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Sample records for 14c 32p 35s

  1. Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

  2. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 ? alanines ? 14C; noradrenaline ? 14C (arterenol ? 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

  3. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  4. Synthesis of 14C- and 35S-labelled 2-mercaptobenzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C- and 35S-labelled 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 1-methyl-2-mercaptobenzimidazole were synthesized from 14C-carbon disulfide, 35S-thiourea, 14C-methyl iodide and 35S-thiourea, respectively, for use in studies on the mechanism of action of antithyroid drugs. The products were purified by chromatography on silica and isolated with radiochemical purities of greater than 98%, yields of 45-77% and specific activities of 2.1-5.3 mCi/mmole. (author)

  5. Effect of graft promoting agent on healing process of graft union, absorption, transportation of 32P and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchun No.4 cucumber graft seedlings (the rootstock was China squash of black seeds) were used to study the effects of graft promoting agent on healing process of graft union, survival rate, absorption, transportation and distribution of 32P induced from roots and 14C from leaves. The results showed that the graft promoting agent accelerated the healing tissue production, connection of vessel and sieve tube, increased the survival rate, total absorption of 32P, total transportation and ratio of 32P and 14C. The agent caused 32P to reach scion from rootstocks and 14C to reach rootstocks from scion 2 days earlier than control

  6. A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35S and 14C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35S and 14C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

  7. The mineral nutrition of millet (Pennisetum-typhoides): Migration of 32P and 35S - Similarities with the migration of photosynthetic assimilates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a study of the transport of 32P and 35S injected into leaves or of 14CO2 absorbed thereby. It is shown that the radioisotopes mostly travel towards the upper parts of the plant and towards the seeds when they originate from upper leaves after male flowering. The later fillers, however, do not play any role as a reserve in the mineral or carbon nutrition of adult fillers. No appreciable absorption of 35S or 32P by the roots is observed after male flowering. (author)

  8. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with {sup 14}C and {sup 35}S; Syntheses de molecules organiques marquees par le carbone-14 et le soufre-35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the Frenchmic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alanines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (author)Fren. [French] Apres un bref historique du developpement de la Section des Molecules marquees du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique fran is, l'auteur donne un resume des syntheses des composes marques suivants: benzene {sup 14}C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 {beta} alamines {beta} {sup 14}C; noradrenaline {beta} {sup 14}C (arterenol {beta} {sup 14}C), dotriacontane {sup 14}C-16-17, acide aminoethane sulfinique (hypotaurine {sup 35}S). (auteur)

  9. Comparison of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves estimated by using 32P and 35S-labelled mixed rumen bacteria as a marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled bacteria were used to estimate their growth rate and a comparison has been made of the values obtained by using 35S labelled bacterial markers. Since 32P is a hard ?-emitter the radioactivity measurement can be made without scintillation fluid by Cherenkov counting which may be economical. (author)

  10. Adsorption and thermal desorption of 14C-CO and 35S-H2S on Pt/SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When CO is adsorbed on Pt/SiO2 at room temperature and then heated to 450 deg C, CO and CO2 are thermally desorbed. Flow experiments using 14C-CO and 35S-H2S as tracers have now revealed that H2S can inhibit the production of CO2 in thermal desorption. Adsorption of 14C-CO followed by H2S reduces the formation of 14C-CO2. Adsorption of H2S followed by 14C-CO inhibits adsorption completely. 35S-H2S adsorptions revealed that adsorption occured to an extent significantly beyond the monolayer capacity of the metal. (author)

  11. Gene mapping on human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization with 3H, 35S, and 32P labeled probes and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method based on in situ hybridization, autoradiography and transmission electron microscopy for mapping genes on human metaphase chromosomes is presented. Successful mapping of the tandemly repeated rDNA genes and of two nucleic acid probes, N-myc and probe 3 (Kanda et al. 1983), that are amplified in a homogeneously staining region (HSR) of the neuroblastoma cell line, IMR-32 is described. By using sufficiently thin AgBr emulsions, it is possible to obtain observable grains and good resolution with probes radiolabeled with 3H, 35S, or 32P, but the former gives the best results. We observe that neither of the two probes, N-myc and probe 3, has a uniform spatial distribution along the HSR and that the distributions of the two probes differ from each other. These observations support previous studies which indicated that the formation of an HSR is a more complex process than uniform amplification of a single DNA segment to form an n-fold set of perfect tandem repeats. The present study shows that the electron microscopic method is useful for extending the results of light microscopic studies for problems where higher resolution mapping is needed. (orig.)

  12. Identification for pure-beta nuclides of 14C and 35S with plastic scintillator applied to conventional liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra for pure-beta nuclides with liquid scintillator by using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) are usually shifted to low energy region caused by optical and chemical quenching processes. So the end-point of LSC spectrum does not show the theoretical maximum beta-ray energy (Emax). On the other hand, the end points of the spectra of 14C and 35S showed their Emax, when a plastic scintillator (PS) was used for measurement as a substitute for a liquid scintillator. Therefore, the possibility of identification of 14C and 35S with plastic scintillator applied to conventional liquid scintillation counter is the aim of this study. Spectra could be measured with good reproducibility. Moreover the reusability of the PS rinsed within a day or covered with a thin film was also confirmed. (author)

  13. Influence of boron nutrition on net uptake and efflux of 32P and 14C-glucose in Helianthus annuus roots and cell cultures of Daucus carota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P and 14C-glucose uptake were reduced under B deficiency in both Daucus cell suspensions and Helianthus roots. Similarly, efflux rates were found to be smaller in B deficient material. Efflux rates tended to be more affected than net uptake of both 32P and glucose. This may explain why sunflower roots showed a higher glucose net uptake immediately after transferring from a B sufficient to a B deficient nutrient solution. The data confirm earlier findings of B as an essential element for membrane function and integrity. B-deficiency effects could be reversed by the addition of B within less than one hour. Cell suspensions reacted similarly to roots with respect to B deficiency and may thus be suitable for further research on B deficiency effects. (orig.)

  14. Uptake of [35S] carbonyl sulphide and [14C] carbon dioxide by crops in the vicinity of an advanced gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake into major crops of 35S and 14C released to the atmosphere during operation of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station was studied at an on-site experimental plot. Both radionuclides were measured in air and edible crop parts, while the effect of boiling on the 35S content of the latter was also investigated. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors and the implications of these were assessed for both collective dose and dose to a hypothetical critical group. The transfer factor for 35S to green vegetables was found to be much smaller than believed previously, to the extent that the vegetable consumption pathway is of secondary importance to that of fresh milk. A possible reduction is indicated in critical group individual 35S doses of 20-60% and in collective dose by a factor of about 2, but vegetable consumption remains of potential radiological significance. It was confirmed that the specific activity approach used currently for assessments of 'first pass' dose from 14C releases is broadly correct, but a possible reduction of up to 3.5 times is indicated in the air-crop transfer for root vegetables. (author)

  15. In vitro incorporation of 1-14C-acetate and 32P-orthophosphoric acid into phospholipids at various stages of growth of Pythium irregulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pythium irregulare showed an increase (11.6 to 38.9%) in total lipids and a simultaneous decrease (40.5 to 7.3%) in phospholipid content of total lipids during growth period of 15 days. Incubation of fungus of different ages viz. 2,3,4,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days old with 32P-orthophosphoric acid for 4 hr showed that the specific activity of mycelium was maximum with the 5-days old fungus. Highest content of total and polar lipids was, however observed with the 3 days old sample. Incubation studies with sodium acetate 1-14C with fungus of various stages of growth showed maxima of specific activity in mycelium, total, polar and non-polar lipids on the 5th day. From specific activity estimation of 32P and 14C in each of the phosphatides, it was concluded that the labels were incorporated at a higher rate into phosphatidyl enthanolamine during early stages of growth. The reverse was true for the later period of growth, indicating that phosphatidyl ethanolamine was possibly converted to phosphatidyl choline. (auth.)

  16. Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

  17. Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  18. A study of 32P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as 45Ca, 35S, 32P and 14C as long as several days. The ?-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected ?-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the 32P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the 32P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of 32P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of 32P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of 32P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as 32P and 32S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

  19. 35S-labelled thiophosphorylated derivative of inositol trisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared the [35S]thiophosphate labelled inositol trisphosphate and [32P]phosphate labelled inositol trisphosphate (IP3) from human erythrocytes. These compounds were used as substrates for the inositol trisphosphate 5-phosphomonesterase assay in human erythrocyte membranes. During 60 min incubation with the enzyme, the 35S-labelled IP3 was not hydrolyzed, meanwhile the 32P-labelled IP3 was broken down to 19.8 ± 2.4%. This suggests that due to the presence of thiophosphate in the molecule the 35S-labelled IP3 cannot serve as substrate for inositol trisphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase. The [35S]thiophosphorylated derivative thus represents a nonhydrolyzable analogue of IP3 and could be used in the study of its second messenger role. (author)

  20. Real-time imaging of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Yamawaki, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Tanoi, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

    2011-07-01

    We present real-time images of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, {sup 35}S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both {sup 35}S and {sup 32}P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of {sup 35}S show that {sup 35}S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand {sup 32}P, when applied as {sup 32}P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis of ?-sitosterol-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of synthesis of ?-sitosterol-4-14C starting with the enolactone 4-oxa-5-sitosten-3-one is discussed. Methyl-14C magnesium iodide is utilized for the introduction of the label. The authors selected this method for the isolation of ?-sitosterol-14C, introducing a series of changes into the original method. The authors discuss obtaining sitostenone, the ketoacid of sitostenone, the enol-lactone of the ketoacid of sitostenone, sitostenone-4-14C (by different methods), the enol-acetate of sitostenone-14C, and ? sitosterol-4-14C

