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Sample records for 14c 32p 35s

  1. Separation of 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 125I, and 131I in radioisotope waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 125I, and 131I in radioisotope (RI) waste materials such as the vials, pipette tips, tubes, syringes, and paper generated from the industrial, medical, educational, and research organizations were conducted by a wet oxidation method. Counts were obtained by a liquid scintillation counter for 3H, 14C, and 32P; a gas proportional counter for 35S; a low energy photon spectroscopy for 125I; and an HPGe detector for 131I. After the treatment of approximately 20 g of the sample, the counting value was determined to obtain a minimum detectable activity (MDA) of approximately 1 x 10-3 ? 5 x 10-2 Bq/g. The specific activities of short-half-life RIs (32P, 35S, 125I, and 131I) were not detectable and/or resulted in a low value (3H and 14C was observed to have the specific activities in the range of 10-2-105 and 10-2-104 Bq/g, respectively. (author)

  2. Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of β- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

  3. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  4. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 β alanines β 14C; noradrenaline β 14C (arterenol β 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

  5. Preparation of /sup 14/C, /sup 35/S and /sup 13/C labelled forms of omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, A.M.; Ife, R.J.; Mitchell, M.B.; Saunders, D.

    1986-01-01

    The syntheses of (benzimidazole-2- /sup 14/C)omeprazole, (benzimidazole-2-/sup 13/C)omeprazole, (/sup 35/S)omeprazole and (2-pyridyl- /sup 14/C-methyl)-omeprazole are described. The first three compounds were prepared from the appropriate isotopically labelled carbon disulphide. The key step in the synthesis of (2-pyridyl- /sup 14/C-methyl)omeprazole is nucleophilic alkylation of a l-ethoxypyridinium salt using (/sup 14/C)methyl magnesium idodide. This is the first time that a reaction of this type has been used to prepare a 2-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylpyridine.

  6. Lethal Effect on Bacterium of Decay of Incorporated Radioactive Atoms (3H, 14C, 32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effect of decay of 3H, 14C and 32P incorporated into a bacterium depends on the nature of the organic molecule labelled, on the position of the isotope within it and on the isotope itself. In sum, results obtained to date show that: The decay of 3H atoms incorporated into certain macromolecules of a bacterium causes sterilization through ionization by the ß- particle emitted; transmutation is of negligible importance. This self-irradiation is comparable in effect with X-rays and is affected in a similar manner by the same factors: temperature, presence of a radioprotector, radiosensitivity of the strain. Decay of 14C or 32P atoms incorporated into bacterial DNA is lethal because of the transmutation effect; ionizations produced by emitted ß- particles may be disregarded. Survival curves for 32P transmutations depend on the experimental conditions. Some of the results obtained with 32P are similar to those obtained with X-rays, e.g. effects of temperature, radical capture and oxygen, while others are similar to those of u.v. light, e.g., effect of growth conditions. Comparative tests made with 32P indicate that the recoil energy of transmutation is not the phenomenon responsible for the lethal effect observed. Comparison of the results obtained after X-irradiation or decay of 3H or 32P incorporated into the DNA of bacteria of the same strain of E. coli shows that the efficiency of a 32P transmutation is about four times greater than that of an ionization produced at random within the same DNA. (author)

  7. Technique for Simultaneous Determination of [35S]Sulfide and [14C]Carbon Dioxide in Anaerobic Aqueous Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Craig D.; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Molongoski, John J.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the simultaneous determination of [35S]sulfide and [14C]carbon dioxide produced in anaerobic aqueous samples dual-labeled with [35S]sulfate and a 14C-organic substrate is described. The method involves the passive distillation of sulfide and carbon dioxide from an acidified water sample and their subsequent separation by selective chemical absorption. The recovery of sulfide was 93% for amounts ranging from 0.35 to 50 ?mol; recovery of carbon dioxide was 99% in amounts up to 20 ?mol. Within these delineated ranges of total sulfide and carbon dioxide, 1 nmol of [35S]sulfide and 7.5 nmol of [14C]carbon dioxide were separated and quantified. Correction factors were formulated for low levels of radioisotopic cross-contamination by sulfide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic acids. The overall standard error of the method was 4% for sulfide and 6% for carbon dioxide. PMID:16345742

  8. A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35S and 14C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35S and 14C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

  9. The distribution of 35S-sulfadiazine and 14C-trimethoprim in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 35S-labelled sulfadiazine and 14C-labelled trimethoprim was studied in rainbow trout by use of whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation. As compared to mammals, gastrointestinal absorption and elimination were slow. Accumulation in the skin and the uveal tract of the eye was observed for both drugs tested. The results also indicated that the bile was an important route of excretion. Considerable radioactivity was still present in the skin at 144 hr. survival time. (author)

  10. The mineral nutrition of millet (Pennisetum-typhoides): Migration of 32P and 35S - Similarities with the migration of photosynthetic assimilates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a study of the transport of 32P and 35S injected into leaves or of 14CO2 absorbed thereby. It is shown that the radioisotopes mostly travel towards the upper parts of the plant and towards the seeds when they originate from upper leaves after male flowering. The later fillers, however, do not play any role as a reserve in the mineral or carbon nutrition of adult fillers. No appreciable absorption of 35S or 32P by the roots is observed after male flowering. (author)

  11. Metabolism of 35S- and 14C-labeled propylthiouracil in a model in vitro system containing thyroid peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous communications we described an in vitro model system containing highly purified thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by the antithyroid drugs, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). We showed that inhibition of iodination of thyroglobulin in this system may be reversible or irreversible depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and drug and the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drugs occurred under both conditions, but was more limited under irreversible conditions of inhibition. It was of interest to examine the nature of the drug metabolites associated with reversible and irreversible conditions of inhibition. For this purpose we have employed the 35S- and 14C-labeled drugs and a recently developed reverse phase HPLC procedure. Results of a similar study with MMI were reported in an earlier communication. In the present study we report our findings with PTU. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, PTU was readily metabolized and by 15 min was reduced to a few percent of the starting value. The earliest detectable metabolite with both [35S]- and [14C]PTU was the disulfide, which reached a peak in about 15 min and then slowly declined. Coincident with the decline in the disulfide was the appearance of more polar metabolites. In the case of [35S]PTU, these corresponded to sulfate/sulfite, PTU sulfonate, and a product tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate. The latter two were also observed as 14C-labeled metabolites produced from [14C]PTU. Two nonpolar desulfurated 14C-labeled metabolites were also observed. Surprisingly, these did not correspond to either propyluracil or propyldeoxyuracil, the anticipated most likely products of PTU desulfuration. The identity of these desulfurated metabolites of PTU in the TPO model system remains to be determined

  12. Genetic effects of 35S decay in cells of yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisial. Rep.5. Comparative studies of the lethal and mutagenic effects of decay of 35S and 32P incorporated into cells of radiation sensitive mutant xrs 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of the 35S and 32P decays in the cells of the radiosensitive mutant xrs 2 was studied. Dose - effect dependence was exponential one for the strain xrs 2. On the survival curve there was no bend corresponding to the transition to the fraction of budding cells. The mutant strain was 7 times more sensitive than the wild type to the transmutation of both isotopes. The cells of the mutant strain are devoid of high sensitivity to the mutagenic effect of the decay of both isotopes mutations in locuses ade 1 and ade 2 were taken into account. The mutant strain and the wild type strain differ in the nature of mutations induced by the 35S decay in locus ade 2. In xrs 2 strain, 82 per cent of mutations-base pair substitutions and 18 per cent of mutations with different nature are induced; in the wild type strain this values one 97 and 3 per cent respectively. Besides, it is shown that total and sectoral mutants, induced by the 35S decay in strain xrs 2, differ in the type of interallelic complementation

  13. Effects of source distribution, dose, and linear energy transfer capacity on inactivation and mutation of mycobacteria after 2H, 35S, and 32P incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a selected model, the paper makes a contribution to the question whether the energy dose as a macroscopically-physically defined quantity can be usefully applied in cell ranges with linear dimensions of the order of 1 ?m, i.e. whether there is still a correlation between the energy dose and quantitatively measurable biological radiation effects. The problem is investigated with the aid of the intracellular ? decay of the 3H, 35S, and 32P nuclei on mycobacteria (BCG) in liquid media. Quantitative findings of radiobiological experiments are linked with model dose calculations to form dose-effect curves. The experimental principle consists in adding radioactively labelled compounds to the nutrient solution of bacteria at normal growth temperatures, thus obtaining an intracellular ? source region caused by their uptake. The uptake conditions for the three radionuclides are varied by using different chemical bonds (2H) or carrier concentrations (3H, 35S). As biological reactions, inactivation in the form of growth inhibition and mutagenic induction of resistance to isonicotinic acid hydrazide are recorded. (orig./MG)

  14. Identification for pure-beta nuclides of 14C and 35S with plastic scintillator applied to conventional liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra for pure-beta nuclides with liquid scintillator by using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) are usually shifted to low energy region caused by optical and chemical quenching processes. So the end-point of LSC spectrum does not show the theoretical maximum beta-ray energy (Emax). On the other hand, the end points of the spectra of 14C and 35S showed their Emax, when a plastic scintillator (PS) was used for measurement as a substitute for a liquid scintillator. Therefore, the possibility of identification of 14C and 35S with plastic scintillator applied to conventional liquid scintillation counter is the aim of this study. Spectra could be measured with good reproducibility. Moreover the reusability of the PS rinsed within a day or covered with a thin film was also confirmed. (author)

  15. Metabolism of /sup 35/S- and /sup 14/C-labeled propylthiouracil in a model in vitro system containing thyroid peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taurog, A.; Dorris, M.L.; Guziec, F.S. Jr.; Uetrecht, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    In previous communications we described an in vitro model system containing highly purified thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by the antithyroid drugs, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). We showed that inhibition of iodination of thyroglobulin in this system may be reversible or irreversible depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and drug and the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drugs occurred under both conditions, but was more limited under irreversible conditions of inhibition. It was of interest to examine the nature of the drug metabolites associated with reversible and irreversible conditions of inhibition. For this purpose we have employed the 35S- and 14C-labeled drugs and a recently developed reverse phase HPLC procedure. Results of a similar study with MMI were reported in an earlier communication. In the present study we report our findings with PTU. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, PTU was readily metabolized and by 15 min was reduced to a few percent of the starting value. The earliest detectable metabolite with both (35S)- and (14C)PTU was the disulfide, which reached a peak in about 15 min and then slowly declined. Coincident with the decline in the disulfide was the appearance of more polar metabolites. In the case of (35S)PTU, these corresponded to sulfate/sulfite, PTU sulfonate, and a product tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate. The latter two were also observed as 14C-labeled metabolites produced from (14C)PTU. Two nonpolar desulfurated 14C-labeled metabolites were also observed. Surprisingly, these did not correspond to either propyluracil or propyldeoxyuracil, the anticipated most likely products of PTU desulfuration. The identity of these desulfurated metabolites of PTU in the TPO model system remains to be determined.

  16. Influence of boron nutrition on net uptake and efflux of 32P and 14C-glucose in Helianthus annuus roots and cell cultures of Daucus carota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P and 14C-glucose uptake were reduced under B deficiency in both Daucus cell suspensions and Helianthus roots. Similarly, efflux rates were found to be smaller in B deficient material. Efflux rates tended to be more affected than net uptake of both 32P and glucose. This may explain why sunflower roots showed a higher glucose net uptake immediately after transferring from a B sufficient to a B deficient nutrient solution. The data confirm earlier findings of B as an essential element for membrane function and integrity. B-deficiency effects could be reversed by the addition of B within less than one hour. Cell suspensions reacted similarly to roots with respect to B deficiency and may thus be suitable for further research on B deficiency effects. (orig.)

  17. In vitro incorporation of 1-14C-acetate and 32P-orthophosphoric acid into phospholipids at various stages of growth of Pythium irregulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pythium irregulare showed an increase (11.6 to 38.9%) in total lipids and a simultaneous decrease (40.5 to 7.3%) in phospholipid content of total lipids during growth period of 15 days. Incubation of fungus of different ages viz. 2,3,4,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days old with 32P-orthophosphoric acid for 4 hr showed that the specific activity of mycelium was maximum with the 5-days old fungus. Highest content of total and polar lipids was, however observed with the 3 days old sample. Incubation studies with sodium acetate 1-14C with fungus of various stages of growth showed maxima of specific activity in mycelium, total, polar and non-polar lipids on the 5th day. From specific activity estimation of 32P and 14C in each of the phosphatides, it was concluded that the labels were incorporated at a higher rate into phosphatidyl enthanolamine during early stages of growth. The reverse was true for the later period of growth, indicating that phosphatidyl ethanolamine was possibly converted to phosphatidyl choline. (auth.)

  18. Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

  19. Autoradiography of 32P and 14C incorporation into protoplasts as a means of determining the percentage of virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripping Film Autoradiography (SFA) was used to measure protoplast infection. Control and infected protoplasts were incubated in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate or [14C]leucine fixed onto glass slides and placed in contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. Infected protoplasts were distinguished by blackened areas of exposed film which coincided with protoplasts containing labelled virus products. The use of SFA is demonstrated for two different virus/protoplast systems, namely tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) in rape. The method detects infection as early as 12-16 h post-inoculation and UV irradiation is not necessary for reducing background interference from labelled host proteins. (Auth.)

  20. Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

  1. 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose and 3H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine, 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and 3H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10-4M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10-5 to 10-8M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos

  2. Development of a junction {beta} - spectrometer; Spectrometrie {beta} par detecteur a jonction. Application a l'etude des spectres du {sup 14}C et du {sup 35}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    A {beta} spectrometry unit using junctions of the silicon surface barrier type has been built. The resolving power of this spectrometer has been studied as well as the influence of a certain number of parameters (temperature, polarization voltage) on its characteristics. A study with this unit of some internal conversion electron spectra ({sup 113}Sn, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi) has led both to a determination of its characteristics and of an energy calibration, and to the determination of certain internal conversion ratios of these radionuclides. This spectrometer was then used for a study of (5-spectra in particular that of {sup 35}S and {sup 14}C. The calculations and corrections required for the setting-up of Kuries representation are described. The programmes required for the carrying-out of these calculations with an I.B.M. computer are given. It has been verified that Kuries representation for {sup 14}C above 90 keV is in fact linear. The non-linear aspect observed by certain authors is probably due to the 'quality' of the sources used. The Fierz interference term has been determined. The maximum {beta} energies found are respectively: 167 {+-} 1 keV for {sup 35}S and 155 {+-} 2 keV for {sup 14}C. (author) [French] On a realise un ensemble spectrometrique {beta} a jonction du type barriere de surface au silicium. On a determine le pouvoir de resolution de ce spectrometre et etudie l'influence que peuvent avoir sur ses caracteristiques, un certain nombre de parametres (temperature, tension de polarisation). L'etude, a l'aide de cet ensemble, de quelques spectres d'electrons de conversion interne ({sup 113}Sn, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi), a servi d'une part, a determiner ses caracteristiques ainsi qu'a l'etalonner en energie, d'autre part, a determiner certains rapports de conversion interne de ces radionucleides. Ce spectrometre a ensuite ete utilise pour etudier les spectres {beta}, en particulier celui du {sup 35}S et celui du {sup 14}C. On decrit les calculs et corrections necessaires a l'etablissement de la representation de Kurie. On donne les programmes necessaires a l'execution de ces calculs avec une calculatrice I.B.M. On a verifie que la representation de Kurie du {sup 14}C au-dessus de 90 keV est bien lineaire. L'aspect non lineaire, observe par certains auteurs est probablement du a la 'qualite' des sources utilisees. On a determine le terme d'interference de Fierz. Les energies {beta} maximales trouvees sont respectivement: 167 {+-} 1 keV pour le {sup 35}S et 155 {+-} 2 keV pour le {sup 14}C. (auteur)

  3. Biosynthetic labeling with 32P: radiation damage to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P C; Burgess, A W

    1985-02-01

    Theoretical calculations showed that biosynthetic radiolabeling of cells using typical concentrations of 32P (1 mCi/ml) resulted in high radiation doses (200-500 rad/h) being absorbed by the cells. Subsequent investigations with a mouse myelomonocytic leukemia cell line (WEHI-3B(D+)) showed significant loss of replicative ability during brief (less than 1 h) exposures to 1 mCi/ml of 32P. Complete loss of cell replicative ability was found with isotopic doses less than 100 rad (i.e., 100 muCi/ml for 5 h). Experiments employing a less radiosensitive pre-B-cell line (18.81) revealed that significant loss of viability occurred during incubation with 32P under identical conditions to those employed for the WEHI-3B(D+) cell line. Control experiments utilizing decayed batches of 32P and physical separation of the isotope solution from the cells confirmed that the cytotoxicity was caused by radiation emission rather than the presence of toxic components in the isotopic solution. The radiation doses absorbed by cells biosynthetically labeled with 59Fe, 33P, 35S, and 14C were calculated. Although significant levels of radiation can be absorbed 32P was considerably more radiotoxic than the other isotopes. The results of calculations indicated that the judicious choice of container geometry could reduce the absorbed radiation dose from 32P solutions. In particular the biosynthetic radiolabeling of cells in capillary tubes (diameter less than 1 mm) can reduce the absorbed rate to less than one-tenth of the dose received by cells suspended in Petri dishes or centrifuge tubes. PMID:3993903

  4. Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  5. Main: CTRMCAMV35S [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CTRMCAMV35S S000460 27-March-2004 (last modified) kehi CT-rich motif (inverted ... GAGA) found in a ... of the CaMV 35S RNA; Can enhance gene expression; Inverted ... GAGA; See also S000405, S000427 (GAGA); (TC)4T; Ca ...

  6. Real-time imaging of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Yamawaki, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Tanoi, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

    2011-07-01

    We present real-time images of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, {sup 35}S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both {sup 35}S and {sup 32}P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of {sup 35}S show that {sup 35}S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand {sup 32}P, when applied as {sup 32}P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  7. Natural 14C variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the natural variations in the atmospheric 14C activity, their geophysical origin and their impact on radiocarbon dating. Studies confirm the idea that one is dealing with a mechanism of a certain regularity. The correlation between a 14C variation during the Little Ice Age and the absence of sunspots on the solar surface suggest the sun to be responsible for some kind of modulation of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum. The background of a changing natural 14C level is relevant when studying the antropogenic perturbation of the atmospheric 14C concentration by the addition of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The results presented point to a Suess effect over the past 150 years of about 20 per thousand, but also show a local dilution effect. If this local effect is present over large continental parts of the Northern Hemisphere this will put limits to the use of tree ring 14C measurements for testing carbon reservoir models. Finally the influence of 14C variations upon the interpretations of 14C dates for archaeological and geological purposes has been investigated. It is shown that care must be taken especially in the interpretation of highly accurate 14C data of material only covering a few years of growth. One geological example illustrates that 14C variations can easily be interpretated as alternating fast and slow rises of the sea level. (Auth.)

  8. (32)P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS OF DNA ADDUCTS OF TWO NITRATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN RABBIT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1-nitropyrene (1-NPP and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) adducts have been analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling and with 1-NP have been compared to the total number of adducts estimated from (14)C binding in rabbit trachael epithelial (RTE) DNA samples. One adduct spot, by (32)P-postlab...

  9. The enzymatic preparation of [α-32P]nucleoside triphosphates, cyclic [32P]AMP, and cyclic [32P]GMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the enzymatic preparation of α-32P-labelled ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, cyclic [32P]AMP, and cyclic [32P]GMP of high specific radioactivity and in high yield from 32Psub(i). The method also enables the preparation of [γ-32P]ATP, [γ-32P]GTP, [γ-32P]ITP, and [γ-32P]-dATP of very high specific activity and in high yield. (Auth.)

  10. Synthesis of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S) has been prepared by exchange between elementary sulfur (35S) and sodium N-dithiocarbamate followed by an oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. The method allows to obtain rapidly a pure product with relatively high activity. The radioactive exchange is 82 per cent. (author)

  11. Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide (35S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author)

  12. Determination of 32P in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for determining 32P in urine is described. After pretreatment of samples, 32P is extracted by butanol and the re-extracted by NH4Cl-NH4OH. Emulsion was made with re-extraction liquid and measured using Cherenkov-counting. The recovery of 32P is about 74.5±7.3%. The decontamination factors for main nuclides are more than 103. When the volume of sample is 100 mL, background of counter is 30 cpm, counting time is 60 min, lowest detection limit of this method is 1.5Bq/L

  13. The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

  14. Isolation of (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a 14CO2 chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed. (author)

  15. Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

  16. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  17. Spring mobilization of storage 32P in gingko trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old gingko (Gingko biloba L.) trees during dormant period in the glass house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all growing tissues, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 4-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 0.44% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood and bud) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from root tissues to new growing tissues (buds). Eight percent of the initial 32P in storage tissues was transported to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the bud tissues increased about 12 fold. (author)

  18. Spring mobilization of storage /sup 32/P in gingko trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, K.K. (City Univ. of Seoul, Korea); Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old gingko (Gingko biloba L.) trees during dormant period in the glass house and the mobilization of stored /sup 32/P determined in the following early growing season. /sup 32/P was detected in all growing tissues, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 4-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 0.44% of /sup 32/P was found in storage tissues although the accumulation of /sup 32/P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, /sup 32/P was transported from root tissues to new growing tissues. Eight percent of the initial /sup 32/P in storage tissues was transported to new growing tissues. During the period, the /sup 32/P in the bud tissues increased about 12 fold.

  19. Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were ...

  20. Synthesis of [14C]methylphosphonic difluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C] methylphosphonic difluoride is described. First, [14C]methyl iodide was used to catalyse the conversion of trimethyl phosphite to dimethyl [14C]methylphosphonate by the Arbusov reaction. The dimethyl methylphosphonate was then chlorinated with PCl5 and fluorinated with SbF3. Radio-chemical yield from the reaction was 25%. (author)

  1. Development of the new distillation method for 32P production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P as a pure β-ray emitter is widely used in nuclear medicine, genetic engineering, biological research, etc. The production process of 32P is mainly based on sulfur distillation after natural 32S(n,p)32P reaction. In this study, a new distillation process for 32P production has been developed and applied for production of 32P. Distillation and condensation of sulfur in the capsule occurred at about 180 .deg. C under 0.1 torr pressure and the distillation rate of sulfur dependened on the temperature of distillation zone. In the typical case, it took 1.5 - 2 hours for the complete distillation of 1 g of sulfur under 0.1 torr pressure and the recovery yield of sulfur was near 100%. Sulfur target in the evacuated capsule was irradiated for 72 hours in HANARO reactor and the fast neutron flux of irradiation hole was 2.8x1014 n/cm2·sec. The irradiated target was distilled at 220 .deg. C and then leached out 32P residue on the capsule surface. The yield of 32P was 8 mCi per 1g of natural sulfur and the qulity analysis of the final product was carried out for radionuclidic purity, radiochemical purity and solid residue. It is expected that the developed process can be useful for production of around 100 mCi 32P and also can be applied to produce 33P using enriched 33S targets

  2. Synthesis of [3-14C]- and [phenyl-U-14C] olaquindox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaquindox is a new feed additive. [14C]Olaquindox, labelled in different positions, was needed for tracer-studies of pharmacokinetics, biotransformation and residues in several species of animals. 2-[N-(2-hydroxethyl)-carbamoyl]-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide([3-14C]Olaquindox) was synthesized from barium[14C]carbonate (22 mmoles; 1.15 Ci) via [1-14C]acetic acid, sodium[1-14C]acetate, [1-14C]acetylchloride, ethyl[3-14C]acetoacetate and 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide with an overall yield of 10%, based on barium[14C]carbonate. The radiochemical purity was better than 98% (tlc). The specific activities of three preparations were 10.5, 8.4 and 5.45 μCi/mg respectively. [phenyl-U-14C]Olaquindox was synthesized starting from [U-14C]aniline (19.8 mmoles; 284.4 mCi). Intermediate products were N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro-N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro[U-14C]aniline and [U-14C]benzofurazanoxide. The total yield was 50% as calculated for [U-14C]aniline. At calibration samples of two preparations showed specific activities of 49.5 and 11.1 μCi/mg respectively. The radiochemical purity was checked by tlc and exceeded 98%. (author)

  3. Measurement of fecal 14C excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurements of fecal 14C and expired 14CO2 in the breath are necessary to evaluate patients with various ileal abnormalities and bile salt malabsorption. Following the oral ingestion of the labeled bile acid, glycine-[I-14C]cholic acid, detection of increased fecal 14C without abnormal expiration of 14CO2 identifies patients with ileal resection. This contrasts with the normal fecal 14C content and abnormal expired 14CO2 found in patients with bacterial overgrowth. Fecal 14C content was determined by utilizing Van Slyke combustion of the specimen and trapping the liberated 14CO2 with Scintisorb C. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate, and expands the diagnostic usefulness of the bile salt absorption test

  4. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

  5. Synthesis of 14C labelled acrylic derivatives: diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate and isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate and diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate were synthesized by the intermediate of their protective Diels-Alder adduct with anthracene. These adducts were obtained in a one-pot procedure by Knoevenagel condensation of [14C] paraformaldehyde with isobutyl cyanoacetate and diethyl malonate respectively in the presence of a basic catalyst and anthracene. The adducts are stable crystalline compounds easily purified by recrystallization. The olefinic target compounds were obtained in high chemical and radiochemical purity (>99%) by thermolysis at 2200C in mineral oil in the presence of maleic anhydride. (author)

  6. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (?-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 ?mol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  7. Incorporation of 14C from [14C]phenylalanine into condensed tannin of sorghum grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is described for obtaining condensed tannin from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seeds metabolically labeled from [14C]phenylalanine. The [14C]tannin should be useful in determining the metabolic fate of dietary condensed tannin

  8. Modelling 14C transfer in terrestrial environments in response to chronic and accidental 14C releases.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Dizès, S.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the quantity of carbon-14 (14C) released for several decades from nuclear facilities has prompted several modelling approaches of 14C behaviour in the environment. The TOCATTA model aims at estimating 14C (and 3H) transfers in terrestrial ecosystems exposed to atmospheric 14C (and 3H) releases from nuclear facilities under normal operating or accidental conditions. The model belongs to the larger framework of the SYMBIOSE modelling and simulation platform that aims at assessing ...

  9. Synthesis of [5-14C]-dodecane and [8-14C]-hexadecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [5-14C]-Dodecane and [8-14C]-hexadecane were synthesized starting with [1-14C]-octanoic acid. The carboxylic acid was reduced to 1-octanol, which was esterified to n-octyl p-toluenesulfonate. Following a Corey-House procedure, the sulfonate was either reacted with Li[Cu(butyl)2] to [5-14C]-dodecane (40% overall yield), or with Li[Cu(octyl)2] to [8-14C]-hexadecane (24% overall yield). The lithium di-alkyl cuprates were prepared from butyl lithium and n-octyl bromide, respectively. Preliminary experiments with non-labeled compounds using a Wittig reaction as chain extension step, turned out to be less favourable. The Corey-House route provides a simple method for the synthesis of specifically 14C-labeled alkanes from commercially available [1-14C]-carboxylic acids. (author)

  10. Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)

  11. Experimental study on 32P uptake in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disturbances in the development of the teeth which were caused by internal irradiation of 32P were studied using rats of Wister strain about one month old. The experiment with a dose of 7 μc/g of 32P showed that 4 of 30 rats died within 90 days of observation. The experiment with a dose of 10 μc/g of 32P showed that none of the rats survived longer than 18 days. Correlationship was found among increase and decrease of the body weight, myelogram of the femoral bone, and ability of the tooth development. The disturbances showed a peak about 20 days after the administration of 32P and then subsided. As regards the relationship between the mechanisms of tooth formation and tooth eruption, reformation of the dentine was noted but no recovery of tooth eruption was noted 30 days after 32P-administration. Some recovery from disturbance of the tooth formation could be observed after 30 days of the administration of 32P. 90 days after the administration, dentin formation could still be noted in the apical part, while germ cells of the tooth had been destroyed completely and peridental tissues had also been destroyed remarkably. Persistent osteoid dentin, characteristic of disturbance of the incisor due to internal irradiation, proliferated in a shape of a belt along the dentin blastocytes in the labial side, gradually infiltrating into the center of the dental pulp. The osteoid dentin proliferated in a shape of lump in the dental germ of the lingual side. In the experiments with 7 μc/g, there was left a possibility of maintaining vital power of rats judging from their weights and myelogram of the femoral bone, while the dose had destructive effects on the incisors. This was substantiated by the fact that the absorbed dose of the incisor was highest among those of the hard tissues. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Use of 32P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using 32P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C20-Mulatinho Paulista; C26-Ricobaio 1014 and C33-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C17-Jamapa; C28-Rio Tibagi and C34-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of 32P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars. (M.A.C.)

  13. Procedure for the preparation of [32P]phosphatidic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorylation procedure of F. Cramer, W. Rittersdorf, and W. Bohm [(1961) Chem. Ber. 654, 180] using bis(triethylammonium) phosphate and trichloroacetonitrile was shown to be effective in the synthesis of [32P]phosphatidic acid. From diacylglyceride and 0.5 mCi H332P4, 25-50 ?Ci of labeled material (sp act = 1 mCi/?mol) can be prepared in 2 h. The product was shown to be radiochemically pure by both TLC and HPLC. L- and DL-[32P]dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid prepared using this procedure were shown to be hydrolyzed by rat liver microsomes at approximately the same rates

  14. Synthesis of 14C-propoxur (o-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate-14C) insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-propoxur (Baygonsub(circled R)) is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and a very low order of mammalian toxicity. Radiosynthesis of propoxur was performed by the reaction of acetyl-1-14C chloride and sodium azide to produce methyl isocyanate which then reacted with o-isopropoxyphenol at 100 degC. A two-compartment reaction tube with a break seal was utilized. Chromatograhic procedures for isolating the N-methylcarbamates from their reaction mixtures are reported. Acetyl-1-14C chloride was prepared from thionyl chloride and sodium acetate-1-14C. Grignard reaction between methyl iodide and carbon-14 dioxide yielded acetic acid-14C which was neutralized by sodium hydroxide solution to give sodium acetate-1-14C. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

  16. Calculation of measurement uncertainty for counting of 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S presented in radioisotope (RI) waste from various institutes was separated and analyzed by LSC. The measurement uncertainty was evaluated for the sample, beta (?-) counting and recovery. The sample uncertainty was calculated the sample mass (7.8 x 10-4%), the concentration of the tracer (0.618%) and used volume of tracer (0.520%). The counting uncertainty was also calculated the precipitate mass (0.973%) and the counting of 35S (2.37%). The recovery uncertainty was 3.61%. Then the relative sum uncertainty was 5.13% and the expanded uncertainty was 10.26%

  17. Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or [1-14C]glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition

  18. 7Be and 32P in the Antarctic atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 1977 the atmospheric concentration of 7Be aerosols has been monitored daily at Dumont-Durville station (Terre Adelie - 66040 South, 1400 East). These data were completed after January 1978 by 32P measurements. These two nuclides appear to be in good correlation (r = 0.9). Mean monthly 7Be concentrations of about 0.4 dpm/m3 were measured, therefore 1.5 time higher than at the South Pole. This result could be explained by the proximity of Dumont Durville to the geomagnetic pole. A small seasonal variation was observed, with maxima during the Austral Summer. This last effect is much more marked in the case of 32P, whose mean annual concentration is about 6 x 10-3 dpm/m3. Conclusions drawn from the 7Be/32P activity ratios are discussed. The mean monthly ratio is always greater than 40 at Dumont Durville. This result can only be explained by a stratospheric origin of 7Be and 32P, measured at sea level, in this station. Theoretical considerations show that, in the case of stratospheric air masses injected into the troposphere, the 7Be/32P activity ratio should be greater than the stratospheric limit of 100, and reach even about 200. This last value was actually observed a few times during our 2 year records. Good negative correlations observed between 7Be concentrations and both 222Rn concentrations and air humidity show that stratosphere to troposphere injections of spallation products happen at polar latitudes. This result would mean that most of the stratospheric materials detected in Antarctica are not transported at low altitude after an injection into the troposphere at mid-latitudes, but rather directly exchanged over the Antarctic continent

  19. Dry extraction of 14C02 and 14C0 from Antarctic ice

    OpenAIRE

    van Roijen, J. J.; R. Bintanja; Borg, R. van den; Broeke, M.R. van den; de Jong, A.F.M.; Oerlemans, J

    1994-01-01

    A dry extraction method was used to obtain trapped CO, of 2-5 kg ice samples from a blue ice zone in East Antarctica. In situ produced 14C was also extracted in 14C0, and 14C0 concentrations at a ratio of 3.4 f 0.9. Correction of trapped 14C0, from in situ resulted in ice dates in the range 5-15 ka. The realistic rates for accumulation and ablation of ice indicate about total efficiency of extraction.

  20. 14C-AMS in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry has been applied to biomedical research in the past 5 years. While there are a number of facilities involved in biomedical measurements of 26Al and 41Ca, the use of 14C-AMS for tracing organic compounds in vivo and in vitro remains somewhat isolated at our laboratory with a few contributions from two other AMS systems. We present some examples of our research using 14C-AMS. Our successes in measuring low dose kinetics of chemical compounds has implications for pharmacology, toxicology, carcinogenisis, nutrition, drug development and clinical tests

  1. 14C Behaviour in PWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although 14C is produced in relatively small amounts in PWR coolant, it is important to know its fate, for example whether it is released by gaseous discharge, removed by absorption on ion exchange (IX) resins or deposited on the fuel pin surfaces. 14C can exist in a range of possible chemical forms: inorganic carbon compounds (probably mainly CO2), elemental carbon, and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons. This paper presents results from a preliminary survey of the possible reactions of 14C in PWR coolant. The main conclusions of the study are: - A combination of thermal and radiolytic reactions controls the chemistry of 14C in reactor coolant. A simple chemical kinetic model predicts that CH3OH would be the initial product from radiolytic reactions of 14C following its formation from 17O. CH3OH is predicted to arise as a result of reactions of OH. with CH4 and CH3, and it persists because there is no known radiation chemical reduction mechanism. - Thermodynamic considerations show that CH3OH can be thermally reduced to CH4 in PWR conditions, although formation of CO2 from small organics is the most thermodynamically favourable outcome. Such reactions could be catalysed on active nickel surfaces in the primary circuit. - Limited plant data would suggest that CH4 is the dominant form in PWR and CO2 in BWR. This implies that radiation chemistry may be important in determining the speciation. - Addition of acetate does not affect the amount of 14C formed, but the addition of large amounts of stable carbon would lead to a large range of additional products, some of which would be expected to deposit on fuel pin surfaces as high molecular weight hydrocarbons. However, the subsequent thermal decomposition reactions of these products are not known. - Acetate addition may represent a small input of 12C compared with organic material released from CVCS resins, although the importance of this may depend on whether that is predominantly soluble material or suspended fines. The ultimate fate of 14C may be affected by operating conditions, e.g. the CVCS let down rate to the VCT, hydrogen concentration, dose-rate and organic concentration. If the VCT hydrogen purge is not operating, particulate carbon could build up, and could either be trapped by IX resin beds or deposited on fuel pin surfaces. Good plant data are vital for the elucidation of 14C behaviour. (authors)

  2. An improved synthesis of catechol-U-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high yield, four-step synthesis of catechol-U-14C from benzene-U-14C is described. Intermediates in the preparation include phenol-U-14C and o-methoxyphenol-U-14C [guaiacol-(phenyl-U-14C]. (author)

  3. Translocation of 14C-assimilates and 14C-herbicides in cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondylium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cow parsnip translocation fo 14CO2, 14C-2,4-D and 14C-2,4,5-T was investigated during four growth phases. It was intended to find out the quantitative correlation between the translocation of phenoxy herbicides and assimilates. The gas exchange used for 14CO2 application is described. Before shoot extension, the root of the plants is the prefered target for assimilates and 2,4-D. Close quantitative correlation was found between the respective 14C activities as regards direction of translocation and radioactivity per dry weight. Similar results were found with 2,4,5-T. At flowering 14C activity moves clearly into the shoot and the inflorescence. At seed maturity, rhizomes and roots take in the 14C activity preferably. Consequently, two growing phases are recommended for optimal weed control by phenoxy compounds, especially 2,4-D: before shooting or after flowering, if sufficient assimilating leaves are left. (orig.)

