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1

Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 ? alanines ? 14C; noradrenaline ? 14C (arterenol ? 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

1958-01-01

2

The preparation of 14C, 35S and 13C labelled forms of omeprazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The syntheses of [benzimidazole-2- 14C]omeprazole, [benzimidazole-2-13C]omeprazole, [35S]omeprazole and [2-pyridyl- 14C-methyl]-omeprazole are described. The first three compounds were prepared from the appropriate isotopically labelled carbon disulphide. The key step in the synthesis of [2-pyridyl- 14C-methyl]omeprazole is nucleophilic alkylation of a l-ethoxypyridinium salt using [14C]methyl magnesium idodide. This is the first time that a reaction of this type has been used to prepare a 2-[methyl-14C]methylpyridine. (author)

1986-01-01

3

Preparation of /sup 14/C, /sup 35/S and /sup 13/C labelled forms of omeprazole  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The syntheses of (benzimidazole-2- /sup 14/C)omeprazole, (benzimidazole-2-/sup 13/C)omeprazole, (/sup 35/S)omeprazole and (2-pyridyl- /sup 14/C-methyl)-omeprazole are described. The first three compounds were prepared from the appropriate isotopically labelled carbon disulphide. The key step in the synthesis of (2-pyridyl- /sup 14/C-methyl)omeprazole is nucleophilic alkylation of a l-ethoxypyridinium salt using (/sup 14/C)methyl magnesium idodide. This is the first time that a reaction of this type has been used to prepare a 2-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylpyridine.

Crowe, A.M.; Ife, R.J.; Mitchell, M.B.; Saunders, D.

1986-01-01

4

Quantitation of 35S-sulphate and 32P-phosphate in picomole levels using ion chromatograph  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method using ion-chromatography (IC) for the quantitation of 35S-sulphate and 32P-phosphate in picomole levels is reported. It has important advantages over the conventional methods such as calorimetric and/or gravimetric analysis in that it is a direct method and requires comparatively very low amounts of the costly radioactive analytes. Moreover, the time required for the quantitative analysis of a mixture of ions is less than 30 minutes. The standardized procedures for the specific activity determination of both 35S-sulphate and 32P-phosphate are presented. (author)

2003-02-10

5

Lethal Effect on Bacterium of Decay of Incorporated Radioactive Atoms (3H, 14C, 32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological effect of decay of 3H, 14C and 32P incorporated into a bacterium depends on the nature of the organic molecule labelled, on the position of the isotope within it and on the isotope itself. In sum, results obtained to date show that: The decay of 3H atoms incorporated into certain macromolecules of a bacterium causes sterilization through ionization by the ß- particle emitted; transmutation is of negligible importance. This self-irradiation is comparable in effect with X-rays and is affected in a similar manner by the same factors: temperature, presence of a radioprotector, radiosensitivity of the strain. Decay of 14C or 32P atoms incorporated into bacterial DNA is lethal because of the transmutation effect; ionizations produced by emitted ß- particles may be disregarded. Survival curves for 32P transmutations depend on the experimental conditions. Some of the results obtained with 32P are similar to those obtained with X-rays, e.g. effects of temperature, radical capture and oxygen, while others are similar to those of u.v. light, e.g., effect of growth conditions. Comparative tests made with 32P indicate that the recoil energy of transmutation is not the phenomenon responsible for the lethal effect observed. Comparison of the results obtained after X-irradiation or decay of 3H or 32P incorporated into the DNA of bacteria of the same strain of E. coli shows that the efficiency of a 32P transmutation is about four times greater than that of an ionization produced at random within the same DNA. (author)

1968-06-01

6

Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of "3"5S or "3"2P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of "3"2P and methionine-free medium for "3"5S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

1976-01-01

7

Synthesis of butylmercaptans C4H9SH-1(1,2-14C2), (1-mercapto [35S]) and C4H9SH-2(1,2-14C2), (2-mercapto [35S])  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 14C and 35S double labelled butylmercaptans C4H9SH-1(1,2-14C2), (1-mercapto /35S/) and C4H9SH-2(1,2-14C2), (2-mercapto /35S/) was carried out. The reaction substrates were: butene-1 (1,2-14C), obtained from Ba14CO3, and elementary sulphur (35S). Double labelled butylmercaptans were separated by means of the GLC method, the chemical and radiochemical yields being 14.7 per cent and 10.5 per cent (w/w) respectively, and 14.2 per cent and 10.8 per cent (35S) and 13.8 per cent and 11.3 per cent (14C). (author)

1979-01-01

8

Estudo da utilizacao da alga Spirulina platensis na obtencao de aminoacidos marcados com (sup 35)S e (sup 14)C. (Study of the algae Spirulina platensis in the obtention of amino acids marked with (35)S and (14)C).  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of the obtention labelled amino acids from the algae Spirulina platensis was studied. The (sup 35)S and the (sup 14)C were the radioisotopes employed. (L.M.J.). (Atomindex citation 23:025575)

P. C. Goes

1980-01-01

9

Behavior of "3"2P, "3"5S, "3"6Cl and "4"2K in magnesium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A separation method of "3"2P from "3"5S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of "3"2P and "3"5S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free "3"5S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of "3"5S from "3"2P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?"- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

1979-02-01

10

Decoloration and solubilization of plant tissue prior to determination of 3H, 14C, and 35S by liquid scintillation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for the decoloration and partial solubilization of plant tissue with 2% sodium hypochlorite. Following treatment of the digest with ammonia, the samples are suitable for the determination of 3H, 14C, and 35S by liquid scintillation counting. The color quenching is negligible and counting efficiencies are high: 30-40% for 3H and 90-95% for 14C

1987-08-01

11

Field Study of the Uptake of sup 35 S and sup 14 C into Crops Characteristic of the UK Diet.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake of sup 35 S and sup 14 C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear ...

S. M. Kluczewski J. N. B. Bell S. Nair

1986-01-01

12

The distribution of 35S-sulfadiazine and 14C-trimethoprim in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 35S-labelled sulfadiazine and 14C-labelled trimethoprim was studied in rainbow trout by use of whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation. As compared to mammals, gastrointestinal absorption and elimination were slow. Accumulation in the skin and the uveal tract of the eye was observed for both drugs tested. The results also indicated that the bile was an important route of excretion. Considerable radioactivity was still present in the skin at 144 hr. survival time. (author)

1979-01-01

13

Metabolism and distribution of 14C- and 35S-labeled carbon disulfide in immature rats of different ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism and distribution of 14C- and 35S-CS2 was examined in 1-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-day-old rats. During a 3-hr period following an ip dose of 14C-CS2, 58-83% of the dose was expired as CS2 and 4-9% was metabolized to expired CO2 depending on age. Thirty- and forty-day-old rats metabolized significantly more CS2 to CO2 and expired significantly less CS2 than 1- through 20-day-old rats. At the end of the measured expiration period, only biotransformation products of CS2, which were in part covalently bound, remained in tissues from rats of all ages. Tissue levels of 35S-CS2-derived radioactivity exceeded levels of 14C-CS2-derived radioactivity indicating that sulfur metabolites free from the carbon atom of CS2 were formed in rats as young as 1 day of age. The 35S-CS2-derived radioactivity per g of tissue and thus 35S covalently bound to tissue protein was significantly higher in 1- through 20-day-old rats than in 30- and 40-day-old rats. Twenty-four hr after dosing, up to 13 times more 35S-labeled metabolites were covalently bound in organs from 1-day-old rats than in similar organs from 40-day-old rats. The results showed that elimination of the biotransformation products of CS2, in particular the covalently binding sulfur metabolites, was prolonged in newborn rats in comparison to 40-day-old rats

1987-01-01

14

Metabolism of 35S- and 14C-labeled 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole in vitro and in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We previously described an in vitro incubation system for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalyzed iodination by the antithyroid drug 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). Inhibition of iodination in this system may be reversible or irreversible, depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and MMI and on the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drug occurs under both conditions, and in the present investigation we used 35S- and 14C-labeled MMI together with reverse phase HPLC to examine the metabolic products associated with reversible and irreversible inhibition of iodination by MMI. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, MMI was rapidly metabolized and disappeared completely from the incubation mixture. With [35S]MMI, the earliest detectable 35S-labeled product was MMI disulfide, which reached a peak after a few minutes and then declined to undetectable levels. Coincident with the decrease in disulfide was the appearance of two 35S peaks, the major one corresponding to sulfate/sulfite, and the other to a component eluting at 7.5 min. Similar results were obtained for the disulfide and for the 7.5 min metabolite with [14C]MMI. The major 14C-labeled metabolite containing no S appeared to be 1-methylimidazole. Under conditions of irreversible inhibition, MMI disulfide was also the earliest detectable 35S-labeled metabolite. However, MMI decreased more slowly, and after reaching a nadir at about 6 min returned gradually to a level about halfway between the initial and the minimum value. The reformation of MMI appeared to involve the nonenzymatic disproportionation of MMI disulfide. Formation of the 7.5 min peak was also observed, but there was no formation of sulfate/sulfite

1989-01-01

15

Metabolism of /sup 35/S- and /sup 14/C-labeled 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole in vitro and in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously described an in vitro incubation system for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalyzed iodination by the antithyroid drug 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). Inhibition of iodination in this system may be reversible or irreversible, depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and MMI and on the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drug occurs under both conditions, and in the present investigation we used 35S- and 14C-labeled MMI together with reverse phase HPLC to examine the metabolic products associated with reversible and irreversible inhibition of iodination by MMI. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, MMI was rapidly metabolized and disappeared completely from the incubation mixture. With (35S)MMI, the earliest detectable 35S-labeled product was MMI disulfide, which reached a peak after a few minutes and then declined to undetectable levels. Coincident with the decrease in disulfide was the appearance of two 35S peaks, the major one corresponding to sulfate/sulfite, and the other to a component eluting at 7.5 min. Similar results were obtained for the disulfide and for the 7.5 min metabolite with (14C)MMI. The major 14C-labeled metabolite containing no S appeared to be 1-methylimidazole. Under conditions of irreversible inhibition, MMI disulfide was also the earliest detectable 35S-labeled metabolite. However, MMI decreased more slowly, and after reaching a nadir at about 6 min returned gradually to a level about halfway between the initial and the minimum value. The reformation of MMI appeared to involve the nonenzymatic disproportionation of MMI disulfide. Formation of the 7.5 min peak was also observed, but there was no formation of sulfate/sulfite.

Taurog, A.; Dorris, M.L.; Guziec, F.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

16

Metabolism of 35S- and 14C-labeled propylthiouracil in a model in vitro system containing thyroid peroxidase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous communications we described an in vitro model system containing highly purified thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by the antithyroid drugs, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). We showed that inhibition of iodination of thyroglobulin in this system may be reversible or irreversible depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and drug and the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drugs occurred under both conditions, but was more limited under irreversible conditions of inhibition. It was of interest to examine the nature of the drug metabolites associated with reversible and irreversible conditions of inhibition. For this purpose we have employed the 35S- and 14C-labeled drugs and a recently developed reverse phase HPLC procedure. Results of a similar study with MMI were reported in an earlier communication. In the present study we report our findings with PTU. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, PTU was readily metabolized and by 15 min was reduced to a few percent of the starting value. The earliest detectable metabolite with both [35S]- and [14C]PTU was the disulfide, which reached a peak in about 15 min and then slowly declined. Coincident with the decline in the disulfide was the appearance of more polar metabolites. In the case of [35S]PTU, these corresponded to sulfate/sulfite, PTU sulfonate, and a product tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate. The latter two were also observed as 14C-labeled metabolites produced from [14C]PTU. Two nonpolar desulfurated 14C-labeled metabolites were also observed. Surprisingly, these did not correspond to either propyluracil or propyldeoxyuracil, the anticipated most likely products of PTU desulfuration. The identity of these desulfurated metabolites of PTU in the TPO model system remains to be determined

1989-01-01

17

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with 14C-and 35S-isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with 14C and 35S isotopes starting from L-[U-14C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[35S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-14C]-5 is converted into L-[U-14C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to (14C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[35S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[35S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [35S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of (14C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of (35S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author)

1992-12-01

18

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with [sup 14]C-and [sup 35]S-isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with [sup 14]C and [sup 35]S isotopes starting from L-[U-[sup 14]C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[[sup 35]S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-[sup 14]C]-5 is converted into L-[U-[sup 14]C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[[sup 35]S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[[sup 35]S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [[sup 35]S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of ([sup 35]S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author).

Ferraboschi, Patrizia; Grisenti, Paride; Santaniello, Enzo (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Biochimica Medica); Giachetti, Claudio; Zanolo, Giovanni (Biomedical Research Inst. ' ' Antoine Marxer' ' , Turin (Italy)); Signorelli, Giovanni; Coppi, Germano (Poli Industrial Center, Milan (Italy). Research Center)

1992-12-01

19

A field study of the uptake of "3"5S and "1"4C into crops characteristic of the UK diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of "3"5S and "1"4C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the "3"5S and "1"4C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for "3"5S and "1"4C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

1986-01-01

20

Attempts to label males of G. morsitans and their spermatozoa with 32P or 14C by injection of adult males and parental females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attempts were made to label the spermatozoa or accessory gland fluid of Glossina morsitans males such that it might be detected in their mates after copulation. Aqueous solutions of 32P phosphate and 14C-leucine were injected into adult males and females. After mating with injected males, normal females contained 6% of the 32P incorporated in the males. The F1 offspring of injected females were highly radioactive, but labelling of spermatozoa or accessory gland fluid of F1 males was not detectable. (author)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Autoradiography of 32P and 14C incorporation into protoplasts as a means of determining the percentage of virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stripping Film Autoradiography (SFA) was used to measure protoplast infection. Control and infected protoplasts were incubated in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate or [14C]leucine fixed onto glass slides and placed in contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. Infected protoplasts were distinguished by blackened areas of exposed film which coincided with protoplasts containing labelled virus products. The use of SFA is demonstrated for two different virus/protoplast systems, namely tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) in rape. The method detects infection as early as 12-16 h post-inoculation and UV irradiation is not necessary for reducing background interference from labelled host proteins. (Auth.)

1983-01-01

22

Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

1985-01-01

23

Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

1976-01-01

24

14C-leucine, 35S-methionine 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose and 3H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine, 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and 3H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10-4M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10-5 to 10-8M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos

1987-04-01

25

Influence of boron nutrition on net uptake and efflux of "3"2P and "1"4C-glucose in Helianthus annuus roots and cell cultures of Daucus carota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"3"2P and "1"4C-glucose uptake were reduced under B deficiency in both Daucus cell suspensions and Helianthus roots. Similarly, efflux rates were found to be smaller in B deficient material. Efflux rates tended to be more affected than net uptake of both "3"2P and glucose. This may explain why sunflower roots showed a higher glucose net uptake immediately after transferring from a B sufficient to a B deficient nutrient solution. The data confirm earlier findings of B as an essential element for membrane function and integrity. B-deficiency effects could be reversed by the addition of B within less than one hour. Cell suspensions reacted similarly to roots with respect to B deficiency and may thus be suitable for further research on B deficiency effects. (orig.)

1985-01-01

26

olki32p04  

Full Text Available olki32p04 Clone name olki32p04 Library olki 5' end seq. ID olki32p04 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end - Tis nd CLSTF24922 [advanced search] Homology of 5' end IL2 -inducible T-cell kinase [Danio rerio] Score of 5'

27

olova32p06  

Full Text Available olova32p06 Clone name olova32p06 Library olova 5' end seq. ID olova32p06 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end D nd CLSTR08638 [advanced search] Homology of 3' end Quercetin 3-O-methyltransferase 1 (Flavonol 3-O-methyltransf

28

olec32p01  

Full Text Available olec32p01 Clone name olec32p01 Library olec 5' end seq. ID olec32p01 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end DK146 nd CLSTF18085 [advanced search] Homology of 5' end Smad2 [Ctenopharyngodon idella] Score of 5' end 679 E-va

29

oleb32p12  

Full Text Available oleb32p12 Clone name oleb32p12 Library oleb 5' end seq. ID oleb32p12 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end DK100 nd CLSTF04773 [advanced search] Homology of 5' end diazepam binding inhibitor [Xenopus laevis] Score of 5' end nd CLSTR04496 [advanced search] Homology of 3' end diazepam binding inhibitor [Xenopus laevis] Score of 3' end

30

A study of 32P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as 45Ca, 35S, 32P and 14C as long as several days. The ?-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected ?-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the 32P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the 32P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of 32P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of 32P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of 32P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as 32P and 32S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

2009-12-04

31

32p-labelled nucleotides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The patent relates to the synthetic process for the preparation of /sup 32/p-labelled nucleotides which are used routinely for radioactive labelling of DNA and RNA. The /sup 32/p-labelled nucleotides are produced by reacting X-/sup 32/PO/sub 4/, where X is acetyl, propionyl, butyryl or succinyl, with a nucleoside diphosphate (NDp) in the presence of an enzyme. (U.K.).

DiMeo, J.J.

1986-01-15

32

olec14c19  

Full Text Available olec14c19 Clone name olec14c19 Library olec 5' end seq. ID olec14c19 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end DK139 rch] Homology of 5' end putative membrane protein [Vibrio splendidus 12B01] Score of 5' end 77 E-value of 5' end 8.7766

33

olec14c05  

Full Text Available olec14c05 Clone name olec14c05 Library olec 5' end seq. ID olec14c05 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end DK139 f 3' end putative type II DNA modification enzyme [Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 11300] Score of 3' end 79 E-value

34

olova14c11  

Full Text Available olova14c11 Clone name olova14c11 Library olova 5' end seq. ID olova14c11 [NBRP] Acc. of 5' end D nd CLSTF03782 [advanced search] Homology of 5' end Sparc protein [Oryzias latipes] Score of 5' end 876 E-va nd CLSTR03584 [advanced search] Homology of 3' end Sparc protein [Oryzias latipes] Score of 3' end 966 E-va

35

Natural 14C variations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis deals with the natural variations in the atmospheric 14C activity, their geophysical origin and their impact on radiocarbon dating. Studies confirm the idea that one is dealing with a mechanism of a certain regularity. The correlation between a 14C variation during the Little Ice Age and the absence of sunspots on the solar surface suggest the sun to be responsible for some kind of modulation of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum. The background of a changing natural 14C level is relevant when studying the antropogenic perturbation of the atmospheric 14C concentration by the addition of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion. The results presented point to a Suess effect over the past 150 years of about 20 per thousand, but also show a local dilution effect. If this local effect is present over large continental parts of the Northern Hemisphere this will put limits to the use of tree ring 14C measurements for testing carbon reservoir models. Finally the influence of 14C variations upon the interpretations of 14C dates for archaeological and geological purposes has been investigated. It is shown that care must be taken especially in the interpretation of highly accurate 14C data of material only covering a few years of growth. One geological example illustrates that 14C variations can easily be interpretated as alternating fast and slow rises of the sea level. (Auth.)

1981-01-01

36

Chemical effects of 32P recoil atom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Szilard-Chalmers' effect of 32P were reviewed. The concentration method using Szilard-Chalmers' effect in production of radioisotope, circumstances such as exposure time in an atomic pile, states of target substances and the yields by them were discussed. Many kinds of chemical effects, such as chemical effects of 32P recoil atom in phosphorated glass, studies of the effect of adducts, the threshold of ?-ray effect, the oxidation number of 32P in phosphorated glass by exposure time in the pile and the labelling position of 32P, are associated with caryotransformation (nuclear transformation) by environmental factors. The abovementioned articles were explained concerning 32P. (Kanao, N.)

1975-06-01

37

Kinetics of 35S uptake in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of 35S uptake was studied in excised shoot roots in three sugarcane cultivars Co 419, Co 997 and Co 1148 in relation to concentration. There were at least four distinct phases in uptake in the concentration range from 0.01 mM to 5.00 mM. At higher concentration ranges, cultivars did not differ in kinetics of 35S uptake. However, at lower concentrations Co 1148 was more efficient in 35S uptake compared to Co 419 and Co 997. (author)

1983-12-01

38

Chronic eczema patients on ?-therapy (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-therapy with 32P was provided to 22 chronic eczema patients. A dose of 25 Gy given in 5 sessions resulted in a cure of 19 patients within 3 years of follow-up. Hyperpigmentation of the skin was noted in 2 patients

1985-01-01

39

Biosynthetic Preparation of 35-S Labelled Methionine.  

Science.gov (United States)

High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing sup 35 S-sulfate. L-S sup 35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on what...

A. Freud N. Hirshfeld Z. Teitelbaum Y. Heimer

1986-01-01

40

Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing "3"5S-sulfate. L-S"3"5 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

1961-01-01

42

Spring mobilization of storage 32P in apple trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old apple trees during dormant period in the green house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all new root and shoot growth, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 5-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 2.5% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood, scion buds) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from storage tissues to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the scion shoot tissues increased about 348 fold. (author)

1976-01-01

43

Facile preparation of potassium 32P-phosphonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple and easy to operate experimental assemblies were for the first time designed for the successful preparation of potassium 32P-phosphonate from 32P-orthophosphate. Phosphate was first converted to phosphoryl chloride by reacting with phosphorus pentachloride. Then the phosphoryl chloride formed was reduced to phosphorus trichloride by heating with charcoal at 650 deg C. The latter was absorbed in aqueous potassium hydroxide to obtain potassium 32P-phosphonate at a yield of about 75%. The chemical purity of 32P-phosphonate was assayed using ion-chromatography and the radiochemical purity was also determined. (author)

2004-12-01

44

Synthesis of 35S-labeled caerulein (FI 6934)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FI6934 (Caerulein) is a biologically active decapeptide extracted from the skin of Australian amphibians (Hyla caerulea). For metabolic study of FI6934, we have attempted to label the sulfo group of tyrosine of FI6934 with 35S. The starting decapeptide was sulfonated with an excess of pyridine-N-sulfonate35S, and the 35S-labelled peptide resulted was deacetylated by hydrolysis in alkaline, purified by paper chromatography to obtained radio chemically pure 35S-labelled FI6934. The 35S-labelled FI6934 was identified as a standard FI6934 in physiological activity to contract guinea pig gallbladders. (author)

1975-01-01

45

Syntheses of "3"2P-labelled nucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most frequently used methods are described of the synthesis of nucleotides labelled with "3"2P (which is a beta decay radioisotope, half-life 14.3 days, max. decay energy 1.709 MeV). The possibilities are summed up of the preparation of ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates with different positions of "3"2P using enzyme, chemical, combined and biosynthetic methods of synthesis. The described syntheses of nucleotides proceed from the reaction of "3"2P-orthophosphate with the terminal phosphate group of ATP, from the reaction of (?-"3"2P) ATP with NDP, phosphorylation in chloroplasts, the general Moffat method for chemical synthesis of ATP, the separation of "3"2P-RNA from cells of E. coli with subsequent phosphorolysis, etc. An extensive list of references is provided. (J.C.)

1986-04-01

46

_3_5S-glycosaminoglycan and _3_5S-glycopeptide metabolism by diabetic glomeruli and aorta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

_3_5S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Total _3_5S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. _3_5S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. Whereas _3_5S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with _3_5SO"4, a larger proportion of total _3_5S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. Both control and diabetic glomeruli synthesize _3_5S-labeled glycopeptides, the quantity from diabetic glomeruli being reduced. Aorta from _3_5SO"4-injected diabetic rats also synthesized reduced quantities of _3_5S-glycosaminoglycans. There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of _3_5S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. These studies suggest that synthesis of _3_5S-glycosaminoglycans and _3_5S-glycopeptides by diabetic glomeruli are altered by disturbances of both synthetic as well as degradative pathways. An alteration of _3_5S-glycosaminoglycans interaction with matrix components in diabetes is postulated

1982-01-01

47

Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

2002-06-01

48

35S in crystalline polar chlorides. Chapter 17  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of 35S in inorganic chlorides has been studied for nearly twenty five years. In more than twenty papers it has been shown that 35S produced in a target by the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction is present in several chemical states and that many factors influence the distribution amongst these states. Although inorganic chlorides seemed to be fairly simple systems, the data concerning 35S from different laboratories are not in quantitative agreement and the comparison of published results is not easy. Nevertheless some general conclusions can be reached. The reasons for these difficulties are the rather low neutron cross section for the above-mentioned reaction and the long-life of 35S: many investigators therefore irradiated the targets for a long time and the initial distribution of 35S was changed. (Auth.)

1979-01-01

49

Synthesis of [gamma-32P]thiamine triphosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a novel chemical synthesis of thiamine triphosphate which allows us to incorporate 32P in the gamma position. The reaction is based on the condensation of [32P]orthophosphoric acid and thiamine diphosphate in the presence of ethyl chloroformate. After purification by two ion-exchange purification steps, the thiamine derivative has a specific radioactivity of 10 Ci/mmol. The average final yield synthesis is about 10%

1988-01-01

50

Bioconversion of ?-[14C]Zearalenol and ?-[14C]Zearalenol into [14C]Zearalenone by Fusarium roseum Gibbosum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cultures of Fusarium roseum Gibbosum on rice were treated with [14C]zearalenone, ?-[14C]zearalenol, or ?-[14C]zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the ?-[14C]zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual ?-[14C]zearalenol was detectable. Most of the ?-[14C]zearalenol added was also converted into zearalenone within 14 days. In cultures treated with [14C]zearalenone, no radioactivity was noted in any other components

1984-01-01

51

Synthesis of [carbonyl-14C]Hexopal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A synthetic procedure for producing the vasodilator [carbonyl-14C]Hexopal (mesoinositol [carbonyl-14C]nicotinate), is described. The synthesis is achieved in two steps using [carbonyl-14C]nicotinic acid as the source of the radiolabel with an overall chemical yield of 75% and a radiochemical yield of 67%. (author)

1989-01-01

52

Synthesis of L-[35S] homocysteine thiolactone hydrochloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L-[35S]Homocysteine thiolactone has been synthesized by demethylation of L-[35S]Methionine with sodium in liquid ammonia and subsequent lactonisation in acid solution. The radiochemical yield of the carrier added synthesis was in the range of 45 to 50% with a radiochemical purity higher than 96%. (author)

1989-01-01

53

Synthesis of L-(/sup 35/S) homocysteine thiolactone hydrochloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

L-(/sup 35/S)Homocysteine thiolactone has been synthesized by demethylation of L-(/sup 35/S)Methionine with sodium in liquid ammonia and subsequent lactonisation in acid solution. The radiochemical yield of the carrier added synthesis was in the range of 45 to 50% with a radiochemical purity higher than 96%. (author).

Hamacher, K.

1989-03-01

54

The use of radioisotopes "3"2P and "3"5S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

1974-06-24

55

[Biosynthesis of 14C-macrocyclic trichothecenes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Possibility of producing (14C)-macrocyclic trichothecenes (MCTC) with high specific activity was studied. (1-14C)-glucose, (2-14C)-acetate and (2-14C)-mevalonate were used as precursors. The best results were obtained when labeled acetate was introduced into the medium at the end of the logarithmic growth stage of Dendrodochium toxicum 5800, a fungus-producer. Individual (14C)-MCTC with high specific activity are obtained: verrucarine A-158.1 microC/mM, rhoridine A-167.4 microC/mM; rhoridine H-161.9 microC/mM. PMID:2761450

Za?chenko, A M; Tuga?, T I; Shliakhovo?, V V

1989-01-01

56

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

57

Pesticides labelled with {sup 14}C. Pt. 3: Synthesis of [6-{sup 14}C]metribuzine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 14}C labelled Metribuzine was synthetised in a five step synthesis from sodium [1-{sup 14}C]pivalate (trimethyl acetic acid) via {omega}-bromo-[2-{sup 14}C]pinacoline (1-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-butan-2-on) and trimethyl [2-14C]pyruvic acid. The total yield was 30% (calculated on sodium pivalate). (Author).

Koltai, E.; Kling, F.; Rutkai, G. [Institute of Isotopes Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

1996-02-01

58

Use of 32P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using 32P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C20-Mulatinho Paulista; C26-Ricobaio 1014 and C33-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C17-Jamapa; C28-Rio Tibagi and C34-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of 32P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars. (M.A.C.)

1983-01-01

59

Synthesis of nervonic acid 14C-24  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methyl iodide-14C was condensed with 2-(1-lithio-hept-1-yn-6-yl) 1,3-dioxolanne in presence of HMPT and benzene to give 2-(oct-2-yn-8-yl-1-14C) 1,3-dioxolanne. Catalytic reduction, followed by acid hydrolysis led to pelargonic aldehyde 9-14C. Condensation of this aldehyde with an excess of ?-carbomethoxy-tetradecylidene, triphenyl phosphorane produced methyl nervonate 24-14C. The latter was isolated from its trans isomer by chromatography on a silver nitrate impregnated silicagel column. Finally, nervonic acid 24-14C was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis (specific activity : 52 mCi/mMole) with an overall yield of 7% based on methyl iodide-14C. (author)

1981-01-01

60

Synthesis of [14C]ciladopa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[14C]Ciladopa (S(-)-2-[4-[[2-14C]-2-hydroxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenly)ethyl ]-1-piper azinyl]-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1- one hydrochloride; AY-27,110 hydrochloride) has been synthesized in six steps incorporating [14C]carbon dioxide. [7-14C]Acetoveratrole, obtained from veratric acid via the acid chloride, was brominated and coupled with a troponylpiperazine salt. The resulting ketone was stereospecifically reduced microbiologically to give the S(-) enantiomer of the corresponding alcohol. Two batches of [14C]ciladopa were produced, giving a combined overall yield of 25% from [14C]barium carbonate (sp. act. 44.7 ± 0.6 and 43.4 ± 0.8 ?Ci/mg; 99.2 and 98.9% radiochemical purity, respectively). (author)

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Synthesis of (/sup 14/C)ciladopa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

(/sup 14/C)Ciladopa (S(-)-2-(4-((2-/sup 14/C)-2-hydroxy-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenly)ethyl )-1-piper azinyl)-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1- one hydrochloride; AY-27,110 hydrochloride) has been synthesized in six steps incorporating (/sup 14/C)carbon dioxide. (7-/sup 14/C)Acetoveratrole, obtained from veratric acid via the acid chloride, was brominated and coupled with a troponylpiperazine salt. The resulting ketone was stereospecifically reduced microbiologically to give the S(-) enantiomer of the corresponding alcohol. Two batches of (/sup 14/C)ciladopa were produced, giving a combined overall yield of 25% from (/sup 14/C)barium carbonate (sp. act. 44.7 +- 0.6 and 43.4 +- 0.8 /mu/Ci/mg; 99.2 and 98.9% radiochemical purity, respectively). (author).

Hicks, D.R.; Dolak, L.; Foss, D.

1988-12-01

62

Problems of 14C radiation hazard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature data on the problem of the radiation danger of 14C coming to environment as a result of nuclear explosions and from enterprises of nuclear power are generalized. Problems related to migration, kinetics of exchange and biological effect of radiocarbon are considered. Biological danger of 14C accumulation in biosphere with provision for nuclear power development prospects has been estimated. Assumed irradiation doses due to 14C release from the enterprises of nuclear power are presented graphically. Somatic and genetic consequences of population irradiation with small doses of 14C radiation are noted

1980-11-01

63

Chronic eczema patients on. beta. -therapy (/sup 32/P)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

..beta..-therapy with /sup 32/P was provided to 22 chronic eczema patients. A dose of 25 Gy given in 5 sessions resulted in a cure of 19 patients within 3 years of follow-up. Hyperpigmentation of the skin was noted in 2 patients.

Vlakhov, N.; Parusheva, D.; Vankova, V.

