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1

Synthesis of 14C and 32P double labelled triethylphosphine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 14C and 32P double labelled triethylphosphine has been carried out using red phosphorus [32P] and barium carbonate [14C] as starting materials. The product of the reaction has been separated by gas chromatography. The 32P radioactivity assay of the obtained product was performed by the liquid scintillation technique. The 14C radioactivity was determined by the liquid scintillation technique and internal gas counting method. The radioactivity measurements have served to determine the total yield of double labelled triethylphosphine. (author)

2

Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

3

Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 ? alanines ? 14C; noradrenaline ? 14C (arterenol ? 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

4

The preparation of 14C, 35S and 13C labelled forms of omeprazole  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The syntheses of [benzimidazole-2- 14C]omeprazole, [benzimidazole-2-13C]omeprazole, [35S]omeprazole and [2-pyridyl- 14C-methyl]-omeprazole are described. The first three compounds were prepared from the appropriate isotopically labelled carbon disulphide. The key step in the synthesis of [2-pyridyl- 14C-methyl]omeprazole is nucleophilic alkylation of a l-ethoxypyridinium salt using [14C]methyl magnesium idodide. This is the first time that a reaction of this type has been used to prepare a 2-[methyl-14C]methylpyridine. (author)

5

A cytological analysis of the mutagenic action of 32P and 35S on the tea seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cytologic analysis of mutagenic effect of 32P and 35S aqueous solutions (specific activity of 0.05 mCi/ml) on the seeds of the ''Kolchida'' tea, is carried out. Seed treatment with the above solutions within 12 hours causes the inhibition of mitoses, more pronounced in the case of 32P effect. The maximum frequency of chromosomal aberrations is observed after 28 hours after the action (13.62% for 32P and 11.20% for 35S). Close to 180 hours, the frequency of aberrations reaches the level of control. A low amount of bridges as compared with the number of fragments is characteristic of 32P effect; while 35S effect causes the formation of a considerable number of bridges

6

Lethal Effect on Bacterium of Decay of Incorporated Radioactive Atoms (3H, 14C, 32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The biological effect of decay of 3H, 14C and 32P incorporated into a bacterium depends on the nature of the organic molecule labelled, on the position of the isotope within it and on the isotope itself. In sum, results obtained to date show that: The decay of 3H atoms incorporated into certain macromolecules of a bacterium causes sterilization through ionization by the ß- particle emitted; transmutation is of negligible importance. This self-irradiation is comparable in effect with X-rays and is affected in a similar manner by the same factors: temperature, presence of a radioprotector, radiosensitivity of the strain. Decay of 14C or 32P atoms incorporated into bacterial DNA is lethal because of the transmutation effect; ionizations produced by emitted ß- particles may be disregarded. Survival curves for 32P transmutations depend on the experimental conditions. Some of the results obtained with 32P are similar to those obtained with X-rays, e.g. effects of temperature, radical capture and oxygen, while others are similar to those of u.v. light, e.g., effect of growth conditions. Comparative tests made with 32P indicate that the recoil energy of transmutation is not the phenomenon responsible for the lethal effect observed. Comparison of the results obtained after X-irradiation or decay of 3H or 32P incorporated into the DNA of bacteria of the same strain of E. coli shows that the efficiency of a 32P transmutation is about four times greater than that of an ionization produced at random within the same DNA. (author)

7

Covalent binding of 14C- and 35S-labeled thiocarbamides in rat hepatic microsomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The covalent binding of a series of 14C- or 35S-labeled benzimidazole-2-thione (MBI) derivatives to rat liver microsomal proteins was studied to determine the mechanisms of hepatic monooxygenase oxidation of model anti-hyperthyroid compounds. All thiocarbamides tested (including methimazole) produced an NADPH-dependent loss of cytochrome P450 (P450) chromophore which could be prevented by the addition of glutathione (GSH). The covalent binding of MBI to liver microsomal proteins from dexamethasone (DEX)-pretreated rats was enhanced 10-fold with NADPH, unaffected by P450 inactivation with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and attenuated by GSH addition. Heat treatment of microsomes to inactivate the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) decreased the observed binding. Equivalent amounts of [35S]- and [14C]MBI were covalently bound to hepatic microsomal proteins, suggesting retention of both the carbon and sulfur portions of the molecule in the MBI/protein adduct. Thiophilic reagents effected release of covalently bound [14C]- and [35S]MBI in equal amounts suggesting the presence of disulfide bonds between an MBI-derived sulfenic acid and microsomal protein thiols. Coincubation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) resulted in NADPH-dependent binding of [14C]-MBI to BSA sulfhydryls which was blocked by prior treatment of BSA with iodoacetamide. 1-Methyl-benzimidazole-2-thione (MMBI) also covalently bound to microsomal proteins and BSA but at levels lower than with MBI. P450, however, appeared to be more important than FMO in the metabolism of MMBI based on the effects of microsome heat pretreatment or ABT addition. In addition, ca. 1.5-fold more 35S- than 14C-label became bound. The covalent binding of [35S]1,3-dimethyl-benzimidazole-2-thione (DMMBI) to microsomal proteins was ca. six times greater than that of [14C]DMMBI. ABT, catalase and superoxide dismutase had a minimal effect on [35S]DMMBI binding, while FMO inactivation decreased binding by ca. 30%. These findings suggest that both monooxygenases contribute significantly to the hepatic metabolism of thiocarbamides. However, FMO activates thiocarbamides primarily to sulfenic acids, whereas P450 appears to produce both sulfenic acid and other reactive sulfur-derived metabolites. Thiol groups of P450 and other proteins are the molecular targets for these reactive species formed during the hepatic metabolism of anti-hyperthyroid drugs. PMID:1371686

Decker, C J; Doerge, D R

1992-02-18

8

Determining the disintegration rate of 14C, 35S by using liquid scintillation counter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple method for determining the disintegration rate of 14C, 35S by using liquid scintillation counter is presented. A series of integral bias curves with different slope and extrapolation value was obtained by increasing the light transmission from sample to photo-multiplier. Then the photoelectron yield curve was extrapolated to zero slope and the corresponding counting rate would be the required disintegration rate

9

Seedling growth and 32P, 14C distributed in tillers of hybrid rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hybrid rice D-You-63, D-You-64, Ging-YouZhong, Xie-You-64, Wei-You-64, Wei-You-35 and Hua-You-63 have more tillering capability and tiller number over their parents and CK variety 'Shuang-Gui-36' with positive superdominance heterosis (hp) respectively, but L301Ax R29 has less tillers than the sterile line. Between tiller number and 32P distributed (%) in tillers of Ging-You-Zhong, Xie-You-64, Wei-You-64, Wei-You-35, Hua-Yor-63 and D-You-63 positive correlation has shown except D-You-64 and L301A x R29. Negative correlation is between tiller number and 14C distributed (%) in tillers of Ging-YouZhong, Wei-You-64, Wei-You-35, Hua-You-63 without D-You-63. D-You-64 and Xie-You-63. Seedling plant dry weight of D-You-63, D-You-64, Xie-You-64 and Hua-You-63 have exceeded to their parent and CK variety. In seedling plant height Ging-You-Zhong, Xie-You-64, Hua-You-63, D-You-64 have higher than their parents and CK variety. The relationship between the grain yield and seedling plant vigor has been discussed in this paper

10

A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35S and 14C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35S and 14C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

11

The distribution of 35S-sulfadiazine and 14C-trimethoprim in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 35S-labelled sulfadiazine and 14C-labelled trimethoprim was studied in rainbow trout by use of whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation. As compared to mammals, gastrointestinal absorption and elimination were slow. Accumulation in the skin and the uveal tract of the eye was observed for both drugs tested. The results also indicated that the bile was an important route of excretion. Considerable radioactivity was still present in the skin at 144 hr. survival time. (author)

12

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with 14C-and 35S-isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with 14C and 35S isotopes starting from L-[U-14C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[35S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-14C]-5 is converted into L-[U-14C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to (14C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[35S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[35S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [35S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of (14C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of (35S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author)

13

Synthesis of the new immunostimulating agent pidotimod (3-L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) labelled with [sup 14]C-and [sup 35]S-isotopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

3-l-pyroglutamyl-l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (PIDOTIMOD), a new immunostimulating agent, has been prepared labelled with [sup 14]C and [sup 35]S isotopes starting from L-[U-[sup 14]C]-glutamic acid 5 and L-[[sup 35]S]-cysteine hydrochloride 6, respectively. In the first synthesis, L-[U-[sup 14]C]-5 is converted into L-[U-[sup 14]C]-pyroglutamic acid 2, which was reacted with ethyl l-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate 3 to afford the ester 4, in turn hydrolyzed to ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD 1. In the second synthesis, L-[[sup 35]S]-6 reacted with formaldehyde to give L-[[sup 35]S]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid 7, which was coupled with the activated ester of pyroglutamic acid, compound 8, to afford [[sup 35]S]-PIDOTIMOD 1. The total activity of ([sup 14]C)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.2 MCI (specific activity 5.52 MCI/mmol) and that of ([sup 35]S)-PIDOTIMOD was 1.0 MCI (specific activity 9.43 MCI/mmol). (Author).

Ferraboschi, Patrizia; Grisenti, Paride; Santaniello, Enzo (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Biochimica Medica); Giachetti, Claudio; Zanolo, Giovanni (Biomedical Research Inst. ' ' Antoine Marxer' ' , Turin (Italy)); Signorelli, Giovanni; Coppi, Germano (Poli Industrial Center, Milan (Italy). Research Center)

1992-12-01

14

A combustion method for the simultaneous determination of 3H, 14C, and 35S in triply labeled organic samples by liquid scintillation counting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The organic samples triply labeled with 3H, 14C, and 35S were combusted in a flow-type combustion flask under a continuous oxygen flow. The oxygen gas containing the combustion products, which were mainly 3H2O, 14CO2, and 35SO2, was introduced into successive 0.5 M H2O2 and Oxisorb (2-methoxyethylamine). The 35SO2 and 3H2O that had been partially adsorbed onto the inner wall of the combustion flask were recovered by rinsing the wall with an H2O2 solution. 3H and 35S were quantitatively recovered from the H2O2 solutions. 14C was not found in the H2O2 solutions and was recovered from Oxisorb quantitatively. The amounts of 3H, 35S, and 14C were determined by measuring the radioactivity of the H2O2 solutions and of Oxisorb with a liquid scintillation counter. Thus the separate determination of 14C and 35S in a sample was achieved. Through this combustion method, the materials including fresh animal tissues up to ca. 300 mg were conveniently combusted with quantitative recovery of 3H, 14C, and 35S

15

Effects of source distribution, dose, and linear energy transfer capacity on inactivation and mutation of mycobacteria after 2H, 35S, and 32P incorporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a selected model, the paper makes a contribution to the question whether the energy dose as a macroscopically-physically defined quantity can be usefully applied in cell ranges with linear dimensions of the order of 1 ?m, i.e. whether there is still a correlation between the energy dose and quantitatively measurable biological radiation effects. The problem is investigated with the aid of the intracellular ? decay of the 3H, 35S, and 32P nuclei on mycobacteria (BCG) in liquid media. Quantitative findings of radiobiological experiments are linked with model dose calculations to form dose-effect curves. The experimental principle consists in adding radioactively labelled compounds to the nutrient solution of bacteria at normal growth temperatures, thus obtaining an intracellular ? source region caused by their uptake. The uptake conditions for the three radionuclides are varied by using different chemical bonds (2H) or carrier concentrations (3H, 35S). As biological reactions, inactivation in the form of growth inhibition and mutagenic induction of resistance to isonicotinic acid hydrazide are recorded. (orig./MG)

16

Gene mapping on human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization with 3H, 35S, and 32P labeled probes and transmission electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method based on in situ hybridization, autoradiography and transmission electron microscopy for mapping genes on human metaphase chromosomes is presented. Successful mapping of the tandemly repeated rDNA genes and of two nucleic acid probes, N-myc and probe 3 (Kanda et al. 1983), that are amplified in a homogeneously staining region (HSR) of the neuroblastoma cell line, IMR-32 is described. By using sufficiently thin AgBr emulsions, it is possible to obtain observable grains and good resolution with probes radiolabeled with 3H, 35S, or 32P, but the former gives the best results. We observe that neither of the two probes, N-myc and probe 3, has a uniform spatial distribution along the HSR and that the distributions of the two probes differ from each other. These observations support previous studies which indicated that the formation of an HSR is a more complex process than uniform amplification of a single DNA segment to form an n-fold set of perfect tandem repeats. The present study shows that the electron microscopic method is useful for extending the results of light microscopic studies for problems where higher resolution mapping is needed. (orig.)

17

Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein oof 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

18

Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with (3H)succinic anhydride, (14C)succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-(35S)sulfonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to (3H)succinic anhydride plus (35S)p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by (3H)succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by (35S)DABS was similar to (3H)succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to (3H)succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein.

Ho, S.H.; Rieske, J.S.

1985-12-01

19

Autoradiography of 32P and 14C incorporation into protoplasts as a means of determining the percentage of virus infected protoplasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stripping Film Autoradiography (SFA) was used to measure protoplast infection. Control and infected protoplasts were incubated in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate or [14C]leucine fixed onto glass slides and placed in contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. Infected protoplasts were distinguished by blackened areas of exposed film which coincided with protoplasts containing labelled virus products. The use of SFA is demonstrated for two different virus/protoplast systems, namely tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) in rape. The method detects infection as early as 12-16 h post-inoculation and UV irradiation is not necessary for reducing background interference from labelled host proteins. (Auth.)

20

Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

14C-leucine, 35S-methionine 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose and 3H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine, 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and 3H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10-4M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10-5 to 10-8M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos

22

/sup 14/C-leucine, /sup 35/S-methionine /sup 3/H-lysine, /sup 14/C-3-O-methyl-glucose and /sup 3/H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of /sup 14/C-leucine, /sup 35/S-methionine, /sup 3/H-lysine, /sup 14/C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and /sup 3/H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10/sup -4/M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -8/M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos.

Fong, F.; Smith, J.D.

1987-04-01

23

Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

24

Neuropeptides labelled with 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methionine and cysteine containing peptides can be labelled with 35S by coupling of 35S-cysteine or 35S-methionine with a large excess of suitability protected peptide precursors. This is illustrated for [pGlu4, Cyt6]AVP-(4-9), ?-endorphin-(5-17) and the ACTH-fragment-analogue Org 2766. Using HPLC as final purification the peptides are obtained in radiochemical yields of about 5% and radiochemical purities between 90-97%. However the specific activities obtained are much lower than the specific activities of the starting 35S-amino acids. (Author)

25

Real-time imaging of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present real-time images of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, {sup 35}S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both {sup 35}S and {sup 32}P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of {sup 35}S show that {sup 35}S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand {sup 32}P, when applied as {sup 32}P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

Nakanishi, T.M.; Yamawaki, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Tanoi, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

2011-07-01

26

Synthesis of captopril labeled with 2H, 3H, 14C, or 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three routes for the synthesis of labelled captopril are described. The preferred route can be selected with regard to the desired position of the label. The chemical and radiochemical stability of captopril is discussed. An isotope effect was found in the IR spectrum when the side chain carbonyl carbon was labelled with carbon-14. (author)

27

Synthesis of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S) has been prepared by exchange between elementary sulfur (35S) and sodium N-dithiocarbamate followed by an oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. The method allows to obtain rapidly a pure product with relatively high activity. The radioactive exchange is 82 per cent. (author)

28

Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide (35S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author)

29

Detection of 32P scintillating plastic vials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a novel technique for the detection of 32P using a liquid scintillation counter. In this technique 32P is detected in plastic vials which have been given scintillation properties through impregnation with a scintillating liquid. Beta particles emitted by the 32P are detected when they interact with the scintillating walls of the vials. Measurements show much better repeatability than those using the Cerenkov effect in the walls of glass or plastic vials; counting efficiency is very close to that obtained with the liquid scintillation method. (author)

30

Kinetics of 35S uptake in sugarcane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of 35S uptake was studied in excised shoot roots in three sugarcane cultivars Co 419, Co 997 and Co 1148 in relation to concentration. There were at least four distinct phases in uptake in the concentration range from 0.01 mM to 5.00 mM. At higher concentration ranges, cultivars did not differ in kinetics of 35S uptake. However, at lower concentrations Co 1148 was more efficient in 35S uptake compared to Co 419 and Co 997. (author)

31

35S-glycosaminoglycan and 35S-glycopeptide metabolism by diabetic glomeruli and aorta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. Total 35S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. Whereas 35S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with 35SO4, a larger proportion of total 35S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. Both control and diabetic glomeruli synthesize 35S-labeled glycopeptides, the quantity from diabetic glomeruli being reduced. Aorta from 35SO4-injected diabetic rats also synthesized reduced quantities of 35S-glycosaminoglycans. There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of 35S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. These studies suggest that synthesis of 35S-glycosaminoglycans and 35S-glycopeptides by diabetic glomeruli are altered by disturbances of both synthetic as well as degradative pathways. An alteration of 35S-glycosaminoglycans interaction with matrix components in diabetes is postulated

32

The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

33

Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole ({sup 35}S); Synthese du mercapto-2-benzothiazole ({sup 35}S)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole ({sup 35}S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide ({sup 35}S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author) [French] La synthese du mercapto-2-benzothiazole ({sup 35}S) par l'interaction du chloro-2-benzothiazole et I'hydrosurfure ({sup 35}S) de sodium a ete etudiee. On a trouve que dans les conditions determinees dans cette etude, on peut obtenir un produit pur avec un rendement radioactif de 79 pour cent. (auteur)

Bentov, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1958-07-01

34

Chronic eczema patients on ?-therapy (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

?-therapy with 32P was provided to 22 chronic eczema patients. A dose of 25 Gy given in 5 sessions resulted in a cure of 19 patients within 3 years of follow-up. Hyperpigmentation of the skin was noted in 2 patients

35

Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

36

[U-14C]adenine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[U-14C]adenine is prepared by the reaction of [14C]formamide with phosphoryl chloride. The resulting product is then separated by preparation liquid chromatography. The product [U-14C]adenine mUst have minimum molar activity 9.25 GBq/mmol and minimum radiochemical purity 98%. The preparation is delivered as a clear, colourless aqueous solution. Methods are described of testing, packaging, transport and storage of the preparation. (E.S.)

37

Structure in the reaction channels of 14C+14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction channels of 14C+14C have been studied from E/sub c.m./ = 12.5 to 32.5 MeV by ?-ray techniques. Correlated oscillatory structure has been observed in inelastic, transfer, and fusion-evaporation channels. These features are comparable to the behavior of 16O+16O where similar dynamical conditions prevail

38

Isolation of (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a 14CO2 chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed. (author)

39

Spectroscopy of 32P, ch. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spins, parities and transition probabilities of levels in 32P at Esub(x) 3.5 MeV have been determined with the 29Si(?,p?)32P reaction at bombarding energies of Esub(?)=12.80, 12.93 and 16.30 MeV. Proton-gamma angular correlation experiments and DSA lifetime measurements lead to six unambiguous spin assignments and to many spin limitations. The measured mixing and branching ratios yield many transition strengths for dipole and electric quadrupole transitions. Five, sofar unknown, energy levels are reported. A doublet at 4.03 MeV excitation energy and a high-spin state (Esub(x)=4.27 MeV; Jsup(?)=5-) were observed. Shell-model predictions have been compared to the present experimental results. (Auth.)

40

Absorbed dose from 14C xylose and 14C mannose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tissue distribution and excretion studies have been performed in rats and mice for up to 1 week after oral administration of 14C xylose and 14C mannose. The effective dose-equivalent is calculated to be 15 ?Sv/MBq for xylose and 120 ?Sv/MBq for mannose. Since there was no clearance of mannose during the period of the study, the effective dose-equivalent for mannose is almost entirely dependent upon the assumptions made about expected lifetime exposure. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

Reactor production of 32P for medical applications. An assessment of 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes a comparative study carried out on the reactor production of 32P by two different processes, namely, 32S(n,p)32P and 31P(n,?)32P with a view to determine the merits and bottlenecks of each method and assess the usefulness of 32P obtained from each of the processes. In a typical batch, 250 g of elemental sulfur when irradiated at a fast neutron flux of ?8 × 1011 n cm-2 s-1 for 60 days, after chemical processing provided about 150 GBq(4.05Ci) of 32P having specific activity of 200TBq(5500Ci)/mmole. On the other hand, irradiation of 0.35 g of red phosphorus at a fast neutron flux of ?7.5 × 1013 n cm-2 s-1 for a period of 60 days gave 75 GBq(2.02Ci) of 32P of specific activity 7 GBq(190mCi)/mol-1. While the specific activity of 32P obtained from 32S(n,p)32P is superior to that obtained from the 3lP(n,?)32P process, the requirement of elaborate target processing steps involving distillation and purification emerged as a deterrent that limits its widespread adaptability. Both the production routes offer 32P of acceptable quality amenable for medical applications although their specific activity differs. (author)

42

Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

43

Enzymatic synthesis of [beta-32P]ADP using adenylate kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An enzymatic method for the synthesis of [beta-32P]ADP from [gamma-32P]ATP is described. This substrate is required for the assay of ADPase and is not commercially available. The method described results in a preparation of [beta-32P]ADP of high purity with a yield of approximately 40% the theoretical obtainable

44

Spring mobilization of storage 32P in apple trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old apple trees during dormant period in the green house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all new root and shoot growth, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 5-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 2.5% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood, scion buds) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from storage tissues to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the scion shoot tissues increased about 348 fold. (author)

45

Boll weevils: sterility induced by 32P tagging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beta particles arising from 32P in paint placed on the wing cover of females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman reduced longevity, egg production, and egg hatch. Egg hatch also was reduced in eggs collected from females mated with 32P-tagged males. Although 32P at the dosage used may be satisfactory for tagging boll weevils for movement studies, it is not satisfactory as a label for weevils that are expected to reproduce normally

46

[35S]thiosulphate oxidation by Thiobacillus strain C.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Thiobacillus strain C oxidized [(35)S]thiosulphate completely to sulphate. 2. During thiosulphate oxidation [(35)S]sulphate was formed more rapidly from (S.(35)SO(3))(2-) than from ((35)S.SO(3))(2-). (35)S disappeared less rapidly from thiosulphate with ((35)S.SO(3))(2-) as substrate than with (S.(35)SO(3))(2-). 3. Thiosulphate labelled in both atoms was produced during ((35)S.SO(3))(2-) oxidation, but not during (S.(35)SO(3))(2-) oxidation. 4. No (35)S was precipitated as elementary sulphur either in the presence or absence of exogenous unlabelled sulphur. 5. During [(35)S]thiosulphate oxidation, appreciable quantities of [(35)S]trithionate accumulated and later disappeared. Other polythionates did not accumulate consistently. 6. [(35)S]Trithionate was formed initially at a greater rate from (S.(35)SO(3))(2-) than from ((35)S.SO(3))(2-), but subsequently at a similar rate from each. 7. Trithionate formed from (S.(35)SO(3))(2-) was labelled only in the oxidized sulphur atoms, but that formed from ((35)S.SO(3))(2-) was labelled in both oxidized and reduced atoms. The proportion of (35)S in the oxidized atoms increased as more trithionate accumulated. 8. The results eliminate some mechanisms of trithionate formation but are consistent both with a mechanism of thiosulphate oxidation based on an initial reductive cleavage of the molecule and with a mechanism in which thiosulphate undergoes an initial oxidative reaction. PMID:5941348

Kelly, D P; Syrett, P J

1966-02-01

47

Genetic Effects of 32P Incorporated into Yeast  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of 32P decay on lethality, mutagenicity and recombination were compared to effects of X-rays and u.v. light. 1. Lethal effect. Decay of 32P incorporated in haploid yeasts causes a constant inactivation rate with a lethal efficiency ? = 0. 010. Lethal efficiency of 32P in diploid and tetraploid cells is low when decay begins (sigmoidal curves) and increases with progress of decay up to values comparable to the efficiency in haploid cells. The lethal effect of 32P is not modified by phosphorus starvation which decreases the RNA content of the cells. The sensitive site to 32 disintegrations might thus be DNA. It is shown that the lethal effect of 32P decay is mostly due to transmutation. The relative proportion of dominant over recessive lethals induced in a diploid population is comparable to that of X-ray-induced lethal mutations (1/15). 2. Mutagenic effect. The spectrum and frequencies of genes reversions which are induced by 32P disintegration are similar to those of X-rays. The mutation frequency increases exponentially with 32P decay for the cytoplasmic 'petitecolonie' mutation. The mutagenic efficiency of decay is therefore not constant. Two novel mutations were induced in yeast by 32P decay: a mutation to radioresistance (xr) and a mutation expressed by an abnormal meiosis, 3. Effect on recombination. The frequency of mitotic recombination is enhanced by 32P decay. The break and rejoining hypothesis in relation to this observation is discussed. (author)

48

Preparation of 35S-labelled albendazole sulfinyl (ABZO)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Albendazole is an important insecticide and albendazole sulfinyl (ABZO) is the effective component. In order to investigate its absorption, distribution and excretion in vivo, 35S-labelled tracer was necessary for experiment. 35S-labelled intermediate was made by isotopic exchange. The radiochemical yield was over 90%. After purification by TLC, the radiochemical purity of the 35S-ABZO determined by PC and electrophoresis was over 95%

49

The synthesis of (14C-?) and (14C-?) 1,2-benzisoxazole-3-acetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of 1,2-benzisoxazole-3-acetic acid labelled with 14C in position ? or ? of the side chain are described. ?-14C acid was obtained from 4-hydroxy coumarin [3-14C] via Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate [methyl-14C]. ?-14C acid was synthesized from 4-hydroxy coumarin [2-14C] obtained from 14C-diethyl carbonate. Labelled positions were determined by mass spectrometry and were in agreement with the proposed reaction scheme. (author)

50

Behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in Rana japonica japonica Guenther  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380, 347, 363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24 th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat

51

Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were...

Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

1985-01-01

52

D-[U-14C]pentoses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard applies to selectively labelled pentoses: D-[U-14C]ribose, D-[U-14C]arabinose, D-[U-14C]xylose and D-[U-14C]lyxose. Structural formulas are presented as are relative molecular weights valid for the non-active compound, chemical preparation, specifications for molar activity and radiochemical purity, testing, packaging, transport and storage. The said products are used as tracers in biological, biochemical, medical and agricultural research. (J.P.)

53

Synthesis of [17-14C] nicergoline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 1,6-dimethyl-8?-(5-bromonicotinoyl-[14C] oxymethyl)-10?-methoxy-ergoline ([17-14C] nicergoline) is reported. A five-step route starting from the addition of potassium [14C] cyanide to 1,6-dimethyl-8?-chloro-10?-methoxy-ergoline yielded the expected (17- 14C] nicergoline, 97% radiochemically pure, with a specific activity of 2,23 GBq/mmol. The overall radiochemical yield was about 10%. (Author)

54

Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kübler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

2014-01-01

55

Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (?-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 ?mol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

56

Relative distribution of 32P malathion in chick  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of malathion after 2 months, on feed sprayed with 0.08% and 0.16% of 50% malathion emulsifiable was 63 and 64% respectively. The half life was 30 days. Chicks fed with 32P malathion did not show any signs of toxicity. With lower dosage at 10 days, the concentration of 32P was highest in the kidney (10 ppm), followed by liver (9 ppm), blood (8 ppm), heart and spleen (5 ppm), lung (4 ppm), intestine (3 ppm), and bone, brain and testes (2 ppm). With the lapse of time 32P was slightly increased in different organs and at 30 days, it was maximum in liver followed by other organs. With higher dosage (800 ppm) the concentration of 32P was correspondingly higher in various organs under study. On stopping the treatment, 32P was abruptly decreased in all the organs and at 10 days (post-treatment), liver and kidney had less than 1 ppm, whereas, no 32P was detected in other organs. (auth.)