  4. Study of the reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the elastic scattering of polarized protons in 14 C, it has been very limited. Some angular distributions exists to low energy, as well as measures of excitation functions to several angles for the differential section and the vectorial analyzer power. A detailed study of the elastic scattering of protons by 14 C, it give us experimental information of the excited states in 15 N. The study of these states, is since of considerable interest it is not very easy to obtain a target of 14 C also in a reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C is possible to obtain information of levels in 15 N to an excitation energy EX >14.95 MeV. (Author)

  5. Synthesis of [18-14C]octatriacontane from [1-14C]stearic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed to synthesize 14C-labelled n-alkanes for use in cigarette smoke studies. Specifically, n-[18-14C]-octatriacontane was synthesized from 1 mCi [1-14C]stearic acid in a radiochemical yield of 20%. The key features of this synthesis were two consecutive alkylations of tosylmethyl isocyanide followed by acid hydrolysis to [18-14C]-19-octatriacontanone and modified Wolff-Kishner reduction to the n-alkane. After purification on silica gel 25 mg of [18-14C]octatriacontane was obtained with a total radioactivity of 200 μCi, a specific activity of 4.3 mCi/mmol, and a radiochemical purity in excess of 98% by thin layer radiochromatography. The method has also been applied to the synthesis of unlabeled n-pentatriacontane and is considered to be generally applicable to the synthesis of radiolabeled alkanes from radiolabeled fatty acids. (author)

  6. Leaf absorption of 32P in the pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a method to study the influence of various factors of the absorption of 32P applied under the form of phosphates by a plant cultivated in conditions ensuring a normal development. Experiments provided indications on leaf absorption and 32P transport by pumpkin leaves: phosphor 32 is absorbed and then quickly transported into the different organs of the plant (24 hours after treatment, it is present in aerial and underground parts), the quantity of absorbed phosphor increases with phosphor concentration in the applied solution, atmosphere humidity is an important factor for phosphor penetration into the leaves, plants absorb phosphor in darkness as well as in light, and the absorption of phosphor is not modified when applied with low glucose concentrations

  7. 32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty received chemotherapy as well, and 34 received external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients, 34 had good results, 6 fair, and 6 were failures. Ten patients needed transfusion for marrow depression; no other side effect was observed

  8. Uptake of 35S sulphate by Xenopus cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypohysectomized juvenile Xenopus were injected with growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) of either ovine or bullfrog origin and the growthpromoting activity of these hormones was measured by monitoring the uptake of 35S sulphate by the xiphisternal cartilage in vitro. Analysis of the labelled cartilage revealed that the acid mucopolysaccharide fraction contained about 60 - 80 % of the label and that most of them were incorporated into chondroitin sulphates. All of the hormones tested enhaced the 35S sulphate uptake dose-dependently. Among them bullfrog GH was most effective, then followed ovine GH and ovine PRL. Bullfrog PRL was far less effective than other three. The sensitive assay for frog GH developed in the present experiment may be applicable to the assay for somatomedin-like activity and contribute to the analysis of the mode of action of GH in amphibians. (author)

  9. Synthetic heparinoids labelled with 125I and 35S

    OpenAIRE

    Sederel, L.C.; Kolar, Z.; Does, van der, Leen; Bantjes, A.

    1982-01-01

    The labelling of a water-soluble synthetic polyelectrolyte, having anticoagulant activity, has been studied. The polyelectrolyte is derived from cis-1,4-polyisoprene and contains N-sulfate and carboxylate groups. [125I]-Iodination of the polyelectrolyte, using the Chloramine-T method and an electrolytic method, resulted in a [125I]-labelled polyelectrolyte from which release of the label occurred. Resulfation of a partially desulfated polyelectrolyte with a [35S]-sulfur trioxide trimethylamin...

  10. Studies on 14C-extractable residue, 14C-bound residue and mineralization of 14C-labeled metsulfuron-methyl in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate 14C-extractable residue (14C-ER), 14C-bound residue (14C-BR) and mineralization of 14C-labeled metsulfuron-methyl in soils. The main factors affecting 14C-BR formation and the distribution pattern of 14C-BR in humus were also discussed in details. The results were as follows: (1) The total 14C-ER content of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in seven kinds of soil was positively related to soil pH and negatively related to clay content significantly during the initial 20 days of incubation, however, only positively relation to soil pH was found after 30 days of incubation. Moreover, the half-life values of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl parent compound derived from 14C-ER in Soils tested ranged from 13.3 to 66.6 days. The degradation rate conefficient λ (day-1) was negatively related to soil pH. (2) The 14C-BR content of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in soils was significantly negatively related to soil pH and positively related to the clay content during the initial 20 days of incubation, but only was significantly negatively related to soil pH after 30 days incubation. Again, the soil pH was found to be the dominant factor affecting BR formation of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl among the basic properties of soil. The maximum content of 14C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in the soils accounted for 19.3%-52.6% of applied amount. (3) During the whole periods of the incubation, the 14C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in the soils was found to be mainly associated with fulvic acid and humin. The relative percentage of 14C-BR in fulvic acid was higher than in humin, while the content of the 14C-BR distributed in humic acid only account for less than 1% of applied amount. Therefore, fulvic acid played an important role in the process of BR formation of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl. (4) About 12.9%-27% of applied amount of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl was mineralized to 14CO2 through opening 14C-triazine ring in soils tested after 180 days of the incubation. It was difficult for 14C-metsulfuron-methyl to mineralize to 14CO2 in an alkaline soil. (authors)

  11. Production of [14C]rubratoxin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]rubratoxin B was produced by culuturing Penicillium rubrum Stoll for 13 days at 220C in medium containing [14C]glucose. The most efficient incorporation of glucose into rubratoxin occurred when Raulin-Thom medium enriched with 2.5% malt extract was supplemented with 2.5% added glucose. The presence of 1.0 mCi of radioactivity in 50 ml of medium with 2.5% added glucose resulted in the production of 38 mg of labeled, chromatographically pure rubratoxin with a specific activity of 0.47 Ci/mole. The purpose was to produce radiolabeled rubratoxin for use in investigations of its various biological activities and also for use in techniques such as autoradiography of tissue sections and radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  12. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of 14C-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (14C-D4) and 14C-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (14C-D5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Marina L; McMahon, Joan M; McNett, Debra A; Tobin, Joseph M; Plotzke, Kathleen P

    2008-03-01

    Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) are cyclic siloxanes used as chemical intermediates with some applications in consumer products. The in vitro percutaneous absorption of 14C-D4 and 14C-D5 was studied in flow-through diffusion cells. Single doses were applied neat and in antiperspirant formulations to dermatomed human skin for 24h. The majority of applied D4 and D5 ( approximately 90%) volatilized before being absorbed. Only 0.5% of applied D4 was absorbed while the absorption of D5 (0.04%) was one order of magnitude lower. The largest percentage (>90%) of the absorbed D4 and D5 was found in the skin. The fate of D4 and D5 absorbed in the skin was studied in rat in vivo. A single dose of 14C-D4 (10, 4.8 and 2mg/cm2) and 14C-D5 (10mg/cm2) was topically applied inside a dosing chamber attached to the dorsal area. Rats were housed in metabolism cages up to 24h to enable collection of urine, feces, expired/escaped volatiles. The majority of applied D4 or D5 had volatilized from the skin surface. Less than 1.0% of the applied D4 and only 0.2% of applied D5 was absorbed with approximately 60% of absorbed D4 and 30% of absorbed D5 reaching systemic compartments. The amount absorbed into the skin decreased with time showing that residual D4 and D5 diffused back to the skin surface and continued to evaporate. Overall, a low tendency to pass through the skin into systemic compartments was demonstrated for both D4 (< or = 0.5% of applied dose) and D5 (<0.1% of applied dose). PMID:18178298

  13. 14C measurements in aquifers with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of various groundwater systems indicates that methane is a common trace constituent and occasionally a major carbon species in groundwaters. Thermocatalytic methane had delta13CCH4 > -45%0 and microbially-produced or biogenic methane had delta13CCH4 0. Groundwaters containing significant biogenic methane had abnormally heavy delta13C values for the inorganic carbon. Thermocatalytic methane had no apparent effect on the inorganic carbon. Because methanogenesis seriously affects the carbon isotope geochemistry of groundwaters, the correction of raw 14C ages of affected groundwaters must consider these effects. Conceptual models are developed which adjust the 14C activity of the groundwater for the effects of methanogenesis and for the dilution of carbon present during infiltration by simple dissolution of rock carbonate. These preliminary models are applied to groundwaters from the Alliston sand aquifer where methanogenesis has affected most samples. In this system, methanogenic bacteria using organic matter present in the aquifer matrix as substrate, have added inorganic carbon to the groundwater which has initiated further carbonate rock dissolution. These processes have diluted the inorganic carbon 14C activity. (orig.)

  14. Photoproton cross section for 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using bremsstrahlung, the 14C(γ,p) reaction cross section has been measured from threshold to 29 MeV. The integrated cross section up to 30 MeV is 18±3 MeV mb. Above 23.5 MeV, the reported cross section includes a contribution, estimated at 3.5 MeV mb, due to the 14C(γ,d) and 14Cγ,pn) reactions. Essentially the entire 14C(γ,p) cross section results from decay of T> dipole states. From knowledge of other decay channels estimates of the cross section, integrated to 30 MeV for the T and T> components of the giant resonance (GDR) of 81 MeV mb and 43 MeV mb are obtained. The splitting of the mean energies of the GDR isospin components is 8.5 MeV. Comparisons with several shell-model calculations are made with the data, and general agreement is found. A comparison of photonuclear absorption cross sections for 12,1314C and 16,17,18 O shows dramatic redistribution of dipole strength as neutrons are added to the core nuclei. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  15. 14C analysis via intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity, and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10-1514C/12C ratios have been obtained with theoretical limits much lower. Using a 15 W 14CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 5 x 10-15 to >1.5 x 10-12 in 14C/12C ratios, as determined by AMS, was demonstrated. Calibration becomes non-linear over larger concentration ranges due to interactions between CO2 and buffer gas, laser saturation effects and changes in equilibration time constants. The instrument is small (table top), low maintenance and can be coupled to GC or LC input. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub-therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon.

  16. Synthesis of [1-14C]-2,2-difluoroethene from [14C]-formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [1-14C]-2,2-Difluoroethene was synthesized from [14C]-formaldehyde using a modification of the Wadsworth-Emmons reaction, via formation of the intermediate (EtO)2P(O)CF214CH2OSiMe3. This highly volatile product was collected in a liquid nitrogen trap at a purity of >97% and specific activity of 0.2 mCi/mmol, with yields of 10 - 15%. (Author)

  17. Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

  18. 32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty were treated with chemotherapy as well, and 34 were treated with external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients treated, good results were achieved in 34, fair results in six, and no improvement in six. Subsequent marrow depression necessitated transfusion in 10 patients; no other side effect was observed

  19. The enzymatic preparation of [α-32P] ATP with high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified procedure for preparing [α-32P]ATP is described with which [γ-32P]GTP is used as phosphate donor instead of [γ-32P]ATP. The specific activity of the resulted [α-32P]ATP in other experiments is raised greatly as to 148 PBq/mol or more, without decreasing the yield of [α-32P]ATP which is over 93% based on 32Pi. The specific activity is measured by HPLC and the factors that affect the specific activity of [α-32P]ATP are discussed

  20. Radioluminography for quantitative autoradiography of 14C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoji, N; Hayama, E; Shigematsu, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether or not quantitative analysis of autoradiographs could be obtained with a [14C]-labelled compound by the use of new type radiosensor, so called 'imaging plate' (IP). Since X-ray films were first used as a radiosensor for macroautoradiography by Ullberg (1), many kinds of X-ray films have been used but the other sensors have never been used. Our results indicated that there was an excellent relation between relative intensity (PSL-BG) and radioactivity on a given area which was completely linear. The linearity was observed in a relatively wide range between 10(1)-10(5) dpm orders of radioactivity. About 100 times greater sensitivity of the IP than any X-ray film was demonstrated by the use of not only [14C]-radioactive standard sources but also by experimentally provided [14C)-radioactive spots developed on a TLC plate and macroautoradiographs (MARG). In order to obtain reliable quantitative data from a MARG image, it was required that a thin specimen section be kept at a constant level of thickness under freezing condition through out the exposure time. Results also showed that the linear relation of relative intensity versus radioactivity of the specimens had a very wide range from 10(1)-10(5) dpm/mg of exposure within 7 days. Furthermore, the relation of relative intensity versus relative exposure (radioactivity x exposure time) was linear within the latitude of relative intensity form 10(1)-10(5) (PSL-BG). Finally, a combination of the IP and BAS2000, computerized image display system, was well equipped to completely erase a background memory before use. PMID:8582442

  1. Synthetic 14C-labeled lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the synthesis of 14C-labeled coniferyl alcohol, with the label in the ?- and ?-carbons of the side chain, in the methoxyl carbon, or uniformly in the aromatic ring carbons. These coniferyl alcohols permit the synthesis of synthetic gymnosperm-type lignins. As mentioned, these lignins should suffice for most investigations. The authors summarize methods that have been, or could be, used for synthesizing labeled sinapyl and p-coumaryl alcohols, if it is desired to prepare homopolymers from these other precursors or copolymers derived from mixtures. They reference methods that can be used to label specific carbon atoms in the side chains

  2. Synthesis of 14C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1-14C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems. (author)

  3. A land surface 14C transfer model and numerical experiments on belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model simulating transport and exchange for 14C (or 14CO2) in a land surface ecosystem was developed and the belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C accumulation at a hypothetical cultivated field were studied with the model through numerical experiments. The developed model involved physical 14CO2 transport in surface atmosphere and soil and physiological 14CO2 exchanges in leaves, and was incorporated into a dynamical model (SOLVEG-II) that calculates transport and exchange for heat, water and CO2. The model was tested through a simulation of an existing-experiment on an acute exposure of grape plants to 14CO2. The calculated 14C amount in leaves agreed with the observations within a factor of 1.7. A hypothetical scenario used for the numerical experiments considered an annual 14C input into surface soil layers via 14C-enriched foliage or root litter under a continually heightened atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. The specific activity of 14C in the surface soil layers increased with time and several decades after the start of accumulation it eventually converged to eight times the initial specific activity. At this equilibrium state, the increased belowground 14CO2 production enhanced the atmospheric 14CO2 level and, consequently, 14CO2 uptake by vegetation increased to 1.1 times the control calculated without belowground 14C accumulation. The model results also demonstrated that 14C accumulated in soil can maintain an enhanced vegetation 14C level for at least several decades even after the end of accumulation. - Highlights: ? A numerical model for 14C transport in land surface ecosystem was developed. ? Impact of belowground 14C accumulation on vegetation 14C level was studied through numerical experiments with the model. ? 14C accumulation in surface soil enhanced vegetation 14C level by a factor of 1.1.

  4. Synthesis of metnyl-2-/2-14C/benzimidazolecarbamate and 2-amino/2-14C/benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl-2-[2-14C] benzimidazolecarbamate ([2-14C]MBC) was synthesized from [14C] thiourea in three stage synthesis. S-methyl [14C] thiourea was obtained in the first stage, and treated with methyl chloroformiate giving carbamate derivative. Condensation of this compound with o-phenylenediamine led to [2-14C]MBC in radiochemical yield 66.9% and with radiochemical purity 98.5%. Hydrolysis of the [2-14C]MBC furnished 2-amino [2-14C] benzimidazole in radiochemical yield 65,8% and with radiochemical purity 97.3%

  5. A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes a method for separating 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K2HPO4, Mg(C2H3O2)2, ovalbumen, Na2ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14C-hexose and 14C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

  6. Preparation of the 35S-labelled intermediates of two sulphureous pesticides by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-labelled intermediates of two sulphureous pesticides, palathion and fenitrothion, were prepared from isotopic exchange between 35S-sulphate and two intermediates (O, O, -dimethyl-S-disulphophosphate and O, O, -dimethyl-S-phosphorochloridothionate) with the existence of element sulphur. Then, 35S-palathion and 35S-fenitrothion were synthesized

  7. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.D.; Oh, B.S.; Jang, W.S.; Roh, K.H.; Park, B.I.; Cho, M.K. (National Police Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1983-04-01

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm/sup 3/) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO/sub 4/) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m/sub 2/) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition.

  8. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

  9. Study on rising the counting efficiency of 32P by the liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study compares the Cerekov counting with the liquid scintillation counting for 32P, while the experimental comparisons were made for 32P counting efficiency to the various sample bottles and the effect of scintillation solutions. The results show the way of rising the counting efficiency for 32P

  10. 32P uptake and translocation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P uptake in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars L-550 and C-235 as affected by vesicualr-arbuscular mycorrhiza (G. caledonicum) and Rhizobium was investigated in P deficient soils. Test plants coinoculated with the above two symbionts exhibited higher 32P uptake than inoculated with either symbiont alone. Uninoculated plants showed minimum level of 32P uptake. (author). 1 tab., 7 refs

  11. A method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate by chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozio?kiewicz, W; Pankowski, J; Janecka, A

    1978-01-01

    A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with [32P]-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-[32P]ATP. PMID:219425

  12. Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, F.; Fiumano, V.; Capano, M.; Passariello, I.; Cesare, N. De.; Terrasi, F.

    2011-12-01

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ( 14C) AMS measurements (Δ R/ R < 0.3%) reduce the conventional uncertainty of the dating to few decades, allowing precise age estimation of materials containing carbon (C). The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) during its activity on AMS 14C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the "Acerenza portrait" is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb- 14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2σ) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  13. Distribution of labeled products from [1-14C], [U-14C] and [16-14C]-palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes and liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acids (FA) labeled in different carbon positions are used to study the distribution of labeled oxidation products. With rat hepatocytes (Hep) the authors observed significant differences in the distribution of label into products from [1-14C] and [U-14C]-palmitate (P). The total recovery of label in products (14CO2 + acid soluble fraction (ASF)) was identical between the two labeled FA. However, 14CO2 production from [U-14C]-P was only 40% of that from [1-14C]-P. A recent report showed that approximately = 95% of succinate (Suc) utilized by Hep does not complete one full turn through the citric acid cycle. The authors observed that 14CO2 evolution from [2,3-14C]-Suc was approximately = 9% of that from [1,4-14C]-Suc, indicating that the differences in label distribution between [1-14C] and [U-14C]-P are partially due to less 14CO2 production from label in the even carbon positions of the FA with consequently more label remaining in the ASF. The 14CO2 production from [16-14C]-P was only 4% of that from [1-14C]-P a value less than expected from the Suc experiments. Ketone bodies (KB) comprised 78% of total labeled products from [16-14C]-P as compared to 28% from [1-14C]-P and 41% from [U-14C]-P, giving support to the previously reported preferential use of the omega-C2 unit for KB synthesis without entry into the acetyl-CoA pool. Studies with isolated rat liver mitochondria gave results similar to those with Hep, indicating minimal involvement of perioxisomal ?-oxidation

  14. [14C]Lignin-labeled lignocelluloses and 14C-labeled milled wood lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses lignin which is synthesized in vascular plants by way of a branching sequence of reactions during which CO2 is converted first to shikimic acid. Conversion of two amino acids is described. The authors summarize methods used to prepare, characterize, and use two types of specifically 14C- labeled lignins

  15. Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to γ-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring γ-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, γ-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or γ-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  16. Synthesis of the fungicide [14C]triadimefon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of the fungicide [14C]triadimefon is described. Bromine transformed pinacolone into α-bromopinacolone; this reacted with 4chloro-[U-14C] phenol yielding 1(4-chloro [U-14C]phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this was transformed by bromine into 1-(4-chloro[U-14C]phenoxy)-1-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this last compound reacted with 1,2,4-triazole to yield [14C]triadimefon, i.e., 1-(4-chloro[U-14C]phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanone. [14C]Triadimefon, having the specific activity 0.88 mCi/mmol, was obtained in 58% overall yield from 4-chloro [U-14C]-phenol. (author)

  17. Synthesis of the fungicide (/sup 14/C)triadimefon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouchaud, J.; Meyer, J. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Chimie Phytopharmaceutique)

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of the fungicide (/sup 14/C)triadimefon is described. Bromine transformed pinacolone into ..cap alpha..-bromopinacolone; this reacted with /sub 4/chloro-(U-/sup 14/C) phenol yielding /sub 1/(4-chloro (U-/sup 14/C)phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this was transformed by bromine into 1-(4-chloro(U-/sup 14/C)phenoxy)-1-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone; this last compound reacted with 1,2,4-triazole to yield (/sup 14/C)triadimefon, i.e., 1-(4-chloro(U-/sup 14/C)phenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanone. (/sup 14/C)Triadimefon, having the specific activity 0.88 mCi/mmol, was obtained in 58% overall yield from 4-chloro (U-/sup 14/C)-phenol.

  18. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  19. Decomposition of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine in soils; immobilization in soils and uptake by plants of these 14C herbicides and their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of phenmedipham and atrazine occured by biological way. The mineralisation of phenmediphame started by a dealkylation followed by a cleavage of the aromatic ring disposed between the two carbamoyl linkages and finished by a very weak degradation of the second benzenic ring. The percentage of mineralisation was always more important when lower levels of herbicides were applied. Free phenmedipham and atrazine were still detected after one year incubation. Adsorption on soil constituents of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues was partially biological; that of 14C atrazine and its 14C residues was solely chemical. The complexation was less strong when higher levels of pesticides were applied. Aerian parts as well as radicular systems of wheat, oat and maize sown on soils incubated during one year in presence of 10 and 100 ppm of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine were radioactive

  20. Pharmacokinetics of [35S]PI-88 in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: PI-88 is a mixture of highly sulfated mannose oligosaccharides, mainly pentasaccharide. It inhibits angiogenesis and heparanase, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of basement membrane and extracellular matrix (Parish et al 1999), and is currently being developed as an anticancer drug. A suitable analytical method for measuring PI-88 in biological samples is not currently available, and the aim of this study was to investigate the disposition of the drug by measuring concentrations of radioactivity in plasma, tissues and excreta following administration of [35S]-labelled drug. [35S]PI-88 of high specific activity (1.6 MBq/mg) was synthesised for the study. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed iv at 2.5, 10 or 25 mg/kg, sc at 25 mg/kg or po at 25 mg/kg (4 rats/group). The target dose of radioactivity was 370 kBq/rat in all groups. Plasma, urine and faeces were collected up to 48 h after dosing. Linear plasma kinetics were observed after iv dosing, with mean AUC values of 13 ± 1, 62 ± 3 and 143 ± 6 μg-equiv.h/ml at 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/kg respectively. Corresponding elimination half-lives were 1.8 ± 0.2, 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.7 ± 0.1 h. [35S]PI-88 was rapidly absorbed following sc dosing, with Cmax of 51 ±5 μg-equiv/ml at 15-45 min. Plasma AUC after sc dosing was 171 ± 12 μg-equiv.h/ml, indicating complete absorption of the sc dose. In contrast, po absorption was low, slow and variable (Cmax of 1.5 ± 1.1 μg-equiv/ml at 2-8 h and AUC of 9 ± 6 μg-equiv.h/ml). Excretion was predominantly renal, with 47 ± 8 % and 3 ± 1 % of dose being excreted in urine and faeces respectively within 48 h after sc dosing. Incomplete recovery of radiolabel at 48 h suggests that a substantial fraction of the dose is retained in tissues. After iv dosing, urinary excretion increased with dose (32 ± 4, 47 ± 4 and 57 ± 4 % of dose at 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/kg respectively). Total recovery showed a similar pattern, suggesting that tissue retention of radiolabel is saturable. Tissue distribution experiments showed high levels of drug-related material in the kidneys, bone (periosteum and marrow), lymph nodes, spleen and liver. Drug-related material in these tissues persisted until at least 7 days after a single subcutaneous dose. These persistent high levels in tissues may be important for anticancer activity. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  1. An easy enzymatic method for [14 C]trehalose preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easy and practical method for [14 C]trehalose preparation is described. By incubating [14 C]glucose, ?-glucose-1-phosphate and trehalose phosphorylase from Euglena gracilis the disaccharide was obtained with a yield ranging from 33% to 75% depending on the specific activity of the [14 C]glucose utilized. Trehalose was purified by paper chromatography. (author)

  2. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

  3. Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17μg P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ≅94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (≤68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (≤48%) and all other fractions were ≤9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ≅ 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

  4. Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P2O5+70 g K2O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P2O2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

  5. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with sup 32 P nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with {sup 32}P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law.

  6. Environmental 14C activity: the atmosphere and the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural equilibrium of 14C activity in atmospheric CO2 and in the biosphere has been disturbed globally by various anthropogenic activities. Intensive atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests in the mid 20th century doubled the natural 14C activity in the atmosphere. Since the bomb test ban, this activity has constantly been decreasing and has almost reached its natural level. This article presents the results of 14C activity monitoring in atmospheric CO2, tree rings and biological samples at several locations in Croatia and Slovenia. Global changes in 14C activity have been observed at clean-airsites. In urban areas, lower atmospheric 14C activity is owed to intense fossil fuel combustion, especially in the winter. Higher 14C activity is observed in near the nuclear power plant during and immediately after refuelling outage. If refuelling is performed in the spring, when plants start to vegetate, increased 14C activity is also reflected on them. (authors)

  7. Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

  8. Autoradiographic disposition of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male, C57B1/6J mice received either [1-methyl-14C]caffeine or [2-14C]caffeine via the tail vein at a dose of 0.7 or 11 mg/kg, respectively. At 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after treatment, the mice were anesthetized with ether and frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane. The mice were processed for whole-body autoradiography by the Ullberg technique; this procedure does not allow thawing or contact with solvents. All autoradiographs revealed some retention of radioactivity at early time intervals in the lacrimal glands, seminal vesicle fluid, nasal and olfactory epithelium, and retinal melanocytes. The remaining portion of the animal was densitometrically uniform except for the lower levels noted in the CNS and adipose tissues. Excretion of radioactivity by the liver and kidneys seems to be the major routes of elimination. Localization in the liver at late time intervals was confined principally to the centrilobular region. Late sites of retention, observed only after [1-methyl-14C]caffeine administration, included the pancreas, minor and major salivary glands, splenic red pulp, thymal cortex, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal epithelium. Sites of localization present in both studies included the olfactory epithelium, lacrimal glands, hair follicles, and retinal melanocytes. Further studies are needed to determine whether the localization at these various sites is due to metabolic degradation, active transport, or possibly a specific receptor interaction

  9. Disposition of 14C-acetohydroxamic acid and 14C-acetamide in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been identified as a potential agent for the treatment of infection-induced staghorn renal calculi in patients. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of 14C-acetamide have been evaluated in rats following iv and oral administration. The results of these experiments suggest that, following oral administration to rats, AHA is absorbed very rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and is metabolized to acetamide and CO2. Approximately 50-56% of the iv dose and 40-49% of the oral dose of 14C-AHA is excreted in the urine, suggesting a significant nonrenal elimination pathway for AHA and metabolite(s). Administration of 14C-acetamide to rats revealed that the compound is predominantly eliminated via the renal route, accounting for 68% of the administered radioactive dose. However, approximately 30% of the dose in the case of both AHA and acetamide could not be recovered, either in the urine or in the breath, during the 72-hr period of the experiment. This suggests that acetamide, may undergo further metabolism to get incorporated into the acetate pool. This would result in very slow elimination of the remaining activity as 14CO2 or as another unknown metabolite

  10. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  11. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  12. Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

  13. Brachytherapy on restenosis. 32P radioisotope in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope (32P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by fluoroscopy when rabbits had reached 3,0-3,5 Kg body weight. Studies were done with different doses (10 and 20 Gy) of beta ionizing radiation (32P sources) administered with balloon dilatation. Animals were sacrificed at the same time after irradiation; vasodilation, edema, hemorrhages, mononuclear infiltrate in the periadventitial tissue and other biological changes were analyzed and compared with control. Evaluation of Absorbed dosis and Dosis Equivalent on different tissues were done by Montecalo and appropriate equations. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation into the different layers of the arterial wall (i.e. histological percent stenosis area and number of neointimal cell layer), microscopic observation and computational count with the adequate software indicated that imflamatory elementsaccumulation and neointimal cell proliferation (demonstrated through PCNA+ and apoptotic cells detection) were milder in irradiated rabbits and that the inhibition of cell proliferation was proportional to the applied Absorbed dose. The ionizing radiation produce inhibitory effect on restenosis in New Zealand rabbits. Results obtained may open the possibility to apply this technique in human patients in Argentina. (author)

  14. Distribution of radioactive phosphorus (32 P) in sheep tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve male lambs (Corriedale) were separated in two groups according to their average age (114 days and 208 days). The animals of each group were selected in twos according to weight to provide duplicates. After a 7 days period of adaptation, during which time the lambs received anunrestricted mineral supplement, they were given intravenous injections of 1 ml of Na2H32PO4. The amount of radioactivity administered varied with time; from 500 μci to 225.9 μci for the 6 younger animals, and from 500 μci to 87.5 μci for the 6 older ones. At 8, 16, and 24 hours after the injections, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed by bleeding. As well as the serum and blood, pieces of tongue, brain, heart, diaphragm spleen, kidney, liver and bone were collected. These tissues were dried, incinerated and the extracts obtained with H2SO4 counted by Cerenkov radiation in a liquid scintillation counter. The level of inorganic phosphorus in the serum was determined with material obtained the day before the experiment. The younger animals had lower levels of serum inorganic phosphorus and retained higher levels of 32P on their tissues. The isotope was found in a decreasing order in the following tissues: liver, kidney, spleen heart, and tongue. The brain presented the least retention. The order of magnitude by which the tissues retained the isotope was not influenced by the age of the animals, by the experimental period, or by the level of serum inorganic phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus retained by the tissues was affected not only by the age of the animals, but also by the level of phosphorus in the blood and, for some tissues, by the experimental period

  15. Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

  16. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  17. Experiences on radiological monitoring during production of 32P labeled bio-molecules at JONAKI, Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P labeled bio-molecules are very important research tools in the field of modern biology and genetic engineering. JONAKI Laboratory established by the Department of Atomic Energy at Hyderabad handles about 5Ci of 32P in a month for producing the 32P labeled bio-molecules for research. This paper presents experiences on health physics activities which include area/air monitoring, waste management and environmental monitoring

  18. 'In vitro' determination of the rate of 32P uptake by erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ''in vitro'' methodology based on 32p uptake by erythrocytes was established as a potencial method for a phosphorus sub-clinical deficiency diagnosis in ruminant. Blood samples stored up to 48 hours were incubated with 32p at different periods and temperatures. There was no effect of storage time and the greatest 32p uptake values were obtained with incubation over 2 hours at 38 to 500C. (author)

  19. The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

  20. Upward and lateral translocation of 32P supplied to roots of apple and citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. 32P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of 32P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of 32P supplied to roots is through the xylem. (author)

  1. Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

  2. 14C concentration of aerosols collected at Fukuoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the contribution of carbon originated from fossil fuel to carbon in aerosols by using 14C concentration as an indicator for contamination of fossil fuel. The 14C concentration of contemporary material is comparable to the atmospheric concentration at the time it was formed, while fossil fuel such as petroleum and coal contains essentially no 14C, because its age is much greater than the 5730-yr half-life of 14C. Therefore, the contribution of carbon originated from fossil fuel to carbon in aerosols would be estimated by measuring the ratio of the 14C concentration in aerosols to that in a contemporary material. We measured 14C concentrations of aerosols (total and aerodynamic class sizes) collected at Fukuoka from January 1999 to January 2000, and evaluated the monthly variations of the contribution and the size dependence. (author)

  3. Improved microcatalytic procedure for preparing 14C-labelled hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterogeneously catalyzed hydrocarbon converting reactions may be used for the highly efficient production of 14C-hydrocarbons using the microcatalytically pulsed mode of operation with product recycling in connection with the now available highly active and selective catalysts. The further development of the procedure by its extension to multicomponent feedstocks and/or multistep reactions, i.e. to the combiation of several reaction and separation cycles in one compound apparatus, is reported. This allows the simultaneous production of several 14C-hydrocarbons in parallel in one apparatus from one 14C-feedstocks. The procedure is discussed in detail for the preparation of [ring-U-14C]toluene, [ring-U-14C]methylcyclohexane, and [G-14C]dimethylcyclopentane. (author)

  4. 14C Carbofuran residue in rice-fish ecosystem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14-C-carbofuran in the form of 14-C-Furada 3G was applied with doses of 0, 2, and 4 g/m2 to a rice-fish ecosystem model consisting of water, soil, rice, plant, and fish (Cyprinus carpio) in tanks of the size 1 m length, 1 m width, and 0.5 m depth. 14-C-carbofuran was released from 14-C-Furadan 3G, entered into the water, absorbed by plant root, and then distributed into the whole plant. A part of the 14-C-carbofuran was absorbed and retained by soil. In both doses of 4 and 2 g/m2, the 14-C-Furadan 3G was toxic to Cyprinus carpio under this experiment condition. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Transfer of 14C to prenatal and neonatal rats from their mothers exposed to 14C compounds by ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 14C through placenta or milk was investigated and the radiation dose to fetal and newborn rats was estimated. Female rats at gestational stages or after delivery were exposed to 14C in the form of sodium bicarbonate, thymidine and lysine by a single ingestion. Radioactivity in maternal tissues and conceptuses (placenta, fetal membrane and fetus) and in the newborn was determined at various times after ingestion. After exposure to these 14C compounds, there was no significant difference between the 14C concentration in the fetus and that in the maternal tissues, suggesting that the placenta has no effect in preventing or accelerating the placental transfer of 14C. The concentration and content of 14C in the fetus and newborn were, however, dependent on the chemical form of 14C and on the prenatal or neonatal stage at the time of ingestion. The result of the dose estimation showed that 14C-lysine gave significantly higher prenatal and neonatal doses than 14C-sodium bicarbonate or 14C-thymidine. (author)

  6. Development of a 14C detectable real-time radioisotope imaging system for plants under intermittent light environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic products in a living plant was developed and evaluated through a test run. 14C is a common radioisotope of carbon and useful to trace the photosynthetic products as well as a low energy beta emitter. The rationale of this study was to develop a RRIS that has the ability to detect low energy beta emitters, such as 14C, 35S, and 45Ca. To achieve compatibility between the detection of low energy beta emitters and irradiation of the test plant, an intermittent lighting system was added to the RRIS. Furthermore, a commercially available digital camera was added to the RRIS for acquisition of photographic images of the test plants. The capabilities of the new RRIS were evaluated through a test run by using seedlings of rice plants and 35S-labeled sulfate. It was shown that the new RRIS was able to detect 35S absorbed by rice plant seedlings, and it was able to acquire photon-counting images and photographic images of the test plants simultaneously. Despite some limitations, the new RRIS provides a means to study the kinetics of elements in plants by utilizing low energy beta emitters. (author)

  7. Incorporation of 14C in chemical constituents of algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two marine algal species Dunaliella premodecta, Chlamydemonas sp. and one fresh water species Scenedesmus obliquus were studied for 14C incorporation under laboratory conditions. The uptake of 14C in dry marine algal species was found to be more compared to that in fresh water species for the same initial concentration in the respective media. A sequential extraction technique was employed to study the distribution of 14C in different organic constituents. 14C fixation was found to be more in fatty acid fractions followed by protein and nucleoprotein fraction. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

  8. 14C emission fine structure by Radium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First works have shown the fine structure in the 14C spectra emitted by 223Ra and have confirmed the similitude between this emission and α emission. In this thesis, the author has measured the 14C energy spectra emitted by 222Ra even-even nucleus. In all these experiments, the number of detected carbon has been more important that in the experiment of discovery of these radioactivities. The author states precisely the 14C/α branching ratios and the 14C emission decay for the two studied isotopes

  9. Application of single-chip computer in 14C dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing a single chip computer with a LSC the 14C dating can be controlled successfully in an automatic way. Its function includes the record of the counts, chock of the errors changing sample in a pre-set time, calculation of the 14C ages and printing out the dates. Because it has an effective function as well as a small volume, it is suitable to set up in a general 14C laboratory to improve the operation condition. These advantages have practical significance for the automation of 14C measurement

  10. Structure of T=2 24Ne from 14C on 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C(14C,α) reaction at 22 MeV was used to study T=2 24Ne. Charged particles were detected with a Si detector telescope at 0 deg., and γ transitions in coincidence were detected with an array of three Compton-suppressed 'clover' detectors and seven Compton-suppressed single Ge crystals. The α-γ and α-γ-γ coincidence data were analyzed to study the structure of 24Ne. Twenty-two new γ lines were assigned to 14 new levels. Angular distribution measurements provided spin assignments and restrictions to a number of levels. Likely candidates were found for the lowest 5+ and 6+ levels. All but one of the 12 states predicted to lie below 6 MeV by shell model calculations using the universal s-d interaction were observed. The rms deviation in excitation energies among these is 190 keV, and there is a tendency for the observed levels to lie somewhat higher than the predicted ones. A comparison of the structure of 24Ne with its neighbors suggests a significant shell gap above the νd5/2 orbital in agreement with the large d5/2-s1/2 gap implied by the effective single-particle energies in the universal s-d shell model interaction

  11. Behaviour of {sup 14}C-sulfadiazine and {sup 14}C-difloxacin during manure storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamshoeft, Marc; Sukul, Premasis; Zuehlke, Sebastian [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), TU Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Spiteller, Michael, E-mail: M.Spiteller@infu.uni-dortmund.de [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), TU Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    The persistence of sulfadiazine, difloxacin, and their metabolites has been investigated in stored manure. The manure collected from sulfadiazine ({sup 14}C-SDZ) and difloxacin ({sup 14}C-DIF) treated pigs contained N-acetylsulfadiazine (Ac-SDZ), 4-hydroxy-SDZ (4-OH-SDZ), and sarafloxacin (SARA) as the main metabolites, respectively along with their parent compounds. Manures were stored separately at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C at various moisture levels. About 96-99% of the radioactivity remained in extractable parent compounds and their metabolites after 150 d of storage. The formation of non-extractable residue and the rate of mineralization were both negligible in manure containing SDZ and DIF. During storage SDZ concentration increased as a result of the deacetylation of Ac-SDZ, whose concentration decreased proportionally. Hence the environmental effects may be underestimated if the parent compound alone is considered for environmental risk assessment. About 11% and 14% of 4-OH-SDZ were lost after 20 and 40 d of storage; thereafter its concentration increased relatively, highlighting hydroxylation of SDZ. DIF degraded very slowly (7% loss after 150 d) during the storage of manure; in contrast the concentration of SARA decreased rapidly (72-90% loss after 150 d). Dilution of manure and storage at higher temperatures for a reasonable period of time enhanced the rate of reactions of SDZ, DIF and their related metabolites.