1985-02-01

64

Preparation of 32P-labeled diethyl phosphite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The procedure for radiochemical preparation of diethyl phosphite labeled with phosphorus-32 has been proposed. The best operating conditions of the synthesis have been determined. Based on these data, the process scheme for preparing 32P-labeled diethyl phosphite has been developed

1995-01-01

65

Formation of /sup 14/C-asparagine from /sup 14/C-precursor in mulberry leaves  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of /sup 14/C-asparagine from /sup 14/C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. /sup 14/C-aspartic acid and /sup 14/C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and /sup 14/C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although /sup 14/C-succinic acid was actively converted to /sup 14/C-asparagine, no significant amount of /sup 14/C-asparagine was formed from /sup 14/C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of /sup 14/C-asparagine from /sup 14/C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired /sup 14/C from /sup 14/C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ..gamma..-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before /sup 14/C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of /sup 14/C-asparagine from /sup 14/C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of /sup 14/C-asparagine formation from /sup 14/C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves.

Yamashita, T. (Sericultural Experiment Station, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan))

1981-08-01

66

Synthesis of 14C-labelled isophosphamide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isophosphamide labelled with 14C in the chloroethyl group attached to the exocyclic nitrogen has been synthesised by treatment of N-3-hydroxypropylaziridine with phosphorus oxychloride and reaction of the resulting 2-chloro-3-(2-chloroethyl)tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine-2-oxide with [1-14C]-2-chloroethylamine. (author)

1981-01-01

67

Synthesis of 14C labelled acrylic derivatives: diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate and isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate and diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate were synthesized by the intermediate of their protective Diels-Alder adduct with anthracene. These adducts were obtained in a one-pot procedure by Knoevenagel condensation of [14C] paraformaldehyde with isobutyl cyanoacetate and diethyl malonate respectively in the presence of a basic catalyst and anthracene. The adducts are stable crystalline compounds easily purified by recrystallization. The olefinic target compounds were obtained in high chemical and radiochemical purity (>99%) by thermolysis at 2200C in mineral oil in the presence of maleic anhydride. (author)

1989-01-01

68

Ras p21 and other Gn proteins are detected in mammalian cell lines by (gamma-/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of guanine nucleotide binding proteins in mouse and human cell lines was investigated using (gamma-/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S and (gamma-32P)GTP. Cell lysate polypeptides were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose. Incubation of the nitrocellulose blots with (gamma-/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S identified 9 distinct GTP-binding polypeptides in all lysates. One of these is the ras oncogene product, p21, as demonstrated by subsequent immunochemical staining of the nitrocellulose blots. We have shown that this procedure provides a sensitive method for detection of p21 in culture cell lines.

Comerford, J.G.; Gibson, J.R.; Dawson, A.P.; Gibson, I.

1989-03-31

69

Incorporation of 14C from [14C]phenylalanine into condensed tannin of sorghum grain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure is described for obtaining condensed tannin from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seeds metabolically labeled from [14C]phenylalanine. The [14C]tannin should be useful in determining the metabolic fate of dietary condensed tannin

1989-01-01

70

Spectroscopy of "3"2P, ch. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spins, parities and transition probabilities of levels in "3"2P at Esub(x) 3.5 MeV have been determined with the "2"9Si(?,p?)"3"2P reaction at bombarding energies of Esub(?)=12.80, 12.93 and 16.30 MeV. Proton-gamma angular correlation experiments and DSA lifetime measurements lead to six unambiguous spin assignments and to many spin limitations. The measured mixing and branching ratios yield many transition strengths for dipole and electric quadrupole transitions. Five, sofar unknown, energy levels are reported. A doublet at 4.03 MeV excitation energy and a high-spin state (Esub(x)=4.27 MeV; Jsup(?)=5"-) were observed. Shell-model predictions have been compared to the present experimental results. (Auth.)

1976-03-24

71

Preparation of a 35S-source for /?-spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of preparing thin, uniform 35S-sources for use in ?-spectroscopy is described. A short review of the techniques previously used is given, and their main properties are discussed. The new method presented here consists of exposing a thin layer of vacuum-evaporated copper to 35S-labeled H 2S gas. A yield close to 100% can be achieved. The properties of samples made with non-active H 2S gas were investigated with electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A 35S-source with an activity of 5.3 mCi was prepared on a 0.2 ?m thick Kapton foil. From measurements of the effective half-life, the source was found to be chemically stable in vacuum.

Palermo, L.; Holzschuh, E.; Kündig, W.; Wenk, P.; Alberto, R.

1999-03-01

72

32P detection in animal and plant samples using Cerenkov  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P detection methodology in animal and plant tissue using the Cerenkov effect, liquid scintillation and Geiger-Muller techniques is studied. The Cerenckov effect shows to be more satisflying as to sensitivity, sample preparation, back ground and negligible cost per sample. Comparing the detection by means of Cerenkov effect with that by GM, the relative counting efficiency is about 100 times and 1,5 to 4 comparing to liquid scintillation detection

1977-01-01

73

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty received chemotherapy as well, and 34 received external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients, 34 had good results, 6 fair, and 6 were failures. Ten patients needed transfusion for marrow depression; no other side effect was observed

1979-01-01

74

Comparison of two ?-32P-dATP labelled probes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HBV DNA probes, labelled by ?-32P-dATP from England Amersham International PIC and from China Institute of Atomic Energy, were compared in specific activity, sensitivity, incorporated percentage and stability in different temperatures for storage. We obtained almost the same satisfactory results for the two probes. HBV DNA were detected in 511 and 518 samples sera, collected in hepatitis laboratory (u = 1.0056, P>0.05)

1992-08-01

75

14C Records from Indonesian Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

2013-04-10

76

/sup 32/P-labeling test for DNA damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a /sup 32/P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, ..beta..-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea) were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'-/sup 32/P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 10/sup 5/ DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent binding.

Randerath, K.; Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.

1981-10-01

77

The method and apparatus for S and "3"5S analysis in steel labelled by "3"5S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of volumetric and radiometric analysis of S and "3"5S present in steel labelled by "3"5S was elaborated. SO_2 and C0_2 obtained from burned out steel samples can be separated from other gases at temperature -196"0C and SO_2 from CO_2 at temperature -78"0C. This method allows to measure the "3"5SO_2 activity in a proportional counter filled up by a propane - butane (300 Tr) counting gas. A proportional counter is in a coincidence-anticoincidence system. The measurement efficiency obtained is /69+-3.5/% when "3"5So_2 pressure in counter does not exceed 5 Tr. Time needed for one analysis of S and "3"5S in the sample is about 0.5 H. (author)

1976-01-01

78

Deposition of [35S]-carbonyl sulphide to vegetable crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the principal form of 35S in the coolant of CO2-cooled nuclear reactors under operational conditions. Measurements were made of the deposition velocity (Vg) of [35S]-COS (on a single-side leaf area basis) to a range of vegetable cultivars under turbulent conditions simulating maximal deposition in the field. The Vg for all the cultivars was -4 m.s-1. Uptake was greatest for brassicas and radishes (mean Vg 4.60-5.79x10-4m.s-1) and least for lettuces, onions and spinach (mean Vg 2.48-3.96x10-4m.s-1). Under illuminated conditions, when the stomata are open, differences in stomatal resistance accounted for -3, about seven times ambient) had no effect on the stomata. The results show that the use of Vg values of [35S]-COS to ryegrass in models to estimate ingested radiation dose following the consumption of green vegetables would increase the margin of safety by overestimating the 35S content of the crop by 30-300%. (author)

1985-01-01

79

Dynamics of phosphorus mineralization from 32P labelled greenmanure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled Sesbania aculeata was amended with soil at 0.25 and 0.5 per cent, both on dry weight basis, and incubated in anaerobic condition for 60 days. The P mineralization pattern depicted a two-step process, a rapid declining phase upto 30 days and a slow increasing phase thereafter. The Bray-1 reagent extracted nonsynthesised ionic P in the green manure amounting to 25 per cent of the total green manure P on the initial day of incubation. The mineralization process was related with the C:N and C:P ratio of the green manure and discussed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1995-09-01

80

Intracavitary chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients received treatment with chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension (CPCS) 346 times since 1964. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients received 200 intraperitoneal treatments. One-hundred-fifteen patients received 144 intrapleural treatments. Six patients received both intraperitoneal and intrapleural treatments. Two patients received two intrapericardial treatments. Results of therapy were evaluated three months later and then at yearly intervals. In those patients who survived three months, the referring physician observed improvement in 85% of intraperitoneal treatment and in 75% of intrapleural treatments

1981-12-15

 
 
 
 
81

Intracavitary chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-hundred-eighty-nine patients received treatment with chromic phosphate (32P) colloidal suspension (CPCS) 346 times since 1963. One-hundred-seventy-eight patients received 200 intraperitoneal treatments. One-hundred-fifteen patients received 144 intrapleural treatments. Six patients received both intraperitoneal and intrapleural treatments. Two patients received two intrapericardial treatments. Results of therapy were evaluated three months later and then at yearly intervals. In those patients who survived three months, the referring physician observed improvement in 85% of intraperitoneal treatment and in 75% of intrapleural treatments

1981-12-15

82

Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

1980-01-01

83

Synthesis of 14C-labelled prazepam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the metabolic fate of prazepam (PZ), a new synthetic method of [5-14C]PZ(1) and [sidechain-14C]PZ(II) was investigated. The synthesis of these labelled compounds has already been described by E. J. Merrill, et al., but their method requires many synthetic steps and the yield is unfavorably poor. We have recently found much more convenient and efficient method, which is summarized below. 2-Iodo-4-chloroaniline was cyanized with Cu14CN obtained from K14CN, then reacted with phenylmagnesium bromide, hydrolyzed with conc. HCl to give [carbonyl-14C]2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone(ACB). ACB was bromoacetylated, aminated with NH3 in MeOH, then heated and cyclized to [5-14C]desalkylprazepam (DPZ) according to the usual procedure. DPZ was converted to its Na salt with MeONa, then reacted with cyclopropylmethyl bromide in DMF to give I(2.61 mCi/mmol) with the overall yield of 41.9% from K14CN. [5-14C] Diazepam was also obtained by using MeI instead of cyclopropylmethyl bromide. On the other hand, 14CO2 generated from Na214CO3 and H2SO4 was reacted with cyclopropylmagnesium bromide to give [carboxyl-14C]cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, which was reduced with LiAlH4, then naphthalenesulfonylated to [?-14C]cyclopropylmethyl 2-naphthalenesulfonate. Na salt of DPZ was treated with the naphthalenesulfonate in DMF to give II (3.45 mCi/mmol) with the overall yield of 36.9% from Na214CO3. (auth.)

1978-01-01

84

How accurate is the 14C method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocarbon daters have in recent years focussed their interest on accuracy and reliability of 14C dates. The use of dates for resolving fine chronological structures that are not dateable otherwise has stressed this point. The total uncertainty in dating an event is composed of errors relating to dating of the sample, i.e. uncertainty in measured quantities, deviations from assumed content of 14C in material when alive; and errors related to quality of sample material, i.e. contamination from carbon of different age, diffuse context between sample and event. Statistical variability in counting of 14C activity gives the most important contribution to measurement uncertainty - increasing with age and shortage of sample material. Corrections for isotopic fractionation and reservoir effects must be performed, and - most important when dates are compared with historical ages - the dendrochronological calibration will correct for past variations in the atmospheric 14C content. Future improvement of dating precision can however only be obtained by the combined efforts of both daters and submitters of samples, thus minimizing errors related to selection and handling of sample material as well as those related to the 14C method and measurements. (Auth.)

1978-05-10

85

Internal bremsstrahlung spectra from 185W and 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The internal bremsstrahlung spectra from the ? decay of 185W and 32P were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer with a standard geometrical arrangement. After making all the necessary corrections the experimental results are compared with the allowed theory of the Knipp, Uhlenbeck, and Bloch (KUB theory) and also with the Coulomb corrected theories of Lewis, Ford, and Nilsson. In the case of 185W it is found that from 78 to 200 keV the experimental distribution is in good agreement with the KUB theory whereas beyond 200 keV and below 78 keV the experimental points are far above even the highest Coulomb corrected theoretical distribution of Nilsson. The internal bremsstrahlung from this isotope has not been previously investigated. In the case of 32P the experimental relative intensity spectrum is compared with the KUB theory and also with the Coulomb corrected theory of Lewis and Ford. Fairly good agreement is obtained from 30 to 200 keV with the KUB theory but in the energy region from 200 to 900 keV, the experimental results deviate positively from both the KUB and Lewis and Ford theories. The experimental excess over the Lewis and Ford theory is 15% on the average

1976-01-01

86

Uptake of 35S sulphate by Xenopus cartilage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hypohysectomized juvenile Xenopus were injected with growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) of either ovine or bullfrog origin and the growthpromoting activity of these hormones was measured by monitoring the uptake of 35S sulphate by the xiphisternal cartilage in vitro. Analysis of the labelled cartilage revealed that the acid mucopolysaccharide fraction contained about 60 - 80 % of the label and that most of them were incorporated into chondroitin sulphates. All of the hormones tested enhaced the 35S sulphate uptake dose-dependently. Among them bullfrog GH was most effective, then followed ovine GH and ovine PRL. Bullfrog PRL was far less effective than other three. The sensitive assay for frog GH developed in the present experiment may be applicable to the assay for somatomedin-like activity and contribute to the analysis of the mode of action of GH in amphibians. (author)

1984-01-01

87

Radiation stability of methionine-35S and selenomethionine-75Se  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation stability of methionine-35S and selenomethionine 75Se was investigated using the methods of thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography and ESR. Radiation decomposition of methionine- 35S mainly consists in an oxidation process and in the release of volatile products. The ESR-spectra of irradiated DL-methionine indicated a strong localization of the unpaired electrons on sulfur atoms. Radiation damage to selenomethionine-75Se as a function of radiation dose proved an increased stability of this compound and its radiation decomposition consists in the formation of oxidized products and by direct rupture of the selenium bounds accompanied by the formation of volatile compounds like CH3SEH and SeH2. The self-radiolysis of the aqueous solution of selenomethionine-75Se during its storage in air leads, however, to a lower decomposition rate which consists in the release of inorganic selenium and in an oxidation process. (author)

1976-01-01

88

Synthesis of 14C-propoxur (o-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate-14C) insecticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-propoxur (Baygonsub(circled R)) is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and a very low order of mammalian toxicity. Radiosynthesis of propoxur was performed by the reaction of acetyl-1-14C chloride and sodium azide to produce methyl isocyanate which then reacted with o-isopropoxyphenol at 100 degC. A two-compartment reaction tube with a break seal was utilized. Chromatograhic procedures for isolating the N-methylcarbamates from their reaction mixtures are reported. Acetyl-1-14C chloride was prepared from thionyl chloride and sodium acetate-1-14C. Grignard reaction between methyl iodide and carbon-14 dioxide yielded acetic acid-14C which was neutralized by sodium hydroxide solution to give sodium acetate-1-14C. (author)

1984-08-01

89

Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were recovered as gaseous end products. Percentages of label recovered from lignin-labeled substrates as dissolved degradation products were approximately equal to percentages recovered as gaseous end products. High-pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of CuO oxidation products of sound and degraded pine lignin indicated that no substantial chemical modifications of the remaining lignin polymer, such as demethoxylation and dearomatization, occurred during biodegradation. The polysaccharide components of pine lignocellulose and purified cellulose were relatively rapidly mineralized to methane and carbon dioxide; 31 to 37% of the pine polysaccharides and 56 to 63% of the purified cellulose were recovered as labeled gaseous end products. An additional 10 to 20% of the polysaccharide substrates was recovered as dissolved degradation products. Overall, these results indicate that elevated temperatures can greatly enhance rates of anaerobic degradation of lignin and lignified substrates to methane and low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds.

Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

1985-01-01

90

Dry extraction of 14C02 and 14C0 from Antarctic ice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dry extraction method was used to obtain trapped CO, of 2-5 kg ice samples from a blue ice zone in East Antarctica. In situ produced 14C was also extracted in 14C0, and 14C0 concentrations at a ratio of 3.4 f 0.9. Correction of trapped 14C0, from in situ resulted in ice dates in the range 5-15 ka. The realistic rates for accumulation and ablation of ice indicate about total efficiency of extraction.

Roijen, J. J.; Bintanja, R.; Borg, R. Den; Broeke, M. R. Den; Jong, A. F. M.; Oerlemans, J.

1994-01-01

91

Potential drugs labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-Benzylamino-8,9-dimethoxy-5,6-dihydro-imidazo[5,1-a]isoquinoline hydrochloride was labelled with 14C in two different positions: in one case the 14C was built into the position 2 of the imidazole ring, in the other case into the position 3 of the isoquinoline ring. In the first case the mechanism of the halogen-cyano exchange reaction of 1-chloromethyl-5,6-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-isoquinoline was investigated by tracer experiments. (author)

1981-01-01

92

Preparation of [14C]musk xylol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbonation of the aryl lithium obtained from 5-t-butyl-3-iodotoluene with carbon-14 labeled carbon dioxide, followed by reduction gave [ArCH3-14C]-5-t-butyl-m-xylene. Nitration of this material gave [ArCH3-14C]-5-t-butyl-2,4,6-trinitro-m-xylene, known as Musk Xylol. The overall yield was 32% and the product had specific activity 19.8 mCi/mmol (66 mCi/mg) and was >99% pure. (Author)

1995-06-01

93

Synthesis and labelling of hydroxilapatite with "3"2P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work two methods are compared to obtain Hidroxilapatite (Ca_1_0(PO_4)_6(OH)_2) in a synthetic way, with similar results in their efficiency and purity. One of those methods is based on the one of H. Hayer and W. Stadlmann (1955) modified, and the other one consists of a synthesis using H_3PO_4, CaCl_2 and NaOH. In this case two ways are presented related with the moment in which the alcalinization is carried out. Referring to the procedure of labelling, carrier free "3"2P is incorporated by isotopic exchange to the H_3PO_4, which afterwards is used in the preparation of the hidroxilapatite. (author)

1976-01-01

94

Phosphate fertilizer studies using 32P dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agronomic effectiveness of highly soluble phosphate fertilizers for annual crop production is well known and documented. In recent years considerable research effort has been focused on search for alternative means of cheaper forms of P fertilizers to fill the needs of poor farmers, who has limited capital availability for purchase of fertilizers. Since some countries in the world have naturally occurring phosphate rocks (PR), the most appealing alternative is for direct application of PR. The low capital and energy inputs required to prepare these PR for use makes it the cheapest mineral P fertilizers possible. Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam are some countries in the Asian region blessed with natural PR. Coupled with the inherently acidic and P deficient soils found in this region, research on direct application of these PR for crop production is indeed timely. Studies done in the temperate regions on direct application of PR have concluded that PR are not suitable for use in intensive agricultural system, because PR cannot maintain a sufficiently high P concentration in the soil solution for high crop yields. Research in direct application of PR to acidic soils of the Asian region have proven otherwise. The use of radioactive 32P isotope has helped in quantification of the amounts of P from the PR tested being utilized by the crop, and its distribution in the plant can also be monitored. In Malaysia, highly reactive North Carolina phosphate rock has been found to be as effective as triple superphosphate, where a total of about 18% of the P fertilizer applied was utilized by three consecutive crops of sweet corn grown under field conditions. Initial glasshouse screening of efficacy of PR can also be determined by the use of the 32P isotope. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

1995-01-01

95

Gross structure and resonant behavior of 14C + 14C elastic scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The excitation function of 14C + 14C elastic scattering at ?sub(c)sub(m) = 900 from Esub(l)sub(a)sub(b) = 23.4-58.4 MeV shows pronounced oscillations. Angular distributions measured at the maxima of these oscillations show Legendre polynomial behavior of L = 12, 14, 16 and 18. (orig.)

1981-01-01

96

Translocation of 14C-assimilates and 14C-herbicides in cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondylium)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In cow parsnip translocation fo 14CO2, 14C-2,4-D and 14C-2,4,5-T was investigated during four growth phases. It was intended to find out the quantitative correlation between the translocation of phenoxy herbicides and assimilates. The gas exchange used for 14CO2 application is described. Before shoot extension, the root of the plants is the prefered target for assimilates and 2,4-D. Close quantitative correlation was found between the respective 14C activities as regards direction of translocation and radioactivity per dry weight. Similar results were found with 2,4,5-T. At flowering 14C activity moves clearly into the shoot and the inflorescence. At seed maturity, rhizomes and roots take in the 14C activity preferably. Consequently, two growing phases are recommended for optimal weed control by phenoxy compounds, especially 2,4-D: before shooting or after flowering, if sufficient assimilating leaves are left. (orig.)

1975-12-01

97

Enzymatic synthesis of [beta-"3"2P]ADP using adenylate kinase and [gamma-"3"2P]ATP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An enzymatic method for the synthesis of [beta-"3"2P]ADP from [gamma-"3"2P]ATP is described. This substrate is required for the assay of ADPase and is not commercially available. The method described results in a preparation of [beta-"3"2P]ADP of high purity with a yield of approximately 40% the theoretical obtainable

1985-01-01

98

Diffusion of sulfur 35S in ?-Ni3S2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diffusion of 35S radioisotope in ?-Ni3S2 polycrystals was studied at temperatures ranging from 848 to 893 K and at sulfur vapour pressure (5.6 x 10-6 - 3.2 x 10-4) Pa. The autoradiography and the tracer sectioning method were used. It was found that the bulk diffusion is the main process of sulfur transport. The activation energy of the diffusion equals (190±10) kJmol-1. Under the conditions used in the experiments the dominant anionic point defects are single-ionized vacancies and quasi-free electrons. (author)

1998-09-16

99

Labeled oxidation products from [1-14C], [U-14C] and [16-14C]-palmitate in hepatocytes and mitochondria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When [1-14C], [U-14C], and [16-14C]palmitate were oxidized by isolated rat hepatocytes, there was a differential distribution of label as a percent of total oxidized products, such that 14CO2 from [1-14C] greater than [U-14C] greater than [16-14C]palmitate and acid-soluble radioactivity from [16-14C] greater than [U-14C] greater than [1-14C]palmitate. The oxidation of [2,3-14C]succinate to 14CO2 by isolated hepatocytes was only 9.1% of that from [1,4-14C]succinate, demonstrating that the differences in distribution of labeled products are in part due to less 14CO2 production from label in the even carbon positions entering the citric acid cycle. Apparent total ketone body production from [16-14C]palmitate was markedly higher than [1-14C] and [U-14C]palmitate. In addition, the 14C-acetone:14CO2 ratio derived from decarboxylation of labeled acetoacetate from [1-14C]palmitate was less than 1 and positively correlated to the rate of fatty acid oxidation in hepatocytes. These findings indicate that the known preferential incorporation of the omega-C2 unit of fatty acids into 14C-ketone bodies also contributed to the differential distribution of labeled products and that this contribution was greatest at the lower rates of fatty acid oxidation. In isolated mitochondria, the distribution of label to 14CO2 and acid-soluble radioactivity from [1-14C], [U-14C] and [16-14C]palmitate was qualitatively similar to that seen with hepatocytes

1987-01-01

100

Production of some inorganic forms of 35S at the Boris Kidric Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several inorganic forms of 35S are used as starting material for some chemical syntheses of labelled organic compounds. The choice depends on the desired characteristics of the labelled compound. Preparation of elementary sulphur 35S, sodium sulphide-35S, ferrous sulphide-35S, barium sulphate-35S, barium sulphide-35S, is described. The characteristics of the products are given along with the determination methods. The products are obtained with high specific activities: elementary sulphur-35S, 1 - 5 Ci/gS; sodium sulphide-35S 1 - 5 Ci/gS; ferrous sulphide-35S, 1 - 5 Ci/gS; barium sulphate-35S, 5 - 15 Ci/gS; barium sulphide-35S, 1 - 5 Ci/gS. (author)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Internal bremsstrahlung spectral shapes of 45Ca and 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The internal bremsstrahlung spectra emitted in the beta decays of 45Ca and 35S were measured using a multichannel NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer with a standard geometrical arrangement. After making all the necessary corrections, the experimental results were compared with the allowed theory of Knipp and Uhlenbeck (Physica; 3:425 (1936)) and of Bloch (Phys. Rev.; 50:272 (1936)) (KUB theory) and also with the Coulomb-corrected theories of Lewis and Ford (Phys. Rev.; 107:756 (1957)) and of Nilsson (Ark. Fys.; 10:467 (1956)). In the case of 45Ca, fairly good agreement with KUB theory was obtained from 30 to 155 keV and above 155 keV the experimental results were in agreement with the Lewis and Ford theory up to 210 keV, the maximum limit of the photon energy investigated. For 35S, the experimental results are in quite good agreement with KUB theory from 25 to 45 keV, but beyond 45 keV the values are greater than the Coulomb-corrected theories due to both Lewis and Ford and to Nilsson, the experimental excess over Nilsson Coulomb-corrected theory being by factors of 1.07, 1.12 and 1.63 at energies 60, 90 and 110 keV respectively. (author)

1976-01-01

102

Synthesis of 14C-labelled crotamiton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 14C-labelled crotamiton, which is a fungicide, an insecticide as well as a scabicide is described. Starting from 2-bromonitrobenzene and Cu14CN, o-toluidine, labelled with 14C at the methyl group was prepared by the following sequence of reactions: NO2-C6H4-Br ? NO2-C6H4-14CN ? NO2-C6H4-14COOH ? NO2-C6H4-14CH2OH ? NO2-C6H4-14CH2Br ? NH2-C6H4-14CH3. Labelled o-toluidine was then heated with crotonic anhydride to give crotonic acid o-toluidide which was then ethylated by treatment with sodium hydride and ethyl iodide to obtain labelled crotamiton. (author)

1982-01-01

103

14C accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. Ages from hundreds to hundred thousand years can be determined by this method, and tracing of one particle in 10 to 15 can be performed. AMS has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. The most used isotope in AMS is 14C. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. Our group at the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) has been developing projects on 14C-AMS in the last years, in collaborative experiments using external facilities such as Australian National University, Purdue University and University of California-Irvine. Recently we have installed our own sample preparation laboratory, where samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide, and later their graphitization is performed. More recently we have bought from NEC one 250 KV single stage AMS system (SSAMS), which started to operate in March 2012. With the laboratory for 14C sample preparation and running the SSAMS system, we became the first fully dedicated 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. We believe that the number of researchers from Brazil and Latin America who will use our facilities will increase one or two orders of magnitude, comparing with the number that nowadays use the AMS technique. In this talk the technique and our facilities will be presented. (author)

Gomes, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

104

14C measurements in aquifers with methane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of various groundwater systems indicates that methane is a common trace constituent and occasionally a major carbon species in groundwaters. Thermocatalytic methane had delta13CCH4 > -45%0 and microbially-produced or biogenic methane had delta13CCH4 0. Groundwaters containing significant biogenic methane had abnormally heavy delta13C values for the inorganic carbon. Thermocatalytic methane had no apparent effect on the inorganic carbon. Because methanogenesis seriously affects the carbon isotope geochemistry of groundwaters, the correction of raw 14C ages of affected groundwaters must consider these effects. Conceptual models are developed which adjust the 14C activity of the groundwater for the effects of methanogenesis and for the dilution of carbon present during infiltration by simple dissolution of rock carbonate. These preliminary models are applied to groundwaters from the Alliston sand aquifer where methanogenesis has affected most samples. In this system, methanogenic bacteria using organic matter present in the aquifer matrix as substrate, have added inorganic carbon to the groundwater which has initiated further carbonate rock dissolution. These processes have diluted the inorganic carbon 14C activity. (orig.)

1978-06-23

105

Metabolic kinetics and biological effects of radiocarbon (14C)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiocarbon 14C is one of the most widespread radionuclides. Increased concentration of anthropogenic 14C in the biosphere is a problem of considerable hygienic and ecological significance. The paper presents the results of comprehensive studies for years on biokinetics of the main 14C compounds, inorganic (Na H14CO3, Na214CO3, K214CO3, Ca14CO3) as well as organic (14C-glucose, 14C-succinic acid, 14C-glucosamine, 14C-glycine, 14C-tryptophane, 14C-valine, 14C-palmitic acid, 14C-stearic acid, 14C-ethyl alcohol, 14C-methyl alcohol, 14C-urea), of 14C as food constituent and of elementary radiocarbon. The 14C toxicity is investigated for both acute and chronic small doses received by animals. The nuclide's genetic efficiency is assessed. Based on research evidence, the accumulation multiple and equilibrium time are estimated for long-term 14C intake by humans. The data may be used for setting genetic standards and estimating an anthropogenic increase of 14C concentration in the environment. The hazard of anthropogenic radiocarbon is assessed with allowance for further development of nuclear power industry. (author)

1988-01-01

106

A rapid and convenient method for preparing salt-free [?-"3"2P]ATP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[?-"3"2P]ATP is prepared by an existing enzymatic method that yields approximately 95% incorporation of "3"2P into ATP. A rapid and convenient method for purifying the [?-"3"2P]ATP which results in a product free of both salt and buffer is reported

1981-09-15

107

Method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate by chemical synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with [32P]-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-[32P]ATP

1978-01-01

108

Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P2O5+70 g K2O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P2O2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

1978-12-15

109

Enzymatic synthesis of [?-33P]ATP and [U-14C]ATP?S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[?-33P]ATP was prepared by incubation of H333PO4 (33Pi) with ADP in the presence of GDH, TIM, GAP-DH, PGK, LDH, MgCl2, DTT, NAD, EDTA, glycerol phosphate, sodium pyruvate and tris buffer (pH 9.0); in 1 hour at room temperature, the yield was 89-98%. In similar conditions, unlabelled Na3PO3S was transferred to [U-14C]ADP considerably more slowly than 33Pi: in 7 hrs, the reaction mixture contained mere 17% [U-14C]ATP?S. After the concentration of Na3PO3S and of the enzymes was increased, 28% and 37% of the total activity, respectively, was incorporated in the [U-14C]ATP?S. Within the first 3 hrs, a considerable amount of [U-14C]ATP was formed, presumably by the reaction of [U-14C]ADP with unlabelled Pi contaminating the chemicals. Applicability of the enzymatic method to the preparation of high-molar-activity [?-35S]ATPS using Na3PO335S is also feasible. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

1990-05-07

110

[sup 14]C labelling of triethylamine. Marquage par [sup 14]C de la triethylamine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Triethylamine was labelled by [sup 14]C using Na[sup 14]CN as precursor in a ten steps chemical pathway. The radiochemical yield is 40%. The chemical procedure can be used for tritium labelling. (Author).

Madelmont, J.C. (INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France)); Guerin, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Rennes (France)); Domurado, D. (Compiiegne Univ. (France). Lab. de Technologie Enzymatique -URA du CNRS)

1992-09-01

111

Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

1997-12-01

112

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon (14C) AMS measurements (?R/R 14C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the “Acerenza portrait” is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459–1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571–1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559–1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452–1519) to the support.

