35S; and 3) retention of 65Zn by the seminiferous epithelium was superior to that of 35S-cysteine. Only small percentages of either isotope were recovered in isolated sperm heads, suggesting that the primary sites of labelling were in the sperm tail. Superior retention of 65Zn by testis was confirmed by increasing 65Zn/35S ratios in individual fractions of testicular homogenates between 2 and 10 days after injection. In addition, both isotopes appeared to be transferred from the testis cytosol to particulate material during this period. (author)

  16. A new sensitive 32P-postlabeling assay based on the specific enzymatic conversion of bulky DNA lesions to radiolabeled dinucleotides and nucleoside 5'-monophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sensitive 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts has been developed. When DNA containing bulky adducts, X1, X2, .....Xn, is digested with nuclease P1 at pH 5, normal nucleotides are released as 5'-monophosphates, pN, while adducts are excised as 5'-phosphorylated dinucleotides, pXipN, because inter-nucleotide linkages on the 3' side of X resist attack by nuclease P1. Addition of prostatic acid phosphatase to such a digest results in 5'-dephosphorylation of the nucleotides to normal nucleosides, N, and adducted dinucleotides, XipN, carrying a 5'-terminal free hydroxyl group. The dinucleotides but not nucleosides are converted to 5'-32P-labeled dinucleotides,[32P]pXipN, by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]posphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. Upon mapping on polyethyleneimine-cellulose anion-exchange TLC, the labeled dinucleotide adducts produce characteristic autoradiographic fingerprints. Alternatively, they are further digested with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-monophosphates, [32P]pXi and pN. TLC profiles of the monophosphate adducts are distinct from those of the dinucleotides. These reactions provide the basis of the new 32P-postlabeling scheme, which is compared in this paper with a previously reported protocol yielding adducts in the form of 5'-32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphatessup>32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphates, [32P]pXip. (author)

  17. Pesticides labelled with 14C. Pt. 2: Synthesis of propiconazole labelled in three different positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propiconazole was labelled with 14C: in three different positions in the benzene ring, in the position 5 of the dioxolane ring, and in the triazole ring. The synthesis of three new key intermediates (m-dichloro[U-14C]benzene], 1,2,4-[U-14C]triazole, [1-14C]-pentane-1,2-diol) were also elaborated. (Author)

  18. Synthesis of methyl-2 O-tolyl-3 quinazolone-4 14C-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of the preparation of methyl-2 O-tolyl-3 quinazolone-4 14C-2 (abbreviated to M.T.Q.), using N-acetyl 14C-1 anthranilic acid. The overall yield reaches 72 per cent with respect to acetyl chloride 14C-1. By applying the same method to acetyl chloride 14C-2, M.T.Q. labelled on the methyl group could be obtained. (author)

  19. Synthesis of substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines-2-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed for the synthesis of various benzodiazepines labelled with carbon-14 at position 2, the starting material being 14CO2. These methods were used for the preparation of [2-14C]diazepam, [2-14C]oxazepam, dihydro[2-14C]diazepam and 4 N-carbamoyl-dihydro[2-14C] diazepam with a specific activity of 1-5 mCi/mM

  20. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of bound 14C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14C residues, as measured by 14C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  1. The incorporation of [14C] glucosamine into dolichol diphosphate N-acetyl [14C] glucosamine by unbroken liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of whole Chang liver cells with D-[1-14C]glucosamine results in incorporation of radioactivity into both proteins and lipids. A minor (approximately 3%) amount of the labelled lipid has the chromatographic, solubility and chemical properties of dolichol diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine. A similar compound is formed when membrane preparations of the cells are incubated with UDP-N-acetyl [14C]glucosamine. The same membrane fractions catalyse the transfer of [14C]-mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to dolichol phosphate. (orig.)

  2. The experiment and primary clinical practice of 90Y, 32P-GTMS intervening treatment of malignant tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    90Y-GTMS and 32P-GTMS are injected directly into the carcinoma mass to kill the cancerous cells, prevent the tumour from growing and prolong the life of the malignant tumour patients. In the tumour body of the Dutch rat model, the contrast group, the cryogen group and the differential dose group (90Y-GTMS divided into 92.5, 185, 370 MBq, 32P-GTMS divided into 37, 92.5, 185 MBq) are observed the curative effect at the different time. The effective dose of the nuclide per unit volume is gotten to be used in clinical practice. With the help of B-ultrasonography, the tumour is located and then directly injected 90Y-GRMS with puncture. 32P-GTMS is embedded directly into the tumour during the operation and then the change of the tumour size is observed. With the proof of animal experiment, when the volume of the tumour is (0.262 +- 0.050) cm3, the amount of 90Y-GRMS>185 MBq or 32P-GTMS>92.5 MBq is used as effective dose. The longer time the nuclide is embedded in the tumour, the more obvious the curative effect is. In the clinical practice, leading by the B-ultrasonography, 16 liver cancer patients receive the 90Y-GRMS with punctura and 6 patients received the 32P-GTMS treatment in some part of the tumour during the operation. Their B-ultrasonography and CT development shows that 97% of the mass has becomes smaller or does not become large any more, and tr or does not become large any more, and the pathology displays that the cell has narcotized. 90Y-GTMS, 32P-GTMS intervening treatment can provide an effective palliative treatment to those tumour patients, who have lost the chance of surgical operation

  3. Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrni, S. M.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.; Szidat, S.

    2013-01-01

    For more than 4 years, gaseous samples of 1-50 ?g carbon have been routinely measured with the gas ion source of the small AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) facility MICADAS (MIni CArbon DAting System) at ETH Zurich. The applied measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. A major drawback of gaseous 14C measurements, however, is the relatively low negative ion current, which results in longer measurement times and lower precision compared to graphitized samples. In December 2009, a new, improved Cs sputter ion source was installed at MICADAS and we began to optimize conditions for the measurement of gaseous samples. 12C- currents from the new ion source were improved from initially 3 to 12-15 ?A for routine measurements and the negative ion yield was increased by a factor of 2, reaching 8% on average during routine operation. Moreover, the new measurement settings enable a doubled CO2 flow, thus substantially reducing measurement times. The achieved performance allows closing the sample size gap between gaseous and solid samples and makes the gas ion source a promising tool for dating with a measurement precision of 5‰ on samples as small as 50 ?g carbon.

  4. Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 4 years, gaseous samples of 1–50 ?g carbon have been routinely measured with the gas ion source of the small AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) facility MICADAS (MIni CArbon DAting System) at ETH Zurich. The applied measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. A major drawback of gaseous 14C measurements, however, is the relatively low negative ion current, which results in longer measurement times and lower precision compared to graphitized samples. In December 2009, a new, improved Cs sputter ion source was installed at MICADAS and we began to optimize conditions for the measurement of gaseous samples. 12C? currents from the new ion source were improved from initially 3 to 12–15 ?A for routine measurements and the negative ion yield was increased by a factor of 2, reaching 8% on average during routine operation. Moreover, the new measurement settings enable a doubled CO2 flow, thus substantially reducing measurement times. The achieved performance allows closing the sample size gap between gaseous and solid samples and makes the gas ion source a promising tool for dating with a measurement precision of 5‰ on samples as small as 50 ?g carbon.

  5. Fate of 14C-deltamethrin in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fate and residues of radiocarbon (14C) labelled (gem-dimethyl or benzyl) deltamethrin were determined in lactating cows after oral administration for three consecutive days and slaughtering the animals 24 hr after the last dose. Orally administered deltamethrin (10 mg/kg of body weight) appeared to be poorly absorbed, but the insecticide which was absorbed was extensively metabolized and excreted in the bile and urine with very little accumulation in major edible tissues. Approximately 36-43% of the total administered radiocarbon was eliminated in feces mostly as deltamethrin within 24 hr after the last dose. Only 4-6% of the administered 14C was eliminated in urine; and 0.42-1.62% was secreted in the milk. Radiocarbon secreted into milk was higher for the gem-dimethyl portion (0.69 ?g/g) than from the benzyl moiety (0.36 ?g/g); deltamethrin was the major product in milk (0.1-0.14 ?g/g). Radiocarbon residues in tissues were low (<0.1 ?g/g), except liver and kidney (1.28-3.19 ?g/g), abdominal and subcutaneous fats (0.28-0.62 ?g/g). (author)

  6. Structure in the 14C+16O reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yields of several nuclides produced in the 14C+16O reaction have been measured over the range E/sub c.m./=16--34 MeV. The excitation function for the production of 22Ne displays a regular sequence of narrow fine-structure resonances similar to those previously observed in the 12C+16O reaction. This is the first time that such structure has been observed for systems of non-?-particle nuclei. Intermediate-width resonances are observed in the yield of 18O at E/sub c.m./=19.5, 23.5, 27.5, and 31 MeV. Correlated structure appears in the inelastic scattering cross section to the 3- state of 14C at all these energies, except possibly E/sub c.m./=19.5 MeV. The resemblance of the 23.5-MeV structure to anomalies previously observed in the 16O+16O and 12C+16O reactions is noted, and some properties of the compound system are deduced

  7. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  8. Tracing bomb 14C in the atmosphere 1962--1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the ever greater series of nuclear tests were exposed to the atmosphere at higher northern latitudes during 1961 and 1962, an attempt was made at this laboratory to trace the distribution of bomb-produced 14C down to lower latitudes and into the ocean surface. Several ground level stations were established for this purpose in the early 1960's, from Spitsbergen (78 0N) to Madagascar (21 0S). Measurements were also gradually extended to the ocean surface. The tropospheric measurements which partly have been performed during the last 18 years have proved to be important for testing exchange models for industrial CO2 in the atmosphere and more generally for studying the carbon cycle in nature. The present paper includes tables of all the atmospheric 14C data measured at this laboratory during 18 years. Several graphs are also included and a description of sampling locations and contamination problems. The paper is an answer to those who want to use the data in their own modeling research

  9. Strategy of valid 14C dates choice in syngenetic permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Vasil'chuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of radiocarbon dating within permafrost is the uncertain reliability of the 14C dates. Syngenetic sediments contain allochthonous organic deposit that originated at a distance from its present position. Due to the very good preservation of organic materials in permafrost conditions and numerous re-burials of the fossils from ancient deposits into younger ones the dates could be both younger and older than the true age of dated material. The strategy for the most authentic radiocarbon date selection for dating of syncryogenic sediments is considered taking into account the fluvial origin of the syngenetic sediments. The re-deposition of organic material is discussed in terms of cyclic syncryogenic sedimentation and also the possible re-deposition of organic material in subaerial-subaqueous conditions. The advantages and the complications of dating organic micro-inclusions from ice wedges by the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS method are discussed applying to true age of dated material search. Radiocarbon dates of different organic materials from the same samples are compared. The younger age of the yedoma from cross-sections of Duvanny Yar in Kolyma River and Mamontova Khayata in the mouth of Lena River is substantiated due to the principle of the choice of the youngest 14C date from the set.

  10. 14C age of the Quaternary deposits in Japan, 149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the 14C age of volcanic ash which covered the Jomon remains was carried out. This site is located in the southern region of Takada Plain, and on the foot of the Myoko volcano. The specimens were collected in the Okunojo relics which belong to the later Jomon age. The relics were covered by humic volcanic ash, the thickness of which was about 0.6 m. The bed of this volcanic ash was classified into 4 strata by field observation, and each bed was characterized by the grain size of sand and mineral composition as the result of laboratory works. The potteries of Jomon age were found in the third bed which was powderly humic soil with the characteristic of volcanic ash, and showed dark reddish brown color. The potteries of the later Jomon age occupied 90 % of all collected potteries. The 14C age of the volcanic ash was determined as 2790 +- 120 yBP, compatible with the potteries unearthed. Accordingly, the age of the third bed with dark reddish brown color was assumed to be the pyroclastic fall deposit formed by volcanic activities in the later Jomon age. The source of volcanic ash is attributable to the Myoko volcano or the Yakeyama volcano, or the both. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  11. Progress in the development of methods for the determination of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods are described in detail: liquid scintillation counting of 14C in the form of benzene, and liquid scintillation counting of 14C in carbonate solution. The former method is used, for example, to monitor atmospheric 14C in CO2, the latter, to monitor gaseous discharges from nuclear power plants. (P.A.)