  12. Behaviour of 14C-sulfadiazine and 14C-difloxacin during manure storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence of sulfadiazine, difloxacin, and their metabolites has been investigated in stored manure. The manure collected from sulfadiazine (14C-SDZ) and difloxacin (14C-DIF) treated pigs contained N-acetylsulfadiazine (Ac-SDZ), 4-hydroxy-SDZ (4-OH-SDZ), and sarafloxacin (SARA) as the main metabolites, respectively along with their parent compounds. Manures were stored separately at 10 oC and 20 oC at various moisture levels. About 96-99% of the radioactivity remained in extractable parent compounds and their metabolites after 150 d of storage. The formation of non-extractable residue and the rate of mineralization were both negligible in manure containing SDZ and DIF. During storage SDZ concentration increased as a result of the deacetylation of Ac-SDZ, whose concentration decreased proportionally. Hence the environmental effects may be underestimated if the parent compound alone is considered for environmental risk assessment. About 11% and 14% of 4-OH-SDZ were lost after 20 and 40 d of storage; thereafter its concentration increased relatively, highlighting hydroxylation of SDZ. DIF degraded very slowly (7% loss after 150 d) during the storage of manure; in contrast the concentration of SARA decreased rapidly (72-90% loss after 150 d). Dilution of manure and storage at higher temperatures for a reasonable period of time enhanced the rate of reactions of SDZ, DIF and their related metabolites.

  13. Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

  14. Synthesis of [3-14C]-L-tryptophan and 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of selectively labeled [3-14C]-L-tryptophan and its derivative 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan using chemical and multienzymatic methods is reported. The key intermediate for this synthesis, 3-14C]-DL-alanine was obtained from 14CH3I as a result of its condensation with N- (diphenylmethylene)glycine tert-butyl ester. Next, the mixture containing [3-14C]-DL-alanine, indole or 5-hydroxyindole has been converted to [3-14C]-L-tryptophan or 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan, respectively, in a one-pot multienzymatic reaction using four enzymes: -amino acid oxidase, catalase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and tryptophanase. (author)

  15. Behaviour of 14 C-Maneb and 14 C-ETU in soils under field and laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon14-Maneb or 14 C-ETU was applied to soil contained in polyethylene tubes driven into the ground under field conditions. Most of the activity was found in both cases only in the top soil layers: 0-5 cm for Maneb: 0-10 cm for ETU. Half-life of total radiochemical 14 C-labeled residues was of 6 weeks for ETU and 18 weeks for Maneb. High percentage of bound residue (non-extracted activity) was detected in soil treated with 14 C-Maneb. When soil samples (Humic Gley and Purple Latosoil) were incubated with 14 C-ETU in laboratory conditions, microbial degradation occurred with 28% 14 C O2 evolved from both soil samples; no 14 C O2 was detected on sterilized soil samples. (author)

  16. Facile [14C]methane preparation using the reduction of [14C]methyl iodide by sodium borohydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]Methane (440 mCi) was prepared using the reduction of [14C]methyl iodide by sodium borohydride in diglyme in quantitative yield. The diborane formed was trapped as nonvolatile 9-BBN. [14C]Methane free of any accompanying gases was conveniently distributed into calibrated glass ampoules by the aid of capillary vacuum manifold and freezing out by liquid nitrogen. (author)

  17. Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

  18. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  19. Environmental background 14C levels in Japan in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessment of radiation doses due to 14C released from nuclear facilities, it is necessary to know the background level of environmental 14C originated from the natural cosmic-ray production and the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The authors selected grapes as an indicator of 14C levels in the environment including atmosphere, and determined the specific activities of 14C in ethanol extracted from wine made from grapes cultivated in several prefectures or unknown places in Japan in each year from 1990 to 2000. The specific activities of 14C were almost uniform all over Japan in each year, though they showed the weak tendency to slightly decrease with increasing population densities in the prefecture where the wine grapes were cultivated. It is considered that this small regional variation in the specific activities of 14C arose from Suess effect, because population densities can be regarded as an index of the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The specific activities of 14C gradually decreased in the 1990s. That is, they were 260 mBq/gC in 1990, and became 244 mBq/gC in 2000. This 14C level in 2000 was still about 7% higher than the pre-bomb level. The decrease in 14C originated from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-time was shorter than that in the Europe, Canada and the South Pacific. This difference in the decreasing rate between Japan and other countries may be explained by a fact that the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion continued to increase in Japan in this period. The specific activities of 14C in wine ethanol determined in this study showed good agreement with those in atmospheric CO2 predicted by a mathematical model. They were also in the same levels as the 14C specific activities in atmospheric CO2, tree leaves, grass and plant food in Japan and other countries, which were determined by the benzene synthesis-liquid scintillation counting or other methods. These methods of 14C determination are not so simple as the method adopted in this study. It is therefore considered that the method of determination of the 14C activities in wine ethanol is simple and precise enough to estimate the 14C activities in atmospheric CO2 and plants including crops, and thus contributes to assessment of doses due to environmental 14C. (author)

  20. Synthesis of [14C]-62514, a radiolabelled derivative of erythromycin A, via [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C]A-62514, 11-deoxy-11[carboxy(2-dimethylamino-[1-14C]ethyl)amino]-6-0-methyl-e rythromycin A 11,12-(cyclic ester), was performed in five steps. The key intermediate, [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethyl-enediamine, was obtained in 80% yield by reacting Eschenmoser's salt with K14CN and reducing the resulting [1-14C]N,N-dimethylglycinonitrile with H2 and Raney Ni in methanol and ammonium hydroxide. The final product was obtained 97% radiochemically pure in an overall radiochemical yield of 14%, with a specific activity of 39 mCi/mmol. (author)

  1. Determination of a calibration factor for the nondestructive assay of Guidant 32P brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calibration factor ('dial setting') for the nondestructive assay of Guidant TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy wire sources has been determined for measurements with the Capintec CRC-12 (sic. 'dose calibrator') ionization chamber. The calibration factor was derived from ionization current measurements with the CRC-12 followed by very quantitative, destructive assays of the 32P content in two sources

  2. Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

  3. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  4. Clinical observation of 5686 cases of infant hemangioma treated by 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic method of treating infant hemangioma by radioisotopes 32P. Methods: Simple hemangiomata were treated by 32P dermal application method. The authors prepared 32P at the activity of 165.98 kBq/cm2/h, diluted it with 2 ml water, and then dropped it on filter paper. The authors applied the paper to the impaired site according to the shape and the size of hemangioma. The impaired site received 32P radiation at the dosage of 9.41 Gy/cm2 each time. The treatment was repeated once every month. Cavernous hemangiomata were treated by local injections of colloid 32P at the dosage of 370 kBq/cm3 once every 2-3 months. Mixed hemangiomata received combined treatment mentioned above. Results: 3383 cases (99.0%) of simple hemangioma were cured by 32P dermal application method. 1241 case (98.7%) of cavernous hemangioma were cured. 397 cases (83.0%) of mixed hemangioma were cured. 534 cases (98.1%) of naevus flammeus were improved by 32P application method. The total effective rate was 99.8%. The cure rate was 88.3%. Conclusion: Treating hemangioma with 32P is satisfactory for its high efficiency and low toxicity. It may be advisable for infant skin disease

  5. Pilot study of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C, in order to produce material suitable for intercomparison exercises. Approximately 1 kg of tissue was prepared by grinding, blending, labelling with 14C-methylated bovine haemoglobin and thoroughly mixing by repeated blending. The product was sealed in cans and sterilized to preserve it. Portions of raw material were dried to test the homogeneity of moisture content. Homogeneity of 14C in the natural and labelled materials was tested by analyzing sub-samples of 2-3 g in weight of the freeze-dried materials. The 14C content was determined by combusting and collecting the CO2 for liquid scintillation counting. The material was found to be homogeneous to the extent of 2-4% (R.S.D.), which is comparable with the R.S.D. of the 14C measurements. The 14C concentration in the labelled material was 8190 ±220 Bq·kg-1 of carbon. It was concluded that bovine muscle prepared in this manner would be suitable for intercomparison exercises. The 14C level in unlabelled tissue was found to be 260 ±7 Bq·kg-1 of carbon, which is similar to the level of 14C previously determined in milk and both are consistent with levels measured in vegetation in Eastern Ontario

  6. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous fraction of living materials, such as collagen from tooth and bone, tissue, skin, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human body samples formed in this time intervals, we can establish a relationship of their 14C concentrations with calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the chemicals that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified, by their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination has been applied to a forensic study, i.e., two criminal cases of murder. For each case, by comparing the measured 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C, the time of death of the body and the age of the victim were estimated. The estimated values were consistent with the real ones that were revealed by the confession of the real murderers. (author)

  7. First-order 14C dating Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-order 14C dating was developed to facilitate quantitative neotectonic analysis on coasts. The technique relies on liquid scintillation counting of absorbed CO2 derived from carefully pretreated shell carbonate. It usefully complements conventional 14C assay in the construction of Holocene deformation chronologies and their use in structural interpretation. (Author)

  8. Behavior of 14C-BHC residues in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-(U-14C)-BHC was applied to rice plants grown in a pot and its fate in the growth, polishing and oil-extraction processes of the grain was investigated. The 14C-activity was absorbed and translocated widely in the plant and the recovery of applied 14C-activity in the straw and grain was about 2.8%, of which 9.4% was found in the brown rice. The % partitioning of 14C-residues in bran and polished rice was 12:88 and that in oil and oilcake was 37:63. Characterization of 14C-residues the presence of ?-BHC, pentachlorocyclohexene, trichlorobenzene and hydrophilic metabolites, whose proportions were different in the straw and grain. (Author)

  9. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

  10. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  11. The percutaneous absorption of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors had reported that L-cysteine probably was formed from acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine through cystathionine pathway by the skin enzyme of rabbit, and the solution composed of acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine exhibited the effectiveness to the hair growth in rabbit. This report shows that, by the application of 35S-acetyl-L-methionine and L-serine to the skin of rabbit and in vitro analysis of the metabolites of 35S-compounds, 35S-acetyl-L-methionine was absorbed into the hair tissues for many hours, and half 35S-L-cystine was formed in vitro and in vivo. When total amount of 35S in the hair was measured, the radiochemical activities were clearly shown as almost 35S-L-cystine. (auth.)

  12. The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received 35S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of 35S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of 35S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for 35S administered as methionine compared with 35S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of 35S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of 35S to milk of a further group of goats receiving 35S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection studies using 14C UBT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of 14C is about 5,730 years, and it decays by emitting a low energy beta (â) particle of mean energy 49 KeV. The biological half life of 14C is 10 to 12 days. 14C is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, 14C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult 'gigantism'), and for diagnosis of Helicobacterpylori (H pylori), The discovery H Pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Since then H pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established, H pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. By the application of radiation much progress has been made worldwide in the field of medicine. This article presents the application of 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum, 14C UBT relies on the urease activity of H pylori to detect the presence of active infection. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai has developed 14C UBT method and already in regular practice in many hospitals across the country. Orally administered 14C urea will be hydrolyzed into ammonia (NH4) and 14C labelled carbon dioxide (14CO2). The presence of a significant amount of (14CO2) in the exhaled breath indicates active H pylori infection. 14C UBT is relatively inexpensive, is easy to perform, and does not require endoscopy. 14C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low, much lower than the radiation dose due to natural sources. Nearly 100 samples collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic persons of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka were analysed and the results with discussion are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

  15. Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of bound (nonextractable) 14C residues from soil previously treated with [14C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

  16. TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yien, Yvette Y.; Robledo, Raymond F.; Schultz, Iman J.; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel E.; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Pierce, Eric L.; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A.; Miyata, Non; Kingsley, Paul D.; Garone, Caterina; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Huang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Keenan, Ellen M.; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Orkin, Stuart H.; Cantor, Alan B.; Palis, James; Koehler, Carla M.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M.; Dailey, Harry A.; Phillips, John D.; Peters, Luanne L.; Paw, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias. PMID:25157825

  17. 14C in the deep water of the east Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewal of east Atlantic deep water and its large-scale circulation and mixing have been studied in observed distributions of temperature, silicate, ΣCO2, and 14C. 14C variations in northeast Atlantic deep water below 3500m depth are small. Δ14C values range from - 100 per thousand to - 125 per thousand. 14C bottom water concentrations decrease from Δ14C = -117 per thousand in the Sierra Leone Basin to Δ14C = -123 per thousand in the Iberian Basin and are consistent with a mean northward bottom water flow. The characteristic of the water that flows from the west Atlantic through the Romanche Trench into the east Atlantic was determined by inspection of theta/Δ14C and theta/SiO2 diagrams. A mean potential temperature of theta = 1.50 +/- .050C was found for the inflowing water. A multi-box model including circulation, mixing, and chemical source terms in the deep water has been formulated. Linear programming and least-squares techniques have been used to obtain the transport and source parameters of the model from the observed tracer fields. Model calculations reveal an inflow through the Romanche Trench from the west Atlantic, which predominates over any other inflow (5 +/- 2) Sv (potential temperature 1.500C), a convective turnover of (150 +/- 50) years and a vertical apparent diffusivity of (4 +/- 1) cm2/s. Chemical source terms are in the expected ranges

  18. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced 14C had doubled the 14C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO2 cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing 14C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing 14C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the 14C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, 14C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of 14C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  19. Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [14C]erythritol and [3H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [14C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [14C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [3H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [14C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [3H]inulin clearance. The increase in [14C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [14C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [14C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

  20. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  1. Distribution and utilization of 14C assimilate in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in lentil (Lens esculentum L.) during winter of 1975 and 1976. Plants were allowed to assimilate 14CO2 at the pre bloom, flower initiation and early pod formation stage in 1975 and initial pod formation and mid pod filling stage in 1976 and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C (74 percent) was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During the vegetative phase, most of 14C (77 percent) was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissue and relatively low amount in root and nodules. Seventy two days after assimilation, pod accumulated about 8 percent of 14C. During the early reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was translocated from leaves to stem, pod and roots. Since stem was actively growing, it accumulated a considerable amount (38 percent) of assimilates. This resulted in a severe competition for assimilate supply for pod growth during early pod filling stage. At mid pod filling stage, most of the assimilate (65 percent) was utilized in pod growth. The pattern of carbon utilization and redistribution revealed that a part of assimilate utilized in stem and leaves was remobilised during the process of maturation. (author)

  2. Aspects of the metabolism of U-14C arginine, U-14C histidine and U-14C lysine by adult female Glossina morsitans during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-14C arginine, U-14C histidine or U-14C lysine was injected into haemolymph of pregnant female Glossina morsitans. Radioactivity was detected in the post-parturient female and its larval offspring mostly in arginine or histidine, but in the case of lysine injection radioactivity was detected in the two life stages in lysine lipids and a range of nonessential amino acids. The pattern of radioactivity in the developing oocyte and larva was related to growth characteristics of these young stages. Whereas arginine and histidine were mostly excreted unchanged, lysine derived radioactivity was detected in the excreted uric acid and expired carbon dioxide; radioactivity in such products was greater in early than late pregnancy. (author)

  3. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous materials of human body, such as collagen fractions from teeth and bone, tissue, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans dead or alive, are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human tissue samples formed in this time ranges, we can establish a relation between their 14C concentrations and calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the drugs that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified by the analysis of their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination was applied to a forensic study; i.e., to two similar cases of murder. One of the two cases is for a dead body of a modern human who was killed in 1978 and buried under the floor of the house owned by the murderer. The body was excavated in 2004 according to the confession by the murderer. 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and compared with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C. The time of death of the body was estimated to be at around 1977, and her age was from 30 to 37 years old at that time. These estimations were consistent with the real values that were revealed after the case was solved by the confession of the real murderer who gave himself up to the police. For the other case, 14C analysis was also consistent with the fact revealed by police investigations as well as by the confession of the real murderer.

  4. Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of 14C-Labelled Dichlobenil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) indicated that 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) was slightly absorbed by the leaf and some translocation occurred following foliar application. Plants with roots submersed in radioactive aqueous solution absorbed and translocated the 14C throughout the plant. An investigation of some of the chemical and physical properties of 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil was conducted. Loss because of volatilization from counting planchets was considerably reduced by application of acrylic plastic immediately after the solution dried. The plastic coating also eliminated contamination of counting chambers and windows. Two higher plants (bean and alligatorweed ) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) were selected for metabolism studies. Dichlobenil- 14C was added to Hoagland and Arnon's nutrient solution containing beans or alligatorweed and to liquid cultures containing the other organisms for 12 to 120 h. Extracts from the plants or fungi were chromatographed on silica gel thin-layers. Autoradiographs of the thin-layer chromatographed aqueous extracts revealed a C-labelled compound of Rf 0.25 that differed from that of dichlobenil, which was 0.6. After esterification of the extracts, a 14C-labelled compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the 14C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of 14C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil -14C. Other metabolites of dichlobenil -14C. were not resolved by these chromatographic procedures. (author)

  5. 14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

  6. 32P study on the absorption of phosphorus by corn under low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was found that the absorption of phosphorus by corn increased when temperature increased from 5 deg C to 25 deg C during seedling stage and the amount of 32P absorption was related to the temperature (correlation coefficient was 0.9747). Spraying leaves with phosphorus promoted the absorption of phosphorus by roots. 42% of 32P was washed out by rain at the rate of 50 mm/h after half hour of spraying leaves with 32P. Usually, spraying leaves again was unnecessary

  7. Preparation of 35S-labeled natural thiophene derivatives by biosynthesis in Tagetes sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some 35S labeled thiophene derivatives have been prepared by biosynthesis in in vitro cultures of Tagetes sp. A different sources of isotopic sulfur were tested and the best results were achieved with [35S] sodium sulfate. Elemental sulfur was not incorporated. Radiochemical yields were around 1%. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Preparation of D-[U-14C]galactose and ?-D-[U-14C]galactose-1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically pure D-[U-14C]galactose was prepared on a preparatory scale using the galactokinase enzyme. The suggested procedure allows to also prepare a ?-D-[U-14C]galactose-1-phosphate and L-[U-14]galactose giving good yield. The experiments proved that the raw fraction isolated from yeast of the Kluyveromyces fragilis strain or the Kluyveromyces lactis strain shows sufficient activity. Phosphorylation of D-[U-14C]galactose practically terminates after 30 mins of incubation. DL-[U-14C]galactose isolated using preparatory paper chromatography from the acid hydrolyzate of [U-14C] polysaccharide is a satisfactory radioactive precursor. The developed preparation procedure theoretically contributed towards the further elucidation of the problem of the proportional representation of galactose stereo-isomers in extracellular polysaccharide isolated from red algae. In this respect data in the literature differ and some sources state a significantly higher propertion of L-galactose. The experiments showed that [U-14C] polysaccharide isolated from the red algae Porphyridium cruentum prevalently contains D-[U-14C]galactose, which confirms the process of enzyme reaction. (author). 1 tab., 4 refs

  9. Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-70C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

  10. Determination of 14C content in fermentation alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measuring of activity in 14C of ethylic alcohol permits to distinguish fermentation alcohol from synthetic alcohol. This activity is used to determine the corresponding percentages of these alcohols in cases of mixture

  11. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  12. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  13. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  14. Patient risk of 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter Pylori bacteria infection is determined by activity measurement of the exhaled 14C-carbon dioxide formed from 14C-urea in stomach. About 37 kBq of capsulated 14C -urea is administered to the patient. Because 14C is a weak beta emitter, patients receive certain radiation dose. This could be the only drawback of this method. Because of that in this paper the effective dose has been determined. On that basis the patient risk has been estimated. The results show that the patient effective dose is at the level of the daily background radiation. So, from the radiation protection point of view this method is very safe. Including other excellent performances of the method like sensitivity, selectivity, noninvasivity, fastness and low costs, it could be recommended in diagnosis and eradication of Helicobacter Pylori infections. (author)

  15. Effect of HF leaching on 14C dates of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the experiments with 14C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The 14C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make 14C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable 14C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  16. Model for release of gaseous 14C from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is contained in cladding, intergrain boundaries and UO2 in spent nuclear fuel, and can be released as gaseous 14CO2 in an oxidizing environment. Approximately 2.5% of the inventory can be released quickly from gap, grain boundary and cladding surface. 14C within cladding can be released upon oxidation of the metal, but is probably a minor source. Most 14C is contained in UO2 fuel, and can be released when the fuel oxidizes. Releases from fuel depend on diffusion of oxygen through the grain boundaries and a layer of U3O7, and diffusion of 14CO2 out through same two layers. A model of UO2 oxidation was based on experimental data, and used in a model for 14C release. This model is demonstrated on a hypothetical repository in an unsaturated environment, and shows a strong dependence on the time at which containers fail

  17. Incorporation of 14C-succinate in Synechococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus (= Anacystis nidulans) was grown under normal air conditions (0.03 vol.% CO2) and in low white light (0.5 x 103 ?W/cm2) at 37 0C. Kinetics of 14C incorporation into several soluble products and pigments were studied after adding 14C-succinate during photosynthesis and in the dark using the autoradiographic method. Radioactivity was found mainly in glutamate and aspartate during the photosynthetic period independent on 3-(3',4'-dichlorphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea preincubation. In the dark period 14C label could also be detected in malate. Short-term kinetics experiments showed a decrease in 14C label of glutamate and a parallel increase of aspartate. Results were discussed in respect to the interrupted tricarboxylic acid cycle. (author)

  18. Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-35S-cysteine and L-35S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity L-35 S-cysteine and L-35 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na235 SO4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-35 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na235 SO4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

  19. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

  20. Preparation of (N-methyl-14C) Erythromycin and (N-methyl-14C) Erythromycin cyclic carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (N-methyl-14C)Erythromycin was obtained by methylation of des-N-methylerythromycin with (14C)formaldehyde in the presence of Pd-catalyst. Radiochemical yield reached 42.3%, radiochemical purity 95.1%. Condensation of this compound with ethylene carbonate led to (N-methyl-14C)erythromycin cyclic carbonate with radiochemical yield of 71% and radiochemical purity of 98.5%. Both products were purified on a chromathografic column with aluminium oxide or silica gel bed

  1. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  2. Preparation of 14C-catechins by tea cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of 14C labelled catechins was studied by feeding 14C labelled precursor to tea cultured cells. Two labelled precursors were tested and their effects were compared. The dynamics of absorption and transformation of fed precursors were analyzed and the effects of pre-culture as well as UV light pretreatment on product labelling rate were evaluated. Product analysis was also made by HSCCC and HPLC techniques

  3. 14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Method to produce 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to produce 14C labelled compounds by aerobic growth of an alga of the anacystis kind in a medium containing 14C in such a form that it is taken up by the microorganism, is described according to the invention. The alga anacystis nidulans has some advantages over the green alga chlorella so far commonly used to produce labelled compounds: The generation time is considerably shorter, the radiation resistance greater, the production of nuclei acids and proteins is higher. (VJ)

  5. Synthesis of [14C]-labelled dihydropyridine calcium channel entry blockers: nicardipine-[4[14C] and RS-93522-[4-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hantzsch synthesis has been applied to the general preparation of 4-aryl-dihydropyridines labelled in the metabolically stable 4-position of the dihydropyridine ring. The synthesis is based on the preparation of a key common intermediate, m-nitrobenzaldehyde-[formyl-14C], in high yield from Ba14CO3. (author)

  6. Recalculation of data on sup 32 P activity induced in sulfur in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tatsuji (Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Historical data for {sup 32}P activity induced in sulfur by fast neutrons have been corrected for decay with a recent half-life value of {sup 32}P and recalculated with an experimentally determined efficiency ratio of the electroscope for beta rays from {sup 32}P and natural uranium used as a standard. Most samples would have been pure enough so that no correction for the weight of sulfur has been made. The possibility of interference with {sup 32}P activity measurements due to induced activity of other elements in the samples could also be excluded. The revised data show little difference from the original ones except for one sample which contained much impurity. Uncertainty of the data was also discussed. (author).

  7. Standardization of 32P/33P and 204Tl by liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, L Rodríguez; García-Toraño, E; Los Arcos, J M

    2004-01-01

    Two solutions, one of 32P with a significant contribution of 33P, and another one of 204Tl were standardized by liquid scintillation counting in the frame of two intercomparison exercises organized by the BIPM in 2002. For the 32P solution, the counting efficiencies for 32P and 33P were obtained by the CIEMAT/NIST method. The individual contributions of 32P and 33P were determined by fitting a set of measurements to a function of the half-lives and counting efficiencies of both component nuclides. 204Tl was also standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method using two counters, three scintillators, HiSafe 3, Insta-Gel Plus and Ultima-Gold, and two different kinds of samples. A total of 480 samples were measured over 45 days with results in full agreement within the uncertainties considered. The efficiency values are also compared to those used in the previous 204Tl intercomparison (1997). PMID:14987713

  8. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  9. Uptake and distribution of 32P in the budded and self-rooted grape varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the self-rooted and budded varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the total P and 32P contents were high in 'Anabee-Shahi', but low in in 'Muscat'. The growing shoots contained more P than old stems and roots in all the varieties. In the budded plants, 'Kali Sahebi' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shani showed the maximum 32P and total P in the shoots, but 'Muscat' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shahi' accumulated more P in the roots and very low 32P in the growing shoots. Auto-radiographs of shoots also showed that 'Kali Sahebi' budded on 'Anab-e-Shani' rootstock accumulated more 32P in the shoots. (author)

  10. Standardization of 32P/33P and 204Tl by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two solutions, one of 32P with a significant contribution of 33P, and another one of 204Tl were standardized by liquid scintillation counting in the frame of two intercomparison exercises organized by the BIPM in 2002. For the 32P solution, the counting efficiencies for 32P and 33P were obtained by the CIEMAT/NIST method. The individual contributions of 32P and 33P were determined by fitting a set of measurements to a function of the half-lives and counting efficiencies of both component nuclides. 204Tl was also standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method using two counters, three scintillators, HiSafe 3, Insta-Gel Plus and Ultima-Gold, and two different kinds of samples. A total of 480 samples were measured over 45 days with results in full agreement within the uncertainties considered. The efficiency values are also compared to those used in the previous 204Tl intercomparison (1997)

  11. Optimization time synthesis of nucleotide labelled [γ-32P]-ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenosine triphosphate-labelled with γ-32P([γ-32p]-ATP) has been widely used in the biotechnology research, usually as a tracer to study aspects of physiological and pathological processes. In order to support biotechnology research in Indonesia, a process for production of [γ-32P]-ATP with enzymatic reaction was used as precursors DL-glyceraldehydde 3-phosphate, Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and H332PO4, and enzyme glyceraldehid 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglyceryc phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Optimization of incubation time labeled nucleotide synthesis process is performed to find the optimum conditions, in terms of the most advantageous time in the synthesis process. With the success of the synthesis and optimization is done incubation time of synthesis labeled nucleotide, the result suggested can be used for producing [γ-32P] -ATP to support the provision of radiolabeled nucleotide for biotechnology research in Indonesia. (author)

  12. Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

  13. Turnover of eastern Caribbean deep water from 14C measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14C balance for the Eastern Caribbean deep water indicates the average inflow of Atlantic water into the basin to be 2.3 X 105 m3/sec (+-30%), or about 2-4 times the values estimated previously. The balance uses a model representation of the deep-water turnover, and is based on 14C concentrations at a station in the Venezuelan Basin which average ? 14C = 89% below 800 m depth with a total range of only 9%, as well as on a 14C concentration of the Atlantic inflow of ? 14C = -71% as obtained from measurements outside the Antilles Arch. The turnover time of the basin water below 2500 m depth is 55 years, which corresponds to an average upwelling velocity at this depth of about 35 m/year. With such upwelling, the temperature profile below 1800 m (the depth of the sill determining the inflow of new water) requires a vertical eddy diffusivity of about 5 cm2/sec. The oxygen consumption, and silica and CO2 regeneration, rates below 2500 m depth are obtained as -0.18, +0.08, and +0.2 ?mole kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The CO2 regeneration has but a negligible effect on the 14C balance. (Auth.)

  14. Accumulation and elimination of radioactive phosphorus (32P) in some organs of the Tilapia Nilotica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of accumulation and elimination of 32P was measured in five organs, i.e., brain, bone, heart, muscle and small intestines of the Tilapia nilotica at 190C or 280C. There was a faster rate of uptake at 280C, with the small intestines having the highest concentration of radioactive material. Elimination rates, however, indicate that bone retains 32P longest. (Auth.). 10 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Validation of 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, 32P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, 32P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for 32P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using 32P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate 32P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for 32P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using 32P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed

  16. Validation of {sup 32}P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Park, Minjeong; Park, Seyoung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Ha, Wiho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hanki [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, {sup 32}P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, {sup 32}P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for {sup 32}P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using {sup 32}P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, {sup 32}P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate {sup 32}P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for {sup 32}P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using {sup 32}P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed.

  17. Lethal effects of 32P decay on transfecting activity of Bacillus subtillis phage phie DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disintegration of 32P present in the DNA of Bacillus subtilis phage phie (a phage containing double-strand DNA) results in the loss of viability of intact phage as well as transfecting activity of isolated DNA. Only 1/12 of the 32P disintegrations per phage DNA equivalent inactivities the intact phage while nearly every disintegration inactivates the transfecting DNA. This result provides evidence for a single-strand intermediate in the transfection of B. subtilis by phie DNA

  18. 32P-labeled hydroxyapatite particles for use in radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides decaying by emission of β- particles of varying energies have been proposed for treating arthritis of various joints. Hydroxyapatite (HA) (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is a preferred substrate for developing radiochemical agents for management of arthritis. Reactor produced 32P was evaluated for its suitability for preparation of a potent radiolabeled agent for the treatment of arthritis based on HA particles. 32P is produced by both (n,γ) and (n,p) routes from red phosphorus and elemental sulfur respectively. The preparation of 32P labeled HA particles (particle size 2-10 μm) was carried out using 10 mg HA at pH 7-8. The maximum achievable specific activity of 222 MBq 32P/mg of P in Dhruva research reactor employing radiative neutron capture reactions on red P has limitations in its utility in HA formulation, however, using no carrier added (NCA) 32P, HA could be labeled in high radiochemical purity (>95%). The radiolabeled particulates showed excellent in vitro stability at room temperature. Intra-articular injection of 32P-HA particles in the knee joint showed complete retention of activity within the synovial cavity with no measurable activity leaching out from the joint till 14 d post injection, in case of Wistar rats bearing arthritis. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: Objective: to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and methods: the patch was prepared from [32P]-chromic phosphate and silicone. The (a) activity concentration, (b) homogeneity, (c) integrity, (d) therapeutic efficacy for two treatment schemes in an animal model of skin cancer, (e) bio elimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals and (t) dosimetry to plan the treatment schemes were determined. Results: the 32P patch demonstrated homogeneity of activity and dose. On the other hand, it showed integrity under degradation conditions like the ones in a treatment. According to the bio elimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single dose therapeutic scheme showed higher percentage of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by the histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: the 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for its use in brachytherapy treatments. (author)

  20. Radioactive 32P incorporation in liver of mice fed with Aspergillus terreus contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 32P during toxicosis due to Aspergillus terreus, a common food contaminant, reported to procedure the toxin terreic acid, in addition to few others, was studied in mice. Radioactive 32P was injected intraperitoneally to the control mice and the experimental ones, which were fed with Aspergillus terreus contaminated feed, as well as the toxin terreic acid. After 24 hrs, both control and experimental animals were sacrificed. 32P incorporation in various fractions of liver were studied. 0.5 cm3 of each fractions was spread on a planchette and dried at 60 deg C. 32P activity was measured using a thin end window Geiger Mueller tube connected to Panax-type 100 C counter. No corrections were necessary for self absorption. In mice, fed with the contaminated feed, more 32P got incorporated in the nucleic acid fraction than seen in protein, barium soluble and barium insoluble fractions, whereas 32P incorporation in lipid fraction was lower. (T.G.)