2011-12-15

113

Syntheses of 9-(2'-monoethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine ([14C]-EPMG) and 9-(2'-phosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine ([14C]-PMEG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of the title compounds 9-(2'-phosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine{[14C]-PMEG) and 9-(2'-monoethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine([14C]-EPM G) are described. Treatment of [14C]guanine with acetic anhydride in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone gave [14C]N-acetylguanine. Reaction with 2-(diethylphosphonomethoxy) ethylmethanesulfonate in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of potassium carbonate yielded 2-N-acetyl-9(2'-diethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]-guanine. Removal of the acetyl group with aqueous methylamine gave 9-(2'-(diethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]-guanine. Treatment of the diethylphosphonate ester with sodium hydroxide and acidification with hydrochloric acid gave 9-2'-(monoethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]-guanine. Silation of the diethylphosphonate ester with bromotrimethylsilane and treatment with water produced 9-(2'-phosphonomethyloxethyl)-8-[14C]guanine. (Author)

1993-01-01

114

Synthesis of dexamethasone-4-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The bismethylenedioxy (BMD) derivative of dexamethasone 2 was silylated with trimethylchlorosilane and imidazole in dimethylformamide to give the 11?-trimethylsilyloxy BMD derivative 3. The ?1-double bond in 3 was hydrogenated over 5% palladium on carbon to give the ?4-3-oxo steroid 4. Oxidation of 4 with potassium permanganate-sodium metaperiodate gave the seco-acid 5 which on subsequent treatment with acetic anhydride; sodium acetate and triethylamine gave the enol-lactone 6. The enol-lactone 6 was reacted with 14C-methylmagnesium iodide to give an adduct 7a which on heating at reflux with lithium 2,6-di-t-butylphenoxide in dioxane gave the ?4-3-oxo derivative 8. Compound 8 was heated at reflux with m-iodylbenzoic acid and diphenyl diselenide in toluene to give the ?sup(1,4)-3-oxo steroid 9. The protecting BMD and silyl groups were removed in a single step by reaction with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid containing 2N hydrochloric acid at room temperature to give dexamethasone-4-14C 10. (author)

1982-01-01

115

A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes a method for separating 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K2HPO4, Mg(C2H3O2)2, ovalbumen, Na2ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14C-hexose and 14C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

1991-05-01

116

35S induced dominant lethals in immature oocytes in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA female mice were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 20?Ci of sulphur-35 on 15.5 day post conception. Another group of pregnant mice injected with normal saline was kept as control. The pregnant females were allowed to litter and the mothers were separated from their offsprings 4 weeks after littering. Eight weeks after treatment i.e. at the age of 22-24 weeks, the treated mothers were mated with control C3H/He males. The vaginal plugs were checked every morning and those which mated were separated. The pregnant females were killed on the 14th day of gestation. The uterine contents were examined for live and dead embryos and the ovaries for corpora lutea. The pre- and post-implantation losses and total loss were calculated in the treated females and compared with those of controls. Embryonic death was significantly higher among treated animals. The results indicated that 35S can induced dominant lethal mutations in immature oocytes. (author)

1977-03-01

117

Deglacial 14C plateau suites recalibrated by Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record - Revised 14C reservoir ages from three ocean basins corroborate extreme surface water variations  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiocarbon (14C) reservoir/ventilation ages (?14C) provide unique insights into the dynamics of ocean water masses over LGM and deglacial times. The 14C plateau-tuning technique enables us to derive both an absolute chronology for marine sediment records and a high-resolution record of changing ?14C values for deglacial surface and deep waters (Sarnthein et al., 2007; AGU Monogr. 173, 175). We designate as 14C plateau a sediment section in the age-depth profile with several almost constant planktic 14C ages - variation less than ×100 to ×300 yr - which form a plateau-shaped scatter band that extends over ~5 to 50 and up to 200 cm in sediment cores with sedimentation rates of >10 cm/ky. Previously, a suite of >15 plateau boundary ages were calibrated to a joint reference record of U/Th-dated 14C time series measured on coral samples, the Cariaco sediment record, and speleothems (Fairbanks et al., 2005, QSR 24; Hughen et al., 2006, QSR 25; Beck et al., 2001, Science 292). We now used the varve-counted atmospheric 14C record of Lake Suigetsu (Ramsey et al., 2012, Science 338, 370) to recalibrate the boundary ages and average ages of 14C plateaus and apply the amended plateau-tuning technique to a dozen ?14C records from the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Main results are: (1) The Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record reflects all 14C plateaus, their internal structures and relative length previously identified, but implies a rise in the average plateau age by 700 yr at its end, and 2500 14C yr in stratified subpolar regions and upwelled waters such as in the South China Sea, values that differ significantly from a widely assumed constant planktic ?14C age of 400 yr. (3) Suites of deglacial planktic ?14C ages are closely reproducible in 14C records measured on neighbor core sites. (4) Apparent deep-water 14C ventilation ages (benthic ?14C), obtained from the sum of planktic ?14C and coeval benthic-planktic ?14C age differences, vary from an equivalent of <1000 to 5000 yr in LGM and deglacial ocean basins.

Sarnthein, M.; Balmer, S.; Grootes, P. M.

2013-12-01

118

Synthesis and affinity purification of. beta. -/sup 32/P-labeled (. gamma. -S)GTP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the synthesis and purification of guanosine 5'-(..gamma..-S)triphosphate labeled with /sup 32/P in the ..beta..-position is described. The first step in the synthesis involves the quantitative transfer of /sup 32/P/sub i/ from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)dATP to 5'-GMP catalyzed by GMP kinase. Further incubation of the (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GDP product with (..gamma..-S)GTP and nucleoside diphosphate kinase results in the synthesis of (..beta..-/sup 32/P)(..gamma..-S)GTP with a yield of 10 to 18%. The /sup 32/P-labeled (..gamma..-S)nucleotide is purified by binding to mercury-agarose and eluting with buffer containing ..beta..-mercaptoethanol. Specific incorporation of /sup 32/P into the ..beta..-position was demonstrated by treating (..beta..-/sup 32/P)(..gamma..-S)GTP with 7% formic acid to remove the ..gamma..-thiophosphate and digesting the remaining (..beta..-/sup 32/P)GDP with nucleotide pyrophosphatase. Although 5'-GMP was released after pyrophosphatase digestion, the only /sup 32/P radioactivity detected was as inorganic phosphate.

Reeve, A.E.; Huang, R.C.

1983-04-01

119

Bioconversion of. cap alpha. -(/sup 14/C)Zearalenol and. beta. -(/sup 14/C)Zearalenol into (/sup 14/C)Zearalenone by Fusarium roseum Gibbosum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cultures of Fusarium roseum Gibbosum on rice were treated with (/sup 14/C)zearalenone, ..cap alpha..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol, or ..beta..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the ..beta..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual ..beta..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol was detectable. Most of the ..cap alpha..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol added was also converted into zearalenone within 14 days. In cultures treated with (/sup 14/C)zearalenone, no radioactivity was noted in any other components.

Richardson, K.E.; Hagler, W.M. Jr.; Hamilton, P.B.

1984-06-01

120

Absorbed dose from "1"4C xylose and "1"4C mannose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tissue distribution and excretion studies have been performed in rats and mice for up to 1 week after oral administration of "1"4C xylose and "1"4C mannose. The effective dose-equivalent is calculated to be 15 ?Sv/MBq for xylose and 120 ?Sv/MBq for mannose. Since there was no clearance of mannose during the period of the study, the effective dose-equivalent for mannose is almost entirely dependent upon the assumptions made about expected lifetime exposure. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Preparation of 14C-labeled tuberculin purified protein derivative.  

Science.gov (United States)

(14)C-labeled tuberculin purified protein derivative ((14)C-tuberculin PPD) has been prepared from culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. hominis grown in a culture medium containing uniformly labeled (14)C-amino acids. With a mixture of (14)C-amino acids (an acid hydrolysate of (14)C-Chlorella protein) in the medium, the recoveries of (14)C in the final product were higher than with (14)C-labeled-l-glutamic acid. (14)C-tuberculin PPD was separated into tuberculoprotein and nucleic acid by paper electrophoresis. The specific radioactivity of tuberculoprotein was substantially greater than that of the nucleic acid. (14)C-tuberculin PPD is advocated as a means to measure the adsorption of tuberculin to glass or other surfaces. It could also prove useful as a means to study the structure and mode of action of tuberculin. PMID:4963445

Landi, S; Held, H R; Hauschild, A H; Hilsheimer, R

1967-07-01

122

'In vitro' determination of the rate of 32P uptake by erythrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ''in vitro'' methodology based on 32p uptake by erythrocytes was established as a potencial method for a phosphorus sub-clinical deficiency diagnosis in ruminant. Blood samples stored up to 48 hours were incubated with 32p at different periods and temperatures. There was no effect of storage time and the greatest 32p uptake values were obtained with incubation over 2 hours at 38 to 500C. (author)

1988-04-24

123

Pesticides labelled with 14C. Pt. 1: Synthesis of [6-14C]hexazinone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexazinone - a s-triazine type contact herbicides - was labelled with 14C for the investigation of metabolic pathways. A convenient synthesis was elaborated for labelling of the carbon atom in the 6 position of the triazine ring. The molar activity of Hexazinone was 797.0 MBq/mmole (21.54 mCi/mmole). (Author)

1995-09-01

124

Pesticides labelled with {sup 14}C. Pt. 1: Synthesis of [6-{sup 14}C]hexazinone  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hexazinone - a s-triazine type contact herbicides - was labelled with {sup 14}C for the investigation of metabolic pathways. A convenient synthesis was elaborated for labelling of the carbon atom in the 6 position of the triazine ring. The molar activity of Hexazinone was 797.0 MBq/mmole (21.54 mCi/mmole). (Author).

Koltai, Erno; Rutkai, Gyorgy; Kling, Ferenc [Institute of Isotopes Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary)

1995-09-01

125

Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to ?-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring ?-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, ?-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or ?-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

1996-02-01

126

Parathyroid hormone-induced phosphate excretion following preequilibration with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates a secretory component of avian renal inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) transport, but the secreted P/sub i/ does not appear to be derived directly from peritubular (plasma) P/sub i/. In the present study, experiments were conducted to determine whether differences in parathyroid status during 32P infusion influenced entry of the isotope into the P/sub i/ secretory pool. Fractional excretion values for P/sub i/ (FE/sub P//sub i/ and 32P (FE/sub 32P/) were compared in normal and parathyroidectomized (PTX) anesthetized birds that had been preinfused with 32P for 0, 90, and 240 min before PTH infusion. The results demonstrate that in the absence of exogenous PTH, FE/sub P//sub i/ is identical to FE/sub 32P/ in normal and PTX birds, reflecting full equilibration of FE32P with excreted P/sub i/ under these conditions; and, regardless of the duration of 32P preequilibration or the parathyroid status of the experimental animals, exogenous PTH always causes FE/sub p//sub i/ to exceed FE/sub 32P/. It is concluded that the P/sub i/ secretory pool is inaccessible to 32P under conditions that should markedly alter cellular P/sub i/ influx and efflux

1984-01-01

127

The "3"2P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Why the "3"2P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of "3"2P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of "3"2P, are mentioned. A review of the "3"2P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the "3"2P test was performed in this study is described. The "3"2P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the "3"2P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the "3"2P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The "3"2P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

1978-01-01

128

Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

1984-01-01

129

Formation of _1_4C-asparagine from _1_4C-precursor in mulberry leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of _1_4C-asparagine from _1_4C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. _1_4C-aspartic acid and _1_4C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and _1_4C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although _1_4C-succinic acid was actively converted to _1_4C-asparagine, no significant amount of _1_4C-asparagine was formed from _1_4C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of _1_4C-asparagine from _1_4C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired _1_4C from _1_4C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ?-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before _1_4C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of _1_4C-asparagine from _1_4C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of _1_4C-asparagine formation from _1_4C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves. (author)

1981-01-01

130

Decomposition of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine in soils; immobilization in soils and uptake by plants of these 14C herbicides and their residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of phenmedipham and atrazine occured by biological way. The mineralisation of phenmediphame started by a dealkylation followed by a cleavage of the aromatic ring disposed between the two carbamoyl linkages and finished by a very weak degradation of the second benzenic ring. The percentage of mineralisation was always more important when lower levels of herbicides were applied. Free phenmedipham and atrazine were still detected after one year incubation. Adsorption on soil constituents of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues was partially biological; that of 14C atrazine and its 14C residues was solely chemical. The complexation was less strong when higher levels of pesticides were applied. Aerian parts as well as radicular systems of wheat, oat and maize sown on soils incubated during one year in presence of 10 and 100 ppm of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine were radioactive

1979-01-01

131

Transformation of the herbicide [14C]glufosinate in soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of 2 ?g/g [14C]glufosinate (DL-homoalan-4-ylmethylphosphinic acid) was studied in clay, clay loam, and sandy loam soils at 85% field capacity and at 20 degree C. Over a 4-week period the soils were extracted and analyzed for transformation products by radiochemical and gas chromatographic techniques. In all soils there was release of [14C]carbon dioxide and formation of [14C]-3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPPA) as major degradation products. Within 21 days, about 55% of the applied 14C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the sandy loam and 19% to [14C]carbon dioxide. After 28 days, approximately 45% of the 14C herbicide had been transformed to MPPA in the clay and clay loam and 10% released as [14C]carbon dioxide. At all samplings, other 14C transformation products appeared to be insignificant

1989-01-01

132

Enzymatic synthesis of [ribose-U-14C]8-azaguanosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

8-Azaguanosine 14C-labeled in the ribose moiety was enzymatically synthesized in two steps: 1) phosphorolytic cleavage of [U-14C]inosine to yield [U-14C]ribose-1-phosphate; 2) synthesis of 8-azaguanosine from [U-14C]ribose-1-phosphate and 8-azaguanine catalyzed by purine nucleoside phosphorylase. The radiochemical yield was 70%, and contaminants were present in the isolated radioactive nucleoside analog, as judged by HPLC analysis. (Author)

1989-05-01

133

S-adenosyl-L-(l-14C)-homocysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

S-Adenosyl-L-(1-14C)-homocysteine was prepared from commercially available L-(1-14C)-methionine by conversion first to S-benzyl-L-(1-14C)-homocysteine which upon treatment with sodium in liquid ammonia gave the disodium salt of L-(1-14C)-homocysteine. Reaction of this sodium salt with 5'-O-tosyladenosine gave the title compound. (author)

1987-01-01

134

S-adenosyl-L-(l-/sup 14/C)-homocysteine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

S-Adenosyl-L-(1-/sup 14/C)-homocysteine was prepared from commercially available L-(1-/sup 14/C)-methionine by conversion first to S-benzyl-L-(1-/sup 14/C)-homocysteine which upon treatment with sodium in liquid ammonia gave the disodium salt of L-(1-/sup 14/C)-homocysteine. Reaction of this sodium salt with 5'-O-tosyladenosine gave the title compound.

Thomas, H.J.; Montgomery, J.A.

1987-12-01

135

An easy enzymatic method for [14 C]trehalose preparation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An easy and practical method for [14 C]trehalose preparation is described. By incubating [14 C]glucose, ?-glucose-1-phosphate and trehalose phosphorylase from Euglena gracilis the disaccharide was obtained with a yield ranging from 33% to 75% depending on the specific activity of the [14 C]glucose utilized. Trehalose was purified by paper chromatography. (author)

1993-01-01

136

Synthesis of (carbonyl- sup 14 C)Hexopal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A synthetic procedure for producing the vasodilator (carbonyl-{sup 14}C)Hexopal (mesoinositol (carbonyl-{sup 14}C)nicotinate), is described. The synthesis is achieved in two steps using (carbonyl-{sup 14}C)nicotinic acid as the source of the radiolabel with an overall chemical yield of 75% and a radiochemical yield of 67%. (author).

Johnston, D.; Elder, D. (Sterling-Winthrop Research Centre, Alnwick (UK))

1989-01-01

137

Absorption of "3"2P-phosphate and photosynthetic "1"4CO_2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of "3"2P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO_2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of "1"4C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main "1"4C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

1985-01-01

138

Clinical observation of 5686 cases of infant hemangioma treated by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the therapeutic method of treating infant hemangioma by radioisotopes 32P. Methods: Simple hemangiomata were treated by 32P dermal application method. The authors prepared 32P at the activity of 165.98 kBq/cm2/h, diluted it with 2 ml water, and then dropped it on filter paper. The authors applied the paper to the impaired site according to the shape and the size of hemangioma. The impaired site received 32P radiation at the dosage of 9.41 Gy/cm2 each time. The treatment was repeated once every month. Cavernous hemangiomata were treated by local injections of colloid 32P at the dosage of 370 kBq/cm3 once every 2-3 months. Mixed hemangiomata received combined treatment mentioned above. Results: 3383 cases (99.0%) of simple hemangioma were cured by 32P dermal application method. 1241 case (98.7%) of cavernous hemangioma were cured. 397 cases (83.0%) of mixed hemangioma were cured. 534 cases (98.1%) of naevus flammeus were improved by 32P application method. The total effective rate was 99.8%. The cure rate was 88.3%. Conclusion: Treating hemangioma with 32P is satisfactory for its high efficiency and low toxicity. It may be advisable for infant skin disease

2002-06-01

139

Determination of a calibration factor for the nondestructive assay of Guidant 32P brachytherapy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A calibration factor ('dial setting') for the nondestructive assay of Guidant TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy wire sources has been determined for measurements with the Capintec CRC-12 (sic. 'dose calibrator') ionization chamber. The calibration factor was derived from ionization current measurements with the CRC-12 followed by very quantitative, destructive assays of the 32P content in two sources

1999-05-01

140

Investigation of DNA styrene oxide adducts by 32P-postlabelling in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro reaction of DNA with styrene-7,8-oxide (styrene oxide) produced five adducts, as determined by 32P-postlabelling. Chromatographic comarison of the adducts formed in DNA with those formed with the deoxyribonucleotides suggests that deoxyguansoien is the primary site of DNA modification. 32P-postlabelling can be used to investigate DNA adducts formed by styrene oxide

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

1989-01-01

142

Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

1989-01-01

143

14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave  

Science.gov (United States)

The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

Lee, J. H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J. C.; Choi, S. H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y. M.; Jang, J. G.

2013-01-01

144

14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

2013-01-01

145

{sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-15

146

Radiolabelling of humic substances with 14C by azo coupling [14C]phenyldiazonium ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the first time, natural and synthetic humic substances were radiolabelled by azo coupling [U-14C]phenyldiazonium ions onto the aromatic fragments of their macromolecules under mild reaction conditions. The radiolabelling procedure was optimized with respect to pH, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of the humic substance to the labelling compound. The labelled humic substances were purified by precipitation or ultrafiltration. The chemical yields were in the range between 23% and 95%, and the specific radioactivities varied between 68 and 206 MBq 14C per gram of the humic substance, depending on the origin of the humic substance and the purification method. With the 14C-labelled humic compounds thus obtained, we were able to detect humic substances at concentrations as low as 5 ?g/L. These radiolabelled compounds can be used in long-term studies because, according to size exclusion chromatography data, there are no signs of their decomposition even after 5 months of storage

2007-07-01

147

Disposition of 14C-acetohydroxamic acid and 14C-acetamide in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been identified as a potential agent for the treatment of infection-induced staghorn renal calculi in patients. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of 14C-acetamide have been evaluated in rats following iv and oral administration. The results of these experiments suggest that, following oral administration to rats, AHA is absorbed very rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and is metabolized to acetamide and CO2. Approximately 50-56% of the iv dose and 40-49% of the oral dose of 14C-AHA is excreted in the urine, suggesting a significant nonrenal elimination pathway for AHA and metabolite(s). Administration of 14C-acetamide to rats revealed that the compound is predominantly eliminated via the renal route, accounting for 68% of the administered radioactive dose. However, approximately 30% of the dose in the case of both AHA and acetamide could not be recovered, either in the urine or in the breath, during the 72-hr period of the experiment. This suggests that acetamide, may undergo further metabolism to get incorporated into the acetate pool. This would result in very slow elimination of the remaining activity as 14CO2 or as another unknown metabolite

1984-01-01

148

Radiocarbon (14C) migration and metabolism kinetics (a review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on 14C migration and kinetics. Radiocarbon metabolism kinetics depends on the form of the chemical compound metabolized. Inorganic 14C compounds are metabolized relatively quickly. Organic 14C compounds (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) are retained longer in the body. The differences in the metabolism kinetics of different 14C compounds lead to different radiation doses in various organs and tissues. In establishing standards for permissible 14C intake the kind of chemical compound in which the element is incorporated should be taken into consideration. (author)

1979-01-01

149

Elastic and inelastic scattering of 14C + 18O versus 12, 13C + 18O and 14C + 16O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The angular distributions of the 14C + 18O elastic and inelastic scattering at the energy Elab(18O) = 105 MeV were measured firstly. The data were analyzed within the optical model and the coupled-reaction-channels method. The parameters of the 14C + 18O optical potential were deduced. The contributions of one- and two-step transfers of nucleons and clusters in the 14C + 18O elastic and inelastic scattering were calculated. The isotopic differences between the 14C + 18O and 12, 13, 14C + 18O potentials were studied. (orig.)

2011-04-01

150

Detection of 32P and 54Mn in dual labelled samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibilities of using Cerenkov effect and gama-spectrometry techniques for detection of 32P (pure beta emitter) and 54Mn (eletron capture with gama-ray emission), respectively, in aqueous dual labelled samples is presented. With the use of pulse height discrimination and in the absence of colour quenching, mutual interference are minimal and the detection efficiency is of the order of 17%, both for 32P and 54Mn. The use of this technique is promising in studies where 32P and 54Mn are jointly used in biological research

1979-01-01

151

A simple synthesis of L-["3"5S]cysteine sulfinic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of L-["3"5S]cysteine sulfinic acid (L-2-amino-3-["3"5S]sulfino-propanoic acid) in 65% yield from S-["3"5S]cystine is described. The procedure was designed for use with milligram quantities of starting material and requires no purification of intermediates. L-["3"5S]Cystine was converted first to its thiosulfonate. Subsequent reaction of the thiosulfonate with ammonium hydroxide generated L-["3"5S]cysteine sulfinic acid and L-["3"5S]cystine as the major products. The L-["3"5S]cystine was recovered and reprocessed thereby increasing the yield. (author)

1981-01-01

152

Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

1984-01-01

153

Synthesis of sup 14 C labelled acrylic derivatives: diethyl (3- sup 14 C) methylidenemalonate and isobutyl (3- sup 14 C) cyanoacrylate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isobutyl (3-{sup 14}C) cyanoacrylate and diethyl (3-{sup 14}C) methylidenemalonate were synthesized by the intermediate of their protective Diels-Alder adduct with anthracene. These adducts were obtained in a one-pot procedure by Knoevenagel condensation of ({sup 14}C) paraformaldehyde with isobutyl cyanoacetate and diethyl malonate respectively in the presence of a basic catalyst and anthracene. The adducts are stable crystalline compounds easily purified by recrystallization. The olefinic target compounds were obtained in high chemical and radiochemical purity (>99%) by thermolysis at 220{sup 0}C in mineral oil in the presence of maleic anhydride. (author).

De Keyser, J.-L.; De Cock, C.J.C.; Poupaert, J.H.; Dumont, Pierre (Louvain Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry)

1989-08-01

154

Behaviour of 14C-sulfadiazine and 14C-difloxacin during manure storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The persistence of sulfadiazine, difloxacin, and their metabolites has been investigated in stored manure. The manure collected from sulfadiazine (14C-SDZ) and difloxacin (14C-DIF) treated pigs contained N-acetylsulfadiazine (Ac-SDZ), 4-hydroxy-SDZ (4-OH-SDZ), and sarafloxacin (SARA) as the main metabolites, respectively along with their parent compounds. Manures were stored separately at 10 oC and 20 oC at various moisture levels. About 96-99% of the radioactivity remained in extractable parent compounds and their metabolites after 150 d of storage. The formation of non-extractable residue and the rate of mineralization were both negligible in manure containing SDZ and DIF. During storage SDZ concentration increased as a result of the deacetylation of Ac-SDZ, whose concentration decreased proportionally. Hence the environmental effects may be underestimated if the parent compound alone is considered for environmental risk assessment. About 11% and 14% of 4-OH-SDZ were lost after 20 and 40 d of storage; thereafter its concentration increased relatively, highlighting hydroxylation of SDZ. DIF degraded very slowly (7% loss after 150 d) during the storage of manure; in contrast the concentration of SARA decreased rapidly (72-90% loss after 150 d). Dilution of manure and storage at higher temperatures for a reasonable period of time enhanced the rate of reactions of SDZ, DIF and their related metabolites.

2010-03-01

155

14C Carbofuran residue in rice-fish ecosystem model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14-C-carbofuran in the form of 14-C-Furada 3G was applied with doses of 0, 2, and 4 g/m2 to a rice-fish ecosystem model consisting of water, soil, rice, plant, and fish (Cyprinus carpio) in tanks of the size 1 m length, 1 m width, and 0.5 m depth. 14-C-carbofuran was released from 14-C-Furadan 3G, entered into the water, absorbed by plant root, and then distributed into the whole plant. A part of the 14-C-carbofuran was absorbed and retained by soil. In both doses of 4 and 2 g/m2, the 14-C-Furadan 3G was toxic to Cyprinus carpio under this experiment condition. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

1986-12-16

156

The transfer of different forms of {sup 35}S to goat milk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of {sup 35}S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received {sup 35}S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of {sup 35}S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of {sup 35}S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for {sup 35}S administered as methionine compared with {sup 35}S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of {sup 35}S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of {sup 35}S to milk of a further group of goats receiving {sup 35}S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed.

Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Mayes, R.W.; Lamb, C.S. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15

157

The study of isotopic labelling of dithiocarbamates and dithiophosphates by 35 S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies have been carried out on organic compounds which contain sulphur atoms in their molecule and belong to the group of dithiocarbamates and dithiophosphates, having in view the labelling with 35 S radioisotope. Depending on the working conditions and reaction yields, the labelling with 35 S isotope, was done in two ways: through organic synthesis of reaction intermediate products by using of C 35 S2 or P2 35 S5 or 35 S and through isotopic exchange. The 35 S radioisotope is important due to its applications in the field of organic compound labelling. Among its characteristics: the half time is 87 days, the maximum energy of beta radiation is 0.167 MeV and it is a pure beta transmitter. This work had as purpose: a) synthesizing and labelling of organic compounds from dithiocarbamates and dithiophosphates group by 35 S; b) radiochemical characterization of labelled compounds. The activity measurements were carried out with a 3385 Tricarb-Packard spectrometer, based on liquid scintillators. At the same time, we studied the 35 S labelling technique of these compounds. The organic syntheses used in the process of labelling of these organic compounds, have the advantage to obtain a structure with a definite position of radioactive labelling (of 35 S atom). (authors)

1999-01-01

158

Uptake and distribution of 32P in the budded and self-rooted grape varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the self-rooted and budded varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the total P and 32P contents were high in 'Anabee-Shahi', but low in in 'Muscat'. The growing shoots contained more P than old stems and roots in all the varieties. In the budded plants, 'Kali Sahebi' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shani showed the maximum 32P and total P in the shoots, but 'Muscat' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shahi' accumulated more P in the roots and very low 32P in the growing shoots. Auto-radiographs of shoots also showed that 'Kali Sahebi' budded on 'Anab-e-Shani' rootstock accumulated more 32P in the shoots. (author)

1974-06-01

159

Standardization of 32P/33P and 204Tl by liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two solutions, one of 32P with a significant contribution of 33P, and another one of 204Tl were standardized by liquid scintillation counting in the frame of two intercomparison exercises organized by the BIPM in 2002. For the 32P solution, the counting efficiencies for 32P and 33P were obtained by the CIEMAT/NIST method. The individual contributions of 32P and 33P were determined by fitting a set of measurements to a function of the half-lives and counting efficiencies of both component nuclides. 204Tl was also standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method using two counters, three scintillators, HiSafe 3, Insta-Gel Plus and Ultima-Gold, and two different kinds of samples. A total of 480 samples were measured over 45 days with results in full agreement within the uncertainties considered. The efficiency values are also compared to those used in the previous 204Tl intercomparison (1997)

2004-01-01

160

Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using _3_2P radioisotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels _3_2P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. _3_2P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of _3_2P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). _3_2P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

1981-06-11

 
 
 
 
161

Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

1984-04-01

162

32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

1978-01-01

163

Two-three steps syntheses of [{sup 14}C-ring]o-xylene, [{sup 14}C-ring]o-toluic acid; [{sup 14}C-ring]-phthalic acid from [{sup 14}C] barium carbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cocyclotrimerisation of [{sup 14}C{sub 2}] acetylene with 2-butyne gave [3,4,5,6-{sup 14}C{sub 4}] ortho-xylene (50 %) overall yield based on [{sup 14}C] BaCO{sub 3}. 93 % Nitric acid oxidation at 145 {sup o}C for 55 hours of the crude [3,4,5,6-{sup 14}C{sub 4}] ortho-xylene gave [3,4,5,6-{sup 14}C{sub 4}] ortho-toluic acid (25 % overall yield based on [{sup 14}C] BaCO{sub 3}). Under the same set of reaction conditions but in a sealed tube the crude [3,4,5,6-{sup 14}C{sub 4}] ortho-xylene gave [3,4,5,6-{sup 14}C{sub 4}] phthalic acid (50 % overall yield based on [{sup 14}C] BaCO{sub 3}) (specific activity 1.6 GBq.mmol{sup -1}). (author).

Suzzoni, S. de; Noel, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service des Molecules Marquees

1994-12-01

164

The preparation of "1"4C-chlorophenamidine-base  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of preparation of "1"4C-chlorophenamidine-base is described in this paper. The intermediates "1"4C-formic acid(I) and ["1"4C]-N_1N-dimethylformamide(II) were synthesized from "1"4C-barium carbonate, then the proposed compound was obtained when (II) was treated with P-chloro-O-methyl-aniline. Its radiochemical recovery rate was 41.5% (based on Ba "1"4CO_3) and specific activity was 2.85-6.4 mCi/g. The product was suitable for tracer studies

1986-01-01

165

Distribution of 14C-labelled carbofuran in soil samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation was done to determine the absorption of 14-C-carbofura in four soil samples, namely aluvial (Bekasi, Pulogadung, Bali), latosol (Gambung-West Java), and podzolik (Sukamandi). The constant of distribution of 14-C-carbofuran in soil-water system was measured after shaking the system for: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours. By counting the 14-C-carbofuran in water fraction, the 14-C-carbofuran absorbed by soil could be determined. The results showed that equilibrium was reached after 1 hour shaking. Soil containing higher organic matter absorbed more carbofuran. (authors). 5 refs, 1 fig, 2 tab

1986-12-16

166

Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mineralization of 14C-carbofuran (2,3 dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-methylcarbamate) to 14CO2 as well as the formation of extractable and bound 14C-residues in clay loam soil were investigated under laboratory conditions. The 14C-carbofuran rapidly mineralized to 14CO2 and, after 20 days of incubation, 35.6% of the applied 14C was lost as 14CO2. The steady decrease of extractable 14C-residues was accomplished by a corresponding increase of bound 14C-residues over a 20-day incubation period. At the end of the experiment, the extractable and bound 14C-residues amounted to 7% and 59%, respectively, of applied radiocarbon. The soil containing bound 14C-residues was fractionated into humic substances. The humic acid, fulvic acid and humin fractions contained 22.39%, 26.04% and 17.56%, respectively, of the applied radiocarbon. The amount of 14C in microbial biomass was 15%. (author)

1985-03-25

167

"1"4C emission fine structure by Radium isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First works have shown the fine structure in the "1"4C spectra emitted by "2"2"3Ra and have confirmed the similitude between this emission and ? emission. In this thesis, the author has measured the "1"4C energy spectra emitted by "2"2"2Ra even-even nucleus. In all these experiments, the number of detected carbon has been more important that in the experiment of discovery of these radioactivities. The author states precisely the "1"4C/? branching ratios and the "1"4C emission decay for the two studied isotopes

1991-01-01

168

Incorporation of 14C in chemical constituents of algal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two marine algal species Dunaliella premodecta, Chlamydemonas sp. and one fresh water species Scenedesmus obliquus were studied for 14C incorporation under laboratory conditions. The uptake of 14C in dry marine algal species was found to be more compared to that in fresh water species for the same initial concentration in the respective media. A sequential extraction technique was employed to study the distribution of 14C in different organic constituents. 14C fixation was found to be more in fatty acid fractions followed by protein and nucleoprotein fraction. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

169

Accumulation and elimination of radioactive phosphorus (32P) in some organs of the Tilapia Nilotica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of accumulation and elimination of 32P was measured in five organs, i.e., brain, bone, heart, muscle and small intestines of the Tilapia nilotica at 190C or 280C. There was a faster rate of uptake at 280C, with the small intestines having the highest concentration of radioactive material. Elimination rates, however, indicate that bone retains 32P longest. (Auth.). 10 refs.; 2 figs

1989-01-01

170

Determination of a calibration factor for the nondestructive assay of Guidant {sup 32}P brachytherapy sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A calibration factor ('dial setting') for the nondestructive assay of Guidant TiNi-encapsulated {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy wire sources has been determined for measurements with the Capintec CRC-12 (sic. 'dose calibrator') ionization chamber. The calibration factor was derived from ionization current measurements with the CRC-12 followed by very quantitative, destructive assays of the {sup 32}P content in two sources.