57

14C uncovers the past  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radio-carbon dating, a method of dating prehistoric remains that has been developed since the Second World War, is based on the fact that all organic matter contains a radioactive isotope of carbon -14C- which, because it decays at a fixed rate, gives a good indication of the age of the substance. The CSIR's National Physical Research Laboratory entered the field of radio-carbon dating in 1967, when the Nature Isotopes Division was established. The division has become a world centre of excellence and much has been done to clear up the chronology of southern African prehistory. It has been found, for instance, that anatomically modern man appeared in southern Africa some 40000 years earlier than in Europe, and that the Zimbabwe ruins were built mainly around the year 1350 AD. The radio-carbon method can also be used to determine the age and flow rate of underground water and the rate at which tracer gases dissolve in the oceans, i.e. the efficiency with which the oceans cleanse the atmosphere from pollutants

58

Investigation of 35S NE-78241 mobility in plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mobility of 35S NE-78241 (N-iso-thiocyanato-methyl-2,6-dimethyl-chloracetanilide) in plants has been studied. The compound is not absorbed via the leaves from aqueous solutions. It shows active transport through the root-system. It is strongly bound to soil. In bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) inoculated with Uromyces appendiculatus 35S NE-78241 is selectively enriched at the place of infection. (author)

59

14C measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer, used to detect and count 14C atoms directly in natural carbon, was installed at Nagoya University in 1982, and has been used to measure environmental 14C concentrations of natural samples and 14C ages of geological and archeological samples. So far about 900 natural samples have been analyzed. In our environmental 14C analysis program, the 14C abundances have been measured for the annual rings of a Kiso hinoki tree, for dissolved inorganic carbon in Pacific Ocean water, and for acid-insoluble carbonaceous compounds extracted from Lake Biwa sediments. Our results have shown that bomb 14C can be a useful tracer for the study of environmental carbon cycling. (author)

60

Derived limits for 35S in food and air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 35S can be discharged from nuclear power stations and be incorporated into food it would be useful to have values for the derived limit on intake of 35S in air and food by members of the public. Previous assessments are reviewed and it is concluded that derived limits should be based on the dose equivalent averaged throughout the whole body, for which the currently recommended limit is 0.5 rem in a year. The derived limit for ingestion of 35S incorporated into food is then 170 ?Ci in a year for adults and 45 ?Ci for infants in the first year of life. For infants the limit on the integrated concentrations of 35S in milk is 65 ?Ci-day l.-1 in a year and the corresponding limit for continuous ingestion 180 nCi l.-1. For air, and independent of age, the limit on the integrated concentration of 35S in forms likely to be discharged from nuclear reactors is in the range 0.7 to 7 Ci-sec m-3 equivalent to a concentration of 0.02 to 0.2 ?Ci m-3 for continuous exposure. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-precursor in mulberry leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since a remarkable accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves of mulberry has been observed, the formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-labeled substrates in young leaves was examined in comparison with that in the mature leaves. 14C-aspartic acid and 14C-succinic acid expected as active precursors for asparagine biosynthesis, and 14C-sucrose as respiratory substrates were fed respectively to the disks of young or mature leaves of mulberry. Although 14C-succinic acid was actively converted to 14C-asparagine, no significant amount of 14C-asparagine was formed from 14C-aspartic acid in two hours of feeding period. The rate of formation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-succinic acid in the mature leaves was slightly higher than that in the young leaves. Amino acids other than asparagine acquired 14C from 14C-labeled substrates were mainly aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and ?-amino butyric acid in both of the leaves. Intending to accelerate the formation of asparagine in the leaves, ammonium ion was supplied to culturing solution as only source of nitrogen and plants were grown for two weeks in that solution before 14C-labeled substrates feeding experiments. Supplying of ammonium ion brought about enhanced accumulation of asparagine in the young leaves, and caused remarkable formation of 14C-asparagine froormation of 14C-asparagine from 14C-aspartic acid in both of the leaves. However, the rate of 14C-asparagine formation from 14C-aspartic acid in the young leaves did not exceed that in the mature leaves. (author)

62

Synthesis of [17-{sup 14}C] nicergoline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of 1,6-dimethyl-8{beta}-(5-bromonicotinoyl-[{sup 14}C] oxymethyl)-10{alpha}-methoxy-ergoline ([17-{sup 14}C] nicergoline) is reported. A five-step route starting from the addition of potassium [{sup 14}C] cyanide to 1,6-dimethyl-8{beta}-chloro-10{alpha}-methoxy-ergoline yielded the expected [17- {sup 14}C] nicergoline, 97% radiochemically pure, with a specific activity of 2,23 GBq/mmol. The overall radiochemical yield was about 10%. (Author).

Angiuli, P.; Fontana, E.; Dostert, P. [Pharmacia and Upjohn, Milan (Italy)

1997-04-01

63

Use of 32P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using 32P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C20-Mulatinho Paulista; C26-Ricobaio 1014 and C33-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C17-Jamapa; C28-Rio Tibagi and C34-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of 32P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars. (M.A.C.)

64

Procedure for the preparation of [32P]phosphatidic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phosphorylation procedure of F. Cramer, W. Rittersdorf, and W. Bohm [(1961) Chem. Ber. 654, 180] using bis(triethylammonium) phosphate and trichloroacetonitrile was shown to be effective in the synthesis of [32P]phosphatidic acid. From diacylglyceride and 0.5 mCi H332P4, 25-50 ?Ci of labeled material (sp act = 1 mCi/?mol) can be prepared in 2 h. The product was shown to be radiochemically pure by both TLC and HPLC. L- and DL-[32P]dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid prepared using this procedure were shown to be hydrolyzed by rat liver microsomes at approximately the same rates

65

Synthesis of [14C]methyl sulfometuron and [14C]methyl metsulfuron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of C14 methyl sulfometuron and C14 methyl metsulfuron [[2-14C] pyridimyl] sulfometuron methyl and [2-14C) - triazinyl] metsulfuron methyl, two sulfonylurea herbicides have been prepared by multistep synthesis. [2-14C] 2-amino-4,6 dimethyl pyrimidine was obtained by two steps from [14C] guanidine and [2-14C] 2-amino-4 methoxy-4 methyl 1,3,5 triazine was obtained from [14C] cyanamide. The two herbicides were prepared by condensation of heterocycle with methyl-2 (sulfonylisocyanate) benzoate. (Author)

66

Synthesis of (/sup 14/C)Zolpidem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of (/sup 14/C)Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium (/sup 14/C)cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies.

Allen, J.; Tizot, A.

1986-04-01

67

Synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium [14C]cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies. (author)

68

Synthesis of 14C-labelled isophosphamide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isophosphamide labelled with 14C in the chloroethyl group attached to the exocyclic nitrogen has been synthesised by treatment of N-3-hydroxypropylaziridine with phosphorus oxychloride and reaction of the resulting 2-chloro-3-(2-chloroethyl)tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorine-2-oxide with [1-14C]-2-chloroethylamine. (author)

69

Synthesis of [3-14C]- and [phenyl-U-14C] olaquindox  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olaquindox is a new feed additive. [14C]Olaquindox, labelled in different positions, was needed for tracer-studies of pharmacokinetics, biotransformation and residues in several species of animals. 2-[N-(2-hydroxethyl)-carbamoyl]-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide([3-14C]Olaquindox) was synthesized from barium[14C]carbonate (22 mmoles; 1.15 Ci) via [1-14C]acetic acid, sodium[1-14C]acetate, [1-14C]acetylchloride, ethyl[3-14C]acetoacetate and 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide with an overall yield of 10%, based on barium[14C]carbonate. The radiochemical purity was better than 98% (tlc). The specific activities of three preparations were 10.5, 8.4 and 5.45 ?Ci/mg respectively. [phenyl-U-14C]Olaquindox was synthesized starting from [U-14C]aniline (19.8 mmoles; 284.4 mCi). Intermediate products were N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro-N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro[U-14C]aniline and [U-14C]benzofurazanoxide. The total yield was 50% as calculated for [U-14C]aniline. At calibration samples of two preparations showed specific activities of 49.5 and 11.1 ?Ci/mg respectively. The radiochemical purity was checked by tlc and exceeded 98%. (author)

70

Spontaneous 14C emission from 223Ra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra, recently discovered by Rose and Jones, has been confirmed, and the mass of the emitted particles unambiguously identified. The present measurement was performed with a 227Th source containing 9.2 mCi of 223Ra. An Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph was used to suppress the intense alpha radiation and to identify the 14C particles. The spectrograph was calibrated with tandem-accelerated beams of 14C, 13C, and 12C. In six days of decay counting, twenty-four 14C events were observed yielding a branching ratio of (4.7 +- 1.3) x 10-10 for the emission of 14C from 223Ra relative to that of alpha particles. The value is in fair agreement with the result of Rose and Jones, (8.5 +- 2.5) x 10-10, and with more recent measurements from other laboratories

71

Preparation of 32P-labeled diethyl phosphite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The procedure for radiochemical preparation of diethyl phosphite labeled with phosphorus-32 has been proposed. The best operating conditions of the synthesis have been determined. Based on these data, the process scheme for preparing 32P-labeled diethyl phosphite has been developed

72

Incorporation of 14C from [14C]phenylalanine into condensed tannin of sorghum grain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure is described for obtaining condensed tannin from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seeds metabolically labeled from [14C]phenylalanine. The [14C]tannin should be useful in determining the metabolic fate of dietary condensed tannin

73

Metabolism of ingested 14C-triolein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To estimate the radiation dose of ingested 14C- (and 3H-) labelled fatty acids, we measured 14CO2 in samples of expired air in five subjects, and serum 14C activity in four subjects, over 4 weeks. These investigations showed that 25%-40% of ingested 14C-fatty acids were metabolized and expired as 14CO2 within 10 days after ingestion. The residue was expired with a calculated half-life of 493 days. Six days after ingestion of the radiolipids, radioactivity in serum was barely detectable. From these data of 14C-fatty acid metabolism, a total whole-body radiation of 20 mrem/?Ci 14C, 8 mrem/?Ci14C the first year, was calculated. The corresponding radiation dose for 3H-fatty acid was 2 mrem/?Ci 3H and 1 mrem/?Ci 3H respectively. Maximal organ-specific radiation (gonads and lungs) from the blood-borne radioactivity was 1 mrem/?Ci of 14C-fatty acid. (orig.)

74

Synthesis of optically active cyphenothrin-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optically active cyphenothrins, ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-chrysanthemates were labelled with 14C at the carbonyl carbon for use in metabolic studies. Ethyl glycinate-1-14C hydrochloride (6), prepared from potassium cyanide-14C (2) in the three steps, was condensed with 2,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene via the diazo intermediate to give ethyl cis, trans-chrysanthemate-14C (7). Hydrolysis of the ester 7 followed by geometrical separation gave cis- and trans-chrysanthemic-14C acid (8a and 8b). Each geometrical isomer (8a or 8b), was optically resolved to afford (1R)-cis- or (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic-14C acid (8c or 8d). Esterification of 8c and 8d with ?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl bromide (9) gave (1R)-cis- and (1R)-trans-cyphenothrin-(carbonyl-14C) (1a and 1b) in the yields of 4 and 6 % from 2, respectively. (author)

75

14C Records from Indonesian Sea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

76

Specifically 14C-labelled uracils: [2-14C]uracil, [2,4,5-14C]uracil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are the terminology, formulas, method of preparation and uses of specifically labelled [2-14C]uracil and [2,4,5-14C]uracil. Also given are the technical requirements placed on molar activity, radiochemical purity and the presentation of delivered products, on testing conditions and packaging, transport and storage. Also presented are the related Czechoslovak standards and legal specifications. (B.S.)

77

14C levels in Trombay environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passive air sampling method has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the specific activity of 14C in air samples collected within the Trombay complex. The samples collected within radial distance of about 0.5 km from Cirus showed 3 to 5 times higher specific activity of 14C over the natural background level of 6.2 pCi/g C. The same decreased with the distance and approached the value of natural level at the site boundary (1.6 km). The specific activity of 14C in leaf samples collected within the complex showed the similar pattern. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

78

[14C]Virginiamycin residues in eggs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laying hens were fed ab libitum a diet supplemented at 40, 10, and 0 mg/kg with [14C]virginiamycin, to determine whether or not virginamycin or its metabolites were transferred to the eggs. About 0.05% of the ingested 14C dose was recovered in the eggs. Radiolabeled residues expressed in terms of virginiamycin equivalents were found to be 5.1 ng/g in the albumen and 31.8 ng/g in the yolk from hens fed a 10 mg/kg diet. No antibiotic activity could be detected in the eggs. Tentative identifications showed that in the albumen about 17% of the 14C behaved chromatographically like virginiamycin and 18% was associated to the ovalbumin. In the yolk 31% of the 14C was associated to proteins, 58% to fatty acids, and 4% to unsaponifiable matter

79

Synthetic heparinoids labelled with 125I and 35S  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The labelling of a water-soluble synthetic polyelectrolyte, having anticoagulant activity, has been studied. The polyelectrolyte is derived from cis-1,4-polyisoprene and contains N-sulfate and carboxylate groups. [125I]-Iodination of the polyelectrolyte, using the Chloramine-T method and an electrolytic method, resulted in a [125I]-labelled polyelectrolyte from which release of the label occurred. Resulfation of a partially desulfated polyelectrolyte with a [35S]-sulfur trioxide trimethylamin...

Sederel, L. C.; Kolar, Z.; Does, L.; Bantjes, A.

1982-01-01

80

Radioactive 32P produced in sulfur in Hiroshima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was expected that when the A-bomb was exploded over Hiroshima fast neutrons would be emitted from the bomb. In the survey made in Hiroshima during the first part of September 1945, the presence of 32P radiation in sulfur due to the reaction 32S(n,p) 32P was confirmed. Therefore sulfur used as adhesive material in binding the porcelain insulators to the metallic holder on power poles was collected at various parts of the city. The sulfur thus obtained was powdered and 1 g was spread over a 10 cm2 glass plate. The radioactive intensity was measured with a Lauritsen electroscope through a 0.015 mm aluminum window. These measurements were made in Tokyo on 20 September 1945

 
 
 
 
81

Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)

82

Hydrodynamic aspects of 14C groundwater dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of man-made hydraulic disturbances on the 14C-ages of groundwater from confired aquifers is considered together with the 14C diffusion affect. The latter has an effect on 14C-ages only if the hydrostatic pressure in a lower, unconfined aquifer is smaller than 0.5 m relative to an upper, unconfined aquifer. If the water head of the lower aquifer exceeds this value, the 14C-ages of the confined groundwater are reliable. In the reversed case, the 14C water ages rapidly approach values of a few 1000 years, which no longer reflect the previous course of the groundwater regeneration. Considering the paleohydrogeologic situation in Central Europe and the Central Sahara during the last 40,000 years, the 14C-ages of Holocene groundwater and the duration of the last hiatus of groundwater regeneration can be determined reliably. 14C-ages of previous periods are too small and groundwater velocities derived from such data are too great. Recently started withdrawal of groundwater from confined aquifers associated with rates for the lowering of the water table of 0.1-0.5 m/yr results in a rapid decrease in the 14C-ages determined for these aquifers, delayed for one or two decades after the beginning of the withdrawal. The 3H level and the chemical content of the groundwater may also be changed after the same delay period. Changes of this kind can be used to estimate hydraulic properties of the aquifer system. (orig./HK)

83

32P detection in animal and plant samples using Cerenkov  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P detection methodology in animal and plant tissue using the Cerenkov effect, liquid scintillation and Geiger-Muller techniques is studied. The Cerenckov effect shows to be more satisflying as to sensitivity, sample preparation, back ground and negligible cost per sample. Comparing the detection by means of Cerenkov effect with that by GM, the relative counting efficiency is about 100 times and 1,5 to 4 comparing to liquid scintillation detection

84

32P-labeling test for DNA damage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and splee...

Randerath, K.; Reddy, M. V.; Gupta, R. C.

1981-01-01

85

Genomic 5-methylcytosine determination by 32P-postlabeling analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple and sensitive method for the quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine in DNA has been developed by the adaptation of the Randerath 32P-postlabeling technique. Nucleic acids were digested to 3'-monophosphate nucleotides, which were converted to 32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotides, the 3'-phosphate was cleaved by the action of nuclease P1, and the resultant 5'-[32P]-monophosphate nucleotides were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Less than 1 microgram of DNA was required for the precise quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine content to a detectable limit of 0.01% of the total cytidine residues methylated. The genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content may thus be quantitated in tissue samples, small or selective cell populations, senescing or terminally differentiating cells, or DNA from any source. We report here, for the first time, the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial and normal human pulmonary mesothelial cells. The chromatographic separation of all of the normal and some of the rare monophosphate deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides has been characterized. Thus, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and the RNA contamination of DNA or the DNA contamination of RNA can also be quantitated during the same analysis

86

Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-[35S]cysteine or L-[35S]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-[35S]thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-[35S]cysteine and L-[35S]methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of [35S]OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of [35S]cysteine or [35S]methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine

87

Synthesis of 14C-propoxur (o-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate-14C) insecticide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-propoxur (Baygonsub(circled R)) is an insecticide with a broad spectrum of activity and a very low order of mammalian toxicity. Radiosynthesis of propoxur was performed by the reaction of acetyl-1-14C chloride and sodium azide to produce methyl isocyanate which then reacted with o-isopropoxyphenol at 100 degC. A two-compartment reaction tube with a break seal was utilized. Chromatograhic procedures for isolating the N-methylcarbamates from their reaction mixtures are reported. Acetyl-1-14C chloride was prepared from thionyl chloride and sodium acetate-1-14C. Grignard reaction between methyl iodide and carbon-14 dioxide yielded acetic acid-14C which was neutralized by sodium hydroxide solution to give sodium acetate-1-14C. (author)

88

Preparation of 14C-sumithion and 14C-malathion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of 14C-sumithion and 14C-malathion is presented. From 14C-barium carbonate, the 14C-methanol is synthesized and used to react with PSCl3. Then 3-methanol-4 nitrophenol is added solution of 2-hexamonethe to obtain 14C-sumithion. Its radiochemical purity is over 95% and the specific activity is 188.7 GBq/mol. On the other hand 2-butenoic acid diethyl ester is added in the solution of methyl benzene, after addition of malathion and P2S5 to form the terminal product 14C-palathion. Its radio chemical purity is over 95% and the specific activity is 156.4 GBq/mol

89

Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

90

Sulfur mineralization of different plant materials labelled with 35 S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out, in green house conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effect of incorporation in soil of different plant materials labelled with 35 S and of incubation periods on the availability of sulfur to the bean test plants and on the dynamic of this element in the soil. The bean test plants dry matter yield ranged from 2.00 to 3.79 g/plant, the S content and absorption ranged from 118.20 to 194.04 mg/100 g and 2.61 to 6.34 mg/plant respectively. The 35 S derived from the incorporated bean plant material contributed with 12 to 256% of total S absorbed by bean test plant; rice plant material contributed with 12 to 22%; soybean plant material contributed 11 to 18%; corn plant material at rate of 7 g with, 11 to 19% and corn at rate of 3.5 g; with 7 to 1%. Plant material incorporation showed 35 S using efficiency by bean test plant of 21.41 to 9.94% by incorporated rice plant material, of 16.12 to 7.79% by rice material, of 13.11 to 6.49% by soybean material, of 10.24 to 6.21% by corn at rate of 3.5 g and of 7.41 to 3.81% by corn at rate of 7 g.Incorporated plant material with C/S relationship near 120, such as bean and rice, promoted desirable and favorable alteration in soil, while materials with C/S higher than 250, such as soybean and corn, led to unsatisfactory and undesirable alteration. The characteristic of incorporated plant materials which more affected its behavior was the C/S relationship, which depended on its physiological stage on collect timing. (author)

91

Photoneutron cross sections for 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photoneutron cross sections for 14C [sigma(?,1n) and sigma(?,2n)] have been measured up to 36 MeV using monochromatic photons. The cross section for the emission of a single neutron displays a very prominent resonance near 15 MeV which appears to decay primarily to the ground state of 13C. The (?,2n) cross section is sharply peaked at 26 MeV and is large compared with those for 12C and 13C. The integrated total photoneutron cross section up to 36 MeV is 126 +- 12 MeV mb (61% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum-rule value). The 14C photoneutron cross sections are interpreted in terms of the reaction kinematics and the competition among the particle channels in order to provide information on the isospin properties of the major E1 states in 14C and on the validity of the weak core-coupling model

92

32P-sodium phosphate treatment of metastatic malignant disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-four patients with cancer of the breast and 12 with cancer of the prostate were treated with testosterone and 32P-sodium phosphate for relief of pain from bony metastases. Thirty were treated with chemotherapy as well, and 34 were treated with external radiation to single ports for localized pain. Of the 46 patients treated, good results were achieved in 34, fair results in six, and no improvement in six. Subsequent marrow depression necessitated transfusion in 10 patients; no other side effect was observed

93

The preparation of [?-32P] dCTP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two modifications for Johnson's enzymatic method of preparation of [?-32P] dCTP are introduced as follows: (1) temperature of reaction in the second stage is controlled at 5-22 deg C; (2) nuclease P1 is eliminated from the procedure in the third stage. Owing to reduced temperature the final yield of the procedure reaches 90-97% relative to 32Pi. The product cost is reduced and the operating process is simplified as a result of eliminating nuclease P1

94

Enzymatic synthesis of [?-33P]ATP and [U-14C]ATP?S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[?-33P]ATP was prepared by incubation of H333PO4 (33Pi) with ADP in the presence of GDH, TIM, GAP-DH, PGK, LDH, MgCl2, DTT, NAD, EDTA, glycerol phosphate, sodium pyruvate and tris buffer (pH 9.0); in 1 hour at room temperature, the yield was 89-98%. In similar conditions, unlabelled Na3PO3S was transferred to [U-14C]ADP considerably more slowly than 33Pi: in 7 hrs, the reaction mixture contained mere 17% [U-14C]ATP?S. After the concentration of Na3PO3S and of the enzymes was increased, 28% and 37% of the total activity, respectively, was incorporated in the [U-14C]ATP?S. Within the first 3 hrs, a considerable amount of [U-14C]ATP was formed, presumably by the reaction of [U-14C]ADP with unlabelled Pi contaminating the chemicals. Applicability of the enzymatic method to the preparation of high-molar-activity [?-35S]ATPS using Na3PO335S is also feasible. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

95

35S labelled methionine, methionine hydroxy analog and sodium sulfate in goat's rumen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

35S and 35S free and protein bound amino acids were estimated in goats' abomasal contents and blood after ruminal injections of sulfur labelled compounds: methionic, methionine hydroxy analog (M.H.A.) and sodium sulfate. 35S incorporation into microbial and plasma proteins was higher with methionine than with M.H.A. or sulfate. 35S M.H.A. utilization seems to be less different from Na235SO4 utilization than from 35S methionine utilization

96

Preparation of L-(U-14C) lactic acid from L-(U-14C) alanine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the preparation of L-(U-14C) lactic acid on submillimolar level using cation exchange resin in lieu of mineral or organic acids for liberating nitrous acid in the deamination reaction of L-(U-14C) alanine is reported. The advantage of this method in the final purification is also described. (author)

97

Isolation of (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed.

Haut, S.A.; Core, M.T. (Philip Morris Research and Development, Richmond, Va. (USA))

1982-01-01

98

Synthesis of [18-14C]octatriacontane from [1-14C]stearic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed to synthesize 14C-labelled n-alkanes for use in cigarette smoke studies. Specifically, n-[18-14C]-octatriacontane was synthesized from 1 mCi [1-14C]stearic acid in a radiochemical yield of 20%. The key features of this synthesis were two consecutive alkylations of tosylmethyl isocyanide followed by acid hydrolysis to [18-14C]-19-octatriacontanone and modified Wolff-Kishner reduction to the n-alkane. After purification on silica gel 25 mg of [18-14C]octatriacontane was obtained with a total radioactivity of 200 ?Ci, a specific activity of 4.3 mCi/mmol, and a radiochemical purity in excess of 98% by thin layer radiochromatography. The method has also been applied to the synthesis of unlabeled n-pentatriacontane and is considered to be generally applicable to the synthesis of radiolabeled alkanes from radiolabeled fatty acids. (author)

99

Pion single exchange on 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this experiment is to provide a complete set of forward-angle, single-charge-exchange (SCX) differential cross sections for the isobaric-analog state (IAS) of 14C. These data complement those taken at the same energies on elastic scattering and double-charge-exchange (DCX) scattering. The sharp minimum in the 00 excitation function is evident, which shows the measured spectra in the most forward angle theta bin (theta approx. = 100) for energies 35, 50, and 65 MeV. At 50 MeV the IAS nearly vanishes. At 35 and 65 MeV the IAS is a prominent feature of the spectrum. Preliminary values of the measured 00 differential cross sections (c.m.) are shown. The data are compared to the free-nucleon cross sections (c.m.) as calculated with a 1984 phase-shift analysis (FP84) of Arndt. One sees that the 14C data follow the shape of the ?-p ? ?0n reaction quite closely. The minimum is sharper with energy in 14C than on the free nucleus, and the position of the minimum appears to occur at several million electron volts higher energy in 14C

100

14C tebuconazole degradation in Colombian soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tebuconazole is a fungicide used on onion crops (Allium Fistulosum L) in Colombia. Persistence of pesticides in soils is characterized by the half-life (DT50), which is influenced by their chemical structure, the physical and chemical properties of the soil and the previous soil history. Based on its structural and chemical properties, tebuconazole should be expected to be relatively persistent in soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to evaluate persistence and bond residues of 14C tebuconazole in three soils, two inceptisol (I) and one histosol (H). Textural classifications were: loam (101), loamy sand (102) and loam (H03), respectively. Data obtained followed a first-order degradation kinetics (R2 > or = 0.899) with DT50 values between 158 and 198 days. The production of 14CO2 from the 14C-ring-labelled test chemicals was very low and increased slightly during 63 days in all cases. The methanol extractable 14C-residues were higher than aqueous ones and both decreased over incubation time for the three soils. The formation of bound 14C-residues increased with time and final values were 11.3; 5.55 and 7.87% for 101, 102 and H03 respectively. Soil 101 showed the lowest mineralization rate and the highest bound residues formation, which might be explained by the clay fraction content. In contrast, an inverse behavior was found for soils 102 and H03, these results might be explained by the higher soil organic carbon content. PMID:21542480

Mosquera, C S; Martínez, M J; Guerrero, J A

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Bioaccumulation profiles of 35S-labelled sodium alkylpoly(oxyethylene) sulfates in carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake, distribution and elimination of two labelled surfactants, 35S-labelled sodium dodecyltri(oxyethylene) sulfate (35S-C12-AES(3)) and 35S-labelled sodium dodecylpenta(oxyethylene) sulfate (35S-C12-AES(5)) were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to concentrations of 0.3-0.6 mg l-1, using whole-body autoradiography and the liquid scintillation counting method. 35S-Radioactivity was first rapidly absorbed by the gills and skin and transferred to other organs and tissues. After 24h-exposure, there was a comparatively high accumulation of 35S-radioactivity in the gills, hepatopancreas, gall bladder, intestinal content, and nasal and oral cavity. The distribution patterns of 35S-radioactivity derived from 35S-C12-AES(3) and 35S-C12-AES(5) in tissues and organs were similar. The whole-body concentration factors of 35S-radioactivity in fish exposed to 35SC12-AES(3) and 35S-C12-AES(5) for 72 hr were 18 and 4.7, respectively. In surfactant-free water, the absorbed 35S-radioactivity was eliminated more rapidly from the fish body exposed to 35S-C12-AES(3) than 35S-C12-AES(5). It was eliminated relatively fast from gills and hepatopancreas, but elimination from gall bladder was rather slow. (author)

102

32P uptake and translocation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P uptake in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars L-550 and C-235 as affected by vesicualr-arbuscular mycorrhiza (G. caledonicum) and Rhizobium was investigated in P deficient soils. Test plants coinoculated with the above two symbionts exhibited higher 32P uptake than inoculated with either symbiont alone. Uninoculated plants showed minimum level of 32P uptake. (author). 1 tab., 7 refs

103

Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

104

Phosphorus /sup 32/P test in primary retinal detachment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 20 patients with primary retinal detachment the /sup 32/P radioisotope test was performed injecting intravenously 500-750 ..mu..Ci of the isotope and doing measurements with a F-Messeelektronik counter after 48 and 72 hours. The radioisotope index calculated at the site of greater detachment in 17 eye-balls in relation to the sites with apposed retina in the same eye or the other eye differed in these cases. Among the obtained results the large number of negative indices calls for attention (12 out of 17 cases) and in 2 cases the obtained values were +30 and +59 which may cause diagnostic errors in cases with suspected intraocular neoplasm.

Mondelski, S.; Pytlarz, E. (Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland))

1980-01-01

105

Phosphate fertilizer studies using 32P dilution technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agronomic effectiveness of highly soluble phosphate fertilizers for annual crop production is well known and documented. In recent years considerable research effort has been focused on search for alternative means of cheaper forms of P fertilizers to fill the needs of poor farmers, who has limited capital availability for purchase of fertilizers. Since some countries in the world have naturally occurring phosphate rocks (PR), the most appealing alternative is for direct application of PR. The low capital and energy inputs required to prepare these PR for use makes it the cheapest mineral P fertilizers possible. Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam are some countries in the Asian region blessed with natural PR. Coupled with the inherently acidic and P deficient soils found in this region, research on direct application of these PR for crop production is indeed timely. Studies done in the temperate regions on direct application of PR have concluded that PR are not suitable for use in intensive agricultural system, because PR cannot maintain a sufficiently high P concentration in the soil solution for high crop yields. Research in direct application of PR to acidic soils of the Asian region have proven otherwise. The use of radioactive 32P isotope has helped in quantification of the amounts of P from the PR tested being utilized by the crop, and its distribution in the plant can also be monitored. In Malaysia, highly reactive North Carolina phosphate roighly reactive North Carolina phosphate rock has been found to be as effective as triple superphosphate, where a total of about 18% of the P fertilizer applied was utilized by three consecutive crops of sweet corn grown under field conditions. Initial glasshouse screening of efficacy of PR can also be determined by the use of the 32P isotope. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

106

Automated evaluation of 14C AMS measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

The huge amount of raw data collected during routine 14C AMS measurements requires sophisticated processing tools to guarantee the quality and reliability of the resulting radiocarbon dates. This paper discusses the automatic evaluation system, that is in use and under continuous development at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) laboratory. It includes a calibration program which is able to handle the bomb-peak. The flexibility of the system allows its use for other rare isotopes also.