  1. Intramolecular labelling of sucrose made by leaves from [14C] carbon dioxide or [3-14C] serine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pea leaves were illuminated in air containing 150 or 1000 p.p.m. of 14CO2 for various times. Alternatively segments of wheat leaves were supplied with [3-14C]serine for 40 min in the light in air with 145, 326 or 994 p.p.m. of 12CO2. Sucrose was extracted from the leaf material, hydrolysed with invertase, and 14C in the pairs of carbon atoms C-3 + C-4, C-2 + C-5 and C-1 + C-6 in the glucose moiety was measured. The results obtained after metabolism of 14CO2 were consistent with the operation of the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle; the effects of CO2 concentration on distribution of 14C in the carbon chain of glucose after metabolism of [3-14C]serine is more easily explained by metabolism through the glycollate pathway than by the carbon-reduction cycle. (author)

  2. Lymphokine-induced uptake of [14C]glucosamine, [14C]glucose, and [3H]leucine by macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphokine-activated (LK+) and control (LK-) macrophages were cultured for 66 h and then pulsed with [14C]glucosamine. Uptake of [14C]glucosamine was greater in LK+ than in LK- cultures. If, after 66 h, the medium was replaced with fresh medium and then pulsed with either [14C]glucose or [14C]glucosamine, the uptake of isotope was greatly reduced compared to cultures with no change of medium. However, uptake of both radiolabeled substances was still found to be greater in LK+ cultures than in LK- cultures. Although uptake of both substances was enhanced by lymphokines, the uptake kinetics of each isotope was different. Under similar conditions the uptake of [3H]leucine was not enhanced by lymphokine activation. These data are interpreted to mean that LK+ macrophages are metabolically stimulated and utilize more glucose and glucosamine. The difference in kinetics implies a different utilization by macrophages for each substance

  3. Metabolic Fate of [(14)C]Diuron and [(14)C]Linuron in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Radish (Raphanus sativus).

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Alsayeda, Haifaa; Jouanin, Isabelle; Debrauwer, Laurent; Canlet, Cécile; Laurent, François

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics in plants usually occurs in three phases, phase I (primary metabolism), phase II (conjugation processes), and phase III (storage). The uptake and metabolism of [(14)C]diuron and [(14)C]linuron were investigated in wheat and radish. Seeds were sown in quartz sand and irrigated with a nutrient solution of either radioactive herbicide. Plants were harvested after two weeks, and metabolites were extracted and then analyzed by radio-reverse-high-performance liquid chromat...

  4. Synthesis of 1-carboxy-N,N,N-tri-[methyl-14C] methanaminium chloride (betaine [methyl-14C] hydrochloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromoacetate was reacted with trimethylamine-[14C] dissolved in methanol, forming the methyl ester of [14C] labeled betaine hydrobromide. The methyl ester was hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium to (carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt, and then transformed into the hydrychloride by treatment with an equivalent amount of hydrochloric acid, yielding high purity material with a specific activity of 19.2 ?Ci/mmol and overall yield of 81.7%. (author)

  5. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subspeciation of total cell proteins from multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids labelled with [35S]methionine or [35S]thioATP and of coagulase negative staphylococci labelled with [35S]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors demonstrate that [35S]methionine labelling of proteins followed by PAGE can be used to distinguish biochemically similar, multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids; thirty-one isolates fell into four subgroups. The method also distinguished ten separate electrophoretypes of coagulase-negative staphylococci which correlated approximately with eight biotypes; the fifty-one isolates of biotypes SII, the commonest clinical isolate, were electrophoretically identical, thus suggesting that they are, indeed, members of a single subgroup. The authors also report a novel method of radiolabelling the phosphoproteins using [35S]thioATP and have demonstrated the method using the above diphtheroids. These were again distinguished into the same four subgroups although the patterns of phosphoproteins were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the proteins. This thioATP labelling method should have wide application also. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Developing a flow sheet for the production of 32P using magnesium sulphate target in KAMINI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P is a widely used radio-nuclide in bone pain palliation therapy. 32P can be produced in FBTR through 32S (n, p) 32P. In order to investigate the feasibility of the production and develop a flow sheet for the chemical processing of the irradiated target, a trial run was carried out using KAMINI reactor. This paper describes the irradiation of sulphate target in KAMINI reactor and chemical processing of the target to separate 32P. (author)

  7. Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenstrm, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

  8. Gonadotropin hyperstimulation influences the 35S-methionine metabolism of mouse preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, A M; Artz, M T; Goverde, H J; Bastiaans, B A; Hamilton, C J; Rolland, R

    1995-11-01

    The effects of gonadotropin stimulation on mouse embryo uptake and incorporation of 35S-methionine were studied. We found that the uptake of 35S-methionine was reduced in embryos of stimulated females in both the two-cell and the blastocyst developmental stage. The incorporation of 35S-methionine into protein was not statistically significantly different between the embryos of stimulated and those of unstimulated females. Qualitatively, protein synthesis was equal in both groups as determined with one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The results are discussed and we conclude that mouse embryo viability in vivo is decreased by ovarian stimulation. PMID:8624434

  9. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  10. Method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-(32P) triphosphate by chemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziolkiewicz, W.; Pankowski, J.; Janecka, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-(32P) triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with (32P)-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-(32P)ATP.

  11. Monitoring of the 14C activity in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The distribution of atmospheric radiocarbon has been extensively investigated both in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere as well as in the Tropics for a number of decades. Systematic global observations of 14CO2 in the troposphere were made during and after atmospheric nuclear weapon tests in the 1950s and 1960s by several laboratories. Nowadays the monitoring of 14C in regions adjacent to nuclear power plants (NPP) or sites of land-filled radioactive wastes has growing importance in determining the frequency and activity of anthropogenic 14C released to the environment. On the other hand, the depletion of 14C in the atmosphere gives information about the regional fossil fuel CO2 contributions (Figure 1., Prague-Bulovka). The 14C activity of the atmosphere has been monitored in the vicinity of Paks NPP by sampling environmental air monthly since 1994. Four differential sampling units collect air samples less than 2 km away from the 100- m-high stacks of Paks NPP (A-type stations), and for reference a sampler is operated at a station (B24) ca. 30 km away from Paks NPP. The highest 14C values were measured at the site located less than 1km away from Paks NPP. The influence of the 14C discharge in the environment decreases rapidly with the distance from the source and under normal operating conditions the effect of Paks NPP is negligible at a distance of 2.5km. In Figure 1. we have compared our data for Paks NPP measured during the time span of 2000 - 2005 with data from different European monitoring stations. (The 14C activities are given in Δ values: Δ14C(% (Asample/Astandard-1) x 1000.) In 2000-2001 the excess 14C at Paks NPP compared to the B24 was 5-10 (per mille) but its Δ value didn't exceed the tropospheric background (1). With the growing traffic the inactive CO2 emission (Suess effect) exceeded the influence of the NPP (2). After a cleaning tank incident at unit 2 of Paks NPP in April 2003 a 5-10 (per mille) rise of Δ14CO2 was observed at all stations (3). During the remediation activities this decreased slowly in 2004 and ceased by the second half of 2005 (4). (author)

  12. Pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice. Methods: Mice received one dose of 14C-urea orally. 14C concentrations in blood, organs and excrements of mice were measured by a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Results: Mice received one dose of 2.96 MBq/kg of 14C-urea orally, the blood concentration-time curve conformed to two compartment open model, T1/2(?) was 0.72 h, T1/2(?) was 5.15 h, Tmax was 0.11 h, Cmax was 1.57 kBq/ml, plasma clearance was 0.617 Lkg-1h-1, respectively. Measurements conducted at 0.25, 2, 24 h after deglutition, respectively. In the 12 organs measured, radioactivity was found most intensive in kidney, liver, lung and spleen, less in heart, stomach, intestines and muscles, and least in brain and fat tissue. The peak was found at 2 h in lung. Radioactivity in the 12 organs measured reduced by time in 24 h but relatively higher concentration standing in liver. In 24 h, excretion via urine was 45.45%, stool excretion 19.30%, and that was 64.75% of intake dosage in total. Conclusion: Orally administrated 14C-urea will be quickly absorbed and cleaned out, mainly via urine, no specific accumulation in 12 organs was found

  13. In vitro synthesis and purification of UDP-[14C] galacturonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectins comprise a major component of the cell wall and much research has focused on degradation of pectins during ripening and senescence. However, little research has been conducted on pectin synthesis, partly due to a lack of commercial availability of UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid for use as a substrate in assaying galacturonan synthase. We report on the modification and integration of several procedures to synthesize UDP-[14C] galacturonic acid from commercially available UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid. A microsomal pellet containing UDP-D-glucuronate-4-epimerase was extracted from 5-day-old mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus) and radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.) by ultracentrifugation at 30,000 rpm for 50 min. The UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid produced was separated from remaining UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and other products by electrophoresis in pyridine:acetate:H2O on silica gel. Spots were detected by autoradiography, eluted with 80% ethanol, and purified using anion exchange chromatography

  14. Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with α-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with γ-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

  15. Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

  16. Synthesis of |21-14C| -3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one and |21-14C| -5?-cholestan-3?-OL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    |21-14C|-3?-Hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one was synthesised from 3?-acetoxy-5?-androstan-17?-carboxylic acid chloride and |14C2|dimethyl-cadmium. Reaction of the labelled product with isohexyl bromide yielded, after dehydration and catalytic hydrogenation, |21-14C|-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (|21-14C|-coprostanol). (author)

  17. 35S-beta-glucuronidase gene blocks biological effects of cotransferred iaa genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinland, B; Kares, C; Herrmann, A; Otten, L

    1991-05-01

    The iaaM and iaaH genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes play an important role in crown gall and hairy root disease. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monooxygenase which converts tryptophan into indole-3-acetamide (IAM). IAM is converted into the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by indoleacetamide hydrolase, encoded by the iaaH gene. In functional studies on the activity of the iaa genes of the TB region of the A. tumefaciens biotype III strain Tm4, the frequently used 35S-beta-glucuronidase (35S-UidA or GUS) marker gene was found to inhibit IAA synthesis and root induction encoded by the TB iaa genes. To exert this inhibition, the 35S-UidA gene must be cotransferred with the iaaH gene. The 35S promoter alone is sufficient to cause the inhibitory effect. PMID:1859868

  18. Estimated committed dose equivalent from the volatilization of 35S-labeled methionine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein labeling techniques employing 35S have been found to produce airborne radioactive contamination in laboratory environments through the volatilization of 35S compounds from incubated cell cultures. The committed dose equivalent, H50, for laboratory personnel inhaling volatilized products for 35S-labeled protein hydrolysate has been estimated to be in the range of 9.8 x 10-7 Sv (∼0.1 millirem) to 6.3 x 10-6 Sv(∼0.6 millirem) for procedures utilizing 37 MBq (1 mCi) 35S. In this paper simple abatement measures are outlined to accommodate the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) philosophy for eliminating unnecessary exposures

  19. Comparative pharmacokinetics of 35-S and 99m-Tc-labeled heparin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental work demonstrated a significative difference between 99m-Tc and 35-S-labeled Heparin pharmacokinetics which might be related to a differential tissular accumulation of the labeled molecules

  20. The uptake of brace35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of [35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices has been shown to be activated in the presence of iodide. The total uptake (Q) of [35S] methimazole was shown to be the sum of a saturable process and a non-saturable process. The constants Qsub(max), K3 and P in the two-term equation were determined using a published statistical method and a Fortran IV computer programme. Diiodotyrosine (DIT) at a 0.1 mM concentration stimulated the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole appreciably in the absence of iodide, whilst thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) inhibited uptake in the presence of iodide and was of no effect in the absence of iodide. Propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibited the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole whilst perchlorate had no effect. (author)

  1. Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

  2. Rapid, high-resolution 14C chronology of ooids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupré, Steven R.; Roberts, Mark L.; Burton, Joshua R.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-06-01

    Ooids are small, spherical to ellipsoidal grains composed of concentric layers of CaCO3 that could potentially serve as biogeochemical records of the environments in which they grew. Such records, however, must be placed in the proper temporal context. Therefore, we developed a novel acidification system and employed an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) with a gas accepting ion source to obtain radiocarbon (14C) chronologies extending radially through ooids within one 8-h workday. The method was applied to ooids from Highborne Cay, Bahamas and Shark Bay, Australia, yielding reproducible 14C chronologies, as well as constraints on the rates and durations of ooid growth and independent estimates of local 14C reservoir ages.

  3. Method of preparing (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial compound for the preparation of (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate is a water-soluble polysaccharide (e.g., branched polysaccharide of the 1→4,6 glycan type) separated from radioactive biological material (e.g., from green or blue-green algae). The polysaccharide is gradually reacted to a number of enzymes to obtain glucose-6-phosphate (U-14C). This intermediate product is exposed to the action of the mannosephosphate isomerase enzyme in a buffered medium of pH of 7.2. The resulting mannose-6-phosphate(U-14C) is separated with paper chromatography. The reaction yield is up to 38%. The advantage of the said method of preparation is that it involves directly the water-soluble polysaccharide obtained within the complex treatment of radioactive biomass. (E.S.)

  4. Tumor type and vascularity: important variables in infusional brachytherapy with colloidal 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of histologic tumor characteristics, in comparison with a normal tissue, and of tumor vascularization on the uptake and retention of colloidal 32P used in infusional brachytherapy of solid cancers. The cytotoxicity of colloidal 32P was also evaluated for two tumors of different radiosensitivity, a melanoma, and a squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: An in vitro analysis of colloidal 32P uptake was carried out on a human melanoma cell line, HBL, a human squamous cell carcinoma, SCC1, and normal fibroblasts, F-NBB. Tumor retention of colloidal 32P was studied in vivo for the HBL and the SCC1 tumors implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Tumor vascular density was determined by microscopic study of Masson's trichrome slides of HBL and SCC1 tumors of about 1 cm diameter. Results: In vitro studies showed that the time required for maximal cell uptake of colloidal 32P was only 10-20 min for the SCC1 and HBL tumors, while it took at least 60 min for the fibroblasts. After intratumoral injection of macroaggregated albumin (MAA), followed by 50 μCi of colloidal32P, Bremsstrahlung imaging performed at 6 and 24 h showed that the activity remained in the HBL tumor while some of the radiocolloids leaked from the SCC1 tumor and was trapped in the reticuloendothelial system of the liver. Organ activity counting confirmed this finding: 32P activity was three to four times higher in the HBL than in the SCC1 tumor, whereas the activity in the liver, insignificant in the HBL mice (less than 0.1 μCi/g), was as high as 24 μCi/g in the SCC1 mice. This phenomenon may be explained by the difference in tumor vascular density, estimated for the HBL to be about four times less than that of the SCC1 tumor (5.7 vs. 21.4 blood vessels per mm2 for the HBL and the SCC1 tumors, respectively). Conclusion: Intratumoral infusion of colloidal 32P may be a useful complement of radiation therapy in the treatment of nonresectable but accessible solid tumors. Tumor vascularization must be taken into account for a successful vascular blockade by MAA prior to the infusion of colloidal 32P

  5. Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

  6. Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure β- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

  7. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion.

  8. Standardization and intercalibration trials with 14C isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable standardization of stock solution of 14C and the counting equipment is an essential pre-requisite in order to get comparable and meaningful values in primary production measured by 14C techniques. In the course of a comparative study of different methods of standardization it was found that the biological and scintillation methods gave comparable values for stock solutions. The presence of toxic substances in stock solutions can produce disconcertingly divergent values if proper care is not taken in the preparation of ampoules. The results of experimental work on these aspects to ensure accuracy and comparability in the values obtained both in eutrophic and oligotrophic environments are discussed. (author)

  9. AMS of {sup 14}C at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. [ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    At the ETH/PSI AMS facility {sup 14}C test measurements have been performed at low terminal voltages of 0.5 and 1 MV in order to study the feasibility of AMS with very small accelerators. These experiments have demonstrated that interfering molecules ({sup 13}CH and {sup 12}CH{sub 2}) in charge states 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} can be destroyed in an adequate Ar gas stripper. These new results imply the feasibility of a new generation of very small accelerator systems for {sup 14}C. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  10. Spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose and Jones recently discovered in an ingeniously simple experiment that 223Ra, an ? emitter with a half-life of 11.4 days, occasionally emits 14C nuclei of 29.8 MeV energy. The branching ratio relative to ? decay was measured to be (8.5 +/- 2.5) x 10-10. 223Ra occurs in the natural decay chain of 235U, with 227Ac being a convenient precursor and source material. In the present study the authors have confirmed the spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra and unambiguously identified the mass of the emitted particles

  11. Search for exotic cluster configurations in 14C nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, L. Yu; Chernyshev, B. A.; Gurov, Yu B.; Karpuhin, V. S.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Pritula, R. V.; Schurenkova, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of 2-dimentional Dalitz diagram, measured in 14C(?-, pd)X reaction, allowed to distinguish the pion absorption by p intranuclear cluster and to obtain an indication on the existence of 3p + 11Li configuration in 14C nucleus. Highly excited states of 12,13Be isotopes were found with the energy of Ex ? 30 MeV for the first time. It was shown that these states decay as follows 12Be*?p + 11Li and 13Be*?d + 11Li.

  12. A new 14C AMS facility at IUAC, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new state of art Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility for 14C has been developed at IUAC. This facility is based on the 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator and an Automated Graphitization Equipment (AGE). In addition to the 14C measurements, this system has the capability to perform 10Be and 26AI measurements also. The system is called XCAMS i.e., Compact, Accelerator Mass Spectrometer eXtended for 10Be and 26AI. A detailed description of the newly developed AMS facility and the recent measurements will be discussed

  13. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into inorganic and organic constituents of two forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into phosphate-extractable S, hydriodic acid-reducible S (HI-S), and total S was measured in three horizons of Spodosols from the Huntington Forest, New York and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. After 56 d 35S incorporated into nonwater-extractable S constituents was 92, 65, 92, 63, 72, and 91% of the total 35S-activity for the Huntington Forest Oa, Bh, Bsl, and Hubbard Brook Oa, Bh, and Bsl horizons, respectively. Immobilization of 35S-sulfate into carbon-bonded S (total S - HI-S) was the major incorporation pathway in the Oa horizons. Adsorption of 35S-sulfate (phosphate-extractable) was most evident in the Bh and Bsl horizons. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into ester sulfate (HI-S - inorganic S) occurred in all horizons. The influence of immobilization-mineralization and adsorption-desorption on S dynamics of these forest soils was evaluated

  14. Incorporation of (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of (2-14C)acetate and (1-14C)palmitate into the lipids of washed ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa was followed up to 4 and 2 hr respectively. There was significant incorporation of acetate into the total lipids both in the presence and absence of glucose in the medium. The presence of glucose (0.5%) in the medium significantly stimulated the incorporation of acetate into the sperm lipids at 2 hr. Inclusion of 3% bovine serum albumin in the incubation medium significantly stimulated the acetate incorporation at 4 hr whereas no such effect was observed at 2 hr of incubation. The incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids was significantly high in the presence of glucose and was highest at 1 hr of incubation. No incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate was observed in the absence of glucose. The greater extent of palmitate incorporation than acetate suggested that the de novo synthesis of lipids using 14C-acetate was comparatively lower than utilization of 14-palmitate for esterification with sperm lipids in buffaloes. (author)

  15. Effect of tolbutamide on 14C-sodium bicarbonate and 14C-alanine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolbutamide (TOLB) is a sulfonylurea commonly used in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Studies have shown that TOLB affects gluconeogenesis and glycolysis from various substrates in the liver. Specifically, TOLB inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate in a dose-dependent manner. In order to further clarify tolbutamide's mechanism of action, its effect on the incorporation of 14C from NaH14CO3 and 14C-alanine into glucose, lactate or pyruvate in the presence of lactate was measured. Rat hepatocytes were incubated with lactate (2.0 mM) with or without TOLB (1.0 mM) in the presence of NaH14CO3 or 14C-alanine. TOLB inhibited the incorporation of C14 from NaHCO3 and alanine into glucose by 55 and 56%, respectively. TOLB did not alter the incorporation of C14 from NaHCO3 into lactate or pyruvate. TOLB did not affect the incorporation of 14C from alanine into lactate but produced a pooling of 14C as pyruvate. The authors data support studies demonstrating the TOLB produces its actions, in part, by increasing the concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and inhibiting pyruvate carboxylase

  16. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte A, C

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  17. A modification to an enzymatic method for the preparation of (α-32P) ATP with a high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modification of the procedure reported by Johnson and Walseth for the preparation of (α-32P)ATP:(γ-32P)GTP with a specific activity of more than 5000 Ci/mmol was made firstly, then it was used as the phosphate donor in the reaction catalyzed by the polynucleotide kinase, to transfer its radioactive phosphate to the 5'-position of the 3'-AMP, resulting (5'-32P)3'-ADP. After that, (5'-32P)3'-ADP was hydrolysed to (5'-32P)AMP under the catalysis of Nuclease P1, the late was then phosphorylated to produce (α-32P)ATP by the action of myokinase and pyruvate kinase. By this method, we firstly prepared (α-32P)ATP with a specific activity of more than 4000 Ci/mmol which was measured by HPLC analysis. (author)

  18. The incorporationof 35S in the hypophysis and some brain structures following intracisternal 35S-cystine administration in hydrated and dehydrated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-cystine, in doses of 12.5 μCi, was injected intracisternally to hydrated and dehydrated rats. The whole radioactivity of the hypophysis, hypothalamus, mesencephalon and frontal lobe was determined three and twenty four hours following the injection. The uptake of 35S in the hypophysis as well as in the hypothalamus was higher in dehydrated than in hydrated aniamls, both three and twenty four hours after the injection. In hydrated aniamls, the isotope markage of hypothalamic tissue was similar to that of mesencephalon and frontal lobe. Basing on the obtained data, the axonal transport rate in influndibular axons has been calculated and found to be not below 48 mm/day. (author)

  19. Exchange of radioactive phosphorus 32P between the components of an artificial plant community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil) the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens) and Carex pilosa Scop.; cases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L.) Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Padus avium Mill., Aegopodium podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold) between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%. (author)

  20. Laboratory and field studies with /sup 32/P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with /sup 32/P by feeding fourth-stage larvae /sup 32/P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The /sup 32/P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

  1. Determination of basal and stimulated levels of inositol triphosphate in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies indicated that thrombin-stimulation of platelets prelabeled with [3H]inositol or [32P]orthophosphate results in an increase of radioactive inositol triphosphate, a substance thought to modulate the levels of free intracellular calcium. In the present study, we improved the method of resolution of inositol triphosphate from other compounds that are also labeled with [32P]orthophosphate using a combination of enzyme treatment and electrophoresis. We have further demonstrated that the specific activities of metabolic ATP and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (the precursor of inositol triphosphate) are identical in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets. It follows that the amount of inositol triphosphate is proportional to its radioactivity in the metabolic compartment of the cells. Using this protocol, the concentration of inositol triphosphate in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets were determined to be 1-4 and 10-30 pmol/108 cells, respectively

  2. Adjuvant internal hepatic radiotherapy using colloidal 32P chromic phosphate in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the value of adjuvant radiotherapy given in the form of colloidal chromic phosphate 32P suspension administered via portal vein, in preventing the growth of occult metastases in the liver. Twenty two patients (10 patients of treated group with 12 controls) were followed 12 months after operation. There was no significant change in the CBC and liver functions after administration of 32P labeled colloidal chromic phosphate. Although local recurrence rates were very similar in both groups of colorectal cancer (3/12 in the control group and 4/10 in the treated group), liver metastasis rates were quite different: 4/12 in the control group and none (0/10) in the treated group. In conclusion, 32P labeled colloidal chromic phosphate is expected to prevent liver metastases of completely resected colorectal cancer. (author)

  3. Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population

  4. Influence of cycloheximide on translocation of 32P in Laminaria digitata (Linne) Lamouroux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cycloheximide strongly reduced translocation of 32P when applied to various regions of Laminaria digitata thallus. In addition, the part of the different organs is demonstrated. The results show that CHM action was restricted to the treated zone since 32P migrations were not reduced in surrounding regions. At the same time, CHM influence on other metabolic processes possibly involved in translocation, was studied. Thus, as concerns 32P uptake by thallus pieces, CHM inhibition took effect but after a 4 hour action period. Moreover, no effect on O2 uptake was observed. These results are believed to favour an inhibitory action on protein synthesis more than to affect oxidative phosphorylations. The present data are considered to support the view that in algae as well as in higher plants, the mechanisms of the translocation of inorganic substances depend on the protein metabolism. (orig.)

  5. Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

  6. Interstitial irradiation using 32P-chromic phosphate during resection of cardio-esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of 32P-chromic phosphate (32P-colloid) by stromal injection during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection. Methods: To 91 patients with clinically diagnosed cardio-esophageal carcinoma, infiltrative injection of 32P-colloid (296-370 MBq/10 ml) was administer either into the interstitial tissues neighboring to the site of lesion and the region of lymphatic drainage after resection of the tumor or, for those patients whose tumor could not be removed, 32P-colloid was injected into the tumor proper and the lymphatic drainage region. The control group included 99 patients with the same diagnosis, who were operated in the same period of time but not injected with 32P-colloid. The peri-operative complication, time and rate of lymphatic metastasis, and the post-operative survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year were followed. Results: No operative death occurred in both groups. The incidences of peri-operative complication were not different statistically between these two group (P>0.05). The time of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of mediastinal, supraclavicular ,and abdominal lymph node metastasis were all statistically different between these two groups (P0.05) between these two groups ,while the 3- and 5-year rates were significantly different (P32P-colloid during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection is a simple and safe procedure in controlling the post-operative lymphatic metastasis and has very fair clinical effectiveness in improving intermediate and late survival rates. (author)

  7. Correlation Between CT/MRI and Bremsstrahlung SPECT of 32P After Radioembolization of Hepatic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amoui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Radioembolization (RE is a minimally invasive transcatheter therapy through which radioactive microspheres are infused into the hepatic arteries and selectively implanted within the tumor arterioles. Some therapeutic agents are particles incorporating pure β emitter elements (90Y, 32P and do not have gamma radiation. Bremsstrahlung imaging of these radiotherapeutic agents confirms distribution of the radiotracer in hepatic tumors or probable extrahepatic deposition of radiopharmaceuticals and helps the physician to predict the patient's response to RE therapy. The aim of this study was demonstration of 32P images and its correlation with CT/MRI findings."nPatients and Methods: Ten patients with variable types of hepatic tumors treated with intra-arterial injection of 32P were included in this study. 24-72 hours after radiotracer administration, bremsstahlung SPECT imaging was performed in all patients with a single head gamma camera equipped with a medium energy collimator. Energy window setting of 100 keV±25% was selected. Reconstructed images were evaluated by two nuclear medicine specialists and one radiologist, and based on compatibility of 32P images with CT/MRI, a grading scale from 1 to 4 was used to express their correlations."nResults: By selecting optimized parameters for bremsstrahlung SPECT images of 32P, we could obtain good quality images. In nine patients, 32P distribution in the liver was correlated with anatomical findings of CT/MRI. "nConclusion: RE is appropriate to deliver high radiation doses to liver tumors with minimal accumulation in the normal liver tissue. Bremsstrahlung imaging is a useful method to confirm proper distribution of the radiotherapeutic agent, which has good correlation with anatomical findings.

  8. Microorganisms labelled with 14C for measurement of phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic method for determination of phagocytic activity is presented. The method of labelling of Staphylococcus aureus 519 with 14C is described. Effects of various parameters (e.g. time of incubation, serum dilution, number of phagocytes and bacteria used in the test on phagocytosis) were studied. The effect of tuftsin and its lysine analogue on phagocytic granulocytes is also described. (author)

  9. Microorganism labeled with 14C for measurement of phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic method for determination of phagocytic activity is presented. The method of labeling of Staphylococcus aureus 519 with 14C is described. Effects of various parameters (e.g. time of incubation, serum dilution, number of phagocytes and bacteria undergoing phagocytosis) on phagocytosis were studied. The effect of tuftsin and its lysine analogue on phagocytic granulocytes is also described. (author)

  10. Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

  11. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

  12. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  13. Biomonitoring of 14C in the vicinity of NPPs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlík, Ivo; Molnár, M.; Svingor, E.; Rinyu, L.; Futó, I.; Michálek, V.

    Brasov : IRPA, 2007, s. 1-10. [IRPA Regional Congress for Central and Eastern Europe. Brasov (RO), 24.09.2007-28.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C excess * Suess effect * biota monitoring * nuclear power plants Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  14. Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate

  15. Modified synthesis of 11-[{sup 14}C]-clozapine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloubi, Hojatollah E-mail: hmatloubi@seai.neda.net.ir; Ghandi, Mehdi; Zarrindast, M.-R.; Saemian, Nader

    2001-11-01

    The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[{sup 14}C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%.

  16. Modified synthesis of 11-[14C]-clozapine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[14C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%

  17. Mineralization of 14C-labeled agrochemicals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labeled compounds were used to study the mineralization of methamidophos, 2,4-D and metsulfuron in soil. Mineralization rate was influenced by the type of soil, concentration of chemical in the soil, the initial soil microbial population and the nature of the chemical. (author)

  18. The synthesis of [14C] C I pigment violet 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the custom synthesis of radiolabeled compounds in the authors laboratory, aside from spectroscopic examination, their identity and radiochemical purity is routinely corroborated by demonstration of cochromatography with an authentic cold standard. In the synthesis of [14C] red pigment 1 for the Cosmetic Toiletry and Fragrance Association, its insolubility precluded this. The preparation as well as characterization of 1 is described

  19. Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron, distribution of the bound residues in the components of humus, and their absorption by step-crop (rice) were investigated in paddy soil and black soil under simulated aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. The results show that: (1) The bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soil were very considerable and increasing with the incubation time. The organic substance and humidity contained in the soil affected the bound residues remarkably. The bound residues in black soil with more organic substance and clay particles were higher than those in paddy soil, and under anaerobic conditions were higher than under aerobic conditions. (2) Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron mainly bound with the components of soil humus, the distribution of which was in the order of humin>humic acid>fulvic acid. (3) Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soils could be absorbed by step-crop (rice) and moved to the upper part, that would cause chemical injury, chlorosis and necrosis for the leaf tip

  20. Process for the production of 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes the production of 14C-labelled compounds from solution with the aid of algae. A microorganism of the Anacystic species is used, preferably Anacystis nidulans which is also known as 'Indiana 625'. The experiments and their results are described in detail. (UWI)

  1. The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

  2. Labelling of eggs of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann) through radioactive sperm ( 32p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of Med-fly eggs, using the sperm in the transmission of radioisotope 32P is described. A hundred hatched couples were used, the males fed on a diet made of 5 g sugar and 1.66g of hydrolized protein. This diet was labelled with a solution of Na2HPO4, in which the atom of phosphorus was labelled with 32P isotope. It showed an activity calculated at 343,9 ?Ci. Statistical treatment of the data indicated that the eggs became labelled and remained labelled until the 5th day after mating, even on eggs laid by female who mated with untreated males

  3. Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

    2001-02-23

    We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of the invasion of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} and bomb {sup 14}C into the atmosphere and surface oceans. Therefore the {Delta}{sup 14}C data that are produced in this study can be used to validate the ocean uptake of fossil fuel CO2 in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. This study takes advantage of the quasi-conservative nature of {sup 14}C as a water mass tracer by using {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in corals to identify changes in the shallow circulation of the Pacific. Although the data itself provides fundamental information on surface water mass movement the true strength is a combined approach which is greater than the individual parts; the data helps uncover deficiencies in ocean circulation models and the model results place long {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in a dynamic framework which helps to identify those locations where additional observations are most needed.

  4. Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-γ-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 μM, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 μM), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

  5. Synthesis of organic compounds with disulfide bridge labelled with 35 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work had as purpose: a) synthesis of aliphatic compounds with disulfide bridge, and also the synthesis of aromatic compounds with disulfide bridge, substituted with various functional groups; b) labelling with 35 S of certain positions of the obtained organic compounds having disulfide bridge in their molecular structures. At the same time, we studied the 35 S-labelling techniques of these compounds. The organic syntheses used in the process of labelling of organic compounds containing disulfide bridge, have the advantage to obtain a structure with a definite position of radioactive labelling (of 35 S). The 35 S radioisotope is an important element due to its applications in the field of organic compounds labelling. Among its characteristics we mention: the half time is 87 days, the maximum energy of beta radiation is 0.167 MeV and it constitutes a pure beta transmitter. The activity measurements were carried out with a 3385 Tricarb-Packard spectrometer, based on liquid scintillators. Thanks to its properties 35 S has several applications in organic chemistry and biology. (authors)

  6. (35S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (35S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (35S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. 35S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (3H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (35S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (35S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures. (author)

  7. (/sup 35/S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.; Grounwald, J.; Buddecke, E. (Muenster. Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Atherosclerosis Research and Inst. of Physiological Chemistry)

    1982-12-01

    Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (/sup 35/S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. /sup 35/S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (/sup 35/S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (/sup 35/S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures.

  8. The uptake and metabolism of 35S02 in plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide were exposed simultaneously to 35S02. The total quantity of gas taken up, and its distribution between a surface leachate, an ethanol-soluble fraction and an insoluble fraction were compared. The sensitive Medicago sativa took up more gas per unit leaf area than Phaseolus vulgaris or two strains of Lolium perenne (S24, and the native 'Hemlmshore' strain). Fifteen to thirty-eight percent of the radioactivity was removed from all leaves by leaching, and this proportion changed little with time. The leachate contained 35S032-and 35S042-. The proportion of 35S032-was greatest in P.vulgaris and least in M. sativa. The internal radioactivity was largely soluble in L. perenne, but insoluble in M. sativa. In P. vulgaris, most soluble activity was found in expanding leaves. Little difference in the uptake or metabolism of 35S02 was found in the two Lolium strains. The results are discussed with reference to possible roles of 'avoidance' and 'tolerance' in determining resistance to S02. (author)

  9. Synthesis of [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loester, H.; Seim, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry

    1996-02-01

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to {gamma}-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring {gamma}-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, {gamma}-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or {gamma}-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-{sup 14}C]glycine betaine and [methyl-{sup 14}C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author).