Colle, R.; Zimmerman, B.E.; Soares, C.G.; Coursey, B.M

1999-05-01

171

Synthesis of /sup 14/C-propoxur (o-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate-/sup 14/C) insecticide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

/sup 14/C-propoxur (Baygonsub(circled R)) is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and a very low order of mammalian toxicity. Radiosynthesis of propoxur was performed by the reaction of acetyl-1-/sup 14/C chloride and sodium azide to produce methyl isocyanate which then reacted with o-isopropoxyphenol at 100 degC. A two-compartment reaction tube with a break seal was utilized. Chromatograhic procedures for isolating the N-methylcarbamates from their reaction mixtures are reported. Acetyl-1-/sup 14/C chloride was prepared from thionyl chloride and sodium acetate-1-/sup 14/C. Grignard reaction between methyl iodide and carbon-14 dioxide yielded acetic acid-/sup 14/C which was neutralized by sodium hydroxide solution to give sodium acetate-1-/sup 14/C. 9 refs.

Hossaini, M.A.; Zareh, Z. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

1984-08-01

172

Bound 14C residues in stored wheat treated with [14C]deltamethrin and their bioavailability in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat grains treated with radiolabeled deltamethrin [(S)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] and stored in the laboratory for 168 days formed bound (nonextractable) 14C residues. The amount of bound 14C residues formed was about 11% of the total 14C in stored grain. Br2CA [3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid] and 3-PBacid (3-phenoxybenzoic acid) were present in the form of bound 14C residues in addition to some radiolabeled product of unknown composition. The stored wheat containing bound 14C was fed to rats. The 14C residues were excreted in urine and feces in nearly equal proportion. The 14C residues identified in urine were Br2CA, 3-PBacid, and conjugated compounds of 4'-OH-3-PBacid [3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid]. Most of the 14C residues excreted in feces were extractable with methanol. Trace amounts of 14C residues were also present in lungs, kidney, and liver. The results suggest that bound residues in stored wheat treated with deltamethrin when fed to rats are highly bioavailable

1990-01-01

173

Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

1988-01-01

174

Assimilation and utilization of 14C assimilates in chickpeas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Translocation, distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in two genotypes of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) during winter of 1974-75 and 1975-76. Plants were allowed to assimilate CO214 at pre-flowering, flowering and initial pod filling stages, and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During vegetative phase, most of 14C was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissues. Sixty three days after assimilation pod accumulated about 7 percent 14C while nodules gained only 1.7 percent in 'Pant G-104'. Similar pattern was observed in case of variety 'K-4'. During reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was linearly translocated from leaves to other plant parts with time. Since stem was actively growing it accumulated a major portion of carbon. Pod also accumulated 14C linearly as time after assimilation elapsed. Respiratory losses during one week after exposure were about 30 percent in both varieties. Photosynthate within a branch was translocated readily, while movement from one branch to another was restricted. Leaf at axial of pod was major source of photosynthate to pod. (author)

1978-06-01

175

Synthesis and characterization of [sup 14]C polyvinylphosphonic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten mCi of [sup 14]C ethylene was converted to 1.16 mCi of [sup 14]C PVPA by oxidative phosphonation with phosphorus trichloride and molecular oxygen, dehydrohalogenation with triethylamine in ether, polymerization, and hydrolysis. The polymer had a specific activity of 12 uCi/mg and a radiochemical purity over 99%. (Author).

Stringer, O.D.; Charig, A. (Colgate-Palmolive Co., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Research and Development Div.)

1989-06-01

176

Determination of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleic acid specific radioactivity in small tissue samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rate determination of protein synthesis utilizing tracer amino acid incorporation requires accurate assessment of the specific radioactivity of the labeled precursor aminoacyl-tRNA pool. Previously published methods presumably useful for the measurement of any aminoacyl-tRNA were unsuccessful when applied to (/sup 35/S)methionine, due to the unique chemical properties of this amino acid. Herein we describe modifications of these methods necessary for the measurement of /sup 35/S-aminoacyl-tRNA specific radioactivity from small tissue samples incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S)methionine. The use of (/sup 35/S)methionine of high specific radioactivity enables analysis of the methionyl-tRNA from less than 100 mg of tissue. Conditions for optimal recovery of /sup 35/S-labeled dansyl-amino acid derivatives are presented and possible applications of this method are discussed.

Samarel, A.M.; Ogunro, E.A.; Ferguson, A.G.; Lesch, M.

1981-11-15

177

Rectal absorption of homatropine [14C] methylbromide in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Homatropine [14C]methylbromide (HMB-14C) was administered to rats by intramuscular injection, oral gavage and rectal suppository. Plasma concentrations of 14C were measured over the subsequent 12 h. Peak plasma concentrations were higher and achieved more rapidly after rectal administration than by other routes whether HMB-14C was administered in a water-soluble suppository base or in aqueous solution. Twelve h after the suppositories were inserted and retained 28% of the 14C had been excreted in the urine while 56% remained in the large intestine. Unlabelled HMB, given in rectal suppositories to anaesthetized rats, caused prompt blockade of the effects of vagal stimulation on pulse rate and of intravenous acetylcholine on blood pressure. These results confirm the rapid rectal absorption of the drug. (author)

1978-01-01

178

Decay of sup 226 Ra by sup 14 C emission  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous observation of heavy-ion emission from {sup 226}Ra has been confirmed. Charge and energy of the emitted fragment were measured using thin {sup 226}Ra sources and polycarbonate track-recording films. Decay by {sup 14}C emission could be identified unambiguously. The track-detector was calibrated with tandem-accelerated {sup 14}C and {sup 16}O ions and tested by observing the {sup 14}C emission from {sup 223}Ra yielding a branching ratio of (5.0{plus minus}1.0){times}10{sup {minus}10}. In the case of {sup 226}Ra our result for the {sup 14}C/{alpha} ratio is (2.3{plus minus}0.8){times}10{sup {minus}11}. Estimates of partial half-lives of Ra isotopes for {sup 14}C emission are discussed.

Weselka, D.; Hille, P.; Chalupka, A. (Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Vienna, Austria (AT))

1990-02-01

179

On the 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate  

CERN Multimedia

The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at temperatures below 0.3 GK depends on the properties of two near threshold resonances in 18O, the 1- at 6.198 MeV and the 3- at 6.404 MeV. The alpha+14C Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for these resonances were determined using the alpha-transfer reactions 14C(7Li,t) and 14C(6Li,d) at sub-Coulomb energies. The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at low temperatures has been evaluated. Implications of the new reaction rate on the evolution of accreting helium white dwarfs and on the nucleosynthesis of low mass stars during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase are discussed.

Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J; Miller, L; Kemper, K W

2009-01-01

180

Synthesis of 14C-labelled 2-aminopyridine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2-Aminopyridine is a versatile building block in the preparation of certain heterocycles such as imidazo[1,2-a]-pyridines, pyrido[1,2-a]-pyrimidin-ones and substituted derivatives. 14C-labelled 2-aminopyridine was synthesized as follows: potassium-[14C]cyanide was reacted with epichlorohydrin to give 3-hydroxy-[1,5-14C2]glutaronitrile. The latter was cyclized to 2-amino-6-bromo-[2,6-14C2]pyridine (IV) which was then reductively dehalogenated to the 2,6-14C2-labelled title compound in 36 % overall chemical and radiochemical yield, based upon I. The product was radiochemically pure (99.1 %) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, and had a specific activity of 9.06 mCi/mmol. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labelled 2-aminopyridine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2-Aminopyridine is a versatile building block in the preparation of certain heterocycles such as imidazo(1,2-a)-pyridines, pyrido(1,2-a)-pyrimidin-ones and substituted derivatives. /sup 14/C-labelled 2-aminopyridine was synthesized as follows: potassium-(/sup 14/C)cyanide was reacted with epichlorohydrin to give 3-hydroxy-(1,5-/sup 14/C/sub 2/)glutaronitrile. The latter was cyclized to 2-amino-6-bromo-(2,6-/sup 14/C/sub 2/)pyridine (IV) which was then reductively dehalogenated to the 2,6-/sup 14/C/sub 2/-labelled title compound in 36 % overall chemical and radiochemical yield, based upon I. The product was radiochemically pure (99.1 %) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, and had a specific activity of 9.06 mCi/mmol.

Lenoir, H.A.C.; Janssen, C.G.M.

1987-02-01

182

A new estimate of atmospheric 14C discharges from Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UNSCEAR has estimated that 14C discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield are responsible for about a quarter of the total global release of this radiologically important radionuclide. Reported discharges from the site have been based on direct monitoring of the effluent since 1978. Prior to that date, however, discharges have been estimated from the measurement of 14C levels in the annual growth rings of a locally grown tree. In the present study, discharges prior to 1978 have been re-calculated based on new measurements of 14C levels in tree rings. The results indicate that 14C discharges from Sellafield prior to 1978 were significantly lower than previously thought, 124 TBq as opposed to 207 TBq. The total release of 14C to the atmosphere from this site from the start of operations up to 1995 is now estimated to have been 244 TBq. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1998-10-01

183

Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

1985-01-01

184

Cosmogenic 35S measurements in the Tibetan Plateau to quantify glacier snowmelt  

Science.gov (United States)

cosmogenic radionuclide 35S (t1/2 ~ 87 days) is a unique tracer for high-altitude air mass and has been used extensively to understand stratospheric air mass mixing. In this paper, we investigate if 35S can be utilized as an independent tracer to quantify glacier melt. We report the first measurements of 35S in samples collected from the Tibetan Plateau during 2009-2012 with an aim to interpret 35S in atmospheric particles and their deposition over glacier and snowmelts. Our measurements show that 35S activity in the aerosol phase varies from 116 ± 13 to 2229 ± 52 atoms/m3 resulting in higher values during winter-spring and lower values during summer-autumn. This seasonality is likely due to higher mixing of 35S-rich stratospheric air masses during winter-spring and 35S-poor air masses from the Bay of Bengal during the Asian summer monsoon. The average 35S activity in the Zhadang glacier was found to be 3-8 times higher relative to the nearby lake water. The main source of 35S activity in the Zhadang glacier is atmospheric deposition, whereas both atmospheric deposition and glacier snowmelt are the primary sources in the Nam Co Lake. The focus of this study is to quantitatively determine the spatial and temporal variations in glacier snowmelt. In the future, extensive sampling of aerosols and snow is required for determining 35S in combination with stable oxygen isotopes in sulfate to better understand the glacier melt process and hydrological cycle on the Tibetan Plateau.

Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark; Zhang, Zhisheng; Lin, Mang; Chan, Chuen-yu; Kang, Shichang

2014-04-01

185

Myo-inositol-"1"4C, phytic acid-"1"4C and ferric phytate-"1"4C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The myo-inositol-"1"4C, phytic acid-"1"4C and ferric phytate-"1"4C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at "1"4CO_2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-"1"4C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-"1"4C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

1977-01-01

186

Lung retention of inhaled 14C-BaP and 14C-NP when adsorbed on carbon particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of particle association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on their retention in the respiratory tract. Vaporization and condensation of premixed powders dispersed from a Wright dust feeder were used to produce submicron aerosols of 2% (by mass) 14C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or 2% 14C-nitropyrene adsorbed on carbon black (CB). There was close correspondence of the particle size distributions of the 14C radiolabel, specific for the organic compounds, and the total mass, representative primarily of the carbon black particles. Following 2 h nose only exposure of rats to these aerosols, lung retention of 14C was biphasic. Percentages in the long-term retention component (1.2% for 14C-BaP-CB and 3.7% for 14CC-NP-CB) were much greater than those previously measured for aerosols of the organic compounds alone (0.014% for 14C-BaP and 0.065% for 14C-NP). The amount of 14C covalently bound to lung macromolecules (as a percentage of inhaled activity) were also much greater for the BaP-CB and NP-CB than for the pure compounds. These data suggest that adsorption of BaP and NP on carbon black enhances interactions with target molecules. 4 references, 4 figures, 1 table

1986-12-01

187

Synthesis, characterization, and 32P-postlabeling of N-(deoxyguanosin)-4-aminobiphenyl 3'-phosphate adducts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The (32)P-postlabeling assay is an extremely sensitive technique for detecting carcinogen-DNA adducts. However, for the assignment of DNA adduct structures and the accurate determination of DNA adduct levels by (32)P-postlabeling, authentic adduct standards are needed. For most (32)P-postlabeling applications, such verified synthetic standard compounds are required in the form of their deoxynucleoside 3'-phosphates because they represent substrates for the polynucleotide kinase for transfer of [(32)P]phosphate from [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Three N-(deoxyguanosin)-4-aminobiphenyl 3'-phosphate adducts were prepared and fully characterized by (1)H NMR and mass spectroscopy to serve as standards for the (32)P-postlabeling assay. Apart from the C8- and the N(2)-deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate adducts of the mutagenic human bladder carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (dG3'p-C8-4-ABP and dG3'p-N(2)-4-ABP), the C8-deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate adduct of the nonmutagenic 4'-tert-butyl-4-aminobiphenyl (dG3'p-C8-4'tBu-4-ABP) was included in the study. Both C8-deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate adducts were prepared by the in situ formation of deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate and its subsequent reaction with the appropriate electrophilic amination agent (N-acetoxy compound). The N(2)-deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate adduct was obtained by a modification of a previously described procedure for the synthesis of N(2)-deoxyguanosine adducts of aromatic amines. The three adduct standards were added at different concentrations to calf thymus DNA, and adduct recoveries were determined by the (32)P-postlabeling assay under conditions routinely used in the standard methodology, enhancement by nuclease P1 digestion and enhancement by butanol extraction. The dG3'p-C8-4-ABP adduct was recovered irrespective of the concentration with approximately 30% in both the standard and the butanol extraction version of the assay. Both C8-deoxyguanosine 3'-phosphate adducts were sensitive to nuclease P1 digestion resulting in recoveries of only 1-3%. In contrast, the dG3'p-N(2)-4-ABP adduct was resistant to nuclease P1 digestion; however, recovery in all three versions was poor (1-2%) resulting in a detection limit of one adduct/10(6) nucleotides. These results demonstrate that the (32)P-postlabeling assay underestimates the level of DNA adducts formed by 4-ABP and indicates that there is a need to determine the recovery for each adduct to be analyzed by the (32)P-postlabeling technique. PMID:15206898

Haack, Torsten; Boche, Gernot; Kliem, Christian; Wiessler, Manfred; Albert, Dieter; Schmeiser, Heinz H

2004-06-01

188

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

Duarte A, C

2003-07-01

189

Whole-body distribution of radioactivity after intraperitoneal administration of 32P colloids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The whole-body distribution of radioactivity after intraperitoneal instillation of 32P-labelled chromic hydroxide particles has been studied in patients operated for early-stage ovarian cancer. Gamma-camera imaging of the abdominal 32P-distribution revealed that the administration procedure was critical for obtaining a homogeneous plating of the radiocolloids on the serosal surface. Dose calculations based on a uniform distribution of 32P in a capillary layer covering the intraperitoneal surface gave an estimated tissue surface dose of about 30 Gy per 370 MBq of 32P administered. The amount of 32P in peripheral blood increased for seven days after instillation followed by a continuous decrease. Bone marrow concentration was from two to five times as high as that in blood, but the total amounts were too small to give significant radiation doses. Gel chromatography showed that 33% of the activity in blood consisted of high molecular weight material, probably colloids. The remainder of the activity (67%) was attached to material of very low molecular weight, appearing as a consequence of physiological degradation of the colloids. (author)

1984-01-01

190

Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

1977-01-01

191

_3_2P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed enzymatic _3_2P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7#betta#,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-_3_2P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [_3_2P]phosphate transfer from [#betta#-_3_2P]ATP. The _3_2P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove _3_2P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 10_7-10_8 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies

1982-01-01

192

"3"2P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed enzymatic "3"2P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7?,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-"3"2P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed ["3"2P]phosphate transfer from [?-"3"2P]ATP. The "3"2P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove "3"2P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 10"7-10"8 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies. (author)

1982-01-01

193

Preparation and purification of (/sup 14/C) labeled N-demethyl lincomycin and propylproline from (/sup 14/C) tyrosine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Propylproline and N-demethyl-lincomycin, two intermediates in lincomycin biosynthesis, were prepared in radiolabeled form. (/sup 14/C)-labeled N-demethyl-lincomycin was synthesized by a resting cell suspension of a lincomycin negative mutant of Streptomyces lincolnensis that was fed methylthiolincosaminide and uniformly labeled (/sup 14/C)-tyrosine. (/sup 14/C)-N-demethyl-lincomycin was isolated from the culture medium by ion exchange chromatography and reverse phase-ion pair high pressure liquid chromatography. (/sup 14/C)-propylproline was generated by the base hydrolysis of (/sup 14/C)-N-demethyl-lincomycin and isolated by anion exchange chromatography. The products had radiochemical purities greater than 95% and specific activities of 5.9 mCi/mmole.

Hausknecht, E.C.; Wolf, H.J.

1987-03-01

194

Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of bound (nonextractable) 14C residues from soil previously treated with [14C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

1990-01-01

195

Aspects of the metabolism of U-14C arginine, U-14C histidine and U-14C lysine by adult female Glossina morsitans during pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

U-14C arginine, U-14C histidine or U-14C lysine was injected into haemolymph of pregnant female Glossina morsitans. Radioactivity was detected in the post-parturient female and its larval offspring mostly in arginine or histidine, but in the case of lysine injection radioactivity was detected in the two life stages in lysine lipids and a range of nonessential amino acids. The pattern of radioactivity in the developing oocyte and larva was related to growth characteristics of these young stages. Whereas arginine and histidine were mostly excreted unchanged, lysine derived radioactivity was detected in the excreted uric acid and expired carbon dioxide; radioactivity in such products was greater in early than late pregnancy. (author)

1977-01-01

196

Distribution and utilization of 14C assimilate in lentil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in lentil (Lens esculentum L.) during winter of 1975 and 1976. Plants were allowed to assimilate 14CO2 at the pre bloom, flower initiation and early pod formation stage in 1975 and initial pod formation and mid pod filling stage in 1976 and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C (74 percent) was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During the vegetative phase, most of 14C (77 percent) was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissue and relatively low amount in root and nodules. Seventy two days after assimilation, pod accumulated about 8 percent of 14C. During the early reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was translocated from leaves to stem, pod and roots. Since stem was actively growing, it accumulated a considerable amount (38 percent) of assimilates. This resulted in a severe competition for assimilate supply for pod growth during early pod filling stage. At mid pod filling stage, most of the assimilate (65 percent) was utilized in pod growth. The pattern of carbon utilization and redistribution revealed that a part of assimilate utilized in stem and leaves was remobilised during the process of maturation. (author)

1980-06-01

197

Appraisal of the 14C-glycocholate acid test with special reference to the measurement of faecal 14C excretion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 14C-glycocholate test, including the measurement of marker corrected faecal 14C, has been assessed in the following groups of subjects: normal controls (18), patients with diarrhoea not attributable to altered bile acid metabolism (21), patients with diverticula of the small intestine (12), patients with previous resection of ileum and often proximal colon (34), and established ileostomists (10). Patients with diverticular disease had increased breath 14CO2 excretion, but normal faecal excretion of 14C, and this test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test. Ileostomists excreted increased amounts of faecal 14C, even when the ileum was intact and apparently normal. The pattern after resection was complex. Breath 14C output was normal if the ileal resection was less than 25 cm in length, although some of these patients had increased faecal 14C excretion if, in addition, at least 15 cm of proximal colon had been resected or by-passed. Longer ileal resections were associated with increased breath and/or faecal 14C excretion, depending in part on the length of colon resected or by-passed and the 24 hour faecal volume. Fewer than half these patients had both increased breath and faecal excretion of isotope and faecal 14C alone was occasionally normal with an ileal resection of 50 cm or more. The 14C-glycocholate test was more frequently abnormal than the Schilling test in this group. The use of faecal marker correction had only a minor impact on the results. These data suggest that, in patients with ileal resection, faecal 14C, like faecal weight, is determined by the extent of colonic resection as well as by the amount of ileum resected. (author)

1977-01-01

198

Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of 14C-Labelled Dichlobenil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autoradiographs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) indicated that 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) was slightly absorbed by the leaf and some translocation occurred following foliar application. Plants with roots submersed in radioactive aqueous solution absorbed and translocated the 14C throughout the plant. An investigation of some of the chemical and physical properties of 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil was conducted. Loss because of volatilization from counting planchets was considerably reduced by application of acrylic plastic immediately after the solution dried. The plastic coating also eliminated contamination of counting chambers and windows. Two higher plants (bean and alligatorweed ) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) were selected for metabolism studies. Dichlobenil- 14C was added to Hoagland and Arnon's nutrient solution containing beans or alligatorweed and to liquid cultures containing the other organisms for 12 to 120 h. Extracts from the plants or fungi were chromatographed on silica gel thin-layers. Autoradiographs of the thin-layer chromatographed aqueous extracts revealed a C-labelled compound of Rf 0.25 that differed from that of dichlobenil, which was 0.6. After esterification of the extracts, a 14C-labelled compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the 14C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of 14C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil -14C. Other metabolites of dichlobenil -14C. were not resolved by these chromatographic procedures. (author)

1966-05-01

199

New "1"4C-labelled products by UVVVR: ["1"4C]methyl iodide and L-[methyl-"1"4C]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of preparation and analysis of are outlined. The ["1"4C]methyl iodide with molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol"-"1 is delivered with radiochemical and chemical purity exceeding 98% and these parameters are guaranteed, if the product stored under conditions specified by the producer, for one year after delivery. The L-[methyl-"1"4C]methionine of molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol"-"1 is delivered in stabilized solution, its radiochemical purity is better than 98% and enantiomeric purity (assayed by radio-g.l.c.) is better than 96%

1985-01-01

200

A short expedient synthesis of [(14)C]Ticlopidine.  

Science.gov (United States)

To support the development of a reactive metabolite strategy, the preparation of several radiolabelled compounds such as [(14)C] Ticlopidine was required. In this report, we describe a facile and rapid synthesis of [(14)C] Ticlopidine starting from [(14)C] carbon dioxide. The compound was radiolabelled in the 2-chloromethyl portion of the molecule with a specific activity of 53.4 mCi/mmol and with a radiochemical purity of 98.5%. Storage stability was best as the hydrochloride salt in an ethanol solution. PMID:24470179

Hickey, Michael J; Kingston, Lee P; Allen, Paul H; Johnson, Tim; Wilkinson, David J

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Asymmetric synthesis of 14C-labeled L-propargylglycine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L-Propargylglycine was efficiently labeled with 14C at the 1- and 2- positions. The synthesis was achieved according to the scheme illustrated in Fig.1. Ni-complex of Schiff's base, Gly-Ni-BPB(4) was derived from [U-14C]glycine(2) and (S)-BPB(3). Diastereoselective alkylation of 4 with propargyl bromide followed by acid hydrolysis afforded L-propargyl[1, 2-14C]glycine(1). The optical purity of 1 was proved to be 97.0% and the overall yield of 1 from 2 was 28.2%. (author)

2010-12-01

202

14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

1978-04-07

203

Exchange of radioactive phosphorus 32P between the components of an artificial plant community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil) the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens) and Carex pilosa Scop.; cases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L.) Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Padus avium Mill., Aegopodium podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold) between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%. (author)

1975-01-01

204

Enzymatic synthesis of [-"3"2P]ATP of high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[?-"3"2P] adenosine triphosphate is exceedingly important substrate in the end-labeling and sequencing of nucleic acids as well as in protein kinase reactions. [-"3"2P]ATA is prepared from 1-?-glycerophosphate and ADP by a series of enzymatic reactions in the presence of NAD"+ which is preferably regenerated by lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate. The product is separated by ion-exchange column chromatography on DEAE-sephadex A-25 Cl"- form or by the preparation chromatography. The radio-chemical purity obtained is 96-97%. The yield of the product is >90% relative to "3"2P. The sample prepared by this method is comparable with the Amersham product. This method is rapid, simple and convenient

1986-01-01

205

Radiotracer studies for determining the active root distribution of Hevea brasiliensis using 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus uptake by mature Hevea trees from the soil was studied using 32P tracer. The soil injection of 32P in solution was used. Latex and leaf assay were compared for detecting 32P uptake and latex was found to be more convenient and reliable than leaf assay for determining the distribution of active roots with respect to vertical and lateral distances from the tree. Latex radioactivity tended to be higher at 8 weeks than at 4 weeks. Latex assay made after 8 weeks was therefore used in this study. The activity of the latex was higher when the tracer was placed at a depth of 15 cm. Of the five lateral distances compared, the highest root activity was observed at a distance of 0.75 m from the tree. (author)

1978-12-15

206

Influence of cycloheximide on translocation of 32P in Laminaria digitata (Linne) Lamouroux  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cycloheximide strongly reduced translocation of 32P when applied to various regions of Laminaria digitata thallus. In addition, the part of the different organs is demonstrated. The results show that CHM action was restricted to the treated zone since 32P migrations were not reduced in surrounding regions. At the same time, CHM influence on other metabolic processes possibly involved in translocation, was studied. Thus, as concerns 32P uptake by thallus pieces, CHM inhibition took effect but after a 4 hour action period. Moreover, no effect on O2 uptake was observed. These results are believed to favour an inhibitory action on protein synthesis more than to affect oxidative phosphorylations. The present data are considered to support the view that in algae as well as in higher plants, the mechanisms of the translocation of inorganic substances depend on the protein metabolism. (orig.)

1978-01-01

207

Effect of Fe deficiency on uptake and transport of 32P in barley and wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv. K19) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.ev. K68) plants were grown in sand culture at deficient (0.056 ppm) and optimal (5.6 ppm) levels of Fe supply. For uptake studies, the sand-grown plants were transferred to aerated solution cultures containing labelled-P (0.2 ?Ci 32P/L). After 48 hr, the radioactivity was measured in the different plant parts. Iron deficiency resulted in an enhancement in the uptake of 32P in barley and wheat roots on both per mg dry weight and per plant bases. Genotypic differences were observed in the transport of 32P to the tops under Fe-stress. The transport index was decreased in barley but enhanced in wheat. (author). 16 refs

1988-01-01

208

Movement of 32P between intact grassland plants of the same age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In three experiments Lolium perenne was grown in pots of soil, either with Plantago lanceolata or with another L. perenne. The plants were of the same age and they were infected with VA mycorrhizas. One L perenne plant in each pot was labelled with 32P by foliar feeding; radioactivity was subsequently detected in the other plant. Nondestructive measurements made using a scintillation probe showed that after an initial lag, transfer between the plants continued steadily up to 22 d. The mean rate of transfer was 0.7-2.8 x 10-3 units of 32P per day per unit of 32P in the donor plant's root-system. When transfer occurs between plants of the same species, age and size this indicates exchange rather than net transfer. The ecological significance of the results is discussed. (author)

1984-01-01

209

The effect of different doses of "3"2P in the treatment of primary thrombocytosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on a follow up in 23 patients with primary thrombocytosis treated with two different doses of "3"2phosphorus phosphate ("3"2P). Ten patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) received 2 mCi and 13 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) received the standard dose of 0.1 mCi/kg b.w. The patients were listed as having a complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or no response (NR) considering platelet count at 3 and 12 months after "3"2P injection. The results indicate the existence of a clear correlation of the rate of remission with the "3"2P injected dose. PV patients show, in fact, a percentage of complete remission higher than ET patients. However, the use of higher doses induces more early and long-term complications. (author)

1985-01-01

210

Effects of injection volume on the tissue dose, dose rate, and therapeutic potential intraperitoneal 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing the injection volume had no significant long-term effect on the distribution or tissue dose of intraperitoneal 32P in New Zealand white rabbits. Further, the range of doses and dose rates observed in the rabbit had little effect in vitro against either a human ovarian cancer line or an established Chinese hamster cell line. Demonstrable kill of human ovarian cancer cells was achieved, however, for initial 32P dose rates of 11 and 22 rad/h (0.11 and 0.22 Gy/h). From these results, it is estimated that administered 32P activities ranging from about 75-150 mCi (2.8-5.6 GBq) would be required for significant tumoricidal effects in ovarian cancer patients

1981-01-01

211

Movement of 32P in sunflower plants inoculated with single and dual inocula of VAM fungi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunflower plants were inoculated with single and dual inocula of Glomus intraradix and Glomus mosseae. 32P-labelled phosphate was applied after sufficient infection was obtained in all treatments. Plants inoculated with dual inocula of the two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi showed significantly higher shoot weight than those inoculated with single inocula and control treatments. Of the 32P transported to the plants, the percentage of 32P transported to the shoot was 59.9 in G. intraradix + G. mosseae, 25.12 in G. intraradix, 33.31 in G. mosseae and 35.2 in uninoculated control. The present study reveals that the increased growth in plants inoculated with dual inocula compared to those inoculated with single inocula of VAM fungi may be due to the increased transfer of P to the shoot from the root. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

1995-04-10

212

Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using "3"2P-labelled compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with ?-"3"2P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with ?-"3"2P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

1993-01-01

213

Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

2000-02-23

214

/sup 32/P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen--DNA adducts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly developed enzymatic /sup 32/P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the liver of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo(a)pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to (5'-/sup 32/P)deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)phosphate transfer from (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The /sup 32/P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions, but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove /sup 32/P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 10(7)-10(8) normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen--DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies.

Gupta, R.C.; Reddy, M.V.; Randerath, K.

1982-01-01

215

The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

2002-06-01

216

32P-Post-labelling method improvements for aromatic compound-related molecular epidemiology studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The (32)P-post-labelling assay has emerged as a major tool for detecting bulky DNA adducts in subjects exposed to carcinogens, especially aromatic compounds. However, the (32)P-post-labelling protocol still requires the use of high amounts of radioactivity, i.e. 25-50 muCi per sample, an obstacle that limits its use in large studies. The characterization of the DNA adducts measured is also limited. Methodological improvements and increased DNA adduct characterization are necessary to make thi...

Matullo, Giuseppe; Allione, Alessandra

2007-01-01

217

Reviewing the Mid-First Millennium BC 14C “warp” using 14C/bristlecone pine data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AMS-based 14C measurements have been obtained on 53 dendrochronologically-dated Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) wood samples in decadal increments spanning 2300–2750 cal BP with particular interest focused on the decades centered on 2405 cal BP and 2625 cal BP. In general, there is overall agreement with the current IntCal04/09 consensus calibration curve for this period. For the 2400–2410 cal BP interval, our Bristlecone-based 14C value is consistent with the 14C value obtained by Belfast on Irish oak for that decade but not on German oak values obtained by Seattle. Our 14C value for the 2620–2630 cal BP interval is consistent with the German oak (Heidelberg)-based 14C decadal value. The 10Be-based reconstruction of 14C variations over the 2620–2630 cal BP interval also supports the Heidelberg data although clearly additional clarifications are required before the current tree ring-based 14C and ice core-based 10Be data for this interval can be accurately interpreted and valid inferences obtained.