Puchegger, S.; Rom, W.; Steier, P.

2000-10-01

107

14C accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. Ages from hundreds to hundred thousand years can be determined by this method, and tracing of one particle in 10 to 15 can be performed. AMS has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. The most used isotope in AMS is 14C. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. Our group at the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) has been developing projects on 14C-AMS in the last years, in collaborative experiments using external facilities such as Australian National University, Purdue University and University of California-Irvine. Recently we have installed our own sample preparation laboratory, where samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide, and later their graphitization is performed. More recently we have bought from NEC one 250 KV single stage AMS system (SSAMS), which started to operate in March 2012. With the laboratory for 14C sample preparation and running the SSAMS system, we became the first fully dedicated 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. We believe that the number of researchers from Brazil and Latin America who will use our facilities will increase one or two orders of magnitude, comparing with the number that nowadays use the AMS technique. In this talk the technique and our facilities will be presented. (author)

108

14C accelerator mass spectrometry in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive technique that enables the direct measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in samples as small as a few milligrams. Ages from hundreds to hundred thousand years can be determined by this method, and tracing of one particle in 10 to 15 can be performed. AMS has application in many fields of science such as Archaeology, Geosciences and Biomedicine. The most used isotope in AMS is 14C. Several kinds of material such as wood, charcoal, carbonate and bone can be chemically treated and converted to graphite to be measured in the accelerator system. Our group at the Physics Institute of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) has been developing projects on 14C-AMS in the last years, in collaborative experiments using external facilities such as Australian National University, Purdue University and University of California-Irvine. Recently we have installed our own sample preparation laboratory, where samples are prepared and converted to carbon dioxide, and later their graphitization is performed. More recently we have bought from NEC one 250 KV single stage AMS system (SSAMS), which started to operate in March 2012. With the laboratory for 14C sample preparation and running the SSAMS system, we became the first fully dedicated 14C-AMS facility in Latin America. We believe that the number of researchers from Brazil and Latin America who will use our facilities will increase one or two orders of magnitude, comparing with the number that nowadays use the AMS technique. In this talk the technique and our facilities will be presented. (author)

Gomes, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2012-07-01

109

Radioactive preparations. Barium [14C]carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard establishes the lower limit of Ba14CO3 content and 14C specific activity in the preparation. For the chemical admixtures an upper limit is given of their content in the preparation. Packings of the preparation must form a series rated at 0.05; 0.10; 0.25; 0.50; 1.00; 2.50; 5.00; 10.00; 25.00; 50.00 GBq. (E.S.)

110

Technical trend of 14C-AMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), which is one of the accelerator based techniques for micro-analysis, measures extremely low isotopic ratios of the order of 10-16 to detect the rare isotopes of 103 atoms or less. AMS has been applied to measure the number of long-lived radioisotopes like 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 129I and so on. The detection sensitivity of them by AMS is higher by several orders of magnitude compared to those by conventional decay counting techniques. Because of the high sensitivity, many new application researches have started since AMS was developed. AMS has been developed by using many special techniques to eliminate such interferences as isobar ions, molecular ions with the same mass and adjacent isotopes with the same momentum as those of the ions of interest. Since 14C has such a peculiar feature that it suffers no isobar (14N) interference it needs not to be high energy to be distinguished from the isobar ions. With this concept, a 14C dedicated compact-AMS system was developed. Since it was designed to be very compact with a low voltage accelerator, it has some peculiarities compared to larger AMS systems. With all the peculiar features, the measurements can be of quite high precision. (author)

111

An experimental study of targeting therapy with 35S-SZ39 against glioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To prepare a pure ?-emitting immunoradiotherapeutics agent 35S-MAb SZ39, and validate its special therapeutic efficacy against glioma. Methods: MAb SZ39 was labelled with 35S using a carbodiimide method. Using 35S-nIgG, 35S + MAb SZ39 and sustained 35S as control agents, and human brain glioma cell line SHG-44 as target cell, the injury rate and 50% inhibitory concentration of 35S-MAb SZ39 were evaluated with MTT method. 35S-MAb SZ39 and its control agent 35S-nIgG or PBS were i.p. injected into glioma-bearing nude mice. The tumor inhibitory rate (I) was determined according to the formula: I = [1-(TV35S-MAb/TVPBS)] x 100% (TV: tumor volume). Flowcytometry was used to analyse the cell cycle of glioma after treatment. Results: 35S-MAb SZ39 had a strong cytotoxic effect to glioma cells with 4.2-fold and 4.0-fold more toxic than 35S-nIgG and 35S + MAb SZ39, as strong as the sustained 35S control group. Tumor growth blocking for one week was obtained with 103.6 MBq 35S-MAb SZ39 treatment. The inhibitory rate was 50% 26 days after 35S-MAb SZ39 administration. DNA synthesis of glioma cells was inhibited, cells were accumulated in S period and the road to G1 period was blocked. There was a trend of cell cycle synchronization. No obvious toxicity was found on bone marrow while 35S-MAb SZ39 made the glioma growth block. Conclusions: 35S-MAb SZ39 has a strong selective injurious effect on glioma and is of good prospect to be an immunoradiotherapeutics agent

112

The synthesis of HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors [14C]L-697,661, [14C]L-697,639, [14C]L-702,007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of three carbon-14 labeled reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been accomplished by elaboration of a common intermediate, 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-amino-2-(1H)-[4-14C]-pyridinone (7). Ethyl [1-14C]formate, prepared by esterification of sodium [14C]formate, was combined with 2-pentanone under basic conditions to afford 3-[14C]carboxyaldehyde-2-pentanone sodium salt (2). The pyridinone ring was constructed by condensation of 2 with nitro acetamide 4. Reduction of the nitro group afforded 5-ethyl-6-methyl-3-amino-2-(1H)-[4-14C]-pyridinone (7)(specific activity 54 mCi/mmol). Subsequent alkylation of 7 provided the desired reverse transcriptase inhibitors [14C]L-697,661, [14C]L-697,639, and [14C]L-702,007. (Author)

113

Deglacial 14C plateau suites recalibrated by Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record - Revised 14C reservoir ages from three ocean basins corroborate extreme surface water variations  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiocarbon (14C) reservoir/ventilation ages (?14C) provide unique insights into the dynamics of ocean water masses over LGM and deglacial times. The 14C plateau-tuning technique enables us to derive both an absolute chronology for marine sediment records and a high-resolution record of changing ?14C values for deglacial surface and deep waters (Sarnthein et al., 2007; AGU Monogr. 173, 175). We designate as 14C plateau a sediment section in the age-depth profile with several almost constant planktic 14C ages - variation less than ×100 to ×300 yr - which form a plateau-shaped scatter band that extends over ~5 to 50 and up to 200 cm in sediment cores with sedimentation rates of >10 cm/ky. Previously, a suite of >15 plateau boundary ages were calibrated to a joint reference record of U/Th-dated 14C time series measured on coral samples, the Cariaco sediment record, and speleothems (Fairbanks et al., 2005, QSR 24; Hughen et al., 2006, QSR 25; Beck et al., 2001, Science 292). We now used the varve-counted atmospheric 14C record of Lake Suigetsu (Ramsey et al., 2012, Science 338, 370) to recalibrate the boundary ages and average ages of 14C plateaus and apply the amended plateau-tuning technique to a dozen ?14C records from the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Main results are: (1) The Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record reflects all 14C plateaus, their internal structures and relative length previously identified, but implies a rise in the average plateau age by 700 yr at its end, and ages of coeval atmospheric and planktic 14C plateaus surface water ?14C may have temporarily dropped to an equivalent of 200 yr in low-latitude stratified waters, such as off northwestern South America, and in turn reached values corresponding to an age difference of >2500 14C yr in stratified subpolar regions and upwelled waters such as in the South China Sea, values that differ significantly from a widely assumed constant planktic ?14C age of 400 yr. (3) Suites of deglacial planktic ?14C ages are closely reproducible in 14C records measured on neighbor core sites. (4) Apparent deep-water 14C ventilation ages (benthic ?14C), obtained from the sum of planktic ?14C and coeval benthic-planktic ?14C age differences, vary from an equivalent of <1000 to 5000 yr in LGM and deglacial ocean basins.

Sarnthein, M.; Balmer, S.; Grootes, P. M.

2013-12-01

114

Metabolism of [14C]acetylisoniazid and [14C]acetylhydrazine by the rat and rabbit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male rats and rabbits were singly dosed with either 1-[14C]acetyl isoniazid (acetylisonicotinoylhydrazine, acetyl-INH, 200 mg/kg po) or 1-[14C]acetylhydrazine (50 or 100 mg/kg ip). Urine and expired 14CO2 were collected, and after 6 hr the animals were killed for the analysis of tissue 14C concentrations and covalent binding of 14C to hepatic protein. Rats excreted proportionately more 14C in urine and had lower 14C levels in their tissues compared to rabbits. When acetyl-INH was administered, covalent hepatic protein binding of the acetyl moiety was greater in the rabbit than the rat, but the opposite was observed when acetylhydrazine was administered. Analysis of blood and urine by TLC revealed that the rabbit more rapidly metabolized both acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine, and acetylhydrazine to diacetylhydrazine than did the rat. These observations suggest that higher amidase activity in the rabbit compared to the rat leads to faster conversion of acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine which in turn leads to greater covalent binding and hepatotoxicity

115

The synthese of compounds labelled with 14C. General problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barium carbonate (14C) is the only material for the syntheses of compounds labelled with 14C. The syntheses of compounds of 14C were considered for their individual features and specificities in respect of double - lined character of chemical and radiochemical phenomena. It was stated that compounds of 14C obtainable directly from barium carbonate (14C) will be called basis compounds of 14C. The methods of adaptations of some syntheses of 14C elaborated previously in other laboratory were considered. The aim of this adaptation was to obtain a method flexible in respect with amount of products 14C and repeatable concerning yield and purity of compounds labelled with 14C. The methods of the microsyntheses of compounds labelled with 14C were discussed. (author)

116

Syntheses of 9-(2'-monoethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine ([14C]-EPMG) and 9-(2'-phosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine ([14C]-PMEG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of the title compounds 9-(2'-phosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine{[14C]-PMEG) and 9-(2'-monoethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]guanine([14C]-EPM G) are described. Treatment of [14C]guanine with acetic anhydride in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone gave [14C]N-acetylguanine. Reaction with 2-(diethylphosphonomethoxy) ethylmethanesulfonate in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of potassium carbonate yielded 2-N-acetyl-9(2'-diethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]-guanine. Removal of the acetyl group with aqueous methylamine gave 9-(2'-(diethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]-guanine. Treatment of the diethylphosphonate ester with sodium hydroxide and acidification with hydrochloric acid gave 9-2'-(monoethylphosphonomethoxyethyl)-8-[14C]-guanine. Silation of the diethylphosphonate ester with bromotrimethylsilane and treatment with water produced 9-(2'-phosphonomethyloxethyl)-8-[14C]guanine. (Author)

117

35S induced dominant lethals in immature oocytes in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA female mice were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 20?Ci of sulphur-35 on 15.5 day post conception. Another group of pregnant mice injected with normal saline was kept as control. The pregnant females were allowed to litter and the mothers were separated from their offsprings 4 weeks after littering. Eight weeks after treatment i.e. at the age of 22-24 weeks, the treated mothers were mated with control C3H/He males. The vaginal plugs were checked every morning and those which mated were separated. The pregnant females were killed on the 14th day of gestation. The uterine contents were examined for live and dead embryos and the ovaries for corpora lutea. The pre- and post-implantation losses and total loss were calculated in the treated females and compared with those of controls. Embryonic death was significantly higher among treated animals. The results indicated that 35S can induced dominant lethal mutations in immature oocytes. (author)

118

35S induced dominant lethals in immature Oocytes in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA female mice were injected intraperitoneally with a dose of 20 ?Ci of sulphur-35 on 15.5 day post conception. Another group of pregnant mice injected with normal saline was kept as control. The pregnant females were allowed to litter and the mothers were separated from their offspring 4 weeks after littering. Eight weeks after treatment i.e. at the age of 22-24 weeks, the treated mothers were mated to control C3H/He males. The vaginal plugs were checked everyday morning and those mated were separated. The pregnants were killed on 14th day of gestation. The uterine contents were searched for live and dead embryos and the ovaries for corpora lutea. The pre, post and total loses were calculated in the treated females and compared with those of control. The statistical tests performed indicated that all losses are significant. The results indicate that 35S can induce chromosomal breaks in immature oocytes and lead to the induction of dominant lethals. (author)

119

Preparation and quantification of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate with high specific activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis and quantitation of the sulfate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate (PAP35S), prepared from inorganic [35S]sulfate and ATP, were studied. An enzymatic transfer method based upon the quantitative transfer of [35S]sulfate from PAP35S to 2-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone by the action of phenolsulfotransferase activity from rat brain cytosol was also developed. The 2-naphthyl[35S]sulfate or 35S-methylumbelliferone sulfate formed was isolated by polystyrene bead chromatography. This method allows the detection of between 0.1 pmol and 1 nmol/ml of PAP35S. PAP35S of high specific activity (75 Ci/mmol) was prepared by incubating ATP and carrier-free Na2 35SO4 with a 100,000g supernatant fraction from rat spleen. The product was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The specific activity and purity of PAP35S were estimated by examining the ratios of Km values for PAP35S of the tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase present in microsomes from rat cerebral cortex. The advantage and applications of these methods for the detection of femtomole amounts, and the synthesis of large scale quantities of PAP35S with high specific activity are discussed

120

A land surface 14C transfer model and numerical experiments on belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model simulating transport and exchange for 14C (or 14CO2) in a land surface ecosystem was developed and the belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C accumulation at a hypothetical cultivated field were studied with the model through numerical experiments. The developed model involved physical 14CO2 transport in surface atmosphere and soil and physiological 14CO2 exchanges in leaves, and was incorporated into a dynamical model (SOLVEG-II) that calculates transport and exchange for heat, water and CO2. The model was tested through a simulation of an existing-experiment on an acute exposure of grape plants to 14CO2. The calculated 14C amount in leaves agreed with the observations within a factor of 1.7. A hypothetical scenario used for the numerical experiments considered an annual 14C input into surface soil layers via 14C-enriched foliage or root litter under a continually heightened atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. The specific activity of 14C in the surface soil layers increased with time and several decades after the start of accumulation it eventually converged to eight times the initial specific activity. At this equilibrium state, the increased belowground 14CO2 production enhanced the atmospheric 14CO214CO2 level and, consequently, 14CO2 uptake by vegetation increased to 1.1 times the control calculated without belowground 14C accumulation. The model results also demonstrated that 14C accumulated in soil can maintain an enhanced vegetation 14C level for at least several decades even after the end of accumulation. - Highlights: ? A numerical model for 14C transport in land surface ecosystem was developed. ? Impact of belowground 14C accumulation on vegetation 14C level was studied through numerical experiments with the model. ? 14C accumulation in surface soil enhanced vegetation 14C level by a factor of 1.1.

 
 
 
 
121

Synthesis of 14C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1-14C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems. (author)

122

Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17?g P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ?94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (?68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (?48%) and all other fractions were ?9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ? 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

123

An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

124

Convenient one-pot synthesis of benzoquinone-[U-14C] and hydroquinone-[U-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzoquinone-[U-14C] was synthesized in 90% yield from benzene-[U-14C] via a three step sequence. Conditions were developed which allowed this conversion to be accomplished in a one pot closed system. The benzoquinone-[U-14C] thus obtained could be reduced to hydroquinone-[U-14C] in quantitative yield. Preparation of benzene-[U-14C] is also described. (author)

125

Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

126

Increased (/sup 32/P)-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased (32P)-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was (32P)-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of (gamma-32P)ATP. (32P)-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad (32P)-labeled band containing a number of (32P)-polypeptides was found to be more highly (32P)-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total (32P) radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased (32P)-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 (32P)-phosphorylation in DMD.

Mabry, M.E.; Roses, A.D.

127

A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation describes a method for separating 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K2HPO4, Mg(C2H3O2)2, ovalbumen, Na2ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14C-hexose and 14C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

128

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE  

Science.gov (United States)

The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ( 14C) AMS measurements (? R/ R Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb- 14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

Marzaioli, F.; Fiumano, V.; Capano, M.; Passariello, I.; Cesare, N. De.; Terrasi, F.

2011-12-01

129

Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 14C-5-aminosalicylic acid (14C-5-ASA) in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. As part of a preclinical metabolism profile with 5-ASA, we evaluated the tissue level and distribution of 14C-5-ASA in rats. Biodistribution of 14C-radioactivity was determined in the major organs of rats after a single oral dose (34 mg/kg; 15 uci/rat). Data from tissue area under the curve (AUC 0-72) indicated that the highest amounts of radioactivity were retained in cecum (481.1 hr.ug.equ/gm), colon-rectum (178.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), ileum (166.7 hr.ug.equ/gm), jejunum (65.5 hr.ug.equ/gm), followed by kidneys (58.0 hr.ug.equ/gm) and liver (14.8 hr.ug.equ/gm). The radioactivity retained in tissues at 72 hours postdose was wither nondetectable or less than 0.1 ppm. The radioactivity concentration in blood was highest at 0.5 hr (tmax) postdose and the terminal half-life (t1/2) of 14C-radioactivity (5-ASA + metabolite) was 2.7 hours. 14C-5-ASA is absorbed and distributed in the body. The greatest amount of 14C-radioactivity was found in the stomach and GI tract. 14C-5-ASA was eliminated completely (44.9% in the urine, 51.7% in the feces) 72 hours after administration without significant tissue retention

130

Brachytherapy on restenosis. 32P radioisotope in animal model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope (32P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by fluoroscopy when rabbits had reached 3,0-3,5 Kg body weight. Studies were done with different doses (10 and 20 Gy) of beta ionizing radiation (32P sources) administered with balloon dilatation. Animals were sacrificed at the same time after irradiation; vasodilation, edema, hemorrhages, mononuclear infiltrate in the periadventitial tissue and other biological changes were analyzed and compared with control. Evaluation of Absorbed dosis and Dosis Equivalent on different tissues were done by Montecalo and appropriate equations. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation into the different layers of the arterial wall (i.e. histological percent stenosis area and number of neointimal cell layer), microscopic observation and computational count with the adequate software indicated that imflamatory elementsaccumulation and neointimal cell proliferation (demonstrated through PCNA+ and apoptotic cells detection) were milder in irradiated rabbits and that the inhibition of cell proliferation was proportional to the applied Absorbed dose. The ionizing radiation produce inhibitory effect on restenosis in New Zealand rabbits. Results obtained may open the possibility to apply this technique in human patients in Argentina. (author)

131

Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

132

Distribution of radioactive phosphorus (32 P) in sheep tissue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twelve male lambs (Corriedale) were separated in two groups according to their average age (114 days and 208 days). The animals of each group were selected in twos according to weight to provide duplicates. After a 7 days period of adaptation, during which time the lambs received anunrestricted mineral supplement, they were given intravenous injections of 1 ml of Na2H32PO4. The amount of radioactivity administered varied with time; from 500 ?ci to 225.9 ?ci for the 6 younger animals, and from 500 ?ci to 87.5 ?ci for the 6 older ones. At 8, 16, and 24 hours after the injections, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed by bleeding. As well as the serum and blood, pieces of tongue, brain, heart, diaphragm spleen, kidney, liver and bone were collected. These tissues were dried, incinerated and the extracts obtained with H2SO4 counted by Cerenkov radiation in a liquid scintillation counter. The level of inorganic phosphorus in the serum was determined with material obtained the day before the experiment. The younger animals had lower levels of serum inorganic phosphorus and retained higher levels of 32P on their tissues. The isotope was found in a decreasing order in the following tissues: liver, kidney, spleen heart, and tongue. The brain presented the least retention. The order of magnitude by which the tissues retained the isotope was not influenced by the age of the animals, by the experimental period, or by the level of serum inorganic phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus retained by the tissues was affected not only by the age of the animals, but also by the level of phosphorus in the blood and, for some tissues, by the experimental period

133

Distribution of labeled products from [1-14C], [U-14C] and [16-14C]-palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes and liver mitochondria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fatty acids (FA) labeled in different carbon positions are used to study the distribution of labeled oxidation products. With rat hepatocytes (Hep) the authors observed significant differences in the distribution of label into products from [1-14C] and [U-14C]-palmitate (P). The total recovery of label in products (14CO2 + acid soluble fraction (ASF)) was identical between the two labeled FA. However, 14CO2 production from [U-14C]-P was only 40% of that from [1-14C]-P. A recent report showed that approximately = 95% of succinate (Suc) utilized by Hep does not complete one full turn through the citric acid cycle. The authors observed that 14CO2 evolution from [2,3-14C]-Suc was approximately = 9% of that from [1,4-14C]-Suc, indicating that the differences in label distribution between [1-14C] and [U-14C]-P are partially due to less 14CO2 production from label in the even carbon positions of the FA with consequently more label remaining in the ASF. The 14CO2 production from [16-14C]-P was only 4% of that from [1-14C]-P a value less than expected from the Suc experiments. Ketone bodies (KB) comprised 78% of total labeled products from [16-14C]-P as compared to 28% from [1-14C]-P and 41% from [U-14C]-P, giving support to the previously reported preferential use of the omega-C2 unit for KB synthesis without entry into the acetyl-CoA pool. Studies with isolated rat liver mitochondria gave results similar to those with Hep, indicating minimal involvement of perioxisomal ?-oxidation

134

Enzymatic method for the synthesis of [14C]pyridoxal 5-phosphate from [14C]pyridoxine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of [14C]pyridoxal 5-phosphate is presented. [14C]Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was synthesized from [14C]pyriodoxine through the successive actions of pyridoxal kinase and pyrdoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase in a reaction mixture containing ATP, [14C]pyridoxine, and both enzymes. [14C]Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was isolated by omega-aminohexyl-Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The overall yield of the product was more than 60%, starting from 550 nmol of [14C]pyridoxine. The radiochemical purity of the products, as determined by thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatography, was greater than 98%

135

Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

b-14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459–1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571–1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559–1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452–1519) to the support.

136

Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

137

The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

138

Evaluation of the efficacy of 32P and 89Sr radionuclide therapy in metastatic bone pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Bone metastases constitutes 60 - 84% of cancer patients. Radionuclide therapy achieves palliation and improves quality of life. The efficacy of 32P and 89Sr therapy in bone pain and toxicity aspects is presented. 32P and 89Sr (orthophosphate and metastron) were administered in patients with multiple secondaries from breast or prostate cancers. The study included 31 patients with 32P and 6 patients with 89Sr. Doses of 32P and 89Sr depended upon the extent of metastases as seen from bone scan and severity of pain. Total administered activities of 32P and 89Sr ranged from 185-518 MBq and 138-182 MBq, respectively. Absorbed doses to metastases and bone marrow were 200 - 534 cGy and 70-191 cGy for 32P; 3174-4195 cGy and 219-289 cGy for 89Sr therapy. The efficacy of pain relief were 68% and 88% for 32P and 89Sr groups. Hematological toxicity was high for 32P patients receiving doses above 400 MBq, but there was no significant toxicity in 89Sr group of patients. Our preliminary study indicates 89Sr to be superior as radionuclide therapy agent. With careful evaluation of patients, 32P also could be considered in a few patients because of its easy availability and economics

139

A novel synthesis of ethanolamine-2-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethanolamine-2-14C was prepared by the reduction of benzyloxycarbonyl-glycine-1-14C methyl ester. The reduction was carried out with calcium borohydride and the protecting group was removed by hydrogenolysis. (author)

140

[14C]Lignin-labeled lignocelluloses and 14C-labeled milled wood lignins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses lignin which is synthesized in vascular plants by way of a branching sequence of reactions during which CO2 is converted first to shikimic acid. Conversion of two amino acids is described. The authors summarize methods used to prepare, characterize, and use two types of specifically 14C- labeled lignins

 
 
 
 
141

Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to ?-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring ?-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, ?-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or ?-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

142

Enzymatic synthesis of [ribose-U-14C]8-azaguanosine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

8-Azaguanosine 14C-labeled in the ribose moiety was enzymatically synthesized in two steps: 1) phosphorolytic cleavage of [U-14C]inosine to yield [U-14C]ribose-1-phosphate; 2) synthesis of 8-azaguanosine from [U-14C]ribose-1-phosphate and 8-azaguanine catalyzed by purine nucleoside phosphorylase. The radiochemical yield was 70%, and contaminants were present in the isolated radioactive nucleoside analog, as judged by HPLC analysis. (Author)

143

Studies on the synthesis of nucleoside 5-triphosphates labelled by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies on the enzymic, enzymic-chemical and chemical synthesis of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates labeled by 32P and the proposed reaction mechanism of adenosine 5'-triphosphate via synthesis and hydrolysis have been presented. Original method of preparation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate labeled by 32P (AM32P) by irradiaton of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) or its calcium in a neutron stream about 1013 n/cm2xs intensity has been worked out. From that AM32P adenosine 5'-triphosphate labeled by 32P in ?-position (/?-32P/) has been synthetized. A method of preparation of adenosine 5'-triphosphate labeled by 32P in ?-position (/?-32P/ATP) by the application of 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole and tri-n-butylammonium /32P/-orthophosphate and adenosine 5'-diphosphate has been improved. It has been proved that carrier-free H332PO4 in 0,01 HCl about 99,9 per cent of an attested radiochemical purity made in the Centre of Production and Distribution of Isotopes at the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk near Otwock is contained about 30 per cent of /32P/-orthophosphate only. A marked improvement in quality of that compounds has been resulted. From the reaction mixture the good method of separation and evoluton of AMP, ADP, ATP from H3PO4 and H4P2O7 about big Rsub(f)Rsub(f) differences has been worked out. That method was a useful tool for the control of several steps in synthesis of adenosine 5'-triphosphates labeled by 32P and for yields and specific activities countings of those labeled compounds. (author)

144

[35S]methionine interaction with rat liver tRNA and effect of chemical carcinogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of [35S]methionine with hepatic tRNA in normal, carcinogen-treated, and partially hepatectomized rats was studied. tRNA was preferentially labeled following [35S]methionine (1.6 mCi, 25 mg/kg body wt) administration by intraperitoneal injection. The extent of [35S]methionine-tRNA interaction was impaired by partial hepatectomy and by conditions having a carcinogenic potential

145

Catalytic reduction of 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reduction of 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C with hydrogen on palladium catalyst is described. The process was controlled by measuring the concentrations of reduction products by means of thin-layer chromatography. According to reactant and medium of the reaction, three compounds were obtained: N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-9-14C, 2-acetylaminofluorene-9-14C and 2-aminofluorene-9-14C, with radiochemical yield in relation to 2-nitrofluorene-9-14C 27%, 76% and 63% respectively. (author)

146

Radiocarbon (14C) migration and metabolism kinetics (a review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on 14C migration and kinetics. Radiocarbon metabolism kinetics depends on the form of the chemical compound metabolized. Inorganic 14C compounds are metabolized relatively quickly. Organic 14C compounds (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) are retained longer in the body. The differences in the metabolism kinetics of different 14C compounds lead to different radiation doses in various organs and tissues. In establishing standards for permissible 14C intake the kind of chemical compound in which the element is incorporated should be taken into consideration. (author)

147

Synthesis of Dl-methionine carboxyl 14C and its enzymatic optical resolution into L-methionine carboxyl 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DL-methionine carboxyl 14C has been prepared by Strecker reaction from 14C N K and ?-methylmercapto-propionaldehyde with 61 per cent yield. The enzymatic resolution of N-acetyl DL-methionine gives rise to L-methionine carboxyl 14C with 78 per cent yield. (authors)

148

Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

149

Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

150

Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

1989-01-01

151

Clinical observation of 5686 cases of infant hemangioma treated by 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the therapeutic method of treating infant hemangioma by radioisotopes 32P. Methods: Simple hemangiomata were treated by 32P dermal application method. The authors prepared 32P at the activity of 165.98 kBq/cm2/h, diluted it with 2 ml water, and then dropped it on filter paper. The authors applied the paper to the impaired site according to the shape and the size of hemangioma. The impaired site received 32P radiation at the dosage of 9.41 Gy/cm2 each time. The treatment was repeated once every month. Cavernous hemangiomata were treated by local injections of colloid 32P at the dosage of 370 kBq/cm3 once every 2-3 months. Mixed hemangiomata received combined treatment mentioned above. Results: 3383 cases (99.0%) of simple hemangioma were cured by 32P dermal application method. 1241 case (98.7%) of cavernous hemangioma were cured. 397 cases (83.0%) of mixed hemangioma were cured. 534 cases (98.1%) of naevus flammeus were improved by 32P application method. The total effective rate was 99.8%. The cure rate was 88.3%. Conclusion: Treating hemangioma with 32P is satisfactory for its high efficiency and low toxicity. It may be advisable for infant skin disease