  2. Synthesis of [14C] quincetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]Quincetone was prepared from Ba14CO3 with a radiochemical yield of 21.3%. Ba14CO3, as starting material, was acidified to release 14CO2, which reacted with PhMgBr to [14C]benzoic acid. [14C]Benzoic acid was reduced with LiAlH4 to [14C]benzyl alcohol, and oxidized with CrO3 to [14C]benzaldehyde. In the last reaction, [14C]benzaldehyde was condensed with 3-methyl-2-acetyl-quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide to [14C]quincetone. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was 7.76 mCi/mmol and its radiochemical purity was >97%. (author)

  3. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  4. The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

  5. A modified assay of adenylate cyclase using 3H and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adenylate cyclase assay of Salomon, Londos, and Rodbell has been modified by using [3H]ATP to produce [3H]cyclic AMP and monitoring the recovery with [14C]cyclic AMP. The modified assay remains sensitive and accurate, but avoids the inconvenience and expense of using 32P

  6. Isolation of (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a 14CO2 chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed. (author)

  7. Spectroscopy of 32P, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spins, parities and transition probabilities of levels in 32P at Esub(x) 3.5 MeV have been determined with the 29Si(?,p?)32P reaction at bombarding energies of Esub(?)=12.80, 12.93 and 16.30 MeV. Proton-gamma angular correlation experiments and DSA lifetime measurements lead to six unambiguous spin assignments and to many spin limitations. The measured mixing and branching ratios yield many transition strengths for dipole and electric quadrupole transitions. Five, sofar unknown, energy levels are reported. A doublet at 4.03 MeV excitation energy and a high-spin state (Esub(x)=4.27 MeV; Jsup(?)=5-) were observed. Shell-model predictions have been compared to the present experimental results. (Auth.)

  8. Absorbed dose from 14C xylose and 14C mannose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue distribution and excretion studies have been performed in rats and mice for up to 1 week after oral administration of 14C xylose and 14C mannose. The effective dose-equivalent is calculated to be 15 ?Sv/MBq for xylose and 120 ?Sv/MBq for mannose. Since there was no clearance of mannose during the period of the study, the effective dose-equivalent for mannose is almost entirely dependent upon the assumptions made about expected lifetime exposure. (author)

  9. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  10. Spring mobilization of storage 32P in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old apple trees during dormant period in the green house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all new root and shoot growth, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 5-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 2.5% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood, scion buds) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from storage tissues to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the scion shoot tissues increased about 348 fold. (author)

  11. 17 CFR 240.14c-101 - Schedule 14C. Information required in information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule 14C. Information required in information statement. 240.14c-101 Section 240.14c-101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  12. Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were ...

  13. Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-14C]-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and purification of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into 14C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in 14C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 ?Ci 14C-nicotine, 224 ?Ci 14C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author)

  14. A convenient synthesis of 14C-cotinine from 14C-nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of 14C-cotinine is reported. 14C-Nicotine was converted into 14C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of 14C-cotinine. (author)

  15. A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

    1991-03-01

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

  16. Preliminary studies on the sorption kinetics of 35S on soil using L-35 S-methionine and sodium 35S-sulphate as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S radiotracer investigations carried out primarily on a typical clay type soil sample to study the sorption and desorption characteristics of 35S present in it in an organic form as L -35 S-methionine and in an inorganic form as sodium 35S-sulphate are presented. The results indicate that the sorption of sodium sulphate in the tested soil is comparatively very less than that of methionine whereas its desorption from the soil with water is much more than that of methionine. It is also found that L-methionine, unlike sodium sulphate, does not remain in the soil for long but gets lost by some processes, worthy of further study. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Problems of 14C radiation hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data on the problem of the radiation danger of 14C coming to environment as a result of nuclear explosions and from enterprises of nuclear power are generalized. Problems related to migration, kinetics of exchange and biological effect of radiocarbon are considered. Biological danger of 14C accumulation in biosphere with provision for nuclear power development prospects has been estimated. Assumed irradiation doses due to 14C release from the enterprises of nuclear power are presented graphically. Somatic and genetic consequences of population irradiation with small doses of 14C radiation are noted

  18. Synthesis of [pyrrolidine-[sup 14]C]-cotinine from [sup 14]C-nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, R.; Daenens, P. (Catholic Univ. of Louvain (Belgium). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1989-05-01

    The synthesis and purification of [sup 14]C-cotinine is reported. 14C-nicotine is converted into [sup 14]C-dibromocotinine. Debromination of the latter results in [sup 14]C-cotinine which is purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total radioactive yield of the synthesis is 44.8%. Starting from 500 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-nicotine, 224 [mu]Ci [sup 14]C-cotinine is obtained with a specific activity of 0,23 mCi/mmol. (Author).

  19. Synthesis of [3-14C]- and [phenyl-U-14C] olaquindox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaquindox is a new feed additive. [14C]Olaquindox, labelled in different positions, was needed for tracer-studies of pharmacokinetics, biotransformation and residues in several species of animals. 2-[N-(2-hydroxethyl)-carbamoyl]-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide([3-14C]Olaquindox) was synthesized from barium[14C]carbonate (22 mmoles; 1.15 Ci) via [1-14C]acetic acid, sodium[1-14C]acetate, [1-14C]acetylchloride, ethyl[3-14C]acetoacetate and 2-carbethoxy-3-methyl-[3-14C]quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide with an overall yield of 10%, based on barium[14C]carbonate. The radiochemical purity was better than 98% (tlc). The specific activities of three preparations were 10.5, 8.4 and 5.45 ?Ci/mg respectively. [phenyl-U-14C]Olaquindox was synthesized starting from [U-14C]aniline (19.8 mmoles; 284.4 mCi). Intermediate products were N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro-N-acetyl[U-14C]aniline, 2-nitro[U-14C]aniline and [U-14C]benzofurazanoxide. The total yield was 50% as calculated for [U-14C]aniline. At calibration samples of two preparations showed specific activities of 49.5 and 11.1 ?Ci/mg respectively. The radiochemical purity was checked by tlc and exceeded 98%. (author)

  20. Synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium [14C]cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies. (author)

  1. Preparation of arginine (guanide 14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of anhydrous ammoniac at 800 deg. C on 14CO3Ba gives rise to barium cyanamide 14C with a yield of about 98 per cent. Addition on H2S on cyanamide 14C leads to thiourea 14C with a 85 per cent yield, which is quantitatively transformed into S-ethyl-isothiouronium iodide by treatment with methyl iodide. This 14C-isothiouronium salt is used to introduce 14C guanide group in ?-N-tosyl-ornithine; tosyl group in ?-N-tosyl-arginine thus obtained is then removed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Arginine is separated as flavianic acid salt and is purified on exchange resin Dowex-50. The overall yield based on 14CO3Ba is 25 per cent. (author)

  2. Spontaneous 14C emission from 223Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra, recently discovered by Rose and Jones, has been confirmed, and the mass of the emitted particles unambiguously identified. The present measurement was performed with a 227Th source containing 9.2 mCi of 223Ra. An Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph was used to suppress the intense alpha radiation and to identify the 14C particles. The spectrograph was calibrated with tandem-accelerated beams of 14C, 13C, and 12C. In six days of decay counting, twenty-four 14C events were observed yielding a branching ratio of (4.7 +- 1.3) x 10-10 for the emission of 14C from 223Ra relative to that of alpha particles. The value is in fair agreement with the result of Rose and Jones, (8.5 +- 2.5) x 10-10, and with more recent measurements from other laboratories

  3. 14C-carbaryl residues in hazelnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Ulkü; Ilim, Murat; Aslan, Nazife

    2006-01-01

    A hazelnut ocak (shrub growing form) in the field in Black Sea region of Turkey was treated with commercial carbaryl insecticide spiked with 14C-carbaryl. Three months later, the harvested hazelnuts were separated into husk, shell, and kernel components, then homogenized and analyzed. The total and unextractable (bound) 14C-residues were determined by combustion and the extractable 14C-residues were obtained by extracting the samples with methanol. Concentrated extracts were first analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The extracts were also subjected to a series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures for clean-up and the final extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crude hazelnut oil was also extracted with hexane and analyzed for total 14C-residue. A total of 1.3% of applied radioactivity was recovered from the total nut harvested, with 0.04%, 0.06%, and 1.2% present in shell, kernel, and husk, respectively. The results show that the inedible husk and shell contained 95.7% 14C, whereas the edible kernel contained 4.3% of the total 14C recovered. The terminal 14C-residue in hazelnut kernel and oil did not contain carbaryl and/or its metabolite naphthol. PMID:16785168

  4. 14C concentrations in tree stems, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C concentrations in trees sampled at various latitudes were measured with a Tandetron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer at Nagoya University. The growing periods of the parts for 14C measurements were estimated by the relationship between meteorological conditions and the appearance of anatomical features of annual rings such as false rings, latewood formation, and so on. The following results were obtained: 1. The latitude dependence of the 14C variation is found in tree stems as well as in the atmosphere. 2. The 14C concentrations in tree stems are almost equal to those in the atmosphere at the latitude where the tree had grown and at the time when the sampled section is formed. Therefore the 14C concentrations in the atmosphere are estimated by those of the tree stems. 3. The time when the 14C concentration in the tree showed its maximum value has difference of 1 - 2 years with that of the latitude where the tree had grown. 4. This phenomena seemed to be related closely with the mechanism of global mixing of 14CO2 produced by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. This mechanism causes a time lag of 14C variation between northern and southern hemisphere. (author)

  5. 14C Records from Indonesian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

  6. Uptake and distribution of 14C during and following exposure to [14C]methyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pigs were exposed to [14C]methyl isocyanate (14CH3-NCO, 14C MIC) for periods of 1 to 6 hr at concentrations of 0.5 to 15 ppm. Arterial blood samples taken during exposure revealed immediate and rapid uptake of 14C. Clearance of 14C was then gradual over a period of 3 days. Similarly 14C was present in urine and bile immediately following exposure, and clearance paralleled that observed in blood. Guinea pigs fitted with a tracheal cannula and exposed while under anesthesia showed a reduced 14C uptake in blood indicating that most of the 14C MIC uptake in normal guinea pigs occurred from retention of this agent in the upper respiratory tract passages. In exposed guinea pigs 14C was distributed to all examined tissues. In pregnant female mice similarly exposed to 14C MIC, 14C was observed in all tissues examined following exposure including the uterus, placenta, and fetus. While the form of 14C distributed in blood and tissues has not yet been identified, these findings may help to explain the toxicity of MIC or MIC reaction products on organs other than the respiratory tract, as noted by several investigators