2013-01-01

218

Two-three steps syntheses of ["1"4C-ring]o-xylene, ["1"4C-ring]o-toluic acid; ["1"4C-ring]-phthalic acid from ["1"4C] barium carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cocyclotrimerisation of ["1"4C_2] acetylene with 2-butyne gave [3,4,5,6-"1"4C_4] ortho-xylene (50 % overall yield based on ["1"4C] BaCO_3. 93 % Nitric acid oxidation at 145 "oC for 55 hours of the crude [3,4,5,6-"1"4C_4] ortho-xylene gave [3,4,5,6-"1"4C_4] ortho-toluic acid (25 % overall yield based on ["1"4C] BaCO_3). Under the same set of reaction conditions but in a sealed tube the crude [3,4,5,6-"1"4C_4] ortho-xylene gave [3,4,5,6-"1"4C_4] phthalic acid (50 % overall yield based on ["1"4C] BaCO_3) (specific activity 1.6 GBq.mmol"-"1). (author)

1994-12-01

219

A simple synthesis of propionic-3-14C acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propionic-3-14C acid was prepared by methylation of tricarbethoxymethane and subsequent hydrolysis. This method avoids the problems of malonic ester synthesis. A pure monoalkyl derivative was obtained. (author)

1981-01-01

220

Corrections for contamination background in AMS {sup 14}C measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios were made on samples of Oxalic Acid and {sup 14}C dead materials spanning the mass range from 10 {micro}g to {approximately} 1 mg. These measurements have allowed the determination of both the amount, and the {sup 14}C content, of the contaminant carbon introduced during sample processing in the laboratory. These data were used to correct measured {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios obtained from ANU Sucrose and {approximately} one-half-life old test samples for the influence of the contaminant. The test samples spanned the 10 {micro}g to {approximately} 1 mg mass range and the corrections were made using three different formulae. The results obtained from these calculations allow the accuracy of these background correction formulae to be evaluated.

Brown, T.A.; Southon, J.R.

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

2004-08-01

222

14-C-NAPHTHYL, 14-C-METHYL AND 14-C-CARBONYL CARBARYL DISTRIBUTION IN THE PREGNANT MOUSE AND RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of carbaryl labeled with 14C in the ring, methyl or carbonyl groups was determined in pregnant mice and rats. Three identical concurrent experiments were performed using each of the three radiolabeled compounds in each of the species so that the different moietie...

223

Studies on the shelf-life of L-35S methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic study conducted on the shelf -life of L-35S- methionine, an important radiotracer used in protein synthesis experiments is reported. Aliquots of 35S-methionine from bulk sample prepared by us were kept under chosen conditions of storage and were analysed by paper chromatography coupled with autoradiography. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of 35S-methionine at various time interval spanning over a period of about one half-life of 35S radioisotope (87.4 days) was determined. It was observed that the RCP came down only to about 89% from the original value of 96% at the end of the period of study under the chosen conditions. (author)

2003-02-10

224

In vivo biosynthesis and turnover of 35S-labeled glomerular basement membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renal glomerular basement membrane was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of radioactive sulfate into normal adult rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of [35S]glycosaminoglycans in purified basement membrane was determined from the specific activity of 35S in pronase digests of basement membranes isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radioactive labeling occurred 24 h after injection following which the specific activity of basement membrane sulfate, expressed as cpm/?g uronic acid, progressively declined over the ensuing period of study. The biologic half-life of radioactive sulfate in basement membrane was estimated at about 7 days, which is within the range previously reported for [35S]glycosaminoglycans in whole renal cortex. The findings indicata that 35S-labeled components of glomerular basement membrane have a relatively rapid turnover. (orig.)

1982-06-16

225

35S induced dominant lethals in male germ cells of mouse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(CBA female x C3H/He male) F1 males born to 35S (20 ?Ci) treated animals during major organogenesis period were tested for dominant lethal mutations at maturity. The pre-implantation loss showed an increase from 6.88% in the control to 10.92% in 35S treated animals. Similarly the post-implantation loss has increased from 3.96% (control) to 7.40%. As a result of the increased pre- and post-losses the total loss showed a significant increase (17.51%) in F1 males born to 35S treated animals when compared to controls (10.57%). Thus the results clearly show that 35S is mutagenic in male germ cells of mouse. (author)

1976-12-18

226

Comparative pharmacokinetics of 35-S and 99m-Tc-labeled heparin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experimental work demonstrated a significative difference between 99m-Tc and 35-S-labeled Heparin pharmacokinetics which might be related to a differential tissular accumulation of the labeled molecules

1982-09-02

227

Chemical synthesis of high specific-activity (/sup 35/S)adenosylhomocysteine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of the family of transmethylases, critical to normal cellular function and often altered in cancer, can be facilitated by the availability of a high specific-activity S-adenosylhomocysteine. The authors report the two-step preparation of (/sup 35/S)adenosylhomocysteine from (/sup 35/S)methionine at a specific activity of 1420 Ci/mmol in an overall yield of 24% by a procedure involving demethylation of the (/sup 35/S)methionine to (/sup 35/S)homocysteine followed by condensation with 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The ease of the reactions, ready availability and low cost of the reagents and high specific-activity and stability of the product make the procedure an attractive one with many uses, and superior to current methodology.

Stern, P.H.; Hoffman, R.M.

1986-11-01

228

Chemical synthesis of high specific-activity [35S]adenosylhomocysteine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the family of transmethylases, critical to normal cellular function and often altered in cancer, can be facilitated by the availability of a high specific-activity S-adenosylhomocysteine. The authors report the two-step preparation of [35S]adenosylhomocysteine from [35S]methionine at a specific activity of 1420 Ci/mmol in an overall yield of 24% by a procedure involving demethylation of the [35S]methionine to [35S]homocysteine followed by condensation with 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine. The ease of the reactions, ready availability and low cost of the reagents and high specific-activity and stability of the product make the procedure an attractive one with many uses, and superior to current methodology

1986-11-01

229

Genetic consequences of the "1"4C-decay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are only few investigations on the biological and genetic consequences of "1"4C decay especially due to the long half-life of "1"4C. Naturally, the consequences of the decay of "1"4C incorperated in DNA is of particular interest. Due to the thus occuring conversion into nitrogen, either opening of the ribose residue ring and base occurs or conversion into base analogue. The present work gives a survey on the investigational results on this topic which were obtained by various authors on phages, bacteria, algae and animal cells, as well as on molecular level. It was shown that the transmutation for the occurence of a lethal effect is many times more effective than ?-radiation. Investigations of the mutagenic effects and other genetic effects of the "1"4C decay were carried out on micro-organisms, however also on higher forms of life, plants, insects and mice. An analysis of the mutations showed that transitions as well as transversions occur. As example for genetic effects of "1"4C decay, the two following are named. In the case of mice which were exposed to "1"4CO_2 atmosphere, it was seen that the number of polyptoidal chromosome sets in the first spermotacytes increased considerably, an increase of the chromosome conversion rate was however not observed. When treating gryllus larvae with "1"4C, it was interesting to note that the crossing of "1"4C-contained females with normal males produced viable eggs, whereas normal females after crossing with "1"4C contained males, laid no more eggs. (MG) 891 MG

1978-01-01

230

Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

1994-01-01

231

Synthesis of [1-14C]n-heptane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of n-heptane labelled with carbon-14 in the 1-position is described. The procedure involves five steps starting with reaction of [14C]carbon dioxide with n-hexyl magnesium bromide and finishing with reduction of [1-14C]n-heptyl bromide. The purity of the final product was more than 97% and the overall yield was 36%. (author)

1981-01-01

232

14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

1981-01-01

233

Synthesis of [1-14C] palmitic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [1-14C] palmitic acid via Grignard Reaction is reported. The carbon-C14 dioxide was liberated by dropping sulfuric acid onto barium carbonate-C14. The yield of [1-14C] palmitic acid was 44.8%. A radiochemical purity of more than 99.5% was determined by HPLC and the product was proved to be free of impurity by TLC

1997-09-01

234

Synthesis of 9-(2phosphonylmethoxy)ethyl-8-[14C]adenine [14C]PMEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [14C] PMEA was achieved by coupling the sodium salt of 8- [14C] adenine with 2 -(diisopropyl-phosphonymethoxy)ethanol methanesulfonate in N,N-dimethylformamide at 100oC to provide the diisopropyl ester. Deesterification with bromotrimethylsilane in acetonitrile, followed by concentration and then aqueous hydrolysis of the resulting silylated intermediate produced [14C] PMEA as a crystalline solid having a radiochemical purity of 99.1% and a specific activity of 88.7 ?Ci/mg in an overall yield of 30%. (author)

1992-10-01

235

Anthropogenic influences on 14C activity level in the air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthropogenic influences on the 14C activity level in the environment are briefly discussed. The largest increase in 14C activity was due to nuclear weapon tests during the 1960s, when this activity doubled as compared to the 1963 natural level. Current releases of 14C from nuclear facilities are only about 10 % of natural production. Another anthropogenic effect is associated with CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (dilution of 14C in carbon isotopic mixture - Suess effect). Determination of 14C in various types of sample can enhance our knowledge about natural carbon cycling. Hence, radiocarbon provides tool for the calculation of the local/regional/global Suess effect or determination of carbon delay in various types of sinks. Our monitoring of atmospheric 14CO2 at sites with different stress from fossil fuel combustion is aimed to estimate local and regional Suess effect and associated phenomena. Extrapolated data from the Jungfraujoch monitoring station were used to establish a reference 'background' 14C activity level for the years of monitoring

2007-03-01

236

Turnover of eastern Caribbean deep water from 14C measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 14C balance for the Eastern Caribbean deep water indicates the average inflow of Atlantic water into the basin to be 2.3 X 105 m3/sec (+-30%), or about 2-4 times the values estimated previously. The balance uses a model representation of the deep-water turnover, and is based on 14C concentrations at a station in the Venezuelan Basin which average ? 14C = 89% below 800 m depth with a total range of only 9%, as well as on a 14C concentration of the Atlantic inflow of ? 14C = -71% as obtained from measurements outside the Antilles Arch. The turnover time of the basin water below 2500 m depth is 55 years, which corresponds to an average upwelling velocity at this depth of about 35 m/year. With such upwelling, the temperature profile below 1800 m (the depth of the sill determining the inflow of new water) requires a vertical eddy diffusivity of about 5 cm2/sec. The oxygen consumption, and silica and CO2 regeneration, rates below 2500 m depth are obtained as -0.18, +0.08, and +0.2 ?mole kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The CO2 regeneration has but a negligible effect on the 14C balance. (Auth.)

1976-10-01

237

Decay width measurements of excited states in 14C  

Science.gov (United States)

Various excited states in 14C, above the ?-decay threshold, are believed to possess a geometric arrangement of three ?-particles covalently bound by the two delocalised valence neutrons. The 12C(16O, 14O)14C* reaction was studied at a beam energy of 234 MeV, at the ISL facility at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI), Berlin. The 14O ejectile was detected by a Q3D spectrometer at forward angles. The energies and angles of the excited 14C recoil break-up fragments were measured in coincidence using a double sided silicon strip detector array comprised of four detectors at backwards angles. A complete kinematic reconstruction of the reaction was performed to reconstruct the 14C* ? 10Be + ? and 14C* ? 13C + n decay channels and the branching ratios of these decays were calculated. Neutron emission was found to be favoured for the 12.96, 14.87, 16.72 and 18.6 MeV states. Evidence for ?-decay was found for the 14.87, 18.6 and 21.4 MeV states; which are candidates for the three bodied molecular cluster structure of 14C.

Haigh, P.; Ashwood, N.; Bloxham, T.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Price, D.; Ziman, V.; Bohlen, H.; Kokalova, T.; Schulz, C.; von Oertzen, W.; Weldon, C.; Catford, W.; Harlin, C.

2008-05-01

238

{sup 14}C in human diet in three Spanish locations; {sup 14}C en dieta humana en tres localizaciones espanolas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 14}C reach humans via the diet. In this study we present the results of diet samples from three locations type Spanish, Seville, Caceres and Tenerife. These diets are collected quarterly and historical dates back to early 2008.

Gomez Martinez, I.; Santos Arevalo, F. J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

2011-07-01

239

Preparation of (/sup 14/C)uridine 5'-diphosphate and (/sup 14/C)guanosine 5'-diphosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Procedures have been developed for the routine enzymatic synthesis of (/sup 14/C)UDP and (/sup 14/C)GDP from commercially available enzymes and (/sup 14/C)UMP and (/sup 14/C)GMP. Using high pressure liquid chromatography, the products are recovered in high yield (60-80%) and with high purity. The (/sup 14/C)UDP and (/sup 14/C)GDP are utilized as substrates for ribonucleotide reductase.

Cory, J.G.; Bacon, P.E.

1984-08-01

240

Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Dosimetric comparison of 90Y, 32P, and 186Re radiocolloids in craniopharyngioma treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In the radionuclide treatment of some forms of brain tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, the selection of the appropriate radionuclide for therapy is a key element in treatment planning. The aim was to study the influence by considering the beta-emitter radionuclide dose rate in an intracranial cyst. Methods: Dosimetry was performed using the MCNP4C radiation transport code. Analytical dosimetry was additionally performed using the Loevinger and the Berger formulas in the MATLAB software. Each result was compared under identical conditions. The advantages and disadvantages of using 90Y versus 32P and 186Re were investigated. Results: The dose rate at the inner surface of the cyst wall was estimated to be 400 mGy/h for a 1 MBq/ml concentration of 90Y. Under identical conditions of treatment, the corresponding dose rates were 300 mGy/h for 32P and 160 mGy/h for 186Re. For a well-defined cyst radius and identical wall thickness, higher dose rates resulted for 90Y. Conclusions: To achieve the same radiological burden, the required amount of physical activity of injectable solution is lower for 32P. This is found to be a consequence of both the radionuclide physical half-life and the pattern of energy deposition from the emitted radiation. According to the half-life and dose-rate results, 90Y would be a good substitute for 32P.

2009-11-01

242

The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32P in the form of carrier free KH2 32PO4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in ?% arcsin converted from 32P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

1996-01-01

243

Effects of 32 P incorporated in plasmid DNA: strand breaks and mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the 32 P decay effects in DNA, bacterial plasmid were labeled with different activities of the radioisotope in vivo: 1,2 and 6 x 105 Bk/ml of bacterial culture, leading to 1,2 and 6 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid or in vitro: 0.7, 1.5 and 3.5 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid, stored at -20 deg C and its electroforetic profiles, transformation capacity of wild type and DNA repair. E. coli mutants cells and mutagenesis, were followed during three months. The results achieved in this work suggest that: the decay of the incorporated 32 P in vivo is able to change the pBR322 electroforetic profile, we detected a decrease on the form III (super coiled) and increase on the form II (circular), indicating single strands breaks; the decay incorporated 32 in vitro does not modify the electrophoretic profile of pBR322, suggesting that in some way the effects of the radioactive decay of incorporated 32 P is dependent of the DNA topology, the damages induced by 32 P decay increase mutation frequency in pAC189 plasmids. MRF is increased by a factor of three after 6 t1/2 of storage, indicating direct or indirect action through mismatch DNA repair pathway. (author)

1996-11-01

244

Generation of Small 32P-Labeled Peptides as a Potential Approach to Colorectal Cancer Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancers have been revealed to be extremely heterogenous in terms of the frequency and types of mutations present in cells from different malignant tumors. Thus, it is likely that uniform clinical treatment is not optimal for all patients, and that the development of individualized therapeutic regimens may be beneficial. We describe the generation of multiple, unique small peptides nine to thirty-four amino acids in length which, when labeled with the radioisotope 32P, bind with vastly differing efficiencies to cell lines derived from different colon adenocarcinomas. In addition, the most effective of these peptides permanently transfers the 32P radioisotope to colorectal cancer cellular proteins within two hours at a rate that is more than 150 times higher than in cell lines derived from other cancers or from the normal tissues tested. Currently, the only two FDA-approved radioimmunotherapeutic agents in use both employ antibodies directed against the B cell marker CD20 for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. By using the method described herein, large numbers of different 32P-labeled peptides can be readily produced and assayed against a broad spectrum of cancer types. This report proposes the development and use of 32P-labeled peptides as potential individualized peptide-binding therapies for the treatment of colon adenocarcinoma patients.

Abraham, John M.; Cheng, Yulan; Hamilton, James P.; Paun, Bogdan; Jin, Zhe; Agarwal, Rachana; Kan, Takatsugu; David, Stefan; Olaru, Alexandru; Yang, Jian; Ito, Tetsuo; Selaru, Florin M.; Mori, Yuriko; Meltzer, Stephen J.

2008-01-01

245

Electrophoretic fractions of proteins in the blood plasma of chickens after 32P injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of total protein and electrophoretic fractions of proteins in the blood plasma of radioactive isotope 32P treated chickens were investigated. Only alpha-globulin and gamma2-globulin fractions decreased significantly after radionuclide injection. (author) 4 refs.; 1 tab

1987-01-01

246

Labeling of specific proteins in rat ovarian plasma membranes with [?-32P]GTP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report evidence that [?-32P]GTP preferentially labels two proteins in rat ovary and parotid membranes that differ structurally from the proteins that are substrates for ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin and which are thought to be involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP. (Auth.)

1980-12-29

247

Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techniques for 32P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

1978-01-01

248

"3"2P-pyrophosphate in the treatment of persistent metastatic bone pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight patients with persistent pain due to disseminated bone metastases from mammary carcinoma were given about 370 MBq (10 mCi) of "3"2P-pyrophosphate on 10 occasions. All but one of the patients experienced alleviation of pain lasting 1 to 4 months. The side effects, which derived mainly from haematopoetic tissue, prevent the routine use of this compound. (Auth.)

1980-01-01

249

Measurement of cosmogenic (32)p and (33)p activities in rainwater and seawater.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a new method for the collection, purification, and measurement of natural levels of (32)P and (33)P in rain, marine particulates, and dissolved constituents of seawater. (32)P and (33)P activities were measured using a recently developed ultra-low-level liquid scintillation counter. Measurement by liquid scintillation counting allows, for the first time, simultaneous measurement of both (32)P and (33)P. Furthermore, (33)P activities are measured with high efficiency (>50%), regardless of the amount of stable phosphorus in the sample. Liquid scintillation also produces energy specific ? spectra which has enabled us to identify previously unrecognized ?-emitting contaminants in natural samples. In order to remove these contaminants, new methods of purification have been developed which utilize a series of precipitations and anion and cation exchange columns. Rainwater and dissolved seawater samples were extracted from large volumes of rain- and seawater, 5-20 and >5000 L, respectively, using iron-impregnated polypropylene filters. On these filters, it was possible to load between 25 and 30% Fe(OH)(3) by weight, over twice that loaded on previously utilized materials. Using our collection, purification, and liquid scintillation counting techniques, it was possible to obtain specific (32)P and (33)P activities with less than 10% error (2?) in rainwater and 20% error (2?) in seawater. PMID:21644601

Benitez-Nelson, C R; Buesseler, K O

1998-01-01

250

Effects of ethanol on recombinant rat GABA{sub A} receptors. [{sup 35}S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([{sup 35}S]TBPS) binding study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determone the roles of the alternatively spliced short and long forms of the {gamma}2 subunit in the effect of ethanol on the GABA{sub A} receptor function, picrotoxin-sensitive [{sup 35}S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([{sup 35}S]TBPS) binding was studied in recombinant rat {alpha}1{beta}2{gamma}2 and {alpha}{sup 6}{beta}2{gamma}{sup 2} recepto expressed in human embryonic kidney 392 cells. Ethanol (10-500 mM) in the absence of added GABA had only minor effects on [{sup 35}S]TBPS binding irrespective of the {gamma}2 splice variant, its effects being greater in {alpha}6{beta}2{gamma}2 than in {alpha}1{beta}2{gamma}2 receptors. Ethanol (100 mM) decreased the binding in all four subunit combinations at various concentrations of GABA, again an effect independent of the {gamma}2 variant. The two {gamma}2 variants had different effect on GABA modulation of the binding, with the long {gamma}2 variant decreasing the efficiency of GABA inhibition in {alpha}6{beta}2 receptors and enhancing the biphasic GABA stimulation and inhibition in {alpha}1{beta}2{gamma}2 receptors. The findings confirm the importance of the {alpha} subunits in the allosteric interactions between the convulsant binding site and other effector sites, which can be modified only to a minor extent by the tupe of the {gamma}2 splice variant. (au) 31 refs.

Korpi, E.R. [Alko Ltd., Biomedical Research Center, Helsinki (Finland); Herb, A.; Lueddens, H. [ZMBH, Univ. of Heidelberg, Lab. of Molecular Neuroendocrinology, Heidelberg (Germany)

1995-08-01

251

Structure of newly synthesized ("3"5S)-proteoglycans and ("3"5S)-proteoglycan turnover products of cartilage explant cultures from dogs with experimental osteoarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of newly synthesized proteoglycans from explant cultures of cartilage from joints subjected to transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (osteoarthritic) and from normal (non- or sham-operated) joints was examined. The structure of the products of proteoglycan turnover was also examined using explants of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage maintained in culture for a 48 h chase period. The findings were as follows: Newly synthesized ("3"5S)-proteoglycans extracted from cartilage explants from osteoarthritic joints whether examined 3 weeks, 3 months, or 6 months after surgery were larger than those from corresponding normal cartilage. This can be explained by the synthesis in osteoarthritic cartilage of abnormally long chondroitin sulfate chains on newly synthesised proteoglycans. The extracts also contained a newly formed small proteoglycan species that was unable to interact with hyaluronic acid. The proportion of this species was higher in osteoarthritic cartilage compared with normal, examined 3 weeks after surgery, but was generally absent from cartilage obtained 3 and 6 months after surgery. Compared with controls, a smaller proportion of the ("3"5S)-proteoglycans released into the maintenance medium of explant cultures of osteoarthritic cartilage during a 48 h chase period was able to interact with hyaluronic acid. However, although furnished with longer ("3"5S)-glycosaminoglycan chains, these proteoglycans were smaller than those from control explants

1985-01-01

252

Synthesis of 1-carboxy-N,N,N-tri-[methyl-14C] methanaminium chloride (betaine [methyl-14C] hydrochloride)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methyl bromoacetate was reacted with trimethylamine-[14C] dissolved in methanol, forming the methyl ester of [14C] labeled betaine hydrobromide. The methyl ester was hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium to (carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt, and then transformed into the hydrychloride by treatment with an equivalent amount of hydrochloric acid, yielding high purity material with a specific activity of 19.2 ?Ci/mmol and overall yield of 81.7%. (author)

1996-06-01

253

Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

2008-10-19

254

Preparation and evaluation of various "3"2P sources for intravascular brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?"- emitter "3"2P (t_1_/_2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of "3"2 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of "3"1P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing "3"2PO_4"3"- ions; (3) Direct application of Na_2H"3"2 PO_4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) "3"2 P sources obtained by "3"1 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid "3"2 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that "3"2 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm"3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

2001-06-01

255

Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

2008-08-01

256

(14)C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. PMID:24814329

Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

2014-07-01

257

Increased ["3"2P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

1981-01-01

258

Calculation of the compounded uncertainty of 14C AMS measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The correct method to calculate conventional 14C ages from the carbon isotopic ratios was summarised 35 years ago by Stuiver and Polach (1977) and is now accepted as the only method to calculate 14C ages. There is, however, no consensus regarding the treatment of AMS data, mainly of the uncertainty of the final result. The estimation and treatment of machine background, process blank, and/or in situ contamination is not uniform between laboratories, leading to differences in 14C results, mainly for older ages. As Donahue (1987) and Currie (1994), among others, mentioned, some laboratories find it important to use the scatter of several measurements as uncertainty while others prefer to use Poisson statistics. The contribution of the scatter of the standards, machine background, process blank, and in situ contamination to the uncertainty of the final 14C result is also treated in different ways. In the early years of AMS, several laboratories found it important to describe their calculation process in details. In recent years, this practise has declined. We present an overview of the calculation process for 14C AMS measurements looking at calculation practises published from the beginning of AMS until present.

2013-01-01

259

In vitro synthesis and purification of UDP-[14C] galacturonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pectins comprise a major component of the cell wall and much research has focused on degradation of pectins during ripening and senescence. However, little research has been conducted on pectin synthesis, partly due to a lack of commercial availability of UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid for use as a substrate in assaying galacturonan synthase. We report on the modification and integration of several procedures to synthesize UDP-[14C] galacturonic acid from commercially available UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid. A microsomal pellet containing UDP-D-glucuronate-4-epimerase was extracted from 5-day-old mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus) and radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.) by ultracentrifugation at 30,000 rpm for 50 min. The UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid produced was separated from remaining UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and other products by electrophoresis in pyridine:acetate:H2O on silica gel. Spots were detected by autoradiography, eluted with 80% ethanol, and purified using anion exchange chromatography

1989-01-01

260

Sorption of inorganic 14C to calcite, montmorillonite and soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although 14C occurs naturally, it is also a waste product of the nuclear industry, and can be important because of its long half-life, high mobility as an anion, and ready incorporation into biota. Some aqueous inorganic species are anionic with migration minimally retarded by most geological and soil materials. Substantial retardation is expected when calcite is present, but there are few data to quantify this effect. The present study measured partition coefficient values, Rd (concentration on solids divided by concentration in liquids), of 8-85 1 kg-1 for a series of calcite materials and for a carbonated soil. In contrast, Rd was zero for montmorillonite. The series of calcite materials varied in particle size. In order to investigate the effects of particle size, dissolution and degassing of 14C and 12C were monitored as pH was slowly decreased. The change in pH with addition of acid was strongly affected by particle size, as expected, but there was no systematic effect of particle size on the relative dissolution rates of 14C vs 12C, or on Rd. Apparently, surface area was not a limiting factor in the interaction of 14C with these materials. The 14C in soil behaved most like the very fine calcite, indicating that the specific surface of the soil carbonate was similar to that of the very fine calcite. (author)

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Localization and characterization of 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in rat brain: An autoradiographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) binding to slide-mounted rat brain sections was characterized for subsequent autoradiographic analysis. Cortical brain mash slices, preincubated with EDTA to remove endogenous GABA, were used for biochemical characterization. Steady state for 35S-TBPS binding was reached by 3 hr of incubation at 22 degrees C. The association rate constant (K1) and dissociation rate constant (K2) were 0.377 min-1 microM-1 and 0.011 min-1, respectively. Dissociation was monophasic and slow (t1/2 = 80 min). The kinetically derived KD was 29.4 nM. Scatchard analysis indicated a single population of binding sites with a KD of 21.0 +/- 2.2 nM and a Bmax of 1.59 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg protein. Both picrotoxin and muscimol inhibited 35S-TBPS binding completely with IC50s of 251 +/- 13 nM and 203 +/- 41 nM and nHs of 0.98 and 1.4, respectively. The distribution of 35S-TBPS binding sites in the rat brain resembles that of other ligands that bind to GABAA receptor complex with some regionally specific differences. Regions with a high degree of 35S-TBPS binding included the inferior colliculus, medial septal nucleus, central and paracentral nuclei of the thalamus, olfactory tubercle, zona incerta, dentate gyrus, and substantia nigra. 35S-TBPS preferentially bound to the molecular vs granular layer of the cerebellum. Omission of the preincubation markedly but variably decreased 35S-TBPS binding. The greatest regional decreases occurred in areas with a high degree of GABA synthesis. In addition, 35S-TBPS binding was inhibited to different degrees in the cell layers of the cerebellum. The addition of 1 microM GABA to the incubation medium of preincubated slices also produced variable decreases in 35S-TBPS binding to cerebellar layers. These findings support previous studies that demonstrate GABAA receptor heterogeneity

1990-01-01

262

The uptake and metabolism of 35S02 in plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide were exposed simultaneously to 35S02. The total quantity of gas taken up, and its distribution between a surface leachate, an ethanol-soluble fraction and an insoluble fraction were compared. The sensitive Medicago sativa took up more gas per unit leaf area than Phaseolus vulgaris or two strains of Lolium perenne (S24, and the native 'Hemlmshore' strain). Fifteen to thirty-eight percent of the radioactivity was removed from all leaves by leaching, and this proportion changed little with time. The leachate contained 35S032-and 35S042-. The proportion of 35S032-was greatest in P.vulgaris and least in M. sativa. The internal radioactivity was largely soluble in L. perenne, but insoluble in M. sativa. In P. vulgaris, most soluble activity was found in expanding leaves. Little difference in the uptake or metabolism of 35S02 was found in the two Lolium strains. The results are discussed with reference to possible roles of 'avoidance' and 'tolerance' in determining resistance to S02. (author)

1977-01-01

263

(/sup 35/S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (/sup 35/S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. /sup 35/S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (/sup 35/S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (/sup 35/S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures.

Schmidt, A.; Grounwald, J.; Buddecke, E. (Muenster. Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Atherosclerosis Research and Inst. of Physiological Chemistry)

1982-12-01

264

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2003-12-15

265

Method of preparing (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial compound for the preparation of (U-14C)mannose-6-phosphate is a water-soluble polysaccharide (e.g., branched polysaccharide of the 1?4,6 glycan type) separated from radioactive biological material (e.g., from green or blue-green algae). The polysaccharide is gradually reacted to a number of enzymes to obtain glucose-6-phosphate (U-14C). This intermediate product is exposed to the action of the mannosephosphate isomerase enzyme in a buffered medium of pH of 7.2. The resulting mannose-6-phosphate(U-14C) is separated with paper chromatography. The reaction yield is up to 38%. The advantage of the said method of preparation is that it involves directly the water-soluble polysaccharide obtained within the complex treatment of radioactive biomass. (E.S.)

1983-07-11

266

Determination of 14C in liquid radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to establish the parameters to determine the activity of total 14C in liquid radioactive waste by using the liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. Carbon-14 has been recognized as one of the main dose contributors in future release scenarios from the radioactive waste repository. The total 14C present in the sample is determined in the CO2 form through the acid treatment and oxidation. The CO2 absorption method is quick, inexpensive, and simple. The CO2 is absorbed in a solution of NaOH, which an aliquot is taken and mixed to scintillation cocktail. The activity of the total 14C is determined using a optimized counting window. Effective radiochemical yield was determined using sucrose and urea standards, showing a value about 50 % for both standards. (author)

2009-10-02

267

Preparation of poly methyl methacrylate labeled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C labeled poly methyl methacrylate can be used as a radioactive source for measuring the thickness of paper in the production lines. Very thin and uniform sources can be obtained by the method. Its preparation procedures are as follows: (1)Synthesis of Argerfine methacrylicate. (2)Preparation of poly methyl methacrylate labelled with 14C. Argerfine methacrylicate is mixed and refluxed with 14C labeled iodine methane, at 72 degree C for five hours in a bottle. (3)The preparation of the radioactive source. Initiating agent is added into the bottle. The bottle is heated to 75 degree C for one hour, then heated to 100 degree C for another one hour. The reactive product is sealed with epoxy resin. (authors)

2004-04-19

268

Metabolismo de fósforo em bovinos: Incorporação de fósforo radioativo (32P) pelos eritrócitos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação de P sobre a incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos de bovinos como método para diagnóstico da deficiência subclínica desse mineral, doze bezerros mestiços pesando em média 191 kg foram separados do rebanho por 12 semanas. Durante as 6 primeiras sem [...] anas os animais consumiram apenas a pastagem, sem receber suplementação mineral. Após esse período, os animais foram suplementados com uma mistura mineral comercial contendo 6,0% P por mais 6 semanas, permanecendo na mesma pastagem. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas a cada 2 semanas. Quatro ml de sangue total foram incubados a 38°C com 1,85 MBq de 32P por 3 horas. As células foram separadas do plasma por centrifugação e lavadas com solução salina por 3 vezes. A radioatividade nas células foi detectada através do efeito Cerenkov. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram também investigados sobre os níveis de P e glucose no plasma e P nas fezes. Houve aumento significativo nesses parâmetros à medida em que os animais foram suplementados. As taxas de incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos tiveram valores médios de 7,04 ± 1,20 e 5,91 ± 1,24% (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of phosphorus supplementation on 32P uptake by red blood cells in vitro as diagnosis of subclinical P deficiency, twelve calves averaging 191 kg were separated from the herd for 12 weeks. During the first 6 weeks, the animals were maintained on a pasture without phosphorus sup [...] plementation. During the next 6-week period, the animals were supplemented with a commercial mineral salt with 6.0% total P. Four ml of freshly drawn whole blood were obtained at 2-week intervals and incubated with 1.85 MBq 32P. After incubation at 38°C for a 3-hour period, the cells were separated from the plasma and washed three times with an isotonic saline solution and their radioactivity was determined through the Cerenkov effect. Effects of treatment upon the levels of P blood plasma, blood glucose and P excretion were also investigated and these parameters increased significantly with P supplementation. The average rates of 32P uptake by the erythrocytes were 7.04 ± 1.20 and 5.91 ± 1.24% (P

J.C., SILVA FILHO; D.M.S.S., VITTI; H., LOUVANDINI.