  12. Radioactive intermediate products in the photolysis of the system [1-14C] tributyltin oxide cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions between matrix and applied biocide in the photochemical degradation of the system [1-14C] tributyltin oxide/cellulose have been investigated. The intermediate formation of [1-14C] tributylstannyl cellulose ethers was found to be the most important step. The photochemical preparation of bis [8-14C] tributylstannyl glucose ether is described. (author)

  13. The uptake by crops of fresh and residual phosphatic fertilizers by simultaneous measurements with 32P and 33P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various residual P fertilizers, with or without fresh fertilizers cannot be measured directly by field or pot experiments. A radiotracer technique using 32PO4 and 33PO4 is described. Available soil phosphorus is 32P-labelled and fresh P fertilizer is 33P-labelled. Counting 33P and 32P in crops is carried out by measurements making use of the Cerenkov effect and using liquid scintillation procedures. From the results obtained in the example given, it can be concluded that the various kinds of residual P fertilizers can modify the uptake of the fresh P fertilizers applied. (author)

  14. Observations on transition of polycythaemia vera into acute or chronic granulocytic leukaemia during treatment with radioactive phosphorus 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a group of 172 cases of polycythaemia vera treated with radioactive phosphorus 32P acute granulocytic leukaemia developed in 3 cases and chronic granulocytic leukaemia in 6 cases. Development of acute granulocytic leukaemia during treatment with radioactive phosphorus for polycythaemia vera may be considered with some probability as a result of leukaemia-inducing action of ionizing radiation. Transition of polycythaemia vera into chronic granulocytic leukaemia seems to a natural outcome of this complex myeloproliferative syndrome in patients with survival prolonged by treatment with 32P. (author)

  15. 14C-sucrose and 14C-malonate precursor feeding studies on lipid biosynthesis in peanut plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucrose is the principal photosynthetic product that gets transported to various organs of the plant and serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of food reserves like starch and lipids. Acetate and malonate are the most important precursor compounds involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids. The role of acetate in the fatty acid biosynthesis has been probed in detail by Stumpf. However, only very limited work has been reported using malonate as a substrate. In the present study, the role of sucrose and malonate in the lipid biogenesis in peanut plant has been examined using 14C-labeled compounds. (author). 7 refs

  16. Study of the resonance behaviour of the systems 12C + 12C and 14C + 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis the resonant behaviour of the elastic e.g. inelastic scattering of 12C + 12C and 14C + 14C is studied. For the system 12C + 12C the spin alignment Psub(zz) of the inelastic scattering 12C(12C,12C)12C*(2+, 4.43 MeV) at six energies between 18.5 and 32.8 MeV (c.m.) is determined. The measurement was performed by coincident detection of particles and ?-quanta, whereby the ? detector was oriented in the direction of the scattering norm. The obtained Psub(z)sub(z)-values fluctuate strongly at the maxima of the excitation function (from +0.03 to +0.84) as at the minima (from -0.04 to +0.76). This result agrees neither with the predictions of the band crossing model (Abe) nor with the expectations of non-resonant models. At 14C + 14C the elastic scattering at Esub(c.m.) = 6-35 MeV as well as the single or double inelastic scattering to 3-(6.73MeV) from 15 to 35 MeV (c.m.) was measured. In the elastic 900(c.m.) excitation functions strongly pronounced crude structures (width 2-3 MeV (c.m.)) are shown, which are similar to the scattering behaviour of 160 + 160 and can be qualitatively described by surface transparent optical potentials. By measurements of the angular distributions it could be shown, that at the maxima of the excitation function at 15.5, 19.5, 24, and 28 the partial waves L = 12, 14, 17, e.g. 18 dominate. In the inelastic scattering from about 25 MeV (c.m.) clearly intermediate structures were observed, but the absolute value of the cross sections lies at about one order of magnitude below that of 12C* + 12C(2+) e.g. 12C*(2+) + 12C*(2+). This result as well as the only weak appearance of intermediate structures in the elastic scattering leads to the conclusion of a weak coupling between ground state and the 3--state. (orig./HSI)

  17. Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p 14C using polarized proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se midió la distribución angular de la sección eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersión elástica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energía sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El análisis de los datos en términos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la matriz "S" nos permite deducir los números cuánticos y parámetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energía de excitación. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas.

  18. Automatic sample preparation of 35S labelled organic compounds for liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic sample preparation method for the determination of 35S in organic compounds by liquid scintillation counting is described. The sample is burned in a stream of oxygen and the combustion products are led onto a quartz wool column wetted with dilute hydrogen peroxide. Sulfur oxides are retained on the quartz wool as sulfuric acid, while the other acidic combustion products are eliminated by evaporation. The residual sulfuric acid is rinsed with distilled water, the sulfuric acid solution obtained is added to a liquid scintillation cocktail and the radioactivity is measured with a liquid scintillation counter. The combustion-evaporation process runs automatically according to the operational program controlled by an electronic programmer. The procedure was tested with both radioactive and non-radioactive sulfur containing compounds. In the latter case the sulfuric acid solution was titrated directly with standard alkali. Results of duplicate analyses of some non-radioactive sulfur compounds are tabulated. Isotope analytical data are collected. Samples containing methionine-35S, to which known amounts of different halogen and phosphorus containing inactive substances were added, have also been analysed to check the reliability of the sample preparation method. (T.G.)

  19. Preparation of tyrosine-O-[35S]sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide from a nonsulfated precursor peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and simple one-pot method for O-sulfation of nonsulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was developed using sulfuric acid and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) without protection of the amino acid side chains. The extent of sulfation was increased with increasing the amount of reactants, sulfuric acid, and DCC, and reached maximum (40%) with fourfold molar excess of sulfuric acid and 40-fold molar excess of DCC. The excess of nonsulfated peptide inhibited the sulfation. The sulfation product was purified by HPLC or TLC to give a pure sulfated substance which showed exactly the same behavior as that of an authentic O-sulfated CCK-8 on HPLC or TLC. The purified sulfated peptide was active in stimulating amylase secretion from rat pancreatic fragments, and amino acid analysis showed that the tyrosine residue in the peptide existed in O-sulfated form. Sulfation with [35S]sulfuric acid-DCC produced a radioactive substance, from which O-[35S]sulfated CCK-8 could be easily purified by two-dimensional TLC

  20. The experimental study of 32P and diallyl trisulfide coating stent for inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in a canine model of coronary restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assesses the efficiency of 32P and diallyl trisulfide (DT)-coated coronary stents on neointimal proliferation in a canine model of restenosis. Methods: 32P (740 kBq/stent), DT (210 ?g/stent) alone and jointly coated stents were deployed with mild oversizing in both the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) and the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of 10 dogs. The implantation of protein-coated stents was used as the control. The therapeutic effect was assessed 6 months after the intervention. The dogs were sacrificed and the vessels were excised. For morphologic examinations the tissue sections were stained with HE and Van Gieson. Results: Compared with the control stents, the neointimal area reduced in stents coated with 32P, DT alone and 32P+DT [32P: (2.63±0.48) mm2, DT: (2.50±0.49) mm2, 32P+DT: (1.42±0.41) mm2 vs control group: (4.87±0. 80) mm2, P=0.001]. 32P+DT was more effective than either of them alone for reducing the neointimal area (P?0.005). Both jointly and alone coated stents of 32P, DT decreased the percent area stenosis [32P: (32.48±4.79)%, DT: (30.04±5.43)%, 32P+DT: (17.21±4.05)% vs control group: (54.62±6.82)%, P32P+DT group compared with 32P or DT-coated stents group (P>P or DT-coated stents group (P?0.001). Angiographic restenosis (diameter stenosis) was lighter in stents coated with 32P, DT and 32P+DT compared with control stents (P32P+DT was more effective than 32P or DT alone for reducing diameter stenosis (P?0.005). No evidence of 'edge effect' was seen in adjacent, nonstented coronary segments. Conclusion: Coronary stents coated with 32P plus DT produced a significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis rate in the canine LCX and LAD 6 months after stents implantation

  1. Characterization of the 32P solid and liquid wastes generated in the Hybridization assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some radioisotopes are frequently used in the biomedical research as an unsealed source generating solid and liquid wastes classified as Low Level Wastes (LLW), according to the Brazilian standards. The liquid and solid wastes should be segregated as recommended by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) standards. The LLW from research laboratories requires attention related to its management due to the easiness in unnecessarily increasing the storage amount. The characterization of the radioactive waste is very important in order to reduce the volume of waste and the storage period and to attain good results in the waste management. The quantification of the waste can be made by estimating the residual activity present in the different kinds of materials used in the biological assays through the values of adsorption coefficients of the radioisotopes. The objective of this work is to characterize the radioactive solid waste in the Hybridization assay using 32P through the activity values determined at each step of the experimental assay, considering the discharge threshold recommended by CNEN. The secondary aim is to establish the most appropriate management method by comparing the specific activities determined at the steps to the method that considers a rate of 2% as a safe hypothesis for any solid materials as well as the ten half-lives method. Radioactive Hybridization by Colony Blot technique was used tzation by Colony Blot technique was used to analyze the specific DNA sequence through radio labeled [?-32P] dCTP. The solid and liquid radioactive wastes were segregated into 4 steps and at each one the residual activity of different contaminated materials was indirectly measured by beta counter in the presence of scintillation liquid. The radioactivity present at the first and second steps resulted in specific activities higher than the discharge threshold established by CNEN (74Bq/kg for solid waste), indicating the necessity of storing the waste for decay. From this study it was possible to verify that the waste characterization by steps has potential to optimize the storage time and the amount of the storage radioactive wastes. (author)

  2. Fast, quantitative in situ hybridization of rare mRNAs using 14C-standards and phosphorus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christian M; Cremer, Markus; Escobar, Jennifer Lopez; Speckmann, Erwin-J; Zilles, Karl

    2009-12-15

    The use of radiolabelled probes for in situ hybridization (ISH) bears the advantage of high sensitivity and quantifiability. The crucial disadvantages are laborious hybridization protocols, exposition of hybridized sections to film for up to several weeks and the time consuming need to prepare tissue standards with relatively short-lived isotopes like (33)P or (35)S for each experiment. The quantification of rare mRNAs like those encoding for subunits of neurotransmitter receptors is therefore a challenge in ISH. Here, we describe a method for fast, quantitative in situ hybridization (qISH) of mRNAs using (33)P-labelled oligonucleotides together with (14)C-polymer standards (Microscales, Amersham Biosciences) and a phosphorus imaging system (BAS 5000 BioImage Analyzer, Raytest-Fuji). It enables a complete analysis of rare mRNAs by ISH. The preparation of short-lived (33)P-standards for each experiment was replaced by co-exposition and calibration of long-lived (14)C-standards together with (33)P-labelled brain paste standards. The use of a phosphorus imaging system allowed a reduction of exposition time following hybridization from several weeks to a few hours or days. We used this approach as an example for applications to quantify the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 subunit mRNAs of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor in the hippocampus of untreated rats, and after intraperitoneal application of the organo-arsenic compound dimethyl arsenic acid. PMID:19761793

  3. Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela (Artiodactyla, Cervidae en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35°S Presence of Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela in the late Pleistocene-early Holocene of Central Chile (30-35°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo discute el estatus taxonómico de la especie Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, definida a partir de astas completas procedentes de la laguna Taguatagua y la quebrada de Quereo (Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano, en Chile central (30-35°S. Se concluye, a partir de un estudio morfológico y morfométrico detallado, que Antifer niemeyeri debe ser considerado sinónimo de Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889 dados los caracteres anatómicos compartidos con esta especie. Los resultados amplían la distribución geográfica del taxón, que previamente se registraba en Argentina, Uruguay y sur de Brasil, y confirman su biocrón para el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano (edad Lu-janense, aun cuando las fechas radiocarbónicas de Chile central (ca. 9.900 años 14C AP corresponden a las más tardías para la especie. A la luz de la evidencia paleoclimática disponible, se vincula A ultra durante el Pleistoceno de Chile central a ambientes cálidos y abiertos. Considerando estos requerimientos, se discute su posible vía de ingreso al actual territorio chileno a través de corredores ubicados hacia el sur del macizo andino, y su coexistencia con Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782. De acuerdo a la información estratigráfica y paleoambiental, se postula que ambas especies habrían sido alopátridas, por lo menos en el área de estudio.This paper discusses the taxonomic status of Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, defined from complete antlers from Taguatagua lake and Quereo canyon, both located in central Chile (30-35°S. From a detailed morphological and moiphometrical study, it is concluded that Antifer niemeyeri should be considered synonymous with Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889, due to the anatomical characters shared between both forms. These results expand the geographical distribution of this taxa previously recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, confirming their late Pleistocene-early Holocene biochron, in spite the fact that radiocarbon dates obtained in central Chile (ca. 9.900 14C yr BP imply the youngest age for the species. According to the available paleoclimate evidence, A. ultra is linked to warm climate and an open landscape during the late Pleistocene of central Chile. Its possible routes of entry to central Chile through corridors located at the south of the Andean range and its coexistence with Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782, are also discussed. According to the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental data we suggest that both species have been allopatric, at least in the study area.

  4. Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35°S) / Presence of Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela) in the late Pleistocene-early Holocene of Central Chile (30-35°S)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Labarca E; M. Alejandra, Alcaraz.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo discute el estatus taxonómico de la especie Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, definida a partir de astas completas procedentes de la laguna Taguatagua y la quebrada de Quereo (Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano), en Chile central (30-35°S). Se concluye, a partir de un estudi [...] o morfológico y morfométrico detallado, que Antifer niemeyeri debe ser considerado sinónimo de Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889 dados los caracteres anatómicos compartidos con esta especie. Los resultados amplían la distribución geográfica del taxón, que previamente se registraba en Argentina, Uruguay y sur de Brasil, y confirman su biocrón para el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano (edad Lu-janense), aun cuando las fechas radiocarbónicas de Chile central (ca. 9.900 años 14C AP) corresponden a las más tardías para la especie. A la luz de la evidencia paleoclimática disponible, se vincula A ultra durante el Pleistoceno de Chile central a ambientes cálidos y abiertos. Considerando estos requerimientos, se discute su posible vía de ingreso al actual territorio chileno a través de corredores ubicados hacia el sur del macizo andino, y su coexistencia con Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782. De acuerdo a la información estratigráfica y paleoambiental, se postula que ambas especies habrían sido alopátridas, por lo menos en el área de estudio. Abstract in english This paper discusses the taxonomic status of Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, defined from complete antlers from Taguatagua lake and Quereo canyon, both located in central Chile (30-35°S). From a detailed morphological and moiphometrical study, it is concluded that Antifer niemeyeri should be co [...] nsidered synonymous with Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889, due to the anatomical characters shared between both forms. These results expand the geographical distribution of this taxa previously recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, confirming their late Pleistocene-early Holocene biochron, in spite the fact that radiocarbon dates obtained in central Chile (ca. 9.900 14C yr BP) imply the youngest age for the species. According to the available paleoclimate evidence, A. ultra is linked to warm climate and an open landscape during the late Pleistocene of central Chile. Its possible routes of entry to central Chile through corridors located at the south of the Andean range and its coexistence with Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782, are also discussed. According to the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental data we suggest that both species have been allopatric, at least in the study area.