  10. Studies on absorption, conversion of sulfate by rape seedling and accumulation of glucosinolate in rape seed by using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings grown in sandy culture absorbed 35SO42- from cultural solution rapidly and the 35S was incorperated into glucosinolates, amino acids and proteins. Percentage of glucosinolates-35S in extractable 35S with 70% methanol declined and those of amino acid-35S rose regularly with time after labelling. The relative content of 35S incorperated into bound constituents as well as extractable components was constant after 5 days of labelling. From two weeks after flowering, the relative content of GS-35S in pods and seeds increased linearly with time until eight weeks after flowering when all 35S extracted with 70% methanol in seeds were in form of glucosinolate. The amount of 35S-GS per pod increased linearly from the first week to the eighth week after flowering. It seems that the accumulation of GS in seeds is related to the accumulation of dry matter in seeds

  11. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. /sup 32/P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

    1978-08-01

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi /sup 32/P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of /sup 32/P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to /sup 32/P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of /sup 32/P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  15. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Chromium(III) phosphate labelled with 32P for use in metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was obtained for the first time a suspension of chromium Phosphate (III) labelled with 32P, with predominant size of particles among 5-10 μm, potentially useful in the treatment of solid tumors and Radiosynoctomy. A dispersion was obtained with prevalence of sizes of the colloidal order with 80% above 0,2 μm, potentially useful for Radiosynovectomy

  17. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Photoaffinity labelling of tobacco subcellular fractions with [32P]-azido-UDP-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcellular fractions from tobacco (N. rustica) leaves were photolabelled with the UDPG analog, [32P]-N3 UDPG. Two stromal polypeptides (Mr = 42 and 21 kD) were the major photolabelled chloroplast polypeptides. UDPG protected the 42 but not the 21 kD polypeptide against photoincorporation of [32P]-N3 UDPG. In a cytosol-enriched fraction, the major photolabelling polypeptides had Mr of 92, 50, 42, 30 and 17 kD. Photolabelling of the 42, 30, and 17 kD polypeptides was unaffected by UDPG, but UDPG blocked incorporation into the 92 and 50 kD polypeptides. In addition to photolabelled polypeptides, a polypeptide identified as phosphoglucomutase (PGM) was labelled in both the chloroplast and cytosol fraction. 32P-labelling of PGM was independent of UV irradiation, occurring via phosphoryl transfer from contaminating [32P]G-I-P. The plastid and cytosolic PGM isozymes had Mr of 69 and 62.8 kD, respectively, and both were labelled in a leaf extract

  20. The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32P in the form of carrier free KH232PO4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in ?% arcsin converted from 32P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

  1. Solvent Extraction Separation of Phosphorus for the Measurement of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus is a major element in life and plays essential roles in the human body. On the other hand, phosphorus organic compound has high toxicity, therefore, the determination of trace amount of phosphorus is important in environment studies. Development of an analytical method for the determination of low levels of phosphorus is very important as a very few analytical techniques yield reliable results for this element at trace levels. Radioactive phosphorus, 32P (T1/2 = 14.3 d, Emax 1.71 MeV) is the highest energy beta-emitting radionuclides and now generally accepted as an effective therapeutic agent for chronic leukemia and excess red blood cells. But, 32P used in diagnosis and treatment are generated radioactive waste such as pipette tips, latex gloves, angioplastic balloons, Kimwipes etc.. We'll analyze 32P in medical radioactive waste in the future. Even if 32P has low level activity and short halflife, we have to control radioactive materials in medical waste. In this work, experiment separation using solvent extraction of inactive phosphorus as preliminary experiments for the establishment of analysis. Phosphorus is extracted tri-n-octylamine (TNOA)/ xylene, which is the most suitable solvent and then is measured by UV-visable spectrophotometer

  2. Solvent Extraction Separation of Phosphorus for the Measurement of {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Heung N.; Ahn, Hong Joo; Han, Sun ho; Jee, Kwang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Phosphorus is a major element in life and plays essential roles in the human body. On the other hand, phosphorus organic compound has high toxicity, therefore, the determination of trace amount of phosphorus is important in environment studies. Development of an analytical method for the determination of low levels of phosphorus is very important as a very few analytical techniques yield reliable results for this element at trace levels. Radioactive phosphorus, {sup 32}P (T1/2 = 14.3 d, Emax 1.71 MeV) is the highest energy beta-emitting radionuclides and now generally accepted as an effective therapeutic agent for chronic leukemia and excess red blood cells. But, {sup 32}P used in diagnosis and treatment are generated radioactive waste such as pipette tips, latex gloves, angioplastic balloons, Kimwipes etc.. We'll analyze {sup 32}P in medical radioactive waste in the future. Even if {sup 32}P has low level activity and short halflife, we have to control radioactive materials in medical waste. In this work, experiment separation using solvent extraction of inactive phosphorus as preliminary experiments for the establishment of analysis. Phosphorus is extracted tri-n-octylamine (TNOA)/ xylene, which is the most suitable solvent and then is measured by UV-visable spectrophotometer.

  3. Formation of 32P-labelled Polyphosphates in Reactor-irradiated Solutions of Orthophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate were reactor irradiated and analysed by electrophoresis. The resulting distributions of 32P-activity in phosphorus oxyanions resemble the ones obtained with reactor-irradiated solid phosphates. Even in dilute solutions, polymers are formed; their total...

  4. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Chemical synthesis of nucleoside-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, A; Panusz, H; Pankowski, J; Kozio?kiewicz, W

    1980-01-01

    A simple chemical procedure for the preparation of four common ribonucleoside 5-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity (up to 10 Ci/mmole) based on the condensation of orthophosphoric acid with the corresponding nucleoside 5-diphosphate in the presence of ethyl chloroformate as well as the methods of purification and identification of the products are described. PMID:7375446

  6. Effects of 32 P incorporated in plasmid DNA: strand breaks and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the 32 P decay effects in DNA, bacterial plasmid were labeled with different activities of the radioisotope in vivo: 1,2 and 6 x 105 Bk/ml of bacterial culture, leading to 1,2 and 6 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid or in vitro: 0.7, 1.5 and 3.5 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid, stored at -20 deg C and its electroforetic profiles, transformation capacity of wild type and DNA repair. E. coli mutants cells and mutagenesis, were followed during three months. The results achieved in this work suggest that: the decay of the incorporated 32 P in vivo is able to change the pBR322 electroforetic profile, we detected a decrease on the form III (super coiled) and increase on the form II (circular), indicating single strands breaks; the decay incorporated 32 in vitro does not modify the electrophoretic profile of pBR322, suggesting that in some way the effects of the radioactive decay of incorporated 32 P is dependent of the DNA topology, the damages induced by 32 P decay increase mutation frequency in pAC189 plasmids. MRF is increased by a factor of three after 6 t1/2 of storage, indicating direct or indirect action through mismatch DNA repair pathway. (author)

  7. Dosimetric comparison of 90Y, 32P, and 186Re radiocolloids in craniopharyngioma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the radionuclide treatment of some forms of brain tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, the selection of the appropriate radionuclide for therapy is a key element in treatment planning. The aim was to study the influence by considering the beta-emitter radionuclide dose rate in an intracranial cyst. Methods: Dosimetry was performed using the MCNP4C radiation transport code. Analytical dosimetry was additionally performed using the Loevinger and the Berger formulas in the MATLAB software. Each result was compared under identical conditions. The advantages and disadvantages of using 90Y versus 32P and 186Re were investigated. Results: The dose rate at the inner surface of the cyst wall was estimated to be 400 mGy/h for a 1 MBq/ml concentration of 90Y. Under identical conditions of treatment, the corresponding dose rates were 300 mGy/h for 32P and 160 mGy/h for 186Re. For a well-defined cyst radius and identical wall thickness, higher dose rates resulted for 90Y. Conclusions: To achieve the same radiological burden, the required amount of physical activity of injectable solution is lower for 32P. This is found to be a consequence of both the radionuclide physical half-life and the pattern of energy deposition from the emitted radiation. According to the half-life and dose-rate results, 90Y would be a good substitute for 32P.

  8. Electron microscopic autoradiography of 35S during dentinogenesis in young cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of 35S from the dental pulp to the predentin and the dentin was studied by means of quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography in the tooth-germs of new-born cats following intravenous injection of 35S. Autoradiographs at 5 minutes, 20 minutes and 5 hours after injection consistently showed the uptake of 35S by the Golgi apparatus, indicating that the apparatus is a site of sulfation of the mucopolysaccharides in the predentin and dentin. At 5 hours, silver grains aggregated in the cytoplasm of the odontoblastic process and the predentin. No silver grains were observed in the Golgi areas, and the odontoblastic process was associated with the elongated dense vesicles which were formed by the Golgi apparatus. At 24 hours after injection, a random distribution of many silver grains was observed throughout the predentin and the interodontoblastic space. (auth.)

  9. Experimental study of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle on human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the therapeutic and toxic effects of 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactic) acid (32P-CP-PLLA) microparticle intratumoral administration into BALB/c nude mice bearing BxPc-3 human pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty four nude mice bearing tumors were injected with 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 M Bq 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively. The relative tumor growth rates were observed every day, and white blood cells, platelets and body weight were measured. At 14 d after administration, the tumors were removed, histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Results: The relative tumor growth rates of each treatment group was lower than 40%. Histological examination showed the degenerative necrosis at the site nearby the microparticle. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Microvessel density (MVD) and the expression of Bcl-2 in treated group were lower than those in control group.In contrast, the expression of bax in treated group were higher than those in control group. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein significantly decreased in the treatment group,which were 3.83 ± 0.43, 0.47 ± 0.13, 1.10 ± 0.32, 2.19 ± 0.57 for 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 MBq 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively (t=2.36-2.77, P<0.05). MVD were 31.2 ± 2.3, 23.8 ± 1.5, 14.8 ±0.8, 11.0 ± 1.2, respectively. Dose dependence was observed in both HE and IHC staining after 14 d treatment (t=2.30-2.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Intratumoral injection of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle might be a safe, easy and effective radionuclide interventional therapy for pancreatic carcinoma. (authors)

  10. Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 19.5 (x-bar s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

  11. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

  12. [14C] acetylation of a glycosaminoglycan sulphate: Sulodexide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C] labelled Sulodexide is reported. Sulodexide is a sulphated polysaccharide of the class of glycosaminoglycan, containing a heparin-like fraction (70%), dermatan sulphate (20%) and other minor fractions. The heparin-like fraction, suitably isolated from other components, was partially and selectively N-desulphated, thus making few percent unit -NH2 groups available for the labelling with [14C]-acetic anhydride (specific activity 0.15 μCi/mg). Due to the small extent of modification, the sulphate to carboxylate group ratio remained practically unchanged on the heparin-like fraction. Sulodexide was reconstituted adding to the labelled fraction the suitable amount of the other components; the chemical and biological properties of the final labelled Sulodexide were indistinguishable from those of the starting material. (author)

  13. Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H in thymine was isolated from the thymine-dependent strain of Escherichia coli 15 SPT bacteria. The specific activity of the plasmid DNA preparations lay in the range from 0.5 to 20 MBq/mg, their relative molecular weight was 1.7 x 106 dalton. Molecular weight, preparation purity, and the degree of damage of the plasmid DNA molecules were examined by UV absorption spectroscopy, by gel electrophoresis, and by electron micrography. The quality of the [thymine-2-14C] plasmid DNA was verified in a diagnostic test for the determination of the anti-dsDNA bonding activity in human serum. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 30 refs

  14. Fate of 14C-monocrotophos in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-monocrotophos was fed daily to two groups of lactating goats for five days at 5 and 10 mg per goat per day. The radioactivity in urine and faeces accounted for 50% and 7%, respectively, 24 hours after the first dose. About 25% of the radiocarbon was found in various organs. About 1-2% of the administered radiocarbon was secreted in milk. It was concluded that monocrotophos was rapidly eliminated through urine and faeces of teddy goats. 14C-residues in milk and urine were tentatively identified as monocrotophos, dimethylphosphate and N-desmethyl monocrotophos. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to 50% 24 hours after treatment, but no toxic symptoms were observed. (author)

  15. Feasibility studies of RFQ based 14C accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic accelerators with terminal voltage less than 1 MeV have been successfully used for 14C AMS. This contribution shows that a small RFQ accelerator may also be suitable for AMS 14C measurements. A well-designed RFQ accelerator can realize a low energy spread and high isotopic selection with a length of less than 1 m and reasonable power consumption. Compared with small tandem accelerators, a RFQ does not need isolation gas and can accept much higher beam currents. Its stripper would be at ground potential and there would be no further acceleration after stripping, so the background from charge exchange processes should be lower. The RFQ design and system are described

  16. Cluster structures of excited states in {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tadahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kanada-En' yo, Yoshiko, E-mail: suhara@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-09-16

    We investigate structures of excited states in {sup 14}C with a method of {beta}-{gamma} constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed 3{alpha}-cluster core structures are suggested in positive-and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, {sup 10}Be+{alpha} correlation is found in the cluster states above the {sup 10}Be+{alpha} threshold energy. By applying a generalized molecular orbital model to the linear-chain state of {sup 14}C, we confirm the {sup 10}Be+{alpha} correlation.

  17. TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yien, Yvette Yee; Robledo, Raymond F.; Schultz, Iman J.; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel Evan; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Pierce, Eric Adam; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A.; Miyata, Non

    2014-01-01

    The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in ...

  18. May {sup 14}C be used to date contemporary art?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caforio, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mando, P.A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Petrucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Taccetti, F. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, {sup 14}C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, {sup 14}C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to 'precisely' date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured {sup 14}C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the {sup 14}C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  19. Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  20. May 14C be used to date contemporary art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M. E.; Caforio, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Petrucci, F.; Taccetti, F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  1. May 14C be used to date contemporary art?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963–1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  2. Cluster structures of excited states in $^{14}$C

    OpenAIRE

    Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    Structures of excited states in $^{14}$C are investigated with a method of $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed $3\\alpha$-cluster core structures are suggested in positive- and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ correlation is found in th...

  3. 14C ages of the Quaternary strata in Japan, (130)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area under investigation, Gotsu and Waki terraces lie with a cliff between these two. Therefore, it is considered that from the beginning of the alluvial period to the present sea level, two periods of high sea level and one period of low sea level between them existed. The Gotsu terrace was possibly formed in Jomon marine transgression confirmed across the country, but its height is somewhat high. Concerning the high sea level after the Jomon marine transgression, while there are much uncertainties, minor transgressions have been recognized. 14C age determination was made where Waki terrace spreads widely in Gotsu sand dunes, as an indication of the minor transgressions was anticipated. The 14C age measured with charcoal chips was 265 +- 80 Y.B.P. (260 +- 80 Y.B.P.) unexpectedly. There are sand dunes covering partly the terraces and hills, containing two layers of black sand. In the upper layer, the 14C age of charcoal chips contained in it was 955 +- 75 Y.B.P. (930 +- 75 Y.B.P.). (J.P.N.)

  4. Airy structure in 16O+14C nuclear rainbow scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Airy structure in 16 O +14 C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double-folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for 16 O by using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at EL=132 , 281, and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum around θ =76∘ in the angular distribution at EL=132 MeV is assigned as the second-order Airy minimum A 2 in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order A 3 . The Airy minima in the 90∘ excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known 16 O +16 O and 12 C +12 C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the 16 O +14 C cluster structure in the low-energy region around Ec .m .=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted theoretically for the first time for a non-4 N 16O +14 C system that Airy elephants in the 90∘ excitation function are present.

  5. Mineralization of 14C atrazine in three Colombia soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of mineralization of l4C atrazine (6-chorine-N-ethyl-N-(1methyl ethyl) 1,3,5 triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed in three soils of different characteristics coming one of them from Mosquera, Cundinamarca (clay loam) and two of Saldana, Tolima (silty loam and sandy loam). Technical and radiolabel atrazine (specific activity 47,756 mCi/mg) mixture was applied to soil samples in a dose of 2.0 kg/ha. Results showed different behavior of the mineralization of the herbicide for each soil at the end of 17 weeks. The highest mineralization percentage, 15 %, was registered in the soil with higher organic matter content (12.1 %) and was the one coming from Mosquera, Cundinamarca. It was evaluated the bound and methanol extractable 14C in the fifth, ninth an seventeenth weeks and also it was analyzed atrazine and its metabolites in the extracts by thin layer chromatography. The extraction data revealed that the majority of the 14C was bound to the soil (62-83 %) and the minor fraction was methanol extractable in all the three soils. The analysis showed that the 14C in all soils was present as atrazine and hydroxy atrazine. In the sandy loam soil was observed the highest degradation of atrazine to hidroxyatrazine that it is not produced by biological process. It was not detectable other atrazine metabolites

  6. 14C content in aerosols in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, V.; Solís, C.; Chávez, E.; Andrade, E.; Ortiz, M. E.; Huerta, A.; Aragón, J.; Rodríguez-Ceja, M.; Martínez, M. A.; Ortiz, E.

    2016-03-01

    14C-AMS of total carbon was determined in aerosols (PM10 fraction), collected in Mexico City during two weeks from 21 November to 3 December 2012. Other tracers such as total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and trace element contents were also determined. F14C values varied from 0.39 to 0.48 with an average of 0.43. These values are slightly lower than those previously obtained for PM2.5 in 2003 and 2006 and reflect a high contribution of fossil CO2 to the carbonaceous matter in aerosols from Mexico City. In contrast, from 2006 to 2012 PM10 increased; EC, Ca, Ti and Fe concentrations remained constant, while OC, TC and K concentrations decreased. The use of potassium as an indicator of biomass burning showed that this source was negligible during this campaign. Combined analytical approaches allowed us to distinguish temporal variations of anthropogenic and natural inputs to the F14C.

  7. Metabolism of [14C]-monoethanolamine in Hordeum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of 14C-monoethanolamine (EA) and its hydrochloride was investigated in long term experiments with intact plants of spring barley (Hordeum vlugare L.) during ontogenesis. The metabolism of EA applied as the free base (0.67 mg per plant) to an unwounded part of the fifth leaf of the main shoot proceeds relatively quickly. To a great extent, the EA taken up and translocated out of the feeding leaf was converted to volatile compounds during ontogenesis. The remaining amounts are incorporated into lipid soluble substances or metabolized via choline to glycine betaine. Wilting barley plants show a higher capacity for converting exogenous EA via the betaine pathway. However, there is no proportionality between 14C-betaine synthesis from 14C-EA and betaine accumulation. There are remarkable differences between EA and its hydrochloride with respect to metabolism. The hydrochloride is not converted to volatile compounds and glycine betaine is the main metabolite. The betaine pathway is only of minor importance for the metabolism of exogenous EA in turgid barley plants. The hydrochloride is also not completely metabolized in this way. Possible consequences are discussed. (author)

  8. Biodegradation of 14 C-atrazine under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly 14 C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The 14 C O2 was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the 14 CO2 evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with 14 C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

  9. 14C measurement of soil in post-mining landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and development of new soil organic matter under extreme soil conditions was investigated in the Lusatian lignite mining district. In order to assess the development of forest ecosystems the pedogenesis (soil development) was studied, especially the contribution of soil organic matter formed during the decomposition of plant residues and the significance of lignite inherent to the parent substrate. To determine the depth gradient of soil organic matter accumulation a differentiation between lignite derived (14C ''free'') and recent carbon in the mine spoil was necessary. This was performed by AMS 14C measurement of the total organic carbon TOC (lignite derived and recent organic matter) of the soil. For TOC extraction a suitable preparation method was used. The calculation for obtaining the soil organic matter and lignite content is discussed and results of different study sites are presented. It is shown that 14C measurements of soil samples by AMS is a very helpful tool to evaluate the accumulation of recently formed organic carbon and to differentiate this carbon pool from the geogenic, i.e. lignite derived organic carbon supply in post-mining soils

  10. Preparation and supply of custom shaped 32P-patches for their application in the treatment of superficial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quick and facile method to prepare 32P radiolabeled paper or patches for the mould brachytherapy treatment of superficial cancers has been developed. Intricate custom sized sources, containing upto ∼ 37 MBq/cm2 of 32P were prepared and immobilized between plastic sheets of 40-micron thickness by lamination. The homogeneity and stability of the patches were investigated. 32P-patches after quality assurance were supplied to AIIMS, Delhi for clinical evaluation. (author)

  11. 14C-Methylenebisphenylisocyanate (14C-MDI). Study of absorption after single dermal and intradermal administration in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, distribution and excretion of radioactivity was studied in groups of four male Wistar rats following a single dermal and intradermal administration of 14C- Methylenebisphenylisocyanate (14C-MDI) at nominal dose levels of 4.0 and 0.4 mg/cm2 for dermal administration and 0.4 mg/animal for intradermal administration. These dose levels nominally corresponded to 40 and 4.0 mg/animal for dermal administration. Considering the animal weights, dose levels corresponded to about 140 and 14 mg/kg body weight (dermal administration) and 1.4 mg/kg body weight (intradermal administration). In the experiments with dermal administration, animals were exposed for 8 hours and sacrificed 8, 24 or 120 h after beginning of exposure. In the experiment with intradermal administration, animals were sacrificed 120 h after treatment. After dermal administration of 14C-MDI, mean recoveries of radioactivity from all dose groups were in the range from 97.86 to 108.07% of the total radioactivity administered. Generally, the largest proportion of radioactivity was found at the application site and dressing. The total amount of radioactivity absorbed (including excreta, cage wash, tissues/organs and carcass) increased with increasing sacrifice time. Dermal absorption was very low and quantitatively similar at both dose levels; maximally ca. 0.9 % of the applied radioactivity was absorbed. After intradermal administration of 14C-MDI, the mean recovery of radioactivity was 100.90 % of the radioactivity administered. The largest proportion of radioactivity was found at the application site. The total amount of radioactivity absorbed (including excreta, cage wash, tissues/organs and carcass) amounted to about 26 % of the radioactivity applied. Irrespective of the mode of administration of 14C-MDI, concentrations of radioactivity in tissues and organs generally were below 1 μg Eq/g at 120 h after administration. In summary, the results of this study comparing systemic availability of radioactivity after single dermal and intradermal administration of 14C-MDI clearly demonstrated very limited absorption after dermal administration but considerable absorption after intradermal administration. The radioactivity absorbed was distributed in all organs and tissues with highest levels being found in carcass, thyroid, muscle, plasma and liver. Excretion of radioactivity mainly occurred via the feces. (author)

  12. Synthesis of metabolites of the insecticide Deltamethrine: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acids and 3-phenoxy (hydroxymethyl-14C) benzyl alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures are described for the synthesis of the following metabolites of Deltamethrin, the pyrethroid insecticide: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acid, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acid, 3-(2'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acid and the corresponding 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohols, specific activity = 47-57 mCi/mmol. (author)

  13. Amount and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to [14C]triclopyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L [14C] triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed

  14. Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

  15. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on agricultural environment and ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimehypo is a nereistoxin derivative, which was developed and manufactured in China. In order of appraise its environmeatal safety comprehensively, the radioisotopic tracer technique and other methods were applied to investigate on the effects of 35S-labelled dimehypo (35S-dimehypo) on agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorptivity and high mobility, especially water-carrying mobility in soil, fair stability in soil and water, and slowness in degradation. Its main product of degradation, nereistoxin, was of lower mobility than its material compound in soil. 35S-dimehypo could enter the bodies of grass carps Ctenopharyngodon idellus along with bails or via the respiratory tracts, and could be excreted fast after the fish were removed from the contaminated source. Liquid and granulated 35S-dimehypo were fed to quail and fowls respectively, and could also be excreted rapidly in excretion and urine. Its much less distribution coefficient in caprylalcoholwater system suggested no accumulation in the adipose tissue of organism. The release of its effective composition in the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete

  16. New evidence links CaMV 35S promoter to HIV transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Mae-Wan; Cummins, Joe

    2011-01-01

    New evidence raises the possibility that the CaMV 35S promoter in practically all transgenic crops grown commercially may enhance multiplication of disease-associated viruses including HIV through induction of proteins required for their transcription.Key words: Caulifl ower mosaic virus, transgenic crops, GM crops

  17. The uptake of S from four different 35 S labbelled fertilizer by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of S derived from 35-S-labelled ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate, Kieserit (MgSO4) and Gypsum(CaSO4) of the specific activity of 0.1 mCi/g S by tea clone TRI 2025 planted in andosols was investigated. Randomized block design was used in the experiment. Fertilizers were give once at the rate of 40 kg S/ha. Counting of 35-S samples collected from the youngest and the lower leaves were done every week. Results of the experiment showed that the uptake patterns of S derived from fertilizers were the same for the youngest and the lower leaves. The activity of 35-S was clearly detected in leaves samples after one week of fertilizers application and increased continuously upto eight weeks. The total activity of 35-S in the plucked leaved derived from ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate and Kieserite were little bit higher than from gypsum. (authors). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO42--S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO42--S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 μg/g dry needles. Translocation of 35S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  19. Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

  20. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated 32P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a 32P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between 32P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The 32P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g-1)-1 at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. In this study, a method for measuring 32P changes activated by the neutron irradiation of hair samples of criticality accident victims was developed and tested. In addition, a dose conversion factor for two neutron mean energy spectra based on these measurement results was developed. These results agree well with measured absorbed doses from exposure to fast neutron fields. The advantage of the proposed activated hair analysis method based on liquid scintillation counting is that it enables the acquisition of dose information from victims in a short time and with relatively high detection efficiency. In addition, sampling of hair is simpler than it is for other biological samples, and, finally, the conversion factor the authors developed using hair analysis data will be useful for dose assessment in real cases. However, the relation between dose and 32P-specific activity depends fundamentally on neutron spectrum information, and therefore, in order to accurately evaluate dosing in criticality accidents that may occur at different nuclear sites, conversion factors for all neutron energy spectra must be established. In addition, hair analysis can be performed only for local dose estimation. The incident direction of the top or side of phantom according to the neutron irradiation geometry must also be studied against various accident conditions. Correspondingly, in future research, the authors will augment the hair analysis method developed here by performing comprehensive dose assessment using Na activation analysis of blood samples. (authors)

  1. Autoradiography of [14C]paraquat or [14C]diquat in frogs and mice: accumulation in neuromelanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The herbicide paraquat has been suggested as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease because of its structural similarity to a metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which may induce a parkinsonism-like condition. MPTP as well as its metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine have melanin affinity, and the parkinsonism-inducing potency of MPTP is much stronger in species with melanin in the nerve cells. Autoradiography of [3H]MPTP in experimental animals has shown accumulation in melanin-containing tissues, including pigmented neurons. In the present whole body autoradiographic study accumulation and retention was seen in neuromelanin in frogs after i.p. injection of [14C]paraquat or[14C]diquat. By means of whole body autoradiography of [14C]diquat in mice (a species with no or very limited amounts of neuromelanin) a low, relatively uniformly distributed level of radioactivity was observed in brain tissue. Accumulation of toxic chemical compounds, such as paraquat, in neuromelanin may ultimately cause lesions in the pigmented nerve cells, leading to Parkinson's disease

  2. Radiolabelling of humic substances with {sup 14}C by azo coupling [{sup 14}C]phenyldiazonium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansel, A. [Department of Georadiochemistry, Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research (IIF), Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: Mansel@iif-leipzig.de; Kupsch, H. [Department of Georadiochemistry, Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research (IIF), Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    For the first time, natural and synthetic humic substances were radiolabelled by azo coupling [U-{sup 14}C]phenyldiazonium ions onto the aromatic fragments of their macromolecules under mild reaction conditions. The radiolabelling procedure was optimized with respect to pH, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of the humic substance to the labelling compound. The labelled humic substances were purified by precipitation or ultrafiltration. The chemical yields were in the range between 23% and 95%, and the specific radioactivities varied between 68 and 206 MBq {sup 14}C per gram of the humic substance, depending on the origin of the humic substance and the purification method. With the {sup 14}C-labelled humic compounds thus obtained, we were able to detect humic substances at concentrations as low as 5 {mu}g/L. These radiolabelled compounds can be used in long-term studies because, according to size exclusion chromatography data, there are no signs of their decomposition even after 5 months of storage.

  3. Distribution of /sup 35/S-sulfate within the transseptal ligament of the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    The distribution of 35S-sulfate-labeled macromolecules was examined within three regions of the transseptal ligament: the (1) mesial, (2) middle and (3) distal thirds. Swiss mice, 6 weeks of age, were injected with 35S-sulfate and killed after 1, 6, and 12 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days. Silver grains and cell nuclei were counted on autoradiographs which had been counterstained by the Van Gieson method, and mean counts were analyzed statistically. Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in mean number of cell nuclei between regions throughout the course of the experiment. 35S-sulfate was rapidly incorporated into the transseptal ligament macromolecules. Grain counts were highest 6 hours after injections: counts were highest over the middle and lowest over the mesial thirds of the ligament. The rate of grain removal was significantly higher in the middle third compared to the mesial or distal thirds (P less than 0.001) and was significantly lower in the mesial third compared to the middle or distal thirds (P less than 0.001). The half-life of labeled macromolecules was significantly greater in the mesial and distal thirds than in the middle third (P less than 0.005). The data demonstrate significantly higher rates of turnover of 35S-sulfate-labeled macromolecules in the middle region of the transseptal ligament. Since cellular density was similar throughout the transseptal ligament, higher turnover rates of 35S-sulfate-labeled macromolecules probably indicate higher rates of cellular activity in this region, possibly a result of tissue remodeling coincident to stresses generated by occlusal forces and physiologic drift of the adjacent teeth.

  4. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-12-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  5. Enzymatic Determination of Choline in Brain with Choline Phosphokinase and 32P-Labelled ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzymatic assay for free choline in brain has been developed. Rats or mice were killed by freezing in liquid nitrogen and the frozen brain was extracted with trichloroacetic acid. Interfering compounds were removed on an-anion-exchange resin and choline was converted to 32P- phosphorylcholine by the action of choline phosphokinase and 32P-ATP. The labelled phosphorylcholine obtained was separated by chromatography on Amberlite CC-400 (chloride form), and its radioactivity determined. The choline levels in rat and mouse brain were found to be 39 nmole/g and 42 nmole/g respectively. These values are considerably lower than those previously reported in the literature, apparently because of the increased specificity of the present method. (author)

  6. Study of optimum condition for synthesis of [γ-32P]ATP with high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [γ-32P]ATP with high specific radioactivity was investigated by the enzymatic method. We utilized a part of the glycolytic pathway which consists of three reaction steps. First, we examined the maximum radioactivity of H332PO4 without the decrease of labeling yield. Next, we examined the minimum amount of reagent without the decrease of labeling yield, because some reagents contain the phosphorus species as impurity. In this paper, we propose the optimum condition for synthesis of [γ-32P]ATP with high specific radioactivity. As our calculation, we will be able to obtain about 220 TBq/mmol specific radioactivity using 1.5 GBq of H332PO4. (author)

  7. Contribution of Sewage Sludge to Phosphorus Nutrition of Tomato Plants:Using 32P as Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to assess the benefits of amending sandy soil with different rates of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge (SS) in terms of its contribution to phosphorus nutrition of tomato plants using 32P as tracer. Soil were amended with four rates of sewage sludge equivalent to 20,40,60 and 80 t/ha. Tomato seedling were transplanted followed by the application of 32P-labelled KH2PO4. Dry matter yield, plant tissue and soil phosphorus concentration and phosphorus uptake were measured after one month of sowing. Dry matter production, plant tissue P concentration and P uptake and soil P have increased significantly as the sludge application rate increased. The increase was higher in irradiated than in non-irradiated sewage sludge, however, the differences aren't rate for both irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge

  8. Direct determination of the specific activity of RNA uniformly labeled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for the direct determination of the specific activity of RNA uniformly labeled with 32P is described. The procedure is based on the premise that upon disintegration of 32P to 32S, the phosphodiester bond is broken. Analysis of the rate of decay of the full-length molecule by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography can accurately determine the intramolecular specific activity of the RNA. An equation that predicts the relative intensity of the intact RNA molecules remaining as a function of time is presented. These predictions are confirmed using in vitro-synthesized RNA labeled at a known specific activity. This procedure has been used to determine the intramolecular specific activity of RNA labeled in vivo in yeast. It can also be employed to choose the best conditions for experiments utilizing uniformly labeled RNA or single-stranded DNA and requiring the detection of intact molecules

  9. Analysis of DNA adducts by 32P labeling and thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a description of a recently developed 32p-postlabeling assay for covalent carcinogen/mutagen-DNA adducts. Various versions of the assay are described that exhibit different properties, such as sensitivity of adduct detection. Studies of covalent carcinogen-DNA interactions have typically employed radiolabeled compounds to detect and quantitate the formation of DNA adducts. In order to extend laboratory studies of genotoxic damage to chemicals that are not readily available in radioactive form, several new techniques have been reported. These include fluorometric procedures, immunoassays, electrophore labeling, and biochemical 32p labeling. The authors suggest that the latter approach is distinct from the other approaches by its rather general applicability to adducts of known or unknown origin and structure

  10. [32P]ATP inhibits the growth of xenografted tumors in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulan; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Agarwal, Rachana; Green, Gilbert M; Mease, Ronnie C; Sgouros, George; Huso, David L; Pomper, Martin G; Meltzer, Stephen J; Abraham, John M

    2012-05-15

    The search for new therapeutic agents that are effective against cancer has been difficult and expensive. The activity of anticancer candidate agents against human cancer-derived cell lines in immunocompromised mice is an important tool in this search. Because ATP is a naturally occurring small molecule, its radiolabeled form poses many advantages as a potential anticancer therapeutic agent. We previously found that a single, low-dose intravenous injection of [ ( 32) P]ATP inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors in nude mice for up to several weeks. The current study describes the biodistribution and the results and advantages of multi-dose administration of this potential drug. Future studies should investigate the mechanism involved in the possible use of [ ( 32) P]ATP as a cytotoxic agent that homes naturally to the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22544324

  11. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  12. Diffusion on donor elements (125Sb, 32P, /sup 74(73)/As) in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of donor elements in fine-grained and coarse-grained polycrystalline silicon is studied in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0C. The radioisotopes 125Sb, 32P, and /sup 74(73)/As are used to measure concentration-depth profiles by the sectioning technique. By autoradiography the lateral distribution of the radiotracers over the sample surface is made visible. An extensive comparison with literature data is given. (author)

  13. Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

  14. Study of pollen dispersal of Pinus oocarpa Schiede through the utilization of radiophosphorus 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of tagging pollen of Pinus oocarpa Schiede with radiophosphorus 32P, in a closed forest are related. It was observed that the polen was distribuited until a distance of 300 meters, independently of wind velocity an almost not influenced by his direction. It was concluded that the isolation of seed growing areas is possible through a barrier superior to 300 meters only. (M.A.C.)

  15. Genotoxicity of Colloidal 32P Chromic Phosphate in the Mouse Bone Marrow Analyzed by Micronuclei Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate is used to prevent hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. It is speculated that the intravenous injection of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate can cause genotoxicity. To evaluate the genotoxicity of intravenously injected colloidal 32P chromic phosphate, authors performed a micronuclei test in mice bone marrow. Mice(ICR strain, 25 ? 30 g) were divided to 4 groups: control, group 1 (19.166 KBq/g, usual therapeutic dose in human), group 2 (191.66 KBq/g), and group 3 (1916.6 KBq/g). Five mice of each group were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Bone marrow were smeared and stained with Wright-Giemsa method. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were counted under the light microscope, and the number of micronucleated PCEs and NCEs were recorded. The frequency of micronuclei in PCE and NCE in the control group was 0.3 0.06% and 0.45 0.10%, respectively. At group 1, frequency of micronuclei is not different from the control. However, frequencies of micronuclei in PCE at groups 2 and 3 were significantly increased from day 1 and persisted to day 14. The frequency of micronuclei in NCE was increased only at group 3. In conclusion, the frequency of micronuclei increases as the dose of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate increases, while micronuclei was not induced at the usual therapeutic dose. And the frequency of micronuclei persistently elevated for 14 days in the cases of higher doses.

  16. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  17. Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

  18. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkins disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer

  19. 14C-lindane residues in palm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to identify the residue level in palm fruits and its products by spiking the fruits at 5 ppm with 14C-[UL]-lindane and following up on the residue during simulated commercial processes. The study concluded that steam distillation (deodorization) is an effective process in removing lindane residues. Under experimental conditions, commercial processes removed some 74% of insecticide residues from crude palm oil. Based on the oil content (up to 50%) of the pulp the residue concentration in the refined oil may exceed 2.5% mg/kg. The result suggest that the refined oil may retain one quarter of lindane received by the fruit. 1 tab

  20. 14C-coumaphos residues in Egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-coumaphos was applied dermally to two lactating goats, with 2 weeks interval. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results showed that coumaphos has a slow penetration rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. Milk residues were 0.20-0.25 ppm following appication, declining gradually to 0.03-0.06 ppm after 2 weeks. The liver and kidney were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other organs and milk after the withdrawal period. (author)

  1. Cluster structures of excited states in $^{14}$C

    CERN Document Server

    Suhara, Tadahiro

    2010-01-01

    Structures of excited states in $^{14}$C are investigated with a method of $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed $3\\alpha$-cluster core structures are suggested in positive- and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ correlation is found in the cluster states above the $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ threshold energy.