269

Metabolismo de fósforo em bovinos: Incorporação de fósforo radioativo (32P pelos eritrócitos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação de P sobre a incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos de bovinos como método para diagnóstico da deficiência subclínica desse mineral, doze bezerros mestiços pesando em média 191 kg foram separados do rebanho por 12 semanas. Durante as 6 primeiras semanas os animais consumiram apenas a pastagem, sem receber suplementação mineral. Após esse período, os animais foram suplementados com uma mistura mineral comercial contendo 6,0% P por mais 6 semanas, permanecendo na mesma pastagem. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas a cada 2 semanas. Quatro ml de sangue total foram incubados a 38°C com 1,85 MBq de 32P por 3 horas. As células foram separadas do plasma por centrifugação e lavadas com solução salina por 3 vezes. A radioatividade nas células foi detectada através do efeito Cerenkov. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram também investigados sobre os níveis de P e glucose no plasma e P nas fezes. Houve aumento significativo nesses parâmetros à medida em que os animais foram suplementados. As taxas de incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos tiveram valores médios de 7,04 ± 1,20 e 5,91 ± 1,24% (PTo evaluate the effect of phosphorus supplementation on 32P uptake by red blood cells in vitro as diagnosis of subclinical P deficiency, twelve calves averaging 191 kg were separated from the herd for 12 weeks. During the first 6 weeks, the animals were maintained on a pasture without phosphorus supplementation. During the next 6-week period, the animals were supplemented with a commercial mineral salt with 6.0% total P. Four ml of freshly drawn whole blood were obtained at 2-week intervals and incubated with 1.85 MBq 32P. After incubation at 38°C for a 3-hour period, the cells were separated from the plasma and washed three times with an isotonic saline solution and their radioactivity was determined through the Cerenkov effect. Effects of treatment upon the levels of P blood plasma, blood glucose and P excretion were also investigated and these parameters increased significantly with P supplementation. The average rates of 32P uptake by the erythrocytes were 7.04 ± 1.20 and 5.91 ± 1.24% (P<0,05, for treatments without and with P supplementation, respectively. The method showed to be suitable as an additional parameter to estimate the P status in ruminants.

J.C. SILVA FILHO

1997-09-01

270

Pyrolysis of [14C]-chlorantraniliprole in tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pyrolysis of [(14)C]-chlorantraniliprole {3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinal)-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide} in tobacco was examined. Typically five commercially available cigarettes were treated separately with either [pyrazole carbonyl-(14)C] or [benzamide carbonyl-(14)C]-chlorantraniliprole at a concentration of 20 ppm (?g chlorantraniliprole equivalent/g cigarette weight; main study) to 40 ppm (for degradate identification only). All treated cigarettes were smoked using an apparatus designed to collect mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke through a glass fiber filter and a series of liquid traps. The material balance for recovery of applied radiolabel ranged from 92.4 to 94.9%. Unchanged chlorantraniliprole was the major component found in butt and filter extracts, averaging a total of 17.4-17.9% of the applied radioactivity. A nonpolar degradation product, 2-[3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-6-chloro-3,8-dimethyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone, designated 1, represented an average of 10.1-15.9% of the applied radioactivity in the [pyrazole carbonyl-(14)C] or [benzamide carbonyl-(14)C]-chlorantraniliprole cigarettes, respectively. (14)CO(2) was the major degradate, representing an average of 32.9 and 25.1% of the applied radioactivity in pyrazole and benzamide experiments, respectively. In the pyrazole carbonyl label a polar degradate, 5-bromo-N-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (2) was present in the filter extracts at an average of 9.5% of the applied radioactivity. The most nonpolar degradate, 2,6-dichloro-4-methyl-11H-pyrido[2,1b]quinazolin-11-one (3), was present in [benzamide carbonyl-(14)C]-treated cigarettes only and represented an average of 14.7% of the applied radioactivity. PMID:21819084

Gaddamidi, Venkat; Zimmerman, William T; Ponte, Marian; Ruzo, Luis

2011-09-14

271

Preparation and supply of custom shaped 32P-patches for their application in the treatment of superficial cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quick and facile method to prepare 32P radiolabeled paper or patches for the mould brachytherapy treatment of superficial cancers has been developed. Intricate custom sized sources, containing upto ? 37 MBq/cm2 of 32P were prepared and immobilized between plastic sheets of 40-micron thickness by lamination. The homogeneity and stability of the patches were investigated. 32P-patches after quality assurance were supplied to AIIMS, Delhi for clinical evaluation. (author)

2009-10-01

272

Synthesis of piperonyl butoxide-UL-phenyl-{sup 14}C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An efficient route for the preparation of 5-[1-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethoxy]methyl-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole-UL-phenyl-{sup 14} C (piperonly butoxide-UL-phenyl-{sup 14-C} is described). The synthesis consisted of 14 steps from Ba{sup 14} CO{sub 3} and gave the title compound in overall chemical yield of 8%. A discussion of some of the possible alternate routes is provided, including the various drawbacks to these routes. The importance of order of substitution on the benzene ring to maximize yields of the title compound is emphasized. (author).

Immoos, J.E.; Brattesani, A.J.; Sieving, P.F. [Wizard Laboratories, Inc., West Sacramento, CA (United States)

1996-06-01

273

Synthesis of piperonyl butoxide-UL-phenyl-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An efficient route for the preparation of 5-[1-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethoxy]methyl-6-propyl-1,3-benzodioxole-UL-phenyl-14 C (piperonly butoxide-UL-phenyl-14-C is described. The synthesis consisted of 14 steps from Ba14 CO3 and gave the title compound in overall chemical yield of 8%. A discussion of some of the possible alternate routes is provided, including the various drawbacks to these routes. The importance of order of substitution on the benzene ring to maximize yields of the title compound is emphasized. (author)

1996-06-01

274

Method to produce "1"4C-labelled compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method to produce "1"4C labelled compounds by aerobic growth of an alga of the anacystis kind in a medium containing "1"4C in such a form that it is taken up by the microorganism, is described according to the invention. The alga anacystis nidulans has some advantages over the green alga chlorella so far commonly used to produce labelled compounds: The generation time is considerably shorter, the radiation resistance greater, the production of nuclei acids and proteins is higher. (VJ)

1978-01-01

275

Verification of the dispersion model by airborne carbon 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides insight in the verification of the Lagrangean dispersion model for dose calculation in the environment. The verification method was based on the measurement of the airborne carbon 14C concentration which can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. The results proved that this method is sensitive enough and that the sensitivity analysis can be used for model verification or for identification of possible improvements of the used meteorological data. The Lagrangean model is used at Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP) for calculation of dispersion coefficients and dose in the environment. To show compliance with the authorized dose limits it is required to present a realistic calculation of the dose to the public. This is a numerical model designed to calculate air pollution dispersion in the area of 25km x 25km. The model uses on-line local meteorological measurements. The same model was already verified for another location around a coal- fired power plant based on emission and environmental measurements of SO2. Krsko NPP is placed near the Sava River in a semiopened basin surrounded by several hills. The region is characterized by low winds and frequent thermal inversions. This paper presents a verification of the short range dispersion model based on the fact that the airborne carbon 14C concentration can be slightly increased close to the nuclear power plant. Other radioactive effluents are not detectable in the environment and carbon 14C measurements are accurate enough to detect small deviations from natural 14C levels and to compare them with the calculated concentration based on 14C effluents. The most of airborne 14C is released during the refuelling outage. Within the pre-selected period of ten days, increased effluents of 14C in the form of CO2 were sampled from the plant ventilation. The average atmospheric dispersion parameters were calculated for two locations in the environment where CO2 sampling plates were installed. Increased 14C activities were detected at both locations close to the plant for this relatively short time period. (author)

2008-10-19

276

Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion.

Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

1987-11-01

277

Biliary excretion of intravenous [14C] omeprazole in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the biliary excretion of [14C] omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of [14C] omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion

1987-01-01

278

Study of 16O + 14C elastic scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of the elastic scattering cross sections are accomplished for the 16O + 14C nuclei asymmetric system by the energy of the 16O colliding particles of 132 and 281 MeV and 14C ones - of 334.4 MeV. The scattering by all energy values is of the refractive character. The voluminous integrals from the actual and imaginary parts of the potentials correspond to the systematics, obtained for the neighboring combinations of the 16O + 12C and 12C + 12C nuclei

2002-01-01

279

Study of Rainbow Scattering in 16O + 14C System  

Science.gov (United States)

We carried out new measurements of the 16O+14C differential cross-sections at the 16O energy 281 MeV in the large angles interval at the Jyvaskyla University cyclotron and at the smallest angles at the cyclotron of Hahn-Meitner institute. The results of the experiment showed that clear rainbow structure in 16O + 14C scattering really takes place. The observed position of the main Airy minimum predicted but not observed in previous measurements fits well to the empirical systematization "angle - inverse energy", obtained for the system 16O + 12C.

Demyanova, A. S.; Glukhov, Yu. A.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Trzaska, W.; Bohlen, H. G.; Oertzen, W. Von; Goncharov, S. A.; Izadpanakh, A.; Maslov, V. A.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Tyurin, G. P.

2005-09-01

280

The 14C distribution in West Atlantic abyssal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C specific activities in the western Atlantic show aging of about 160 years between 420N and 300S for southward-moving North Atlantic Deep Water. Most of the aging occurs in the North Atlantic, with a small increase in 14C level for abyssal water near the equator. The northward-flowing Antarctic Bottom Water component ages about 80 years between 500S and the equator. The rate of Atlantic bottom water formation is estimated at 18 Sverdrups; the rate of flow for northward-moving Antarctic Bottom Water at about 6 Sverdrups. (Auth.)

1976-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Standardization and intercalibration trials with 14C isotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reliable standardization of stock solution of 14C and the counting equipment is an essential pre-requisite in order to get comparable and meaningful values in primary production measured by 14C techniques. In the course of a comparative study of different methods of standardization it was found that the biological and scintillation methods gave comparable values for stock solutions. The presence of toxic substances in stock solutions can produce disconcertingly divergent values if proper care is not taken in the preparation of ampoules. The results of experimental work on these aspects to ensure accuracy and comparability in the values obtained both in eutrophic and oligotrophic environments are discussed. (author)

1975-12-18

282

Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labeled stepholidine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

L-Tetrahydroprotoberberine (THPB) alkaloids are dopamine-receptor antagonists. Stepholidine has been shown to possess the strongest pharmacological effects among the THPB alkaloids studied. In order to study its metabolism and the mode of action of the drug, a radiolabeled stepholidine was required. We report here the synthesis of /sup 14/C-labeled stepholidine by Mannich condensation of 7-benzyloxy-1-(4-benzyloxy-3-hydroxy-benzyl)-6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline with (/sup 14/C)formaldehyde followed by methylation and debensylation in 32% radiochemical yield.

Yang Liu; Zhang Xin

1988-05-01

283

Effect of tolbutamide on 14C-sodium bicarbonate and 14C-alanine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tolbutamide (TOLB) is a sulfonylurea commonly used in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Studies have shown that TOLB affects gluconeogenesis and glycolysis from various substrates in the liver. Specifically, TOLB inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate in a dose-dependent manner. In order to further clarify tolbutamide's mechanism of action, its effect on the incorporation of 14C from NaH14CO3 and 14C-alanine into glucose, lactate or pyruvate in the presence of lactate was measured. Rat hepatocytes were incubated with lactate (2.0 mM) with or without TOLB (1.0 mM) in the presence of NaH14CO3 or 14C-alanine. TOLB inhibited the incorporation of C14 from NaHCO3 and alanine into glucose by 55 and 56%, respectively. TOLB did not alter the incorporation of C14 from NaHCO3 into lactate or pyruvate. TOLB did not affect the incorporation of 14C from alanine into lactate but produced a pooling of 14C as pyruvate. The authors data support studies demonstrating the TOLB produces its actions, in part, by increasing the concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and inhibiting pyruvate carboxylase

1990-02-26

284

A procedure for batch separation of sup 14 C-hexose from sup 14 C-sucrose  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation describes a method for separating {sup 14}C-hexose from {sup 14}C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, Mg(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}, ovalbumen, Na{sub 2}ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying {sup 14}C-hexose and {sup 14}C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of {sup 14}C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues.

Tarpley, L.; Vietor, D.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-05-01

285

Incorporation of (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incorporation of (2-14C)acetate and (1-14C)palmitate into the lipids of washed ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa was followed up to 4 and 2 hr respectively. There was significant incorporation of acetate into the total lipids both in the presence and absence of glucose in the medium. The presence of glucose (0.5%) in the medium significantly stimulated the incorporation of acetate into the sperm lipids at 2 hr. Inclusion of 3% bovine serum albumin in the incubation medium significantly stimulated the acetate incorporation at 4 hr whereas no such effect was observed at 2 hr of incubation. The incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids was significantly high in the presence of glucose and was highest at 1 hr of incubation. No incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate was observed in the absence of glucose. The greater extent of palmitate incorporation than acetate suggested that the de novo synthesis of lipids using 14C-acetate was comparatively lower than utilization of 14-palmitate for esterification with sperm lipids in buffaloes. (author)

1981-07-01

286

Root activity in kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata) using 32P in submontane Himalayan region of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution pattern of root activity of 5-year old Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) trees was determined by the 32P soil-injection technique. The 32P solution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm from the tree trunk at 15, 30, 60 and 90 cm depths and its uptake was determined in half and fully-expanded leaves at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The maximum specific activity was noted at 14 days of injection, which decreased thereafter. The relative root activity was maximum at 30 cm depth at a radial distance of 90-120 cm from tree trunk in both the types of leaves. About 60% of the root activity was confined to this zone. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

1992-11-01

287

Enzymatic Determination of Choline in Brain with Choline Phosphokinase and 32P-Labelled ATP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An enzymatic assay for free choline in brain has been developed. Rats or mice were killed by freezing in liquid nitrogen and the frozen brain was extracted with trichloroacetic acid. Interfering compounds were removed on an-anion-exchange resin and choline was converted to 32P- phosphorylcholine by the action of choline phosphokinase and 32P-ATP. The labelled phosphorylcholine obtained was separated by chromatography on Amberlite CC-400 (chloride form), and its radioactivity determined. The choline levels in rat and mouse brain were found to be 39 nmole/g and 42 nmole/g respectively. These values are considerably lower than those previously reported in the literature, apparently because of the increased specificity of the present method. (author)

1970-02-01

288

Use of /sup 32/P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using /sup 32/P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C/sub 20/-Mulatinho Paulista; C/sub 26/-Ricobaio 1014 and C/sub 33/-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C/sub 17/-Jamapa; C/sub 28/-Rio Tibagi and C/sub 34/-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of /sup 32/P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars.

Oliveira, I.P. de (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Goiania. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz - Feijao); Malavolta, E. (Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz)

1983-08-01

289

Formation of 32P-labelled Polyphosphates in Reactor-irradiated Solutions of Orthophosphate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate were reactor irradiated and analysed by electrophoresis. The resulting distributions of 32P-activity in phosphorus oxyanions resemble the ones obtained with reactor-irradiated solid phosphates. Even in dilute solutions, polymers are formed; their total yield increases with the concentration of the irradiated solution and varies in a complicated way with the pH. These observations and some experiments with addition of radical scavengers indicate that oxidation of the 32P-recoils by OH-radicals is an important step in the polymerization. It is suggested that the actual formation of a P&z.sbnd;O&z.sbnd;P bridge takes place as an addition of a Lewis acid to a lone pair of electrons on a phosphate ion.

Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

1973-01-01

290

Researches regarding the labelling of European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) by 32 P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Corn Borer (ECB) moths were labelled after they ate the semisynthetic diet in which 32 P was added as a colourless and transparent solution of NaH232 PO4. The 32 P radioactivities in the diet were 7.4 and 13 kBq/g. Both 7.4 and 13 kBq/g diets met our purpose for permanent moth labelling. The major part of radioactivity was contained by moths while the remnant by exuviae. The number of pupae/box, the number of moths/box, egg batches/female and the percentage of fertile eggs were registered . The radioactivity of pupae, moths and exuviae was was determined. The radioactivity of 7.4 and 13 kBq/g has a slight influence on the longevity of labelled ECB. (author)

1997-01-01

291

Radionuclide therapy with 32P of patients with bone metastases of breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment with 32P is applied in 26 in-lying patients with clinical, X-ray, scintigraphic and radioimmunological proof of bone metastases of breast cancer appeared after surgical intervention. Radioactive phosphorus has been administered orally - single intake of 111 mBq, total 3-4 intakes with 4 days interval between portions. The results of the treatment are: 12 patients (84,6%) experienced 42 months remission manifested by improved state of well-being, relief of pains, return to normal ESR, lack of complications such as anemia, leucocytopenia, thrombocytopenia. The metastatic foci can still be visualized on the control scintigrams, though not so distinct as before the P-therapy. The values of the carcinoembryonic antigen remain high. Inferences are drown about the pathognomonic nature of 32P symptomatic therapy, which postpones the application of opatic drugs, reduces the patients' sufferings and prolongs survival. 10 refs

1991-01-01

292

Concentrations of cosmic ray produced 7Be, 32P and 33P under mountain conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations and isotope ratio of the cosmogenic 7Be, 32P and 33P in the atmospheric air under mountain conditions were investigated in the Abastumani observatory area (Georgian SSR, 42 deg NL). Aerosol samples were taken by air filtration using the FPP-15-1.7 type filters at an altitude of 1700 m above the sea level. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma and beta radiation after the filter ashing and chemical separation. The measured 7Be, 32P and 33P concentrations fluctuated respectively from 1.0 to 31.6, 0.01-0.33 and 0.006-0.37 at/g. The upper limits of the concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with those obtained in Vilnius under mountain conditions were one order lower. A conclusion is drawn that the intensity of the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere is higher in mountain areas

1980-01-01

293

Synthetic heparinoids labelled with /sup 125/I and /sup 35/S  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The labelling of a water-soluble synthetic polyelectrolyte, having anticoagulant activity, has been studied. The polyelectrolyte is derived from cis-1,4-polyisoprene and contains N-sulfate and carboxylate groups. (/sup 125/I)-Iodination of the polyelectrolyte, using the Chloramine-T method and an electrolytic method, resulted in a (/sup 125/I)-labelled polyelectrolyte from which release of the label occurred. Resulfation of a partially desulfated polyelectrolyte with a (/sup 35/S)-sulfur trioxide trimethylamine complex resulted in a (/sup 35/S)-labelled polyelectrolyte which showed no release of the label.

Sederel, L.C.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A. (Technische Hogeschool Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)); Kolar, Z. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands))

1982-10-01

294

Application of 35S to control microcooler dissolution in steel castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Described is the method for determining the dissolution comptenes metal shot introduced into steel castings for relieing the metal overheat and crystallization rate increase by means of 35S radioisotope. The method consist in radioactive metal shot manfacture by metal sputtering (an ampou with 35S is dissolved in the metal) and its introduction into castings when filling forms with metal. Then templates are made of castings and autoradiograms are taken. This method is shown to ermit to study not only the dissolution completeness of microlers (shot) and the character of their distribution, but the influe of microadditions on the casting macrostructure as well

1980-01-01

295

32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in humans: adduct distribution and method improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

32P-Postlabelling was applied to study the distribution of adducts in white blood cells of foundry workers exposed to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons. The distribution of the adducts among 63 workers followed an apparently trimodal pattern, which could relate to polymorphism in PAH metabolism. A modified postlabelling method is described and some parameters were tested for optimal labelling. The total volume of the polynucleotide kinase reaction is 2 microliters, which decreases exposure to radioactivity and costs of isotopes. PMID:7523911

Szyfter, K; Krüger, J; Ericson, P; Vaca, C; Försti, A; Hemminki, K

1994-01-01

296

Quantitative estimation of root weight using 32P plant injection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 32P isotope injection technique developed earlier was used to estimate root weight quantitatively without pulling the roots out of the soil. A statistically significant linear relationship between the ratio of the weights of shoot and root (Y) and the ratio of the specific activities in shoot and root(x) of the for, Y=mx was established at different stages of growth in three wheat varieties, mung and cowpeas studied in two years. (author)

1975-12-01

297

Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

1990-01-01

298

Study of pollen dispersal of Pinus oocarpa Schiede through the utilization of radiophosphorus 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of tagging pollen of Pinus oocarpa Schiede with radiophosphorus 32P, in a closed forest are related. It was observed that the polen was distribuited until a distance of 300 meters, independently of wind velocity an almost not influenced by his direction. It was concluded that the isolation of seed growing areas is possible through a barrier superior to 300 meters only. (M.A.C.)

1983-01-01

299

Treatment of distant iodine-negative metastases of thyroid cancer with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of radiophosphotherapy in 20 patients with iodine negative metastases of thyroid cancer in the lung and bones have been analyzed. The treatment was carried out in two stages: radical surgery and 32P therapy of metastases. A dose of 100-185 MBq of the radionuclide was administrated weekly (total dose - 300-700 MBq). As a result, improvement in treating stage 4 thyroid tumor was registered

1996-01-01

300

Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Internal and external bremsstrahlung spectra in lead excited by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The internal bremsstrahlung accompanying the allowed beta decay in 32P (with Esub(?)sup(max) = 1.71 MeV) has been investigated. By the same isotope the external bremsstrahlung spectra in lead is also investigated. The experimental measurements are done with a multichannel NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer alongwith a standard geometrical arrangement. After making all the necessary corrections, the final distributions are compared with theories for internal bremsstrahlung (IB) and external bremsstrahlung (EB). (auth.)

1977-12-30

302

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

1977-01-01

303

Preparation of radioactivity labelled DNA. [/sup 32/P-DNA, radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nick translation reaction, which uses the endonuclease enzyme to incorporate pieces of DNA into the genetic material of other organisms, is being used more and more in Molecular Biology research for the preparation of pure DNA labelled with /sup 32/P. However results are presented which show that high radiation doses are received by the hands of nick translation workers. A Scheme of Work to reduce these doses is described.

Ballance, P.; Morgan, J. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Safety and Radiation Protection Service); McGregor, G. (Medical Research Council, Brighton (UK). Cell Mutation Unit); Durkacz, B. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). School of Biological Sciences)

1984-03-01

304

Monte Carlo calculations of dose distributions around 32P and 198Au stents for intravascular brachytherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

3D dose distributions are calculated for a 32P impregnated stent and a 198Au stent for intravascular brachytherapy with the EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation code. The stents were modeled as a combination of eight helicoidal struts. This allowed investigation of the effect of the stent geometry and the electron absorption in the strut material on the dose distributions. Absorbed dose to water was calculated at radial distances ranging from 50 microm to 5 mm from the stent surface. The dose distributions around the stents are compared to the dose distribution around an intravascular brachy-therapy 192Ir source, also calculated with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. The dose profiles near the struts show hot spots. At 50 microm distance a peak to valley ratio of 3 for 32P and 6 for 198Au in the dose distribution is obtained. For both the isotopes the inhomogeneities decrease with distance and at a radial depth of 350 microm the effect becomes negligible. The calculations showed the importance of the effect of the absorption in the stent material as this leads to a dose decrease to 67% for the 198Au stent and to 77% for 32P near the stent at a distance of 2 mm from the stent axis. It is concluded that from the dosimetric point of view, the 198Au stent is inferior to the 32P stent and the 192Ir source. Application of the 198Au stent in clinical practice requires further investigation of the importance of the adventitia in the restenosis process, and the tolerance dose of the intima. PMID:10501047

Reynaert, N; Verhaegen, F; Taeymans, Y; Van Eijkeren, M; Thierens, H

1999-08-01

305

Genotoxicity of Colloidal 32P Chromic Phosphate in the Mouse Bone Marrow Analyzed by Micronuclei Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate is used to prevent hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. It is speculated that the intravenous injection of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate can cause genotoxicity. To evaluate the genotoxicity of intravenously injected colloidal 32P chromic phosphate, authors performed a micronuclei test in mice bone marrow. Mice(ICR strain, 25 ? 30 g) were divided to 4 groups: control, group 1 (19.166 KBq/g, usual therapeutic dose in human), group 2 (191.66 KBq/g), and group 3 (1916.6 KBq/g). Five mice of each group were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Bone marrow were smeared and stained with Wright-Giemsa method. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were counted under the light microscope, and the number of micronucleated PCEs and NCEs were recorded. The frequency of micronuclei in PCE and NCE in the control group was 0.3 ± 0.06% and 0.45 ± 0.10%, respectively. At group 1, frequency of micronuclei is not different from the control. However, frequencies of micronuclei in PCE at groups 2 and 3 were significantly increased from day 1 and persisted to day 14. The frequency of micronuclei in NCE was increased only at group 3. In conclusion, the frequency of micronuclei increases as the dose of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate increases, while micronuclei was not induced at the usual therapeutic dose. And the frequency of micronuclei persistently elevated for 14 days in the cases of higher doses.

1992-03-01

306

Designing of a liver phantom to quantify 32p radionuclide using gamma camera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: 32P is a promising radionuclide for liver cancer because of its energetic beta emissions. The radionuclide microspheres are injected to liver artery. The injected particles must block the capillaries so radionuclide remain close to the tumor and give high dose to the target. The aim of this study was to determine how effective this method is, so we should quantify activity within organs such as liver and lung. So we provided a liver phantom and took planar images with gamma came...

Maryam Khazaee Moghadam; Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri; Hosseyn Pourbeygi

2010-01-01

307

Identification of capacitation-associated phosphoproteins in porcine sperm electroporated with ATP-gamma-(32)P.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objectives were to incorporate ATP-gamma-(32)P into boar sperm to radiolabel endogenous phosphoproteins and compare phosphorylation patterns from sperm incubated in capacitating (CM) and non-capacitating conditions (NCM). Sperm were electroporated (1000 V/cm, 125 microF/cm, 65 Omega/cm, 0.3 msec) with ATP-gamma-(32)P which moderately decreased sperm viability (P cells incubated in CM, whereas only two phosphorylated proteins were evident from sperm in NCM (44 and 57 kDa). The appearance of phosphoproteins increased concomitant with capacitation (P 0.05) and the 57 kDa phosphoprotein increased after capacitation (P percentage of motile sperm in either medium decreased with time, and CM only transiently maintained motility over NCM (P >/= 0.02). ATP-gamma-(32)P can, therefore, be incorporated into porcine sperm to radiolabel endogenous phosphoproteins, and the different profiles from sperm incubated in NCM versus CM suggest that capacitation is mediated by signaling events involving protein phosphorylation. PMID:10497351

Tardif, S; Sirard, M A; Sullivan, R; Bailey, J L

1999-11-01

308

Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

1987-01-01

309

Novel dose calculation and characterization of {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Derived from AAPM task group No. 60/149 protocol, applicable in treatment planning In this study, the two-dimensional dose distributions in water for a {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent have been calculated. The pure beta emitter source {sup 32}P which has been coated on Palmaz-Schatz stent is discussed. The dosimetric parameters required by the AAPM TG-60/149 formalism are discussed and calculated. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate at the reference point is found to be 2.8 Gy/{mu}Ci. Also in this study, the geometry function, G(r,{theta}), radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), have been calculated at distances from 1.8 to 9 mm. The results of these calculations have been compared with other published calculated and measured values for an actual same source. High dose variants were visible near the {sup 32}P stent surface, but these values decreased with depth in water rapidly. There is an acceptable agreement between the calculated data in this study and other published data for the same source, which validate our simulations method. (orig.)

Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute; Kiavar, Omid; Saidi, Pooneh [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Fatehi, Rozhin [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

2011-11-15

310

DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([?- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

2009-05-01

311

Colloidal chromic phosphate /sup 32/P synovectomy in antigen-induced arthritis in the rabbit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioisotopes have been employed in the therapy of chronic arthritis, in particular, rheumatoid arthritis for many years. A variety of isotopes have been popularized, and in the last ten years a colloidal solution of radioactive chromic phosphate /sup 32/P has been in use apparently with equivalent efficacy to others such as /sup 169/erbium, /sup 90/yttrium, and /sup 165/dysprosium. No controlled studies on this modality have been reported and few animal studies were found. The efficacy of therapeutic doses of /sup 32/P as a medical synovectomy and its effect on rabbit joints with antigen-induced arthritis were observed in 62 arthritic knee joints in 31 adult rabbits treated on one side with 0.1 microCi of /sup 32/P, the opposite serving as control. The animals were observed over a period of 11 months and examined by histologic and biochemical means. The synovium showed no evidence of radiation necrosis in treated joints. Cartilage of treated and control joints showed similar changes consistent with chronic arthritis, persistent synovitis, progressive chondrocyte degeneration, and decreased matrix metachromasia. The radiosynovectomy had neither removed synovium nor protected the cartilage. Its efficacy in humans is therefore questionable.

Howson, M.P.; Shepard, N.L.; Mitchell, N.S.

1988-04-01

312

Colloidal chromic phosphate 32P synovectomy in antigen-induced arthritis in the rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes have been employed in the therapy of chronic arthritis, in particular, rheumatoid arthritis for many years. A variety of isotopes have been popularized, and in the last ten years a colloidal solution of radioactive chromic phosphate 32P has been in use apparently with equivalent efficacy to others such as 169erbium, 90yttrium, and 165dysprosium. No controlled studies on this modality have been reported and few animal studies were found. The efficacy of therapeutic doses of 32P as a medical synovectomy and its effect on rabbit joints with antigen-induced arthritis were observed in 62 arthritic knee joints in 31 adult rabbits treated on one side with 0.1 microCi of 32P, the opposite serving as control. The animals were observed over a period of 11 months and examined by histologic and biochemical means. The synovium showed no evidence of radiation necrosis in treated joints. Cartilage of treated and control joints showed similar changes consistent with chronic arthritis, persistent synovitis, progressive chondrocyte degeneration, and decreased matrix metachromasia. The radiosynovectomy had neither removed synovium nor protected the cartilage. Its efficacy in humans is therefore questionable

1988-01-01

313

Dose-rate distribution of 32P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from 32P-loaded glass microspheres and also from 90Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of 32P and 90Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the 32P and 90Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

2010-02-01

314

Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following 32P treatment for polycythemia vera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orally administrated NA2 32PO4 mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits ?-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that 32P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of 32P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by 32P treatment in PCV. (author)

1990-01-01

315

Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

1990-01-01

316

Modified synthesis of 11-[{sup 14}C]-clozapine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[{sup 14}C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%.