  7. 14C levels in Trombay environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive air sampling method has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the specific activity of 14C in air samples collected within the Trombay complex. The samples collected within radial distance of about 0.5 km from Cirus showed 3 to 5 times higher specific activity of 14C over the natural background level of 6.2 pCi/g C. The same decreased with the distance and approached the value of natural level at the site boundary (1.6 km). The specific activity of 14C in leaf samples collected within the complex showed the similar pattern. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Leaf absorption of 32P in the pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a method to study the influence of various factors of the absorption of 32P applied under the form of phosphates by a plant cultivated in conditions ensuring a normal development. Experiments provided indications on leaf absorption and 32P transport by pumpkin leaves: phosphor 32 is absorbed and then quickly transported into the different organs of the plant (24 hours after treatment, it is present in aerial and underground parts), the quantity of absorbed phosphor increases with phosphor concentration in the applied solution, atmosphere humidity is an important factor for phosphor penetration into the leaves, plants absorb phosphor in darkness as well as in light, and the absorption of phosphor is not modified when applied with low glucose concentrations

  9. 32P-labeling test for DNA damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Randerath, K; Reddy, M V; Gupta, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and splee...

  10. 14C Analysis via Intracavity Optogalvanic Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Murnick, Daniel; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity...

  11. Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)

  12. /sup 32/P-labeling test for DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerath, K.; Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.

    1981-10-01

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a /sup 32/P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, ..beta..-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea) were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'-/sup 32/P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 10/sup 5/ DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent binding.

  13. 32P-labeling test for DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, ?-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with [?-32P]ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'-32P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 105 DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent binding

  14. Genomic 5-methylcytosine determination by 32P-postlabeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive method for the quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine in DNA has been developed by the adaptation of the Randerath 32P-postlabeling technique. Nucleic acids were digested to 3'-monophosphate nucleotides, which were converted to 32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotides, the 3'-phosphate was cleaved by the action of nuclease P1, and the resultant 5'-[32P]-monophosphate nucleotides were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Less than 1 microgram of DNA was required for the precise quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine content to a detectable limit of 0.01% of the total cytidine residues methylated. The genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content may thus be quantitated in tissue samples, small or selective cell populations, senescing or terminally differentiating cells, or DNA from any source. We report here, for the first time, the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial and normal human pulmonary mesothelial cells. The chromatographic separation of all of the normal and some of the rare monophosphate deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides has been characterized. Thus, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and the RNA contamination of DNA or the DNA contamination of RNA can also be quantitated during the same analysis

  15. 14C distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of 14C produced by nuclear bomb testing that entered the Atlantic Ocean by late 1972 was 1.71 x 10-8 ?mol/cm2 of ocean surface area for the west Atlantic (360S-450N) and 1.18 x 10-8 ?mol/cm2 for the east Atlantic (500S-280N) Geochemical Ocean Sections Study stations. There are strong latitudinal differences in the integrated amount of bomb 14C content in Atlantic waters. Bomb-produced 14C is mostly encountered near the center of the large mid-latitude gyres, whereas the equatorial region has a lower 14C inventory. The average ocean wide vertical distribution of bomb 14C in the Atlantic can be explained by a vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of 4.0 cm2/s in the surface mixed layer plus thermocline gyre reservoirs. The average 14C activity per unit area measured in the Atlantic yields an atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchange rate of 23 mol/m2 yr, which is equivalent with an atmospheric CO2 residence time of 6.8 years

  16. 17 CFR 240.14c-5 - Filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Filing requirements. 240.14c-5 Section 240.14c-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  17. Measurement of the thermal neutron cross section for the 35 Cl (n,p) 35 S reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal neutron cross section for the 35 Cl (n,p) 35 S reaction is measured. The measurements were performed on the 31-m flight path of the IBR-30 pulsed neutron booster. The 35 Cl (n,p) 35 S (Q = 0.61 MeV) reaction cross section was determined by comparing the reaction yields for 6 Li (n,t) 4 He (Q = 4.79 MeV) and 14 C (n,p) 14 C (Q = 0.63 MeV) reactions. The double-section ionization chamber was used as a charged particle detector. The investigated and standard targets, 12 x 3 cm in the first measurements and 12 x 6 cm in others, were mounted in a back-to-back geometry on the cathode of the chamber. The chamber was filled with an Ar + 3-4% CO2 gas mixture at pressures of 1.15 - 0.46 atm. The value of cross section equal to 575 ± 13 mb is obtained. The conclusion is made that this value exceeds most of the values reported previously

  18. Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

  19. Deposition of [35S]-carbonyl sulphide to vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the principal form of 35S in the coolant of CO2-cooled nuclear reactors under operational conditions. Measurements were made of the deposition velocity (Vg) of [35S]-COS (on a single-side leaf area basis) to a range of vegetable cultivars under turbulent conditions simulating maximal deposition in the field. The Vg for all the cultivars was -4 m.s-1. Uptake was greatest for brassicas and radishes (mean Vg 4.60-5.79x10-4m.s-1) and least for lettuces, onions and spinach (mean Vg 2.48-3.96x10-4m.s-1). Under illuminated conditions, when the stomata are open, differences in stomatal resistance accounted for -3, about seven times ambient) had no effect on the stomata. The results show that the use of Vg values of [35S]-COS to ryegrass in models to estimate ingested radiation dose following the consumption of green vegetables would increase the margin of safety by overestimating the 35S content of the crop by 30-300%. (author)

  20. Phosphorus 32P test in primary retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 20 patients with primary retinal detachment the 32P radioisotope test was performed injecting intravenously 500-750 ?Ci of the isotope and doing measurements with a F-Messeelektronik counter after 48 and 72 hours. The radioisotope index calculated at the site of greater detachment in 17 eye-balls in relation to the sites with apposed retina in the same eye or the other eye differed in these cases. Among the obtained results the large number of negative indices calls for attention (12 out of 17 cases) and in 2 cases the obtained values were +30 and +59 which may cause diagnostic errors in cases with suspected intraocular neoplasm. (author)

  1. Dynamics of phosphorus mineralization from 32P labelled greenmanure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled Sesbania aculeata was amended with soil at 0.25 and 0.5 per cent, both on dry weight basis, and incubated in anaerobic condition for 60 days. The P mineralization pattern depicted a two-step process, a rapid declining phase upto 30 days and a slow increasing phase thereafter. The Bray-1 reagent extracted nonsynthesised ionic P in the green manure amounting to 25 per cent of the total green manure P on the initial day of incubation. The mineralization process was related with the C:N and C:P ratio of the green manure and discussed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Isolation of (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haut, S.A.; Core, M.T. (Philip Morris Research and Development, Richmond, Va. (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed.

  3. Radiation and biological effects of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct and indirect radiation effects of radiocarbon on the human organism are briefly described and the pathways are listed of radiocarbon penetration in the human organism (food chain, inhalation). The content of stable carbon, the concentration of natural 14C and the absorbed dose are tabulated for vital organs. The relations are discussed between the 14C concentration in the atmosphere and in the human organism as a result of nuclear weapons tests and later of the development of nuclear power. (E.S.). 1 fig., 1 tab., 10 refs

  4. 14C Behaviour in PWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although 14C is produced in relatively small amounts in PWR coolant, it is important to know its fate, for example whether it is released by gaseous discharge, removed by absorption on ion exchange (IX) resins or deposited on the fuel pin surfaces. 14C can exist in a range of possible chemical forms: inorganic carbon compounds (probably mainly CO2), elemental carbon, and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons. This paper presents results from a preliminary survey of the possible reactions of 14C in PWR coolant. The main conclusions of the study are: - A combination of thermal and radiolytic reactions controls the chemistry of 14C in reactor coolant. A simple chemical kinetic model predicts that CH3OH would be the initial product from radiolytic reactions of 14C following its formation from 17O. CH3OH is predicted to arise as a result of reactions of OH. with CH4 and CH3, and it persists because there is no known radiation chemical reduction mechanism. - Thermodynamic considerations show that CH3OH can be thermally reduced to CH4 in PWR conditions, although formation of CO2 from small organics is the most thermodynamically favourable outcome. Such reactions could be catalysed on active nickel surfaces in the primary circuit. - Limited plant data would suggest that CH4 is the dominant form in PWR and CO2 in BWR. This implies that radiation chemistry may be important in determining the speciation. - Addition of acetate does not affect the amount of 14C formed, but the addition of large amounts of stable carbon would lead to a large range of additional products, some of which would be expected to deposit on fuel pin surfaces as high molecular weight hydrocarbons. However, the subsequent thermal decomposition reactions of these products are not known. - Acetate addition may represent a small input of 12C compared with organic material released from CVCS resins, although the importance of this may depend on whether that is predominantly soluble material or suspended fines. The ultimate fate of 14C may be affected by operating conditions, e.g. the CVCS let down rate to the VCT, hydrogen concentration, dose-rate and organic concentration. If the VCT hydrogen purge is not operating, particulate carbon could build up, and could either be trapped by IX resin beds or deposited on fuel pin surfaces. Good plant data are vital for the elucidation of 14C behaviour. (authors)

  5. Study of the reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the elastic scattering of polarized protons in 14 C, it has been very limited. Some angular distributions exists to low energy, as well as measures of excitation functions to several angles for the differential section and the vectorial analyzer power. A detailed study of the elastic scattering of protons by 14 C, it give us experimental information of the excited states in 15 N. The study of these states, is since of considerable interest it is not very easy to obtain a target of 14 C also in a reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C is possible to obtain information of levels in 15 N to an excitation energy EX >14.95 MeV. (Author)