152

Incorporation of [32P] orthophosphate into histones of chick embryo brain and liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[32P] Orthophosphate was introduced intra-amnionally to 14-day-old chick embryos, and after 4, 10 and 20 h the nuclear histone fractions of brain and liver were isolated. The highest radioactivity was observed after 10 h. The kinetics of 32P incorporation into particular histone fractions of both tissues were somewhat different. (author)

153

A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [32P]Psub(i), with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40). (author)

154

Investigations on preparation of 32P-labelled organo-phosphorus pesticides - - malathion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General methods of preparation of labelled insecticides starting from red phosphorus and phosphoric acid labelled with 32P are outlined. Investigations on the three step synthesis of 32P-malathion are discussed. The need for high purity reagents and absolute dry conditions are stressed. Methods for purification and identification by paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography are discussed in detail. (author)

155

Incorporation of 32P into polyphosphoinositides of erythrocytes from essentially hypertensive patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of polyphosphoinositides (PPI) and the incorporation rate of 32P into PPI of erythrocytes from essentially hypertensive patients was studied. The PPI were found to have a decreased level and an increased 32P incorporation rate compared with the controls

156

The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received 35S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of 35S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of 35S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for 35S administered as methionine compared with 35S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of 35S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of 35S to milk of a further group of goats receiving 35S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed

157

Environmental 14C activity: the atmosphere and the biosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural equilibrium of 14C activity in atmospheric CO2 and in the biosphere has been disturbed globally by various anthropogenic activities. Intensive atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests in the mid 20th century doubled the natural 14C activity in the atmosphere. Since the bomb test ban, this activity has constantly been decreasing and has almost reached its natural level. This article presents the results of 14C activity monitoring in atmospheric CO2, tree rings and biological samples at several locations in Croatia and Slovenia. Global changes in 14C activity have been observed at clean-airsites. In urban areas, lower atmospheric 14C activity is owed to intense fossil fuel combustion, especially in the winter. Higher 14C activity is observed in near the nuclear power plant during and immediately after refuelling outage. If refuelling is performed in the spring, when plants start to vegetate, increased 14C activity is also reflected on them. (authors)

158

Development of a 14C detectable real-time radioisotope imaging system for plants under intermittent light environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic products in a living plant was developed and evaluated through a test run. 14C is a common radioisotope of carbon and useful to trace the photosynthetic products as well as a low energy beta emitter. The rationale of this study was to develop a RRIS that has the ability to detect low energy beta emitters, such as 14C, 35S, and 45Ca. To achieve compatibility between the detection of low energy beta emitters and irradiation of the test plant, an intermittent lighting system was added to the RRIS. Furthermore, a commercially available digital camera was added to the RRIS for acquisition of photographic images of the test plants. The capabilities of the new RRIS were evaluated through a test run by using seedlings of rice plants and 35S-labeled sulfate. It was shown that the new RRIS was able to detect 35S absorbed by rice plant seedlings, and it was able to acquire photon-counting images and photographic images of the test plants simultaneously. Despite some limitations, the new RRIS provides a means to study the kinetics of elements in plants by utilizing low energy beta emitters. (author)

159

Autoradiographic disposition of [1-methyl-14C]- and [2-14C]caffeine in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male, C57B1/6J mice received either [1-methyl-14C]caffeine or [2-14C]caffeine via the tail vein at a dose of 0.7 or 11 mg/kg, respectively. At 0.1, 0.33, 1, 3, 9, and 24 hr after treatment, the mice were anesthetized with ether and frozen by immersion in dry ice/hexane. The mice were processed for whole-body autoradiography by the Ullberg technique; this procedure does not allow thawing or contact with solvents. All autoradiographs revealed some retention of radioactivity at early time intervals in the lacrimal glands, seminal vesicle fluid, nasal and olfactory epithelium, and retinal melanocytes. The remaining portion of the animal was densitometrically uniform except for the lower levels noted in the CNS and adipose tissues. Excretion of radioactivity by the liver and kidneys seems to be the major routes of elimination. Localization in the liver at late time intervals was confined principally to the centrilobular region. Late sites of retention, observed only after [1-methyl-14C]caffeine administration, included the pancreas, minor and major salivary glands, splenic red pulp, thymal cortex, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal epithelium. Sites of localization present in both studies included the olfactory epithelium, lacrimal glands, hair follicles, and retinal melanocytes. Further studies are needed to determine whether the localization at these various sites is due to metabolic degradation, active transport, or possibly a specific receptor interactionecific receptor interaction

160

{sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-15

 
 
 
 
161

Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-35S-cysteine and L-35S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High specific activity L-35 S-cysteine and L-35 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na235 SO4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-35 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na235 SO4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

162

Fast neutrons flux detection of low intensity by the reaction {sup 32}S (n,p) {sup 32}P. Separation of the {sup 32}P by burning; Mesure de flux de neutrons rapides de faible intensite au moyen de la reaction {sup 32}S (n,p) {sup 32}P. Separation du {sup 32}P par brulage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the activation method for the fast neutrons detection is the use of the reaction {sup 32}S (n,p) {sup 32}P. The poor sensitivity of the sulfur leads to the need of a great quantity of material to measure the weak flux. With the emission of a 1,7 MeV beta of the {sup 32}P by disintegration, the auto-absorption of the beta in the sulfur detector is eliminated by the separation of the sulfur and the {sup 32}P by burning. The method is described and some results are presented. (A.L.B.)

Manent, G.; Scheemaecker, J. de

1967-07-01

163

Study on the dynamics in absorption of 32P by hybrid wheat at elongate stage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of absorbing 32P of hybrid wheat at elongate stage is studied under pot culture conditions. The results show that the absorption capacity of hybrid wheat to 32P is in agreement with regression equation. The increased extent of absorption for them is greater than that for parent with time, and the reduction rate of absorption is lower than the parent significantly. Their root activity is much higher than that of the parent, too. The overall heterotic vigor of hybrid wheat on the absorption capacity to 32P is the sum of that of all organs

164

3' end labelling of RNA with 32P suitable for rapid gel sequencing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new general method of labelling the 2', 3'-diol end of RNA with 32P has been devised suitable for gel sequencing. Poly(A) polymerase (E.coli) is incubated with the RNA and limiting amounts of ?-32P-ATP. The mono-addition product is then cleaved with periodate and ?-eliminated with aniline, leaving the RNA terminally labelled with 3'32P-phosphate. When applied to a model compound, tRNAsup(Phe) from E. coli, over 28 residues could be read from the 3' end. (author)

165

Hygienic assessment of 14C concentration in biosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Violation of radiocarbon cycle existent on the Earth as a result of anthropogenic contamination of the environment due to nuclear-explosions and enterprises of nuclear power engineering is reviewed. Increase of 14C concentration in the atmosphere, plants and animals caused proportional increase of its content in human organisms. Attention is paid to 14C intake and metabolism processes of radiocarbon compounds in human and animal (rats) organisms. A conclusion is drawn on insignificant role of artificial 14C in population exposure as compared to other anthropogenic sources though certain hazard of delayed stochastic, somatic and genetic effects is marked. Necessity for further investigations concerting transmutation effect of 14C is stressed

166

Structure in heavy ion reactions involving 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first experiment we tried was 14C + 16O using the oxygen beam at Strasbourg and a 14C target procured from Munich. The strongest structure we found for this system was in the channel to 18O. Resonances began to appear at energies superior to Esub(c.m.) = 20 MeV. Later we went to Munich where there was a 14C beam available to study the 12C + 14C reaction. Over the limited range of bombarding energies studied in this experiment two of the binary channels were found to resonate strongly. (orig./HSI)

167

Application of single-chip computer in 14C dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilizing a single chip computer with a LSC the 14C dating can be controlled successfully in an automatic way. Its function includes the record of the counts, chock of the errors changing sample in a pre-set time, calculation of the 14C ages and printing out the dates. Because it has an effective function as well as a small volume, it is suitable to set up in a general 14C laboratory to improve the operation condition. These advantages have practical significance for the automation of 14C measurement

168

/sup 14/C(. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ')/sup 14/C and /sup 13/C(d, p)/sup 14/C reactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The isoscalar transition rates and neutron-stripping probabilities to states of /sup 14/C have been measured using the 35 MeV /sup 14/C(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..')/sup 14/C and 17.7 MeV /sup 13/C(d,p)/sup 14/C reactions. States showing great charge asymmetries in pion scattering at 8.32 MeV (2/sup +/) and 11.7 MeV (4/sup -/) were examined in detail. Isoscalar transition rates B(02) were determined to be 168, 96 and 74 fm/sup 4/ for the 7.01, 8.32 and 10.45 MeV 2/sup +/ states, with identical single-neutron spectroscopic factors of 0.065, from the (d,p) data, for the lowest two states.

Peterson, R.J.; Bhang, H.C.; Hamill, J.J.; Masterson, T.G. (Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Nuclear Physics Lab.)

1984-09-03

169

Behaviour of 14 C-Maneb and 14 C-ETU in soils under field and laboratory conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon14-Maneb or 14 C-ETU was applied to soil contained in polyethylene tubes driven into the ground under field conditions. Most of the activity was found in both cases only in the top soil layers: 0-5 cm for Maneb: 0-10 cm for ETU. Half-life of total radiochemical 14 C-labeled residues was of 6 weeks for ETU and 18 weeks for Maneb. High percentage of bound residue (non-extracted activity) was detected in soil treated with 14 C-Maneb. When soil samples (Humic Gley and Purple Latosoil) were incubated with 14 C-ETU in laboratory conditions, microbial degradation occurred with 28% 14 C O2 evolved from both soil samples; no 14 C O2 was detected on sterilized soil samples. (author)

170

Behaviour of {sup 14}C-sulfadiazine and {sup 14}C-difloxacin during manure storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The persistence of sulfadiazine, difloxacin, and their metabolites has been investigated in stored manure. The manure collected from sulfadiazine ({sup 14}C-SDZ) and difloxacin ({sup 14}C-DIF) treated pigs contained N-acetylsulfadiazine (Ac-SDZ), 4-hydroxy-SDZ (4-OH-SDZ), and sarafloxacin (SARA) as the main metabolites, respectively along with their parent compounds. Manures were stored separately at 10 {sup o}C and 20 {sup o}C at various moisture levels. About 96-99% of the radioactivity remained in extractable parent compounds and their metabolites after 150 d of storage. The formation of non-extractable residue and the rate of mineralization were both negligible in manure containing SDZ and DIF. During storage SDZ concentration increased as a result of the deacetylation of Ac-SDZ, whose concentration decreased proportionally. Hence the environmental effects may be underestimated if the parent compound alone is considered for environmental risk assessment. About 11% and 14% of 4-OH-SDZ were lost after 20 and 40 d of storage; thereafter its concentration increased relatively, highlighting hydroxylation of SDZ. DIF degraded very slowly (7% loss after 150 d) during the storage of manure; in contrast the concentration of SARA decreased rapidly (72-90% loss after 150 d). Dilution of manure and storage at higher temperatures for a reasonable period of time enhanced the rate of reactions of SDZ, DIF and their related metabolites.

Lamshoeft, Marc; Sukul, Premasis; Zuehlke, Sebastian [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), TU Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany); Spiteller, Michael, E-mail: M.Spiteller@infu.uni-dortmund.de [Institute of Environmental Research (INFU), TU Dortmund, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 6, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)

2010-03-01

171

Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

2010-02-15

172

32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

173

Effect of GA transportation and distribution of 32P in cotton plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the effect of GA on transportation and distribution of 32P in cotton plant and boll abscission was studied using isotope tracer method. It showed that after treatment of dipping GA on ovaries of fertile and unfertile yellow flowers opened in the same day, the total 32P transported to young boll were notably higher than that of the control. Whereas single spraying treatment with GA decreased the transportation of 32P to young boll. Spraying both GA and CCC greatly increased 32P transported to young boll and considerable decreased boll abscission rate. It indicated that mixed spraying of GA and CCC could be used in the fields for preventing the boll abscission

174

Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

1984-04-01

175

Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

176

Uptake and distribution of 32P in the budded and self-rooted grape varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the self-rooted and budded varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.), the total P and 32P contents were high in 'Anabee-Shahi', but low in in 'Muscat'. The growing shoots contained more P than old stems and roots in all the varieties. In the budded plants, 'Kali Sahebi' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shani showed the maximum 32P and total P in the shoots, but 'Muscat' scion budded on 'Anab-e-Shahi' accumulated more P in the roots and very low 32P in the growing shoots. Auto-radiographs of shoots also showed that 'Kali Sahebi' budded on 'Anab-e-Shani' rootstock accumulated more 32P in the shoots. (author)

177

Reactor production and separation of no-carrier added 32P for medical applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphorous-32 is an attractive and widely used therapeutic radionuclide owing to its favorable nuclear characteristics. The major application of 32P is the treatment option for a distinct subgroup of elderly patients with polycythemia vera and leukemia. The tremendous prospects associated with the use of 32P along with the challenge of providing 32P of acceptable specific activity and purity amenable for in vivo therapy, led to development of a 32P production strategy. The 32S(n,p)32P route of production provide the scope of obtaining high specific activities or no carrier added (NCA) 32P. In a typical batch of 14 nos. of neutron irradiated Al containers, each containing 18 g of sulphur, were processed. In the quest for an effective separation method to isolate micro gram of 32P formed during the neutron irradiation of sulphur, the prospect of using distillation under reduced pressure to achieve complete removal of sulfur seemed to be an effective proposition and motivated us to adopt. The experimental parameters that influence the distillation were identified and a careful control has been exercised to ensure complete removal of sulphur from 32P within reasonable time period. The 32P remained in the distillation flask was quantitatively collected by leaching with 0.05 N HCl with gentle heating at 80? for 3 hours. In the light of the perceived need to remove cationic impurities from the 32P leachate, it was passed through an ion-exchange chromatography column containing a cation exchange resin (Dowex 50 x 8 H+, 100-200 mesh) wherein all the cationic impurities get trapped and H332PO4 solution was collected as effluent. Recognizing the fact that H332PO4 produced is to be used for clinical applications, a thorough quality assessment was carried out. Radionuclidic purity was ascertained by a measurement of its half-life. In order to establish the absence of extraneous gamma emitting radionuclide impurities, gamma spectrum of the appropriately diluted samples of 32P of each batch were analyzed by gamma ray spectroscopy. Radionuclide purity as determined by paper chromatography indicates >98% of 32P as orthophosphate ion. The levels of trace metal ions as analyzed by ICP-AES were found to be below detectable limit (0.1 mg/L, 0.1 ppm for all the metal ions) thereby confirming their absence. Using the described procedure, several batches of 32P were prepared and results of 32P production carried out from 5 typical batches are presented. The data represents the typical yields of the 32P in regular batches. The relatively larger variations of yield from batch to batch are mostly due to the differences in the reactor irradiation conditions, such as the exact duration, intervening shut-down, and the variation of fast neutron flux level due to the power level of the reactor operation. The objective of separating 32P from neutron irradiated sulphur for in vivo application has been successfully accomplished

178

Environmental background 14C levels in Japan in 1990s  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For assessment of radiation doses due to 14C released from nuclear facilities, it is necessary to know the background level of environmental 14C originated from the natural cosmic-ray production and the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The authors selected grapes as an indicator of 14C levels in the environment including atmosphere, and determined the specific activities of 14C in ethanol extracted from wine made from grapes cultivated in several prefectures or unknown places in Japan in each year from 1990 to 2000. The specific activities of 14C were almost uniform all over Japan in each year, though they showed the weak tendency to slightly decrease with increasing population densities in the prefecture where the wine grapes were cultivated. It is considered that this small regional variation in the specific activities of 14C arose from Suess effect, because population densities can be regarded as an index of the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The specific activities of 14C gradually decreased in the 1990s. That is, they were 260 mBq/gC in 1990, and became 244 mBq/gC in 2000. This 14C level in 2000 was still about 7% higher than the pre-bomb level. The decrease in 14C originated from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-timtime of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-time was shorter than that in the Europe, Canada and the South Pacific. This difference in the decreasing rate between Japan and other countries may be explained by a fact that the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion continued to increase in Japan in this period. The specific activities of 14C in wine ethanol determined in this study showed good agreement with those in atmospheric CO2 predicted by a mathematical model. They were also in the same levels as the 14C specific activities in atmospheric CO2, tree leaves, grass and plant food in Japan and other countries, which were determined by the benzene synthesis-liquid scintillation counting or other methods. These methods of 14C determination are not so simple as the method adopted in this study. It is therefore considered that the method of determination of the 14C activities in wine ethanol is simple and precise enough to estimate the 14C activities in atmospheric CO2 and plants including crops, and thus contributes to assessment of doses due to environmental 14C. (author)

179

Synthesis of [14C]-62514, a radiolabelled derivative of erythromycin A, via [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethylenediamine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [14C]A-62514, 11-deoxy-11[carboxy(2-dimethylamino-[1-14C]ethyl)amino]-6-0-methyl-e rythromycin A 11,12-(cyclic ester), was performed in five steps. The key intermediate, [2-14C]N,N-dimethylethyl-enediamine, was obtained in 80% yield by reacting Eschenmoser's salt with K14CN and reducing the resulting [1-14C]N,N-dimethylglycinonitrile with H2 and Raney Ni in methanol and ammonium hydroxide. The final product was obtained 97% radiochemically pure in an overall radiochemical yield of 14%, with a specific activity of 39 mCi/mmol. (author)

180

Bound 14C residues in stored wheat treated with [14C]deltamethrin and their bioavailability in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat grains treated with radiolabeled deltamethrin [(S)-?-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate] and stored in the laboratory for 168 days formed bound (nonextractable) 14C residues. The amount of bound 14C residues formed was about 11% of the total 14C in stored grain. Br2CA [3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid] and 3-PBacid (3-phenoxybenzoic acid) were present in the form of bound 14C residues in addition to some radiolabeled product of unknown composition. The stored wheat containing bound 14C was fed to rats. The 14C residues were excreted in urine and feces in nearly equal proportion. The 14C residues identified in urine were Br2CA, 3-PBacid, and conjugated compounds of 4'-OH-3-PBacid [3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid]. Most of the 14C residues excreted in feces were extractable with methanol. Trace amounts of 14C residues were also present in lungs, kidney, and liver. The results suggest that bound residues in stored wheat treated with deltamethrin when fed to rats are highly bioavailable

 
 
 
 
181

Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

182

Organ correlations in Chenopodium rubrum L. shoots studied by means of 32P distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

21 days old plants of Chenopodium rubrum ecotype 374 were used. Organ relationships in the shoots were investigated via 32P distribution in plants grown under continuous light and in plants to which flower-inducing and non-inducing dark periods were applied. During the dark periods the 32P level was low in young leaves and high in axillary buds; in the light period that followed, the 32P level continued to be high in axillary buds and in leaves on the main axis it increased to approach the level observed in plants grown under continuous light. The 32P level in axillary buds was high for both the flower-inducing and non-inducing dark periods. Decapitation resulted in a high 32P level in buds; under continuous light, an increased 32P level was also observed in leaves. The effects were not eliminated completely by treatment with indole-3-acetic acid. The results are discussed with respect to the assumption that decrease in apical dominance is a step in the sequence of events leading to flowering. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

183

Evaluation of a 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full Text: Objective: to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and methods: the patch was prepared from [32P]-chromic phosphate and silicone. The (a) activity concentration, (b) homogeneity, (c) integrity, (d) therapeutic efficacy for two treatment schemes in an animal model of skin cancer, (e) bio elimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals and (t) dosimetry to plan the treatment schemes were determined. Results: the 32P patch demonstrated homogeneity of activity and dose. On the other hand, it showed integrity under degradation conditions like the ones in a treatment. According to the bio elimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single dose therapeutic scheme showed higher percentage of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by the histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: the 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for its use in brachytherapy treatments. (author)

184

Assimilation and utilization of 14C assimilates in chickpeas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Translocation, distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in two genotypes of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) during winter of 1974-75 and 1975-76. Plants were allowed to assimilate CO214 at pre-flowering, flowering and initial pod filling stages, and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During vegetative phase, most of 14C was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissues. Sixty three days after assimilation pod accumulated about 7 percent 14C while nodules gained only 1.7 percent in 'Pant G-104'. Similar pattern was observed in case of variety 'K-4'. During reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was linearly translocated from leaves to other plant parts with time. Since stem was actively growing it accumulated a major portion of carbon. Pod also accumulated 14C linearly as time after assimilation elapsed. Respiratory losses during one week after exposure were about 30 percent in both varieties. Photosynthate within a branch was translocated readily, while movement from one branch to another was restricted. Leaf at axial of pod was major source of photosynthate to pod. (author)

185

The use of 14C ethanolamine as a precursor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two new 2 chloroethyl nitrosoureas were labelled on two positions by 14C starting from Na14CN and using 14C ethanolamine as intermediate, i.e. on the carbon 2 of the 2 chloro ethyl group and on the carbon 2 of the cysteamine part. (author)

186

Synthesis and characterization of 14C polyvinylphosphonic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten mCi of 14C ethylene was converted to 1.16 mCi of 14C PVPA by oxidative phosphonation with phosphorus trichloride and molecular oxygen, dehydrohalogenation with triethylamine in ether, polymerization, and hydrolysis. The polymer had a specific activity of 12 uCi/mg and a radiochemical purity over 99%. (Author)

187

Determination of natural 14C concentrations in biomedia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aspects of sample preparation and measurement in determining 14C according to the method with liquid scintillation counting are discussed. The method has been used for 14C determination in air and leaves. Results obtained under different environmental conditions (urban and rural areas) are presented

188

Bound residues of 14C-malathion in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The availability of soil-bound 14C-residues of malathion to maize plants and microbes was investigated under laboratory conditions. Maize plants were grown in clay loam soil treated with 14C-malathion and it was found that 2.5% of the total bound 14C and 6.6% of the freshly added 14C was removed by the maize plants. In both cases the shoots contained more radioactivity than the roots and the uptake rate from freshly treated soil was three times higher than from soil containing bound residues. The analysis of the residual soil after harvesting the plants showed that 6.17% and 12.02% of the residual 14C from bound and freshly applied malathion, respectively, could be extracted. This indicates that a part of the bound 14C-residues was released during plant growth. The results further indicate that microbes can incorporate bound residues into their cellular mass more effectively than the plants and that microbial biomass can be used as an index for studying the bioavailability of agrochemicals applied to soil. In the soil containing bound 14C-residues, no malathion was detected by high-temperature distillation and gas chromatography. When the methanol-extractable 14C-residues were analysed with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography, an unidentified compound was found which did not correspond to either malathion or malaoxon. (author)

189

Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

190

Developing a flow sheet for the production of 32P using magnesium sulphate target in KAMINI reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P is a widely used radio-nuclide in bone pain palliation therapy. 32P can be produced in FBTR through 32S (n, p) 32P. In order to investigate the feasibility of the production and develop a flow sheet for the chemical processing of the irradiated target, a trial run was carried out using KAMINI reactor. This paper describes the irradiation of sulphate target in KAMINI reactor and chemical processing of the target to separate 32P. (author)

191

Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with ?-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with ?-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

192

In vivo biosynthesis and turnover of 35S-labeled glomerular basement membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renal glomerular basement membrane was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of radioactive sulfate into normal adult rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of [35S]glycosaminoglycans in purified basement membrane was determined from the specific activity of 35S in pronase digests of basement membranes isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radioactive labeling occurred 24 h after injection following which the specific activity of basement membrane sulfate, expressed as cpm/?g uronic acid, progressively declined over the ensuing period of study. The biologic half-life of radioactive sulfate in basement membrane was estimated at about 7 days, which is within the range previously reported for [35S]glycosaminoglycans in whole renal cortex. The findings indicata that 35S-labeled components of glomerular basement membrane have a relatively rapid turnover. (orig.)

193

Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to e applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

194

Biosynthesis of [14C]zearalenone from [1-14C]acetate by Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum'.  

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Addition of [1-14C]acetate or [1,2-14C]acetate to actively growing cultures of Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum' on rice yielded zearalenone with a specific activity ranging between 1.63 and 46.5 microCi/mmol.

Hagler, W. M.; Mirocha, C. J.

1980-01-01

195

High yield synthesis of 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids with high specific radioactivity using potassium ?14C] cyanide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the tumor specificity of synthetic nonmetabolizing amino acids, 10 different 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids (3a-3j) were synthesized in high yield and with high specific radioactivity. Carbon-14 labeled alicyclic hydantoins (2a-2j) were synthesized from a small amount of radioactive potassium [14C]cyanide and corresponding ketones (1a-1j). The 14C hydantoins (2a-2j) thus obtained were hydrolyzed without isolation to give 14C labeled alicyclic amino acids (3a-3j). The overall radiochemical yields of the amino acids (3a-3j) from potassium [14C]cyanide were 55.6 - 93.2 % with radiochemical purity more than 99 %. Specific activities of these 14C labeled compounds (3a-3j) were 209 - 250 MBq/mmol (5.66 - 6.75 mCi/mmol). When non-radioactive potassium cyanide was not added as a carrier, 1-aminocyclopentane [14C]carboxylic acid (3b) and 1-aminocyclooctane [14C]carboxylic acid (3e) were synthesized in the yield of 64.9 and 19.0 % respectively with the specific activity exceed more than 1.85 GBq/mmol (50 mCi/mmol). (author)

196

Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into inorganic and organic constituents of two forest soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into phosphate-extractable S, hydriodic acid-reducible S (HI-S), and total S was measured in three horizons of Spodosols from the Huntington Forest, New York and Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. After 56 d 35S incorporated into nonwater-extractable S constituents was 92, 65, 92, 63, 72, and 91% of the total 35S-activity for the Huntington Forest Oa, Bh, Bsl, and Hubbard Brook Oa, Bh, and Bsl horizons, respectively. Immobilization of 35S-sulfate into carbon-bonded S (total S - HI-S) was the major incorporation pathway in the Oa horizons. Adsorption of 35S-sulfate (phosphate-extractable) was most evident in the Bh and Bsl horizons. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into ester sulfate (HI-S - inorganic S) occurred in all horizons. The influence of immobilization-mineralization and adsorption-desorption on S dynamics of these forest soils was evaluated

197

The uptake of (35S)-carbonyl sulphide by plants and soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The deposition velocity (Vg) of CO35S to young swards of L. perenne and to more mature swards grown at different densities was similar, with an overall mean value of 0.082 cm s-1, under illuminated conditions and of 0.029 cm s-1 in the dark. Total deposition increased with LAI but Vg/w values were consistently lower at higher plant densities. The mean Vg of CO35S to three soil types at field capacity was 0.085 x 10-3 cm s-1. In all instances, there was a reduction in 35S activity in foliage after the termination of the fumigation, most losses occurring within 24 h. The distribution of 35S in leaves was similar following fumigation under either illuminated or dark conditions. The majority of the 35S activity directly after exposure was located in the foliage as both a soluble non-volatile fraction, and an insoluble fraction. After 24 h, the activity in the soluble fraction fell from 64% to 27% of the original activity, whilst the insoluble fraction essentially remained unchanged. Translocation of 35S in a soluble non-volatile form from shoots to roots is the main factor responsible for observed losses of activity from foliage. (author)

198

Measurement of cosmogenic 35S activity in rainwater and lake water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although cosmogenic 35S (t(1/2) = 87 d) has been found to be a unique and excellent radioactive tracer for stable S in atmospheric and aqueous environments, its application has been very limited because an analytical method for its detection has not been well-documented. Here, we report a rapid and robust method for analyzing extremely low levels of 35S in rainwater and lake water samples. About 20-L water samples were preconcentrated using an anion exchange column. The purified 35S was precipitated as BaSO4, and the precipitates were collected using a GF/B filter. The 35S in precipitates on the filter was directly counted using a super-low-background liquid scintillation counter with cocktail. We successfully measured 35S in precipitation and lake water samples using this method, which promises future diverse applications of the 35S tracer to S cycling in the environment and to age determination of lake water and shallow groundwater. PMID:15889934

Hong, Young-Lim; Kim, Guebuem

2005-05-15

199

Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

200

Bioaccumulation factor for 32P measured in bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, and catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ratio of the bioaccumulation factors for 32P and phosphorus was determined for edible tissue in two species of freshwater fish by measuring the specific activity (32P activity per milligram phosphorus) in muscle relative to feed. The 32P tracer was added to the feed at a uniform level throughout the study. Feeding was at two levels: ad libitum and at a lower but constant intake per body weight. In the main experiment, bluegill were maintained in a large flow-through tank and sacrificed at approximately weekly intervals for 51 d of 32P accumulation and 28 d of depuration to compare the specific activity with values predicted with a calculational model. In experiments performed in smaller aquaria, the specific activity in bluegill and catfish muscle was compared at two feeding levels and two temperatures. In addition, unfed fish were exposed to 32P in water at a known specific activity to determine the extent of phosphorus uptake directly from water. The pattern of specific activity increase and decrease in fish muscle during the accumulation/depuration experiment was consistent with a one-compartment model, so that specific activity ratios at steady state could be predicted from measurements during relatively brief exposures. On this basis, the ratio of the bioaccumulation factors of 32P and phosphorus in fish feeding ad libitum was 0.081 for bluegill and 0.17 for catfish. Hence, at a mean phosphorus bioaccumulation factor of 70,000, the factors for 32P are 6000 and 12,000, respectively. The ratios were less at lower phosphorus intakes associated with lower feeding rates; moreover, the lesser value for bluegill occurred at a much lower phosphorus intake than by catfish

 
 
 
 
201

Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

202

Distribution and utilization of 14C assimilate in lentil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution and utilization pattern of 14C photosynthate was studied in lentil (Lens esculentum L.) during winter of 1975 and 1976. Plants were allowed to assimilate 14CO2 at the pre bloom, flower initiation and early pod formation stage in 1975 and initial pod formation and mid pod filling stage in 1976 and were harvested at different intervals. Immediately after assimilation, most of the 14C (74 percent) was located in leaves. As time elapsed, 14C from leaves was translocated to other parts. Plant parts growing actively at the time of labelling accumulated more 14C than those not growing actively. During the vegetative phase, most of 14C (77 percent) was incorporated into the leaf and stem tissue and relatively low amount in root and nodules. Seventy two days after assimilation, pod accumulated about 8 percent of 14C. During the early reproductive phase, 14C photosynthate was translocated from leaves to stem, pod and roots. Since stem was actively growing, it accumulated a considerable amount (38 percent) of assimilates. This resulted in a severe competition for assimilate supply for pod growth during early pod filling stage. At mid pod filling stage, most of the assimilate (65 percent) was utilized in pod growth. The pattern of carbon utilization and redistribution revealed that a part of assimilate utilized in stem and leaves was remobilised during the process of mas was remobilised during the process of maturation. (author)

203

Pulse height spectral analysis of 3H:14C ratios  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Activity ratios of 3H:14C of isotope-labeled substances are employed commonly in biochemical studies of reaction mechanisms and pathways. The liquid scintillation pulse height spectral index (SIS) of a composite sample of 3H and 14C was demonstrated to provide an index to the 3H:14C activity ratio of the sample. Linear and logarithmic relations between the 3H:14C activity ratio and SIS were defined for a given level of quench. When the level of quench is maintained constant, the SIS was demonstrated to be directly correlated to the 3H:14C activity ratios of the sample. A mean recovery of 102.3% was obtained for calculated 3H:14C activity ratios over the range of 0.097:1-9.698:1. The method described provides the 3H:14C activity ratios of samples without the need for determining the separate activities of the individual radionuclides of the dual label. (Author)

204

Secretin enhances [14C]erythritol clearance in unanesthetized dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the effect of secretin infusion on clearance of inert markers into bile, unanesthetized dogs fitted with Thomas cannulas received continuous infusions of [14C]erythritol and [3H]inulin throughout study. Taurocholic acid administered sequentially at 9.0, 20.0, and 40.0 mumol/min enhanced [14C]erythritol clearance, and GIH secretin (3 units/min) administered along with TCA (40.0 mumol/min) increased [14C]erythritol clearance from 4.9 +/- 1.2 ml/10 min to 6.8 +/- 1.3 ml/10 min (P less than 0.001), but simultaneously measured [3H]inulin clearance was unaltered. Secretin alone also increased [14C]erythritol clearance but did not alter [3H]inulin clearance. The increase in [14C]erythritol clearance per unit increase in bile flow was less during secretin infusion than TCA. Thus, secretin increases [14C]erythritol transport through restricted channels, probably distal to the canaliculi. [14C]Erythritol may not be an accurate marker for canalicular bile flow in dogs during secretin infusion

205

Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose), sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultado...