Matloubi, Hojatollah E-mail: hmatloubi@seai.neda.net.ir; Ghandi, Mehdi; Zarrindast, M.-R.; Saemian, Nader

2001-11-01

317

Modified synthesis of 11-[14C]-clozapine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reported synthetic pathway of 8-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-11-[14C]-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazapine (clozapine) was modified in several steps. The synthetic pathway was shortened by 60% and the total yield was increased from 6% to 23%

2001-11-01

318

Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 346±79 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250?Ci/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K2,1, K1,2) and compartments pool size (V1, V2) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

1999-01-01

319

Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

1985-01-01

320

The synthesis of [14C] C I pigment violet 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the custom synthesis of radiolabeled compounds in the authors laboratory, aside from spectroscopic examination, their identity and radiochemical purity is routinely corroborated by demonstration of cochromatography with an authentic cold standard. In the synthesis of [14C] red pigment 1 for the Cosmetic Toiletry and Fragrance Association, its insolubility precluded this. The preparation as well as characterization of 1 is described

1990-04-22

 
 
 
 
321

Scintillation assembly for recording small amounts of 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scintillation detection system with stabilization of the electronic unit is described. The background and the efficiency of the detector with vial volume of 17.5 ml are 6 cpm and 35%, respectively. Results of 14C measurements in samples of tree annual rings for the period 1955 to 1974 are presented. (author)

1975-10-10

322

AMS measurements of 14C for human bone fossils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the establishment of Peking University Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (PKUAMS), a series of successful application research have been made in various fields. More than 20 human bone fossil samples in unknown layers from different areas of China have been measured by the PKUAMS facility. The facility and 14C measurements are described in detail

1997-10-01

323

Biokinetic studies on 14C-chitosan in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption and the basic metabolism of chitosan in rats are investigated. The results indicated that 14C-chitosan from gastrointestinal tract was absorbed, metabolized and excreted quickly without re-bioavailability. The radioactive compounds perhaps with specifically chemical forms in serum, liver and the contents of small intestines were separated on GPC column and measured by radioactivity counting. A big pile of peaks with the retention volume almost same as that of standard 14C-chitosan and another sharp one with the retention volume in the range of higher molecular weight same as that of BSA were discovered in analysis respectively for contents of intestine and serum or liver. The sharp peak would disappear if the proteins contained in the serum or liver were removed. In addition, and interesting tail peak, followed with the pile ones and eluted with the retention volume of lower molecular weight range same as that of chitooligosaccharides was also found in each of the 3 samples, ignoring the protein removal or not. These results suggested that most of 14C-chitosan was not to be digested in intestine. On the other hand, a small amount of 14C-chitosan was likely to be absorbed directly or after degraded to small molecular compounds into blood, liver and other tissues, and then connected with the proteins. Perhaps it is these trace materials that were playing important roles in reduction of the bioavailability of radiostrontium in rats

1998-01-01

324

Degradation of (sup 14)C-chlorsulfuron in soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study on the dynamics of degradation of the (sup 14)C-chlorsulfuron shows that extractable residua of chlorsulfuron in dry land soil under outdoor condition is reduced with the extension of time, the bond residua is increased gradually but its dying o...

Cheng Wei Chen Zuyi

1995-01-01

325

Radial transport of 14C in Norwegian pine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose to contribute to a dendro-calibration curve for 14C dating we turned our attention to pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in a high mountain area (62degN) of Norway. This area seemed to be sufficiently homogeneous to allow the build-up of a 400 years master chronology based on living trees. There should also be possibilities of finding old logs in the ground in order to extend the chronology further back. As concerns the 14C measurements, radial transport of bomb-produced 14C was reflected in the heartwood early in this century. A reflected peak in AD 1930 constituted a 14C activity of 6.7 +- 0.5% above normal level in untreated wood and was of advantage for testing the purification procedure. A complete removal of the contamination from outer rings became possible with inorganic solvents (KOH and NaClO2), where only the cellulose was extracted for measurement. The delta13C values are influenced by the pretreatment in accordance with the degree to which the various fractions are removed. Differences in delta13C values due to various pretreatment procedures may constitute up to 4 per thousand. (author)

1981-08-19

326

14C measurements in Bulgarian and Hungarian wines from 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of 14C in ethanol samples extracted from wines of different wine districts in Bulgaria and Hungary in 1986 showed that the atmospheric reservoir remained practically undisturbed by the emission due to the Chernobyl accident. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

1989-09-11

327

Excretion of radioactivity following the intraperitoneal administration of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDD, /sup 14/C-DDE and /sup 14/C-DDMU to the rat and Japanese Quail  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study in progress to examine the metabolic fate of DDT in birds and mammals is discussed. The first phase of the study, which is reported in this article, has been to establish the rate of excretion of ratioactivity following the intraperitoneal administrations of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDE, /sup 14/C-DDD, and /sup 14/C-DDMU to male rats and male Japanese quail. The mean values from the three animals in each experimental group for the amount of radioactivity excreted daily are given, and it was found that the rats excreted the radioactivity administered as DDT, DDD, and DDE substantially faster than did the quail. DDMU was excreted relatively rapidly and at similar rates. This finding suggests that apparent differences in the rates of excretion of DDT by birds and mammals probably arise from differences in the conversion of DDT to DDD or DDE or in the degradation of these metabolites to DDMU. The Japanese quail differ from the rats in excreting substantial amounts of unchanged DDT, DDE, and DDD, which probably reflects the inability of the Japanese quail to readily metabolise these compounds.

Fawcett, S.C. (Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, England); Bunyan, P.J.; Huson, L.W.; King, L.J.; Stanley, P.I.

1981-09-01

328

AEROSOL ACIDITY DETERMINATION BY REACTION WITH 14C LABELED AMINE  

Science.gov (United States)

The acidity of aerosol particles collected on Teflon membrane filters is analyzed by exposure to 14C labeled trimethylamine and by counting the resulting beta-ray emission. An accurate calibration is established by the use of known, laboratory generated sulfuric acid samples. For...

329

Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose. This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria of a mutant (DF214) that could not metabolize glucose. The total yield of radiochemically pure trehalose from glucose was routinely more than 50%

1989-01-01

330

Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Pigati, J. S.; Lifton, N. A.; Timothy, Jull, A. J.; Quade, J.

2010-01-01

331

Radioactive skin bandages incorporating 90Y, 188Re and 32P for treatment of superficial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Radioactive bandages incorporating b-emitters 90Y, 188Re and 32P were prepared with an aim to have a radiation source that will deliver a uniform radiation dose to the site of tumor treatment. There have been reports of specially designed b- emitting paper and skin patches incorporating high-energy beta emitters such as 188Re and 166Ho. 90Y-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates, 188Re-Tin particles and 32P-Chromic phosphate particles were prepared and separately filtered through Millipore filters. Filters incorporating 90Y, 188Re and 32P activity were immobilized between nitrocellulose membranes and placed on adhesive bandage. In-vitro stability of bandages was tested in saline and no leakage of activity was observed from the bandages. 90Y bandages were tested on fibrosarcoma bearing Swiss mice and 188Re bandages and 32P bandages were tested in melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Radioactive bandages were applied on tumors and parameters such as dose, fractionation of dose and time of contact were varied and effect was studied by following the tumor size. At ?18 MBq, there was no significant effect on tumor growth even on placing the patch for 24h. But, animals treated with >37MBq for 3h, showed delay in rate of growth compared to the controls. The best effect was observed on treatment with a second dose of 37-74 MBq after a week, when the tumors regressed fully. In those animals, skin surface appeared hard and necrotic but reversed to normal in few days. Histology studies were done to observe the effect on skin epithelium. Tumor histology slides from treated animals showed regression of tumor. Loss of hair follicles and sebaceous glands was observed in the treated area. Autoradiography and gamma camera imaging of radioactive bandage showed uniformity of dose distribution. Electron Gamma Shower Code (EGS4) system was used to calculate the dose rate distribution due to radioactive bandages at various depths from skin surface. Dose rate calculations revealed that reasonably high dose of ? 2.2 Gy/h/MBq is imparted by radioactive bandages to the tumor site. Both fibrosarcoma and melanoma responded well to treatment with radioactive bandages. Tumor growth was delayed at doses >37MBq. Fractionated doses were effective in complete regression of the tumor. Radioactive bandages incorporating beta emitters such as 90Y, 188Re and 32P could be a promising modality for treatment of superficial tumors. (author)

2004-01-01

332

Synthesis of ["1"4C] labelled N-nitro methylamine and N-nitro dimethylamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-nitro ["1"4C]methylamine was synthesized by the alkaline cleavage of N-nitro[methyl-"1"4C] methylurethane obtained by nitration of [N-methyl-"1"4C] methylurethane. N-nitro[N-methyl-"1"4C] dimethylamine could be obtained by methylation of monomethylnitramine with ["1"4C] diazomethane. (Author)

1989-06-01

333

Synthesis of [[sup 14]C] labelled N-nitro methylamine and N-nitro dimethylamine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

N-nitro [[sup 14]C]methylamine was synthesized by the alkaline cleavage of N-nitro[methyl-[sup 14]C] methylurethane obtained by nitration of [N-methyl-[sup 14]C] methylurethane. N-nitro[N-methyl-[sup 14]C] dimethylamine could be obtained by methylation of monomethylnitramine with [[sup 14]C] diazomethane. (Author).

Braun, H.; Plesch, W.; Frei, E.; Hassel, M.; Wiessler, M. (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. of Toxicology and Chemotherapy)

1989-06-01

334

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of "3"2P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The "3"2 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The "3"2 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The "3"2 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the "3"2 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the "3"2 P to leave of the irradiation of S ? with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S ?, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate "3"2 P of the S ?. In general, it was reached to obtain "3"2 P from S ? irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

2003-01-01

335

Endosperm protein synthesis and L-[35S]methionine incorporation in maize kernels cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to examine protein synthesis and L-[35S]methionine incorporation into the endosperm of Zea mays L. kernels developing in vitro. Two-day-old kernels of the inbred line W64A were placed in culture on a defined medium containing 10 microCuries L-[35S]methionine per milliliter (13 milliCuries per millimole) and harvested at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 days after pollination. Cultured kernels attained a final endosperm mass of 120 milligrams compared to 175 milligrams for field-grown controls. Field and cultured kernels had similar concentrations (microgram per milligram endosperm for total protein, albumin plus globulin, zein, and glutelin fractions at most kernel ages. Sodium, dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing patterns for endosperm proteins were similar for field and cultured kernels throughout development. By 15 days, over 70% of the L-[35S]methionine taken up was present in endosperm proteins. Label incorporation visualized by fluorography generally followed the protein intensity of the stained gels. The high methionine content, low molecular weight zeins (i.e. 15 and 9 kilodaltons) were highly labeled. All of the radioactivity in hydrolyzed zein samples was recovered in the methionine peak indicating minimal conversion to L-[35S]cysteine. The procedure described here is suitable for long term culture and labeling experiments in which continued kernel development is required

1984-01-01

336

[(35)S]sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of [(35)S]-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. [(35)S] incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect [(35)S] incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences [(35)S] sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes

1981-01-01

337

The uptake of S from four different 35 S labbelled fertilizer by tea plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of S derived from 35-S-labelled ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate, Kieserit (MgSO4) and Gypsum(CaSO4) of the specific activity of 0.1 mCi/g S by tea clone TRI 2025 planted in andosols was investigated. Randomized block design was used in the experiment. Fertilizers were give once at the rate of 40 kg S/ha. Counting of 35-S samples collected from the youngest and the lower leaves were done every week. Results of the experiment showed that the uptake patterns of S derived from fertilizers were the same for the youngest and the lower leaves. The activity of 35-S was clearly detected in leaves samples after one week of fertilizers application and increased continuously upto eight weeks. The total activity of 35-S in the plucked leaved derived from ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate and Kieserite were little bit higher than from gypsum. (authors). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

1986-12-16

338

[35S]ATP gamma S binding sites in the purified heart sarcolemma membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purified heart sarcolemma membranes were found to bind a slowly hydrolyzable analogue of ATP [35S-labeled adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate [(35S]ATP gamma S)] in a specific manner and exhibited two apparent affinity sites. The high-affinity site had a dissociation constant (KD) of 4.7-8.3 nM [maximum binding (Bmax) = 9.5-18.4 pmol/mg protein], whereas the low-affinity site had a KD of 655-1,257 nM (Bmax = 812-2,955 pmol/mg protein). Like ATP, other nucleotides such as GTP, UTP, ITP, and CTP were effective in displacing [35S]ATP gamma S binding. Although crude membrane preparations from different tissues also exhibited both high- and low-affinity sites for [35S]ATP gamma S, KD values for the high affinity sites were severalfold higher than that for the purified heart membranes. It is proposed that the high-affinity binding site for nucleotides may represent the ATP receptor in the heart cell membrane

1990-01-01

339

Imaging of cerebral protein synthesis using ["3"5S]-L-methionine, [1-"1"4C]-L-methionine and ["3H-methyl]-L-methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Autographic brain imaging techniques using "3"5S-, "1"4C-and "3H-labelled L-methionone combined with biochemical measurements of labelled methionine and other amino acids in plasma, the free amino acid pool of the brain, aminoacyl-tRNAs, and proteins have been performed for quantitating protein synthesis rates in rat brain. A model for the metabolic fate of methionine in the brain is presented from which several metabolic pools of the amino acid involved in protein synthesis were determined in the rat tissue. Finally a general reaction model is deduced for the precursor-product relationship in cerebral protein synthesis employing radioactive amino acids. (UK)

1984-10-19

340

Uptake of 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine-1-14C (14C-DMPEA) by rat tissues in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rat heart and spleen slices were incubated with 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine-1-14C(14C-DMPEA) in Krebs medium at 37 C. At the end of 5-20 min of incubation, the heart did not take up the radioactivity while the spleen did. The Km and Vmax values of uptake in the spleen were 1 x 10(-4) M and 20 nmole/g per min, respectively, and the uptake was reduced to 16.0-35.1% in the cold (4 C) and to 40.3-64.0% in Na+-free medium. Thus, the uptake was an energy-dependent active process but was only partially Na+-dependent. Spleen slices incubated with 14C-DMPEA-free medium for 15 min following incubation with 14C-DMPEA retained 41.0-74.8% of radioactivity. The uptake was insensitive to norepinephrine (0.313 and 0.939 muM), dopamine (9.98 muM), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5 muM), cocaine (14.8 muM), 1-amphetamine (0.3 and 300 muM), d-amphetamine (300 muM), and normetanephrine (45.7 muM). 6-Hydroxydopamine treatment of rats, which produced 93% reduction in the splenic norepinephrine content, did not significantly reduce uptake. Thus, the uptake of DMPEA into the spleen is not by adrenergic neurones. PMID:1260077

Gulati, O D; Shah, N S; Whitesides, D B

1976-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Synthesis of [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to {gamma}-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring {gamma}-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, {gamma}-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or {gamma}-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-{sup 14}C]glycine betaine and [methyl-{sup 14}C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author).

Loester, H.; Seim, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry

1996-02-01

342

Anthropogenic 14C in the natural (aquatic) environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing global awareness of the radiological significance of 14C releases from the nuclear and radiochemical industries has resulted in a number of studies within the last decade investigating the atmospheric releases and their effect on the terrestrial biosphere. The basis of this study was to determine the behaviour and environmental distribution of anthropogenically produced 14C released to the aquatic environment from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Most sampling was undertaken in the Irish Sea with smaller scale studies being carried out in the Bristol Channel and the Grand Union Canal. Within the study area, from Earnse Point 40 km south of Sellafield, northwards to the Clyde Sea area, preliminary studies on intertidal biota samples ie. mussels, winkles and seaweed indicated enriched 14C specific activities in all the samples relative to the current ambient level of 115.4 pM. The highest activities were observed in the immediate vicinity of the discharge location; mussels with a measured activity of 787 pM, winkles of 613 pM and seaweed of 415 pM. The 14C specific activity observed at most sites appeared to be organism dependent with mussels>winkles>seaweed. This is the result of differences in the uptake mechanisms of the organisms and indicates that the dissolved inorganic carbon and the particulate material within the water column are enriched in 14C . However, on analysis of the biogeochemical fractions of the water column, enriched 14C activities were observed only in the DIC fraction which could explain those activities found in the seaweed but not those in the mussels and winkles. Enriched 14C activities were found in the phytoplankton, indicating that there is a source of enriched organic particulate material within the water column as a result of photosynthetic uptake of enriched DIC, however this will be a seasonal effect. Nevertheless, this enrichment is still not high enough to support the activities observed in the mussels and winkles, although, this was only a single sample and may not be a true reflection of the activities present. A similar anomaly is present in the activities found in bottom-dwelling fish and the sediments on which they feed; the fish are more highly enriched than the organic fraction of the sediments. These discrepancies may point to higher discharges having occurred in the past and/or to areas within the Irish Sea which are of a more enriched nature and were not investigated during this study. The geographical distribution of Sellafield-derived 14C in the DIC was determined by extensive sampling within the Irish Sea and Scottish coastal water areas. 137Cs, a known conservative radioactive tracer of water movement, was also analysed at the sites to allow comparison with the chemical behaviour of 14C . The results indicate that the behaviour of 14C in seawater, like that of 137Cs, is largely conservative. There was, however, a slight increase in the 14C/137Cs ratio with increasing distance from Sellafield. This may be a reflection of biological uptake of carbon or the desorption of 137Cs from the sediments. A more complex treatment of the data was carried out using a compartmental model, based on the hydrography of the study area, which was initially developed from 137Cs data. The agreement between the predicted and observed values indicates that the 14C distribution (as DIC) is being determined by water movement and the local current system ie. 14C in the DIC is behaving in a relatively conservative manner in the water column. Similar observations were made in the Bristol Channel as a result of discharges from the radiochemical plant owned by Amersham International plc ie. intertidal biota and organic sediments were enriched, and the DIC of the water column was also enriched with decreasing activities observed with increasing distance from the point of release. However, at this site, the POC and DOC were also enriched in 14C, indicating that the discharges are in a different chemical form from those at Sellafield. Given the nature of the work undertaken at Am

1992-01-01

343

Phosphorus absorption (32P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free 32P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to 32P injection. (orig.)

1983-01-01

344

Phosphorus absorption (/sup 32/P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free /sup 32/P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to /sup 32/P injection.

Habib, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 84 - Montfavet (France). Station d' Agronomie)

1983-01-01

345

Phosphorus ({sup 32} P) adsorption kinetics and equilibrium in soils of Pernambuco State, Brazil; Isotermas e cinetica de adsorcao de fosforo ({sup 32} P) em solos de Pernambuco  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work was to determine the relationship between the P fixing capacity of various soils and their hydrous oxide content. The relationship with other soil variables was also analysed. This fixing capacity was evaluated through adsorption isotherms and isotopic exchange kinetics of {sup 32} P in samples with high and low P concentrations. Samples from 11 soils, cultivated with sugar-cane, representing five soil classes (non-humic gley, red-yellow Podzolic, red-yellow latossolic, distrofic quartzitic sand and distrofic organic). The soils were sampled in the southern humid coastal region of the state of Pernambuco. Soil were sampled immediately after harvest of the plant-cane. The results of the basic soil chemical analysis showed that all soils had pH values in the acid range,varying from 3.87 to 6.31. Total organic C was always less than 12 mg C/g, except for the organic soil that had 75 mg C/g soil. In soils with R{sub 1}/R{sub 0} between 0,01 and 0,1 the proportion of resin P oscillated between 10 and 20 of the increase in total inorganic P, while in those with R{sub 1}/R{sub 0} > 0,1 the proportion was larger than 20% with one exception. (author). 44 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Machado, Lucivaldo Celestino

1996-11-01

346

Bioaccumulation profiles of "3"5S-labelled sodium alkylpoly(oxyethylene) sulfates in carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake, distribution and elimination of two labelled surfactants, "3"5S-labelled sodium dodecyltri(oxyethylene) sulfate ("3"5S-C12-AES(3)) and "3"5S-labelled sodium dodecylpenta(oxyethylene) sulfate ("3"5S-C12-AES(5)) were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to concentrations of 0.3-0.6 mg l"-"1, using whole-body autoradiography and the liquid scintillation counting method. "3"5S-Radioactivity was first rapidly absorbed by the gills and skin and transferred to other organs and tissues. After 24h-exposure, there was a comparatively high accumulation of "3"5S-radioactivity in the gills, hepatopancreas, gall bladder, intestinal content, and nasal and oral cavity. The distribution patterns of "3"5S-radioactivity derived from "3"5S-C12-AES(3) and "3"5S-C12-AES(5) in tissues and organs were similar. The whole-body concentration factors of "3"5S-radioactivity in fish exposed to "3"5SC12-AES(3) and "3"5S-C12-AES(5) for 72 hr were 18 and 4.7, respectively. In surfactant-free water, the absorbed "3"5S-radioactivity was eliminated more rapidly from the fish body exposed to "3"5S-C12-AES(3) than "3"5S-C12-AES(5). It was eliminated relatively fast from gills and hepatopancreas, but elimination from gall bladder was rather slow. (author)

1980-01-01

347

Degradation of 14C-Labeled Lignins and 14C-Labeled Aromatic Acids by Fusarium solani  

Science.gov (United States)

Abilities of isolate AF-W1 of Fusarium solani to degrade the side chain and the ring structure of synthetic dehydrogenative polymerizates, aromatic acids, or lignin in sound wood were investigated under several conditions of growth substrate or basal medium and pH. Significant transformations of lignins occurred in 50 days in both unextracted and extracted sound wood substrates with 3% malt as the growth substrate and the pH buffered initially at 4.0 with 2,2-dimethylsuccinate. Degradation of lignin in such woods also occurred under unbuffered pH conditions when a basal medium of either 3% malt or powdered cellulose in deionized water was present. Decomposition of the lignin in these woods did not occur in cultures where d-glucose was present as a growth substrate. F. solani significantly transformed, as measured as evolved 14CO2, both synthetic side chain (?, ?)-14C- and U-ring-14C-labeled lignins in 30 days under liquid culture conditions of only distilled deionized water and no pH adjustment. Degradation of dehydrogenative polymerizates by F. solani was reduced drastically when D2 was the liquid medium. AF-W1 also cleaved the ?-14C from p-hydroxybenzoic acid and evolved 14CO2 from the substrate, [3-14C]cinnamic acid. Thus, the fungus cleaved side chain carbon from substrate that originally lacked hydroxyl substitution on the aromatic nucleus. Surprisingly, small amounts of 14C cleaved from aromatic acids by F. solani were incorporated into cell mass. Initial buffering of the culture medium to pH 4.0 or 5.0 with 0.1 M 2,2-dimethylsuccinate significantly increased F. solani degradation of all lignins or aromatic acids. Results indicated that AF-W1 used lignin as a sole carbon source.

Norris, Dale M.

1980-01-01

348

Preparation of highly concentrated super-hot (?-32P)ATP using small-scale ion-exchange chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain a highly concentrated, pure and super-hot [?-32P]ATP, we improved the purification method of super-hot [?-32P]ATP which was synthesized by the method of Johnson and Walseth (1979). The super-hot [?-32P]ATP was synthesized in a relatively large volume (2 ml) of reaction mixture and purified using semi-micro scale anion exchange chromatography (Dowex 1 x 2, 60 - 70 ?l column volume). In combination with washing the reaction product with certain organic solvents, this chromatography technique makes it possible to obtain a highly concentrated and pure super-hot [?-32P]ATP (approx. 7000 Ci/mmol; 20 - 30 mCi/ml) from [32P]Pi of any commercial source in a good yield. (author)

1987-01-01

349

Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-"3"5S-cysteine and L-"3"5S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity L-"3 "5 S-cysteine and L-"3"5 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na_2 "3 "5 SO_4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-"3 "5 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na_2 "3"5 SO_4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

1994-06-01

350

Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro / Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose), sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, [...] manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultados permitiram concluir que 33% do S adicionado foi absorvido, e desse total 27% foi translocado, não havendo influência dos aditivos sobre esses processos. O ácido sulfúrico e o sulfato de amonio destacaram-se como os melhores fornecedores de enxofre, via foliar, para o feijoeiro. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of sulphur sources, in the presence or absence of additives (urea and glucose), on the sulphur uptake by bean leaves. The treatments: solutions of sulphuric acid, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc sulphate [...] s labelled with 35S, containing or not the additives, were applied to the first trifoliate of the plants to assess the sulphur uptake and translocation. The results enable to conclude that 33% of the added sulphur was absorved, and 27% out of this total was translocated. The additives did not have any influence on uptake and translocation. The sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate solutions were the best sulphur suppliers for the bean plant.

J.A. de, Oliveira Jr.; I.C., Rêgo; W.B., Scivittaro; O.F. de, Lima Filho; R., Stefanutti; G.R., Gonzáles; A.E., Boaretto.

351

A critical review of atmospheric 14 C activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14 C activity of atmospheric CO2 has been measured at the Rudjer Boskovi Institute as a part of environmental monitoring in order to determine possible differences between clean-air sites, industrialized city and sites in the vicinity of nuclear power plant. Samples of CO2 from the atmosphere have been collected by absorption of CO2 on the saturated carbonate-free NaOH solution for a period of 1 month under stationary conditions. The obtained Na2 CO3 has been dissolved in HCl and the produced CO2 used for CH4 preparation by catalytic reaction with H2 at 450 degrees Celsius. A gas proportional counter filled with CH4 has been used for 14 C activity measurement. The method of collection of CO2 does not require any power source and can be therefore used for sampling at the remote sites, such as mountains or forests. However,due to the lack of mixing of the Na OH solution, the absorption process is limited on the surface of the solution, and there exists the possibility of fractionation of carbon isotopes due to different reaction rate constants of 12 C and 13 C. A continuous record of atmospheric 14 CO2 activity exists for the city of Zagreb (1986 to 2005), while shorter records (1-2 years) exist for several other sites of various characteristics: two clean-air sites (Mt. Medvednica, altitude about 1000 m a.s.l., for period 1995 to 1996, and the Plitvice National Park for period 2003 to 2005), and a site close to the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (1984 to 1986).Within the bilateral Croatian-Slovene project we have recently measured also the stable isotope composition (?13 C) of Na2CO3 collected at two different sampling sites in order to determine seasonal fluctuations in both 14 C and 13 C isotope composition. Unexpectedly low ?13 C values have been obtained about (-25±2)0/00 instead of expected (-7±1)0/00. Such low values have been attributed to the carbon isotope fractionation during the CO2 absorption on the highly alkaline medium because of different reaction rate constants of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 with OH. Since the reported 14 C activities have to be corrected for the ?13 C content of the sample, the low ?13 C values of the collected Na2CO3 have to be taken into account. Therefore, our complete database on atmospheric 14 C activities has been recalculated. The change of ?13 C from-7 to -25 increases the reported 14 C activity (?14 C) for 36 nd this difference could explain previously reported rather low atmospheric 14 C activity as compared to other similar sites in Europe. In this paper we present the revised data for all sampling sites and we discuss the differences. (authors)

2006-05-15

352

10Be and 14C in the Earth system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a very short period of time, 10Be data have significantly improved our knowledge in various fields of Earth and planetary sciences. Examples are solar modulation of isotope production, revealed in 10Be ice-core profiles; geomagnetic modulation of isotope production, revealed in 10Be ice-core (from the past 10 ka) and ocean-sediment profiles (geomagnetic reversals); climatic effects reflected in 10Be profiles in loess and polar ice cores (10Be behaviour in atmosphere); comparison of 10Be and 14C variations (tree rings) from carbon-cycle models and information on ocean circulation history from 14C measurements on benthic and planktonic Foraminifera in ocean sediments. An overview on work in collaboration with the Zurich AMS (accelerator mass spectroscopy) facility is given. (author)

1987-08-25

353

The 14C AMS facility at LABEC, Florence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main facility of the new INFN laboratory in Florence (LABEC, LAboratorio di tecniche nucleari per i BEni Culturali) is a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europe, used for both Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) measurements. The AMS beam line is equipped with a 59-sample sputter ion source and a sequential injector - on the low energy side - and a spectrometer composed of a 115o analysing magnet and a 65o electrostatic analyser - on the high energy side. A sample preparation laboratory has been installed for radiocarbon measurements. Combustion of pre-treated organic samples is performed using an elemental analyser; four parallel graphitisation reactors are available for CO2 reduction. In this paper, the performance of the whole system is presented: 14C values of chemistry blanks correspond to radiocarbon ages in the order of 50,000 years BP; measurements of 14C concentration in different standard reference materials demonstrate good accuracy

2007-06-01

354

Feasibility studies of RFQ based 14C accelerator mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrostatic accelerators with terminal voltage less than 1 MeV have been successfully used for 14C AMS. This contribution shows that a small RFQ accelerator may also be suitable for AMS 14C measurements. A well-designed RFQ accelerator can realize a low energy spread and high isotopic selection with a length of less than 1 m and reasonable power consumption. Compared with small tandem accelerators, a RFQ does not need isolation gas and can accept much higher beam currents. Its stripper would be at ground potential and there would be no further acceleration after stripping, so the background from charge exchange processes should be lower. The RFQ design and system are described

2007-06-01

355

Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5?M, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 ?M. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake (?70%) indicating the presence of >10?M particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

2001-06-01

356

Determination of 14C-lindane residues in stored rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-lindane was applied as dust to paddy rice. Surface, extractable and bound residues were determined in paddy rice up to a storage period of nine months. The surface and methanol-extractable residues decreased with storage time. The husk contained a greater amount of lindane compared to the grains. After removing surface residues, the grain was found to contain 2.7 mg/kg of extractable lindane and/or equivalent residues after nine months from treatment. (author)

1987-01-01

357

May {sup 14}C be used to date contemporary art?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, {sup 14}C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, {sup 14}C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to 'precisely' date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured {sup 14}C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the {sup 14}C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caforio, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mando, P.A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Petrucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Taccetti, F. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

2013-01-15

358

Acceleration of "1"4C beams in electrostatic accelerators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operational problems in the production and acceleration of "1"4C beams for nuclear structure research in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Van de Graaff accelerators are discussed. Methods for the control of contamination in ion sources, accelerators and personnel are described. Sputter source target fabrication techniques and the relative beam production efficiencies of various types of bound particulate carbon sputter source targets are presented

1981-04-16

359

Acceleration of /sup 14/C beams in electrostatic accelerators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operational problems in the production and acceleration of /sup 14/C beams for nuclear structure research in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Van de Graaff accelerators are discussed. Methods for the control of contamination in ion sources, accelerators and personnel are described. Sputter source target fabrication techniques and the relative beam production efficiencies of various types of bound particulate carbon sputter source targets are presented.

Rowton, L.J.; Tesmer, J.R.

1981-01-01

360

Synthesis of DL-(carboxyl-14C)tyrosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method developed for the synthesis of DL-(carboxyl-14C)tyrosine by the Strecker route, with a yield of about 45% based on cyanide on half a millimolar scale of operation, is reported. Studies conducted for finding out the ideal reagent and the proper conditions to be employed for affecting the complete demethylation of p-methoxy phenylalanine - the reaction intermediate - to yield tyrosine of high purity are also presented. (author)

1981-05-25

 
 
 
 
361

May 14C be used to date contemporary art?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963–1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

2013-01-01

362

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

363

Hematological changes in the house rat after 32P internal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male house rats (Rattus rattus) were injected with 32P at the dose of 1.46 kBq/g body weight. The blood was collected at post-injection intervals of 1/4, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days and various hematological parameters were estimated. An initial decrease in leukocyte count and total plasma protein content (on days 2 to 4) was noted whereas erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percentage and hematocrit value decreased at later intervals only (on days 6 to 8). The plasma cholesterol level registered significant increase on day 2. The possible reasons for these changes have been discussed in the present report. (author)

1982-01-01

364

Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal 32P uptake at various times of injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid 32P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased

1983-01-01

365

Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

1982-01-01

366

Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

1988-01-01

367

Synthesis of 32P-labelled compounds by using recoil atoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of preparation of O,O-dialkyl-dithiophosphates, labelled by phosphor-32, due to the stabilization of phosphor-32 recoil atoms, forming by 32S(n,p)32P reaction in the carbon disulfide-alkanol system at its irradiation by fast neutrons is investigated. Preparation technique of compounds, labelled by phosphor-32, with high yield in the carrier-free state is developed. Stabilization scheme of phosphor-32 recoil atoms in the carbon disulfide-alkanol system using radiochromatographic data is suggested

1988-01-01

368

Braquiterapia del Espacio Subaracnoideo y Ventrículos Cerebrales con el Radiocoloide Fosfato Crómic 32P (CROP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de Braquiterapia del espacio subaracnoideo mediante la introducción de un coloide de FostatoCrómico 32P (CROP en el LCR. Se usaron 90 conejos y los coloides fueron inyectados por vía cisternal. Se comprobó la distribución uniforme y permanencia del CROP en la pia-aracnoides de todo el espacio subaracnoideo y superficie cortical y en el epéndimo ventricular mediante autorradiografías y cortes histológicos con técnica de stripping film. La distribución del 32P en hígado (10%, bazo (7% y médula ósea (2% y otros órganos no provoca efectos significativos. Se comprueba la tolerancia neurológica perfecta para los coloides de partículas finas de menos de 100 nm (CROP, y la neurotoxicidad de los coloides de partículas grandes mayores a 100 nm.. Con altas dosis los estudios histológicos demostraron la ausencia de edema o de lesiones en células y tejido nerviosos. Hasta 6 meses de observación ninguno de los animales mostró trastornos neurológicos atribuíbles al CROP, ni con la repetición de sus aplicaciones.A method of brachitherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P in colloidal form (CROP introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%, spleen (7% and bone marrow (2% and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP was proved and no severe neurotoxic effets where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications.