  6. Internal bremsstrahlung spectra from 185W and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal bremsstrahlung spectra from the ? decay of 185W and 32P were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer with a standard geometrical arrangement. After making all the necessary corrections the experimental results are compared with the allowed theory of the Knipp, Uhlenbeck, and Bloch (KUB theory) and also with the Coulomb corrected theories of Lewis, Ford, and Nilsson. In the case of 185W it is found that from 78 to 200 keV the experimental distribution is in good agreement with the KUB theory whereas beyond 200 keV and below 78 keV the experimental points are far above even the highest Coulomb corrected theoretical distribution of Nilsson. The internal bremsstrahlung from this isotope has not been previously investigated. In the case of 32P the experimental relative intensity spectrum is compared with the KUB theory and also with the Coulomb corrected theory of Lewis and Ford. Fairly good agreement is obtained from 30 to 200 keV with the KUB theory but in the energy region from 200 to 900 keV, the experimental results deviate positively from both the KUB and Lewis and Ford theories. The experimental excess over the Lewis and Ford theory is 15% on the average

  7. Neointimal responses 3 months after 32P ?-emitting stent placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Studies have shown a potential benefit of brachytherapy in preventing restenosis. However, the effects of intravascular radiation on arterial healing have not been well-established. The purpose of this study was to explore the histologic changes following placement of ?-emitting radioactive stents in arteries focusing on intimal responses and endothelialization. Methods and Materials: 3.0-mm ?-emitting 32P stents (6-?Ci and 24-?Ci) were placed in rabbit iliac arteries with nonradioactive stents serving as controls. Animals were euthanized at 3 months and histologic assessment, morphometry, and analysis of endothelialization were performed. Results: The lumen areas of 24-?Ci stents (4.24 ± 0.22 mm2, p 2, p 2). The mean lumen percent stenosis was 11.4 ± 3.0% in the 24-?Ci stents (p 32P ?-emitting stents reduce neointimal growth, but healing is incomplete with poor endothelialization at 3 months. Longer-term studies with complete arterial healing are needed to determine whether there is sustained neointimal inhibition by stent-delivered brachytherapy

  8. Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

  9. Bioconversion of alpha-[14C]zearalenol and beta-[14C]zearalenol into [14C]zearalenone by Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum'.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, K E; Hagler, W M; Hamilton, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of Fusarium roseium 'Gibbosum' on rice were treated with [14C]zearalenone, alpha[14C]zearalenol, or beta-[14C]zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the beta-[14C]zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual b...

  10. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm3) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO4) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m2) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition. (Author)

  11. Quantifying 32P-labeled and unlabeled nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant DNA technology depends on detection methods for nucleic acids compatible with amounts ranging from picograms to grams and from tenths of a microliter to liters. In practical terms there are three basic techniques: (1) absorbance methods suitable for a minimum concentration of micrograms per milliliter, (2) fluorescence methods capable of detecting nanograms of DNA and micrograms of RNA, and (3) methods based on the detection of 32P. Because of the overwhelming importance in molecular biology of the third group, this chapter will stress exquisitely sensitive methods for measuring radioactivity in very small volumes. An illustration in which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction performed in 20 ?l is monitored by consuming less than 2% of the total volume will be presented

  12. Root distribution pattern of Colocasia- 32P plant injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P plant injection technique was employed to study the variation in the root production and distribution patterns of colocasia var. Cheruchempu grown in the coconut garden and in the open. Root production of colocasia was more with the plants grown in the open compared to the plants grown in the coconut garden. The root distribution pattern of colocasia differed with light environments under which the plants are grown. Colocasia grown in the coconut garden developed a compact root system while that grown in the open condition developed a spreading root system. The root zone comprising 20 cm laterally around the plant and 40 cm vertically from the surface (L0-20 D0-40) can be considered as the active root zone of colocasia. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Phosphate fertilizer studies using 32P dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agronomic effectiveness of highly soluble phosphate fertilizers for annual crop production is well known and documented. In recent years considerable research effort has been focused on search for alternative means of cheaper forms of P fertilizers to fill the needs of poor farmers, who has limited capital availability for purchase of fertilizers. Since some countries in the world have naturally occurring phosphate rocks (PR), the most appealing alternative is for direct application of PR. The low capital and energy inputs required to prepare these PR for use makes it the cheapest mineral P fertilizers possible. Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam are some countries in the Asian region blessed with natural PR. Coupled with the inherently acidic and P deficient soils found in this region, research on direct application of these PR for crop production is indeed timely. Studies done in the temperate regions on direct application of PR have concluded that PR are not suitable for use in intensive agricultural system, because PR cannot maintain a sufficiently high P concentration in the soil solution for high crop yields. Research in direct application of PR to acidic soils of the Asian region have proven otherwise. The use of radioactive 32P isotope has helped in quantification of the amounts of P from the PR tested being utilized by the crop, and its distribution in the plant can also be monitored. In Malaysia, highly reactive North Carolina phosphate rock has been found to be as effective as triple superphosphate, where a total of about 18% of the P fertilizer applied was utilized by three consecutive crops of sweet corn grown under field conditions. Initial glasshouse screening of efficacy of PR can also be determined by the use of the 32P isotope. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Effects of ethanol on recombinant rat GABAA receptors. [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determone the roles of the alternatively spliced short and long forms of the ?2 subunit in the effect of ethanol on the GABAA receptor function, picrotoxin-sensitive [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding was studied in recombinant rat ?1?2?2 and ?6?2?2 recepto expressed in human embryonic kidney 392 cells. Ethanol (10-500 mM) in the absence of added GABA had only minor effects on [35S]TBPS binding irrespective of the ?2 splice variant, its effects being greater in ?6?2?2 than in ?1?2?2 receptors. Ethanol (100 mM) decreased the binding in all four subunit combinations at various concentrations of GABA, again an effect independent of the ?2 variant. The two ?2 variants had different effect on GABA modulation of the binding, with the long ?2 variant decreasing the efficiency of GABA inhibition in ?6?2 receptors and enhancing the biphasic GABA stimulation and inhibition in ?1?2?2 receptors. The findings confirm the importance of the ? subunits in the allosteric interactions between the convulsant binding site and other effector sites, which can be modified only to a minor extent by the tupe of the ?2 splice variant. (au) 31 refs

  15. Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

  16. Synthesis of 14C-labelled crotamiton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C-labelled crotamiton, which is a fungicide, an insecticide as well as a scabicide is described. Starting from 2-bromonitrobenzene and Cu14CN, o-toluidine, labelled with 14C at the methyl group was prepared by the following sequence of reactions: NO2-C6H4-Br ? NO2-C6H4-14CN ? NO2-C6H4-14COOH ? NO2-C6H4-14CH2OH ? NO2-C6H4-14CH2Br ? NH2-C6H4-14CH3. Labelled o-toluidine was then heated with crotonic anhydride to give crotonic acid o-toluidide which was then ethylated by treatment with sodium hydride and ethyl iodide to obtain labelled crotamiton. (author)

  17. Bomb 14C as a biological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residence times of atmospheric 14CO2 in dietary and human tissue samples have been determined. Using data on the dietary and environmental 14C content, a comprehensive survey of dietary habits of the UK population has been performed to evaluate percentages of protein, lipid and carbohydrate supplied by different commodities. The predicted 14C content of mature tissues, of tissues under growth, and of arterial lipid deposits all for the years 1953-1973 were computed, from which estimates of the turnover times of liver, kidney, spleen, heart, muscle, lung, brain, testes/ovaries, pancreas and thyroid were obtained. It is stressed that the turnover values determined here are representative of each tissue in is entirety, or at least of its protein-lipid fractions. The possible pathogenesis or timescale of treatment of atherosclerosis as suggested by these studies is discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Metabolism of [14C]acetylisoniazid and [14C]acetylhydrazine by the rat and rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats and rabbits were singly dosed with either 1-[14C]acetyl isoniazid (acetylisonicotinoylhydrazine, acetyl-INH, 200 mg/kg po) or 1-[14C]acetylhydrazine (50 or 100 mg/kg ip). Urine and expired 14CO2 were collected, and after 6 hr the animals were killed for the analysis of tissue 14C concentrations and covalent binding of 14C to hepatic protein. Rats excreted proportionately more 14C in urine and had lower 14C levels in their tissues compared to rabbits. When acetyl-INH was administered, covalent hepatic protein binding of the acetyl moiety was greater in the rabbit than the rat, but the opposite was observed when acetylhydrazine was administered. Analysis of blood and urine by TLC revealed that the rabbit more rapidly metabolized both acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine, and acetylhydrazine to diacetylhydrazine than did the rat. These observations suggest that higher amidase activity in the rabbit compared to the rat leads to faster conversion of acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine which in turn leads to greater covalent binding and hepatotoxicity

  19. Translocation of 14C photosynthates in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on translocation of 14C photosynthates in some of the high yielding rice varieties indicated the following: (1) the translocation of photosynthates from leaf to stem was faster in early varieties like Bala than in early to medium types, Hamsa or IR.8 (2) the fixation of 14CO2 in leaves was more in Vijaya and its sister selections (CR.10 cultures, T.90xIR.8) than in IR.8 or Jaya at the early stages of panicle development. However, the movement of 14C photosynthates to panicle was faster in IR.8 and Jaya while in CR.10 cultures they accumulated initially to stem and sheath and (3) low light enhanced translocation of 14C photosynthates from leaf to panicle in Bala, Hamsa, IR.8 and Jaya while in Padma it was impaired. In general, CR.10 cultures (Vijaya, CR.10-5071) were found to be efficient in photosynthesis and translocation under low light intensity and such character was possibly derived from the local parent, T.90. (author)