  2. Metabolism of [14C]-lindane in plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of several biodegradation studies on [14C]-lindane in plants and animals. These results together with those from previous studies indicate a common biodegradation pattern for lindane in plants, insects and animals, as chlorobenzene and chlorophenolic metabolites are formed in all cases. Various isomers of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobenzene and chlorophenols; pentachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol have been found in plants, insects and animals. γ-PCCH has been found in plants and insects but not in mammals. The chemical nature of terminal residues of lindane in several foods including wheat, bread, eggs and meat products are discussed. (author)

  3. Chemical digestion and radionuclidic assay of TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very quantitative, destructive assay procedure was devised for accurately measuring the 32P activity content of TiNi-encapsulated intravascular brachytherapy sources and was applied to four different sources (termed 'seeds') which were developed and provided by Guidant Intravascular Intervention (formerly NeoCardia). These seeds are intended for use in the prophylactic treatment of restenosis following balloon angioplasty in heart-disease patients. The assays involved the dissolution of the TiNi jacket, extraction of the activity from the internal 32P-containing source material, quantitative solution transfers, and a gravimetrically-based dilution; followed by liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry of the resulting master solution with 3H-standard efficiency tracing using composition-matched LS cocktails. The LS spectrometry utilized a previously-developed method for resolving the always-present 33P impurity. The protocol included provisions for accounting for all possible losses of 32P in the digestion procedure (based on radiochemical tracing experiments), for any unrecovered activity in the remaining source material, and for any residual activity in the solution-transfer and containing vessels. Sections of the TiNi jackets adjacent to the cut-off active seed portions were also assayed for any contained activity. Such destructive assays were required for relating measurements of the absorbed dose spatial distribution for the seeds to theoretic dose modelling and for establishing calibration factors for subsequent non-destructive radionuclidic measurements on the seeds

  4. Novel dose calculation and characterization of {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute; Kiavar, Omid; Saidi, Pooneh [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Fatehi, Rozhin [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-11-15

    Derived from AAPM task group No. 60/149 protocol, applicable in treatment planning In this study, the two-dimensional dose distributions in water for a {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent have been calculated. The pure beta emitter source {sup 32}P which has been coated on Palmaz-Schatz stent is discussed. The dosimetric parameters required by the AAPM TG-60/149 formalism are discussed and calculated. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate at the reference point is found to be 2.8 Gy/{mu}Ci. Also in this study, the geometry function, G(r,{theta}), radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), have been calculated at distances from 1.8 to 9 mm. The results of these calculations have been compared with other published calculated and measured values for an actual same source. High dose variants were visible near the {sup 32}P stent surface, but these values decreased with depth in water rapidly. There is an acceptable agreement between the calculated data in this study and other published data for the same source, which validate our simulations method. (orig.)

  5. Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

  6. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following 32P treatment for polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orally administrated NA232PO4 mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits ?-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that 32P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of 32P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by 32P treatment in PCV. (author)

  7. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

  8. Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

  9. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32P exchange technique. (author)

  10. DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([α- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

  11. Metabolism of (2-14C)thymine and (2-14C)thymidine in germinating black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seedlings was investigated. Both [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine degraded extensively into [14C]CO2. The rate of release of [14C]CO2 from [2-14C]thymine was much greater than that from [2-14C]thymidine. Radioactivity from both precursors was also observed ?-ureidoisobutyric acid. This indicated that thymine was degraded by the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation. Small amounts of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine were salvaged for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis. The highest incorporation of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine into the DNA fraction was observed in 24 hour-old cotyledons where net DNA synthesis was not observed. These precursors seem to be utilised for DNA synthesis of organelles of the cotyledonary cells, probably mitochondria. In embronic axes, [2-14C]thymine is more effectively salvaged for DNA synthesis than [2-14C]thymine. The incorporation rate increased during the early phase of germination and attained its maximum at 48 h after which it decreased. No thymidine kinase activity was detected in either cotyledons or in the embryonic axes. Thymidine salvage seems to be catalysed by nucleoside phosphotransferase which is present both in the cotyledons and in the embryonic axes. This suggests that, in contrast to other pyrimidine and purine bases and nucleosides, no specific salvage system for thymine and thymidine is present in black gram seedlings. (author)

  12. Phosphorus absorption (/sup 32/P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 84 - Montfavet (France). Station d' Agronomie)

    1983-01-01

    P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free /sup 32/P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to /sup 32/P injection.

  13. Phosphorus absorption (32P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free 32P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to 32P injection. (orig.)

  14. Influence of postnatal hypoxia on 32P labelling of polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid in striatum synaptosomes from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striatum synaptosomes prepared from adult rats which had been exposed to postnatal hypoxia incorporate 32P-phosphate into phosphatidylinositol-4,5-trisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2) with decreased rate. 32P incorporation amounted to 57% of the control for PI-4,5-P2 labelling and was slightly diminished for phosphatidic acid and PI-4-P. Exposure to hypoxia of adult rats did not affect inositolphospholipid labelling. The inhibitory effect of dopamine on 32P-phosphate incorporation was reduced only after postnatal hypoxia. 32P incorporation rates and the dopamine inhibitory effect were not influenced by external calcium. A working hypothesis is suggested for the dopamine action on specific receptors which may be linked to the polyphosphoinositide metabolism and membrane calcium release. The long lasting effects of an early postnatal hypoxia on 32P incorporation rates into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid could reflect the role of the proposed dopamine receptor interaction. (author)

  15. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  16. Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 4 years, gaseous samples of 150 ?g carbon have been routinely measured with the gas ion source of the small AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) facility MICADAS (MIni CArbon DAting System) at ETH Zurich. The applied measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. A major drawback of gaseous 14C measurements, however, is the relatively low negative ion current, which results in longer measurement times and lower precision compared to graphitized samples. In December 2009, a new, improved Cs sputter ion source was installed at MICADAS and we began to optimize conditions for the measurement of gaseous samples. 12C? currents from the new ion source were improved from initially 3 to 1215 ?A for routine measurements and the negative ion yield was increased by a factor of 2, reaching 8% on average during routine operation. Moreover, the new measurement settings enable a doubled CO2 flow, thus substantially reducing measurement times. The achieved performance allows closing the sample size gap between gaseous and solid samples and makes the gas ion source a promising tool for dating with a measurement precision of 5 on samples as small as 50 ?g carbon.

  17. Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C nuclear rainbow scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, S

    2015-01-01

    The Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for $^{16}$O using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at $E_L$=132, 281 and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum at around $\\theta$=76$^\\circ$ in the angular distribution at $E_L$=132 MeV is assigned as the second order Airy minimum $A2$ in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order $A3$. The Airy minima in the 90$^\\circ$ excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O and $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C cluster structure in the low energy region around $E_{c.m.}$=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted ...

  18. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S α with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S α, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S α. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S α irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  19. Long-distance transport of 35S-sulphur in 3-year-old beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-L-cysteine was fed to a mature leaf of 3-year-old beech trees via a flap. After 1 to 4 h the distribution of 35S-radioactivity was analysed in the leaves as well as the bark and wood of the trunk and the main root. Transport of 35S out of the fed leaf amounted to 0.3–1.2% of the total 35S taken up. The branches of the trees did not act as sink organs for the exported radioactivity. The main portion of the 35S-radioactivity transported out of the fed leaf was found in basipetal parts of the trunk. Only a small portion of 35S-radioactivity was transported in acropetal direction. The distribution of the 35S-radioactivity within the trunk showed a higher portion of 35S in the bark than in the wood. In both tissues, bark (70 to 80%) and wood (60 to 70%), the 35S was predominantly found in the HCl soluble fraction. However, 35S-cysteine, the compound fed to the leaves was not exported out of the fed leaf. Along the trunk 35S-cysteine was neither determined in bark nor in wood sections. The only low molecular mass S-compounds found was 35S-glutathione (GSH). The 35S-sulphate detected in bark and wood origined from cysteine oxidation in the leaf tissue and from contamination of the 35S-cysteine feeding solution. The ratio of GSH to sulphate decreased with increasing distance from the fed leaf. Apparently, 35S-radioactivity was transported as sulphate and GSH in the phloem in basipetal direction, but GSH was removed preferentially out of the phloem along the transport path. 35S-radioactivity exported out of the phloem and transported into the wood of the trunk was not retranslocated in the xylem. It may therefore be assumed that part of the 35S translocated was stored in ray cells, medullary sheath cells and/or pith parenchyma cells. Girdling experiments in which the bark of the trunk was peeled off basipetal to the branch containing the fed leaf support these assumptions. (author)

  20. Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, M. F.; Nascimento, T. S.; Yamazaki, I. M.; Dias, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them.

  1. A comparison of methods for the intrinsic labeling of wheat protein with 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hard red winter wheat variety (Brule), grown to maturity in a greenhouse, was intrinsically labeled with 35S by either stem injection or addition of the isotope to the medium in which detached wheat heads were grown. Two levels of isotope were applied by each method at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days postanthesis. Significantly higher yield (weight/head) of grain was observed with injection compared to the incubation method. Of the isotope introduced by injection, 77% translocated into the wheat kernel, and of this amount at least 77% of the isotope in the kernel was associated with kernel protein and free sulfur amino acids. Data suggest that injection of wheat stems 15 days after anthesis, with doses up to 10 ?Ci of 35S, would be a suitable method of obtaining intrinsically labeled wheat protein for bioavailability studies

  2. Study of the resonance behaviour of the systems 12C + 12C and 14C + 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis the resonant behaviour of the elastic e.g. inelastic scattering of 12C + 12C and 14C + 14C is studied. For the system 12C + 12C the spin alignment Psub(zz) of the inelastic scattering 12C(12C,12C)12C*(2+, 4.43 MeV) at six energies between 18.5 and 32.8 MeV (c.m.) is determined. The measurement was performed by coincident detection of particles and ?-quanta, whereby the ? detector was oriented in the direction of the scattering norm. The obtained Psub(z)sub(z)-values fluctuate strongly at the maxima of the excitation function (from +0.03 to +0.84) as at the minima (from -0.04 to +0.76). This result agrees neither with the predictions of the band crossing model (Abe) nor with the expectations of non-resonant models. At 14C + 14C the elastic scattering at Esub(c.m.) = 6-35 MeV as well as the single or double inelastic scattering to 3-(6.73MeV) from 15 to 35 MeV (c.m.) was measured. In the elastic 900(c.m.) excitation functions strongly pronounced crude structures (width 2-3 MeV (c.m.)) are shown, which are similar to the scattering behaviour of 160 + 160 and can be qualitatively described by surface transparent optical potentials. By measurements of the angular distributions it could be shown, that at the maxima of the excitation function at 15.5, 19.5, 24, and 28 the partial waves L = 12, 14, 17, e.g. 18 dominate. In the inelastic scattering from about 25 MeV (c.m.) clearly intermediate structures were observed, but the absolute value of the cross sections lies at about one order of magnitude below that of 12C* + 12C(2+) e.g. 12C*(2+) + 12C*(2+). This result as well as the only weak appearance of intermediate structures in the elastic scattering leads to the conclusion of a weak coupling between ground state and the 3--state. (orig./HSI)

  3. 14C-sucrose and 14C-malonate precursor feeding studies on lipid biosynthesis in peanut plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucrose is the principal photosynthetic product that gets transported to various organs of the plant and serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of food reserves like starch and lipids. Acetate and malonate are the most important precursor compounds involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids. The role of acetate in the fatty acid biosynthesis has been probed in detail by Stumpf. However, only very limited work has been reported using malonate as a substrate. In the present study, the role of sucrose and malonate in the lipid biogenesis in peanut plant has been examined using 14C-labeled compounds. (author). 7 refs

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ⩾0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  5. Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium (/sup 14/C)perfluorooctanoate or potassium (/sup 14/C)perfluorooctanesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Gibson, S.J.; Ober, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    After a single intravenous dose of ammonium (/sup 14/C)perfluorooctanoate (( /sup 14/C)PFO, 13.3 mg/kg) or of potassium (/sup 14/C)perfluorooctanesulfonate (( /sup 14/C)PFOS, 3.4 mg/kg) to rats, cholestyramine fed daily as a 4% mixture in feed was shown to increase the total carbon-14 eliminated via feces and to decrease liver concentration of carbon-14. Rats were fed cholestyramine in feed for 14 days after administration of (/sup 14/C)PFO and for 21 days after administration of (/sup 14/C)PFOS. Control rats were administered radiolabeled fluorochemical but were not treated with cholestyramine. Cholestyramine treatment increased mean cumulative carbon-14 elimination in feces by 9.8-fold for rats administered (/sup 14/C)PFO and by 9.5-fold for rats administered (/sup 14/C)PFOS. After (/sup 14/C)PFO, a mean of 4% of the dose of carbon-14 was in liver of cholestyramine-treated rats at 14 days versus 7.6% in control rats; after (/sup 14/C)PFOS, 11.3% of the dose was in liver at 21 days versus 40.3% in control rats. After administration of either radiolabeled compound, plasma and red blood cell carbon-14 concentrations, which were relatively lower than liver concentrations, were also significantly reduced by cholestyramine treatment.

  6. Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate or potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a single intravenous dose of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate [( 14C]PFO, 13.3 mg/kg) or of potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate [( 14C]PFOS, 3.4 mg/kg) to rats, cholestyramine fed daily as a 4% mixture in feed was shown to increase the total carbon-14 eliminated via feces and to decrease liver concentration of carbon-14. Rats were fed cholestyramine in feed for 14 days after administration of [14C]PFO and for 21 days after administration of [14C]PFOS. Control rats were administered radiolabeled fluorochemical but were not treated with cholestyramine. Cholestyramine treatment increased mean cumulative carbon-14 elimination in feces by 9.8-fold for rats administered [14C]PFO and by 9.5-fold for rats administered [14C]PFOS. After [14C]PFO, a mean of 4% of the dose of carbon-14 was in liver of cholestyramine-treated rats at 14 days versus 7.6% in control rats; after [14C]PFOS, 11.3% of the dose was in liver at 21 days versus 40.3% in control rats. After administration of either radiolabeled compound, plasma and red blood cell carbon-14 concentrations, which were relatively lower than liver concentrations, were also significantly reduced by cholestyramine treatment

  7. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  8. Studies on the metabolism of inorganic sulphur by nitrifying bacterium - Nitrobacter agilis using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies on the incorporation of 35S-labelled sulphate into washed cell suspension of Nitrobacter agilis, the bound sulphate, sulphite, sulphide, cysteine, glutathione, homocysteine, methionine and taurine were found in the hydrolysed protein fraction. As in other micro-organisms, sulphate is first activated by ATP in Nitrobacter before it is reduced. The formation of APS and PAPS was also investigated in the present studies. (author)

  9. t-(/sup 35/S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites in invertebrate tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.W.; Szamraj, O.; Miller, T.

    1989-04-01

    Specific high affinity binding of the cage convulsant t-(35S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) was observed in membrane homogenates of housefly heads and crayfish abdominal muscles. (35S)TBPS binding in these two invertebrate tissues was inhibited by biologically active cage convulsants, picrotoxin analogs, and barbiturates. The housefly binding sites were inhibited most potently by several insecticides. Approximately 50% of total binding was displaceable by excess (0.1 mM) nonradioactive TBPS, picrotoxinin, ethyl bicyclophosphate, or dieldrin. Optimal binding assay conditions for housefly homogenates included pH 7.5, 22 degrees C temperature, 0.3 M chloride concentration, and incubation for 60 min; for crayfish homogenates, 4 degrees C temperature and 150-min incubations were optimal. Scatchard plots of equilibrium binding indicated one site in both tissues (KD = 50 nM, Bmax = 250 fmol/mg protein in housefly; KD = 25 nM, Bmax = 100 fmol/mg protein in crayfish). Association kinetics in housefly were consistent with one rate constant (k+1 = 8 X 10(6) M-1 min-1), but dissociation was described better by two rate constants (k-1 = 0.28 min-1 and 0.042 min-1; calculated KD values of 80 nM and 12 nM). Displacement by cage convulsants showed Hill numbers near 0.5, also consistent with two populations of affinity, while displacement by other drugs showed Hill numbers near 1.0. (35S)TBPS binding in insects was most potently inhibited by the insecticides dieldrin (IC50 = 50 nM), aldrin, and lindane (200 nM), in a stereospecific manner, consistent with this binding site being the receptor for biological toxicity. (35S)TBPS binding was also inhibited by relatively high concentrations of some pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin and cypermethrin (1-2 microM).

  10. Response of a metastable superconducting grains suspension to irradiation by 35S decay electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a measurement of the energy loss spectrum of electrons in the beta decay of 35S using a prototype detector composed of a suspension of 10-25 μm diameter tin grains at 2.3 K. Preliminary analyses suggests the capability of achieving sub-eV resolutions in such measurements, and that -contrary to conventional wisdoms - this is possible with both relatively large grains and a distribution of the grain sizes. (orig.)

  11. Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish System have been studied. The results show: (1) when 2 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the early rice, there is 0.01 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.55 ppm in the fish; (2) when 3 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the late rice, there is 0.04 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.40 ppm in the fish. ADI of methamidophos is 0.0006 mg/kg body according to FAD/WHO recommendation in 1985, so Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in the rice is 0.078 ppm, MRL in the fish is 2.3 ppm. The residue in the rice and fish does not exceed the MRL by FAO/WHO recommendation, when the amount of used methamidophos was controlled. 35S-methamidophos in the simulated system disappears as exponential function. The half-life of 35S-methamidophos on the Azolla, water, fish and straw are 1.5, 2.8, 6.2 and 2.2 days respectively

  12. Biodistribution of the radioprotective drug 35S-labeled 3-amino-2-hydroxypropyl phosphorothioate (WR77913)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Amino-2-hydroxypropyl phosphorothioate (WR77913), a less toxic phosphorothioate radioprotector than WR2721, has been labeled with 35S. The biodistribution of a radioprotective dose of 800 mg/kg was determined in C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors as a function of time after intraperitoneal injection and was expressed as percentage injected dose/gram (% ID/g). Levels of 35S in the blood peaked 10 min after injection, and radioactivity in most tissues was highest at 15 min. Label in most tissues declined markedly between 15 and 60 min, but in gut, salivary glands, tumor, and brain, the levels of radioactivity remained quite stable over 1 hr. Two principal differences between the distribution of label from WR77913 and WR2721 were defined. Although blood levels of 35S-WR2721 also peaked 10 min after injection, the 10-min blood levels achieved for WR77913 were more than fourfold greater than those attained by WR2721. Maximum levels of WR2721 occurred in most tissues 30 to 60 min after administration of the drug, compared to 15 min for WR77913. The basis for these differences remains to be determined, but these results suggest that the optimum interval between administration of WR77913 and irradiation may be shorter than for WR2721

  13. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [35S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [35S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [35S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  14. The inclusion of 35S sodium sulfate in tissues soluble proteins in feather keratin of broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ-tissue peculiarities of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into soluble tissue proteins of skin, muscles, liver, pancreas, duodenum were established in experiments with chickens of one, 23, 41 and 60 day age. It is shown that skin is the organ, accumulating 35S sodium sulfate. It was revealed that intensity of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into muscule proteins and feather keratin in 23- and 41-day age decreased. Specificity of isotope distribution in separate feather components was established

  15. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, F., E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Fiumano, V., E-mail: vittoriofiumano85@libero.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Capano, M., E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Piazza S. Francesco, 81055 Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Passariello, I., E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Cesare, N.De., E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Terrasi, F., E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) AMS measurements ({Delta}R/R < 0.3%) reduce the conventional uncertainty of the dating to few decades, allowing precise age estimation of materials containing carbon (C). The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) during its activity on AMS {sup 14}C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the 'Acerenza portrait' is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-{sup 14}C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2{sigma}) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  16. Distribution of 14C in soil and rice plants following application of 14C - parathion to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amount of residues of 14C-parathion in soil rice plants after application of the insecticide to soil were determined in four systems studied during five weeks: pots of soil with and without plants and open or enclosed by a transparent cover. Measurements of amounts volatilized and 14CO2 evolution from the pesticide were made in closed system without plants. The bound residues in soil and plants were also determined. Results indicated that parathion half life in a Gley Humic soil was about two weeks. Very little radiocarbon was taken up by rice plants; of this, more was found in shoots of plants enclosed, probably by collection of the volatilized material by plants. About 6% and 4% of the 14C-parathion were found as volatilized material and 14CO2, respectively after five weeks. Bound residues varied very little and reached a maximum of 22% in soil and in plants amounted to less than 2% at the final of the experiment. (Author)

  17. Preparation and HPLC isolation of L-[U-14C]tryptophan from enzyme hydrolysate labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptophan was obtained from biomass of the blue-green alga Synechococcus elongatus cultivated under 14CO2. After partial purification, the protein fraction was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using pronase. Semipreparative isolation of L-[U-14C]tryptophan was accomplished on a HPLC column of Separon S Hema 1000 CM, 2% ethanol were added to the eluent, and a precolumn packed with the basic anion exchanger Spheron 1000 DEAE was used. Always after the passage of L-[U-14C]tryptophan, the precolumn was decoupled. The substance was collected in 96% ethanol. After removing the solvent by vacuum evaporation, the sample was analyzed on a column packed with Separon SIX C18 in the eluent of 0.1M-NaH2PO4, 2% methanol. When the desired radiochemical purity was not attained, the sample was purified on Separon SIX C18 using 2% methanol. The final radiochemical purity achieved by using this method is 98%. (P.A.). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  18. A new metabolically trapped agent by brain monoamine oxidase: N-methyl labeled (14C) N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamu, I

    1983-01-01

    A new type of metabolically trapped agent for measuring regional brain function was designed and evaluated. N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA) was synthesized with trifluoroacetylphenylethylamine and 14C-methyl iodide. A high concentration of 14C-MPEA accumulated in mouse brain 1 min after injection, and radioactivities in the brain remained for a long period. By radiochemical analysis, it was found 14C-MPEA was metabolized in the brain to 14C-methylamine. 14C-methylamine was trapped by the blood-brain barrier because of its cationic charge at physiological pH. When the mouse was pretreated with a MAO inhibitor (pargyline hydrochloride 100 mg/kg IP) the radioactivity was rapidly excreted from the brain with a half-life of about 45 min. These results indicate that 11C-MPEA has potential for the measurement of brain MAO activity. PMID:6628439

  19. Metabolism of 14C-lindane in flooded alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of rice straw on the persistence of uniformly ring labelled 14C-lindane in an alluvial soil was investigated under flooded conditions. The residues in the soil were extracted with chloroform-diethyl ether and the radioactivity was measured by liquid scintillation. The radioactivity in the solvent phase decreased more rapidly in amended soil than in unamended soil. Radioautograph of thin layer chromatograms of solvent phase indicated that lindane was readily converted to a breakdown product in both amended and unamended soils. This breakdown product was also formed in both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soils. Rice straw amendment enhanced further decomposition of lindane and its breakdown product. Heat treatment retarded further decomposition of lindane and its breakdown product whereas they were rapidly decomposed in nonautoclaved soil. These studies indicated that in flooded alluvial soil tested, lindane was initially decomposed by a chemical reaction and soil microorganisms appeared to attack the products of the chemical reaction. (author)

  20. Metabolic breakdown of14 c-methomyl by soil fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal species: Alternaria brassicola, helminthosporium sp. and verticillium agaricinum were incubated with radiolabelled methomyl (S14C-methyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy] thioacetimidate ). After filtration, the amounts of radioactivity in tissues and filtrates were analyzed for metabolic products. Of the applied radioactivity, the 3 fungal species were capable of degrading 38.9%, 35.3% and 29.3% into hydrolytic metabolites, respectively. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of hydrolytic fractions showed that two metabolic products ( unknowns 1 and 11 ) having Rf values of 0.30 and 0.47 could be detected in addition to a polar compound which contained the major radioactivity. The chloroform fraction contained mainly the parent material.2 tab

  1. Synthesis of CH3CH2Br - 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of ethyl bromide labelled with 14C, starting from ethanol, has already been studied: 1- by TOLBERT, CHRISTENSON, NAI-HSUAN and SAH; 2- by SIXMA and HENDRIKS. After various blank tests of these two methods, we have finally obtained the best yields by treating the ethanol with a mixture of 40 per cent hydrobromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, in the apparatus normally used in the laboratory for the synthesis of CH3I slightly modified, so that the current of nitrogen carrying ethyl bromide and hydrobromic acid passes through a sintered glass disc before being bubbled through a solution of NaOH. We describe here the practical process used for the blank test which gave the best yield (91 per cent) and the active synthesis. (author)

  2. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  3. The degradation of [14C] parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of [14C] parathion from two Brazilian soils was studied by measuring the parathion which could be extracted by a mixture of hexane and propanol and the 14CO2 evolved. Recovery of unchanged parathion decreased faster in the soil richer in organic matter (soil 1) from which more radiocarbon was evolved as CO2 than from the soil poorerin organic matter (soil 2). Evolution of CO2 from soil 1 decreased rapidly when the soil dried out but little effect of moisture content was observed in soil 2. Radiocarbon remaining in the soils was assayed by combustion after 234 days and the total recovered in soil 1 was 95.6% and, in soil 2,78.7%, sufficient to give almost complete recovery from both soils. (Author)

  4. Fate of /14C/-labelled hydroxyethyl starch in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three preparations of hydroxyethyl starch having MS 0.55, 0.65 and 0.8 respectively and labelled with 14C in hydroxyethyl residue were administered to mice. After 1, 5, 10, 20 and 60 days the mice were sacrificed and radioactivities determined in the following organs and tissues: blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and muscles. Most of the initial dose of radioactivity was eliminated from mice within 24 h. The remaining portion was eliminated slowly and even after 60 days 0 07 - 1.2% of the initial dose could be detected in different organs. The rate of clearance of radioactivity was fastest for hydroxyethyl starch with MS equals 0.55 and slowest for the preparation with MS equals 0.8. The retention of radioactivity was most conspicuous in the muscles. (author)

  5. Removal of 14C from nitrogen annulus gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry, ambient temperature process using Ca(OH)2 as the sorbent to remove 14CO2 from moderator cover gas was further developed to remove 14C from the extremely dry nitrogen annulus gas. Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of Ca(OH)2 and the CO2-Ca(OH)2 reaction at elevated temperatures under extremely low humidity conditions. Results shows that to achieve high utilization and avoid decomposition of Ca(OH)2, humidification of the annulus gas was necessary at high or low temperatures. Results of the bench scale (1-10 L/min) oxidizer study showed that, with 0.5% Pd or alumina as the catalyst, it was possible to achieve complete oxidation of CO and over 80% oxidation of CH4 with 1% hydrogen in the nitrogen. The gas superficial velocity should be less than or equal to30 cm/s and the residence time greater than or equal to0.5 s. A pilot scale (up to 160 L/min) system including a catalytic oxidizer, a humidifier/demister, a Ca(OH)2 reactor, a condenser/demister and regenerable molecular sieve dryers, was assembled and tested with simulated nitrogen annulus gas. Results showed that complete oxidation of the CO and 60-100% oxidation of the CH4 with 0.5% H2 in the simulated gas were achieved in the pilot plant. The CO2 concentration was reduced from 30-60 μL/L at the inlet of the Ca(OH)2 reactor to 1 μL/L or less at the outlet. After modifications of the dryer to overcome the problems encountered, the simulated annulus gas was dried to 0C dew point before recirculation. Equipment specifications and operating conditions of a 14C removal system for nitrogen annulus gas are summarized

  6. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [14C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  7. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled (14C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha-1, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their 14C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  8. 32P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. DNA was isolated from the livers of these wild fish and from control specimens which were raised in clean aquariums. DNA was enzymatically digested to normal and adducted nucleotides, and hydrophobic/bulky adducts were enriched in the digests either by preparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, or selective nuclease P1 dephosphorylation of normal nucleotides. Aromatic DNA-carcinogen adducts were then quantitated using 32P-postlabeling analysis. Using both adduct enrichment procedures, chromatograms derived from DNA of fish from polluted areas showed a diffuse diagonal radioactive zone not present in DNA from aquarium raised fish. The diagonal zone appeared to consist at least in part of multiple overlapping discrete adduct spots which could be partially separated by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography prior to 32P-postlabeling analysis, and most of which were more strongly retained on a reverse-phase column than the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct. The behavior of the adducts in the diagonal radioactive zone and of their unlabeled precursors is consistent with their identification as nucleotide adducts of a variety of bulky hydrophobic aromatic environmental compounds. Total pollution-related adduct levels as analyzed by HPLC adduct enrichment and 32P-postlabeling were 70.1 +/- 29 (SD) nmol/mol normal nucleotide in fish from the Buffalo River, and 52 and 56 nmol/mol for two specimens from the Detroit River

  9. Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5μM, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 μM. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake ( 70%) indicating the presence of >10μM particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

  10. Radioactive sputter cathodes for 32P plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes (32P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H332PO4) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribution of 32P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in 32P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils

  11. A Field Method for Validating Estimated 32P Activities in Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid radioactive wastes containing 32P are commonly generated as a byproduct of biomedical research and academic endeavours. The amount of radioactivity contained in these wastes is usually based on generalised mass balance calculations and intimate knowledge of the experiments performed. But since most solid waste is actually incidental to the protocols conducted, activity estimates can be inaccurate. Hence, a rapid field test method to validate activity levels reported by generators would be useful; similar tests are regularly used for the validation of activities of wastes containing photon-emitting radionuclides. Although this methodology is not typically applied to wastes containing beta-emitting radionuclides, due to the significant potential for radiation attenuation by the solid waste material, the beta emission from 32P is actually energetic enough readily to penetrate most paper, plastic and glass solid waste constituents. In this study, waste packages with variable predetermined amounts of 32P were monitored at a set of pre-established points using standard portable survey instrumentation. A series of waste activity correction curves were developed and used as a basis for validating actual waste package activity content. The results of the study revealed that over 90% of the waste packages monitored exhibited significant discrepancies between the measured and reported activity content. Although the technique used in this study accurately indicated radioactive content over a wide range, it can be hampered by a significant probability of exhibiting false negative results. Nonetheless, the method can be used as a valuable tool for waste minimisation programmes when applied judiciously. (author)

  12. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of bound 14C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14C residues, as measured by 14C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  13. Comparative in vitro metabolism of 1-14C-oleic acid and 1-14C-erucic acid in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro oxidation of 14C-oleic and 1-14C-erucic acid and their incorporation into lipids by liver, heart and skeletal muscles from female albino rats were studied. These tissues were obtained from rats maintained for 120 days on low fat diet or diets containing 15% mustard oil or 15% groundnut oil. In all these tissues from rats on different types of diets, the oxidation of 1-14C-erucic acid was lower than that 1-14C-oleic acid. There was little accumulation of lipids in heart after 120 days of feeding mustard oil. Oxidation of 1-14C-erucic acid was enhanced in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats conditioned to the mustard oil diet supplying erucic acid. Oxidation of erucic acid was maximum in liver and least in heart, whereas there were no differences in the oxidation of 1-14C-oleic acid in these tissues. Incorporation of 1-14C-oleic acid into triglycerides and phospholipids was not affected by the type of diet or tissues Incorporation of 1-14C-erucic acid was mainly into triglycerides of heart and skeletal muscles of rats not accustomed to mustard oil diet whereas these tissues from rats accustomed to mustard oil diets incorporated 1-14C-erucic acid both into the triglycerides and phospholipids. (author)

  14. The incorporation of [14C] glucosamine into dolichol diphosphate N-acetyl [14C] glucosamine by unbroken liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of whole Chang liver cells with D-[1-14C]glucosamine results in incorporation of radioactivity into both proteins and lipids. A minor (approximately 3%) amount of the labelled lipid has the chromatographic, solubility and chemical properties of dolichol diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine. A similar compound is formed when membrane preparations of the cells are incubated with UDP-N-acetyl [14C]glucosamine. The same membrane fractions catalyse the transfer of [14C]-mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to dolichol phosphate. (orig.)

  15. Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by 32P-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkineni, L K; Zeisig, M; Baranczewski, P; Ekstrm, L G; Mller, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by 32P-postlabeling and 32P-high-performance liquid chromatography (32p-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 degrees C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16 substances tested were, in increasing order, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 9-vinylanthracene. Metabolic activation with human and rat liver extracts gave rise to the same DNA adduct clusters. When bioactivation with material from different human individuals was used, there was a significant correlation between the CYP 1A1 activity and the capacity to form DNA adducts. This pattern was also confirmed using the CYP 1A1 inhibitor ellipticine. The 32P-HPLC method was shown to be sensitive and reproducible, and it had the capacity to separate DNA adduct-forming substances when applied to a great variety of petroleum products. PMID:11218050

  16. Detection of irradiation induced modifications in foodstuff DNA using 32p post-labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA post-labelling has been used successfully to detect damage to DNA caused by a range of damaging agents. The assay results in a fingerprint of changes induced in DNA which might, in principle, be useful as a test for the detection of the irradiation of foods. The authors present their DNA extraction and 32p post-labelling methods from chicken or cooked prawn samples and their analysis method (High Performance liquid chromatography). It's hoped that these results could form the basis of a test to detect if foods have been irradiated

  17. Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

  18. The measurement of activity contained in a 32P stainless-steel stent by destructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destructive assays of stainless-steel stents containing 32P were performed. Prior to assay, 24 stents were intercompared on a NaI(Tl) well-type crystal. A subset of stents were then digested in a suitable carrier solution by the addition of concentrated hydrofluoric acid. The final solution was measured by the CIEMAT/NIST tritium efficiency tracing method for liquid scintillation counting. A separate experiment was performed which indicated no loss of activity during stent digestion. Expanded (k=2) uncertainties on stent activity ranged from 1.0% to 2.6%

  19. Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

  20. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal /sup 32/P uptake at various times of injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breneman, W.R.; Zeller, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid /sup 32/P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased.

  1. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal 32P uptake at various times of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid 32P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased

  2. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl- channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (≤ 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  3. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

  4. Potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant following administration of sodium 32P-phosphate to the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P uptake test to diagnose an intraocular tumour was performed on a lactating woman. Breast feeding of her infant had been stopped and after injection of the 32P, a sample of breast milk on two consecutive days was collected. The concentration of 32P in the milk was greater in the second sample than the first, but it was calculated that the potential whole body radiation dose to her infant on the second day would not have exceeded 180 μSv(18 mrem). (author)

  5. Defective [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation. [1-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

  6. Synthesis of uniformly labelled organic compounds by polymerization of 14C ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C uniformly labelled compounds is described. By polymerization of 14C ethylene, linear olefins with a double bond at α position were obtained. From these olefins, uniformly labelled alkanes, alcohols and acids were prepared

  7. Urvina Bay, Galapagos Coral Radiocarbon (delta 14C) Data for 1956 to 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Urvina Bay coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. (90 deg W, 0.5 deg S) Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per...

  8. Production and characterization of [14C]protein A, a long-lived immunological reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the production of [14C]protein A is described which involves reductive methylation of lysine residues with [14C]formaldehyde and NaCNBH3. The binding of [14C]protein A to IgG is apparently unaltered, as determined by competitive binding studies. The use of [14C]protein A may be preferred to that of 125I-protein A when a radioactive label with a long half-life is desirable. (Auth.)

  9. Synthesis of [2,3,4,5-[sup 14]C]-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digenis, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Peilin Chen (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    An efficient small scale synthesis of [sup 14]C labeled 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) is described. The cyclization of commercially available [1,2,3,4-[sup 14]C]-[gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA) gives [2,3,4,5-[sup 14]C]-2-pyrrolidinone which is vinylized with vinyl acetate via a sodium tetrachloropalladate catalyst to give good yields of [2,3,4,5-[sup 14]C]-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone. (Author).