Girado, Martín.

2003-07-01

369

Studies on /sup 32/P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on /sup 32/P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed.

Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

1982-01-01

370

Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by {sup 32}P-HPLC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling and {sup 32}P-high-performance liquid chromatography ({sup 32}P-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16 substances tested were, in increasing order, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 9-vinylanthracene. Metabolic activation with human and rat liver extracts gave rise to the same DNA adduct clusters. When bioactivation with material from different human individuals was used, there was a significant correlation between the CYP 1A1 activity and the capacity to form DNA adducts. This pattern was also confirmed using the CYP 1A1 inhibitor ellipticine. The {sup 32}P-HPLC method was shown to be sensitive and reproducible, and it had the capacity to separate DNA adduct-forming substances when applied to a great variety of petroleum products. (orig.)

Akkineni, L.K.; Zeisig, M.; Baranczewski, P.; Moeller, L. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Biosciences at Novum; Ekstroem, L.-G. [AB Nynaes Petroleum, Group Competence Centre, Nynaeshamn (Sweden)

2001-01-01

371

Effect of metabolic inhibitors on N-induced uptake and transport of 32P by maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both uptake and transport of 32P by 12 days old intact maize plants were found to be sensitive to DNP, amytal and KCN, at all P concentrations tested Nitrogen induced uptake and transport of P were also sensitive to DNP and KNC at all P concentrations used. The sensitivity to inhibitors decreased with increasing P concentration. The recorded maximum decrement being 30% at 100 mM P concentration. Under direct N nutrition, greater inhibition in both uptake and transport was obtained with DNP than with other inhibitors. Under direct NH4 N nutrition, greater inhibition was obtained with KCN. Inducement under preuptake N supply was not sensitive to inhibitors. (author)

1975-01-01

372

Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

1976-01-01

373

Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 102 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

1978-01-01

374

Bioproduction of [14C]ochratoxin A in submerged culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were tested for production of ochratoxin A (OA) in several media. After 8 days of static incubations of submerged cultures at 28 degrees C, toxin yields of 25 and 30 micrograms/ml were obtained with Aspergillus alliaceus NRRL 4181 in Ferreirás and 2% yeast extract-4% sucrose media, respectively. However, the largest production observed in the preliminary screening was 54 micrograms/ml; this highest level was produced by A. sulphureus NRRL 4077 in a modified Czapek solution. The medium contained the basal salts and sucrose of Czapek plus urea (3%) and corn steep liquor (0.5% solids). A time study of toxin production demonstrated maximum yield of 350 micrograms/ml by the A. sulphureus isolate in the modified Czapek medium after 11 days of static incubation at 28 degrees C. The optimal production conditions were employed in additional tests designed to measure the efficiency of 14C incorporation from sodium [1-14C]-acetate into OA. Samples (20 microCi) of sodium acetate were added to separate culture flasks at 24-h intervals during the initial 9 days of the fermentation. Addition of [14C]acetate on day 4 of incubation provided the maximum yield of labeled OA. The highest specific activity of labeled toxin obtained was 0.07 microCi/mg of OA and the maximum incorporation rate of labeled acetate was 5.3%. PMID:727787

Lillehoj, E B; Aalund, O; Hald, B

1978-11-01

375

14C ages of the Quaternary strata in Japan, (130)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the area under investigation, Gotsu and Waki terraces lie with a cliff between these two. Therefore, it is considered that from the beginning of the alluvial period to the present sea level, two periods of high sea level and one period of low sea level between them existed. The Gotsu terrace was possibly formed in Jomon marine transgression confirmed across the country, but its height is somewhat high. Concerning the high sea level after the Jomon marine transgression, while there are much uncertainties, minor transgressions have been recognized. 14C age determination was made where Waki terrace spreads widely in Gotsu sand dunes, as an indication of the minor transgressions was anticipated. The 14C age measured with charcoal chips was 265 +- 80 Y.B.P. (260 +- 80 Y.B.P.) unexpectedly. There are sand dunes covering partly the terraces and hills, containing two layers of black sand. In the upper layer, the 14C age of charcoal chips contained in it was 955 +- 75 Y.B.P. (930 +- 75 Y.B.P.). (J.P.N.)

1979-01-01

376

14C-Methylenebisphenylisocyanate (14C-MDI). Study of absorption after single dermal and intradermal administration in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption, distribution and excretion of radioactivity was studied in groups of four male Wistar rats following a single dermal and intradermal administration of 14C- Methylenebisphenylisocyanate (14C-MDI) at nominal dose levels of 4.0 and 0.4 mg/cm2 for dermal administration and 0.4 mg/animal for intradermal administration. These dose levels nominally corresponded to 40 and 4.0 mg/animal for dermal administration. Considering the animal weights, dose levels corresponded to about 140 and 14 mg/kg body weight (dermal administration) and 1.4 mg/kg body weight (intradermal administration). In the experiments with dermal administration, animals were exposed for 8 hours and sacrificed 8, 24 or 120 h after beginning of exposure. In the experiment with intradermal administration, animals were sacrificed 120 h after treatment. After dermal administration of 14C-MDI, mean recoveries of radioactivity from all dose groups were in the range from 97.86 to 108.07% of the total radioactivity administered. Generally, the largest proportion of radioactivity was found at the application site and dressing. The total amount of radioactivity absorbed (including excreta, cage wash, tissues/organs and carcass) increased with increasing sacrifice time. Dermal absorption was very low and quantitatively similar at both dose levels; maximally ca. 0.9 % of the applied radioactivity was absorbed. After intradermal administration of 14C-MDI, the mean recovery of radioactivity was 100.90 % of the radioactivity administered. The largest proportion of radioactivity was found at the application site. The total amount of radioactivity absorbed (including excreta, cage wash, tissues/organs and carcass) amounted to about 26 % of the radioactivity applied. Irrespective of the mode of administration of 14C-MDI, concentrations of radioactivity in tissues and organs generally were below 1 ?g Eq/g at 120 h after administration. In summary, the results of this study comparing systemic availability of radioactivity after single dermal and intradermal administration of 14C-MDI clearly demonstrated very limited absorption after dermal administration but considerable absorption after intradermal administration. The radioactivity absorbed was distributed in all organs and tissues with highest levels being found in carcass, thyroid, muscle, plasma and liver. Excretion of radioactivity mainly occurred via the feces. (author)

1999-01-01

377

Migration of 14C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system after 14C-acetic acid breakdown by microorganisms below the plow layer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Migration of 14C derived from 14C-acetic acid was examined by using soils sampled from paddies in four administrative areas in Japan (Aomori, Yamanashi, Ehime and Okinawa) and rice plant in a tracer experiment to understand the fate of 14C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system. The loss of 14C radioactivity levels derived from 14C-acetic acid was caused by soil microorganism breakdown. A part of the 14C fixation to soil was caused by microbial assimilation into the fatty acid fraction. 14C moved upward via two different types of 14C dynamics in soil: quick movement upward; and constant but slow movement upward. 14C was highly assimilated into the plant panicle and that was caused by the root-uptake and the transfer of 14C. Migration of 14C derived from 14C-acetic acid relied heavily upon changes of chemical forms and characteristics of 14C-compound as caused by microorganisms in soil.

2010-02-01

378

Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

1981-01-01

379

t-(/sup 35/S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites in invertebrate tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specific high affinity binding of the cage convulsant t-(35S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) was observed in membrane homogenates of housefly heads and crayfish abdominal muscles. (35S)TBPS binding in these two invertebrate tissues was inhibited by biologically active cage convulsants, picrotoxin analogs, and barbiturates. The housefly binding sites were inhibited most potently by several insecticides. Approximately 50% of total binding was displaceable by excess (0.1 mM) nonradioactive TBPS, picrotoxinin, ethyl bicyclophosphate, or dieldrin. Optimal binding assay conditions for housefly homogenates included pH 7.5, 22 degrees C temperature, 0.3 M chloride concentration, and incubation for 60 min; for crayfish homogenates, 4 degrees C temperature and 150-min incubations were optimal. Scatchard plots of equilibrium binding indicated one site in both tissues (KD = 50 nM, Bmax = 250 fmol/mg protein in housefly; KD = 25 nM, Bmax = 100 fmol/mg protein in crayfish). Association kinetics in housefly were consistent with one rate constant (k+1 = 8 X 10(6) M-1 min-1), but dissociation was described better by two rate constants (k-1 = 0.28 min-1 and 0.042 min-1; calculated KD values of 80 nM and 12 nM). Displacement by cage convulsants showed Hill numbers near 0.5, also consistent with two populations of affinity, while displacement by other drugs showed Hill numbers near 1.0. (35S)TBPS binding in insects was most potently inhibited by the insecticides dieldrin (IC50 = 50 nM), aldrin, and lindane (200 nM), in a stereospecific manner, consistent with this binding site being the receptor for biological toxicity. (35S)TBPS binding was also inhibited by relatively high concentrations of some pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin and cypermethrin (1-2 microM).

Olsen, R.W.; Szamraj, O.; Miller, T.

1989-04-01

380

Distribution of radioactivity in the mouse organism after administration of 35S-chondroitin sulphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The follow-up of chondroitin sulphate (ChS) distribution in the organism after its administration by various routes is interesting in view of the possibility of clinical applications. Mice received intraperitoneally and intragastrically 35S-ChS and the distribution of radioactivity was followed in 10 chosen organs. The dynamics of changes in radioactivity were found to differ in dependence on the type of organ and route of administration. (author)

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Comparison of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and nopaline synthase promoters in transgenic plants.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have compared the level of expression of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase promoter when fused to a common reporter gene. A cassette containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (type II) coding sequence followed by the nopaline synthase 3' nontranslated region was used for transcriptional and translational evaluation of the two different promoters. These chimeric genes were introduced into petunia plants and the copy number of the gene, the steady state lev...

Sanders, P. R.; Winter, J. A.; Barnason, A. R.; Rogers, S. G.; Fraley, R. T.

1987-01-01

382

Neutron cross-section of 34S(n,?)35S reaction preliminary measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The thermal neutron cross-section for 34S(n,?)35S reaction was measured more than one decade ago and the obtained values are discrepant. This time, we irradiated two samples of natural sulfur (with 4.21(8)% of 34S) simultaneously, along with Au-Al alloy (0.1 % of gold) to monitor the neutron flux, using the well-known cross-section value of the 197Au(n,?)198Au reaction. One pair sample and monitor was irradiated bared and other pair inside cadmium cover about 0.5 mm thickness, to apply the cadmium difference method. The irradiation was performed near the core of the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN (Nuclear Energy Research Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil). The flux monitor activities were measured using a High Purity Germanium detector. The residual activity of the 35S , which is a pure ?- emitter, was measured in a 4??-? calibration system, composed of a gas-flow proportional counter coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) crystals operating in coincidence. The beta activity of 35S was determined through the extrapolation method associated with the tracer method, where the irradiated natural sulfur is dissolved in carbon disulfide and mixed with a solution containing the tracer, 60Co. An amount of the resulting solution was dropped in a substrate of collodion. After the first measurement, both sides of the source were covered with absorbers of collodion or aluminum and new measurements were taken. This process was repeated some times, reducing gradually the ?-? coincidence counting efficiency. The resulting complex behavior of the ?, ? and coincidence detection efficiency was simulated by Monte Carlo method using modified penelope subroutines. The 35S activity was obtained by the extrapolation to 100% ? efficiency fitting parameterized simulations results to the experimental data by least squares method. (author)

2011-06-05

383

Deposition of (/sup 35/S)-carbonyl sulphide to vegetable crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the principal form of /sup 35/S in the coolant of CO/sub 2/-cooled nuclear reactors under operational conditions. Measurements were made of the deposition velocity (Vg) of (/sup 35/S)-COS (on a single-side leaf area basis) to a range of vegetable cultivars under turbulent conditions simulating maximal deposition in the field. The Vg for all the cultivars was <=75% of the Vg to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) at 7.75 x 10/sup -4/ m.s/sup -1/. Uptake was greatest for brassicas and radishes (mean Vg 4.60 - 5.79 x 10/sup -4/m.s/sup -1/) and least for lettuces, onions and spinach (mean Vg 2.48 - 3.96 x 10/sup -4/m.s/sup -1/). Under illuminated conditions, when the stomata are open, differences in stomatal resistance accounted for <10% of the variation in Vg between species/cultivars, and differences in mesophyll resistance were probably more important. No change in stomatal resistance was observed before and after fumigation, indicating that the COS concentration employed (9.9 ..mu..g.m/sup -3/, about seven times ambient) had no effect on the stomata. The results show that the use of Vg values of (/sup 35/S)-COS to ryegrass in models to estimate ingested radiation dose following the consumption of green vegetables would increase the margin of safety by overestimating the /sup 35/S content of the crop by 30-300%.

Kluczewski, S.M.; Bell, J.N.B. (Imperial Coll., Silwood Park (UK). Dept. of Pure and Applied Biology); Brown, K.A. (Central Electricity Research Labs., Leatherhead (UK))

1985-01-01

384

Histological study of the early stage of 32P-induced experimental osteosarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of 32P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

1998-04-01

385

Histological study of the early stage of {sup 32}P-induced experimental osteosarcoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 32}P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of {sup 32}P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

Yahagi, Hiroshi; Osaka, Shunzo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

1998-04-01

386

Investigation of the 31P(n vector,?)32P reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The circular polarization has been measured of 16 ?-rays produced by the capture of polarized thermal neutrons in 31P. The results, fitted together with those from previous ?-? angular correlation measurements, determine the channel spin mixing parameter ? for four primary transitions and the mixing ratio delta for one primary and eight secondary transitions. On the assumption that the reaction proceeds by means of direct capture, the ?-values obtained prove that the Jsup(?) = 1- states in 32P at 4.04 and 4.88 MeV have very pure s1sub(/)2p3sub(/)2 character, and that at 5.78 MeV pure s1sub(/)2p1sub(/)2 character. For the Esub(x) = 4.66 and 5.35 MeV levels Jsup(?) = 2- has been determined. The 31P(n vector,?)32P reaction provides an example of violation of the sum rule for primary intensities ? +- ??(1-?)Isub(?) = 0. This cannot be explained by a semi-direct capture contribution to primary M1 transitions but only by missing 2p1sub(/)2 strength. (orig.)

1981-01-26

387

Detection and characterization of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P-postlabeling has emerged as a major tool for detecting DNA adducts, since (1) it can detect unknown adducts resulting from complex mixtures; (2) it requires microgram quantities of DNA; and (3) it is extremely sensitive (1 adduct/1010 nucleotides). The assay comprises degradation of DNA to 3'-mononucleotides, 5'-32p-labeling, adduct separation by multi-directional PEI-cellulose TLC, and detection by autoradiography. The presence of open-quotes extra spotsclose quotes on the chromatogram derived from treated as compared to untreated DNA indicates for DNA adducts. Since spectroscopic techniques require nanogram quantities, and material available from an adduct spot is usually in femtogram range, characterization of adducts has thus far depended upon chromatographic resemblance with reference compounds. However, alternate procedures based on physico-chemical properties of adducts have been suggested to gain insight into the chemical nature of unknown adducts. The assay has been applied to over 140 carcinogens, making it ideally suited for complex mixture exposures as in human settings

1992-08-23

388

Practical synthesis of 14C S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine uniformly labelled on the sugar moiety. An enzymatic route from (U-14C) adenosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[(U-14C) S-Ribosyl]-L-homocysteine has been prepared enzymatically from (U-14C) adenosine in two steps using S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase and bacterial S-adenosyl homocysteine nucleosidase as catalysts. (Author)

1992-09-01

389

Practical synthesis of [sup 14]C S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine uniformly labelled on the sugar moiety. An enzymatic route from (U-[sup 14]C) adenosine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

[(U-[sup 14]C) S-Ribosyl]-L-homocysteine has been prepared enzymatically from (U-[sup 14]C) adenosine in two steps using S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase and bacterial S-adenosyl homocysteine nucleosidase as catalysts. (Author).

Guillerm, G.; Allart, B. (U.F.R. Sciences de Reims (France). Lab. de Chimie Bioorganique)

1992-09-01

390

Biosynthesis of lutropin in ovine pituitary slices: incorporation of [35S]sulfate in carbohydrate units  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulfate incorporation into carbohydrate of lutropin (LH) has been studied in sheep pituitary slices using H2(35)SO4. Labeled ovine LH was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-100 and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography from both the incubation medium and tissue extract. Autoradiography of the gel showed only two protein bands which comigrated with the alpha and beta subunits of ovine LH in both the purified ovine LH and the immunoprecipitate obtained with LH-specific rabbit antiserum. Furthermore, [35S]sulfate was also incorporated into several other proteins in addition to LH. The location of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ in the oligosaccharides of ovine LH was evidenced by its presence in the glycopeptides obtained by exhaustive Pronase digestion. The location and the point of attachment of sulfate in the carbohydrate unit were established by the isolation of 4-O-[35S]sulfo-N-acetylhexosaminyl-glycerols and 4-O-[35S] sulfo-N-acetylglucosaminitol from the Smith degradation products and by the release of 35SO/sub 2-(4)/ by chondro-4-sulfatase. Thus, the present line of experimentation indicates the presence of sulfate on both the terminal N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine in the oligosaccharide chains of the labeled ovine LH

1983-02-01

391

Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p) 14C using polarized proton beam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se midió la distribución angular de la sección eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersión elástica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energía sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El análisis de los datos en términos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la m [...] atriz "S" nos permite deducir los números cuánticos y parámetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energía de excitación. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas. Abstract in english Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers were measured for 14C(p, p)14C for proton energies between 3.7 and 11.0 MeV in very small energy steps. A number of strong resonances are seen. Phase-shift analysis of the elastic scattering data yielded level parameters of eleven states i [...] n 15N in the excitation energy region 13.7-21.0 MeV. Previous assignments of spin, parity and energy of levels are discussed.

Murillo, G.; Fernández, M.; Ramírez, J.; Mejia-Gil, M.G.; Policroniades, R.; Varela, A.; Darden, S.E.; Sen, S.; Prior, R.M.; Chávez, E..

392

Influence of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-hexadecane in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil was spiked with [9-14C]phenanthrene and [1-14C]hexadecane at 50 mg kg-1 and aged for 1, 25, 50, 100 and 250 d. At each time point, the microcosms were amended with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) at a range of concentrations (0-40 mM). Mineralisation assays and aqueous HP-?-CD extractions were performed to assess the effect of the amendments on microbial degradation. The results showed that amendments had no significant impact on the microbial degradation of either of the 14C-contaminants. Further, HP-?-CD extractions were correlated with the mineralisation of the target chemicals in each of the soil conditions. It was found that the HP-?-CD extraction was able to predict mineralisation in soils which had not been amended with cyclodextrin; however, in the soils containing the HP-?-CD, there was no predictive relationship. Under the conditions of this study, the introduction of HP-?-CD into soils did not enhance the biodegradation of the organic contaminants. - The amendment of HP-?-CD to phenanthrene and hexadecane amended soils does not enhance microbial biodegradation.

2009-10-01

393

Equilibration of (3H)glucosamine and (35S)sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with (3H)glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with (35S)sulfate resulted in the incorporation of (35S)sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with (35S)sulfate and (3H)glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that (35S)PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while (3H)glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. (14C)Glucose required approximately the same time as (3H)glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool.

Eriksson, G.; Saernstrand, B.; Malmstroem, A.

1984-12-01

394

Potential application of beef liver nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the synthesis of 32P and 33P labeled biomolecules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enzyme, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) has been purified from aqueous extract of beef liver mitochondria by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by Gel filtration technique. This enzyme catalyzes the transphosphorylation reactions between a number of nucleoside di- and triphosphates. Commercially, pure enzyme is presently unavailable for the production of labeled nucleotides. The purification procedure reported in the present study was found to be superior to the earlier reported DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography method. The purified enzyme has been successfully used to synthesize ?- 32P dCTP, ?- 32P CTP, ?- 32P UTP, ? - 33P dCTP and ? - 33P UTP. (author)

2009-01-07

395

The inclusion of 35S sodium sulfate in tissues soluble proteins in feather keratin of broiler chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organ-tissue peculiarities of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into soluble tissue proteins of skin, muscles, liver, pancreas, duodenum were established in experiments with chickens of one, 23, 41 and 60 day age. It is shown that skin is the organ, accumulating 35S sodium sulfate. It was revealed that intensity of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into muscule proteins and feather keratin in 23- and 41-day age decreased. Specificity of isotope distribution in separate feather components was established

1989-01-01

396

Synthesis of metabolites of the insecticide Deltamethrine: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-"1"4C) benzoic acids and 3-phenoxy (hydroxymethyl-"1"4C) benzyl alcohols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedures are described for the synthesis of the following metabolites of Deltamethrin, the pyrethroid insecticide: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-"1"4C) benzoic acid, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl-"1"4C) benzoic acid, 3-(2'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl-"1"4C) benzoic acid and the corresponding 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohols, specific activity = 47-57 mCi/mmol. (author)

1985-01-01

397

Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkin?s disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer.

Arjomand, A; Bucholz, B A; Clifford, A J; Duecker, S R; Johnson, H; Schneider, P D; Zulim, R A

1999-03-25

398

Combustion synthesis of ceramic matrices for immobilization of 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the use of combustion synthesis for immobilization of 14C was considered. Ceramic matrices have been prepared by this method using two different devices: one non-conventional with preheating of the samples and the other conventional device where ignition was produced thanks to tungsten filament. These two devices gave rise to different mechanisms of reactions involving different amounts of unreacted carbon graphite inside the matrix. The SHS samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)

2008-10-20

399

The anomalous $^{14}$C-dating $\\beta$ decay problem revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The anomalous inhibition of $^{14}$C-dating $\\beta$ decay rate is restudied in terms of shell-model calculations in the $jj$ coupling scheme with both realistic and empirical Hamiltonians. It is seen that the accidental cancellation of the decay strength is dominated by the mixing effect of two configurations of the final state wave function, $|0p^{-2}_{1/2}>$ and $|0p_{3/2}^{-1}0p_{1/2}^{-1}>$. By decomposing the effective interactions into different tensor components, it i...

Qi, Chong

2010-01-01

400

Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1-/sup 14/C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems.

Thijssen, J.B.A.; Janssen, C.G.M.; Verluyten, W.L.M.; Heykants, J.J.P.

1986-02-01

 
 
 
 
401

Studies on 14C labelled chlorpyrifos in model marine ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorpyrifos is one of the widely used organophosphorus insecticides in tropical countries. Experiments were conducted with 14C labelled chlorpyrifos to study the distribution of this compound in model marine ecosystem. Less than 50 per cent of the applied activity remained in water in 24 h. Major portion of the applied chlorpyrifos (about 4.2 % residue per g) accumulated into the clams with sediment containing a maximum of 5 to 6 per cent of applied compound. No degradation of chlorpyrifos was observed in water or sediment samples. However, metabolic products were formed in clams. (author). 4 refs., 3 tabs

1997-01-01

402

14C-lindane residues in palm processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was undertaken to identify the residue level in palm fruits and its products by spiking the fruits at 5 ppm with 14C-[UL]-lindane and following up on the residue during simulated commercial processes. The study concluded that steam distillation (deodorization) is an effective process in removing lindane residues. Under experimental conditions, commercial processes removed some 74% of insecticide residues from crude palm oil. Based on the oil content (up to 50%) of the pulp the residue concentration in the refined oil may exceed 2.5% mg/kg. The result suggest that the refined oil may retain one quarter of lindane received by the fruit. 1 tab

1995-08-01

403

Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of 32P chromic phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracavitary injections of 32P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous 32P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V30) for 340 MBq 32P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V30 relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V30 of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V30 stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm2. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

2010-10-07

404

"1"4C labelling of S-acetyl-N-glycylcysteamine(I 102)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotective substance, S-Acetyl-N-glycylcysteamine trifluoroacetate (I 102), was labelled by "1"4C on the cysteamine group using "1"4C benzyloxycarbonylethanolamine as precursor, on the peptidic carbonyl using "1"4C BOC glycin as intermediate and on the acetyl residue by means of "1"4C acetic anhydride. (author)

1986-01-01

405

/sup 14/C labelling of S-acetyl-N-glycylcysteamine(I 102)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioprotective substance, S-Acetyl-N-glycylcysteamine trifluoroacetate (I 102), was labelled by /sup 14/C on the cysteamine group using /sup 14/C benzyloxycarbonylethanolamine as precursor, on the peptidic carbonyl using /sup 14/C BOC glycin as intermediate and on the acetyl residue by means of /sup 14/C acetic anhydride.

Madelmont, J.C.; Moreau, M.F.; Godeneche, D.; Parry, D.; Oiry, J.; Imbach, J.L.

1986-06-01

406

Co-isolation of in vivo 32P-labeled specific transcripts and DNA without phenol extraction of nuclease digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for isolation and quantitation of specific intact transcripts, for which a hybridization probe is available, from 32P-labeled bacterial cells. The RNA is extracted in the absence of R Nase activity by incorporating an inert, physically removable R Nase inhibitor throughout the spheroplasting, cell lysis, and pronase digestion steps. [/sup 32/P]RNA is separated from [32P]DNA, without recourse to phenol extraction of DNase treatment, on a Cs2SO/sub 4-/HCONH2 step gradient in which the precipitated RNA forms a sharp band. Specific transcripts are purified from [32P]RNA by physical separation of the transcript and hybridization probe using gel-exclusion chromatography. The gentleness of this technique enables the co-isolation of DNA and can facilitate the analysis of covalently joined RNA-DNA replication intermediates

1981-09-15

407

Retention of exp 32 P Activity Interfering with the Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Biosamples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of exp 32 P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the autho...

I. Sziklai-Laszlo M. Ordogh

1978-01-01

408

Stability studies of 14C-Cytostasan solutions and its extraction using dicarbolide of cobalt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of 14C-Cytostasan (1, bendamustine), in water solutions was investigated. In distilled water a rapid degradation of carrier-free 14C-1 occured. The degradation products of 14C-1 are 14C-mono-hydroxy-1 and 14C-dihydroxy-1 (evidence with TLC). The degradation rate of 14C-1 was reduced by addition of unlabelled 1 to the 14C-1 stock solution. The possibility of using distribution coefficient as a stability indicator of 14C-1 solutions was investigated. A number of organic solvents ranging from polar to nonpolar were used for extraction of 14C-1 from water solution. Only ethyl acetate was slightly effective. The distribution coefficient of 14C-1 was dramatically enhanced in presence of dicarbolide of cobalt (DC-H+) in benzene at extraction from HClO4 (0.5 mol·l-1). (author)

1988-01-01

409

[Syntheses of [prolyl-U-14C]alacepril and its related compounds].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the metabolic fate of alacepril, an anti-hypertensive agent, the 14C-labeled compound of alacepril and its related compounds were synthesized. [Prolyl-U-14C]alacepril was synthesized in over-all yield of 32.7-38.0% by the mixed anhydride condensation of L-phenylalanine with [prolyl-U-14C]DU-1163, which had been prepared from L-[U-14C]proline and N-(S-3-acetylthio-2-methylpropanoyloxy)succinimide. [Prolyl-U-14C]captopril and [prolyl-U-14C]DU-1227 were prepared in high yields by hydrolysis of [prolyl-U-14C]DU-1163 and [prolyl-U-14C]alacepril, respectively. [Prolyl-U-14C]captopril-cysteine was synthesized by condensation of [prolyl-U-14C]captopril with cystine S-monoxide in 55.0% yield. PMID:3906779

Kagemoto, A; Nakao, M; Negoro, T; Sekine, Y; Hashimoto, M

1985-08-01

410

Calibration of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator for 32P, 89Sr and 90Y  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pure beta particle emitting radionuclides have many therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine. The response of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator to 32P, 89Sr and 90Y has been measured using accurately calibrated solutions. For this purpose, high efficiency solid sources were prepared gravimetrically from dilute solutions of each radionuclide and assayed in a 4? proportional counter; the source activities were determined using known detection efficiency factors. Measurements were made of the current response (pA/MBq) of the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator using the original concentrated solutions. Calibration figures have been derived for 2 and 5 ml British Standard glass ampoules and Amersham International plc P6 vials. Volume correction factors have also been determined. Gamma-ray emitting contaminants can have a disproportionate effect on the calibrator response and particular attention has been paid to this. (orig.)

1996-02-01

411

Detection of methylation damage in DNA of gastric cancer tissues using 32P-postlabelling assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. The causes are still unknown but it has been speculated that gastric cancer is associated with consumption of foods rich in nitrates/nitrites or a high dietary intake of salt or pickled food. In the present study, we studied the level of alkylated DNA adducts formed in gastric cancer tissues in comparison with that in normal gastric mucosa. DNA was extracted from surgically removed gastric cancer tissues and patient-matched normal gastric mucosa. The level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine was measured by 32P-postlabelling assay after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enrichment. We found that the level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine of gastric cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that of normal gastric mucosa (P=0.01685). (author)

1999-10-01

412

Efficiency of ("3"2P) triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of triple superphosphate on four soils derived from volcanic ashes (Andepts) was evaluated. Experiments in greenhouse with rye grass was carried out. Three doses of superphosphate (150,300 and 600 kg P_2O_5/ha) labeled with "3"2P were used. The fertilizer was located 2.5 cm underneath the seed. The phosphorus derived from the fertilizer represented a 70 percent from the total P absorved by the plant. The utilization of aggregated nutrient ranged from 2.1 to 5.2, the lower values being obtained for the higher rates. Value 'A' increased with the rate applied but it evaluated comparatively the four soils studied. The isotopic method distinguished quantitatively the P coming from the soil in distinction to the P coming from the fertilizer. (Author)

1986-01-01

413

Evaluation of P availability from Fe and A1 labelled (32P) phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthetically Fe and A1 labelled phosphates (32P) show a certain amount of available P to the plants when applied to Sao Paulo State soils. This availability decreases from considered amorphous A1-phosphate (A1-P sub(am)) to A1 phosphate with a certain cristalinity grade (A1-P sub(cr)) and than from this to Fe-P sub(am) followed by Fe-P sub(cr), and it is influenced by both the soil characteristics and mainly by the iron constituents of the samples. In this way, one can not expect that the 0,05 N2H SO4 and the CHANG and JACKSON (1957a) solutions can define properly the available P of these soils. The addition of lime to the soils do not drive to a better P absorption by the plants and its effects are dubious

1975-01-01

414

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated S?. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S? in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

2003-01-01

415

32P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of 32P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis. (author)