Oliveira Jr, J. A.; Re?go, I. C.; Scivittaro, W. B.; Lima Filho, O. F.; Stefanutti, R.; Gonza?les, G. R.; Boaretto, A. E.

1995-01-01

206

14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

207

A short expedient synthesis of [(14)C]Ticlopidine.  

Science.gov (United States)

To support the development of a reactive metabolite strategy, the preparation of several radiolabelled compounds such as [(14)C] Ticlopidine was required. In this report, we describe a facile and rapid synthesis of [(14)C] Ticlopidine starting from [(14)C] carbon dioxide. The compound was radiolabelled in the 2-chloromethyl portion of the molecule with a specific activity of 53.4 mCi/mmol and with a radiochemical purity of 98.5%. Storage stability was best as the hydrochloride salt in an ethanol solution. PMID:24470179

Hickey, Michael J; Kingston, Lee P; Allen, Paul H; Johnson, Tim; Wilkinson, David J

2014-03-01

208

Standardization of 14C activity measurements by efficiency tracing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the efficiency tracing method, the 14C activity was measured using the liquid scintillation counting system. The 36Cl standard solution used as a tracer was obtained from the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the 14C measuring source was fabricated by the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnement Ionisants (LMRI) in France. The 14C activity has been determined by extrapolating with the efficiency tracing method using 36Cl standard solution and the combined uncertainty has turned out to be 1.32%. (Author)

209

Synthesis of phenobarbital {sup 14}C - 5 (1964); Synthese du phenobarbital {sup 14}C - 5 (1964)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phenobarbital (Luminal), well known as a hypnotic agent, plays also an important role in the medical treatment of epilepsy. With the object of studying the metabolism of this medicament in the living system, the synthesis of phenobarbital marked in position 2 of the pyrimidinic ring has been effected. It has been necessary, in order to carry out to research into the metabolism of this product, to have a phenobarbital marked in position 5 of the pyrimidinic ring. This synthesis, making it possible to introduce C-14 into position 5 of the pyrimidinic ring, consists of seven stages starting from C-14 carboxyl benzoic acid having a specific activity of 25 mc/mM. The melting point of the final product is 172 - 173 deg. C and its specific activity is 11.15 mc/mM. The overall radioactive yield of the pure product, with respect to the original benzoic acid (10 mM) is of the order of 3 per cent. The purity of the product has been controlled by paper chromatography; it is of the order of 99 per cent. (author) [French] Le phenobarbital (Luminal) bien connu comme agent hypnotique, joue egalement un role important dans la medication anti-epileptique. Pour l'etude du metabolisme de ce medicament dans l'organisme vivant, nous avons synthetise le phenobarbital marque en position 2 du cycle pyrimidinique. Afin de poursuivre la recherche du metabolisme de ce produit, il a ete necessaire de disposer du phenobarbital marque en position 5 du cycle. pyrimidinique. Cette synthese, permettant l'introduction du {sup 14}C en position 5 du cycle pyrimidinique, comporte sept etapes, au depart de l'acide benzoique carboxyle {sup 14}C, d'une activite specifique de 25 mc/mM. Point de fusion du produit final: 172 - 173 deg. C Activite specifique: 11,15 mC/mM. Rendement total radioactif du produit pur, par rapport a l'acide benzoique de depart sur 10 mM, de l'ordre de 3 pour cent. La purete du produit a ete controlee par chromatographie sur papier; elle est de l'ordre de 99 pour cent. (auteur)

Benakis, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1964-07-01

210

New 14C-labelled products by UVVVR: [14C]methyl iodide and L-[methyl-14C]methionine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principles of preparation and analysis of are outlined. The [14C]methyl iodide with molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol-1 is delivered with radiochemical and chemical purity exceeding 98% and these parameters are guaranteed, if the product stored under conditions specified by the producer, for one year after delivery. The L-[methyl-14C]methionine of molar activity greater than 1.7 GBq.mmol-1 is delivered in stabilized solution, its radiochemical purity is better than 98% and enantiomeric purity (assayed by radio-g.l.c.) is better than 96%

211

Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

212

Bioevaluation of {sup 32}P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a {sup 32}P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The patch was prepared from chromic phosphate {sup 32}P and silicone. Bioelimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals, and the therapeutic efficacy of two treatment schemes (single dose and fractionated dose) in an animal model of skin cancer were studied. Results: Based on the bioelimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of {sup 32}P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single-dose therapeutic scheme showed a higher number of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: The {sup 32}P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the {sup 32}P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for use in brachytherapy treatments.

Salgueiro, Maria Jimena [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jsalgueiro@ffyb.uba.ar; Duran, Hebe [Radiobiology Department, National Energy Atomic Commission, 1150 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, Monica [Biodiversity and Experimental Biology Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pirchio, Rosana [Dosimetry Department, National Energy Atomic Commission, 1150 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Medina, Vanina [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ughetti, Ricardo [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, 1603 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Croci, Maximo [Institute of Immunooncology, Dr. E. Crescenti, 1187 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nicolini, Jorge [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, 1603 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, Marcela [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, 1113 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-02-15

213

Insulin and thyroxine effect on 32P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on 32P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na2H32PO4 was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances 32P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to 32 P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning 32P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in 32P inclusion. (author)

214

Reviewing the Mid-First Millennium BC 14C “warp” using 14C/bristlecone pine data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AMS-based 14C measurements have been obtained on 53 dendrochronologically-dated Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) wood samples in decadal increments spanning 2300–2750 cal BP with particular interest focused on the decades centered on 2405 cal BP and 2625 cal BP. In general, there is overall agreement with the current IntCal04/09 consensus calibration curve for this period. For the 2400–2410 cal BP interval, our Bristlecone-based 14C value is consistent with the 14C value obtained by Belfast on Irish oak for that decade but not on German oak values obtained by Seattle. Our 14C value for the 2620–2630 cal BP interval is consistent with the German oak (Heidelberg)-based 14C decadal value. The 10Be-based reconstruction of 14C variations over the 2620–2630 cal BP interval also supports the Heidelberg data although clearly additional clarifications are required before the current tree ring-based 14C and ice core-based 10Be data for this interval can be accurately interpreted and valid inferences obtained.

215

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

Duarte A, C

2003-07-01

216

Studies on residues of 14C malathion in soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extractability, the mobility and formation of bound 14C labelled residues in two soils under normal conditions were investigated with malathion. Comparison is made between irradiated and autoclaved soils. The highest concentration of the product is found in the first section (0-4cm) after experiment. Three compounds were found in the soils. 14C malathion is decomposed to 14C02. The degradation is more important in organic matter rich soil. In rich soil, 50% of 14C product is degradated after 17 days. This percentage is only 10%, for poor soil. The 14CO2 produced in non-sterile soil is 33,05%. This percentage is respectively 10,92% and 3,57% only for irradiated and autoclaved soils

217

Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of 14C-Labelled Dichlobenil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

d compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the 14C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of 14C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil -14C. Other metabolites of dichlobenil -14C. were not resolved by these chromatographic procedures. (author)

218

Kinetics of metabolism of organic and inorganic 14C compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental studies on the kinetics of metabolism of various inoraanic (Na2CO3, K2CO3, CaCO3) and organic (glucose, glycine, palmitic and succinic acids, ethanol and methanol) compounds of 14C after single and long term administration into the organism of rats are presented. The values of the corresponding rates of accumulation of 14C and the onset of the state of equilibrium after long term administration of the radionuclide were elucidated for a number of compounds. Results of the studies can find practical application in standardization. The corresponding rate of accumulation in man of 14C taken in the diet was determined by extrapolation of the experimental data. It was found to be approximately 30. The state of practical 14C equilibrium in man occurs approximately 1 1/2 years after the beginning of the intake. (author)

219

Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-70C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

220

Electromagnetic transitions in 14C and 14N  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lifetimes of the J/sup ?/=0+ 6590-keV and J/sup ?/=3- 6728-keV states in 14C and the J/sup ?/=3- 5834-keV state in 14N were measured using the recoil distance method. Gamma rays following the pn and 2n evaporation channels from 9Be+7Li reactions were detected at theta/sub ?/=00. The experimental results are 14C(6590,0+), tau=3.7 +- 0.9 ps; 14C(6728,3-), tau=96 +- 15 ps; 14N(5834,3-), tau=12.9 +- 1.9 ps. Extensive shell-model calculations for both 14C and 14N have been performed using an SU(3) basis and are compared to these and other experimental results

 
 
 
 
221

Tritium and 14C dating of Sudetic thermal waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slightly minearalized thermal waters occurring in Carboniferous granite (Cieplice-Western Sudetes) and in Precambrian gneisses (Ladek-Central Sudetes) have been investigated. The less warm waters from some springs in Cieplice show considerable tritium and 14C concentrations, which indicates the presence of admixtures of water from modern, local precipitations. On the other hand, the warmest (400C) waters from springs and boreholes are ''dead'' as far as tritium is concerned and their 14C age may be evaluated as 21-28 thousands years. All thermal spring waters in Ladek though characterized by relatively low temperatures (20-290C), do not contain tritium and their 14C age is included within the range of 6-18 thousands years. Cool water from a 600 m deep borehole contains, however, little amounts of tritium and much more 14C than the spring waters. It may be considered as a much younger one. (author)

222

Microanalytical 14C AMS measurements on carbonaceous particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbonaceous particles are increasingly recognized as an important atmospheric constituent. These small atmospheric particles, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), are produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and outdoor biomass. It has been suggested, that climate forcing by BC contributes substantially to global warming although OC might partly reduce warming effects due to indirect effects such as cloud brightness and cloud cover. Current investigations aim at a partitioning of BC and OC to biogenic and anthropogenic sources to improve our knowledge on the contribution of each fraction to the ambient atmosphere. One approach to solve this problem is a determination of the 14C concentration. The 14C activity in ambient, biogenic carbon is 227 Bq/kg C and the corresponding atomic ratio for 12C/14C approx. 1012:1. OC and mainly BC are also produced in fossil fuel burning. In this fraction 14C is extinct. (orig.)

223

TDCR method for 3H, 14C radioactivity measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TDCR counting efficiency measurement technique has been realized by using triple tube liquid scintillation detecting system, and the absolute measurement of the activity of 3H, 14C has been finished. (author)

224

Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

225

Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

2004-08-01

226

Studies on absorption, conversion of sulfate by rape seedling and accumulation of glucosinolate in rape seed by using 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seedlings grown in sandy culture absorbed 35SO42- from cultural solution rapidly and the 35S was incorperated into glucosinolates, amino acids and proteins. Percentage of glucosinolates-35S in extractable 35S with 70% methanol declined and those of amino acid-35S rose regularly with time after labelling. The relative content of 35S incorperated into bound constituents as well as extractable components was constant after 5 days of labelling. From two weeks after flowering, the relative content of GS-35S in pods and seeds increased linearly with time until eight weeks after flowering when all 35S extracted with 70% methanol in seeds were in form of glucosinolate. The amount of 35S-GS per pod increased linearly from the first week to the eighth week after flowering. It seems that the accumulation of GS in seeds is related to the accumulation of dry matter in seeds

227

14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models  

Science.gov (United States)

The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

2014-10-01

228

Preparation of 14C-labelled AMP, ADP and ATP from adenine-8-14C by using Brevibacterium ammoniagenes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High radiochemical yields of 14C-labelled adenine nucleotides (AMP, 4.6%, ADP, 15.5% and ATP 59.5%) could be obtained by growing the cells of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes in the presence of 14C-adenine. The specific radioactivity of the adenine nucleotides almost reached that of 14C-adenine indicating negligible dilution of the label. The procedure is convenient and especially suited for commercial preparation of the radiolabelled nucleotides directly from labelled adenine. Preliminary results indicate that the organism could also be used for the preparation of radiolabelled guanine nucleotides. (author)

229

Preparation of (N-methyl-14C) Erythromycin and (N-methyl-14C) Erythromycin cyclic carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(N-methyl-14C)Erythromycin was obtained by methylation of des-N-methylerythromycin with (14C)formaldehyde in the presence of Pd-catalyst. Radiochemical yield reached 42.3%, radiochemical purity 95.1%. Condensation of this compound with ethylene carbonate led to (N-methyl-14C)erythromycin cyclic carbonate with radiochemical yield of 71% and radiochemical purity of 98.5%. Both products were purified on a chromathografic column with aluminium oxide or silica gel bed

230

Movement of 32P between intact grassland plants of the same age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In three experiments Lolium perenne was grown in pots of soil, either with Plantago lanceolata or with another L. perenne. The plants were of the same age and they were infected with VA mycorrhizas. One L perenne plant in each pot was labelled with 32P by foliar feeding; radioactivity was subsequently detected in the other plant. Nondestructive measurements made using a scintillation probe showed that after an initial lag, transfer between the plants continued steadily up to 22 d. The mean rate of transfer was 0.7-2.8 x 10-3 units of 32P per day per unit of 32P in the donor plant's root-system. When transfer occurs between plants of the same species, age and size this indicates exchange rather than net transfer. The ecological significance of the results is discussed. (author)

231

The effect of different doses of 32P in the treatment of primary thrombocytosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on a follow up in 23 patients with primary thrombocytosis treated with two different doses of 32phosphorus phosphate (32P). Ten patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) received 2 mCi and 13 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) received the standard dose of 0.1 mCi/kg b.w. The patients were listed as having a complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or no response (NR) considering platelet count at 3 and 12 months after 32P injection. The results indicate the existence of a clear correlation of the rate of remission with the 32P injected dose. PV patients show, in fact, a percentage of complete remission higher than ET patients. However, the use of higher doses induces more early and long-term complications. (author)

232

Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population

233

Laboratory and field studies with /sup 32/P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with /sup 32/P by feeding fourth-stage larvae /sup 32/P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The /sup 32/P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

1986-12-01

234

Effects of injection volume on the tissue dose, dose rate, and therapeutic potential intraperitoneal 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing the injection volume had no significant long-term effect on the distribution or tissue dose of intraperitoneal 32P in New Zealand white rabbits. Further, the range of doses and dose rates observed in the rabbit had little effect in vitro against either a human ovarian cancer line or an established Chinese hamster cell line. Demonstrable kill of human ovarian cancer cells was achieved, however, for initial 32P dose rates of 11 and 22 rad/h (0.11 and 0.22 Gy/h). From these results, it is estimated that administered 32P activities ranging from about 75-150 mCi (2.8-5.6 GBq) would be required for significant tumoricidal effects in ovarian cancer patients

235

Absorption and elimination kinetics of 32P malathion in the hen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the separation of urine and faeces in the hen was developed and the biological fate of 32P malathion, following a single oral dose of 262.40 mg/kg body weight was studied. The results suggested that the compound was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; significant quantities being detected in the plasma and whole blood 1/2 hr after ingestion. Total 32P was eliminated in the urine by apparent first order kinetics with an average half-life of 5.7 hrs. The cumulative urinary and faecal data revealed that 93% of the 32P is excreted via the urine within 48 hrs, thus indicating that the compound is almost completely absorbed. It is therefore concluded that accumulation in the system is unlikely. (author)

236

Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

237

Deoxy[2,4,5-14C]uridine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard determines the preparation, specifications, testing, packaging and transport. Deoxy[2,4,5-14C]uridine is prepared by enzyme synthesis from [2,4,5-14C]uracil in the presence of ?-D-deoxyribose-1-phosphate by the action of the enzyme preparation from Escherichia coli cells at laboratory temperature. The product is separated from the reaction mixture chromatographically and is used as a tracer in biochemistry and biological and medical research. (J.P.)

238

Radioactive decay of 223Ra by 14C emission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently H.J. Rose and G.A. Jones at the University of Oxford reported the very difficult observation of an exotic radioactive decay mode in 233Ra, its spontaneous disintegration by the emission of 14C particles. The authors have confirmed their somewhat surprising discovery by an independent method. Within the present experimental accuracy the magnetic rigidity, energy and branching ratio support the assignment of 14C emission from 223Ra as proposed by the Oxford experiment

239

14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

240

Synthesis and analysis of 14C-labelled butyltin compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with methods for the synthesis of 14C-labelled analoga of the important biocides tributyltin oxide, tributyltin benzoate, tributyltin salicylate and tributyltin fluoride as well as dibutyltin oxide. The radioactive starting substance butylbromide-1-14C is treated with sodium and monobutyltin chloride or tin tetrachloride to form a mixture of radioactive butyltin compounds from which the substance desired is separated. A system satisfactorily meeting the conditions for thin-layer radiochromatography is presented. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Reemergence of sorghum seedlings and amino acid 14C incorporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incorporation of labelled amino acid 14C in three varieties of sorghum: IS-13, IS-9327 and IS-3541 was studied. Variety IS-13 and IS-9327 are capable of regermination, even after having an initial germination followed by a drying period of ten days. These two drying resistant varieties can incorporate more amino acid 14C as compared to non resistant variety (IS-3541), which could not germinate after drying. (author). 6 refs

242

(35S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (35S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (35S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. 35S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (3H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (35S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (35S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures. (author)

243

Cerenkov and liquid scintillaton analysis of the triple label 86Rb-35S-33P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method was developed for the analysis of 86Rb-35S-33P as a triple-label. The analysis of the total activity of composite mixtures of the three radionuclides was demonstrated to be quantitative by the liquid scintillation efficiency tracing technique with recoveries between 99.7-100.4%. The activity of 86Rb in the triple label was determined by Cerenkov counting in water with a 52% counting efficiency. The combined activities of 35S + 35P were determined by subtracting the activity of 86Rb from the total activity of the triple label. The separate activities of 35S and 33P are obtained by difference after a period of time sufficient for the decay of 33P to negligible levels leaving only residual 35S in the sample. The method described is useful for the analysis of 86Rb-35S-33P as a triple label for the elements K-S-P in studies of fertilizer use efficiency. (Author)

244

Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-?-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ?M, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ?M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

245

Correlation Between CT/MRI and Bremsstrahlung SPECT of 32P After Radioembolization of Hepatic Tumors  

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Full Text Available Background/Objective: Radioembolization (RE is a minimally invasive transcatheter therapy through which radioactive microspheres are infused into the hepatic arteries and selectively implanted within the tumor arterioles. Some therapeutic agents are particles incorporating pure ? emitter elements (90Y, 32P and do not have gamma radiation. Bremsstrahlung imaging of these radiotherapeutic agents confirms distribution of the radiotracer in hepatic tumors or probable extrahepatic deposition of radiopharmaceuticals and helps the physician to predict the patient's response to RE therapy. The aim of this study was demonstration of 32P images and its correlation with CT/MRI findings."nPatients and Methods: Ten patients with variable types of hepatic tumors treated with intra-arterial injection of 32P were included in this study. 24-72 hours after radiotracer administration, bremsstahlung SPECT imaging was performed in all patients with a single head gamma camera equipped with a medium energy collimator. Energy window setting of 100 keV±25% was selected. Reconstructed images were evaluated by two nuclear medicine specialists and one radiologist, and based on compatibility of 32P images with CT/MRI, a grading scale from 1 to 4 was used to express their correlations."nResults: By selecting optimized parameters for bremsstrahlung SPECT images of 32P, we could obtain good quality images. In nine patients, 32P distribution in the liver was correlated with anatomical findings of CT/MRI. "nConclusion: RE is appropriate to deliver high radiation doses to liver tumors with minimal accumulation in the normal liver tissue. Bremsstrahlung imaging is a useful method to confirm proper distribution of the radiotherapeutic agent, which has good correlation with anatomical findings.

M. Amoui

2010-06-01

246

Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

247

14-C-NAPHTHYL, 14-C-METHYL AND 14-C-CARBONYL CARBARYL DISTRIBUTION IN THE PREGNANT MOUSE AND RAT  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of carbaryl labeled with 14C in the ring, methyl or carbonyl groups was determined in pregnant mice and rats. Three identical concurrent experiments were performed using each of the three radiolabeled compounds in each of the species so that the different moietie...

248

Turnover of eastern Caribbean deep water from 14C measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 14C balance for the Eastern Caribbean deep water indicates the average inflow of Atlantic water into the basin to be 2.3 X 105 m3/sec (+-30%), or about 2-4 times the values estimated previously. The balance uses a model representation of the deep-water turnover, and is based on 14C concentrations at a station in the Venezuelan Basin which average ? 14C = 89% below 800 m depth with a total range of only 9%, as well as on a 14C concentration of the Atlantic inflow of ? 14C = -71% as obtained from measurements outside the Antilles Arch. The turnover time of the basin water below 2500 m depth is 55 years, which corresponds to an average upwelling velocity at this depth of about 35 m/year. With such upwelling, the temperature profile below 1800 m (the depth of the sill determining the inflow of new water) requires a vertical eddy diffusivity of about 5 cm2/sec. The oxygen consumption, and silica and CO2 regeneration, rates below 2500 m depth are obtained as -0.18, +0.08, and +0.2 ?mole kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The CO2 regeneration has but a negligible effect on the 14C balance. (Auth.)

249

Anthropogenic influences on 14C activity level in the air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthropogenic influences on the 14C activity level in the environment are briefly discussed. The largest increase in 14C activity was due to nuclear weapon tests during the 1960s, when this activity doubled as compared to the 1963 natural level. Current releases of 14C from nuclear facilities are only about 10 % of natural production. Another anthropogenic effect is associated with CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (dilution of 14C in carbon isotopic mixture - Suess effect). Determination of 14C in various types of sample can enhance our knowledge about natural carbon cycling. Hence, radiocarbon provides tool for the calculation of the local/regional/global Suess effect or determination of carbon delay in various types of sinks. Our monitoring of atmospheric 14CO2 at sites with different stress from fossil fuel combustion is aimed to estimate local and regional Suess effect and associated phenomena. Extrapolated data from the Jungfraujoch monitoring station were used to establish a reference 'background' 14C activity level for the years of monitoring

250

Studies on degradation and excretion of 32P-methamidophos by lactating cattle, following oral application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P-labelled methamidophos (thiophosphoric acid O,S-dimethylester amide) was orally applied to lactating cattle, with the dosage being 2 mg/kg body weight. The half-life of the active agent in blood serum was 10 +- 2 hours. As long as after six hours, up to 1 ppm of extracable 32P activity with components of unmetabolized active agent was recorded in vivo from blood and milk. Active agent was excreted also in urine. Its concentration declined rapidly after 24 hours, though clearly detectable quantities were still present in the circulation. Metabolites were not identified. Binding of methamidophos to proteins and pharmacokinetics measured are discussed in detail. (author)

251

Incorporation of 32P and Growth of Pseudomonad UP-2 on n-Tetracosane  

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Cultures of the marine pseudomonad UP-2 growing on n-tetracosane contained both free cells and cells bound to the solid hydrocarbon. After separation by filtration through a Whatman no. 1 filter, the numbers of free and bound cells were estimated from the amount of 32P incorporated into each fraction and the determined value of 32P incorporation per viable cell in the filtrate (free cells). During the early exponential growth phase, over 80% of the cells were bound to large pieces of n-tetrac...

Zilber, I. Kirschner; Rosenberg, E.; Gutnick, D.

1980-01-01

252

Effect of Mn deficiency on uptake, transport and distribution of 32P in cauliflower and tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of 32P uptake, transport and distribution has been recorded in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis cv. Late Maghi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Marglobe) plants grown at deficient (0.00055 ppm) and optimal (0.55 ppm) levels of Mn supply in refined sand culture. Manganese deficiency enhanced the transport of 32P from roots to tops in both the species but the uptake and distribution pattern was found to vary with the species, plant parts and in terms of concentration and total uptake. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

253

{sup 14}C in human diet in three Spanish locations; {sup 14}C en dieta humana en tres localizaciones espanolas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 14}C reach humans via the diet. In this study we present the results of diet samples from three locations type Spanish, Seville, Caceres and Tenerife. These diets are collected quarterly and historical dates back to early 2008.

Gomez Martinez, I.; Santos Arevalo, F. J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

2011-07-01

254

14C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the 14C levels in the environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radionuclide 14C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen (17O), nitrogen (14N) and carbon (13C). Part of the 14C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO2, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of 14C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The 14C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background 14C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of 14C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the 14C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of 14C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of 14C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of 14C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of 14C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada

255

Synthesis of 1-carboxy-N,N,N-tri-[methyl-14C] methanaminium chloride (betaine [methyl-14C] hydrochloride)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methyl bromoacetate was reacted with trimethylamine-[14C] dissolved in methanol, forming the methyl ester of [14C] labeled betaine hydrobromide. The methyl ester was hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium to (carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt, and then transformed into the hydrychloride by treatment with an equivalent amount of hydrochloric acid, yielding high purity material with a specific activity of 19.2 ?Ci/mmol and overall yield of 81.7%. (author)

256

Bioavailability in rats of bound 14C residues from corn plants treated with [14C]atrazine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corn plants grown to the silage stage were treated with 14C ring-labeled and unlabeled atrazine. The aerial portion of the plants was exhaustively extracted with solvents and the extracted material containing bound 14C residues was fed to rats. For comparison extracted material from control plants fortified with [14C]atrazine was also fed to rats. After 4 days, 88% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 10% in the urine from rats fed plant material containing bound 14C residues. In contrast, only 32% of the dose was eliminated in the feces while 60% was voided via the urine when the corn material fortified with [14C]atrazine was fed to rats. Most of the 14C residues in feces from rats fed bound diet remained nonextractable and their amounts and nature were similar to those in the corn material. Atrazine added to the corn material before feeding was metabolized effectively when consumed by rats. The data demonstrated that bound residues in corn plant treated with atrazine have a low degree of bioavailability in rats

257

The release of 35S from the cut hypothalamic end of the pituitary stalk following intravenous infusion of 35S-cysteine in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of radioactive substances from the hypothalamic end of the cut pituitary stalk was determined following intravenous infusion of 35S-cysteine in the rats dehydrated for 3 days. Intravenous injection of 5% sodium chloride, 1% of body weight, resulted in a distinct rise of radioactivity present in the fluid washing the cut infundibulum. In the same animals, the radioactivity of the hypothalamic tissue did not differ from that found in the controls (i.e., in animals simply dehydrated). The implications of these findings are discussed, as compared to the speed of axoplasmic transport in the infundibular axons. (author)

258

Synthesis of 14C labelled lidocaine (?-diethylamino acet-2,6-dimethylanilide)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-lidocaine was composed by 14C-diethylamine reaction with ?-chloroacetic-2,6-dimethylaniline. 14C-diethylamine was prepared from Ba14CO3 via K14CN and 14C-acetonitrile which was hydrogenated. Radiochemical purity of 14C-diethylamine and 14C-lidocaine is >99% by HPLC and TLC respectively. 14C-lidocaine is needed for breath assay of mouse for measuring liver function

259

Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

2008-08-01

260

14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. PMID:24814329

Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

/sup 32/P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi /sup 32/P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of /sup 32/P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to /sup 32/P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of /sup 32/P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition.

Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

1978-08-01

262

Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90Sr/90Y and 204Tl and non-calibrated source of 32P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32P and 90Sr/90Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

263

Phosphorus (32P) uptake by various algae species in ligh and in darkness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P incorporation intensity was investigated in light and in darkness. The experiments included 13 species of Chlorophyceae, 2 of diatom and one species of Cyanophyceae. No statistically significant differences were found (Student test) between the particular algae species as investigated in light and in darkness. (author)

264

Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

265

Effects of 32 P incorporated in plasmid DNA: strand breaks and mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the 32 P decay effects in DNA, bacterial plasmid were labeled with different activities of the radioisotope in vivo: 1,2 and 6 x 105 Bk/ml of bacterial culture, leading to 1,2 and 6 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid or in vitro: 0.7, 1.5 and 3.5 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid, stored at -20 deg C and its electroforetic profiles, transformation capacity of wild type and DNA repair. E. coli mutants cells and mutagenesis, were followed during three months. The results achieved in this work suggest that: the decay of the incorporated 32 P in vivo is able to change the pBR322 electroforetic profile, we detected a decrease on the form III (super coiled) and increase on the form II (circular), indicating single strands breaks; the decay incorporated 32 in vitro does not modify the electrophoretic profile of pBR322, suggesting that in some way the effects of the radioactive decay of incorporated 32 P is dependent of the DNA topology, the damages induced by 32 P decay increase mutation frequency in pAC189 plasmids. MRF is increased by a factor of three after 6 t1/2 of storage, indicating direct or indirect action through mismatch DNA repair pathway. (author)

266

Pain treatment of bone metastases using 32P and 89Sr  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

22 patients with incurable bone pains in metastasizing carcinoma were treated with radioisotopes. 32P and 89Sr were used in a dosage of 3 times 111 MBq and once 37 MBq. A reaction to the therapy could be proved in 46% of all cases and in 23% there was a very good result. (author)

267

32P-pyrophosphate in the treatment of persistent metastatic bone pain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight patients with persistent pain due to disseminated bone metastases from mammary carcinoma were given about 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 32P-pyrophosphate on 10 occasions. All but one of the patients experienced alleviation of pain lasting 1 to 4 months. The side effects, which derived mainly from haematopoetic tissue, prevent the routine use of this compound. (Auth.)

268

MULTIPLE DNA ADDUCTS IN LYMPHOCYTES OF SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS DETERMINED BY 32P-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes could serve as a means of monitoring human exposure to potential genotoxic agents. n this study, DNA from peripheral lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers was examined for adducts by the P1 nuclease 32P-postlabeling techniqu...

269

32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67±0.15 and 0.59±0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

2014-10-01

270

Algal photosynthetic activity measurement by 14C uptake, (1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are many sample preparation techniques for 14C-labeled phytoplankton for radioactivity measurement by liquid scintillation counting. A number of sample preparation procedures were tested to identify the ones most suitable for the intended experiments. The following results were obtained: 1. The calculated radioactivity of solubilized samples were about 10% lower than that of combusted samples. This was caused by settling out of algal cells. 2. The agreement between calculated radioactivity of solubilized samples and combusted samples was improved by the addition of Cab-O-Sil. 3. Virtually all of the residual inorganic 14C radioactivity was removed during drying. 4. The loss of 14C radioactivity caused by formaldehyde fixation differed from species to species. Based on these results, the following procedure was selected for use in our experiments: 1. After incubation with 14C, the 14C-labeled phytoplankton samples were immediately filtered and rinsed with filtered seawater under low illumination. 2. The filters were then dried in a vacuum desiccator with sodalime and silica gel. 3. The dried filters were solubilized with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether-toluene fluor which contains PPO, POPOP, and Cab-O-Sil. 4. The activity of solubilized samples was measured using liquid scintillation counting. (author)

271

Calculation of the compounded uncertainty of 14C AMS measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The correct method to calculate conventional 14C ages from the carbon isotopic ratios was summarised 35 years ago by Stuiver and Polach (1977) and is now accepted as the only method to calculate 14C ages. There is, however, no consensus regarding the treatment of AMS data, mainly of the uncertainty of the final result. The estimation and treatment of machine background, process blank, and/or in situ contamination is not uniform between laboratories, leading to differences in 14C results, mainly for older ages. As Donahue (1987) and Currie (1994), among others, mentioned, some laboratories find it important to use the scatter of several measurements as uncertainty while others prefer to use Poisson statistics. The contribution of the scatter of the standards, machine background, process blank, and in situ contamination to the uncertainty of the final 14C result is also treated in different ways. In the early years of AMS, several laboratories found it important to describe their calculation process in details. In recent years, this practise has declined. We present an overview of the calculation process for 14C AMS measurements looking at calculation practises published from the beginning of AMS until present.

272

In vitro synthesis and purification of UDP-[14C] galacturonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pectins comprise a major component of the cell wall and much research has focused on degradation of pectins during ripening and senescence. However, little research has been conducted on pectin synthesis, partly due to a lack of commercial availability of UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid for use as a substrate in assaying galacturonan synthase. We report on the modification and integration of several procedures to synthesize UDP-[14C] galacturonic acid from commercially available UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid. A microsomal pellet containing UDP-D-glucuronate-4-epimerase was extracted from 5-day-old mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus) and radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.) by ultracentrifugation at 30,000 rpm for 50 min. The UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid produced was separated from remaining UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and other products by electrophoresis in pyridine:acetate:H2O on silica gel. Spots were detected by autoradiography, eluted with 80% ethanol, and purified using anion exchange chromatography

273

Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

274

Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial adenosinetriphosphatase by 2-azidoadenosine 5'-[alpha-32P]diphosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2-Azidoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (2-azido-ADP) labeled with 32P in the alpha-position was prepared and used to photolabel the nucleotide binding sites of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The native F1 prepared by the procedure of Knowles and Penefsky [Knowles, A. F., and Penefsky, H. S. (1972)] contained an average of 2.9 mol of tightly bound ADP plus ATP per mole of enzyme. Short-term incubation of F1 with micromolar concentrations of [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP in the dark in a Mg2+-supplemented medium resulted in the rapid supplementary binding of 3 mol of label/mol of F1, consistent with the presence of six nucleotide binding sites per F1. The Kd relative to the reversible binding of [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP to mitochondrial F1 in the dark was 5 microM in the presence of MgCl2 and 30 microM in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A linear relationship between the percentage of inactivation of F1 and the extent of covalent photolabeling by [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP was observed for percentages of inactivation up to 90%, extrapolating to 2 mol of covalently bound [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP/mol of F1. Under these conditions, only the beta subunit was photolabeled. Covalent binding of one photolabel per beta subunit was ascertained by electrophoretic separation of labeled and unlabeled beta subunits based on charge differences and by mapping studies showing one major radioactive peptide segment per photolabeled beta subunitt

275

Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial adenosinetriphosphatase by 2-azidoadenosine 5'-[alpha-32P]diphosphate.  

Science.gov (United States)

2-Azidoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (2-azido-ADP) labeled with 32P in the alpha-position was prepared and used to photolabel the nucleotide binding sites of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The native F1 prepared by the procedure of Knowles and Penefsky [Knowles, A. F., & Penefsky, H. S. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 6617-6623] contained an average of 2.9 mol of tightly bound ADP plus ATP per mole of enzyme. Short-term incubation of F1 with micromolar concentrations of [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP in the dark in a Mg2+-supplemented medium resulted in the rapid supplementary binding of 3 mol of label/mol of F1, consistent with the presence of six nucleotide binding sites per F1. The Kd relative to the reversible binding of [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP to mitochondrial F1 in the dark was 5 microM in the presence of MgCl2 and 30 microM in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A linear relationship between the percentage of inactivation of F1 and the extent of covalent photolabeling by [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP was observed for percentages of inactivation up to 90%, extrapolating to 2 mol of covalently bound [alpha-32P]-2-azido-ADP/mol of F1. Under these conditions, only the beta subunit was photolabeled. Covalent binding of one photolabel per beta subunit was ascertained by electrophoretic separation of labeled and unlabeled beta subunits based on charge differences and by mapping studies showing one major radioactive peptide segment per photolabeled beta subunit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2867780

Boulay, F; Dalbon, P; Vignais, P V

1985-12-01

276

Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial adenosinetriphosphatase by 2-azidoadenosine 5'-(alpha-32P)diphosphate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2-Azidoadenosine 5'-diphosphate (2-azido-ADP) labeled with 32P in the alpha-position was prepared and used to photolabel the nucleotide binding sites of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The native F1 prepared by the procedure of Knowles and Penefsky (Knowles, A. F., and Penefsky, H. S. (1972)) contained an average of 2.9 mol of tightly bound ADP plus ATP per mole of enzyme. Short-term incubation of F1 with micromolar concentrations of (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP in the dark in a Mg2+-supplemented medium resulted in the rapid supplementary binding of 3 mol of label/mol of F1, consistent with the presence of six nucleotide binding sites per F1. The Kd relative to the reversible binding of (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP to mitochondrial F1 in the dark was 5 microM in the presence of MgCl2 and 30 microM in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A linear relationship between the percentage of inactivation of F1 and the extent of covalent photolabeling by (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP was observed for percentages of inactivation up to 90%, extrapolating to 2 mol of covalently bound (alpha-32P)-2-azido-ADP/mol of F1. Under these conditions, only the beta subunit was photolabeled. Covalent binding of one photolabel per beta subunit was ascertained by electrophoretic separation of labeled and unlabeled beta subunits based on charge differences and by mapping studies showing one major radioactive peptide segment per photolabeled beta subunit.

Boulay, F.; Dalbon, P.; Vignais, P.V.

1985-12-03

277

Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 ± 19.5 (x-bar ± s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

278

[(35)S]sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans is decreased in experimental diabetes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolated rat renal glomeruli incorporate radioactive sulfate into glycosaminoglycans, which are integral components of the glomerular basement membrane. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis and specific enzymatic sensitivities of glycosaminoglycans prepared after pronase digestion of purified glomerular basement membrane indicate the presence of heparan sulfate. We examined the effect of experimental diabetes on the incorporation of [(35)S]-sulfate into glycosaminoglycans deposited into newly synthesized glomerular basement membrane in vitro. Basement membranes were purified from glomeruli isolated from normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats after incubation for 2 hr with radiolabeled sulfate and then were subjected to pronase digestion for isolation of the glycosaminoglycans. [(35)S] incorporation into basement membrane glycosaminoglycans was significantly decreased in glomeruli from diabetic animals. The addition of insulin (100 micron U/ml) in vitro did not affect [(35)S] incorporation into glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basement membranes in normal or diabetic glomeruli. High glucose concentration (5 vs. 20 mM) was without effect in short-term incubations of glomeruli from normal animals. The results indicate that experimental diabetes influences [(35)S] sulfate incorporation into glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans and suggest that decreased heparan sulfate production and/or sulfation may contribute to the increased permeability of the glomerular increased permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in diabetes

279

Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of sup 35 S in radiolabeled loblolly pines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by {sup 35}S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of {sup 35}S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}-S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO{sub 2} dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, {sup 35}S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 {mu}g/g dry needles. Translocation of {sup 35}S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment.

Garten, C.T. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01

280

Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

 
 
 
 
281

Synthesis of [35S]-labelled MK-0571, a potent antagonist of LTD4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of 5-[3-{2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)ethenyl}-phenyl]-8-dimethylcarbamyl-4,6-[6-35S]dithiaoctanoic acid at a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmol is reported. This compound is a reagent suited for selective affinity binding studies at the LTD4 receptor. (Author)

282

Proteinases release 35S-labeled macromolecules from cultured airway epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine whether proteinases release radiolabeled macromolecules from airway cells devoid of secretory granules, they studied canine cultured tracheal epithelial cells grown to confluency. At this time the cells are bound by tight junctions, maintain anion transport, have a well developed glycocalyx, but contain no secretory granules. They labeled the cells with 35SO4 (50?ci/ml/24h) then changed the medium every 20 min and measured nondialyzable 35S released into the medium. Two h later, the rate of spontaneous release of 35S-labeled-macromolecules was 5700 +/- 1600 CPM/20 min (mean +/- SD). At this time trypsin, thermolysin, pseudomonas elastase and alkaline proteinase, each released 35S-labeled-macromolecules, whereas aspergillus acid proteinase did not. In more detailed studies, trypsin released 35S in a concentration dependent fashion, with a threshold below 10 units/ml and a response to 1000 units/ml of 1092 +/- 173% (mean +/- SD; n=5 cultures) above pre-trypsin baseline. Sepharose CL4B chromatography of the radiolabeled materials released by trypsin showed a void volume fraction (MW ? 106), and a second, included fraction (MW 2-3 x 105). These results indicate that cultured airway epithelial cells synthesize macromolecules and release them into the medium, and that proteinases increase the rate of macromolecule release markedly

283

Synthesis of phenyl[1-14C]acetylene and 1,4-diphenyl [1,4-14C2]butadiyne  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenyl[1-14C]acetylene (0.012mCi/mmole) was synthesized in 12.5% yield from [1-14C]acetic acid through [1-14C]acetophenone, its semicarbazone, and 4-phenyl-[4-14C]1,2,3-selenadiazole obtained by selenium dioxide oxidation. Oxidative coupling gave 1,4-diphenyl[1,4-14C2]butadiyne in 80% yield. (author)

284

Preparation of poly methyl methacrylate labeled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C labeled poly methyl methacrylate can be used as a radioactive source for measuring the thickness of paper in the production lines. Very thin and uniform sources can be obtained by the method. Its preparation procedures are as follows: (1)Synthesis of Argerfine methacrylicate. (2)Preparation of poly methyl methacrylate labelled with 14C. Argerfine methacrylicate is mixed and refluxed with 14C labeled iodine methane, at 72 degree C for five hours in a bottle. (3)The preparation of the radioactive source. Initiating agent is added into the bottle. The bottle is heated to 75 degree C for one hour, then heated to 100 degree C for another one hour. The reactive product is sealed with epoxy resin. (authors)

285

Determination of 14C/12C ratio in volcanic gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determination of 14C/12C ratio in volcanic gas has been aimed at by use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). As a first step, an improvement of the detection limit of 14c/12C was sought for in the analytical procedure that involved the reduction of CO2 into amorphous C. By performing the proton activation analysis of carbon present in various chemicals used in the reduction procedure and by selecting the best chemicals, the detection limit of 4.5 x 10-15 could be achieved routinely while that for the procedure involving direct carbonization of organic material was 3.6 x 10-16. The improved method indicated the presence of 14C in some volcanic gas, and its implication was considered

286

Monitoring of the 14C activity in the atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

nditions the effect of Paks NPP is negligible at a distance of 2.5km. In Figure 1. we have compared our data for Paks NPP measured during the time span of 2000 - 2005 with data from different European monitoring stations. (The 14C activities are given in ? values: ?14C(% (Asample/Astandard-1) x 1000.) In 2000-2001 the excess 14C at Paks NPP compared to the B24 was 5-10 (per mille) but its ? value didn't exceed the tropospheric background (1). With the growing traffic the inactive CO2 emission (Suess effect) exceeded the influence of the NPP (2). After a cleaning tank incident at unit 2 of Paks NPP in April 2003 a 5-10 (per mille) rise of ?14CO2 was observed at all stations (3). During the remediation activities this decreased slowly in 2004 and ceased by the second half of 2005 (4). (author)

287

Synthesis of D-[1-14C]penicillamine hydrochloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods are described for the synthesis of DL-[1-14C]penicillamine and D-[1-14C]penicillamine hydrochloride from K14CN. The method consists of addition of H14CN to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-thiazoline followed by hydrolysis of the resulting thiazolidine to DL-penicillamine. Resolution was achieved through the salt of N-formylisopropylidene-DL-penicillamine with (-)-norephedrine. The specific activity of D-penicillamine was 21.7 mCi/mmole and the overall radiochemical yield from K14CN was 3.3%. (author)

288

Metabolismo de fósforo em bovinos: Incorporação de fósforo radioativo (32P) pelos eritrócitos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da suplementação de P sobre a incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos de bovinos como método para diagnóstico da deficiência subclínica desse mineral, doze bezerros mestiços pesando em média 191 kg foram separados do rebanho por 12 semanas. Durante as 6 primeiras sem [...] anas os animais consumiram apenas a pastagem, sem receber suplementação mineral. Após esse período, os animais foram suplementados com uma mistura mineral comercial contendo 6,0% P por mais 6 semanas, permanecendo na mesma pastagem. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas a cada 2 semanas. Quatro ml de sangue total foram incubados a 38°C com 1,85 MBq de 32P por 3 horas. As células foram separadas do plasma por centrifugação e lavadas com solução salina por 3 vezes. A radioatividade nas células foi detectada através do efeito Cerenkov. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram também investigados sobre os níveis de P e glucose no plasma e P nas fezes. Houve aumento significativo nesses parâmetros à medida em que os animais foram suplementados. As taxas de incorporação de 32P pelos eritrócitos tiveram valores médios de 7,04 ± 1,20 e 5,91 ± 1,24% (P Abstract in english To evaluate the effect of phosphorus supplementation on 32P uptake by red blood cells in vitro as diagnosis of subclinical P deficiency, twelve calves averaging 191 kg were separated from the herd for 12 weeks. During the first 6 weeks, the animals were maintained on a pasture without phosphorus sup [...] plementation. During the next 6-week period, the animals were supplemented with a commercial mineral salt with 6.0% total P. Four ml of freshly drawn whole blood were obtained at 2-week intervals and incubated with 1.85 MBq 32P. After incubation at 38°C for a 3-hour period, the cells were separated from the plasma and washed three times with an isotonic saline solution and their radioactivity was determined through the Cerenkov effect. Effects of treatment upon the levels of P blood plasma, blood glucose and P excretion were also investigated and these parameters increased significantly with P supplementation. The average rates of 32P uptake by the erythrocytes were 7.04 ± 1.20 and 5.91 ± 1.24% (P

J.C., SILVA FILHO; D.M.S.S., VITTI; H., LOUVANDINI.

1997-09-01

289

Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro / Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose), sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, [...] manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultados permitiram concluir que 33% do S adicionado foi absorvido, e desse total 27% foi translocado, não havendo influência dos aditivos sobre esses processos. O ácido sulfúrico e o sulfato de amonio destacaram-se como os melhores fornecedores de enxofre, via foliar, para o feijoeiro. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of sulphur sources, in the presence or absence of additives (urea and glucose), on the sulphur uptake by bean leaves. The treatments: solutions of sulphuric acid, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc sulphate [...] s labelled with 35S, containing or not the additives, were applied to the first trifoliate of the plants to assess the sulphur uptake and translocation. The results enable to conclude that 33% of the added sulphur was absorved, and 27% out of this total was translocated. The additives did not have any influence on uptake and translocation. The sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate solutions were the best sulphur suppliers for the bean plant.

J.A. de, Oliveira Jr.; I.C., Rêgo; W.B., Scivittaro; O.F. de, Lima Filho; R., Stefanutti; G.R., Gonzáles; A.E., Boaretto.

1995-12-01

290

Glucosyltransferase activities in liver mitochondria. I. Biosynthesis of dolichyl[14C]glucosyl phosphate and [14C]glucosylceramide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondria, and specially outer mitochondrial membranes, incorporate D-[14C]glucose from UDP-D-[14C]glucose into products extracted with organic solvents and into a residual precipitate, with a pH optimum of about 6.5 in (2-N-morpholino-ethane)-sulfonic acid (MES) buffer. The chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) extract contains two products. The major [14C]glucolipid is stable to mild alkali, but releases [14C]glucose upon mild acid hydrolysis. It is retained on DEAE-cellulose (acetate form) and is eluted with the same ionic strength as an hexosyldolichyl monophosphate diester. This [14C] glucolipid has the same chromatographic behaviour as dolichyl-mannosylphosphate in neutral, acidic and basic solvent systems; and its biosynthesis is greatly increased by exogenous dolichylmonophosphate. The other [14C]glucolipid is stable upon mild acid hydrolysis and is not retained on DEAE-cellulose. On silicic acid it is eluted with acetone. The biosynthesis of this compound is stimulated by exogenous ceramide. This glucolipid has the same chromatographic mobility in different solvent systems as glucosylceramide isolated from the liver of a patient with Gaucher's disease. Biosynthesis of these two glucolipids is inhibited by UDP, but only biosynthesis of dolichylglucosyl monophosphate is reversible with this nucleotide. The biosynthesis of these different glucosylated derivatives is stimulated by the addition of divalent cations (Mn2+, Mg2+). the effect of these two metal ions on dolichylglucosyl monophosphate and glucosylceramide formation is studied in different conditions. PMID:6450044

Gateau, O; Morelis, R; Louisot, P

1980-11-01

291

Process for the production of 14C-labelled compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The patent describes the production of 14C-labelled compounds from solution with the aid of algae. A microorganism of the Anacystic species is used, preferably Anacystis nidulans which is also known as 'Indiana 625'. The experiments and their results are described in detail. (UWI)

292

Radial transport of 14C in Norwegian pine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose to contribute to a dendro-calibration curve for 14C dating we turned our attention to pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in a high mountain area (62degN) of Norway. This area seemed to be sufficiently homogeneous to allow the build-up of a 400 years master chronology based on living trees. There should also be possibilities of finding old logs in the ground in order to extend the chronology further back. As concerns the 14C measurements, radial transport of bomb-produced 14C was reflected in the heartwood early in this century. A reflected peak in AD 1930 constituted a 14C activity of 6.7 +- 0.5% above normal level in untreated wood and was of advantage for testing the purification procedure. A complete removal of the contamination from outer rings became possible with inorganic solvents (KOH and NaClO2), where only the cellulose was extracted for measurement. The delta13C values are influenced by the pretreatment in accordance with the degree to which the various fractions are removed. Differences in delta13C values due to various pretreatment procedures may constitute up to 4 per thousand. (author)

293

Cluster states in 12C and 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cluster structure of 12C is explored and recent measurements of proton inelastic scattering, suggesting a 2+ state close to 9.6 MeV are presented. Resonant scattering studies of 10Be + 4He used to populate resonances in 14C are briefly discussed. (author)

294

Fine structure in 14 C decay of 225 Ac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Predictions for a fine structure are reported for the 14 C emission from 225 Ac. The half-lives are computed considering the cluster decay as a superasymmetric fission process. The level scheme is evaluated with the superasymmetric two-center shell model. (author)

295

14C measurements in Bulgarian and Hungarian wines from 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurements of 14C in ethanol samples extracted from wines of different wine districts in Bulgaria and Hungary in 1986 showed that the atmospheric reservoir remained practically undisturbed by the emission due to the Chernobyl accident. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

296

Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate

297

Microorganisms labelled with 14C for measurement of phagocytosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An isotopic method for determination of phagocytic activity is presented. The method of labelling of Staphylococcus aureus 519 with 14C is described. Effects of various parameters (e.g. time of incubation, serum dilution, number of phagocytes and bacteria used in the test on phagocytosis) were studied. The effect of tuftsin and its lysine analogue on phagocytic granulocytes is also described. (author)

298

Determination of extractable and nonextractable radioactivity from small field plots 45 and 95 weeks after treatment with [14C]dicamba, (2,4-dichloro[14C]phenoxy)acetic acid, [14C]triallate, and [14C]trifluralin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degradation of ring-labeled [14C]dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid), ring-labeled [14C]-2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], [2-14C]triallate [S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl) diisopropylthiocarbamate], and ring-labeled [14C]trifluralin (?,?,?-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) was studied under field conditions at rates of 1 kg/ha in small sandy loam plots. Duplicate plots were sampled to a depth of 10 cm after 45 and 95 weeks and extracted with aqueous acetonitrile to determine amounts of extractable radioactivity. The extracted soils were then oxidatively combusted to determine nonextractable, or bound, radioactivity. After 45 weeks, soluble radioactivity recovered from the dicamba-, 2,4-D-, triallate-, and trifluralin-treated plots was <1, 2, 50, and 77% of that applied, while the nonextractable activity accounted for 2, 10, 15, and 10% of that applied. After 95 weeks, <1, 1, 16, and 38% of the applied radioactivity were, on the average, extractable from the dicamba-, 2,4-D-, triallate-, and trifluralin-treated plots, while 3, 6, 30, and 22%, respectively, remained in a solvent nonextractable form. 31 references, 4 tables

299

Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

300

Microscale synthesis of volatile, 14C-labeled acid chlorides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the microscale (one mmole) synthesis of volatile, 14C-labelled acid chlorides from Ba14CO3 using vacuum line techniques is described. By a judicious choice of reagents, desired intermediates and products may be isolated in high yield by simple vacuum transfer techniques without fractionation. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

302

Residues of 14C-lindane in stored faba beans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 70% of the applied 14C-lindane penetrated into stored faba beans during 30 weeks. The percentage of bound residues in the grains did not exceed 3%. Feeding of the bound residues to mice considerably reduced body weight gain. (author)

303

Physical Research Laboratory radiocarbon 14C dates : CS-I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 14C dates of archaeological samples measured at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad are presented. Samples were converted into methane and measured in gas proportional counters. Ninety-five percent activity of NBS oxalic acid was used as modern standard. The dates in years B.P. are given for each sample based on the half-life values of 5568 +- 30 years and 5730 +- 40 years, the latter within parenthesis. The dates are not calibrated for 14C/12C variations. To convert the dates into AD/BC scale, 1950 AD should be used as reference year. A number of 14C dates (PRL-81, -83, -67, -68) now confirm that the Painted Grey Ware culture extended upto the 3rd century BC. Some of the dates from Barkhera (PRL-113), Bateshwar (PRL-200), Bhimbetka (PRL-17) and Koldihawa (PRL-100, 101) are older than normally expected, probably indicative of some hitherto unknown basal cultures in these regions. 14C dates on in situ Megalithic materials do not seem to go beyond 200 BC. (author)

304

Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of the invasion of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} and bomb {sup 14}C into the atmosphere and surface oceans. Therefore the {Delta}{sup 14}C data that are produced in this study can be used to validate the ocean uptake of fossil fuel CO2 in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. This study takes advantage of the quasi-conservative nature of {sup 14}C as a water mass tracer by using {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in corals to identify changes in the shallow circulation of the Pacific. Although the data itself provides fundamental information on surface water mass movement the true strength is a combined approach which is greater than the individual parts; the data helps uncover deficiencies in ocean circulation models and the model results place long {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in a dynamic framework which helps to identify those locations where additional observations are most needed.

Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

2001-02-23

305

Biological fate of 32P malathion in gallus domesticus (Desi poultry birds)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During this study, a minor surgical technique was developed for the separation of urine and faeces in birds and fate of 32P malathion was studied, following a single oral dose of 394 mg/kg. The birds showed characteristic signs and symptoms of organophosphorus poisoning and the results suggested that the compound is rapidly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, significant quantities being detected in plasma after 0.5 h of ingestion. Highest concentration of 32P in various organs decreased and at 48 h, it was not detected except in liver, kidney, lung and spleen when only traces were observed. The cumulative urinary and faecal excretion study revealed that within 24 h 90% is rapidly excreted mainly via the urine and only small amounts in the faeces. Metabolism studies showed that the compound is quickly metabolised. Because of the rapid turnover of the compound, this study indicated that the accumulation of this compound is unlikely in the body system

306

Use of /sup 32/P in aluminum sensibility tests with bean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the possibility of using /sup 32/P in aluminium tolerance tests of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The cultivars were previously classified according to dry matter yield date by regression analysis as aluminium tolerant (C/sub 20/-Mulatinho Paulista; C/sub 26/-Ricobaio 1014 and C/sub 33/-Roxo 750) and aluminium sensitive (C/sub 17/-Jamapa; C/sub 28/-Rio Tibagi and C/sub 34/-Tambo). Chopped roots from plant grown in a complete nutrient solution during 30 days and submerged in another solution containing aluminium showed to be a reliable indicator of /sup 32/P absorption efficiency to aluminium tolerant and sensitive cultivars.