  10. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  11. In vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability using 35S to label the bacterial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in order to simplify a previously developed 15N-method for in vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability. Casein (Cas), whole soybeans (Sb) heated at 120oC for 20 min (SbTherm) and sunflower (Sfl) were incubated at 39oC for 4 hours in a water bathshaker with the following media: McDougall's buffer, strained and enriched with particle associated bacteria rumen fluid (2:1), rapidly (maltose, sucrose, glucose) and more slowly (pectin, soluble starch) degradable carbohydrates with final concentration of 815 mg/100 ml and 21.7 μCi/100 ml of35S (from Na235SO4). After the incubation had been ceased, a bacterial fraction was isolated through differential centrifugation and specific activity of bacterial (Bac) and high speed total solids (TS) nitrogen was measured. The ratio was used to calculate bacterial mass in TS and through the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in TS - the net bacterial growth (against control vessels without protein). The level of ammonia-N in the supernate after blank correction was used to find the ammonia-N released from protein degradation. The data showed that the rate (and extend) of degradation for the Cas (as a standard protein) was lower compared to those obtained through the 15N-method but it was higher than the rate derived through another in vitro method. The Cas equivalent of the Sb was higher than the figure we found in a previous experiment with solvent extracted soybean meal suggesting that the 35S-method underestimated the degradability of the Cas. After being tested on a wider range of foodstuffs, the proposed 35S-method might be considered as an alternative procedure which is less laborous than the 15N-method. (author)

  12. Detection of radioactive 35S at Fukushima and other Japanese sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark H.; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Yamada, Keita; Mukotaka, Arata; Fujii, Ayako; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Noguchi, Izumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and concomitant tsunami during March 2011. An effect of this disaster was secondary formation of radioactive 35S via the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction, when neutrons from the partially melted reactor cores activated the coolant sea water. Here we report the first measurements of 35S in sulfate aerosols and rain water collected at six Japanese sampling sites, Hokkaido, Tsukuba, Kashiwa, Fuchu, Yokohama, and Fukushima, during March-September 2011. The measured 35SO42- concentrations in aerosols vary significantly. The Kashiwa (AORI) site shows the highest 35SO42- concentration (6.1 104 200 atoms/m3) on 1 April 2011, which is nearly 100 times higher than the natural background activity. Considering the percentage loss of 35SO42- resulting from dry and wet deposition and dilution of the radiation plume in the boundary layer during transport, it was determined that the surface air concentration of 35SO42- at the Fukushima would have been 2.8 105 atoms/m3 during the week after the earthquake, which is in agreement with the model prediction [Priyadarshi et al.]. 35SO42- activity in rain water collected during March-May 2011 at Tokyo Tech Yokohama varies from 1.1 105 to 9.8 105 atoms/liter, whereas stream water collected near Fukushima was found to have 1.2 105 atoms/liter during April. Even after 6 months, 35SO42- activity remains very high (9.9 104 770 atoms/m3) in the marine boundary layer in the Fukushima region, which implies that the reactor core was producing radioactive sulfur.

  13. An improved synthesis of 14C labelled glycerol using sodium borohydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [1-14C]Glyceric acid has been reduced to [1(3)-14C]glycerol in high yields via the methyl ester of [1-14C]glyceric acid by sodium borohydride in the presence of t-butyl alcohol and methanol. The importance of the procedure is highlighted in relation to other procedures involving lithium aluminium hydride reduction. (author)

  14. DNA methylation by methylbromfenvinfos 14C in in vivo and in vitro experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of DNA methylation in vitro by methylbromfenvinfos (14C-methyl), an organophosphorous insecticide of Polish production, and methylation of nuclear DNA in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the insecticide and also after administration of mutagenic alkylating agents: methanomethyl sulphonate 14C, and N,N-dimethylnitrosoamine 14C, were studied. (author)

  15. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb (14)C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2013-01-01

    14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...

  16. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation for 32 P patch source for superficial brachytherapy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer treatment involving 32 P source is an easy, less expensive method of treatment limited to small and superficial lesions of approximately 1 mm deep. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC has indigenously developed 32 P nafion-based patch source (1 cm ? 1 cm for treating skin cancer. For this source, the values of dose per unit activity at different depths including dose profiles in water are calculated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code system. For an initial activity of 1 Bq distributed in 1 cm 2 surface area of the source, the calculated central axis depth dose values are 3.62 ? 10 -10 GyBq -1 and 8.41 ? 10 -11 GyBq -1 at 0.0125 and 1 mm depths in water, respectively. Hence, the treatment time calculated for delivering therapeutic dose of 30 Gy at 1 mm depth along the central axis of the source involving 37 MBq activity is about 2.7 hrs.

  17. Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

  18. Pattern of 32P incorporation in DNA and RNA by root forming hypocotyl cuttings of vigna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both etiolated (OL+24D) and light grown (12L+12D) seedings of Vigna catjang Endl. exhibited five distinct anatomical stages (stage 1 to stage v) of equal durations at the base of their hypocotyl cuttings during adventitious root formation. The dimensions of rooting priomordia only varied in these two sets of experiments. Furthermore, the etiolated cuttings produced lesser amount of roots as compared to light grown cuttings. Modifications of rooting behaviour by promotive and inhibitive IAA and GA3 was more or less identical in both the sets of experiments. 32P in corporation studies revealed stage III (Just disorganisation stage) as the period of highest metabolic activity, the efficiency, however, depdnding on the age of the cuttings. Patterns of 32P incorporation by nucleic acids, indicated clearly that both DNA and RNA synthesis increased during adventitious root formation, the maximum intensity of synthetic events taking place during just disorganisation stage (i.e. stage III). By comparing the rates of synthesis of RNA and DNA, at hypocotyl bases, the former proved to be significantly higher as compared to DNA synthesis. (author)

  19. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain

  20. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-04-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

  1. The accumulation of [35S]methimazole by monocytes and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used an automatic cell harvester and micro culture techniques to examine the accumulation of [35S]methimazole by monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes. Significant temperature-dependent accumulation of the drug was found in resting monocytes and macrophages; this was increased up to 4-fold by phagocytosis. Lymphocytes accumulated little or no drug and myeloma and leukaemic cell lines accumulated none. These results show that two interrelated cells with endogenous peroxidatic activity take up the antithyroid drug methimazole providing further support for the concept that immunosuppression by this drug in Graves' disease is mediated via an action on antigen-presenting cells. (author)

  2. Co-isolation of in vivo 32P-labeled specific transcripts and DNA without phenol extraction of nuclease digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for isolation and quantitation of specific intact transcripts, for which a hybridization probe is available, from 32P-labeled bacterial cells. The RNA is extracted in the absence of R Nase activity by incorporating an inert, physically removable R Nase inhibitor throughout the spheroplasting, cell lysis, and pronase digestion steps. [/sup 32/P]RNA is separated from [32P]DNA, without recourse to phenol extraction of DNase treatment, on a Cs2SO/sub 4-/HCONH2 step gradient in which the precipitated RNA forms a sharp band. Specific transcripts are purified from [32P]RNA by physical separation of the transcript and hybridization probe using gel-exclusion chromatography. The gentleness of this technique enables the co-isolation of DNA and can facilitate the analysis of covalently joined RNA-DNA replication intermediates

  3. Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

  4. 32P-adduct assay: Comparative recoveries of structurally diverse DNA adducts in the various enhancement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A (32)P-adduct assay for the measurement of low levels (1 adduct per 10(sup 7) nucleotides) of binding of carcinogens to DNA has been reported previously. In this procedure, DNA is enzymatically hydrolyzed to 3'-monophosphates of normal nucleosides and adducts, which are 5'-(32)P-labeled by T4 polynucleotide kinase and (lambda(32)P)ATP. Labeled adducts are resolved by TLC. Enrichment of adducts by extraction in 1-butanol or digestion with nuclease P1 prior to (32)P-labeling, however, increased the sensitivity of detection for many adducts to a level of 1 per 10(sup 9-10) nucleotides, although adduct recovery particularly in the latter assay depended on the chemical nature of adducts. The observation that chemical structure of an adduct may be detrimental in its recovery in the enzyme- and extraction-mediated enrichment procedures may serve as a probe in the structural characterization of adducts of unknown carcinogens

  5. The effect of lithium on the incorporation of 32P-orthophosphate into synaptosomal phospholipids from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were treated with lithium added to the diet for five weeks (40 mmol LiCl/kg diet). The mean plasma lithium concentration was 0.48 mmol/l plasma, and the blood was drawn at 8 a.m.. The brains were removed and synaptosomes were prepared according to the method of Gray and Whittaker (1962) and Bradford (1972). The synaptosomes were incubated for 120 min. with 32P-orthophosphate, either in a lithium-containing medium or in a lithium-free medium. The 32P-incorporation was lower in the synaptosomes from lithium-treated rats than the 32P-incorporation in synaptosomes from control rats regardless of the medium chosen. The results indicate that lithium treatment in vivo decreases the 32P-incorporation into synaptosomal phospholipids and that the effect remains after the removal of the lithium ion. (author)

  6. Carbonates in leaching reactions in context of 14C dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Danuta; Czernik, Justyna

    2015-10-01

    Lime mortars as a mixture of binder and aggregate may contain carbon of various origins. If the mortars are made of totally burnt lime, radiocarbon dating of binder yields the real age of building construction. The presence of carbonaceous aggregate has a significant influence on the 14C measurements results and depending on the type of aggregate and fraction they may cause overaging. Another problem, especially in case of hydraulic mortars that continue to be chemically active for a very long time, is the recrystallization usually connected with rejuvenation of the results but also, depending on local geological structures, with so called reservoir effect yielding apparent ages. An attempt in separating the binder from other carbonaceous components successfully was made for samples from Israel by Nawrocka-Michalska et al. (2007). The same preparation procedure, after taking into account the petrographic composition, was used for samples coming from Poland, Nawrocka et al. (2009). To verify the procedure used previously for non-hydraulic samples determination an experimental tests on carbonaceous mortars with crushed bricks from Novae in Bulgaria were made. Additionally, to identify different carbonaceous structures and their morphology, a cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscope with electron dispersive spectrometer were applied. The crushed bricks and brick dust used in mortars production process have been interpreted as an alternative use to other pozzolanic materials. The reaction between lime and pozzolanic additives take place easily and affects the rate and course of carbonates decomposition in orthophosphric acid, during the samples pretreatment for dating. The composition of the Bulgarian samples together with influence of climate conditions on mortar carbonates do not allow for making straightforward conclusions in chronology context, but gives some new guidelines in terms of hydraulic mortars application for dating. This work has mainly methodological character, illustrating the special preparation methods used for mortars with complicated (in context of radiocarbon dating) petrographic composition. The local geology combined with finding sources of raw materials for the production of mortars is important issue in final interpretation of the 14C measurement results.

  7. Early incorporation and distribution of 14C-photosynthates after 14C-feeding for a brief period in tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the early incorporation and distribution of 14C-photosynthetic products in tea plants after 14C-feeding for a brief period, 14C-tracer experiments were performed, using the winter leaves, first crop shoots and young tea plants of a cultivar, Yabukita. As the results of the experiment on leaf disks by 14C-Feeding for one minute, the 14C-activity in the ethanol soluble fraction distributed in the anionic, cationic and neutral fractions in this order. When the time of feeding was extended to 10 min, the distribution in the cationic fraction decreased, and that in the neutral fraction increased. In the experiment on shoots, after the end of 10 min assimulation, the 14C-activity in the ethanol soluble fraction distributed in the neutral, cationic and anionic fractions in this order. In course of time, the distribution in the cationic and anionic fractions decreased, and that in the neutral fraction increased. As the results of 14C-feeding to young tea plants for 2.5 hours, 70 - 95% of the 14C-activity in the ethanol soluble fraction distributed in the neutral fraction. Sucrose seemed to be the primary and early product of photosynthesis, and might be the principal carbohydrate form of translocation and reserve in tea plants. Raffinose and stachyose played almost the same role as sucrose. (Kako, I.)

  8. Disposition and Metabolic Profiles of [14C]Viramidine and [14C]Ribavirin in Rat and Monkey Red Blood Cells and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-Chung; Lourenco, David; Xu, Guifen; Yeh, Li-Tain

    2004-01-01

    The disposition and metabolic profiles of [14C]viramidine and [14C]ribavirin were compared in rat and monkey red blood cells and liver. Our data reveal that the total ribavirin-related components (ribavirin plus its mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites) may account for most of the drug in monkey liver following prolonged oral administration of viramidine.

  9. Degradation and residues of trifluralin and metalaxyl in soils treated with 14C-trifluralin and 14C-metalaxyl, under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the herbicide 14C-trifluralin and the fungicide 14C-metalaxyl was studied under laboratory conditions in Red Latosol and Yellow Red Podzol soils in samples Kept flooded, sterilized and with humidity equivalent to 60% of the water field capacity. The degradation of both pesticides is discussed. (M.A.C.)

  10. Effect of some organic wastes on the absorption and translocation of 32P in Vigna mungo (L.) hepper seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aqueous extracts of all the organic wastes namely Lantana camara, Chromalaena odoratum and Trifolium spp. in general inhibited the uptake of 32P in Vigna mungo seedlings. The aqueous extract of all these organic wastes at all concentrations, on the other hand, promoted significantly the distribution of 3'2P to stem and leaves than roots. The extent of distribution in stem and leaves, however, varied with the organic wastes and its concentrations. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  11. [35S]cysteamine: facile synthesis, in vivo biokinetics, and subcellular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas chemical radioprotection against external beams of ionizing radiation is well studied in radiobiology, the aspects relating to tissue incorporated radionuclides have received little attention. The increased use of radionuclides in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, as well as the presence of both manmade and natural radioactivity in the environment, indeed call for such investigations. Our ongoing work on a variety of radioprotectors has revealed that cysteamine (MEA), S-2-aminoethylisothio uroniumbromide hydrobromide (AET), and others (e.g. ascorbic acid), protect spermatogonial cells in mouse testis from the effects of chronic irradiation with intratesticularly localized radionuclides. In these experiments, dose modification factors ranging from 2 to 4 and 10 to 14 were obtained using spermhead survival and induction of spermhead abnormalities, respectively, as the biological end points. Similar experiments were carried out by changing the mode of administration of cysteamine to oral intubation. In these studies a dose modification factor of ? 3 was observed in the spermhead survival assay. In an effort to understand the protection offered by MEA, the present work describes a one-pot synthesis of high specific activity [35S]cysteamine from elemental [35S]sulphur and its use in determining the biokinetics and biodistribution of MEA following intratesticular (i.t.) or oral administration in mice. (Author)

  12. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on the agricultural environment and ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimehypo is a new type of insecticide of the nereistoxin family of compounds which has been developed and manufactured in China. To appraise its environmental safety, radioisotope tracer techniques were applied to investigate the effects of 35S labelled dimehypo on the agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorption and high mobility in soil, stability in soil and water, and slow rate of degradation. The main product of degradation, nereistoxin has a lower mobility than the parent compound in the soil. Sulphur-35-dimehypo was taken up by the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon indellus) along with bait or via the respiratory tracts and was excreted rapidly after the fish were removed from the contaminated water. Liquid and granulated formulations of 35S-dimehypo were fed to quails and fowls, respectively. The radioactivity was excreted rapidly in faeces and urine. The low partition coefficient of the insecticide in caprylalcohol-water suggested no (or low) accumulation in the adipose tissue of the organism. The release of its active ingredients from the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Synthesis of (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]-[2-14C]cytosine ((S)-[14C] HPMPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of (S)-[14C]HPMPC is described. Heating [2-14C]cytosine in N,N-dimethylformamide with (R)-3-0-benzyl-2-0-[(diethylphosphonyl)methyl]-1-0-(methylsulfonyl) glycerol in the presence of cesium carbonate gave (S)-1-[3-benzyloxy-2-(diethylphophonylmethoxy) propyl]-[2-14C]cytosine. Reduction with palladium hydroxide on carbon in cyclohexene yielded (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(diethylphosphonylmethoxy)propyl]-[2-14C] cytosine. Deprotection of the diethylphosphonate ester with bromotrimethylsilane and treatment with water produced 190 mg of [14C] HPMPC having a specific activity of 21.2 μCi/mg and a radiochemical purity 98.5% in an overall yield of 5.6%. (author)

  14. Influence of a few composts on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh meadow soil and the immobilization of the 14C residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of four composts on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh soil and the distribution of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues after one year incubation were studied. Straw compost had an important positive effect on the degradation of the herbicide. After a negative influence during the 15 first days of incubation, composts of mushroombeds, grapes and oak-bark - hen-dung had little influence. The soils treated with these three last composts showed a more important complexation of 14C than the control-soil or the soil treated with straw-compost. Calculation of the quantity of free 14C substances in the soil after one year incubation gave for the four composts values comprised between 39 and 84% of that of the control

  15. Synthesis of 1-(2-ethoxyethyl)-2-(4-methyl-1-homopiperazinyl)-[2-14C]benzimidazole difumarate([14C]KB-2413)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-(2-Ethoxyethyl)-2-(4-methyl-1-homopiperazinyl)-[2-14C]-benzimidazole difumarate ([14C]KB-2413), a new antihistaminic agent, was prepared from labelled urea. The synthetic intermediate, 1-(2-ethoxyethyl)benzimidazol-one, obtained in good yield by the condensation of N-(2-ethoxy-ethyl)-o-phenylenediamine with [14C]urea, was chlorinated with phosphorus oxychloride and followed by the reaction with N-methylhomopiperazine to give the base of [14C]KB-2413. It was then converted to the difumarate, which was obtained in an overall radiochemical yield of 74 % starting from [14C]urea. The specific activity was 54.4 mCi/mmol and its radiochemical purity was 98.0 % in reverse isotope dilution analysis. (author)

  16. Elastic and inelastic scattering of {sup 14}C + {sup 18}O versus {sup 12,} {sup 13}C + {sup 18}O and {sup 14}C + {sup 16}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudchik, A.T.; Shyrma, Yu.O.; Ponkratenko, O.A.; Romanyshyna, G.P.; Stepanenko, Yu.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kemper, K.W. [Florida State University, Physics Department, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Rusek, K.; Strojek, I. [A. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Koshchy, E.I. [Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Kliczewski, S.; Budzanowski, A.; Skwirczynska, I.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Novatsky, B.G.; Sakuta, S.B. [Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Piasecki, E.; Choinski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Glowacka, L. [MUT, Institute of Applied Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-04-15

    The angular distributions of the {sup 14}C + {sup 18}O elastic and inelastic scattering at the energy E{sub lab}({sup 1}8O) = 105 MeV were measured firstly. The data were analyzed within the optical model and the coupled-reaction-channels method. The parameters of the {sup 14}C + {sup 18}O optical potential were deduced. The contributions of one- and two-step transfers of nucleons and clusters in the {sup 14}C + {sup 18}O elastic and inelastic scattering were calculated. The isotopic differences between the {sup 14}C + {sup 18}O and {sup 12,} {sup 13,} {sup 14}C + {sup 18}O potentials were studied. (orig.)

  17. Effect of a few amendments on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh meadow soil and the immobilization of the 14C residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a few amendments on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh soil and the distribution of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues after one year incubation were studied. The N and NPK fertilizers, glucose, cellulose and amorphous calcic humates had a positive effect on the mineralization of the herbicide. Straw, NAFS extract and amorphous lignin had little influence while colloidal lignin and colloidal calcic humates had a negative effect on the mineralization. All the amendments tested increased the quantity of 14C substances fixed on the soil constituents and so decreased pollution. Calculation of the quantity of free 14C in the soil after one year incubation showed for the various amendments values comprised between 56 and 93% of that of the control

  18. Comparison of 32P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium 32P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with 32P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with 32P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with 32P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while 32P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or 32P treatment

  19. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  20. Studies on the effects of acetylcholine and antiepileptic drugs on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phospholipids in rat brain synaptosomes. Of the four antiepileptic drugs investigated in the present study, namely phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate, only phenytoin blocked the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, and the acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. Phenytoin alone, like atropine alone, had no effect on the 32P labeling of phospholipids nor on the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP. Omission of Na+ drastically reduced both the 32P labeling of synaptosomal phospholipids and the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP and furthermore it significantly decreased the phosphoinositide effect. It was concluded that certain antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, could exert their pharmacological actions through their antimuscarinic effects. In addition the finding that phenytoin, which acts to regulate NA+ and Ca2+ permeability of neuronal membranes, also inhibited the phosphoinositide effects in synaptosomes, support the conclusions that Ca2+ and Na+ are probably involved in the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon in excitable tissues

  1. Differences in phospholipid incorporation of 32P relevant to alpha 1-receptor coupling events in rat and rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of membrane phospholipids with 32P was compared in rat and rabbit aorta under basal conditions and during alpha 1-receptor stimulation. Incorporation of 32P proceeded at a significantly higher rate in rat tissue. The ratio of basal labelling following 30 min of incubation for rat/rabbit arteries was 4.8 for phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PIP2), 6.0 for phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP), 9.0 for phosphatidylinositol (PI), 6.0 for phosphatidic acid (PA) and 18.7 for phosphatidylcholine (PC). Addition of 10(-5)M norepinephrine (NE) to labelled tissues resulted in a similar decrease in [32P]-PIP2 in both rat and rabbit tissues. Greater percent increases were seen in rabbit tissue of [32P]-PA (4-6 fold), and [32P]-PI (3-5 fold), when measured over the initial 10 minutes of agonist exposure. While NE caused a gradual increase of 32P incorporation into PC in rabbit aorta, reaching 180% above control after 10 minutes, PC labelling was not increased in rat aorta. Our findings provide evidence for the enhanced labelling of rat vs rabbit aorta phospholipids. This may account for differences in receptor responses and associated Ca+ movements which have been previously recognized to exist between aorta of these two species

  2. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  3. Biodegradation of14 C-lindane by some soil fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a culture medium incorporated with 14 C-labelled lindane, the 3 soil fungi helminthosporium sp., alternaria brassicola, and verticillium agaricinum were incubated for 10 days. Most of the recovered radioactivity was found to be maintained mainly in the medium of helminthosporium and alternaria but in case of verticillium the majority was associated with the mat. The 3 fungal species showed degradation capacity of 6.1, 5.1 and 3.2% of the total recovered radioactivity radioactivity as hydrolytic products. TLC chromatographic analysis of chloroform fractions revealed the presence of only unchanged lindane either in medium of mat. The aqueous fractions of the 3 fungal species, demonstrated three degraded products (unknown ι,π and tri) having Rf values of 0.40 - 0.47, 0.66 - 0.73, and 0.87 in addition to a polar compound (Rf = 0.07) with the major radioactivity. A certain percentage of radiocarbon 6.7, 5.7 and 30.3% of the mats of helminthosporium, alternria and verticillium, respectively.2 tab

  4. 14C determination in different bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arvalo, Francisco-Javier; Gmez Martnez, Isabel; Agull Garca, Lidia; Reina Maldonado, Mara-Teresa; Garca Len, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Radiocarbon determination can be used as a tool to investigate the presence of biological elements in different bio-based products, such as biodiesel blends. These products may also be produced from fossil materials obtaining the same final molecules, so that composition is chemically indistinguishable. The amount of radiocarbon in these products can reveal how much of these biological elements have been used, usually mixed with petrol derived components, free of 14C. Some of these products are liquid and thus the handling at the laboratory is not as straightforward as with solid samples. At Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) we have tested the viability of these samples using a graphitization system coupled to an elemental analyzer used for combustion of the samples, thus avoiding any vacuum process. Samples do not follow any chemical pre-treatment procedure and are directly graphitized. Specific equipment for liquid samples related to the elemental analyzer was tested. Measurement of samples was performed by low-energy AMS at the 1 MV HVEE facility at CNA, paying special attention to background limits and reproducibility during sample preparation.

  5. Pion scattering to 4- states in 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions and excitation functions for inelastic scattering of?+ and ?- from 14C were measured at incident pion energies near the ?33 resonance. Three states at excitation energies 11.7, 15.2, and 17.3 MeV were identified as 4- states. Isovector and isoscalar spectroscopic amplitudes Z0 and Z1, and equivalently, neutron and proton amplitudes Z/sub n/ and Z/sub p/ were deduced by comparison with microscopic distorted wave impulse approximation calculations. The 11.7-MeV state was found to be excited with a Z/sub n//Z/sub p/ amplitude ratio of -1/3, resulting in a complete cancellation of the ?+ cross section. A nearly pure proton excitation was observed for the transition to the 17.3-MeV state. Both results are in qualitative agreement with the presented shell-model calculations. A poor correspondence with theory is found for the 15.2-MeV state. Data and distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations using shell-model wave functions are presented for the first 3- state at 6.73 MeV as an example of a transition dominated by ?S = 0 (no spin transfer). Its excitation function and angular-distribution shape contrast sharply with the transitions to the 4- states that proceed by ?S = 1

  6. Pion scattering to 4- states in 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, D. B.; Seestrom-Morris, S. J.; Dehnhard, D.; Baer, H. W.; Morris, C. L.; Greene, S. J.; Harvey, C. J.; Kurath, D.; Carr, J. A.

    1985-03-01

    Angular distributions and excitation functions for inelastic scattering of ?+ and ?- from 14C were measured at incident pion energies near the ?33 resonance. Three states at excitation energies 11.7, 15.2, and 17.3 MeV were identified as 4- states. Isovector and isoscalar spectroscopic amplitudes Z0 and Z1, and equivalently, neutron and proton amplitudes Zn and Zp were deduced by comparison with microscopic distorted wave impulse approximation calculations. The 11.7-MeV state was found to be excited with a Zn/Zp amplitude ratio of -1/3, resulting in a complete cancellation of the ?+ cross section. A nearly pure proton excitation was observed for the transition to the 17.3-MeV state. Both results are in qualitative agreement with the presented shell-model calculations. A poor correspondence with theory is found for the 15.2-MeV state. Data and distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations using shell-model wave functions are presented for the first 3- state at 6.73 MeV as an example of a transition dominated by ?S=0 (no spin transfer). Its excitation function and angular-distribution shape contrast sharply with the transitions to the 4- states that proceed by ?S=1.

  7. Pion scattering to 4/sup -/ states in /sup 14/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtkamp, D.B.; Seestrom-Morris, S.J.; Dehnhard, D.; Baer, H.W.; Morris, C.L.; Greene, S.J.; Harvey, C.J.; Kurath, D.; Carr, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Angular distributions and excitation functions for inelastic scattering of..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ from /sup 14/C were measured at incident pion energies near the ..delta../sub 33/ resonance. Three states at excitation energies 11.7, 15.2, and 17.3 MeV were identified as 4/sup -/ states. Isovector and isoscalar spectroscopic amplitudes Z/sub 0/ and Z/sub 1/, and equivalently, neutron and proton amplitudes Z/sub n/ and Z/sub p/ were deduced by comparison with microscopic distorted wave impulse approximation calculations. The 11.7-MeV state was found to be excited with a Z/sub n//Z/sub p/ amplitude ratio of -1/3, resulting in a complete cancellation of the ..pi../sup +/ cross section. A nearly pure proton excitation was observed for the transition to the 17.3-MeV state. Both results are in qualitative agreement with the presented shell-model calculations. A poor correspondence with theory is found for the 15.2-MeV state. Data and distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations using shell-model wave functions are presented for the first 3/sup -/ state at 6.73 MeV as an example of a transition dominated by ..delta..S = 0 (no spin transfer). Its excitation function and angular-distribution shape contrast sharply with the transitions to the 4/sup -/ states that proceed by ..delta..S = 1.

  8. Metabolism of 14C-diazinon by gypsy moth larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic fate of diazinon in larvae of Porthetria dispar (L.) was determined using 14C-ring-labeled material. Following a 4-h ingestion period, 28.7 percent of the total recovered activity was present as diazinon in the larvae and 0.2 percent in the feces at 1 hr; by 12 h these amounts had changed to 1.4 and 15.4 percent, respectively. The major transformation products were 2,isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol greater than diazoxon greater than hydroxydiazinon greater than 2-(2'-hydroxy-2'-propyl)-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol. Small amounts of 5 additional products were detected but were not identified. Metabolism of topically applied diazinon was the same qualitatively as that of ingested diazinon, based on a comparison of chloroform-extractable metabolites, although quantitative differences were evident. The synergists 2,6-dichlorobenzyl-2-propynyl ether (GA4-282) and piperonyl butoxide (PB) altered the metabolism of diazinon (both ingested and topical doses) by apparently similar actions, resulting in a reduction in the formation of 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol, hydroxydiazinon, and 2-(2'-hydroxy-2'-propyl)-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol

  9. Depletion of [14C]clorsulon in cows' milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive residue levels were determined in milk and plasma of Holstein cows dosed once with an oral suspension of 14C-labeled clorsulon at 7 mg/kg of body weight. Average milk residue levels decreased from 0.54 ppm at 0.9 day postdose to 0.004 ppm at 6.9 days postdose with a half-life of 0.81 day. The drug residue was isolated by a batch adsorption method on an affinity agarose gel of carbonic anhydrase-Sepharose 4B and analyzed by HPCL-reverse isotope dilution assay (RIDA). This novel method greatly simplified the extraction of drug residue from milk and provided pure drug residue isolates. RIDA results of the isolates indicated that the unchanged drug was the major residue component in milk at 0-4 days postdose accounting for 56-99% of the total radioactive residue. Depletion half-life of the parent drug was 0.82 day, in close agreement with that of the total residue in milk. About 0.7% of the dose was recovered in the milk during the 6.9-day period

  10. Fate of 14C-carbofuran in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon labeled carbofuran was administered orally to lactating goats at 0.03 mg/kg (single dose), 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg/day for 7 days, and at 5.0 ppm in the diet (2 kg feed intake/day basis) for 15 days. Radioactive residues were rapidly excreted in the urine after treatment. The major residue identified in urine of the treated goats was carbofuran phenol, a non-toxic metabolite. Only about 1% of the doses was eliminated in the feces of the treated goats. Residues of (14C)carbofuran were secreted into milk, but these residues were in all cases very low. Radioactive residue occurred in tissues at low levels, with patterns as follows: omental fat>liver>subcutaneous fat>kidney>brain>heart>biceps femoris>longissimus dorsi. The residue stored in fat was identified as carbofuran. The liver contained hydroxy carbofuran and one unidentified metabolite but no carbofuran. The other tissues contained only phenolic metabolites. These studies strongly indicate that proper carbofuran use in rice in the Philippines will present no risks to goats that consume treated crop residues, or to humans who consume meat or milk from exposed animals. (author)

  11. Fate of 14C-Labelled Triazine Herbicides in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resistance of certain plant species to triazines is referred to their ability to metabolize the herbicide. In the case of the chloro-triazines the conversion to the 2-hydroxy analogue, a non-phytotoxic product, has been described in the literature already. Studies which have been devoted to the metabolic breakdown of methylmercaptotriazines revealed a conversion to the 2-hydroxy compound to a smaller extent and in a way different from that established with the chloro-triazines. The in vitro oxidation of prometryne (2-methylmercapto-4, 6-bisisopropylamino-striazine) yields the sulphoxy and sulphono analogues which easily hydrolyse to 2-hydroxypropazine. The occurrence of these compounds in peas injected with 14C-prometryne could be established. Some recent findings concerning the occurrence of further metabolites with an intact triazine ring suggest that dealkylation or deamination of the side chains in the 4- and 6-position have to be considered too. Methods used in studying the metabolism of triazines and for the determination of 14CO2 released from treated plants are discussed. (author)

  12. Metabolism of {sup 14}C triadimefon in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopade, H.M.; Fitzpatrick, T.L.; Murphy, J.J. [Bayer, Stilwell, KS (United States)

    1996-10-01

    [Phenyl-UL-{sup 14}C] triadimefon was administered orally to male and female Wistar rats at a rate of 5 or 50 mg/kg body weight. After dosing, the triadimefon was rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and excreted in urine and feces. In the male rats, 27-28% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine, and 63% was excreted in the feces, within 96 hours after dosing. In the female rats, 61-66% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in urine, and 32-37% was excreted in the feces, within 96 hours after dosing. Less than <1% of the administered radioactivity was expired as volatile organic products, including {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, during the study period. Several major (>10%) as well as minor (<10%) metabolites were excreted in the urine and feces. The major metabolites were identified as KWG 1323, KWG 1342, KWG 0519 acid, and their glucuronides; the other major metabolites were KWG 0519 dehydrate, desmethyl KWG 1342 glucuronide, and hydroxy desmethyl KWG 1342. The minor metabolites were identified as desmethyl KWG 1342, desmethyl KWG 1342-cyclic sulfate, hydroxy desmethyl KWG 1342, KWG 0519 dehydrate, chlorophenoxytriazolylacetic acid, p-chlorophenol, and p-chlorophenol sulfate. Unmetabolized parent triadimefon was detected only in the feces and only in trace amounts (<1%).

  13. Stability of the 14 C-Radiolabelled insecticide guthion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under variable conditions simulating those of the agricultural practice, the effects of temperature and PH variations on the stability of 14 C-guthion have been studied. It was found that the insecticide is fairly stable in the acid medium and the half-life of the compound reached 230 days at 25 degree C and declined to about 7 days at 54 degree C, but in the alkaline medium, the degradation rate clearly increased as the PH increased and the half-life reached 24 hours in PH 11 at 25 degree C. In the neutral medium, the half-life was about eight days at 25 degree C while at 54 degree C, it was three days. The insecticide decomposed rapidly as the temperature was raised and the rate was much increased by the combined increase in heat and alkalinity. Some of the degradation products were identified as: O,O-dimethylthio- and di thiophosphoric acid, 4-O x O-3,4-dihydro, 1,2,3-benzo triazine and its hydroxymethyl derivative. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. The 14C-AMS Laboratory at IF-UFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2009 a radiocarbon sample preparation laboratory dedicated to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was installed at the Physics Institute of the Fluminense Federal University. At the Radiocarbon Laboratory samples of several kinds of materials such as charcoal, sediments, wood and shells go through specific chemical treatment and conversion to carbon dioxide. Graphite reduction is performed in sealed Pyrex tubes, using Zinc, Titanium Hydrate, and iron catalyst within an inner tube. Samples have been successfully produced yielding fluffy homogeneous graphite leading to high and stable currents in the ion source. For sample measurement an accelerator system produced by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC), was installed in the Physics Institute. The machine, specially developed to carbon analysis, is the State of the Art in 14C - AMS studies and its acquisition represent a very important step for Brazil towards the development of science and technology regarding radiocarbon studies. The system includes an open air deck 250 kV single stage electrostatic accelerator with magnetic and electrostatic analyzers that enable isotope separation and detection. Radiocarbon concentrations are measured to 1 part in 1015 with precision of 0.3 The Nuclear Applied Physics group on Chronological Studies is now performing multidisciplinary research in collaboration with Brazilian and foreign groups from several fields of science such as Archaeology, Geophysics, Oceanography and Biology, in studies on the evolution of marine, terrestrial and Antarctic ecosystems. (author)

  15. Synthesis of [14C]imidazole ring labeled metiamide, cimetidine and impromidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosynthesis of imidazole ring labeled [14C]metiamide, [14C]cimetidine and [14C]impromidine are described involving the reaction of the key common intermediate 2-[[(4-methyl-1H-[2-14C]imidazol-5-yl)methyl]thio]ethanamine with methyl isothiocyanate, dimethyldithiocyanoiminocarbonate/methylamine and the novel dihydroimidazodiazepine, respectively. The ring labeled precursor was prepared in five steps from potassium [14C]cyanide in an overall radiochemical yield of 63%, and having a specific activity of 9.3 mCi/mmol. (author)

  16. Chromosome Studies in Patients with Polycythaemia Vera after Treatment with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromosomes of bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of forty-six patients with polycythaemia vera were analysed to trace the sequence of events leading to the development of bone-marrow failure or 'leukaemia'. All except one of the patients had received radiophosphorus (32P). It might be expected that the yield of chromosomal aberrations of the two-break type (translocations etc.) from the low dose-rate beta radiation of 32P would be small. However, 'unstable' types of abnormality (dicentrics, fragments) and stable types (translocations, inversions, deletions) were observed in 6-25% of the blood lymphocytes; there was no evidence of clones of abnormal cells. In the majority of patients the bone marrow was predominantly normal diploid; occasional sporadic cells with 'stable' chromosomal abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of the cases, but 'unstable' aberrations were rare. In seven cases there were clones of cells characterised by deletions or translocations. All these chromosomal changes are probably radiation-induced. Clones of cells with a similar abnormality, an apparent deletion of one of the F-group chromosomes, were observed in the bone marrow in ten patients. Eight of these had received 32P and two busulphan. In two cases the clone appeared to develop after treatment. A similar anomaly has been reported in several cases of idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia who had not been irradiated. Progression into the leukaemic phase of the disease is associated in some cases with gross chromosomal abnormalities, such as shift of the stem line chromosome number and bizarre chromosome 'markers'. In other cases, some of whom have not been irradiated for several years, the chromosomal changes are less pronounced and may result from non-disjunctional gain of one or more chromosomes or chromosome loss. One case showed a step-by-step clonal evolution over a two-year period. None of the chromosomal abnormalities in the 'leukaemic' phase appear to be a direct result of radiation-induced chromosomal breakage. (author)

  17. 14C-labeled substrate catabolism by human diploid fibroblasts derived from infants and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untransformed diploid skin fibroblasts from eight normal adults, aged 24 to 74 years, catabolized several 14C-labeled substrates less effectively than cells from ten normal male infants. 14C-labeled substrate metabolism was quantitated either by measuring the evolution of 14CO2 from the 14C-labeled compounds or the incorporation of 14C into cellular protein via transamination of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates derived from the 14C-labeled substrates. With these methods, adult cells catabolized [1-14C]butyrate, [1-14C]octanoate, and 1-[2-14C]leucine at rates 44 to 64% of those found in infant cells. The oxidation of [1,4-14C]succinate and [U-14C]malate was identical in both infant and adult cells, while [2,3-14C]succinate catabolism was mildly decreased in adult cells (65-80% of control). These observations parallel those made in rat tissues and confirm that the same phenomenon occurs in cultured human fibroblasts

  18. Movement, Persistence and Uptake by Plants of 14C-labelled Cyfluthrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lodhi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A field lysimeter experiment was conducted to study the uptake by plants, dissipation and movement in soil of 14C-cyfluthrin (active ingredient of Baythroid, an insecticide produced by Bayer, Germany. Cotton and wheat plants were grown in succession to study the uptake of 14C. The chemical was worked well into the soil supporting the growth of a healthy cotton plant. The plant harvested at maturity contained 0.376 per cent of the applied 14C; a major portion (ca 65 per cent of the total of the 14C being located in the stem portion. Wheat plants grown after cotton contained 0.11 per cent of the initially applied 14C. Dissipation of 14C from the soil-plant system was fairly rapid and after 9 weeks (during growth of cotton, ca 50 per cent of the applied 14C was unaccounted. Subsequent losses were slower and during the remaining study period of 29 weeks, a further decrease of only 10 percent of the applied 14C occurred. Wheat growth and organic amendment caused a decrease in the loss of 14C from the soil-plant system. At all sampling intervals, a greater proportion of 14C was restricted to the top 0-10 cm layer and the amount consistently decreased with depth. In general, >80 percent of the 14C determined in soil at different sampling intervals was present in forms non-extractable with methanol.