  5. Distribution of 14C in soil and rice plants following application of 14C - parathion to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amount of residues of 14C-parathion in soil rice plants after application of the insecticide to soil were determined in four systems studied during five weeks: pots of soil with and without plants and open or enclosed by a transparent cover. Measurements of amounts volatilized and 14CO2 evolution from the pesticide were made in closed system without plants. The bound residues in soil and plants were also determined. Results indicated that parathion half life in a Gley Humic soil was about two weeks. Very little radiocarbon was taken up by rice plants; of this, more was found in shoots of plants enclosed, probably by collection of the volatilized material by plants. About 6% and 4% of the 14C-parathion were found as volatilized material and 14CO2, respectively after five weeks. Bound residues varied very little and reached a maximum of 22% in soil and in plants amounted to less than 2% at the final of the experiment. (Author)

  6. Carbon 14C in biosphere in vicinity of Bratislava and Tbilisi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C concentration was determined in tree rings from the vicinity of Bratislava (Czechoslovakia) and in grapes from the vicinity of Tbilisi (USSR) in the period 1960 to 1975. The relative exceedance of 14C concentration above normal (delta 14C) reached the peak in the years 1961 to 1964; from then on a decreasing trend was observed. For the period 1964 to 1975 the value of delta 14C was 55% for tree rings with an average yearly decrease of 5% while for grapes delta 14C was 41.65%, with an average yearly decrease of 3.5%. (H.S.)

  7. Preparation of saccharides nonspecifically labelled with 14C radioisotope. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method has been developed for preparing D-[U-14C] glucosamine based on the reaction of D-[U-14C]fructose with methanol ammonia in the presence of catalysts. The suggested procedure produces radiochemical yields of 58% D-[U-14C]glucosamine with the regeneration of 20% D-[U-14C]fructose. The advantage of the method is the effective catalysis of the Heyns rearrangement of intermediate D-[U-14C]fructosylamine which is achieved by the application of suitable carboxylic acid in methanol ammonia. (author)

  8. Study on 14C spatial distribution around Qinshan nuclear power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the spatial distribution of 14C discharged from Qinshan nuclear power plant, where two HWRs and four PWRs are on commercial operation, simulation using Gaussian plume model was carried out. The predicted values were compared with the measured 14C results of moss samples collected in 2010. A good fit was found between these two data sets, indicating that the spatial distribution of 14C follows a Gaussian model. It can be concluded that HWRs are the dominant 14C sources at Qinshan site and meteorological influences is the leading factor affecting the distribution of 14C. (author)

  9. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, F., E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Fiumano, V., E-mail: vittoriofiumano85@libero.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Capano, M., E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Piazza S. Francesco, 81055 Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Passariello, I., E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Cesare, N.De., E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Terrasi, F., E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) AMS measurements ({Delta}R/R < 0.3%) reduce the conventional uncertainty of the dating to few decades, allowing precise age estimation of materials containing carbon (C). The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) during its activity on AMS {sup 14}C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the 'Acerenza portrait' is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-{sup 14}C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2{sigma}) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  10. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl- channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (? 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-rf picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  11. Degradation and residues of trifluralin and metalaxyl in soils treated with 14C-trifluralin and 14C-metalaxyl, under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the herbicide 14C-trifluralin and the fungicide 14C-metalaxyl was studied under laboratory conditions in Red Latosol and Yellow Red Podzol soils in samples Kept flooded, sterilized and with humidity equivalent to 60% of the water field capacity. The degradation of both pesticides is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  12. Disposition and Metabolic Profiles of [14C]Viramidine and [14C]Ribavirin in Rat and Monkey Red Blood Cells and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-Chung; Lourenco, David; Xu, Guifen; Yeh, Li-Tain

    2004-01-01

    The disposition and metabolic profiles of [14C]viramidine and [14C]ribavirin were compared in rat and monkey red blood cells and liver. Our data reveal that the total ribavirin-related components (ribavirin plus its mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites) may account for most of the drug in monkey liver following prolonged oral administration of viramidine.

  13. Early incorporation and distribution of 14C-photosynthates after 14C-feeding for a brief period in tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the early incorporation and distribution of 14C-photosynthetic products in tea plants after 14C-feeding for a brief period, 14C-tracer experiments were performed, using the winter leaves, first crop shoots and young tea plants of a cultivar, Yabukita. As the results of the experiment on leaf disks by 14C-Feeding for one minute, the 14C-activity in the ethanol soluble fraction distributed in the anionic, cationic and neutral fractions in this order. When the time of feeding was extended to 10 min, the distribution in the cationic fraction decreased, and that in the neutral fraction increased. In the experiment on shoots, after the end of 10 min assimulation, the 14C-activity in the ethanol soluble fraction distributed in the neutral, cationic and anionic fractions in this order. In course of time, the distribution in the cationic and anionic fractions decreased, and that in the neutral fraction increased. As the results of 14C-feeding to young tea plants for 2.5 hours, 70 - 95% of the 14C-activity in the ethanol soluble fraction distributed in the neutral fraction. Sucrose seemed to be the primary and early product of photosynthesis, and might be the principal carbohydrate form of translocation and reserve in tea plants. Raffinose and stachyose played almost the same role as sucrose. (Kako, I.)

  14. Bioconcentration of 14 C-Carbofuran and 14 C- Lindane in fresh water Tilapia Nilitica and the bioavailability of their residues to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilapia Nilotica were exposed to 14 C- carbofuran (125 MUg/1) and 14 C - lindane (80 MUg/1) for 96 h. Uptake period followed by 8 days depuration period. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for carbofuran reached 32.4 at 12 h and 82 for lindane at 48 h. The amount of 14 C-activity found in fish treated with 14 C - carbofuran after the uptake period showed the following descending order: viscera > remaining parts > gills > muscles. In case of 14 C - lindane treated fish the recovered amount followed the order; remaining parts> viscera > gills muscles. During the depuration period, carbofuran residues taken up by fish were eliminated in 2 phases, an initial rapid phase followed by a slower gradual one. However, the rate of elimination in case of lindane was much slower especially during the first 2 days. At the end of the depuration period (8 days), the muscles (edible portion) contained 10% and 58% of 14 C -activity in case of carbofuran and lindane treated groups, respectively. Both insecticides proved to be bioavailable when rats were fed treated fish. Of the administered dose, 44.1% and 53.0% were excreted in urine and feces case of 14 C-carbofuran while in case of 14 C - lindane it was 30.9% and 41.7% for urine and feces, respectively. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Phosphate fixation capacity of Thai acid soils using 32P isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five acid soil samples from benchmark sites in Thailand were collected: Rangsit soil, two samples (Sulfic Tropaquepts or acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic Paleustults). The soil P status was characterized in the laboratory by the 32P isotope exchange technique using treatments with and without P addition. In another experiment, the P-fixing capacity of the same soils was examined. They were incubated for 30 days with two Thai phosphate rocks Lamphun PR and RP and Ratchaburi PR, and TSP was used as a standard fertilizer. All of them were added at a rate of 50 mg P kg-1 . The soils can be ranked according to their P- fixing capacity as follows: Rangsit series (acid sulfate soil) > Mae Tang series (Typic Paleustult) > Pakchong series (Oxic Paleustult) > Warin series (Oxic Paleustult). The P availability from TSP decreased after 30 days incubation with the soils. PR from Ratchaburi was more effective than Lamphun PR. (author)

  16. Application a 32P bioassay for P-fertilization of citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of phosphorus (as 32P) by excised root samples from Citrus trees growing in the soil with originally less than 30 mg kg-1 available P was significantly lowered after P-fertilization. This effect became more prominent in the 2nd and 3rd year of the experiment. High concentration of available P in the soil (80mg kg-1) resulted in a higher P-content in the excised roots and therefore decreased P-uptake. Application of phosphate fertilizer to such soil increased the content of available P but P concentration in Citrus leaves was not significantly changed. Branch length, fruit yield, and Brix sugar in fruit juice were also not influenced. These data show that response to P-fertilization can be tested by leaf analysis, growth or yield measurement. P-uptake of excised roots harvested from the soil with available P above 150 mg kg-1 reached a level of 400 ? 500 pg P/mg root, which indicates that P-fertilization is unnecessary at the soil of P-content above this limit

  17. Hair 32P measurement for body dose mapping in non-fatal exposures to fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianji, Fereidoun A; Jafari, Sheyda; Zaryouni, Saiedeh; Hajizadeh, Bardia

    2015-03-01

    Dosimetry bioassay methods are the backbone of a personal dosimetry in criticality accidents. Although methods like hair dosimetry and the use of activation foils (e.g., (32)S) have been employed for decades, capabilities of different techniques, effects of hair type and neutron spectrum on the dose response, sensitivity and uncertainties of different techniques, etc., need more investigations. For this reason, the use of the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction and hair samples for estimating non-fatal doses from fast neutrons was studied. The experiments were carried out with the hair samples attached on a RANDO phantom in a Cf-252 neutron field, in the dose range of about 0.05-1.15 Gy. In addition, the adequate post-accident preparation for hair samples including optimum conditioning and timing were investigated. Experimental results prove the good sensitivity and merit of the method for neutron quantification in the mentioned dose range for which other bioassay methods are of poor resolution and sensitivity. A rough estimation of the dose-response curve for Iranian hair was also derived. PMID:25503945

  18. Using 32 P to evaluation of bio fertilizers symbiotic efficiency in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the symbiotic efficiency of bio fertilizers in wheat specially Azospirillam, Mycorrhizal and streptomyces, an experiment have been carried out for 2 years by using 32p in greenhouse condition. The results showed that number of till/plant dry weight and activity/plant were increased in concordance with the increase of phosphorus amount. In addition, the application of Mycorrhizal in comparison with its non-application resulted in significant increase in entire above-mentioned measured characteristics, but its efficiency reduced by increasing phosphorous.Moreover, it was proven that there was a negative antagonistic effect by Streptomyces on Mycorrhizal, so that in all examined characteristics in which these two microorganisms were simultaneously used, a significant decrease was observed. Otherwise, study on phosphorus and mycorrhizal at different levels applications showed that phosphorus usage amount (0.40g/pot), in comparison with its more usage(0.60g/pot) had better effects on mycorrhizal. Application of Streptomyces had no significant on the examined characteristics. However, when applying both mycorrhizal and streptomyces, because of the sensitivity of mycorrhizal to Streptomyces presence, a decrease effect was observed. Application of Azospirillum, Mycorrhizal and specially organic fertilizer (manure), had positive and significant effects on the many of the measured characters

  19. Studies on phosphorus use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa) using 32P tagged SSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted in kharif season during 2005 using rice (Oryza sativa L.) var. 1R36 as a test crop grown in low, medium and high P status soils in the greenhouse of the Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, to study the effect of added P through SSP (labelled 32P) alone and in combination with FYM, RP and bio-fertilizer on P uptake, fertilizer uptake and percent utilization of phosphorus. Results showed that combined use of RP, FYM and bio- fertilizer helped not only in better utilization of fertilizer phosphorus but it also helped in better utilization of soil phosphorus. The highest values 2.22, 1.79 and 1.57; and 8.43, 8.17 and 7.86; and 5.20, 4.23 and 3.78 of the per cent utilization of P were registered in SSP + RP + FYM + PSB at tillering, flowering and at harvest under low, medium and high P status soils, respectively. Combined use of RP, FYM and bio-fertilizer helped not only in better utilization of fertilizer phosphorus but it also helped in better utilization of soil phosphorus. PSB was effective only in soil where available P status of soil was low to medium. The application of RP applied along with FYM and PSB improved P utilization by the crop. (author)

  20. Use of 32 P to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of the phosphoric Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The red soils from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock (PR). In laboratory and field experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional techniques. The phosphate rocks came from different deposits (Higuanojo and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito from Venezuela). Partial acidulation of some of these rocks was also evaluated. After the incubation of the fertilizers with the soil at field capacity, the isotopic exchange of 32 P was carried out in order to determine different static and kinetic parameters of P in fertilizer amended soil. The reactivity of the rocks was measured through citric acid, formic acid and neutral ammonium citrate. A field experiment with common bean was carried out in order to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of Trinidad de Guedes phosphate rock products. Trinidad de Guedes partially acidulated phosphate rock was found to be more effective than the un acidulated PR when evaluated through chemical reactivity, isotopic parameters and yield of common bean, so the agronomic value of Cuban indigenous PR can be greatly increased by partial acidulation. The isotopic exchange kinetic method was a good predictor of the P availability of fertilizers since many parameters of the soil phosphorus can be measured in a single and rapid experimentent

  1. 32P assessed phosphate uptake by tomato plants Hebros in relation to soil nutrient substance supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of phosphates by tomato plants, cv.Hebros, was assessed by 32P in a vegetation pot experiment. Leached meadow-cinnamon soil was used, taken from a stationary field experiment to which, for a period of eight years, various rates of NPK were applied. As a result of that significant changes occurred in the soil nutrient substance supplies (concerning total and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and salts concentration). It was established that the coefficient of phasphate utilization by tomato plants was the highest (19.15%) on soil receiving a N210P210K210 fertilizer application. Long-term fertilization with higher rates at a 1:1:1 NPK ratio increased the content of nutrient substances in the soil, but the coefficient of utilization of available phosphate diminished and was lowest (11.40%) in the case when a N960P960K720 mineral fertilizer rate was applied. Following prolonged mineral fertilization with growing N rates (from 240 up to 720 kg/ha) at a background of P720K210, the coefficient of phosphate utilization by tomato plants also diminished from 16.16 to 12.26%. (author)

  2. Synoviorthesis with colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, G.E.; Girard, M.; Lamarre, C.; Jutras, M.; Danais, S.; Guay, J.P.; Belanger, R.D.