  20. Deglacial 14C plateau suites recalibrated by Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record - Revised 14C reservoir ages from three ocean basins corroborate extreme surface water variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnthein, M.; Balmer, S.; Grootes, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) reservoir/ventilation ages (?14C) provide unique insights into the dynamics of ocean water masses over LGM and deglacial times. The 14C plateau-tuning technique enables us to derive both an absolute chronology for marine sediment records and a high-resolution record of changing ?14C values for deglacial surface and deep waters (Sarnthein et al., 2007; AGU Monogr. 173, 175). We designate as 14C plateau a sediment section in the age-depth profile with several almost constant planktic 14C ages - variation less than ×100 to ×300 yr - which form a plateau-shaped scatter band that extends over ~5 to 50 and up to 200 cm in sediment cores with sedimentation rates of >10 cm/ky. Previously, a suite of >15 plateau boundary ages were calibrated to a joint reference record of U/Th-dated 14C time series measured on coral samples, the Cariaco sediment record, and speleothems (Fairbanks et al., 2005, QSR 24; Hughen et al., 2006, QSR 25; Beck et al., 2001, Science 292). We now used the varve-counted atmospheric 14C record of Lake Suigetsu (Ramsey et al., 2012, Science 338, 370) to recalibrate the boundary ages and average ages of 14C plateaus and apply the amended plateau-tuning technique to a dozen ?14C records from the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Main results are: (1) The Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record reflects all 14C plateaus, their internal structures and relative length previously identified, but implies a rise in the average plateau age by 700 yr at its end, and 2500 14C yr in stratified subpolar regions and upwelled waters such as in the South China Sea, values that differ significantly from a widely assumed constant planktic ?14C age of 400 yr. (3) Suites of deglacial planktic ?14C ages are closely reproducible in 14C records measured on neighbor core sites. (4) Apparent deep-water 14C ventilation ages (benthic ?14C), obtained from the sum of planktic ?14C and coeval benthic-planktic ?14C age differences, vary from an equivalent of ocean basins.

  1. High-spin level structure of 35S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Recchia, F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Bouhelal, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; de Angelis, G.; Deloncle, I.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Gottardo, A.; Haas, F.; Huyuk, T.; Laftchiev, H.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Poves, A.; Sahin, E.; Singh, P. P.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus 35S has been studied by in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy using the 24Mg(14N,3p) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=40 MeV. A level scheme extended up to J?=17/2+ at 8023 keV and J?=13/2- at 6352 keV has been established. Lifetimes of six excited states have been determined by applying the Doppler shift attenuation method. The experimental data have been compared with the results of large-scale shell model calculations performed using different effective interactions and model spaces allowing particle-hole excitations across the N =Z=20 shell gap.

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of [3-14C] cinnamic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convenient and efficient route of the synthesis of [3-14C] cinnamic acid is reported. [1-14C] Benzoic acid, prepared by carbonation of Grignard reagent with [14C] carbon dioxide, was reduced to [1-14C] benzyl alcohol. In the enzymatic step this alcohol was selectively oxidised to [1-14C] benzaldehyde using enzyme YADH (Ec. 1.1.1.1) and immediately condensed with malonic acid. This combined chemical and enzymatic approach allows to obtain [3-14C] cinnamic acid with radiochemical yield higher than 50% in respect to the starting alcohol. (author)

  3. Upward and lateral translocation of 32P supplied to roots of apple and citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. 32P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of 32P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of 32P supplied to roots is through the xylem. (author)

  4. Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

  5. The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

  6. Enzymatic method for the synthesis of [14C]pyridoxal 5-phosphate from [14C]pyridoxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of [14C]pyridoxal 5-phosphate is presented. [14C]Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was synthesized from [14C]pyriodoxine through the successive actions of pyridoxal kinase and pyrdoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase in a reaction mixture containing ATP, [14C]pyridoxine, and both enzymes. [14C]Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was isolated by omega-aminohexyl-Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The overall yield of the product was more than 60%, starting from 550 nmol of [14C]pyridoxine. The radiochemical purity of the products, as determined by thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatography, was greater than 98%

  7. Development of a 14C detectable real-time radioisotope imaging system for plants under intermittent light environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic products in a living plant was developed and evaluated through a test run. 14C is a common radioisotope of carbon and useful to trace the photosynthetic products as well as a low energy beta emitter. The rationale of this study was to develop a RRIS that has the ability to detect low energy beta emitters, such as 14C, 35S, and 45Ca. To achieve compatibility between the detection of low energy beta emitters and irradiation of the test plant, an intermittent lighting system was added to the RRIS. Furthermore, a commercially available digital camera was added to the RRIS for acquisition of photographic images of the test plants. The capabilities of the new RRIS were evaluated through a test run by using seedlings of rice plants and 35S-labeled sulfate. It was shown that the new RRIS was able to detect 35S absorbed by rice plant seedlings, and it was able to acquire photon-counting images and photographic images of the test plants simultaneously. Despite some limitations, the new RRIS provides a means to study the kinetics of elements in plants by utilizing low energy beta emitters. (author)

  8. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

  9. Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P2O5+70 g K2O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P2O2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

  10. Distribution of labeled products from [1-14C], [U-14C] and [16-14C]-palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes and liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acids (FA) labeled in different carbon positions are used to study the distribution of labeled oxidation products. With rat hepatocytes (Hep) the authors observed significant differences in the distribution of label into products from [1-14C] and [U-14C]-palmitate (P). The total recovery of label in products (14CO2 + acid soluble fraction (ASF)) was identical between the two labeled FA. However, 14CO2 production from [U-14C]-P was only 40% of that from [1-14C]-P. A recent report showed that approximately = 95% of succinate (Suc) utilized by Hep does not complete one full turn through the citric acid cycle. The authors observed that 14CO2 evolution from [2,3-14C]-Suc was approximately = 9% of that from [1,4-14C]-Suc, indicating that the differences in label distribution between [1-14C] and [U-14C]-P are partially due to less 14CO2 production from label in the even carbon positions of the FA with consequently more label remaining in the ASF. The 14CO2 production from [16-14C]-P was only 4% of that from [1-14C]-P a value less than expected from the Suc experiments. Ketone bodies (KB) comprised 78% of total labeled products from [16-14C]-P as compared to 28% from [1-14C]-P and 41% from [U-14C]-P, giving support to the previously reported preferential use of the omega-C2 unit for KB synthesis without entry into the acetyl-CoA pool. Studies with isolated rat liver mitochondria gave results similar to those with Hep, indicating minimal involvement of perioxisomal ?-oxidation

  11. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  12. Oxidative chlorination of [U{sup 14}C] phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgin, D.; Suzzoni-Dezard, S. de; Noel, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Service des Molecules Marquees, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91 (France)

    1996-07-01

    The preparation of [U-{sup 14}C] 2,4-dichlorophenol was formerly achieved by a Sandmeyer reaction with [U-{sup 14}C] 2,4-dichloroaniline but this sensitive step gave unreproductive yields in our hands. We describe another route to [U-{sup 14}C] 2,4-dichlorophenol by the oxidative chlorination of [U-{sup 14}C] phenol. This shorter route is safer and gives satisfactory yields. The nature of the oxidizer is discussed. (author).

  13. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  14. An easy enzymatic method for [14 C]trehalose preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easy and practical method for [14 C]trehalose preparation is described. By incubating [14 C]glucose, ?-glucose-1-phosphate and trehalose phosphorylase from Euglena gracilis the disaccharide was obtained with a yield ranging from 33% to 75% depending on the specific activity of the [14 C]glucose utilized. Trehalose was purified by paper chromatography. (author)

  15. Decomposition of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine in soils; immobilization in soils and uptake by plants of these 14C herbicides and their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of phenmedipham and atrazine occured by biological way. The mineralisation of phenmediphame started by a dealkylation followed by a cleavage of the aromatic ring disposed between the two carbamoyl linkages and finished by a very weak degradation of the second benzenic ring. The percentage of mineralisation was always more important when lower levels of herbicides were applied. Free phenmedipham and atrazine were still detected after one year incubation. Adsorption on soil constituents of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues was partially biological; that of 14C atrazine and its 14C residues was solely chemical. The complexation was less strong when higher levels of pesticides were applied. Aerian parts as well as radicular systems of wheat, oat and maize sown on soils incubated during one year in presence of 10 and 100 ppm of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine were radioactive

  16. Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

  17. Brachytherapy on restenosis. 32P radioisotope in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope (32P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by fluoroscopy when rabbits had reached 3,0-3,5 Kg body weight. Studies were done with different doses (10 and 20 Gy) of beta ionizing radiation (32P sources) administered with balloon dilatation. Animals were sacrificed at the same time after irradiation; vasodilation, edema, hemorrhages, mononuclear infiltrate in the periadventitial tissue and other biological changes were analyzed and compared with control. Evaluation of Absorbed dosis and Dosis Equivalent on different tissues were done by Montecalo and appropriate equations. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation into the different layers of the arterial wall (i.e. histological percent stenosis area and number of neointimal cell layer), microscopic observation and computational count with the adequate software indicated that imflamatory elementsaccumulation and neointimal cell proliferation (demonstrated through PCNA+ and apoptotic cells detection) were milder in irradiated rabbits and that the inhibition of cell proliferation was proportional to the applied Absorbed dose. The ionizing radiation produce inhibitory effect on restenosis in New Zealand rabbits. Results obtained may open the possibility to apply this technique in human patients in Argentina. (author)

  18. Investigations on preparation of 32P-labelled organo-phosphorus pesticides - - malathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General methods of preparation of labelled insecticides starting from red phosphorus and phosphoric acid labelled with 32P are outlined. Investigations on the three step synthesis of 32P-malathion are discussed. The need for high purity reagents and absolute dry conditions are stressed. Methods for purification and identification by paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography are discussed in detail. (author)

  19. A simple enzymic method for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and simple enzymic method is described for the synthesis of [32P]phosphoenolpyruvate from [32P]Psub(i), with a reproducible yield of 74%. The final product was shown to be a good substrate for pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40). (author)