  19. Effect of 2, 4, 5-T on photosynthesis and 14C-assimilates transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early (30 min to 6 h) effect of 2, 4, 5-T on the rate of photosynthesis and 14C assimilates transport was followed in young bean plants. Biochemical investigations on 14C transport and inclusion in free sugars and amino acids in leaves treated for various periods of time were conducted. It was established that prior to the appearance of visual evidence of phytotoxicity, deep inner changes took place in the treated leaves. Photosynthesis was stimulated 30 min after treatment. Retarded 14C assimilates transport and reduced rate of photosynthesis were observed nearly 3 h after treatment. After 6 h the 14C assimilates transport completely stopped and 14CO2 photo-assimilation was more than thrice reduced. As a result of 2, 4, 5-T treatment 14C gradually changed its normal course leading to the formation of 14C-saccharose and was involved in 14C amino acid synthesis. (author)

  20. Evaluation of P availability from Fe and A1 labelled (32P) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetically Fe and A1 labelled phosphates (32P) show a certain amount of available P to the plants when applied to Sao Paulo State soils. This availability decreases from considered amorphous A1-phosphate (A1-P sub(am)) to A1 phosphate with a certain cristalinity grade (A1-P sub(cr)) and than from this to Fe-P sub(am) followed by Fe-P sub(cr), and it is influenced by both the soil characteristics and mainly by the iron constituents of the samples. In this way, one can not expect that the 0,05 N2H SO4 and the CHANG and JACKSON (1957a) solutions can define properly the available P of these soils. The addition of lime to the soils do not drive to a better P absorption by the plants and its effects are dubious

  1. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated Sα. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the Sα in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  2. Mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant residue of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the mineralization of P from 32P labelled plant material of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) added to Fatehpur sand (Typic Ustipssament) in absence or presence of applied inorganic phosphorus (20 mg P kg-1 soil). Significantly higher P mineralization occurred in P fertilized (53.7 per cent) than in low P (43.3 per cent) soil system. The half-life of P mineralized from added plant residue was 38.5 and 33 days in low and P fertilized soils, respectively. Plant residue added to soil released inorganic P on mineralization and this factor was considered for better P management practices. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  3. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Common Bean Genotypes Assessed by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes on phosphorus (P) utilization, and verify if P from the seed affects the classification of common bean genotypes on P uptake efficiency when the 32P isotopic dilution technique is used. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, and plants were grown in pots with surface samples of a dystrophic Typic Haplustox. The treatments consisted of 50 common bean genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). Sangue de Boi, Rosinha, Thayu, Grafite, Horizonte, Pioneiro and Jalo Precoce common bean genotypes were the most efficient on P uptake, and Carioca 80, CNF 10, Perola, IAPAR 31, Roxao EEP, Apore, Pioneiro, Pontal, Timbo and Ruda were the most efficient in P utilization. The P derived from seed influences the identification of common bean genotypes for P uptake efficiency. (author)

  4. Translocation, distribution and degradation of the systemic organophosphorus insecticide 32P-methamidophos in conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic organophosphate methamidophos has been studied in conifers (spruce, pine, larch, and dauglas-fir) with regard to the translocation, distribution and degradation. The 32P-labelled insecticide was spread on the pretreated bark as an adhesive paste, and the following behaviour was investigated by counting and autoradiography during at most 48 d in trees up to 80 years of age. The localization of the insecticide in the phloem/xylem region of the trunk and the fixation of quantitative amounts of the insecticide and metabolites in the treated tree was the base for developing a new and effective method for control of the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) including the use of pheromone dispensers. (author)

  5. 32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)

  6. Studies on the quantitative uptake of 32P-labelled Trakephone by aphids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reports methodical studies concerning the quantitative uptake of active substances by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba L. enriched by 32P-labelled Trakephone. Aphids increasing in size were found to take up rising quantities of active substance. The uptake is the more continuous the more sessile the pests are. Feeding is delayed by the presence of Trakephone in the plant. The quantification of the active substance amounts is only practical in parts per million using the weight of the aphids. Higher concentrations of active substances in the plant will increase the uptake by the aphids. The autoradiogram qualitatively demonstrates the beginning of the uptake of active substances. It may be taken into consideration for examining the repellent properties of chemical compounds towards aphids. (author)

  7. Analysis of tamoxifen-DNA adducts in endometrial explants by MS and 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonsteroidal antiestrogen tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer; however, the mechanism for the induction of these tumors is not known. Recently, Sharma et al. [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307 (2003) 157], using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with online postcolumn photochemical activation and fluorescence detection, reported the presence of (E)-?-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)tamoxifen in DNA from human endometrial explants incubated with tamoxifen. Inasmuch as the methodology used by these investigators does not allow unambiguous characterization of tamoxifen-DNA adducts, we have used two additional techniques (HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and 32P-postlabeling analyses) to assay for the presence of tamoxifen-DNA adducts in the human endometrial explant DNA. Tamoxifen-DNA adducts were not detected by either method

  8. Detection of methylation damage in DNA of gastric cancer tissues using 32P-postlabelling assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. The causes are still unknown but it has been speculated that gastric cancer is associated with consumption of foods rich in nitrates/nitrites or a high dietary intake of salt or pickled food. In the present study, we studied the level of alkylated DNA adducts formed in gastric cancer tissues in comparison with that in normal gastric mucosa. DNA was extracted from surgically removed gastric cancer tissues and patient-matched normal gastric mucosa. The level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine was measured by 32P-postlabelling assay after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enrichment. We found that the level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine of gastric cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that of normal gastric mucosa (P=0.01685). (author)

  9. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the 32P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

  10. The role of colloid 32p synoviorthesis in treatment of haemophilic arthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi SMJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Radioactive synoviorthesis by injection of safe radioisotopes into the joints affected to chronic arthritis is accounted as a novel method to treat haemophilic arthropathy. The main goal of this therapy would be decrease in frequency of hemarthrosis and consumption of coagulation factors. In this study we assessed the effect of radioactive synoviorthesis on the frequency of hemarthrosis, factor consumption and other related parameters. "n "nMethods: In an interventional study in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, after meeting of inclusion criteria and taking written consent, colloid 32p radiosynovectomy was performed for 56 joints with haemophilic arthropathy. After local anesthesia of injection site, one mci of 32P for large joints (knee and 0.5 mci for small joints (ankle and elbow was injected, respectively. Half of these doses were considered for children (age <12 years. "n "nResults: The mean of age was 16.78 year old (Range: 2.5-36; SD: 7.46 and 98.2% of cases were male. Injected were knee 80.35%, ankle 12.5%, and elbow 7%. The mean of follow-up was 43.63 months (range: 3-102 that at the end, the result was 62% decrease in frequency of hemarthrosis (p=0.0001 and 84% decrease in factor consumption (p=0.0001. However, the involvement of other (non injected joints during follow-up could lower the decrease of mean of total factor consumption."n "nConclusions: Radioactive synoviorthesis can be a cost-effective alternative to decrease hemarthrosis and factor consumption in haemophilic arthropathy.

  11. 32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides

  12. The Use of 32P and 15N to Estimate Fertilizer Efficiency in Oil Palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil palm has become an important commodity for Indonesia reaching an area of 2.6 million ha at the end of 1998. It is mostly cultivated in highly weathered acid soil usually Ultisols and Oxisols which are known for their low fertility, concerning the major nutrients like N and P. This study most conducted to search for the most active root-zone of oil palm and applied urea fertilizer at such soils to obtain high N-efficiency. Carrier free KH232PO4 solution was used to determine the active root-zone of oil palm by applying 32P around the plant in twenty holes. After the most active root-zone have been determined, urea in one, two and three splits were respectively applied at this zone. To estimate N-fertilizer efficiency of urea labelled 15N Ammonium Sulphate was used by adding them at the same amount of 16 g 15N plan-1. This study showed that the most active root-zone was found at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at 5 cm soil depth. For urea the highest N-efficiency was obtained from applying it at two splits. The use of 32P was able to distinguish several root zones: 1.5 m - 2.5 m from the plant-stem at a 5 cm and 15 cm soil depth. Urea placed at the most active root-zone, which was at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at a 5 cm depth in one, two, and three splits respectively showed difference N-efficiency. The highest N-efficiency of urea was obtained when applying it in two splits at the most active root-zone. (author)

  13. The use of 32P and 15N to Estimate Fertilizer Efficiency in Oil Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje L. Sisworo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm has become an important commodity for Indonesia reaching an area of 2.6 million ha at the end of 1998. It is mostly cultivated in highly weathered acid soil usually Ultisols and Oxisols which are known for their low fertility, concerning the major nutrients like N and P. This study most conducted to search for the most active root-zone of oil palm and applied urea fertilizer at such soils to obtain high N-efficiency. Carrier free KH232PO4 solution was used to determine the active root-zone of oil palm by applying 32P around the plant in twenty holes. After the most active root-zone have been determined, urea in one, two and three splits were respectively applied at this zone. To estimate N-fertilizer efficiency of urea labelled 15N Ammonium Sulphate was used by adding them at the same amount of 16 g 15N plant-1. This study showed that the most active root-zone was found at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at 5 cm soil depth. For urea the highest N-efficiency was obtained from applying it at two splits. The use of 32P was able to distinguish several root zones: 1.5 m – 2.5 m from the plant-stem at a 5 cm and 15 cm soil depth. Urea placed at the most active root-zone, which was at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at a 5 cm depth in one, two, and three splits respectively showed difference N-efficiency. The highest N-efficiency of urea was obtained when applying it in two splits at the most active root-zone.

  14. Measurement of P Contribution From Several P Sources by Using 32P Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Suyono

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available P-fertilizer other than chemical fertilizers has been used extensively in agriculture. However, the extent to which P-fertilizer contributes to the growth of plants has only been discussed a few, meanwhile the information will be very helpful to the use of P-fertilizer efficiently. The 32P method was used to distinguish P contribution from several sources, i.e soil, chemical fertilizer (Sp and manure/organic fertilizer (Pk. The isotope carrier free solution of KH232PO4, which is contained of 98% 32P, was applied to the soil and thus making it as the only source of labeled-P. Radioactivity counting of soil samples will lead to the measurement of P-contribution from several sources of P given. The experiment result showed that most of the P taken up by the plants was from soil. Thus, the P from Sp (P-Sp and Pk (P-Pk became un-significantly support the plant growth expressed in lesser dry weight of straw, grain and plants compared to those who taken its P from soil. Although soil contributed most of its available P to straw and grain of lowland rice, but Sp and Pk still contributed P to both plant parts. It was obtained that in straw 64 82% P was derived from soil; 12 21% P was derived from Pk; and 18 29% P was derived from Sp. For grain 49 89% P was derived from soil; 11 15% P was derived from Pk; and19 45% P was derived from Sp.

  15. Metabolism of 14C-L-arginine and 14C-L-proline in excised burst buds and stem sections of citrus trees (Citrus unshiu Marc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine and proline, which are the major forms of soluble reserve N, were fed singly in uniformly labelled 14C-form to excised 2-year-old stem sections with a new shoot, to wood sections, and to burst buds from a 21-year-old satsuma mandarin tree. Metabolism was studied by radioassay and autoradiography. In stem sections with a new shoot, both 14C-compounds were metabolized to acidic and neutral components, insoluble components, and 14CO2. This conversion occurred to a greater extent in sections fed with arginine than with proline. When 14C-arginine was fed, the highest 14C-activity in the cationic fraction of stem sections, bark, wood and new shoots was found in ?-guanidinobutyric acid, followed by ?-aminobutyric acid and proline; low levels of 14C was also found in ornithine and trace amounts in citrulline. These findings demonstrate that arginine is metabolized by at least two routes: via ornithine and via ?-guanidinobutyric acid. In every organ, the major metabolic products of 14C-proline were pyrrolidone-5-carboxlic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, asparagine, an unidentified compound (U5 in Fig. 4), ?-aminobutyric acid and arginine. The basic metabolic pathways in the conversion of Both 14C-compounds were the same in burst buds, new shoot, bark and wood, although there was a slight difference autoradiographically. (author)

  16. Reviewing the Mid-First Millennium BC {sup 14}C 'warp' using {sup 14}C/bristlecone pine data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.E., E-mail: retaylor@ucr.edu [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States); Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Southon, John [Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    AMS-based {sup 14}C measurements have been obtained on 53 dendrochronologically-dated Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) wood samples in decadal increments spanning 2300-2750 cal BP with particular interest focused on the decades centered on 2405 cal BP and 2625 cal BP. In general, there is overall agreement with the current IntCal04/09 consensus calibration curve for this period. For the 2400-2410 cal BP interval, our Bristlecone-based {sup 14}C value is consistent with the {sup 14}C value obtained by Belfast on Irish oak for that decade but not on German oak values obtained by Seattle. Our {sup 14}C value for the 2620-2630 cal BP interval is consistent with the German oak (Heidelberg)-based {sup 14}C decadal value. The {sup 10}Be-based reconstruction of {sup 14}C variations over the 2620-2630 cal BP interval also supports the Heidelberg data although clearly additional clarifications are required before the current tree ring-based {sup 14}C and ice core-based {sup 10}Be data for this interval can be accurately interpreted and valid inferences obtained.

  17. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture. Study of sulfur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32-P as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of bean plants to low sulphur dioxide concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm, up to 72 hours) stimulated the incorporation of 32P into RNA, DNA, phospholipids and the acid soluble fraction, without altering the total phosphorus content. Statistically significant 32P increases were only observed with RNA. Uptake of 35SO2 (14 ppm) by bean leaves was shown to be fairly rapid and the radioactivity was translocated in the roots within 1 to 6 hours following exposure. Subcellular leaf fractions showed that the supernatant contained 60-90% of the absorbed radioactivity. The chloroplasts and microsomes showed higher 35S content than the mitochondrial fraction. In vitro studies on pea-derived chloroplasts included photosynthetic phosphorylation and electron transport. Phosphorylation was found to be inhibited in presence of SO2 (I50=3.7 mM). The nature of inhibition seems to be of the reversible-competitive type with an apparent inhibitor constant (Ki) of 1.5 mM. The electron transport system remained unaffected. It is maintained that the identification of some lesions in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the complex interactions between cultivated plants and sulphur dioxide

  18. Impact of carbon nanomaterials on the behaviour of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-benzo-[a] pyrene in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towell, Marcie G.; Browne, Lesley A. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Paton, Graeme I. [Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The impact of fullerene soot (FS), single-walled (SWCNTs) and multi-walled (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes on the behaviour of two {sup 14}C-PAHs in sterile soil was investigated. Different concentrations of carbon nanomaterials (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%) were added to soil, and {sup 14}C-phenanthrene and {sup 14}C-benzo[a]pyrene extractability assessed over 80 d through dichloromethane (DCM) and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) shake extractions. Total {sup 14}C-PAH activity in soils was determined by combustion, and mineralisation of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene was monitored over 14 d, using a catabolically active pseudomonad inoculum. No significant loss of {sup 14}C-PAH-associated activity from CNM-amended soils was observed over the 'aging' period. CNMs had a significant impact on HPCD-extractability of {sup 14}C-PAHS; extractability decreased with increasing CNM concentration. Additionally, {sup 14}C-phenanthrene mineralisation was inhibited by the presence of CNMs at concentrations of {>=}0.05%. Differences in overall extents of {sup 14}C-mineralisation were also apparent between CNM types. It is suggested the addition of CNMs to soil can reduce PAH extractability and bioaccessibility, with PAH sorption to CNMs influenced by CNM type and concentration. - Research highlights: > Carbon nanoparticles reduce the extractability of PAHs in soil. > Carbon nanoparticles reduce the bioaccessibility of PAHs in soil. > Nanoparticle type is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil. > Nanoparticle concentration is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil - Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) can alter the extractability, bioaccessibility and microbial mineralisation of PAHs in soil.

  19. Impact of carbon nanomaterials on the behaviour of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-benzo-[a] pyrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of fullerene soot (FS), single-walled (SWCNTs) and multi-walled (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes on the behaviour of two 14C-PAHs in sterile soil was investigated. Different concentrations of carbon nanomaterials (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5%) were added to soil, and 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-benzo[a]pyrene extractability assessed over 80 d through dichloromethane (DCM) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) shake extractions. Total 14C-PAH activity in soils was determined by combustion, and mineralisation of 14C-phenanthrene was monitored over 14 d, using a catabolically active pseudomonad inoculum. No significant loss of 14C-PAH-associated activity from CNM-amended soils was observed over the 'aging' period. CNMs had a significant impact on HPCD-extractability of 14C-PAHS; extractability decreased with increasing CNM concentration. Additionally, 14C-phenanthrene mineralisation was inhibited by the presence of CNMs at concentrations of ≥0.05%. Differences in overall extents of 14C-mineralisation were also apparent between CNM types. It is suggested the addition of CNMs to soil can reduce PAH extractability and bioaccessibility, with PAH sorption to CNMs influenced by CNM type and concentration. - Research highlights: → Carbon nanoparticles reduce the extractability of PAHs in soil. → Carbon nanoparticles reduce the bioaccessibility of PAHs in soil. → Nanoparticle type is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil. → Nanoparticle concentration is important in controlling the behaviour of PAHs in soil - Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) can alter the extractability, bioaccessibility and microbial mineralisation of PAHs in soil.

  20. Implants with {sup 32}P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology; {sup 32}P-haltige Folien als Implantate fuer die LDR-Brachytherapie gutartiger Stenosen in der Urologie und Gastroenterologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, Walter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern (Germany). Laser-Forschungslabor] [and others

    2013-03-01

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting {sup 32}P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of {sup 32}P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the {sup 32}P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of {sup 32}P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated {sup 32}P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  1. Preparation of 35S-labeled polyphosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides by use of hydrogen phosphonate chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title compounds were chemically synthesized as their 5'-dimethoxytrityl derivatives by base-catalyzed reaction of 35S-enriched elemental sulfur with support-bound hydrogen phosphonate oligomer. This was derived from adamantane carbonyl chloride-activated coupling of nucleotide hydrogen phosphonate monomers, and similarly activated capping with isopropyl phosphite. A convenient, disposable, reversed-phase cartridge was utilized to purify and isolate the 5'-dimethoxytrityl derivative for subsequent in situ detritylation and elution of the final product. The specific activity obtained for the title compounds was ca. 10(7) cpm/mumols-eq P(O)S-. The procedure should be readily adaptable to appropriate syntheses of other P-S containing analogs of DNA and RNA

  2. A rapid microwave induced synthesis of [carboxyl-14C]-nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) and [carbonyl-14C]-nicotinamide using K14CN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave assisted direct aromatic substitution of 3-bromopyridine with K14CN as the cyanide source and catalytic amount of tetrabutylammonium bromide afforded [3-14C]-cyanopyridine 3 in 90% yield. Microwave assisted hydrolysis of 3 with a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and propionic acid afforded [carboxyl-14C]-nicotinic acid in 95% yield whereas microwave assisted hydrolysis of 3 with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and propionic acid afforded [carbonyl-14C]-nicotinamide in 85% yield. (author)

  3. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  4. CaMV 35S promoter directs beta-glucuronidase expression in Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Cai, Huaqing; Xu, Weihong; Hu, Yuanlei; Lin, Zhongping

    2002-03-01

    The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter has been most commonly used in plant transformation studies, but its activity in mushrooms has not been reported. p301-b is a binary vector containing a bialaphos resistance gene driven by the promoter of Lentinus edodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene. CaMV 35S-GUS was inserted into p301-b, and the resulting construct p301-bG was transformed to protoplasts of Ganoderma lucidum and basidiospores of Pleurotus citrinopileatus. GUS activity was observed in the transformants, indicating that CaMV 35S promoter can direct expression of exogenous gene in the mushrooms. This is the first report on the application of CaMV 35S promoter in genetic modification of mushrooms. PMID:11936254

  5. Determination of surface dose rate of indigenous 32P patch brachytherapy source by experimental and Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope production and Application Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center developed 32P patch sources for treatment of superficial tumors. Surface dose rate of a newly developed 32P patch source of nominal diameter 25 mm was measured experimentally using standard extrapolation ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT film. Monte Carlo model of the 32P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed to estimate the surface dose rates from these sources. The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films are 82.03±4.18 (k=2) and 79.13±2.53 (k=2) respectively. The two values of the surface dose rates measured using the two independent experimental methods are in good agreement to each other within a variation of 3.5%. The surface dose rate to tissue (cGy/min) estimated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code works out to be 77.78±1.16 (k=2). The maximum deviation between the surface dose rates to tissue obtained by Monte Carlo and the extrapolation chamber method is 5.2% whereas the difference between the surface dose rates obtained by radiochromic film measurement and the Monte Carlo simulation is 1.7%. The three values of the surface dose rates of the 32P patch source obtained by three independent methods are in good agreement to one another within the uncertainties associated with their measurements and calculation. This work has demonstrated that MCNP based electron transport simulations are accurate enough for determining the dosimetry parameters of the indigenously developed 32P patch sources for contact brachytherapy applications. - Highlights: • Surface dose rates of 25 mm nominal diameter newly developed 32P patch sources were measured experimentally using extrapolation chamber and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Monte Carlo model of the 32P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed. • The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films are 82.03±4.18 and 79.13±2.53 respectively. • The surface dose rate to tissue (cGy/min) estimated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code is 77.78±1.16. • The three values of the surface dose rates of the 32P patch source obtained by three independent methods are in good agreement to one another. • MCNP based electron transport simulations are accurate enough for determining the dosimetry parameters of the indigenously developed 32P patch sources for contact brachytherapy applications

  6. Use of Natural 35S to Trace Sulphate Cycling in Small Lakes, Flattops Wilderness Area, Colorado, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the cosmogenically-produced 35S, a radioisotope of sulphur (t1/2 = 87 days), are reported for the Ned Wilson Lake watershed in Colorado. The watershed contains two small lakes and a flowing spring presumed to be representative of local ground water. The watershed is located in the Flattops Wilderness Area and the waters in the system have low alkalinity, making them sensitive to increases in acid and sulphate deposition. Time series of 35S measurements were made during the summers of 1995 and 1996 (July-September) at all three sites. The system is dominated by melting snow and an initial concentration of 16-20 mBq L-1 was estimated for snow melt based on a series of snow samples collected in the Rocky Mountains. The two lakes had large initial 35S concentrations in July, indicating that a large fraction of the lake water and sulphate was introduced by meltwater from that year's snowpack. In 1995 and 1996, 35S concentrations decreased more rapidly than could be accounted for by decay, indicating that other processes were affecting 35S concentrations. The most likely explanation is that exchange with sediments or the biota was removing 35S from the lake and replacing it with older sulphate devoid of 35S. In September of 1995 and 1996, 35S concentrations increased, suggesting that atmospheric deposition is important in the sulphate flux of these lakes in late summer. Sulphur-35 concentrations in the spring water were highly variable but never higher than 3.6 mBq L-1 and averaged 2 mBq L-1. Using a simple mixing model, it was estimated that 75% of the spring water was derived from precipitation of previous years

  7. Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  8. Morphological and functional changes associated with serial iso- and xeno-transplantation of 32P induced rat osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty Wistar strain rats, 3 weeks of age, were given 32P of 1.0 ?Ci/g body weight intraperitoneally every 3 weeks, and osteosarcoma was induced in 15 of 20 rats. A total amount of 32P administered to rats was 2,425 ?Ci per one rat on an average. 32P-induced osteosarcoma was observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was suggested that 32P-induced osteosarcoma of rats was available for basic studies of human osteosarcoma, because rats' osteosarcoma was very similar to human osteosarcoma. Regarding hetero- and homo-transplantation of 32P-induced osteosarcoma, osteoid tissue decreased after serial transplantation and disappeared finally. When tumor cells were classified into tumor cells having a plenty of intracellular small organs (type I cells) and those having a few intracellular small organs (type II cells), the percentage of type II cells increased after serial transplantation. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed that the uptake of proline into tumor cells decreased coupled with a decrease in osteoid formation capacity. As the uptake of proline into type II cells was poor, type II cells were thought to be undifferenciated mesenchimal cells and to have no influence on osteoid formation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Synthesis of ( sup 14 C)-62514, a radiolabelled derivative of erythromycin A, via (2- sup 14 C)N,N-dimethylethylenediamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surber, B.W.; Baker, W.R.; Seif, L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 14}C)A-62514, 11-deoxy-11(carboxy(2-dimethylamino-(1-{sup 14}C)ethyl)amino)-6-0-methyl-e rythromycin A 11,12-(cyclic ester), was performed in five steps. The key intermediate, (2-{sup 14}C)N,N-dimethylethyl-enediamine, was obtained in 80% yield by reacting Eschenmoser's salt with K{sup 14}CN and reducing the resulting (1-{sup 14}C)N,N-dimethylglycinonitrile with H{sub 2} and Raney Ni in methanol and ammonium hydroxide. The final product was obtained 97% radiochemically pure in an overall radiochemical yield of 14%, with a specific activity of 39 mCi/mmol. (author).

  10. Distribution and biodegradability of 14C-residues bound in various soil fractions after treatment of the soil with model 14C-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term fate of 14C-labelled 4-chloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and trichloroethylene in soil was studied under field conditions. As a natural reference compound, 14C-glucose was also studied. Most of the trichloroethylene applied was lost by volatilization and/or degradation during a 25-week period. The soils were exhaustively extracted with methanol and then re-extracted with acetate buffer solutions. The extracted soils were fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and inorganic fractions. With the exception of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline the bound residues were more than 31% of the amount of radiocarbon initially applied. Insoluble residues of the natural compound glucose were bound preferentially in the inorganic fraction, whereas 14C of the four xenobiotics was concentrated more in the humic acid fraction, with the portion increasing in the order: glucose 14C in soil is present in a metabolized form. (author)

  11. Residues of 14C-PP333 in soil and crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of 14C-PP333 in wheat, rice and celery plant has been studied. The results showed that the residue level of 14C-PP333 in crop increased with increasing level of 14C-PP333 in soil. The content of 14C-PP333 in the grain of wheat and rice were 1.31?0.75 ppm and 0.22 ppm respectively. The content of 14C-PP333 in celery stem was 0.013?0.032 ppm. The level of residue in rice plant was in the order of ear stem>leaf>stem>grain shell>root>grain of rice, and in wheat plant was in the order of leaf>root>stem. The radioactivity in pot soil of 0?15 cm surface layer was detected after 13 months of 14C-PP333 application

  12. Reassessment of 14CO2 compartmentation and of [14C]formate oxidation in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous report had concluded that a fraction of [14C]formate oxidation in liver occurs in the mitochondrion. This conclusion was based on the labeling patterns of urea and acetoacetate labeled via 14CO2 generated from [14C]formate and other [14C]substrates. We reassessed our interpretation in experiments conducted in (i) perifused mitochondria and (ii) isolated livers perfused with buffer containing [14C]formate, [14C]gluconolactone, 14CO2, or NaH13CO3, in the absence and presence of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. Our data show that the cytosolic pools of bicarbonate and CO2 are not in isotopic equilibrium when 14CO2 is generated in the cytosol or is supplied as NaH14CO3. We retract our earlier suggestion of a mitochondrial site of [14C]formate oxidation

  13. Alternatives to reduce 14C emissions in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of the public and of experts has increasingly focused on the formation of 14C in nuclear reactors and its release from reactors and reprocessing plants. The paper attempts an experimental check of the validity of theoretical estimations concerning 14C production rates. In particular, the applicability of the 14C analysis in irradiated LWR pellets is checked and transferred to HTR fuel concepts. Statements on the 14C content in matrix graphite, coating, and fuel make it possible to determine those process steps in which 14C release is highest. Possibilities to reduce 14C emissions by improved fuel element production technologies and by mechanical separation of graphite before combustion are theoretically estimated. (orig./GL)

  14. {sup 14}C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the {sup 14}C levels in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, R.; Kiisk, M.; Persson, Per [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Mattsson, Soeren; Thornberg, C. [Lund Univ., Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Skog, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Geology

    2000-02-15

    The radionuclide {sup 14}C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen ({sup 17}O), nitrogen ({sup 14}N) and carbon ({sup 13}C). Part of the {sup 14}C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO{sub 2}, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of {sup 14}C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The {sup 14}C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background {sup 14}C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of {sup 14}C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the {sup 14}C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of {sup 14}C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of {sup 14}C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of {sup 14}C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of {sup 14}C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada.

  15. Metabolism of [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia. Characterization of metabolic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Mandell, R; Shih, V E

    1976-01-01

    Leucine metabolism in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with isovaleric acidemia was compared with that in normal fibroblasts and in cells from patients with maple syrup urine disease using [1-(14)C] and [2-(14)C] leucine as substrates. Inhibitory effects of methylenecyclopropylacetic acid on leucine metabolism in normal cells were also investigated. Production of 14CO2 from [2-(14)C] leucine was very reduced (96-99%) in both types of mutant cells. Radioactive isovaleric acid accumulated in assay media with isovaleric acidemia cells but not in those with maple syrup urine disease cells. Unexpectedly, 14CO2 production from [1-(14)C] leucine was partially depressed (80%) in isovaleric acidemia cells whereas in maple syrup urine disease cells it was strongly depressed (99%) as expected. These two mutant cells were clearly distinguished by detection of 14C-isovaleric acid accumulation after incubation with [2-(14)C] leucine. A pattern of inhibition of leucine oxidation similar to that seen in isovaleric acidemia cells was induced in normal cells by the addition of 0.7 mM methylenecyclopropylacetic acid to the assay medium. The partial inhibition of [1-(14)C] leucine oxidation seen in isovaleric acidemia cells and also in normal cells in the presence of the inhibitor appears to be, at least in part, due to an accumulation of isovalerate in the cells. Isovaleric acid (5-10) mM) inhibited [1-(14)C] leucine oxidation 32-68% when added to the assay medium with normal cells. Addition of flavin adenine dinucleoside to culture medium or assay medium or both did not restore oxidation of either leucine substrate in isovaleric acidemia cells. PMID:932204

  16. {8-14C}-Adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate - precursors for root-produced cytokinins in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the detection of reasonable levels of biologically active cytokinin-like compounds in one-month-old tomato plants, the possible involvement of {8-14C}-adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives, was studied. Intact tomato plants were used for a time-course study involving the uptake of {8-14C}-adenine and the tentative identification of compounds into which the 14C became incorporated. Using high performance liquid chromatography, radioactive trans-zeatin was identified as being present in the Dowex 50 root extract. The 12-hour time interval was used and the roots of the tomato plants were immersed in a more heavily radiolabelled medium. Modified separation techniques were used to achieve enhanced radioactivity recovery rates. This experiment demonstrated the presence of relatively high levels of tentatively identified radioactive zeatin in the Dowex 50 root and stem extracts. Radioactivity in the aqueous extracts was found not to be contributed by cytokinin nucleotides. A final experiment was carried out using decapitated root systems to determine if the root tissue alone could be implicated in the synthesis of cytokinins. Decapitated tomato root systems were supplied with either {8-14C}-adenine or {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The ratio of incorporation of {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate into identified cytokinins was higher than for {8-14C}-adenine. It was concluded that both adenine and isopentenyl pyrophosphate are involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives in tomato roots

  17. Effect of fasting and different diets on 14C incorporation from U-14C glucose into glycogen and carbon dioxide by cerebral cortical slices of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some reports regarding change in the glycogen level due to fasting. Here an attempt is made by keeping the albino rats under fasting or feeding different diets on the rate of 14C incorporation into glycogen and carbon dioxide from U-14C glucose. Our study reveals that the above conditions do not alter any significant change in the glycogen and carbon dioxide in the cerebral cortical slices of albino rats. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  18. Fate of organochlorine 14C-dicofol in a lab-scale wastewater treatment Destino do organoclorado 14C-dicofol no tratamento de efluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime L. M. Oliveira; Tomaz Langenbach; Márcia Dezotti

    2008-01-01

    The fate of organochlorine 14C-dicofol in activated sludge process was investigated. Results showed that the major part of radioactivity remained adsorbed on biological sludge. Consequently, its final disposal deserves special attention. The small amounts of dicofol, biotransformed or not, which remained in the treated effluent could contaminate receiving bodies.A dinâmica do organoclorado 14C-dicofol no processo de lodos ativados foi investigada. Os resultados mostraram que a maior parte da ...

  19. Dissipation and leaching of 14C-monocrotophos in soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissipation and leaching of 14C-monocrotophos was studied in the field. Two sets of PVC cylinders were used - one set received only 14C monocrotophos and the other received 14C-monocrotophos along with dimethoate, deltamethrin, endosulfan, cypermethrin and 1.06 mg unlabelled monocrotophos. Both setups showed a similar pattern of dissipation with a half-life of 277.2 days. Leaching of monocrotophos was observed into the 30cm soil layer. (author)

  20. Synthesis of SCH 42427 labelled with [sup 14]C in two different positions. [Antifungal agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesk, D.; Bowlen, C.; Duelfer, T.; Koharski, D.; McNamara, P.; Saluja, S. (Schering Plough Research, Bloomfield, NJ (United States))

    1992-06-01

    [[sup 14]C]-Sch 42427 was synthesized by two different methods, resulting in incorporation of the label in different parts of the molecule. In the first synthesis [benzyl-[alpha]-[sup 14]C]-Sch 42427 was synthesized in overall 1.7% yield via a 6 step procedure, using [[sup 14]C]-trimethyl sulphoxonium iodide as the source of label. The second synthesis gave rise to [SO[sub 2]-[sup 14]CH[sub 3