    1985-11-01

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done.

  3. Synoviorthesis with colloidal 32P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be doneysis could be done

  4. Astrophysically important S31 states studied with the S32(p,d)S31 reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Guidry, M. W.; Hix, W. R.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Livesay, R. J.; Smith, M. S.; Thomas, J. S.; Visser, D. W.

    2007-07-01

    In nova outbursts on oxygen-neon white dwarfs, the P30(p,?)S31 reaction plays a crucial role in the synthesis of heavier nuclear species, from Si to Ca. However, this important rate is very uncertain as a result of the lack of spectroscopic information on most of the levels above the proton threshold in S31. To reduce these uncertainties, we have measured differential cross sections for the S32(p,d)S31 reaction and determined excitation energies for states in S31. A total of 26 states in S31 were observed, including 17 above the proton threshold. Five new states were observed. Spins and parities were determined or constrained for 15 of the observed levels through a distorted wave Born approximation analysis of the angular distributions, of which six were made for the first time. We have evaluated 66 levels using existing data in combination with this measurement and calculated a new P30(p,?)S31 reaction rate. We confirmed the spin-parity assignment of 1/2+ for the state at 6263 keV which dominates the P30(p,?)S31 reaction rate at lower temperatures in novae, while the state at 6544 keV dominates at temperatures above 0.2 GK. Our results indicate that the P30(p,?)S31 rate is reduced by up to a factor of 10 at nova temperatures compared to previous estimates.

  5. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  6. Understanding the production and retention of in situ cosmogenic 14C in polar firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmiel, B.; Petrenko, V. V.; Smith, A.; Buizert, C.; Harth, C. M.; Beaudette, R.; Place, P., Jr.; Hua, Q.; Yang, B.; Vimont, I.; Weiss, R. F.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Brook, E.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon in CO2, CO and CH4 trapped in polar ice is of interest for dating of ice cores, studies of past solar activity and cosmic ray flux, as well as studies of the paleoatmospheric CH4 budget. The major difficulty with interpreting 14C measurements in ice cores stems from the fact that the measured 14C represents a combination of trapped paleoatmospheric 14C and 14C that is cosmogenically produced within the ice matrix. This in situ cosmogenic 14C component in ice is at present poorly understood. Prior ice core 14C studies show conflicting results with regard to the retention of cosmogenic 14C in polar firn and partitioning of this 14C among CO2, CO and CH4. Our new study aims to comprehensively characterize the 14C of CO2, CO, and CH4 in both the air and the ice matrix throughout the firn column at Summit, Greenland. We will present new measurements of 14C in Summit firn air (the first phase of this study) and discuss the implications for in situ cosmogenic 14C production and retention.

  7. Synthesis of 1,3,5-trimethoxy[1-14C]benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing the facile acylative annulation of 2-methoxypropene with [1-14C]malonyl dichloride, the synthesis of 1,3,5-trimethoxy[1-14C]benzene was accomplished starting from potassium [14C] cyanide with an overall yield of 60%. Thus, reaction of bromoacetic acid with potassium [14C]cyanide gave sodium [14C]cyanoacetate (1). Hydrolysis of 1 with sodium hydroxide solution provided the sodium salt of [1-14C]malonic acid (2). Treatment of 2 with calcium chloride gave the calcium salt 3, which was acidified with concentrated sulfuric acid in ether to give [1-14C]malonic acid (4). Reaction of 4 with oxalyl chloride in refluxing ether gave [1-14C]malonyl dichloride (5). Annulative acylations of 2-methoxypropene with 5 gave the crucial intermediate 5-methoxy[1-14C]resorcinol (7), together with 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-[2 (or 4)-14C]2H-pyran-2-one (6), in a ratio of 3:1. However, 6 could be advantageously converted to 7a by initial O-methylation with dimethyl sulfate, followed by rearrangement of the product, 4-methoxy-6-methyl[2(or 4)-14C]2H-pyran-2-one (6a), upon treatment with sodium methoxide. Finally, bis-O-methylation of 7 and 7a with dimethyl sulfate in refluxing acetone gave the title compound 8. (author)

  8. Movement, Persistence and Uptake by Plants of 14C-labelled Cyfluthrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lodhi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A field lysimeter experiment was conducted to study the uptake by plants, dissipation and movement in soil of 14C-cyfluthrin (active ingredient of Baythroid, an insecticide produced by Bayer, Germany. Cotton and wheat plants were grown in succession to study the uptake of 14C. The chemical was worked well into the soil supporting the growth of a healthy cotton plant. The plant harvested at maturity contained 0.376 per cent of the applied 14C; a major portion (ca 65 per cent of the total of the 14C being located in the stem portion. Wheat plants grown after cotton contained 0.11 per cent of the initially applied 14C. Dissipation of 14C from the soil-plant system was fairly rapid and after 9 weeks (during growth of cotton, ca 50 per cent of the applied 14C was unaccounted. Subsequent losses were slower and during the remaining study period of 29 weeks, a further decrease of only 10 percent of the applied 14C occurred. Wheat growth and organic amendment caused a decrease in the loss of 14C from the soil-plant system. At all sampling intervals, a greater proportion of 14C was restricted to the top 0-10 cm layer and the amount consistently decreased with depth. In general, >80 percent of the 14C determined in soil at different sampling intervals was present in forms non-extractable with methanol.

  9. Binding of 14C-furazolidone metabolites to the muscular and hepatic proteins of trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, F C; Meng, J

    1996-01-01

    A high level of 14C was found to bind irreversibly with the liver proteins of rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) exposed to 135 mg/kg bodyweight of 14C-labelled furazolidone (14C-FZ) in fish feed daily for 10 days. After the cessation of 14C-FZ treatment, hepatic protein-bound 14C in trout stayed high for at least 30 days. The chemical identity of protein-bound 14C remained to be elucidated. However, a part of the protein-bound 14C in the liver and muscle could be released as 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone by acid hydrolysis. The formation of protein-bound 14C in the liver was investigated further with trout dosed intravenously with different 14C-FZ doses at 10 degrees C or with 5 mg/kg FZ at different water temperatures. 14C binding to the liver proteins was found to increase with increasing FZ dose or water temperature. Results of these studies indicate that protein-bound 14C in the muscle and liver of trout is related to the formation of reactive intermediates from FZ. However, additional studies on the identities of the protein-bound FZ residues are required before they can serve as useful biomarkers to monitor FZ exposure in farm fish. PMID:9064245

  10. 32P-POSTLABELING DNA ADDUCT ASSAY: CIGARETTE SMOKE-INDUCED DNA ADDUCTS IN THE RESPIRATORY AND NONRESPIRATORY RAT TISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive 32P-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. hronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancem...

  11. A survey of the invertebrates feeding on living clover roots (Trifolium repens L.) using 32P as a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clover roots were labelled in the field with 32P and the radioactive soil fauna were detected by autoradiography. The animals which consumed labelled clover roots were, in order of importance, earthworms (Aporrectodea longa, A. caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus), weevil larvae, dipteran larvae (Bibio marci) and a few Collembola (family: Entomobryidae). (author)

  12. Assessment of contributors to radiation dose following intakes of rapidly excreted [14C]-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection default biokinetic model for the assessment of radiation dose received following intakes of unspecified [14C]-compounds (DCM) appears to overestimate the radiation doses delivered by many [14C]-compounds. The DCM does not specify the route of elimination and this review of the biokinetic data for four [14C]-compounds, [14C]sevelamer, [14C]colestipol, [14C]levetiracetam and [14C]ifetroban, that are rapidly lost from the human body via different excretory pathways, indicates that the excretory pathway is the critical determinant for both the individual tissue doses and the effective dose. If there is significant faecal excretion the DCM does not overestimate the effective dose. (author)

  13. Assessment of contributors to radiation dose following intakes of rapidly excreted [{sup 14}C]-compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, David M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3TB (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection default biokinetic model for the assessment of radiation dose received following intakes of unspecified [{sup 14}C]-compounds (DCM) appears to overestimate the radiation doses delivered by many [{sup 14}C]-compounds. The DCM does not specify the route of elimination and this review of the biokinetic data for four [{sup 14}C]-compounds, [{sup 14}C]sevelamer, [{sup 14}C]colestipol, [{sup 14}C]levetiracetam and [{sup 14}C]ifetroban, that are rapidly lost from the human body via different excretory pathways, indicates that the excretory pathway is the critical determinant for both the individual tissue doses and the effective dose. If there is significant faecal excretion the DCM does not overestimate the effective dose. (author)

  14. Metabolic breakdown of14 c-methomyl by soil fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal species: Alternaria brassicola, helminthosporium sp. and verticillium agaricinum were incubated with radiolabelled methomyl (S14C-methyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy] thioacetimidate ). After filtration, the amounts of radioactivity in tissues and filtrates were analyzed for metabolic products. Of the applied radioactivity, the 3 fungal species were capable of degrading 38.9%, 35.3% and 29.3% into hydrolytic metabolites, respectively. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of hydrolytic fractions showed that two metabolic products ( unknowns 1 and 11 ) having Rf values of 0.30 and 0.47 could be detected in addition to a polar compound which contained the major radioactivity. The chloroform fraction contained mainly the parent material.2 tab

  15. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  16. High precision {sup 14}C AMS at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, Filippo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)], E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it; De Cesare, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); D' Onofrio, Antonio; Lubritto, Carmine; Marzaioli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Passariello, Isabella [CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Rogalla, Detlef [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Sabbarese, Carlo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Borriello, Gianluca; Casa, Giovanni; Palmieri, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The CIRCE AMS system started operation in March 2005. The measurement of isotopic ratios {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C in samples of archaeological and environmental interest has rapidly attained high precision and accuracy levels in routine operation. The results of the intercomparison campaign in the framework of the VIRI program, as well as the outcome of a statistical analysis of the about 200 control measurements performed with standard samples, have shown the capability of the whole system for high precision measurements ({delta}R/R < 0.3%), allowing systematic investigations in both archaeological and environmental sciences. {sup 26}Al AMS has been implemented for the measurement of the astrophysically relevant {sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction cross section, while a beam line is under construction for the measurement of actinides isotopic ratios.

  17. Modification of the 14C triolein breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath analysis has become a more popular test over the last decade for a variety of disorders related to malabsorption. Conventional tests including the use of iodinated fats and fat tolerance tests for studying fat malabsorption have to date yielded disappointing results. The mainstay for detection of fat malabsorption remains the measurement of faecal fat excretion. However, this test is cumbersome, distasteful and open to error. To obviate these deficiencies and to provide a quicker, sensitive screening test for malabsorption, a number of breath tests have been developed using various labelled triglycerides. Amongst these, the 14C triolein breath test has shown the most promise. The authors have carried out this test and have now modified it so that it can be performed in 4 h rather than 6 to 8 h. The test can be used on an out-patient basis and the results are available on the same day. (Auth.)

  18. The degradation of [14C] parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of [14C] parathion from two Brazilian soils was studied by measuring the parathion which could be extracted by a mixture of hexane and propanol and the 14CO2 evolved. Recovery of unchanged parathion decreased faster in the soil richer in organic matter (soil 1) from which more radiocarbon was evolved as CO2 than from the soil poorerin organic matter (soil 2). Evolution of CO2 from soil 1 decreased rapidly when the soil dried out but little effect of moisture content was observed in soil 2. Radiocarbon remaining in the soils was assayed by combustion after 234 days and the total recovered in soil 1 was 95.6% and, in soil 2,78.7%, sufficient to give almost complete recovery from both soils. (Author)

  19. Synthesis of CH3CH2Br - 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of ethyl bromide labelled with 14C, starting from ethanol, has already been studied: 1- by TOLBERT, CHRISTENSON, NAI-HSUAN and SAH; 2- by SIXMA and HENDRIKS. After various blank tests of these two methods, we have finally obtained the best yields by treating the ethanol with a mixture of 40 per cent hydrobromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, in the apparatus normally used in the laboratory for the synthesis of CH3I slightly modified, so that the current of nitrogen carrying ethyl bromide and hydrobromic acid passes through a sintered glass disc before being bubbled through a solution of NaOH. We describe here the practical process used for the blank test which gave the best yield (91 per cent) and the active synthesis. (author)

  20. Fate of /14C/-labelled hydroxyethyl starch in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three preparations of hydroxyethyl starch having MS 0.55, 0.65 and 0.8 respectively and labelled with 14C in hydroxyethyl residue were administered to mice. After 1, 5, 10, 20 and 60 days the mice were sacrificed and radioactivities determined in the following organs and tissues: blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and muscles. Most of the initial dose of radioactivity was eliminated from mice within 24 h. The remaining portion was eliminated slowly and even after 60 days 0 07 - 1.2% of the initial dose could be detected in different organs. The rate of clearance of radioactivity was fastest for hydroxyethyl starch with MS equals 0.55 and slowest for the preparation with MS equals 0.8. The retention of radioactivity was most conspicuous in the muscles. (author)

  1. Decomposition of 14C - malathion in three Brazilian soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of 14C-malathion in soil was examined using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques. About half of the malathion added was degraded within a day in soil from three regions of Brazil. Almost all the radiolabelled material extracted from the Red Latosol (Londrina, PR) was malathion, but metabolites were extracted from the 'Sandy' cerrado soil (Planaltina, DF) and Dark-Red Latosol (Passo Fundo, RS). The proportion of metabolites in the extracts increased until most of the malathion was degraded, after four days. Radiocarbon dioxide was liberated from all three soils at similar rates. When about half of the label had been recovered as carbon dioxide after eight weeks, the rate of evolution diminished. (Author)

  2. Visualization of Functional Neuropeptide Y Receptors in the Mouse Hippocampus and Neocortex Using [35S]GTP?S Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElbrØnd-Bek, Heidi; GØtzsche, Casper René

    2015-01-01

    The peptide transmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in a plethora of actions in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus and neocortex (NeoCx). Previous studies using traditional receptor autoradiography show that NPY receptor binding is altered under various pathophysiological conditions. However, these do not provide information about downstream signal transduction. To this means, agonist-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding has in recent years been introduced as a method for measuring receptor activation of intracellular G-proteins. In the present study, this method was further optimized to visualize the distribution of individual NPY receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding in the mouse hippocampus and NeoCx using the endogenous ligand NPY in combination with optimized concentrations of selective antagonists for Y1, Y2, and Y5 NPY receptors. Consistent with previous studies, Y1 receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding was mainly found in the dentate gyrus and NeoCx while Y2 receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding predominated in the hippocampal CA3 and CA1. Only very low levels of Y5 receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding appeared to be present in the hippocampus and NeoCx. Furthermore, the effect of NPY receptor antagonists per se was also studied. Both BIIE0246 and L-152,804 significantly attenuated the basal [35S]GTP?S binding response, suggesting inverse agonism.