  20. Clinical observation of 5686 cases of infant hemangioma treated by 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic method of treating infant hemangioma by radioisotopes 32P. Methods: Simple hemangiomata were treated by 32P dermal application method. The authors prepared 32P at the activity of 165.98 kBq/cm2/h, diluted it with 2 ml water, and then dropped it on filter paper. The authors applied the paper to the impaired site according to the shape and the size of hemangioma. The impaired site received 32P radiation at the dosage of 9.41 Gy/cm2 each time. The treatment was repeated once every month. Cavernous hemangiomata were treated by local injections of colloid 32P at the dosage of 370 kBq/cm3 once every 2-3 months. Mixed hemangiomata received combined treatment mentioned above. Results: 3383 cases (99.0%) of simple hemangioma were cured by 32P dermal application method. 1241 case (98.7%) of cavernous hemangioma were cured. 397 cases (83.0%) of mixed hemangioma were cured. 534 cases (98.1%) of naevus flammeus were improved by 32P application method. The total effective rate was 99.8%. The cure rate was 88.3%. Conclusion: Treating hemangioma with 32P is satisfactory for its high efficiency and low toxicity. It may be advisable for infant skin disease

  1. On the 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, E. D.; Rogachev, G. V.; MITCHELL, J; Miller, L.; Kemper, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at temperatures below 0.3 GK depends on the properties of two near threshold resonances in 18O, the 1- at 6.198 MeV and the 3- at 6.404 MeV. The alpha+14C Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for these resonances were determined using the alpha-transfer reactions 14C(7Li,t) and 14C(6Li,d) at sub-Coulomb energies. The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at low temperatures has been evaluated. Implications of the new reaction rate on the e...

  2. Pesticides labelled with 14C. Pt. 1: Synthesis of [6-14C]hexazinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexazinone - a s-triazine type contact herbicides - was labelled with 14C for the investigation of metabolic pathways. A convenient synthesis was elaborated for labelling of the carbon atom in the 6 position of the triazine ring. The molar activity of Hexazinone was 797.0 MBq/mmole (21.54 mCi/mmole). (Author)

  3. Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, F.; Fiumano, V.; Capano, M.; Passariello, I.; Cesare, N. De.; Terrasi, F.

    2011-12-01

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ( 14C) AMS measurements (? R/ R < 0.3%) reduce the conventional uncertainty of the dating to few decades, allowing precise age estimation of materials containing carbon (C). The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) during its activity on AMS 14C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the "Acerenza portrait" is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb- 14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  4. The synthesis of [3-14C]indirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3-14C]indirubin is synthesized in three steps from potassium [14C]cyanide. Firstly, Potassium [14C]cyanide reacts with N,N'-diphenylthiourea to get N,N'-diphenyl [14C]cyanoamidine. Then, cyclizated in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride and hydrolizated with hydrochloric acid, amidine is leaded to [3-14C]isatin. Finally, [3-14C]isatin is condensed with excess potassium 3-indolelate to yield [3-14C]indirubin in 20.34% overall radiochemical yield from K14CN with a specific activity of 2 GBq/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99.9% (TLC)

  5. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  6. A cleanup procedure towards the preparation of chemically pure ? - 32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of high purity ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides enzymatically, involves the transfer of the radio labelled phosphorus from either ?-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or ?-guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Subsequent removal of these ribose nucleotides is essential for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. In the present work we describe a chemical method for the improvement of the chemical purity, based on the preferential oxidation of ribose sugars by periodate. The efficiency of the process was validated using tracer ?-32P ATP and ?-32P dATP. The result were further corroborated by HPLC. The process developed is an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. (author)

  7. Study on labelling of rapeseed mustard plants by 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation was done to label rapeseed-mustard plants (Brassica campestris cv. YST-151 and Brassica juncea cv. Varuna) by using 32P radiotracer technique by different methods. Phosphorous being an essential nutrient, plant absorb reasonable amount of 32P thus enabling an easy way of detection. Different methods were used to label the host plant with 32P namely application of radioisotope in soil; injection of radioisotope into plant stem and application of radioisotope in nutrient solution. The best method was found by application of radioisotope in the nutrient solution as it gave highest uptake and required least time out of the 3 given methods for labeling of plants. (author)

  8. Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with ?-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with ?-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

  9. 14C emission fine structure by Radium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First works have shown the fine structure in the 14C spectra emitted by 223Ra and have confirmed the similitude between this emission and ? emission. In this thesis, the author has measured the 14C energy spectra emitted by 222Ra even-even nucleus. In all these experiments, the number of detected carbon has been more important that in the experiment of discovery of these radioactivities. The author states precisely the 14C/? branching ratios and the 14C emission decay for the two studied isotopes

  10. Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralization of 14C-carbofuran (2,3 dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-methylcarbamate) to 14CO2 as well as the formation of extractable and bound 14C-residues in clay loam soil were investigated under laboratory conditions. The 14C-carbofuran rapidly mineralized to 14CO2 and, after 20 days of incubation, 35.6% of the applied 14C was lost as 14CO2. The steady decrease of extractable 14C-residues was accomplished by a corresponding increase of bound 14C-residues over a 20-day incubation period. At the end of the experiment, the extractable and bound 14C-residues amounted to 7% and 59%, respectively, of applied radiocarbon. The soil containing bound 14C-residues was fractionated into humic substances. The humic acid, fulvic acid and humin fractions contained 22.39%, 26.04% and 17.56%, respectively, of the applied radiocarbon. The amount of 14C in microbial biomass was 15%. (author)

  11. PEMANFAATAN RADIOISOTOP 32P UNTUK PENANDAAN (LABELLED COMPOUND PADA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhid Darwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling with Radioisotop 32P was performed at various dose application. The research conducted by Insitute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development, Salatiga in collaboration with The National of Atomic Agency that aimed to know the effective dose and radioactivity disposal of the Radioisotop 32 P. The research used several doses: 0,3 µCi (micro currie; 0,5 µCi; and 0,7 µCi of each 25 gr larvaefood for 50 larvae with dry and wet radiation then observed the effect of radiation against larvae stadium and mosquitoes. The result shows that at 0,5 pCi isotop 32P dose application, Ae. aegypti mosquitoe can survive with 333,3 cps (currie per second residual radioactivity and detected in 75 cm distance. The Radioisotop 32P can be used as Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling/marking.

  12. 32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

  13. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  14. Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

  15. Enzymatic method for the synthesis of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxal 5-phosphate from (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, T.; Takasugi, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Nozaki, M.

    1986-10-01

    A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxal 5-phosphate is presented. (/sup 14/C)Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was synthesized from (/sup 14/C)pyriodoxine through the successive actions of pyridoxal kinase and pyrdoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase in a reaction mixture containing ATP, (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine, and both enzymes. (/sup 14/C)Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was isolated by omega-aminohexyl-Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The overall yield of the product was more than 60%, starting from 550 nmol of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine. The radiochemical purity of the products, as determined by thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatography, was greater than 98%.

  16. Behaviour of 14 C-Maneb and 14 C-ETU in soils under field and laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon14-Maneb or 14 C-ETU was applied to soil contained in polyethylene tubes driven into the ground under field conditions. Most of the activity was found in both cases only in the top soil layers: 0-5 cm for Maneb: 0-10 cm for ETU. Half-life of total radiochemical 14 C-labeled residues was of 6 weeks for ETU and 18 weeks for Maneb. High percentage of bound residue (non-extracted activity) was detected in soil treated with 14 C-Maneb. When soil samples (Humic Gley and Purple Latosoil) were incubated with 14 C-ETU in laboratory conditions, microbial degradation occurred with 28% 14 C O2 evolved from both soil samples; no 14 C O2 was detected on sterilized soil samples. (author)

  17. Synthesis of [3-14C]-L-tryptophan and 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of selectively labeled [3-14C]-L-tryptophan and its derivative 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan using chemical and multienzymatic methods is reported. The key intermediate for this synthesis, 3-14C]-DL-alanine was obtained from 14CH3I as a result of its condensation with N- (diphenylmethylene)glycine tert-butyl ester. Next, the mixture containing [3-14C]-DL-alanine, indole or 5-hydroxyindole has been converted to [3-14C]-L-tryptophan or 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan, respectively, in a one-pot multienzymatic reaction using four enzymes: -amino acid oxidase, catalase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and tryptophanase. (author)

  18. Validation of 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, 32P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, 32P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for 32P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using 32P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate 32P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for 32P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using 32P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed

  19. Validation of {sup 32}P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Park, Minjeong; Park, Seyoung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Ha, Wiho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hanki [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, {sup 32}P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, {sup 32}P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for {sup 32}P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using {sup 32}P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, {sup 32}P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate {sup 32}P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for {sup 32}P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using {sup 32}P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed.