Oliveira, I.P. de (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Goiania. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz - Feijao); Malavolta, E. (Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz)

1983-08-01

307

Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

308

Synoviorthesis with 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate in rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synoviorthesis was performed in 217 joints from 111 patients suffering from different stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate was employed, with an average dose from 6 mCi for large joints (knees) to 0.3 mCi for small peripheral joints such as the MCP or PIP joints. Satisfactory clinical results were observed in 84% of the cases and no significant side effects resulted after a follow-up period from 1 to 10 years. Striking effects after treatment were observed through histopathological studies (light and electron microscopy) and the use of contrast arthography. We concluded that radioactive synovectomy with 32P-chromate is a very useful method for the local treatment of RA

309

Researches regarding the labelling of European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hb.) by 32 P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Corn Borer (ECB) moths were labelled after they ate the semisynthetic diet in which 32 P was added as a colourless and transparent solution of NaH232 PO4. The 32 P radioactivities in the diet were 7.4 and 13 kBq/g. Both 7.4 and 13 kBq/g diets met our purpose for permanent moth labelling. The major part of radioactivity was contained by moths while the remnant by exuviae. The number of pupae/box, the number of moths/box, egg batches/female and the percentage of fertile eggs were registered . The radioactivity of pupae, moths and exuviae was was determined. The radioactivity of 7.4 and 13 kBq/g has a slight influence on the longevity of labelled ECB. (author)

310

Single-Well Technique using 32P for Determining Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiographic method for determining the direction, ?, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ?. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

311

Soil tagging as a technique for nutrient uptake studies with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory and green house studies were carried out to find out the minimum period required for equilibrating soil 31P with added 32P using an alkaline alluvial soil and an acid laterite soil. From the laboratory study, it was found that the minimum period required for equilibration was 14 and 35 days for the alluvial and laterite soils, respectively. Green house study showed that the period at which a constancy of specific activity was obtained in the plant, growing on the equilibrating soil, was an unsuitable criterion for assessing the period required for 32P equilibration in soil-tagging technique. The study also revealed, significant differences between the specific activities in the laminae and petiole/stem of the same plant. (author)

312

Concentrations of cosmic ray produced 7Be, 32P and 33P under mountain conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations and isotope ratio of the cosmogenic 7Be, 32P and 33P in the atmospheric air under mountain conditions were investigated in the Abastumani observatory area (Georgian SSR, 42 deg NL). Aerosol samples were taken by air filtration using the FPP-15-1.7 type filters at an altitude of 1700 m above the sea level. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma and beta radiation after the filter ashing and chemical separation. The measured 7Be, 32P and 33P concentrations fluctuated respectively from 1.0 to 31.6, 0.01-0.33 and 0.006-0.37 at/g. The upper limits of the concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with those obtained in Vilnius under mountain conditions were one order lower. A conclusion is drawn that the intensity of the removal of aerosols from the atmosphere is higher in mountain areas

313

Radionuclide therapy with 32P of patients with bone metastases of breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment with 32P is applied in 26 in-lying patients with clinical, X-ray, scintigraphic and radioimmunological proof of bone metastases of breast cancer appeared after surgical intervention. Radioactive phosphorus has been administered orally - single intake of 111 mBq, total 3-4 intakes with 4 days interval between portions. The results of the treatment are: 12 patients (84,6%) experienced 42 months remission manifested by improved state of well-being, relief of pains, return to normal ESR, lack of complications such as anemia, leucocytopenia, thrombocytopenia. The metastatic foci can still be visualized on the control scintigrams, though not so distinct as before the P-therapy. The values of the carcinoembryonic antigen remain high. Inferences are drown about the pathognomonic nature of 32P symptomatic therapy, which postpones the application of opatic drugs, reduces the patients' sufferings and prolongs survival. 10 refs

314

Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

315

Aminotransferase activity in chicken blood plasma after application of a lethal activity of 32P  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt was made to evaluate whether in chicken the activity of plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase changes after 32P administration, and whether it helps in the diagnosis of morphological or functional liver damage caused by ionizing radiation before the appearance of clinical simptoms of radiation sickness. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy Jata provenience of both sexes were treated by 32P administred i.m. as disodium hydrogen phosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were determined spectrophotometrically using optimized kits produced by Boehringer Mannheim GmbH. The obtained results have shown that aspartate aminotransferase activity increased on the 3rd and 5th day and it decreased on the 7th and 10th day of the experiment. A statistically significant difference was recorded on the 3rd day of the experiment. Alanine aminotransferase activity increased during the first five days of the experiment, and on the 7th day it decreased. On the 10th day of the experimet the activity of alanine aminotransferase in the blood plasma of 32P treated birds was not detectable; a statistically significant difference was recorded on the 5th day only. The obtained results indicate that the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase may serve as an indicator of functional and/or morphological liver damage in chickens caused by ionizing radiation before the appearance of clinical symptoms of radiation sickness.

Kraljevi? Petar

2008-01-01

316

Studies on 32P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on 32P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed

317

Metabolism and excretion of 32P-aminophon in lactating cattle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P-labelled aminophon, 0,0-di-n-butyl-(1-n-butylaminocyclohexyl)-phosphanate, an agricultural defoliant and siccant, was applied orally in oily solution to lactating cows, 5 - 6 mg/kg bodymass, resp. The half-lives of degradation in blood serum in vitro are 95 min of the extractable metabolites in blood, milk and urine 17 - 20 h. The 0- and 0,N-dealkyl compound of aminophon were found as the preferred metabolites. (author)

318

32P-induced serum protein changes in Swiss albino mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the serum protein pattern were studied in Swiss albino mice at different stages of postnatal development, after administration of 32P at the dose rate of 37 kBq/g body weight. Shift in the concentration of serum protein fractions recorded during the experiment, point towards the differential response of the growing animal to ionizing radiation, at different stages of postnatal growth. Differences in the radiosensitivity of the two sexes have also been recorded. (author)

319

Photoaffinity labeling of mitochondrial proteins with 2-azido [32P]palmitoyl CoA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-chain fatty acyl CoA photolabel, 2-azido [32P]palmitoyl CoA, was synthesized and its covalent interaction with mitochondrial membrane proteins examined. On binding of 2-azido [32P]palmitoyl CoA to beef heart mitochondria, two polypeptides were primarily labeled, the 30 kDa ADP/ATP carrier and a 41 kDa protein of unknown identity. Carboxyatractyloside and palmitoyl CoA completely protected against labeling of the 30 kDa protein indicating that it was the ADP/ATP carrier. With inverted submitochondrial particles, only the 30 kDa polypeptide was labeled by 2-azido [32P]palmitoyl CoA. The labeling was inhibited by bongkrekic acid and palmitoyl CoA but not carboxyatractyloside, providing evidence that the ADP/ATP carrier was covalently bound from the matrix side of the membrane. In brown adipose tissue mitochondria, 2-azido [32P]palmitoyl CoA photolabeled the ADP/ATP carrier and the 32 kDa uncoupling protein with some minor labeling of 36 and 68 kDa polypeptides. The results indicated that this physiological photolabeling reagent with the azido group on the CoA portion of the molecule interacts like 2-azido ADP with nucleotide binding sites of a number of important enzymes in cell metabolism. Moreover, the evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that long chain fatty acyl CoA esters are natural ligands for key nucleotide binding proteins. PMID:7750558

Woldegiorgis, G; Lawrence, J; Ruoho, A; Duff, T; Shrago, E

1995-05-01

320

Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

Genotoxicity of Colloidal 32P Chromic Phosphate in the Mouse Bone Marrow Analyzed by Micronuclei Test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate is used to prevent hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. It is speculated that the intravenous injection of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate can cause genotoxicity. To evaluate the genotoxicity of intravenously injected colloidal 32P chromic phosphate, authors performed a micronuclei test in mice bone marrow. Mice(ICR strain, 25 ? 30 g) were divided to 4 groups: control, group 1 (19.166 KBq/g, usual therapeutic dose in human), group 2 (191.66 KBq/g), and group 3 (1916.6 KBq/g). Five mice of each group were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Bone marrow were smeared and stained with Wright-Giemsa method. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were counted under the light microscope, and the number of micronucleated PCEs and NCEs were recorded. The frequency of micronuclei in PCE and NCE in the control group was 0.3 ± 0.06% and 0.45 ± 0.10%, respectively. At group 1, frequency of micronuclei is not different from the control. However, frequencies of micronuclei in PCE at groups 2 and 3 were significantly increased from day 1 and persisted to day 14. The frequency of micronuclei in NCE was increased only at group 3. In conclusion, the frequency of micronuclei increases as the dose of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate increases, while micronuclei was not induced at the usual therapeutic dose. And the frequency of micronuclei persistently elevated for 14 days in the cases of higher doses.

322

Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

323

Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction ofand FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

324

A comparison of methods for the intrinsic labeling of wheat protein with 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hard red winter wheat variety (Brule), grown to maturity in a greenhouse, was intrinsically labeled with 35S by either stem injection or addition of the isotope to the medium in which detached wheat heads were grown. Two levels of isotope were applied by each method at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days postanthesis. Significantly higher yield (weight/head) of grain was observed with injection compared to the incubation method. Of the isotope introduced by injection, 77% translocated into the wheat kernel, and of this amount at least 77% of the isotope in the kernel was associated with kernel protein and free sulfur amino acids. Data suggest that injection of wheat stems 15 days after anthesis, with doses up to 10 ?Ci of 35S, would be a suitable method of obtaining intrinsically labeled wheat protein for bioavailability studies

325

Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them.

Koskinas, M. F.; Nascimento, T. S.; Yamazaki, I. M.; Dias, M. S.

2014-02-01

326

An enzymatic method for the preparation in high yield of [5-14C]- and [4,5,6-14C] glucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[5-14C]- and [4,5,6-14C] glucose were prepared from [2-14C]- and [U-14C] glycerol and fructose 6-phosphate by reactions involving the enzymes glycerokinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, transaldolase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoglucose isomerase. The authenticity of each of the 14C-labelled sugars was verified by chromatographic and enzymic procedures and the distribution of 14C isotope confirmed by specific degradative procedures. These specifically labelled substrates are required for the quantitative estimation of the new pentose pathway reactions in liver, photosynthetic and some tumour tissues. (author)

327

Radioisotope labelling of several major insect pest. Dipping the pupae in /sup 32/P solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioisotope uptake by insects could take place through various parts i.e. mouth, cuticula, intersegmental, secretion and excretion organs. Usually insects are labelled internally by feeding them on an artificial diet containing radioisotope solution. Labelling of several insect pests of cabbage (Crocidolomia binotalis) Zell and Plutella maculipennis Curt and rice (Chilo suppressalis Walker) by dipping of the pupae in /sup 32/P solution showed a promising result. Pupae of Crocidolomia binotalis Zell dipped in 3 ml solution of /sup 32/P with specific activities of 1, 3, 5 and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml had developed labelled adults of sufficiently high radioactivity levels for ecological studies. Similar results were also obtained with Plutella maculipennis Curt and Chilo suppressalis Walker with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 ..mu..Ci/ml /sup 32/P solution. The best doses for radioisotope labelling by dipping of the insects Crocidolomia binotalis Zell, Plutella maculipennis Curt, and Chilo suppressalis Walker were 1, 9, and 7 ..mu..Ci/ml respectivelly.

Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

1981-12-01

328

Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

1987-01-01

329

Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following 32P treatment for polycythemia vera  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orally administrated NA2 32PO4 mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits ?-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that 32P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of 32P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by 32P treatment in PCV. (author)

330

Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

1990-01-01

331

Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

332

Novel dose calculation and characterization of {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Derived from AAPM task group No. 60/149 protocol, applicable in treatment planning In this study, the two-dimensional dose distributions in water for a {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent have been calculated. The pure beta emitter source {sup 32}P which has been coated on Palmaz-Schatz stent is discussed. The dosimetric parameters required by the AAPM TG-60/149 formalism are discussed and calculated. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate at the reference point is found to be 2.8 Gy/{mu}Ci. Also in this study, the geometry function, G(r,{theta}), radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), have been calculated at distances from 1.8 to 9 mm. The results of these calculations have been compared with other published calculated and measured values for an actual same source. High dose variants were visible near the {sup 32}P stent surface, but these values decreased with depth in water rapidly. There is an acceptable agreement between the calculated data in this study and other published data for the same source, which validate our simulations method. (orig.)

Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute; Kiavar, Omid; Saidi, Pooneh [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Fatehi, Rozhin [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

2011-11-15

333

DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([?- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

334

Phosphorus absorption (/sup 32/P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free /sup 32/P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to /sup 32/P injection.

Habib, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 84 - Montfavet (France). Station d' Agronomie)

1983-01-01

335

The inclusion of 35S sodium sulfate in tissues soluble proteins in feather keratin of broiler chickens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organ-tissue peculiarities of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into soluble tissue proteins of skin, muscles, liver, pancreas, duodenum were established in experiments with chickens of one, 23, 41 and 60 day age. It is shown that skin is the organ, accumulating 35S sodium sulfate. It was revealed that intensity of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into muscule proteins and feather keratin in 23- and 41-day age decreased. Specificity of isotope distribution in separate feather components was established

336

Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

337

Studies on the metabolism of inorganic sulphur by nitrifying bacterium - Nitrobacter agilis using 35S  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In studies on the incorporation of 35S-labelled sulphate into washed cell suspension of Nitrobacter agilis, the bound sulphate, sulphite, sulphide, cysteine, glutathione, homocysteine, methionine and taurine were found in the hydrolysed protein fraction. As in other micro-organisms, sulphate is first activated by ATP in Nitrobacter before it is reduced. The formation of APS and PAPS was also investigated in the present studies. (author)

338

[The kinetics of accumulation and elimination of the antitumor preparation tomizine-35 S].  

Science.gov (United States)

On rats with sarcoma M-1 the peculiarities of accumulation and elimination of the folic acid antagonist-pyrimido (4,5-b), (1,4) thiazinon-35S, called "thomizine", have been studied. In travenous injection of thomizine-35S with the activity of 5 muc per animal the highest initial concentration of radioactivity was observed 5-15 minutes after the injection. While decreasing, the radioactivity absorption coefficients in organs were distributed as follows: the kidneys, pancreas, organs of the endocrinous system, lymph nodes, the stomach, liver, small intestine, brain. Thomizine-35S accumulation in rat organs proceeded not only on account of its intake with blood but also due to penetration and subsequent deposition in structural tissue elements. Lessening of radioactivity in the organism of rats was dependent exponentially. Elimination of the drug was realized mainly via the kidneys. 89 per cent of the absorbed radioactivity was eliminated from the organism with a period of semielimination of 1 hour, 11 per cent - with a period of semielimination of 36 hours. PMID:1210119

Korolev, G K

1975-01-01

339

Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish System have been studied. The results show: (1) when 2 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the early rice, there is 0.01 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.55 ppm in the fish; (2) when 3 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the late rice, there is 0.04 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.40 ppm in the fish. ADI of methamidophos is 0.0006 mg/kg body according to FAD/WHO recommendation in 1985, so Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in the rice is 0.078 ppm, MRL in the fish is 2.3 ppm. The residue in the rice and fish does not exceed the MRL by FAO/WHO recommendation, when the amount of used methamidophos was controlled. 35S-methamidophos in the simulated system disappears as exponential function. The half-life of 35S-methamidophos on the Azolla, water, fish and straw are 1.5, 2.8, 6.2 and 2.2 days respectively

340

Handling of L-[35S]cystine by cysteamine-pretreated cystinotic and normal fibroblasts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In short incubations with 0.1 mM L-[35S]cystine in phosphate-buffered saline medium, and long incubations with label in complete minimum Eagle's medium with Earle salts, cystine-depleted cystinotic cells reaccumulate labeled cystine more rapidly than pretreated normal cells. Cysteamine pretreatment of both normal and cystinotic cells resulted in an initial increased conversion of exogenous cystine to intracellular cysteine. In 24-h incubations in complete medium, cysteamine-pretreated cells showed enhanced conversion of 0.1 mM L-[35S]cystine to cysteine and reduced glutathione. Addition of cycloheximide to the incubation media decreased the incorporation of 35S into cellular protein by more than 90% but did not affect the accumulation of intracellular labeled cystine in cystinotic cells. Therefore, the incorporation and release of cystine from protein is not an obligatory source of accumulated cystine and researchers speculate that there may be early extralysosomal entrapment of cystine in cystinotic cells

 
 
 
 
341

Metabolism of propyrisulfuron: (14)C excretion, (14)C concentration in plasma and tissues, and amount of metabolites in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract 1. Metabolism of a novel sulfonylurea herbicide, propyrisulfuron [1-(2-chloro-6-propylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-3-ylsulfonyl)-3-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea] labeled at the C-1 position of the propyl group and C-5 position of the pyrimidine ring with (14)C was investigated after a single oral administration in male and female rats. 2. Administered (14)C was excreted into the urine (5.7-29.8%) and feces (64.6-97.4%), respectively. (14)C concentration in plasma reached a maximum level at 4 to 12?h post-administration and then decreased rapidly with a biological half-life of approximately 23 to 32?h. Total (14)C residues in the whole body were liquid chromatography (HPLC). There were no differences in metabolites found between male and female rats. 4. The absorption for the low dose (5?mg/kg) and the high dose (1000?mg/kg) was estimated to be approximately 90% and 20%, respectively, suggesting a saturable absorption. 5. The plasma protein binding in male and female rats was ?98.8%, suggesting that propyrisulfuron had a strong affinity to plasma proteins. PMID:24661045

Takaku, Tomoyuki; Mikata, Kazuki; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

2014-10-01

342

Preparation of highly concentrated super-hot (?-32P)ATP using small-scale ion-exchange chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to obtain a highly concentrated, pure and super-hot [?-32P]ATP, we improved the purification method of super-hot [?-32P]ATP which was synthesized by the method of Johnson and Walseth (1979). The super-hot [?-32P]ATP was synthesized in a relatively large volume (2 ml) of reaction mixture and purified using semi-micro scale anion exchange chromatography (Dowex 1 x 2, 60 - 70 ?l column volume). In combination with washing the reaction product with certain organic solvents, this chromatography technique makes it possible to obtain a highly concentrated and pure super-hot [?-32P]ATP (approx. 7000 Ci/mmol; 20 - 30 mCi/ml) from [32P]Pi of any commercial source in a good yield. (author)

343

Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S ? with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S ?, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S ?. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S ? irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

344

The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

1989-01-01

345

Fate of 14C-monocrotophos in lactating goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-monocrotophos was fed daily to two groups of lactating goats for five days at 5 and 10 mg per goat per day. The radioactivity in urine and faeces accounted for 50% and 7%, respectively, 24 hours after the first dose. About 25% of the radiocarbon was found in various organs. About 1-2% of the administered radiocarbon was secreted in milk. It was concluded that monocrotophos was rapidly eliminated through urine and faeces of teddy goats. 14C-residues in milk and urine were tentatively identified as monocrotophos, dimethylphosphate and N-desmethyl monocrotophos. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to 50% 24 hours after treatment, but no toxic symptoms were observed. (author)

346

[14C] acetylation of a glycosaminoglycan sulphate: Sulodexide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synthesis of [14C] labelled Sulodexide is reported. Sulodexide is a sulphated polysaccharide of the class of glycosaminoglycan, containing a heparin-like fraction (70%), dermatan sulphate (20%) and other minor fractions. The heparin-like fraction, suitably isolated from other components, was partially and selectively N-desulphated, thus making few percent unit -NH2 groups available for the labelling with [14C]-acetic anhydride (specific activity 0.15 ?Ci/mg). Due to the small extent of modification, the sulphate to carboxylate group ratio remained practically unchanged on the heparin-like fraction. Sulodexide was reconstituted adding to the labelled fraction the suitable amount of the other components; the chemical and biological properties of the final labelled Sulodexide were indistinguishable from those of the starting material. (author)

347

[[sup 14]C] acetylation of a glycosaminoglycan sulphate: Sulodexide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synthesis of [[sup 14]C] labelled Sulodexide is reported. Sulodexide is a sulphated polysaccharide of the class of glycosaminoglycan, containing a heparin-like fraction (70%), dermatan sulphate (20%) and other minor fractions. The heparin-like fraction, suitably isolated from other components, was partially and selectively N-desulphated, thus making few percent unit -NH[sub 2] groups available for the labelling with [[sup 14]C]-acetic anhydride (specific activity 0.15 [mu]Ci/mg). Due to the small extent of modification, the sulphate to carboxylate group ratio remained practically unchanged on the heparin-like fraction. Sulodexide was reconstituted adding to the labelled fraction the suitable amount of the other components; the chemical and biological properties of the final labelled Sulodexide were indistinguishable from those of the starting material. (author).

Breccia, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Fini, A. (Istituto di Scienze Chimiche, Bologna (Italy)); Marchi, E.; Tamagnone, G.F. (Alfa Wasserman S.p.A., Bologna (Italy))

1990-05-01

348

Metabolism of 14C-labelled alphaxalone in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of 14C-labelled alphaxalone, dispensed as Althesin, was studied in normal patients, patients with obstructive jaundice and patients with chronic renal disease and anuria. The radioactive label was removed rapidly from the plasma following i.v. administration. The major portion of the label was excreted in the urine. In patients with normal renal function 14C-labelled alphaxalone is probably taken up by the liver, metabolized to a more polar compound and excreted in the urine; a small amount is excreted in the bile. In the patient with anuria, hepatic uptake appears to be relatively normal and the length of action of Althesin is not prolonged. It is assumed that in such patients the eventual route of excretion is via the bile and faeces. (author)

349

Tongan pottery chronology, 14C dates and the hardwater effect  

Science.gov (United States)

As with many other Pacific iarchaelogical sites, the chronology of the Lapita sites on Tongatapu (Tonga) rests on two bases: a seriation of form and ornament attributes of pottery, and the absolute chronology as determined by radiocarbon dates. Both systems were in disagreement, casting doubt on the reliability of the pottery seriation. The enclosed nature of the lagoon of Tongatapu, coupled with the dissolution of fossil limestone, creates a water reservoir with an apparent age greater than the apparent age of that provided by the open ocean. A lagoon-specific reservoir correction factor was measured using pre-modern reference shells with known dates of collection. When the radiometric dates are corrected using this factor, both chronologies, pottery seriation and radiometric dates, are in perfect agreement. The paper demonstrates how micro-reservoirs impact on ages derived from 14C determinations and shows the need to determine the magnitude of localised variations in 14C.

Spennemann, Dirk H. R.; John Head, M.

350

Alpha capture on 14C and its astrophysical implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction 14C(?, ?) 18O has been measured in the alpha energy range of E? = 1.14-2.33 MeV. The resonance strengths of the 4+ resonance at E? = 1.14 MeV and of the 1- resonance at E? = 1.79 MeV have been measured relative to the 14C(p, ?)15N resonance at Ep = 0.528 MeV. Additionally, two nonresonant ?-transitions to the ground state and to the first excited state of 18O were found. The energy dependence of their cross sections can be described by the direct capture process and its interference with the two 1- resonances at E? = 1.79 and 2.33 MeV. (orig.)

351

The 14C AMS system at The University of Georgia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Center for Applied Isotope Studies at the University of Georgia has installed a compact 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation, Middleton, Wisconsin. The system utilizes a 134 sample ion source and a 500 kV Pelletron. In terms of cost and size, the new system is a significant advance over previous technology. Details and performance of the new system will be presented

352

Comparison of ages from TL and 14C methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the dating results by TL and 14C techniques with different specimens for the same geological body, a comparason and analysis have been carried out preliminarily. It seems that the different clocking beginnings for different specimens may be one of the main reasons which makes some data be out of accord, therefore a scientific basis for obtaining correct dating in formation and applying these data reasonably is provided

353

Fine structure in 14C cluster emission from 225Ac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fine structure in the 14C decay of 225Ac is predicted quantitatively by accounting dynamical aspects during the disintegration process. Transitions to the excited states of the daughter nucleus are considered to be mainly directed by the Landau-Zener promotion mechanism in the region of avoided crossing levels. The level scheme is evaluated with the superasymmetric two-center shell model. The half-lives are computed considering the cluster decay as a superasymmetric fission process. (orig.)

354

14C-pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored maize grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residues of 14C-pirimiphos-methyl in maize grains were determined during 6 months under storage conditions simulating actual practice in Brazil. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. A total of 78% of the applied dose was recovered at 0-24 h and this amount decreased to 16% after 180 d of storage. Cooking had no effect on the levels of the residue recovered. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

355

Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

356

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

357

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

358

Behaviour of 14C-DDT in Sudan Gezira soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Field cylinders as described in the model experiment for determination of 14C-DDT in Sudan Gezira soil were prepared and samples were collected for determination of 14C-activity at various intervals. About 83-87% of the applied radioactivity was recovered in the extracts from the top 10 cm layer of soil. The loss rate of the chemical from soil increased with time apparently by volatilization and thermal degradation due to high soil temperature, intensive solar radiation and low soil organic matter. This resulted in a half-life of approx. 5 weeks. The major part of the chemical and possible metabolites were detected in the top 10 cm layer. Approximately 8-10% of the applied 14C was detected in samples collected after 16-20 weeks. TLC and autoradiography indicated the presence of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE as the major metabolite. Also traces of TDE were detected in some samples. These results showed that under Sudanese tropical conditions, DDT dissipates very rapidly in soils compared to dissipation in temperate regions. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

359

Metabolism of [14C]-monoethanolamine in Hordeum vulgare  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of 14C-monoethanolamine (EA) and its hydrochloride was investigated in long term experiments with intact plants of spring barley (Hordeum vlugare L.) during ontogenesis. The metabolism of EA applied as the free base (0.67 mg per plant) to an unwounded part of the fifth leaf of the main shoot proceeds relatively quickly. To a great extent, the EA taken up and translocated out of the feeding leaf was converted to volatile compounds during ontogenesis. The remaining amounts are incorporated into lipid soluble substances or metabolized via choline to glycine betaine. Wilting barley plants show a higher capacity for converting exogenous EA via the betaine pathway. However, there is no proportionality between 14C-betaine synthesis from 14C-EA and betaine accumulation. There are remarkable differences between EA and its hydrochloride with respect to metabolism. The hydrochloride is not converted to volatile compounds and glycine betaine is the main metabolite. The betaine pathway is only of minor importance for the metabolism of exogenous EA in turgid barley plants. The hydrochloride is also not completely metabolized in this way. Possible consequences are discussed. (author)

360

Biodegradation of 14 C-atrazine under outdoor conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uniformly 14 C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The 14 C O2 was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the 14 CO2 evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with 14 C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

 
 
 
 
361

{sup 14}C analysis via intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of {sup 14}C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of {sup 14}C in sub micromole CO{sub 2} samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity, and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10{sup -1514}C/{sup 12}C ratios have been obtained with theoretical limits much lower. Using a 15 W {sup 14}CO{sub 2} laser, a linear calibration with samples from 5 x 10{sup -15} to >1.5 x 10{sup -12} in {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratios, as determined by AMS, was demonstrated. Calibration becomes non-linear over larger concentration ranges due to interactions between CO{sub 2} and buffer gas, laser saturation effects and changes in equilibration time constants. The instrument is small (table top), low maintenance and can be coupled to GC or LC input. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized sub-therapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon.

Murnick, Daniel, E-mail: murnick@newark.rutgers.ed [Physics Department, Rutgers, The State University of NJ, 101 Warren St., Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan [Physics Department, Rutgers, The State University of NJ, 101 Warren St., Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

2010-04-15

362

14C-Methylenebisphenylisocyanate (14C-MDI). Study of absorption after single dermal and intradermal administration in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption, distribution and excretion of radioactivity was studied in groups of four male Wistar rats following a single dermal and intradermal administration of 14C- Methylenebisphenylisocyanate (14C-MDI) at nominal dose levels of 4.0 and 0.4 mg/cm2 for dermal administration and 0.4 mg/animal for intradermal administration. These dose levels nominally corresponded to 40 and 4.0 mg/animal for dermal administration. Considering the animal weights, dose levels corresponded to about 140 and 14 mg/kg body weight (dermal administration) and 1.4 mg/kg body weight (intradermal administration). In the experiments with dermal administration, animals were exposed for 8 hours and sacrificed 8, 24 or 120 h after beginning of exposure. In the experiment with intradermal administration, animals were sacrificed 120 h after treatment. After dermal administration of 14C-MDI, mean recoveries of radioactivity from all dose groups were in the range from 97.86 to 108.07% of the total radioactivity administered. Generally, the largest proportion of radioactivity was found at the application site and dressing. The total amount of radioactivity absorbed (including excreta, cage wash, tissues/organs and carcass) increased with increasing sacrifice time. Dermal absorption was very low and quantitatively similar at both dose levels; maximally ca. 0.9 % of the applied radioactivity was absorbed. After intradermal administration of 14C-MDI, the mean recovery of radioactivity was 100.90 % of the radioactivity administered. The largest proportion of radioactivity was found at the application site. The total amount of radioactivity absorbed (including excreta, cage wash, tissues/organs and carcass) amounted to about 26 % of the radioactivity applied. Irrespective of the mode of administration of 14C-MDI, concentrations of radioactivity in tissues and organs generally were below 1 ?g Eq/g at 120 h after administration. In summary, the results of this study comparing systemic availability of radioactivity after single dermal and intradermal administration of 14C-MDI clearly demonstrated very limited absorption after dermal administration but considerable absorption after intradermal administration. The radioactivity absorbed was distributed in all organs and tissues with highest levels being found in carcass, thyroid, muscle, plasma and liver. Excretion of radioactivity mainly occurred via the feces. (author)

363

Binding of sulfite-introduced 35S to the pleura and walls of conducting airways in rat lungs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats were administered solutions of [35S]sulfite by bronchopulmonary lavage and killed 48 or 72 h later. Autoradiographs of histologic lung sections from these rats showed that 35S radioactivity was concentrated heavily in pulmonary arteries, arterioles and, to a slightly lesser extent, the walls of conducting airways and pleura. (Auth.)