  3. Chemical effects of 31P(n,?)32P reaction in phosphate glass: A radiation chemical approach to hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium metaphosphate glass, with a polymerization degree of 50 - 100 was used as target material for the study of the chemical effects of (n, ?) reaction. Mean oxidation number of 32P was introduced as a new parameter to elucidate the oxidation reaction brought on the recoil product. The mean oxidation number of 32P from (n, ?) recoil in such glassy polyphosphate was about +4. More than 90% of the 32P set free was reattached as an end group in the newly formed radioactive polyphosphate. The recoiled monoatomic 32P species (less than 10% of the total 32P) defficient in oxygen kept a low mean oxidation number ca. +3. Ionizing radiation produced color center (with lambdasub(max) at 510 nm) which seemed partially to oxidize the 32P product. The effect was very weak, and could be suppressed by the hold scavengers. Thermal annealing showed that the mean oxidation number of 32P rapidly attained +5 (the valence of target) by 300 0C; however, it seems very difficult to raise the mean oxidation number of 32P to +5 by ?-ray annealing. The oxidation of 32P through thermal annealing is considered to be a diffusion process, with an activation energy of ca. 7x103 cal/mol. Possible reaction between the hot-zone and the radiation spurs is discussed. (auth.)

  4. Synthesis of 6-quinoxalin-2,3-14C2-amine and derivatives via ethanedial-1,2-14C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity ethanedial-1,2-14C2 has been prepared in 74% radiochemical yield by oxidation of paraldehyde-14F6 with selenious acid. The crude ethanedial-14C2 was directly condensed with 1,2,4-benzenetriamine dihydrochloride in aqueous sodium carbonate giving 6-quinoxalin-2,3-14C2-amine in 56% yield. The quinoxaline was brominated and then converted to its isothiocyanate by reaction with thiophosgene. The isothiocyanate was directly converted to 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)quinoxaline-2,3-14C2 by reaction with ethylenediamine in refluxing 1:1 methanol toluene. The overall radiochemical yield was 11% from paraldehyde-14C6. (author)

  5. Influence of a few composts on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh meadow soil and the immobilization of the 14C residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of four composts on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh soil and the distribution of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues after one year incubation were studied. Straw compost had an important positive effect on the degradation of the herbicide. After a negative influence during the 15 first days of incubation, composts of mushroombeds, grapes and oak-bark - hen-dung had little influence. The soils treated with these three last composts showed a more important complexation of 14C than the control-soil or the soil treated with straw-compost. Calculation of the quantity of free 14C substances in the soil after one year incubation gave for the four composts values comprised between 39 and 84% of that of the control

  6. Synthesis of 1-(2-ethoxyethyl)-2-(4-methyl-1-homopiperazinyl)-[2-14C]benzimidazole difumarate([14C]KB-2413)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-(2-Ethoxyethyl)-2-(4-methyl-1-homopiperazinyl)-[2-14C]-benzimidazole difumarate ([14C]KB-2413), a new antihistaminic agent, was prepared from labelled urea. The synthetic intermediate, 1-(2-ethoxyethyl)benzimidazol-one, obtained in good yield by the condensation of N-(2-ethoxy-ethyl)-o-phenylenediamine with [14C]urea, was chlorinated with phosphorus oxychloride and followed by the reaction with N-methylhomopiperazine to give the base of [14C]KB-2413. It was then converted to the difumarate, which was obtained in an overall radiochemical yield of 74 % starting from [14C]urea. The specific activity was 54.4 mCi/mmol and its radiochemical purity was 98.0 % in reverse isotope dilution analysis. (author)

  7. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled (14C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha-1, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their 14C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% oredistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  8. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia]. E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.br; vltorrnis@cena.usp.br; regitano@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled ({sup 14}C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha{sup -1}, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their {sup 14}C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  9. Bioevaluation study of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle brachytherapy in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Yang Min, E-mail: ymzfk@yahoo.com.hk [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Pan Donghui; Wang Lizhen [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Liu Lu; Huang Peilin [Nuclear Medicine Institute of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shao Guoqiang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University, Nanjing 210006 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapy effects of intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. Methods: 16 rabbits with tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. 4 rabbits served as untreated controls, and others received intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles with CT guidance. The total radioactivities in treated groups were as follows: a low activity was 93 MBq (n=4) (group 1), a medium activity was 185 MBq (n=4) (group 2) and a high activity was 370 MBq (n=4) (group 3). Brachytherapy treated VX2 tumors underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at 0 day, 3 day, 7 day and 14 day postinjection. In control group, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without any treatment. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images were performed at 14 days after intratumoral brachytherapy in treated groups. After Bremsstrahlung SPECT and last {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imagings, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological examination. Results: Bremsstrahlung SPECT images study indicated that there was no leakage of {sup 32}P out of the injection site at 14 days after treatment. Compared with the control, the tumor volumes in treated groups significantly decreased, and {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle produced a reduction in maximum or mean SUV of VX2 tumor (p<0.05). The percentage changes in maximum and mean SUV gradually decreased in group 1 and group 2 from day 3 to day 14 (p<0.05). A transient increase in {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation at group 3 occurred due to the inflammatory reaction elements. Activity dependence was seen in HE and PCNA staining after 14 days treatment among three treated groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggested that {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle localized on the injecting sites. This novel brachytherapy device efficiently suppressed the growth of the VX2 tumors implanted in the rabbit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA is a novel microparticle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA efficiently suppressed the VX2 tumor growth in the rabbit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This novel brachytherapy is safe and efficient.

  10. Estimation of radiation dosage and transmutation effect of 14C involved in measuring rate of albumin synthesis with 14C-carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For direct measurement of the rate of albumin synthesis, Na214CO3 was used intravenously. The assessment of the radiation hazard involved in the study was based on the knowledge of the minimum dose of Na214CO3 necessary for a sufficient incorporation of 14C in the guanidine-C of arginine in albumin to obtain measurable radioactivity. By measurement of expired 14CO2 and excreted 14C-urea in the urine during a 5-hr period following intravenous administration of Na214CO3 in five subjects, some quantitative data on 14C retention and radiation dosage were obtained. In comparison with animal studies, the rate of expiration of 14CO2 in man is slower. About 50 percent of the total radioactivity injected was lost through the respiratory route in the first hour. The total amount of expired 14C during the 5 hr of investigation was about 75 percent of the injected dose for the five subjects. The amount of 14C excreted as urinary 14C-urea during the 5 hr of investigation is very small in comparison with the expired 14C; it was only about 0.5 percent of the dose injected. The total absorbed radiation dose after complete elimination of 14C from the body was calculated with various assumptions. The extra risk of genetic damage due to disintegration of retaietic damage due to disintegration of retained 14C in comparison with that of natural 14C in the body during 30 living years is about 50 percent. (U.S.)

  11. Distribution of aged 14C-PCB and 14C-PAH residues in particle-size and humic fractions of an agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Burauel, Peter; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-09-01

    Organic matter is considered to be the single most importantfactor limiting availability and mobility of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in soil. This study aimed to characterize the distribution of 14C-PCB (congeners 28 and 52) and 14C-PAH (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) residues in an Orthic Luvisol soil obtained from two lysimeter studies initiated in 1990 at the Agrosphere Institute (Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany). The lysimeter soils contained a low-density OM fraction, isolated during soil washing, which contained a significant fraction (3-12%) of the total 14C-activity. Soils were also fractionated according to three particle sizes: >20, 20-2, and (20 microm) for the PCBs. Relative affinity values of 14C-activity for the different particle sizes varied in the order 20-2 microm > ( (>20 microm) for the PAHs. The distribution of 14C-PCB or 14C-PAH residues in the organic and inorganic matrixes of the particle-size fractions was determined using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). 14C-PCB and 14C-PAH-associated activities were primarily located in the humin fraction of the 20-2 and MIBK separation of the humic fractions, ranging between 8 and 52% for 14C-PCBs and 57-80% for 14C-PAHs. The mineral (inorganic) component of the soils apparently played a significant (previously unreported) role in the sequestration of both PCBs 28 and 52 and the PAHs fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:16190214

  12. Effects of nitrogen, metoxuron and methabenzthiazuron on growth and uptake of 35S by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution culture experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of four herbicides viz. nitrogen, terbutryne, metoxuron and methabenzthi zuron on the growth and sulphur uptake of wheat variety Kalyan Sona at Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. Wheat seedlings were exposed to complete nutrient solutions containing 35S (as H2SO4) and graded concentrations (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.5 and 5.0 ppm) of herbicides for 10 days. All the herbicide treatments decreased the dry weight of both root and shoot per plant. The reduction in dry matter production of wheat was minimum in case of nitrogen at all the dosages tried. With the increasing levels of herbicides, sulphur uptake of plant decreased but root to shoot transport of sulphur increased. (author)

  13. Sorption of carrier-free sulfate (35S) by diatomaceous earth pretreated with zirconium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By pretreating diatomaceous earth with zirconium ion solutions of pH 1.5-2.0, a good sorbent for carrier-free sulfate (35S) from weakly acid solutions is obtained. In contrast, there is practically no sulfate sorption by untreated diatomaceous earth. As the pH is increased, sulfate sorption by the pretreated sorbent is suppressed. An increase in the concentration of Cl- or NO3- ions also reduces sorption. Analysis of the influence of the concentration of these ions on sulfate sorption shows that a 1:1 exchange process takes place, i.e. when one sulfate ion is sorbed it replaces one chloride (or nitrate) ion at a sorption site on the surface. The affinity of the Zr pretreated sorbent for sulfate is much greater than that for chloride or nitrate; an estimate of the mass action exchange constants sulfate-chloride and sulfate-nitrate leads to values between 103 and 104. (author)

  14. Metabolism of U14C palmitic and 1-14C caproic acids by lettuce seeds during early germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germinating lettuce embryos (before radicule emergence) were fed with either U14C palmitic acid or 114C caproic acid until a metabolic steady state was reached. The bulk of labelled caproate was evolved as respiratory CO2 (52%) and incorporated into organic and amino acids (38%) and only a small part incorporated into lipids whereas most of labelled palmitic acid was found into lipids (92%) and only 8% evolved as CO2 and incorporated into organic and amino acids. The label distribution at steady state in intermediates linked to the T.C.A. cycle was interpreted using a metabolic model. They found that the two fatty acids were degraded by ?-oxidation and incorporated into the T.C.A. cycle as acetylCoA suggesting that ?-oxidation is located in the mitochondria. The results also indicate that lipids contribute for at least 90% to the carbon supply to respiration

  15. Distribution of radioactivity of intraperitoneally administered 14C-leucine and 14C-alanine in tissues of suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labelled leucine and alanine were administered intraperitoneally to suckling male lambs aged 30 days. The distribution of radioactivity was investigated in the liver, heart, quadriceps femoris muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, skin and expired air. Most of the radioactivity (per 1 g of dry tissue) was found in proteins of the liver, followed by proteins of the heart, skin, muscle and adipose tissue. The radioactivity found in lipids and in glycogen was much lower, with the exception of the high radioactivity of leucine-derived lipids of the adipose tissue. The incorporation of alanine into proteins was lower than that of leucine. On the other hand, more alanine was oxidized to CO2 than leucine. (author) 1 tab., 1 fig., 15 refs