  20. Lethal effects of 32P decay on transfecting activity of Bacillus subtillis phage phie DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disintegration of 32P present in the DNA of Bacillus subtilis phage phie (a phage containing double-strand DNA) results in the loss of viability of intact phage as well as transfecting activity of isolated DNA. Only 1/12 of the 32P disintegrations per phage DNA equivalent inactivities the intact phage while nearly every disintegration inactivates the transfecting DNA. This result provides evidence for a single-strand intermediate in the transfection of B. subtilis by phie DNA

  1. Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

  2. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  3. [35S]methionine interaction with rat liver tRNA and effect of chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of [35S]methionine with hepatic tRNA in normal, carcinogen-treated, and partially hepatectomized rats was studied. tRNA was preferentially labeled following [35S]methionine (1.6 mCi, 25 mg/kg body wt) administration by intraperitoneal injection. The extent of [35S]methionine-tRNA interaction was impaired by partial hepatectomy and by conditions having a carcinogenic potential

  4. Evaluation of a 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: Objective: to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and methods: the patch was prepared from [32P]-chromic phosphate and silicone. The (a) activity concentration, (b) homogeneity, (c) integrity, (d) therapeutic efficacy for two treatment schemes in an animal model of skin cancer, (e) bio elimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals and (t) dosimetry to plan the treatment schemes were determined. Results: the 32P patch demonstrated homogeneity of activity and dose. On the other hand, it showed integrity under degradation conditions like the ones in a treatment. According to the bio elimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single dose therapeutic scheme showed higher percentage of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by the histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: the 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for its use in brachytherapy treatments. (author)

  5. 32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7?,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies. (author)

  6. 32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7#betta#,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [#betta#-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies

  7. Preparation of 32P coated stents and their clinical application for prevention of restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta emitting radionuclides have been reported to be effective when used in Intravascular Radionuclide Therapy (IVRT), for prevention of restenosis. In particular, the decay features of 32P (pure ?, EBmax ? l.7 MeV, T1/2=14.3 d) make it an attractive nuclide for any local treatment, such as IVRT. 32P, if coated on stents used in angioplasty, can deliver radiation dose to the stenosed tissues, with 95% of the total dose expended within 4-5 mm of the tissue. In the present study, 32P coated stents were prepared by optimizing the various parameters and tested for its usefulness in IVRT after QC tests. 32P coated stents were prepared by both physical adsorption and electrodeposition. It was found that of the two methods, electrodeposited stents, showed better retention of the coated radioactivity and better uniformity. Stents were coated with 32P activity in the range of 37 -740 kBq and taken up for clinical trials by the treating physicians. It was observed that stents with 32P activities in the range of 27.75 to 55.5 kBq/cm were found to be most effective

  8. Screening method of varietal resistance to planthoppers labelled with radioisotope 32P; pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New screening method of varietal resistance by isotope 32P was examined in these experiments. Insects were fed for 24 hrs. in the vials, with rice seedlings absorbed the solution of 0.6-7 Ci 32P for 24 to 48 hrs. Feeding amounts of 3 species of planthoppers at the different stages and duration of infestation were investigated for effective process of screening method of the varietal resistance using isotope 32P. Feeding amount of 32P of brown planthopper was observed for the different varieties. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. Brown planthopper fed greatest and the feeding amount was increased in order of white-backed planthopper and small brown planthopper. Female hoppers fed more than male. 2. Feeding amount was increased in order of adult (female), 5th instar, adult (male), 4th instar, 3rd instar 2nd instar and 1st instar. The duration of 24-48 hours is considered sufficient for insect infestation. 3. New screening method by 32P was compared with seedling bulk screening method in view of feeding amount and plant reaction. Feeding amount of 32P by brown planthopper in Milyang 47, resistant variety to this insect, was very low, while in TN 1, susceptible variety, it was very high about one hundred times of Milyang 47. (author)

  9. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  10. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  11. RNA molecular turn-over in Tobacco cell cultures. I. 32P-phosphate isotope exchange of tRNA and rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem was raised whether the hypermodified bases, contained in the sequence of some tRNA, were the source of plant natural cytokinins. The kinetics of the incorporation of [32P]-phosphate and the loss of radioactive phosphorous during chase experiments were measured in fractions extracted from tobacco cell cultures, grown in shaken liquid medium. The radioactive phosphate was incorporated in tRNA and rRNA at the same rate and it was diluted at the same rate during chase experiments. The isotope exchange in these RNA fractions was slow and a half-life of about 5 days could be estimated. The relative stability of RNA was confirmed by the kinetics of chase of [8-14C]-guanosine. The significance of these findings is discussed in connection with the observed flow of the [32P]-phosphate through the metabolic compartments of the cells. It is concluded that the degradation rate of bulk tRNA in Tobacco cells is too slow to account for the flow of endogenous cytokinins and to explain the independence of the cells versus exogenous hormone. These results do not eliminate the possibility of a rapid turn-over involving a limited number of tRNA species

  12. Preparation of methylbenzene-ring-14C from benzene-14C on the basis of a microcatalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The known processes of benzene alkylation are relatively non-selective and give low yields. Therefore, they are not very suitable for the preparation of toluene- and xylene-ring-14C. Since the catalytic disproportionation of toluene into benzene and xylene is already used it was attempted to develop a procedure for the preparation of the above-mentioned 14C-compounds by reversing this reaction and using benzene-14C. The obtained results are presented and the developed synthesis is explained, using the preparation of toluene-ring-14C as an example. The average activity yield is 58%. (author)

  13. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous fraction of living materials, such as collagen from tooth and bone, tissue, skin, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human body samples formed in this time intervals, we can establish a relationship of their 14C concentrations with calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the chemicals that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified, by their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination has been applied to a forensic study, i.e., two criminal cases of murder. For each case, by comparing the measured 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C, the time of death of the body and the age of the victim were estimated. The estimated values were consistent with the real ones that were revealed by the confession of the real murderers. (author)

  14. Bound residues of 14C-malathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of soil-bound 14C-residues of malathion to maize plants and microbes was investigated under laboratory conditions. Maize plants were grown in clay loam soil treated with 14C-malathion and it was found that 2.5% of the total bound 14C and 6.6% of the freshly added 14C was removed by the maize plants. In both cases the shoots contained more radioactivity than the roots and the uptake rate from freshly treated soil was three times higher than from soil containing bound residues. The analysis of the residual soil after harvesting the plants showed that 6.17% and 12.02% of the residual 14C from bound and freshly applied malathion, respectively, could be extracted. This indicates that a part of the bound 14C-residues was released during plant growth. The results further indicate that microbes can incorporate bound residues into their cellular mass more effectively than the plants and that microbial biomass can be used as an index for studying the bioavailability of agrochemicals applied to soil. In the soil containing bound 14C-residues, no malathion was detected by high-temperature distillation and gas chromatography. When the methanol-extractable 14C-residues were analysed with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography, an unidentified compound was found which did not correspond to either malathion or malaoxon. (author)

  15. Pilot study of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C, in order to produce material suitable for intercomparison exercises. Approximately 1 kg of tissue was prepared by grinding, blending, labelling with 14C-methylated bovine haemoglobin and thoroughly mixing by repeated blending. The product was sealed in cans and sterilized to preserve it. Portions of raw material were dried to test the homogeneity of moisture content. Homogeneity of 14C in the natural and labelled materials was tested by analyzing sub-samples of 2-3 g in weight of the freeze-dried materials. The 14C content was determined by combusting and collecting the CO2 for liquid scintillation counting. The material was found to be homogeneous to the extent of 2-4% (R.S.D.), which is comparable with the R.S.D. of the 14C measurements. The 14C concentration in the labelled material was 8190 ±220 Bq·kg-1 of carbon. It was concluded that bovine muscle prepared in this manner would be suitable for intercomparison exercises. The 14C level in unlabelled tissue was found to be 260 ±7 Bq·kg-1 of carbon, which is similar to the level of 14C previously determined in milk and both are consistent with levels measured in vegetation in Eastern Ontario

  16. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

  17. On the 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J; Miller, L; Kemper, K W

    2009-01-01

    The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at temperatures below 0.3 GK depends on the properties of two near threshold resonances in 18O, the 1- at 6.198 MeV and the 3- at 6.404 MeV. The alpha+14C Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for these resonances were determined using the alpha-transfer reactions 14C(7Li,t) and 14C(6Li,d) at sub-Coulomb energies. The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at low temperatures has been evaluated. Implications of the new reaction rate on the evolution of accreting helium white dwarfs and on the nucleosynthesis of low mass stars during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase are discussed.

  18. Behavior of 14C-BHC residues in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-(U-14C)-BHC was applied to rice plants grown in a pot and its fate in the growth, polishing and oil-extraction processes of the grain was investigated. The 14C-activity was absorbed and translocated widely in the plant and the recovery of applied 14C-activity in the straw and grain was about 2.8%, of which 9.4% was found in the brown rice. The % partitioning of 14C-residues in bran and polished rice was 12:88 and that in oil and oilcake was 37:63. Characterization of 14C-residues the presence of ?-BHC, pentachlorocyclohexene, trichlorobenzene and hydrophilic metabolites, whose proportions were different in the straw and grain. (Author)

  19. A modification to an enzymatic method for the preparation of (?-32P) ATP with a high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modification of the procedure reported by Johnson and Walseth for the preparation of (?-32P)ATP:(?-32P)GTP with a specific activity of more than 5000 Ci/mmol was made firstly, then it was used as the phosphate donor in the reaction catalyzed by the polynucleotide kinase, to transfer its radioactive phosphate to the 5'-position of the 3'-AMP, resulting (5'-32P)3'-ADP. After that, (5'-32P)3'-ADP was hydrolysed to (5'-32P)AMP under the catalysis of Nuclease P1, the late was then phosphorylated to produce (?-32P)ATP by the action of myokinase and pyruvate kinase. By this method, we firstly prepared (?-32P)ATP with a specific activity of more than 4000 Ci/mmol which was measured by HPLC analysis. (author)

  20. Biosynthesis of [14C]zearalenone from [1-14C]acetate by Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum'.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagler, W M; Mirocha, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Addition of [1-14C]acetate or [1,2-14C]acetate to actively growing cultures of Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum' on rice yielded zearalenone with a specific activity ranging between 1.63 and 46.5 microCi/mmol.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection studies using 14C UBT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of 14C is about 5,730 years, and it decays by emitting a low energy beta (â) particle of mean energy 49 KeV. The biological half life of 14C is 10 to 12 days. 14C is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, 14C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult 'gigantism'), and for diagnosis of Helicobacterpylori (H pylori), The discovery H Pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Since then H pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established, H pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. By the application of radiation much progress has been made worldwide in the field of medicine. This article presents the application of 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum, 14C UBT relies on the urease activity of H pylori to detect the presence of active infection. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai has developed 14C UBT method and already in regular practice in many hospitals across the country. Orally administered 14C urea will be hydrolyzed into ammonia (NH4) and 14C labelled carbon dioxide (14CO2). The presence of a significant amount of (14CO2) in the exhaled breath indicates active H pylori infection. 14C UBT is relatively inexpensive, is easy to perform, and does not require endoscopy. 14C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low, much lower than the radiation dose due to natural sources. Nearly 100 samples collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic persons of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka were analysed and the results with discussion are presented in this paper. (author)