364

32P-postlabeling of bile components: bulky adduct-like behavior in polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin layer chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 32P-postlabeling assay has been used widely in carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis because of its sensitivity and reproducibility. Cloned T4 polynucleotide kinase (PNK), routinely used in this assay, phosphorylates the 5'-OH groups of adducted nucleotides in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. However, as an exception to this property, PNK has been reported to phosphorylate non-adducted carcinogen metabolites, such as tetrol derivatives of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. Also, PNK phosphorylates both 5'-OH and 3'-OH groups of safrole-adducted deoxydinucleoside monophosphates having an unmodified purine in the 3'-position. In the present study we show that T4 PNK catalyzed the transfer of [32P]phosphate from [gamma-32P]ATP to rat bile components or purified bile acids (derivatives of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid) in the absence of nucleic acids or nucleases. However, labeling of the bile acids appeared over 100,000-fold less efficient than labeling of 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate. There was no reaction in the absence of bile components or PNK. Dehydrocholic acid, which lacks hydroxyl groups, was resistant to phosphorylation. On polyethyleneimine-cellulose TLC maps, 32P-labeled rat bile extract gave an array of non-polar radioactive spots which resembled carcinogen-DNA adducts, while 32P-labeled purified bile acids each gave a single spot. These 32P-labeled products liberated 32Pi upon incubation with prostatic acid phosphatases. Two of the radioactive spots obtained from rat bile were identified as phosphorylated taurocholic and taurodeoxycholic acids by co-chromatography with 32P-labeled standards. These findings demonstrate for the first time that PNK is able to phosphorylate natural products other than nucleotides and further emphasize the need to rule out contamination with bile acids and possibly other bulky/hydrophobic alcohols when analyzing DNA samples by 32P-postlabeling. PMID:7923604

Vulimiri, S V; Smith, C V; Randerath, E; Randerath, K

1994-09-01

365

Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

366

Amount and identity of (/sup 14/C) residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to (/sup 14/C)triclopyr  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The level and identity of (/sup 14/C) residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L (/sup 14/C) triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed.

Lickly, T.D.; Murphy, P.G.

1987-01-01

367

Persistence of the herbicides [14C]chlorsulfuron and [14C]metsulfuron methyl in prairie soils under laboratory conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of [14C]metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of [14C]chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils

368

Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5?M, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 ?M. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake ( 70%) indicating the presence of >10?M particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

369

A rehabilitated greenhouse for 32P radioisotope studies and training in Seibersdorf  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Two major activities of the Soil Science Unit in Seibersdorf are to develop and test isotope methodologies and guidelines to support CRPs and TCPs, and to conduct training to strengthen the analytical and professional capabilities of Member States. This is achieved through regional, interregional and laboratory training. Whereas development of methodologies and guidelines for stable isotopes such as (13C, 15N, 18O) in the Unit has advanced in the area of soil-water-nutrient plant continuum, the use of isotopes of phosphorus (32P, 33P) has received little attention in the Unit during the last ten years. The main reason for this has been the lack of a greenhouse and laboratories, that conform to the required safety standards for conducting experiments because of the radioactive nature of the phosphorus isotopes. In most of the developing countries where P bio-availability in the soil is low, the use of 32P and 33P is crucial to understanding P dynamics in soil, and to quantify P pools that can be mobilized by crop genotypes with superior nutrient resource recovery. In response to a demand from Member States to train fellows in the use of P isotopes, and the need to conduct research to support the on-going CRP on Selection and Evaluation of Food (Cereal and Legume) Crop Genotypes Tolerant to Low Nitrogen and Phosphorus Soils through the Use of Isotopic and Nuclear-related Techniques ( Isotopic and Nuclear-related Techniques (D1.50.10), the Soil Science Unit has refurbished an old glasshouse (new ventilation and cooling systems, floor renovation etc) and a laboratory to a Type B radiation standard. Fellowship training in the use of 32P and 33P radio-isotopes for soil P dynamics and P nutrition experiments, safety precautions, sample preparation, measurements using a liquid scintillation counter and calculations, will now be conducted at the Soil Science Unit in Seibersdorf. (author)

370

32P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. DNA was isolated from the livers of these wild fish and from control specimens which were raised in clean aquariums. DNA was enzymatically digested to normal and adducted nucleotides, and hydrophobic/bulky adducts were enriched in the digests either by preparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, or selective nuclease P1 dephosphorylation of normal nucleotides. Aromatic DNA-carcinogen adducts were then quantitated using 32P-postlabeling analysis. Using both adduct enrichment procedures, chromatograms derived from DNA of fish from polluted areas showed a diffuse diagonal radioactive zone not present in DNA from aquarium raised fish. The diagonal zone appeared to consist at least in part of multiple overlapping discrete adduct spots which could be partially separated by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography prior to 32P-postlabeling analysis, and most of which were more strongly retained on a reverse-phase column than the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct. The behavior of the adducts in the diagonal radioactive zone and of their unlabeled precursors is consistent with their identification as nucleotide adducts of a variety of bulky hydrophobic aromatic environmental compounds. Total pollutatic environmental compounds. Total pollution-related adduct levels as analyzed by HPLC adduct enrichment and 32P-postlabeling were 70.1 +/- 29 (SD) nmol/mol normal nucleotide in fish from the Buffalo River, and 52 and 56 nmol/mol for two specimens from the Detroit River

371

Radioactive sputter cathodes for 32P plasma-based ion implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of clinical treatments involving the use of beta-emitting millimetric and sub-millimetric devices has been a continuing trend in nuclear medicine. Implanted a few nanometers below the surface of endovascular implants, seeds or beads, beta-emitting radioisotopes can be used in a variety of biomedical applications. Recently, new technologies have emerged to enable the rapid and efficient activation of such devices. A pulsed, coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor was designed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma-based radioactive ion implantation (PBRII). It has been shown that such plasma reactors allow for the implantation of radioisotopes (32P) into biomedical devices with higher efficiencies than those obtained with conventional ion beams. Fragments containing radioactive atoms are produced in the implanter by means of a negatively biased solid sputter cathode that is inserted into an argon plasma. Dilute orthophosphoric acid solutions (H3 32PO4) are used for the fabrication of flat sputter targets, since they offer a high radioisotope content. However, the aggregation of the radioactive solute into highly hygroscopic ring-like deposits rather than flat, thin radioactive films is observed on certain substrates. This article describes the effect of this nonuniform distribution of the radioisotopes on the efficiency of PBRII, and presents a technique which enables a better distribu technique which enables a better distribution of 32P by coating the substrates with iron. The iron coating is shown to enable optimal radioisotope sputtering rates, which are essential in 32P-PBRII for the efficient activation of millimetric biomedical devices such as stents or coils

372

Stability studies of 14C-Cytostasan solutions and its extraction using dicarbolide of cobalt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of 14C-Cytostasan (1, bendamustine), in water solutions was investigated. In distilled water a rapid degradation of carrier-free 14C-1 occured. The degradation products of 14C-1 are 14C-mono-hydroxy-1 and 14C-dihydroxy-1 (evidence with TLC). The degradation rate of 14C-1 was reduced by addition of unlabelled 1 to the 14C-1 stock solution. The possibility of using distribution coefficient as a stability indicator of 14C-1 solutions was investigated. A number of organic solvents ranging from polar to nonpolar were used for extraction of 14C-1 from water solution. Only ethyl acetate was slightly effective. The distribution coefficient of 14C-1 was dramatically enhanced in presence of dicarbolide of cobalt (DC-H+) in benzene at extraction from HClO4 (0.5 mol·l-1). (author)

373

Potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant following administration of sodium 32P-phosphate to the mother  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 32P uptake test to diagnose an intraocular tumour was performed on a lactating woman. Breast feeding of her infant had been stopped and after injection of the 32P, a sample of breast milk on two consecutive days was collected. The concentration of 32P in the milk was greater in the second sample than the first, but it was calculated that the potential whole body radiation dose to her infant on the second day would not have exceeded 180 ?Sv(18 mrem). (author)

374

Micro-determination of hafnium using 32P as radioactive indicator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple method for micro-determination of hafnium in nitric acid medium using 32P as radio-active indicator has been developed. Trace amounts of hafnium in the range 2 x 10-6 - 10-3 g have been coprecipitated as hafnium pyrophosphate with thallous iodide in the presence of excess of labelled pyrophosphate. The effects of acid concentration and the presence of foreign ions like Al3+, Bi3+, La3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Sn3+, Ce3+ and Ti4+ on the determination of hafnium have been also studied. (author)

375

Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

376

Detection of irradiation induced modifications in foodstuff DNA using 32p post-labelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DNA post-labelling has been used successfully to detect damage to DNA caused by a range of damaging agents. The assay results in a fingerprint of changes induced in DNA which might, in principle, be useful as a test for the detection of the irradiation of foods. The authors present their DNA extraction and 32p post-labelling methods from chicken or cooked prawn samples and their analysis method (High Performance liquid chromatography). It's hoped that these results could form the basis of a test to detect if foods have been irradiated

377

Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

378

Studeis on the immobilization of water soluble phosphatic fertilizer in some soils with 32P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using superphosphate lablled with 32P, we studied immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer on 12 typies of soil. The experimental result showed that major factors to govern immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer are: quickly availible Fe that showed positive correlation with the immobilization when it was 4.64-65.72 ppm; and pH that showed negative correlation with the immobilization when it was between 5.35 and 8.88. CaCO3 and organic matter showed a great effect on the immobilization though there wasn't obvious correlation among them

379

Retention of 32P activity interfering with the neutron activation analysis of trace elements in biosamples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed to eliminate the disturbing effect of 32P when neutron activation analysis is used for the trace element analysis of biological materials. For this reason amorphous zirconium phosphate was selected and prepared by the authors. Retention factors better than 102 were obtained using conventional batch techniques. The retention of Cr, Sb, Sc, Zn, Rb, Co and Fe were investigated in nitric acid media, and it was found to be less than 5%. Bowen's kale, dry potato powder and animal bone were analyzed. Some numerical results are given and gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

380

Irradiation of osseous tumors with 32P/33P-HEDP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this study is the development and clinical implementation of 1-hydroxy-ethylidine-diphosphonate (HEDP) labeled with ?- emitting isotopes of phosphorus as an agent for therapy of metastatic osteogenic sarcoma and skeletal metastases of other tumors. Studies conducted in the past year were developed to determine hematopoietic effects of 32P-HEDP alone and in combination with high dose methotrexate with citrovorum factor rescue in patients with metastatic osteogenic sarcoma. There appears to be no acute effects on the hematopoietic system which can be attributed to HEDP

 
 
 
 
381

Braquiterapia del Espacio Subaracnoideo y Ventrículos Cerebrales con el Radiocoloide Fosfato Crómic 32P (CROP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de Braquiterapia del espacio subaracnoideo mediante la introducción de un coloide de FostatoCrómico 32P (CROP en el LCR. Se usaron 90 conejos y los coloides fueron inyectados por vía cisternal. Se comprobó la distribución uniforme y permanencia del CROP en la pia-aracnoides de todo el espacio subaracnoideo y superficie cortical y en el epéndimo ventricular mediante autorradiografías y cortes histológicos con técnica de stripping film. La distribución del 32P en hígado (10%, bazo (7% y médula ósea (2% y otros órganos no provoca efectos significativos. Se comprueba la tolerancia neurológica perfecta para los coloides de partículas finas de menos de 100 nm (CROP, y la neurotoxicidad de los coloides de partículas grandes mayores a 100 nm.. Con altas dosis los estudios histológicos demostraron la ausencia de edema o de lesiones en células y tejido nerviosos. Hasta 6 meses de observación ninguno de los animales mostró trastornos neurológicos atribuíbles al CROP, ni con la repetición de sus aplicaciones.A method of brachitherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P in colloidal form (CROP introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%, spleen (7% and bone marrow (2% and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP was proved and no severe neurotoxic effets where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications.

Girado, Martín.

2003-07-01

382

Implantation of ?-emitters on biomedical implants: 32 P isotropic ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of endovascular brachytherapy and the treatment of certain types of cancers (liver, lung, prostate) often require the use of beta-emitters, sometimes in the form of radioisotope-implanted devices. Among the most commonly used isotopes figures 32P, a pure beta-emitter (maximum energy: 1.7 MeV), of which the path in biological tissues is of a few cm, restricting the impact of electron bombardment to the immediate environment of the implant. Several techniques and processes have been tried to elaborate surfaces and devices showing strongly bonded, or implanted32P. Anodizing, vapor phase deposition, grafting of oligonucleotides, as well as ion implantation processes have been investigated by several research groups as methods to implant beta-radioisotopes into surfaces. A coaxial plasma reactor was developed at INRS to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects, such as coronary stents commonly used in angioplasty procedures. The dispersion of32P atoms on the interior surfaces of the chamber can be investigated using radiographs, contributing to image the plasma ion transport mechanisms that guide the efficiency of the implantation procedure. The amount of radioactivity on the wall liner, on the internal components, and on the biomedical implants are quantified using a surface barrier detector. A comparative study establishes a relationship between the gray scale of the radiographs, and dose measurements. A pro radiographs, and dose measurements. A program was developed to convert the digitized images into maps showing surface dose density in mCi/cm2. An integration process allows the quantification of the doses on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the32P dose is correlated to the initial amount of radioactivity inserted inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This method could be introduced as a fast and reliable way to test, qualify and assess the amount of radioactivity present on the as-produced implants. Moreover, the technique can be applied to image and retrace the contamination arising throughout the implantation procedure, for example on instruments and tools

383

Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by {sup 32}P-HPLC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling and {sup 32}P-high-performance liquid chromatography ({sup 32}P-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16 substances tested were, in increasing order, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 9-vinylanthracene. Metabolic activation with human and rat liver extracts gave rise to the same DNA adduct clusters. When bioactivation with material from different human individuals was used, there was a significant correlation between the CYP 1A1 activity and the capacity to form DNA adducts. This pattern was also confirmed using the CYP 1A1 inhibitor ellipticine. The {sup 32}P-HPLC method was shown to be sensitive and reproducible, and it had the capacity to separate DNA adduct-forming substances when applied to a great variety of petroleum products. (orig.)

Akkineni, L.K.; Zeisig, M.; Baranczewski, P.; Moeller, L. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Biosciences at Novum; Ekstroem, L.-G. [AB Nynaes Petroleum, Group Competence Centre, Nynaeshamn (Sweden)

2001-01-01

384

Influence of hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin on the biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene and 14C-hexadecane in soil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil was spiked with [9-14C]phenanthrene and [1-14C]hexadecane at 50 mg kg-1 and aged for 1, 25, 50, 100 and 250 d. At each time point, the microcosms were amended with aqueous solutions of cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) at a range of concentrations (0-40 mM). Mineralisation assays and aqueous HP-?-CD extractions were performed to assess the effect of the amendments on microbial degradation. The results showed that amendments had no significant impact on the microbial degradation of either of the 14C-contaminants. Further, HP-?-CD extractions were correlated with the mineralisation of the target chemicals in each of the soil conditions. It was found that the HP-?-CD extraction was able to predict mineralisation in soils which had not been amended with cyclodextrin; however, in the soils containing the HP-?-CD, there was no predictive relationship. Under the conditions of this study, the introduction of HP-?-CD into soils did not enhance the biodegradation of the organic contaminants. - The amendment of HP-?-CD to phenanthrene and hexadecane amended soils does not enhance microbial biodegradation.

385

Synthesis of the serotonin ligands, RS-56532-[sup 14]C and RS-66331-[sup 14]C from a common labelled intermediate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two approaches towards the synthesis of 3-chloro-4-amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride-[[sup 14]C], which served as the common intermediate in the preparation of the two compounds, RS-56532-[sup 14]C and RS-66331-[sup 14]C are described. Although nucleophilic incorporation of the label via KCN was superior to an electrophilic sequence using CO[sub 2], the latter approach was adopted since the nitrile could not be hydrolyzed to the desired acid. The specific activities of RS-56532-[sup 14]C and RS-66331-[sup 14]C were 56.8 mCi/mmol and 53.7 mCi/mmol, respectively. (Author).

Masjedizadeh, M.R.; Parnes, H (Syntex Discovery Research, Palo Alto, CA (United States). Inst. of Organic Chemistry)

1993-01-01

386

Synthesis of the serotonin ligands, RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C from a common labelled intermediate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two approaches towards the synthesis of 3-chloro-4-amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride-[14C], which served as the common intermediate in the preparation of the two compounds, RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C are described. Although nucleophilic incorporation of the label via KCN was superior to an electrophilic sequence using CO2, the latter approach was adopted since the nitrile could not be hydrolyzed to the desired acid. The specific activities of RS-56532-14C and RS-66331-14C were 56.8 mCi/mmol and 53.7 mCi/mmol, respectively. (Author)

387

Atmospheric [14C]CO2 variations in Japan during 1982-1999 based on 14C measurements of rice grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C in rice grains is a useful tracer of atmospheric 14C(CO2). 14C measurement in rice grains for 17 years during 1982-1999 reveals the following. There is negative correlation between ?14C and the population densities of localities in Japan. Under-populated areas in the northern area of Japan and Okinawa remained clean in the 1990s. The 14C(CO2) decline rates at those areas are near to that of Shauinsland. A latitudinal effect due to Chinese nuclear tests is observed in 1982. Small Seuss effects is observed at the middle latitudes in East Asia after 1995

388

Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

389

[35S]autoradiographic study of sulfated GAG accumulation and turnover in embryonic mouse tooth germs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans(GAG) in embryonic mouse molars before, during, and after terminal differentiation of odontoblasts was localized by [35S]autoradiography combined with the use of chondroitin ABC lyase. Much more sulfated GAG were accumulated in the dental papilla than in the dental epithelium. High incorporation of [35S]sulfate occurred at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction, which is the site of dental basement membrane and predentin. Before terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, the distribution of sulfated GAG was uniform at the basement membrane. After the onset of terminal differentiation of odontoblasts, much more sulfated GAG accumulated at the tip of principal cusps than at the apical (inferior) parts of cusps, and sulfated GAG were then found to be degraded more rapidly at the epithelio-mesenchymal junction than at other parts of the tooth germ. Thus regional variation in the rate of degradation of GAG exists in the tooth germs. Trypsin-isolated dental epithelia cultured in vitro synthesized a new basement membrane that could be labeled with [3H]glucosamine but not with 35SO4(-2). The epithelial-derived basal lamina contains little or no sulfatated GAG

390

Metabolism of (2-14C)thymine and (2-14C)thymidine in germinating black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The metabolism of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seedlings was investigated. Both [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine degraded extensively into [14C]CO2. The rate of release of [14C]CO2 from [2-14C]thymine was much greater than that from [2-14C]thymidine. Radioactivity from both precursors was also observed ?-ureidoisobutyric acid. This indicated that thymine was degraded by the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation. Small amounts of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine were salvaged for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis. The highest incorporation of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine into the DNA fraction was observed in 24 hour-old cotyledons where net DNA synthesis was not observed. These precursors seem to be utilised for DNA synthesis of organelles of the cotyledonary cells, probably mitochondria. In embronic axes, [2-14C]thymine is more effectively salvaged for DNA synthesis than [2-14C]thymine. The incorporation rate increased during the early phase of germination and attained its maximum at 48 h after which it decreased. No thymidine kinase activity was detected in either cotyledons or in the embryonic axes. Thymidine salvage seems to be catalysed by nucleoside phosphotransferase which is present both in the cotyledons and in the embryonic axes. This suggests that, in contrast to other pyrimidine and purine bases and nucleosides, no specific salvage system for thymine and thymidine is present in black gram seedlings. (author)

391

Multiple DNA adducts in lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers determined by 32P-postlabeling analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Identification of DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes could serve as a means of monitoring human exposure to potential genotoxic agents. In the study, DNA from peripheral lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers was examined for adducts by the P1 nuclease 32P-post-labeling technique. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) maps from both groups revealed multiple DNA adducts which ranged from no adducts for one individual to six adducts for a different individual. The total DNA adduct concentrations were approximately one adduct in 10 to the seventh-10 to the eighth power normal nucleotides. Comparison of the adduct TLC profiles revealed individual variation in both pattern and level of DNA adducts. The type and amount of adduct was not influenced by smoking history and remained unchanged in four out of six subjects who were resampled after a one month interval. One adduct detected in lymphocyte DNA co-migrated on TLC with an adduct derived by in vitro incubation of lymphocytes with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The 3H-nucloside values were consistent with values obtained by 32P-postlabeling of the same sample (correlation coefficient of 0.88). No relationship was apparent between the capacity of lymphocytes to form a (3H)-B(a)P-derived adduct in vitro and the concentration of the adduct, or total adducts present in untreated lymphocytes

392

Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

393

Histological study of the early stage of 32P-induced experimental osteosarcoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P radioisotope as an orthophosphate solution was injected intraperitoneally into C.F. Wistar strain albino rats to induce primary osteosarcoma. To capture the early stage of tumor formation, bone scintigraphy employing technetium-99m ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and soft radiography were conducted from week 16 after the beginning of 32P administration. The histological findings were compared at the stages when both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram showed no abnormalities (Group A), the soft radiogram showed no abnormality but the bone scintigram revealed abnormal deposition (Group B), similar findings to those in Group B were obtained but 2 weeks later (Group C), and both the soft radiogram and bone scintigram were positive (Group D). The histological picture before osteosarcoma formation demonstrated a marked reduction of bone marrow tissue, many irregular bone trabeculae in the metaphysis due to abnormal endochondral ossification, and zonal obliteration of the medullary cavity in the diaphysis. The histological findings at the ultra-early stage of osteosarcoma formation included irregularity in the growing cartilage zone and highly atypical osteoblast-like cells among the irregular trabeculae. Osteoid formation occurred 2 weeks later. In conclusion, we were able to observe the morphological changes of the osteosarcoma tissue at a very early stage of tumor formation. (author)

394

Brachytherapy of subarachnoid space and brain ventricles with radiocolloid phosphate chromic 32p (CROP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of brachytherapy of the CNS with Chromic Phosfate (32P) in colloidal form (CROP) introduced in the subarachnoid space was developed. 90 rabbits were used and colloids were injected through a cysternal tap The permanence and uniform distribution of the colloid in the pio-arachnoid membrane along the whole subarachnoidal space and ventricular ependyma was asserted with autoradiographs and histological sections with stripping film techniques. The distribution of 32P in liver (10%), spleen (7%) and bone marrow (2%) and other organs has no significant effects. The perfect tolerance to the injection of colloids of fine particles with less than 100 nm, (CROP) was proved and no severe neurotoxic effects where observed. When colloids with particles larger than 100 nm were used this undesirable effects were seen. With very high doses, no edema nor lesions could be demonstrated in histological studies of nervous cells or nervous tissue. Up to 6 months the animals did not present neurological symptoms attributable to CROP in that period, even with repeated applications (Au)

395

Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [14C]albumin crosseother hand, [14C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

396

Study of 32P uptake as an indicator in screening test for drought tolerance in wheat cultivars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 32P uptake (uptake/unit time) under laboratory conditions in hydroponics was studied in eight wheat cultivars, cultivated under decreasing order of moisture availability. The aim was to relate the P uptake under moisture stress to drought tolerance. Drought tolerant cultivars had low P uptake under controlled (non-stress) condition. Under moisture stress, the absorption and translocation of 32P was inhibited and the effect was more pronounced on translocation. In both the processes rain fed cultivars were less inhibited than irrigated ones. The severity of 32P uptake was related to moisture stress tolerance of the cultivar, lesser the inhibition more was the tolerance. Hence 32P uptake could be employed as an indicator of drought tolerance in developing a screening test based on radiotracer technique. (author)

397

The effect of lithium on the incorporation of 32P-orthophosphate into synaptosomal phospholipids from rat brain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats were treated with lithium added to the diet for five weeks (40 mmol LiCl/kg diet). The mean plasma lithium concentration was 0.48 mmol/l plasma, and the blood was drawn at 8 a.m.. The brains were removed and synaptosomes were prepared according to the method of Gray and Whittaker (1962) and Bradford (1972). The synaptosomes were incubated for 120 min. with 32P-orthophosphate, either in a lithium-containing medium or in a lithium-free medium. The 32P-incorporation was lower in the synaptosomes from lithium-treated rats than the 32P-incorporation in synaptosomes from control rats regardless of the medium chosen. The results indicate that lithium treatment in vivo decreases the 32P-incorporation into synaptosomal phospholipids and that the effect remains after the removal of the lithium ion. (author)

398

Effect of varying carbohydrate levels on the uptake and translocation of 32P in Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake and subsequent translocation of 32P among root, crown and leaf tissues of Eragrostis curvula were investigated in plants with varying carbohydrate levels. Plants were depleted of carbohydrates by being subjected to 3 days of continuous darkness and by defoliation. Plant roots were introduced to nutrient solutions containing 32P, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 21 days after the depletion treatments. Initially, plants depleted of carbohydrates absorbed and translocated less 32P than the controls. Subsequently, uptake and translocation increased probably to restore the pools of phosphate to levels prior to the depletion treatments. Increased 32P uptake and translocation were related to an adequate supply of reserve carbohydrates

399

Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

400

Co-isolation of in vivo 32P-labeled specific transcripts and DNA without phenol extraction of nuclease digestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for isolation and quantitation of specific intact transcripts, for which a hybridization probe is available, from 32P-labeled bacterial cells. The RNA is extracted in the absence of R Nase activity by incorporating an inert, physically removable R Nase inhibitor throughout the spheroplasting, cell lysis, and pronase digestion steps. [/sup 32/P]RNA is separated from [32P]DNA, without recourse to phenol extraction of DNase treatment, on a Cs2SO/sub 4-/HCONH2 step gradient in which the precipitated RNA forms a sharp band. Specific transcripts are purified from [32P]RNA by physical separation of the transcript and hybridization probe using gel-exclusion chromatography. The gentleness of this technique enables the co-isolation of DNA and can facilitate the analysis of covalently joined RNA-DNA replication intermediates

 
 
 
 
401

Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labelled butoxyethoxyethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Butoxyethoxyethanol, an organic solvent used as carrier in the levamisole pour-on formulation, was synthesized via a Makosza etherification of 1-/sup 14/C-labelled bromobutane with mono tetrahydropyranyl (T.H.P.) protected diethylene glycol and subsequent removal of the T.H.P. protecting group. The compounds' synthetic yield was 88.8%; it had a specific activity of 32.5 mCi/mmol. The reaction product was radiochemically pure (99.6%) according to high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in three solvent systems.

Thijssen, J.B.A.; Janssen, C.G.M.; Verluyten, W.L.M.; Heykants, J.J.P.

1986-02-01

402

14C-coumaphos residues in Egyptian lactating goats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

14C-coumaphos was applied dermally to two lactating goats, with 2 weeks interval. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results showed that coumaphos has a slow penetration rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. Milk residues were 0.20-0.25 ppm following appication, declining gradually to 0.03-0.06 ppm after 2 weeks. The liver and kidney were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other organs and milk after the withdrawal period. (author)

403

Cluster structures of excited states in $^{14}$C  

CERN Document Server

Structures of excited states in $^{14}$C are investigated with a method of $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed $3\\alpha$-cluster core structures are suggested in positive- and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ correlation is found in the cluster states above the $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ threshold energy.

Suhara, Tadahiro

2010-01-01

404

Metabolism of [14C]-lindane in plants and animals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of several biodegradation studies on [14C]-lindane in plants and animals. These results together with those from previous studies indicate a common biodegradation pattern for lindane in plants, insects and animals, as chlorobenzene and chlorophenolic metabolites are formed in all cases. Various isomers of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobenzene and chlorophenols; pentachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol have been found in plants, insects and animals. ?-PCCH has been found in plants and insects but not in mammals. The chemical nature of terminal residues of lindane in several foods including wheat, bread, eggs and meat products are discussed. (author)

405

14C-lindane residues in palm processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was undertaken to identify the residue level in palm fruits and its products by spiking the fruits at 5 ppm with 14C-[UL]-lindane and following up on the residue during simulated commercial processes. The study concluded that steam distillation (deodorization) is an effective process in removing lindane residues. Under experimental conditions, commercial processes removed some 74% of insecticide residues from crude palm oil. Based on the oil content (up to 50%) of the pulp the residue concentration in the refined oil may exceed 2.5% mg/kg. The result suggest that the refined oil may retain one quarter of lindane received by the fruit. 1 tab

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