  16. Synthesis of 32P labelled phosphate sources with different solubility and their efficient s as fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENA/USP), Brazil. With the objective to determine, by the isotopic tracer, the P recovery by rice (Oriza sativa) plants and eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis) seedlings from the P sources with different solubilities, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse, using Quartzpsamment soil samples, which is very poor in P content. Monocalcium, bicalcium, and tricalcium phosphate, Ca(H2 32 PO4).H2O, CaH 32 PO4.2H2O and Ca3(32 PO4)2, respectively were obtained in laboratory. Their solubilities and the X-ray difratometry and differential thermal analysis comproved that the laboratory procedures were adequate for obtaining the desired compounds. These products were applied in the soil as fertilizers. Plants were harvested 60 days after growth period, digested and analysed for total P and 32 P counting through Cerenkov effect. The P recovery from the sources varied from 14.1% [Ca(H2 32 PO4).H2O] to 17.0% [CaH 32 PO4.2H2O] for eucalypt, and from 15.0% [Ca3(32 PO4)2] to 22.2% [CaH 32 PO4.2H2O] for rice. The rice plants showed better ability to absorb P from the laboratory prepared sources, but the eucalypt presented higher P nutritional efficiency index. The difference method, used for determining the P recovery, underestimated the eucalypt and rice plant ability to absorb this nutrient compared to the isotopic method

  17. Isotopic (13C and 14C) characterization of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon River plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of terrestrially derived riverine organic matter following its input to the ocean is not well-understood. In an attempt to better evaluate the factors controlling the fate of river-borne organic matter in the oceans, the Amazon River plume was tracked and sampled for DOC, humic and fulvic materials, and carbon isotopic (13C and 14C) natural abundances during the period of maximum plume retroflection into the N. Atlantic Ocean. Both DOC concentrations and ?14C values displayed linear behavior as a function of salinity throughout the plume. Good correlations existed between DOC concentration and ?14C and between ?13C and ?14C of DOC indicating that bulk riverine DOC appears to be controlled primarily by dilution with seawater. A component of the DOC, fulvic acids (FA), contained significant amounts of bomb 14C in low-salinity regions of the plume, suggesting that another riverine component must be highly depleted in 14C relative to the bulk DOC. While FA concentrations also behaved conservatively, FA had greater ?14C values at low salinities and lower ?14C values at seawater salinities relative to the ?14C values of bulk DOC, indicating that a 14C-distinct fraction of the FA mixes and is removed from the plume on different time scales than the bulk DOC

  18. Measurement of 14C Activity in Exhaust Air at the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a light water nuclear reactor, 14C is produced by neutron activation according to the reactions 17O(n,?)14C with oxygen in oxides of fuel, moderator and coolant, and 14N(n,p)14C with nitrogen as impurities in fuel, moderator and coolant. For the pressurized water reactor (PWR), the estimated 14C production rates are 0.57, 0.97 and 0.19 TBq GWe-1a-1 in the fuel, construction material, and coolant, respectively. More than 95 % of the 14C produced is released in a gaseous form through the stack of a nuclear power plant, mainly in CO2 form, though the CO2/hydrocarbons ratio may substantially differ for PWR reactors. The Krsko Nuclear Power plant (NPP) is a PWR Westinghouse 727 MWe reactor, situated on the left bank of the Sava River, close to the border between Slovenia and Croatia. Its operation started in 1983. 14C analyses in exhaust air were included in the regular radioactivity survey program in 1991. As our customer and the legislation for nuclear safety and radiation protection request accredited measurements for 14C in year 2007, we validated the method for determination of 14C in alkaline solution. In year 2009, the method ''Determination of 14C in basic solution'' is accredited with Accreditation Certificate no. LP-090, granted by the Slovenska Akreditacija. The validated method is appropriate to determine 14C activity in stack effluent gases at Krsko NPP. Monthly 14C activity in exhaust air of the Krsko NPP from year 2007 till 2010 has shown that during the refuelling in October 2007, April 2009 and October 2010 the 14C activity was between 6.0E+10 and 8.0E+10 Bq.Otherwise, it was much lower. When the refuelling at NPP was present, the yearly activity of 14C was approximately one order of magnitude higher than during the year without refuelling. (author)

  19. gamma-Aminobutyric acid- and benzodiazepine-induced modulation of [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding to cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) is a bicyclophosphate derivative with potent picrotoxin-like convulsant activity that binds with high affinity and specificity to a Cl- channel-modulatory site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor complex. Using intact cerebellar granule cells maintained in primary culture, the authors have studied the modifications induced by GABA and diazepam on the ion channel-modulatory binding site labeled by [35S]TBPS. At 25 degrees C, and in a modified Locke solution, the [35S]TBPS specific binding, determined by displacing the radioligand with an excess (10(-4) M) of picrotoxin, was approximately 70% of the total radioactivity bound to the cells. [35S]TBPS specific binding was saturable with a Kd of approximately 100 nM, a Bmax of approximately 440 fmol/mg of protein, and a Hill coefficient of 1.18. Neither cerebellar astrocytes maintained in culture for 2 weeks nor a neuroblastoma cell line (NB-2A) exhibited any specific [35S]TBPS binding. Muscimol (0.3 to 5 microM) enhanced and bicuculline (0.1 to 5 microM) inhibited [35S]TBPS specific binding to intact cerebellar granule cells. The effect of muscimol and bicuculline on [35S]TBPS binding was noncompetitive. Muscimol (0.1 to 5 microM) reversed bicuculline inhibition in a dose-dependent fashion but failed to reverse picrotoxin-induced inhibition. [35S]TBPS binding was also modulated by beup>S]TBPS binding was also modulated by benzodiazepine receptor ligands. The binding was increased by diazepam and decreased by 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid methylester. Muscimol (0.05 microM) failed to reverse bicuculline inhibition in the absence of diazepam, but it became effective in the presence of 0.1 to 1 microM diazepam

  20. Reviewing the Mid-First Millennium BC {sup 14}C 'warp' using {sup 14}C/bristlecone pine data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.E., E-mail: retaylor@ucr.edu [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States); Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Southon, John [Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    AMS-based {sup 14}C measurements have been obtained on 53 dendrochronologically-dated Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) wood samples in decadal increments spanning 2300-2750 cal BP with particular interest focused on the decades centered on 2405 cal BP and 2625 cal BP. In general, there is overall agreement with the current IntCal04/09 consensus calibration curve for this period. For the 2400-2410 cal BP interval, our Bristlecone-based {sup 14}C value is consistent with the {sup 14}C value obtained by Belfast on Irish oak for that decade but not on German oak values obtained by Seattle. Our {sup 14}C value for the 2620-2630 cal BP interval is consistent with the German oak (Heidelberg)-based {sup 14}C decadal value. The {sup 10}Be-based reconstruction of {sup 14}C variations over the 2620-2630 cal BP interval also supports the Heidelberg data although clearly additional clarifications are required before the current tree ring-based {sup 14}C and ice core-based {sup 10}Be data for this interval can be accurately interpreted and valid inferences obtained.

  1. Metabolism of 14C-L-arginine and 14C-L-proline in excised burst buds and stem sections of citrus trees (Citrus unshiu Marc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine and proline, which are the major forms of soluble reserve N, were fed singly in uniformly labelled 14C-form to excised 2-year-old stem sections with a new shoot, to wood sections, and to burst buds from a 21-year-old satsuma mandarin tree. Metabolism was studied by radioassay and autoradiography. In stem sections with a new shoot, both 14C-compounds were metabolized to acidic and neutral components, insoluble components, and 14CO2. This conversion occurred to a greater extent in sections fed with arginine than with proline. When 14C-arginine was fed, the highest 14C-activity in the cationic fraction of stem sections, bark, wood and new shoots was found in ?-guanidinobutyric acid, followed by ?-aminobutyric acid and proline; low levels of 14C was also found in ornithine and trace amounts in citrulline. These findings demonstrate that arginine is metabolized by at least two routes: via ornithine and via ?-guanidinobutyric acid. In every organ, the major metabolic products of 14C-proline were pyrrolidone-5-carboxlic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, asparagine, an unidentified compound (U5 in Fig. 4), ?-aminobutyric acid and arginine. The basic metabolic pathways in the conversion of Both 14C-compounds were the same in burst buds, new shoot, bark and wood, although there was a slight difference autoradiographically. (author)ally. (author)

  2. Effect of level of dietary protein on the distribution of 14C-activity from exogenous 14C-inosine in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary protein level on the metabolic fate of intraperitoneally administered (exogeneous) 8-14C-inosine in chicks was studied. Three different protein level diets (low, standard and high) were prepared. Chicks were fed on these diets for 10 days, respectively and the following results were found: (1) RNA content of liver, small intestine and muscle in chicks fed on a low protein diet was decreased as compared to other diet groups, but no difference was observed in kidney or pancreas. (2) 14C uptake by organs from exogeneous 8-14C-inosine was determined. The uptake of 14C in kidney, pancreas and small intestine was higher than that in liver and muscle. Moreover, the uptake by tissues in the low protein groups was significantly higher than that in either the standard or high protein groups, but no difference was observed between these latter two groups. (3) The rate of incorporation of 14C labelled purine by acid soluble materials and RNA was higher in kidney, pancreas and small intestine than in liver and muscle, and also higher in chicks fed on a low protein diet than in either the standard or high protein groups. (4) It was revealed that the 14C-labelled purine rings from 8-14C-inosine were incorporated into AMP and GMP as constituents of RNA. (author)

  3. Impact of carbon nanomaterials on the behaviour of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-benzo-[a] pyrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of fullerene soot (FS), single-walled (SWCNTs) and multi-walled (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes on the behaviour of two 14C-PAHs in sterile soil was investigated. Different concentrations of carbon nanomaterials (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%) were added to soil, and 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-benzo[a]pyrene extractability assessed over 80 d through dichloromethane (DCM) and hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPCD) shake extractions. Total 14C-PAH activity in soils was determined by combustion, and mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene was monitored over 14 d, using a catabolically active pseudomonad inoculum. No significant loss of 14C-PAH-associated activity from CNM-amended soils was observed over the 'aging' period. CNMs had a significant impact on HPCD-extractability of 14C-PAHS; extractability decreased with increasing CNM concentration. Additionally, 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation was inhibited by the presence of CNMs at concentrations of ?0.05%. Differences in overall extents of 14C-mineralisation were also apparent between CNM types. It is suggested the addition of CNMs to soil can reduce PAH extractability and bioaccessibility, with PAH sorption to CNMs influenced by CNM type and concentration. - Research highlights: ? Carbon nanoparticles reduce the extractability of PAHs in soil. ? Carbon nanoparticles reduce the bioaccessibility of PAHs in soil. ? Nanoparticle of PAHs in soil. ? Nanoparticle type is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil. ? Nanoparticle concentration is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil - Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) can alter the extractability, bioaccessibility and microbial mineralisation of PAHs in soil.

  4. {8-14C}-Adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate - precursors for root-produced cytokinins in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the detection of reasonable levels of biologically active cytokinin-like compounds in one-month-old tomato plants, the possible involvement of {8-14C}-adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives, was studied. Intact tomato plants were used for a time-course study involving the uptake of {8-14C}-adenine and the tentative identification of compounds into which the 14C became incorporated. Using high performance liquid chromatography, radioactive trans-zeatin was identified as being present in the Dowex 50 root extract. The 12-hour time interval was used and the roots of the tomato plants were immersed in a more heavily radiolabelled medium. Modified separation techniques were used to achieve enhanced radioactivity recovery rates. This experiment demonstrated the presence of relatively high levels of tentatively identified radioactive zeatin in the Dowex 50 root and stem extracts. Radioactivity in the aqueous extracts was found not to be contributed by cytokinin nucleotides. A final experiment was carried out using decapitated root systems to determine if the root tissue alone could be implicated in the synthesis of cytokinins. Decapitated tomato root systems were supplied with either {8-14C}-adenine or {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The ratio of incorporation of {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate inup>14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate into identified cytokinins was higher than for {8-14C}-adenine. It was concluded that both adenine and isopentenyl pyrophosphate are involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives in tomato roots

  5. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  6. Reassessment of 14CO2 compartmentation and of [14C]formate oxidation in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous report had concluded that a fraction of [14C]formate oxidation in liver occurs in the mitochondrion. This conclusion was based on the labeling patterns of urea and acetoacetate labeled via 14CO2 generated from [14C]formate and other [14C]substrates. We reassessed our interpretation in experiments conducted in (i) perifused mitochondria and (ii) isolated livers perfused with buffer containing [14C]formate, [14C]gluconolactone, 14CO2, or NaH13CO3, in the absence and presence of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. Our data show that the cytosolic pools of bicarbonate and CO2 are not in isotopic equilibrium when 14CO2 is generated in the cytosol or is supplied as NaH14CO3. We retract our earlier suggestion of a mitochondrial site of [14C]formate oxidation

  7. Alternatives to reduce 14C emissions in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of the public and of experts has increasingly focused on the formation of 14C in nuclear reactors and its release from reactors and reprocessing plants. The paper attempts an experimental check of the validity of theoretical estimations concerning 14C production rates. In particular, the applicability of the 14C analysis in irradiated LWR pellets is checked and transferred to HTR fuel concepts. Statements on the 14C content in matrix graphite, coating, and fuel make it possible to determine those process steps in which 14C release is highest. Possibilities to reduce 14C emissions by improved fuel element production technologies and by mechanical separation of graphite before combustion are theoretically estimated. (orig./GL)

  8. 14C-labeled diesel exhaust particles: chemical characteristics and bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the deposition, retention and biological fate of the organic compounds associated with diesel exhaust particles. In the studies reported here, a one-cylinder diesel engine was operated on diesel fuel spiked with 14C-benzene, 14C-hexadecane or 14C-dotriacontane to generate 14C-labeled diesel exhaust. Approximately 1% of the exhaust radioactivity was associated with the particulate phase of diesel exhaust. Chemical fractionation of the particle extract showed the 14C to be present in each of the various chemical class fractions collected. Serum removed approx. 60% of the dichloromethane extractable radioactivity from these diesel particles while saline removed only approx. 6%. This suggested that the organic compounds may be removed from diesel particles in vivo. Future inhalation exposures of rodents to 14C-labeled diesel exhausts are planned to gain additional information on the health risk of human exposure to diesel exhaust

  9. Low-level occupational 14C contamination - results from a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a pilot study in which specific activities of 14C in hair and urine from 11 radiation workers handling 14C-containing substances have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Varying degrees of contamination were revealed: up to 63% excess in hair and 400% excess in urine. Although the 14C excess reported in this study would result in low effective doses, it would be of interest to monitor the situation at other workplaces with potentially higher risks of contamination. Simultaneous measurements of 14C in hair and urine with additional random measurements of 14C in faeces and exhaled air could provide a means of improving dose estimates for workers handling different types of 14C-containing substances. (authors)

  10. Distribution and transportation of 14C-assimilate labelled at preliminary heading stage in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on distribution and transportation of 14C-assimilates labelled at preliminary heading stage in two winter wheat cultivars was carried out. The results showed that there were significant differences in distribution and transportation of 14C-assimilates between two cultivars. For cultivar Xinong 1376, before blossom the distribution percentages of 14C-assimilates were higher in spike and stem and after blossom the 14C-assimilate exporting duration was longer and the amount was larger from stem, therefore it had a higher distribution percentage of 14C-assimilate in grain and a better filling characteristic. It was indicated that the distribution percentage and transportation abilities of 14C-assimilate were higher in top organs than in bottom organs. This difference between top and bottom was more obvious with Xinong 1376

  11. Carbonate as sputter target material for rapid 14C AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Brett E.; Robinson, Laura F.; Roberts, Mark L.; Beaupre, Steven R.; Burke, Andrea; Jenkins, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for measuring the 14C content of carbonate samples by producing C- ions directly in the negative ion sputter source of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) system. This direct analysis of carbonate material eliminates the time and expense of graphite preparation. Powdered carbonate is mixed with titanium powder, loaded into a target cartridge, and compressed. Beam currents for optimally-sized carbonate targets (0.09-0.15 mg C) are typically 10-20% of those produced by optimally-sized graphite targets (0.5-1 mg C). Modern (>0.8 Fm) samples run by this method have standard deviations of 0.009 Fm or less, and near-modern samples run as unknowns agree with values from traditional hydrolysis/graphite to better than 2%. Targets with as little as 0.06 mg carbonate produce useable ion currents and results, albeit with increased error and larger blank. In its current state, direct sputtering is best applied to problems where a large number of analyses with lower precision are required. These applications could include age surveys of deep-sea corals for determination of historic population dynamics, to identify samples that would benefit from high precision analysis, and for growth rate studies of organisms forming carbonate skeletons.

  12. Carbonate as sputter target material for rapid 14C AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a technique for measuring the 14C content of carbonate samples by producing C? ions directly in the negative ion sputter source of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) system. This direct analysis of carbonate material eliminates the time and expense of graphite preparation. Powdered carbonate is mixed with titanium powder, loaded into a target cartridge, and compressed. Beam currents for optimally-sized carbonate targets (0.09–0.15 mg C) are typically 10–20% of those produced by optimally-sized graphite targets (0.5–1 mg C). Modern (>0.8 Fm) samples run by this method have standard deviations of 0.009 Fm or less, and near-modern samples run as unknowns agree with values from traditional hydrolysis/graphite to better than 2%. Targets with as little as 0.06 mg carbonate produce useable ion currents and results, albeit with increased error and larger blank. In its current state, direct sputtering is best applied to problems where a large number of analyses with lower precision are required. These applications could include age surveys of deep-sea corals for determination of historic population dynamics, to identify samples that would benefit from high precision analysis, and for growth rate studies of organisms forming carbonate skeletons.

  13. Fate of 14C-Labelled Triazine Herbicides in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistance of certain plant species to triazines is referred to their ability to metabolize the herbicide. In the case of the chloro-triazines the conversion to the 2-hydroxy analogue, a non-phytotoxic product, has been described in the literature already. Studies which have been devoted to the metabolic breakdown of methylmercaptotriazines revealed a conversion to the 2-hydroxy compound to a smaller extent and in a way different from that established with the chloro-triazines. The in vitro oxidation of prometryne (2-methylmercapto-4, 6-bisisopropylamino-striazine) yields the sulphoxy and sulphono analogues which easily hydrolyse to 2-hydroxypropazine. The occurrence of these compounds in peas injected with 14C-prometryne could be established. Some recent findings concerning the occurrence of further metabolites with an intact triazine ring suggest that dealkylation or deamination of the side chains in the 4- and 6-position have to be considered too. Methods used in studying the metabolism of triazines and for the determination of 14CO2 released from treated plants are discussed. (author)

  14. Fate of 14C-carbofuran in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon labeled carbofuran was administered orally to lactating goats at 0.03 mg/kg (single dose), 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and at 5.0 ppm in the diet (2 kg feed intake/day basis) for 15 days. Radioactive residues were rapidly excreted in the urine after treatment. The major residue identified in urine of the treated goats was carbofuran phenol, a non-toxic metabolite. Only about 1% of the doses was eliminated in the feces of the treated goats. Residues of (14C)carbofuran were secreted into milk, but these residues were in all cases very low. Radioactive residue occurred in tissues at low levels, with patterns as follows: omental fat>liver>subcutaneous fat>kidney>brain>heart>biceps femoris>longissimus dorsi. The residue stored in fat was identified as carbofuran. The liver contained hydroxy carbofuran and one unidentified metabolite but no carbofuran. The other tissues contained only phenolic metabolites. These studies strongly indicate that proper carbofuran use in rice in the Philippines will present no risks to goats that consume treated crop residues, or to humans who consume meat or milk from exposed animals. (author)

  15. Transformation of Lesquerella Fendleri with the New Binary Vector pGPro4-35S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Q. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Crop genetic engineering requires the use of various promoters to control the expression of introduced transgenes. Some of the binary vectors currently available for promoter characterization in dicotyledonous plants have pitfalls due to their construction, such as containing a selectable marker cassette with enhancer sequences that can potentially interfere with the expression specificity of nearby promoters. Also, many binary vectors are quite large in size and contain few useful restriction sites making their in vitro manipulation technically challenging. Approach: A small (7698 bp and flexible binary vector named pGPro4 was constructed to possess unique features favorable for promoter analysis in dicot plants. A nopaline synthase (nos promoter was used to control the expression of the selectable marker of pGPro4 to prevent the problem of interference with the neighboring promoter-reporter fusion. In pGPro4, the nos promoter and hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII sequences are flanked by loxP sites, which allow for Cre recombinase-mediated removal when hygromycin resistance is no longer desired. pGPro4 also contains a bifunctional ?-glucuronidase-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (gusA-eGFP reporter gene that provides visual detection of reporter gene expression using either fluorescence in live cells or histochemical detection of ?-glucuronidase activity. Results and Conclusion: To demonstrate the usefulness of the pGPro4 vector, a CaMV35S promoter was fused to gusA-eGFP and the resulting plasmid, pGPro4-35S, was used to transform Lesquerella fendleri. Primary shoots were generated from explants at an expected frequency of 10-27.5%, indicating that the nos promoter drove sufficient hptII expression to generate hygromycin resistant plants. Six independent transgenic L. fendleri lines were grown to maturity and generated T1 seeds. The bifunctionality of the gusA-eGFP reporter gene was verified by detecting both green fluorescence and ?-glucuronidase activity in multiple T1 L. fendleri seedlings from 5 of the 6 the independent transgenic lines.

  16. Variation between sheep in renal excretion of [14C]allantoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasitkusol, P; Ørskov, E R; Chen, X B; Hovell, F D DeB; Kyle, D J

    2002-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the recovery of [14C]allantoin in urine of sheep dosed intravenously and degradation of allantoin by rumen micro-organisms. The recovery of [14C]allantoin in the urine of eight sheep was measured during three periods in two experiments. Individual values of [14C]allantoin recovery varied from 66 to 95 % (mean value 83 (se 1.6) %). The recovery of [14C]allantoin showed no relation to the level of feed intake. There was some evidence that glomerular filtration rate was an important factor affecting the amount of urinary allantoin recovered in one experiment. Incomplete recovery of plasma [14C]allantoin in the urine indicated losses of plasma [14C]allantoin via non-renal routes. This is supported by the disappearance of 14C from rumen contents incubated in vitro with [14C]allantoin for 48 h (88 %) and the presence of 14C in saliva in vivo from sheep sampled after dosing with [14C]allantoin. However, the amount of 14C activity in the saliva was very low (equivalent to only 1.5 % of the total dose in sheep producing saliva at a rate of 15 litres/d). The proportion of renal and non-renal excretion of purine derivatives was found to be unpredictable both between and within individual animals. The factors responsible for this variability need to be identified, and existing models of excretion of purine derivatives may need to be modified accordingly to improve their accuracy of prediction. A single intravenous injection of [4,5-14C]allantoin provides a simple alternative to infusion methods used to measure the proportion of plasma allantoin excreted in the urine of sheep. Using this method it may be feasible to validate PD excretion models in other ruminant livestock. PMID:12067426

  17. Bound residues of 14C-chlorfenvinphos in winter rape and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding properties of chlorfenvinphos were studied by application of 14C-chlorfenvinphos to the leaves and stems of winter rape and two loamy sand soils of different organic matter content. After application of vinyl-14C-chlorfenvinphos to the plants at a dosage of 0.3 mg/plant, no bound radioactivity was detected either in the flowers and siliques or in the roots. In the leaves and/or stems, the bound 14C-residues, expressed as chlorfenvinphos, ranged from 0.02 ?g/g one hour after the treatment to 0.18 ?g/g at harvest. Repeated treatment applied to the plants 9 days after the first application caused no increase of the bound residue concentration. Various treatments of stem-bound 14C with alkali and acid led to release of some radioactivity. When vinyl-14C-chlorfenvinphos was applied to the soils, the bound 14C-residues increased and the extractable 14C-residues decreased with time, particularly in the soil of higher organic matter content. After 114 days, the bound 14C-residues, expressed as percentage of the applied 14C, amounted to 13.7% in the soil of higher and 11.2% in the soil of lower organic matter content. When soil was treated with ring-14C-chlorfenvinphos, the bound and extractable 14C-residues were somewhat higher than those determined for vinyl label. Experiments suggested that binding was related to the activity of soil microor related to the activity of soil microorganisms since soil sterilization resulted in a reduction of bound 14C-residues by 80% (vinyl label) and 79% (ring label). (author)

  18. Dissipation and leaching of 14C-monocrotophos in soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissipation and leaching of 14C-monocrotophos was studied in the field. Two sets of PVC cylinders were used - one set received only 14C monocrotophos and the other received 14C-monocrotophos along with dimethoate, deltamethrin, endosulfan, cypermethrin and 1.06 mg unlabelled monocrotophos. Both setups showed a similar pattern of dissipation with a half-life of 277.2 days. Leaching of monocrotophos was observed into the 30cm soil layer. (author)

  19. Synthesis of sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-[2-14C]-azulene-1-sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropylazulene-1-sulfonate which has been found to be a potent and chemically stable agent having anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerous activity, was synthesized in 14C-labelled form by using potassium [14C]-cyanide. 14C-Labelled with a specific activity of 9.02 mCi/mmol was prepared in eight steps in 21.9% overall chemical yield from 3-(t-butyldiphenylsilyloxy)propyl tosylate. (author)

  20. Synthesis of [14C2] SDZ FOX 988, a hypoglycemic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4-[2,2-Dimethyl-1-oxopropyl-1-[14C]-4-[2,2-dimthyl-1-oxoprop yl-1-[14C]-phenyl(methoxyimino)-benzoic acid , methyl ester, [14C2] SDZ FOX 988, doubly labelled in the two keto carbons, was prepared from 4-bromotoluene in four steps. The final condensation featured a novel method for preparation of N-oxyimidic acid derivatives. (Author)

  1. Effect of high temperature stress on photosynthesis and partitioning of 14C in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of high temperature stress on 14Co2 assimilation and partitioning of 14C by photosynthetically active parts of Indian mustard is investigated. It is observed that heat stressed plants have low rates of 14Co2 assimilation which leads to low rates of 14C export from source organs. Heat stress is also found to inhibit translocation of 14C-assimilates into sink organs. (M.G.B.). 21 refs., 4 figs

  2. Use of 14C-AMS in the study of biological production in coastal upwelling areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the use of the 14C-AMS technique to study the influence of upwelling waters to the local biological production, at Arraial do Cabo, Brazil. Results on ?14C from seaweed tissues incubated into three different types of water mass show the association of primary production with the upwelling waters. We also discuss the importance of high- precision 14C-AMS measurements for this kind of study, and the properly application of isotopic fractionation corrections on radiocarbon results. (author)

  3. Chemical and biological evolution of (U-14C)phenol sorbed on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods describing the chemical and biological evolution of (U-14C)phenol adsorbed on activated carbon are given with or without the use of bacteria. Without bacteria, the (U-14C)phenol initially adsorbed is not removed from the carbon after adding a solution of unlabelled phenol through the column for eight days. With bacteria, the (U-14C)phenol initially present, is removed (60-70%) from activated carbon with a solution containing unlabelled phenol, nitrogen and phosphorus. (author)

  4. Oocyte depopulation pattern in adult indian desert gerbil exposed to internally deposited 32P, 60Co and 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present communication reports the quantitative changes in the oocyte population of adult Indian desert gerbil (Meriones hurrianae) exposed to internally deposited 32P, 60Co and 45Ca. The nuclides were administered intraperitonially at the dose levels, in each case, of 5.55 kBq, 11.1 kBq, 18.5 kBq, 37 kBq and 74 kBq per gram body weight and the animals were sacrificed at the intervals of 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. The depletion of oocyte population was dependent, in case of each nuclide, upon the dose administered as well as the time lapsed after the treatment. 32P and 60Co were more effective in damaging the oocytes than was 45Ca. However, histological sterility was not produced by any of these nuclides. (author)

  5. Detection of human cytomegalovirus by slot-blot hybridization assay employing oligo-primed 32P-labelled probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P-labelled Hind III-0 DNA fragment (nine Kilobases; Kb) from human cytomegalovirus AD-169 (HCMV) was used in slot-blot hybridization assay for the detection of HCMV in clinical samples. The results obtained with DNA hybridization assay (DNA HA) were compared with virus isolation using conventional tube cell culture (CTC) and centrifugation vial culture (CVC), immunofluorescence (IF), and complement fixation test (CFT). Of 15 CTC-positive samples, 13 were positive with DNA HA (sensitivity 86.7%). Also, 14 additional samples were DNA HA-positive but CTC-negative. CVC and/or IF confirmed the diagnosis in nine of 14; the remaining five samples were from three patients who showed fourfold rising antibody titre by CFT. Although DNA HA using 32P-labelled probes is relatively cumbersome and expensive, it is a valuable test for quantitation of viral shedding in patients with HCMV infections who may benefit from antiviral therapy

  6. The influence of calcium and phosphorus levels on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32P retention of layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to study the influence of three levels of calcium and three levels of dietary phosphorus on egg production, egg quality, tibia weight and 32P retention of layers. Calcium levels of 3.0; 3.5 and 4.0 percent were used and phosphorus contest of the diet fed were either 0.6; 0.9 or 1.2 percent.Egg production was highest with rations containing 3.5% calcium and 0.9% phosphorus. A significant increase in egg production was found at 0.9% levels of phosphorus compared to levels of 0.6 and 1.2%. Egg quality was increased significantly (p32P retention was low at the highest calcium level. (author)

  7. The relationship between growth and development of above ground organs with roots of winter wheat using 32P tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of growth and development between above ground organs and roots of winter wheat, Lumai-14, was studied using 32P tracer. The results showed that before the spike formation, dry matter accumulation in roots, stems and leaves were synchronous, and after that they were asynchronous. The dry matter accumulation in stems and leaves were significantly related to that of roots throughout the whole growing period of winter wheat. After the spike formation, the dry matter accumulation in spikes was not related to that of roots. The 32P distribution in stems and leaves were related to that of roots significantly, however, the relationship between spikes and roots was not obviously related, which was consistent with the dry matter accumulations in various organs. The metabolic activities of stems, leaves and spike were significantly related to that of roots respectively

  8. Possible preparation of L-[U-14C]amino acids by enzyme splitting of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein fraction of cyanobacterium Synechoccoccus elongatus non-specifically labelled with 14C was subject to enzyme hydrolysis with a proteolytic enzyme. The source of the used enzymes and radioactivity of the respective supernatants are tabulated. Enzyme splitting took place at a temperature of 37 degC and pH maintained at 7.8. The best results were obtained with the use of an enzyme isolated from Streptomyces griceus. Using the procedure it is possible to prepare L-[U-14C] asparagine, L-[U-14C]glutamine and L-[U-14C]serine. (E.S.). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  9. The synthesis of [U-14C phenyl] LS 840606, an agricultural fungicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2,2',4'-Trichloro-[ring U-14C]acetophenone was the key intermediate of this synthesis patterned after the industrial route. An unexpected poor yield was observed during the preparation by the Friedel-Crafts reaction of chloroacetyl chloride with 1,3-dichloro-[U-14C]benzene, possibly the result of an isotope effect although this poor yield might be explained by other factors. Two routes were checked for the preparation of 1,3-dichloro-[U-14 C]benzene. The action of CCl4 with 1,3-dinitro-[U-14 C]benzene at 280oC was entailed with explosions. A safer route started from [U-14C]aniline via 2,4-dichloro-[ring U-14C]acetanilide. Friedel-Crafts reaction with acetyl chloride gave rise in 52% yield to 2',4'-dichloro-[ring U-14C]acetophenone which was brominated to 2-bromo-2',4'-dichloro-[ring U-14C]acetophenone; was condensed with 2,2-ethylenedioxy)etylmagnesium bromide to compound, was condensed with 1,2,4-triazole then successively treated with HCl:water:dioxane and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/HCl. Separation of the two diastereomers by medium pressure liquid chromatography. 7% overall radioactivity yield from [U-14C]aniline. Radiochemical purity 99%. (author)

  10. The clinical value of 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) with a simplified protocol for detecting the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). 244 fasting patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms undergo the 14C-UBT and 124 cases appear positive. 89 patients of those undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and confirmed as HP infection. The sensitivity and specificity of the 14C-UBT is 100% when compared with the endoscopy. The test has good diagnostic accuracy with minimal radiation exposure and low cost. Thus, the test is reliable, safe, convenient and cost-effective to clinical use

  11. Synthesis of 14C labeled C60 with higher specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the production of C60[14C] with the highest specific radioactivity to date by improving of previously reported method. To avoid the loss of 14C, the porous carbon after adsorbing 14C labeled furan resin was sintered by 'Baking' method instead of heating at 1,000 deg C in the electric furnace. As a result of this improvement, the specific radioactivity of the produced C60[14C] was found to be 0.958 MBq/mg (18.7 mCi/mmol). This is the highest specific radioactivity among those reported to date. (author)

  12. Systemic distribution of 14C-labeled formaldehyde applied in the root canal following pulpectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic distribution of 14C-labeled formaldehyde which had been placed in the root canals of the canines of cats following pulpectomies was studied using liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiographic technique. Radioactive 14C which had been placed in the canals was found in the plasma 30 min after the root canal procedure. The recovery of systemic 14C radioactivity increased with time. In addition, it seemed that approximately 3% of the dose placed in the teeth was excreted in the urine within 36 h. Whole-body autoradiograms indicated extensive concentration of 14C radioactivity in tissues other than those analyzed with the liquid scintillation technique

  13. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1-14C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  14. Distribution and biodegradability of 14C-residues bound in various soil fractions after treatment of the soil with model 14C-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term fate of 14C-labelled 4-chloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and trichloroethylene in soil was studied under field conditions. As a natural reference compound, 14C-glucose was also studied. Most of the trichloroethylene applied was lost by volatilization and/or degradation during a 25-week period. The soils were exhaustively extracted with methanol and then re-extracted with acetate buffer solutions. The extracted soils were fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and inorganic fractions. With the exception of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline the bound residues were more than 31% of the amount of radiocarbon initially applied. Insoluble residues of the natural compound glucose were bound preferentially in the inorganic fraction, whereas 14C of the four xenobiotics was concentrated more in the humic acid fraction, with the portion increasing in the order: glucose 14C in soil is present in a metabolized form. (author)

  15. Preparation of biologically active 32P-labeled human relaxin. Displaceable binding to rat uterus, cervix, and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relaxin is a member of the insulin family of polypeptide hormones and is known to exert its biological effects on various parts of the mammalian reproductive system. Biologically active human relaxin has been chemically synthesized based on the nucleotide sequence obtained from an ovarian cDNA clone. In the present study synthetic human relaxin was radiolabled by phosphorylation with cAMP-dependent protein kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP to a specific activity of 5000 Ci/mmol. The phosphorylated relaxin was purified on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography and was shown to co-migrate with relaxin on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry revealed a single phosphorylated site on the B chain of relaxin. The 32P-relaxin was able to bind to a goat anti-relaxin antibody, and this binding could be displaced by unlabeled relaxin in a concentration-dependent manner. A comparison of the concentration responses of cellular cAMP production stimulated by relaxin and phosphorylated relaxin in a primary human uterine cell line showed that phosphorylation did not affect the in vitro biological efficacy of relaxin. This made it suitable for in situ autoradiographic localization of relaxin binding sites in rat uterine, cervical, and brain tissue sections. Displacement of the binding of 100 pM 32P-relaxin by 100, 10, and 3 nM unlabeled relaxin, but not by 100 nM insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and an insulin-like growth factor-I ar-I, and an insulin-like growth factor-I analog, demonstrated the high affinity and specificity of such binding. We conclude that 32P-labeled human relaxin is biologically and immunologically active and that this novel probe binds reversibly and with high affinity to classical (e.g. uterus) and unpredicted (e.g. brain) tissues

  16. The influence of the fungicide Folcidin on the distribution and metabolism of 32P in gherkin plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high accumulation of 32P was observed in the leaves of intact gherkin plants 9 days after their roots had been treated with a 0.005% suspension of the systemic fungicide Folcidin 50WP (cypendazole), and 8 days after the roots had been exposed to labelled phosphate. Folcidin also affected phosphorus metabolism in the plants. A high biological cytokinin-like activity of the fungicide was established using a callus cytokinin bioassay. (author)

  17. Quantification of 32P-labeled samples in gel fragments using the flat-bed liquid scintillation counter.

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Cg; Tan, Cc; Ratcliffe, Pj

    1991-01-01

    Quantification of 32P in bands after gel electrophoresis was performed using the flat-bed scintillation counter (Betaplate). The most convenient system involved placing fragments of dried gel between two glass fiber sheets, each previously sealed in a thin plastic bag with liquid scintillant. Good pulse-height spectra and counting efficiencies were obtained with low cross talk and background. The method has been used to quantify mRNA in RNA antisense-protection assays that were linear over a ...

  18. The desorption of Phosphorous (32 P) fixed on iron and aluminum oxy-hydroxide surfaces by the soil microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work determines whether the soil microbial biomass, with an ample supply of available C, can utilize P adsorber in the surfaces of oxy-hydroxides of Fe or Al of soil-P deficient soils. To simulate the surfaces of the natural Fe and Al compounds, synthetic oxy-hydroxides of Fe and Al, impregnated in strips of filter paper, and containing P tagged with 32 P, were used. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Kinetics of [32P]orthophosphate and [3H]thymidine incorporation into newly replicating DNA in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear DNA can be empirically subdivided into three populations: (1) bulk DNA or low salt-soluble DNA (75%), (2) high salt-soluble DNA (23%), and (3) matrix DNA which remains tightly bound to the nuclear matrix (2%). Newly replicating DNA is associated with the nuclear matrix in regenerating rat liver. To study the incorporation of DNA precursors into replicating DNA via the salvage vs the de novo pathway, 100?Ci [3H]thymidine (3H-Thd) and 5mCi [32P]orthophosphate (32P/sub i/) were injected into the hepatic portal vein of partially hepatectomized rats. Increasing time of 3H-Thd incorporation showed the label is chased from matrix DNA to bulk DNA. After a 10 min pulse, 13% of the total specific activity is associated with bulk DNA and 57% with matrix DNA. After 30 min, 32% and 36% of the total specific activity remain associated with bulk and matrix DNA, respectively, indicating that most of the 3H has been chased from the matrix DNA. In contrast, after injection of 32P/sub i/, the amount of label in matrix DNA increases to a maximum at 30 min and only then begins to decrease. At 10 min the specific activity/total specific activity of bulk DNA is 7% and of matrix DNA is 66% vs 8% and 82% after 30 min. The kinetic pattern of 32P/sub i/ incorporation differs dramatically from that of 3H-Thd suggesting (a) the incorporation of de novo precursors lags significantly behind that of precursors entering through the salvage pathway, or (b) there may be two distinct classes of replication forks

  20. Results of knee radiosynoviortesis in haemophilic and rheumatoid arthritic patients with 32P colloid of local production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of radioactive treatment in knee joints with refractory synovitis in haemophilic patients, using a colloidal suspension of 32P, a pure beta emitter, developed domestically. Results were then compared with those from chemical synovectomy. A population of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was treated and compared against intra-articular steroids and systemic drugs. Fifty-eight male haemophilic patients, aged 4-52 years, were treated. Nine of them had re-injections (67 procedures). Adults received 37-74 MBq; children of 2-6 years received one third the adult's activity; 6-10 years received one half the activity, whereas 10-16 years were injected with three quarters the activity given to adults. Anti-haemophilic factors (AHF) therapy, clinical examination as well as a pre-3-phase MDP scan were registered and followed-up with MDP scans through 9 months. The intra-articular therapies for either 32P in 44 patients or the antibiotic Rifampicin-99mTc macroaggregates in 14 patients were monitored in the gamma camera with 32P bremsstrahlung emission, searching for leakage. Twelve RA patients were studied: six received 32P and the others intra-articular corticoids. Comparison of RoIs in treated knees during soft tissue scintigraphies in pre- and post-third MDP control shows knee improvement. Joint motion increased. Bleeding episodes, as well as requirements of AHF in 80% es, as well as requirements of AHF in 80% of the radiosinovectomies, diminished. Intra-articular Rifampicin treatment requires several injections. Outcomes in RA lasted 3 months and were less promising. Radiosinovectomy in haemophilic patients with one injection provides 3-6 months relief. The paediatric benefit from radiosinovectomy outweighs potential radiation hazards. Radiosinovectomy is a safe, cost effective alternative therapy in emerging nations, where availability of AHF is difficult and expensive. (author)