  2. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Kähler, P.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-07-01

    The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater (DIC) is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, which is the time elapsed since a body of water has been in contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with ageing, i.e. the time component of circulation, and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". The latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere-ocean equilibration of 14C particularly in high latitudes where many water masses form. In the ocean's interior, preformed 14C-age behaves like a passive tracer. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. Here, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age. Between models, the variability of preformed 14C-age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combination of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics or gas exchange. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation, the choice of the gas-exchange constant from within the currently accepted range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age, it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a model's circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

  3. Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of bound (nonextractable) 14C residues from soil previously treated with [14C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

  4. Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

  5. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced 14C had doubled the 14C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO2 cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing 14C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing 14C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the 14C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, 14C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of 14C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  6. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  7. Bioevaluation of 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The patch was prepared from chromic phosphate 32P and silicone. Bioelimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals, and the therapeutic efficacy of two treatment schemes (single dose and fractionated dose) in an animal model of skin cancer were studied. Results: Based on the bioelimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single-dose therapeutic scheme showed a higher number of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: The 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for use in brachytherapy treatments

  8. Use of colloids of chromic [32P] phosphate in treatment of solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an intratumorally single dose of chromic [32P] phosphate for the treatment of solid tumors, studies of bioelimination, biodistribution, and therapeutic action were carried out. Only for comparative purposes were similar studies undertaken using a solution of sodium [32P] orthophosphate-gelatin. Results show that when sodium [32P] orthophosphate-gelatin was intratumorally injected, the percentage of total elimination, after 32 days of treatment, was equal to 85.90 ± 8.70%, with a higher percentage in urine (64.50 ± 13.70%) than in feces (21.40 ± 4.50%). In biodistribution studies, the greater percentage was found in bone (15.54 ± 2.21%), whereas only 2.51 ± 0.39% remained in the tumor. When chromic [32P] phosphate was intratumorally injected, we found that the total elimination was equal to 51.70 ± 6.90%, with a higher amount in feces (32.70 ± 4.80%) than in urine (19.00 ± 3.60%). Biodistribution studies demonstrated that 28.93 ± 1.30% was still in the tumor and 19.01 ± 1.30% of the injected activity was found in the liver. On the other hand, when therapeutic action was evaluated, no tumoral regression was observed. These results demonstrate that the colloid of chromic [32P] phosphate cannot be used in the treatment of solid tumors as it mobilizes from the injection point, delivering a high dose to the entire organism

  9. Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

  10. Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

  11. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous materials of human body, such as collagen fractions from teeth and bone, tissue, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans dead or alive, are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human tissue samples formed in this time ranges, we can establish a relation between their 14C concentrations and calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the drugs that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified by the analysis of their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination was applied to a forensic study; i.e., to two similar cases of murder. One of the two cases is for a dead body of a modern human who was killed in 1978 and buried under the floor of the house owned by the murderer. The body was excavated in 2004 according to the confession by the murderer. 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and compared with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C. The time of death of the body was estimated to be at around 1977, and her age was from 30 to 37 years old at that time. These estimations were consistent with the real values that were revealed after the case was solved by the confession of the real murderer who gave himself up to the police. For the other case, 14C analysis was also consistent with the fact revealed by police investigations as well as by the confession of the real murderer.

  12. Portal absorption of 14C after ingestion of spiked milk with 14C-phenanthrene, 14C-benzo[a]pyrene or 14C-TCDD in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Claire; Feidt, Cyril; Grova, Nathalie; Mpassi, Didier; Lichtfouse, Eric; Laurent, François; Rychen, Guido

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring widely in the terrestrial environment. In order to study the PAHs and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) transfer in the food chain, pigs have been fed with milk mixed either with 14C-phenanthrene, with 14C-benzo[a]pyrene or with 14C-TCDD. The analysis of portal and arterial blood radioactivity showed that both PAHs and TCDD were absorbed with a maximum concentration at 4–6 h after milk ing...

  13. Synthesis of 14C-labelled monoacidic metabolites of dithiopyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convenient methods for the selective hydrolysis of the thioester groups of dithiopyr to the corresponding carboxylic acid are described. 2-(Difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-5-[(methylthio)carbonyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridine-4-14C-carboxylic acid was obtained by simple potassium hydroxide hydrolysis of 14C-labelled dithiopyr. A more involved strategy was necessary for the preparation of the isomeric carboxylic acid 6-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-5-[(methylthio)carbonyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridine-4-14C-carboxylic acid. (author)

  14. Hemisynthesis of [3'-14C]-Taxotere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new route to semisynthetic Taxotere, 1, is described using the mixed anhydride obtained from 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride and [3-14C]-cinnamic acid 6, for the esterification of 7,10-O-diTroc-10-deacetylbaccatin III, 4. Hydroxyamination on the unsaturated C-2'-3' deprotection of the C-7,10-Troc groups of the ester 7 gave taxotere 1. [3'-14C]-Taxotere 9 (specific activity : 50 MCi/mmol) was obtained from [3-14C]-cinnamic acid 5' with a 5% yield. (Author)

  15. Atmospheric 14C and century-scale solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we show from maximum-entropy spectral analysis of a 9,600-yr high-precision 14C chronology that changes occur in the Sun's convective zone with a fundamental oscillatory mode of about 2.4 X 10-3 yr-1 (420-yr period). We also identify several harmonics. Previous searches for cyclicity in the atmospheric 14C record have yielded periods near 140 and 200 yr. We discuss the implications of a longer and more precise 14C record. (author)

  16. 14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

  17. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure ?-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method for the preparation of large amounts of enantiomerically pure ?-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan using the enzymatic resolution of the corresponding D,L-methyl ester is reported. The radiolabelled ?-methyl group was introduced using the ?-methylation of the lithium enolate of the Schiff base of L-tryptophan methyl ester. Hydrolysis of the Schiff base with 1 N HCl provided the D,L-methyl ester of ?-[14C]methyl tryptophan. Enantioselective enzymatic hydrolysis of the L-methyl ester by ?-chymotrypsin gave the enantiometrically pure ?-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan. The overall yield of this preparation was 33%. (author)

  18. Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-35S-cysteine and L-35S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity L-35 S-cysteine and L-35 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na235 SO4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-35 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na235 SO4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

  19. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  20. Method of preparing D-[U-14C?glucose and D-[U-14C?mannose from ?-[U-14C?glucan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial ?-[U-14C?glucan is hydrolyzed with 1M to 2M hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 80 to 100 degC for 2 to 4 hours; the solution shall be adjusted to pH 1 to 3 and epimerized at a temperature of 80 to 100 degC for 0.5 to 1 hour under the catalytic action of 0.1 to 2% molybdenic acid. The epimerization will result in an equilibrium mixture of D-[U-14C?glucose and D-[U-14C?mannose in a ratio of 3:1. Both compounds are very often used in the study of chemical and biochemical transformations of saccharides. (A.K.)

  1. Movement of 32P in sunflower plants inoculated with single and dual inocula of VAM fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower plants were inoculated with single and dual inocula of Glomus intraradix and Glomus mosseae. 32P-labelled phosphate was applied after sufficient infection was obtained in all treatments. Plants inoculated with dual inocula of the two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi showed significantly higher shoot weight than those inoculated with single inocula and control treatments. Of the 32P transported to the plants, the percentage of 32P transported to the shoot was 59.9 in G. intraradix + G. mosseae, 25.12 in G. intraradix, 33.31 in G. mosseae and 35.2 in uninoculated control. The present study reveals that the increased growth in plants inoculated with dual inocula compared to those inoculated with single inocula of VAM fungi may be due to the increased transfer of P to the shoot from the root. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Determination of basal and stimulated levels of inositol triphosphate in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies indicated that thrombin-stimulation of platelets prelabeled with [3H]inositol or [32P]orthophosphate results in an increase of radioactive inositol triphosphate, a substance thought to modulate the levels of free intracellular calcium. In the present study, we improved the method of resolution of inositol triphosphate from other compounds that are also labeled with [32P]orthophosphate using a combination of enzyme treatment and electrophoresis. We have further demonstrated that the specific activities of metabolic ATP and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (the precursor of inositol triphosphate) are identical in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets. It follows that the amount of inositol triphosphate is proportional to its radioactivity in the metabolic compartment of the cells. Using this protocol, the concentration of inositol triphosphate in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets were determined to be 1-4 and 10-30 pmol/108 cells, respectively

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of [-32P]ATP of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [?-32P] adenosine triphosphate is exceedingly important substrate in the end-labeling and sequencing of nucleic acids as well as in protein kinase reactions. [-32P]ATA is prepared from 1-?-glycerophosphate and ADP by a series of enzymatic reactions in the presence of NAD+ which is preferably regenerated by lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate. The product is separated by ion-exchange column chromatography on DEAE-sephadex A-25 Cl- form or by the preparation chromatography. The radio-chemical purity obtained is 96-97%. The yield of the product is >90% relative to 32P. The sample prepared by this method is comparable with the Amersham product. This method is rapid, simple and convenient

  4. Effect of Fe deficiency on uptake and transport of 32P in barley and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv. K19) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.ev. K68) plants were grown in sand culture at deficient (0.056 ppm) and optimal (5.6 ppm) levels of Fe supply. For uptake studies, the sand-grown plants were transferred to aerated solution cultures containing labelled-P (0.2 ?Ci 32P/L). After 48 hr, the radioactivity was measured in the different plant parts. Iron deficiency resulted in an enhancement in the uptake of 32P in barley and wheat roots on both per mg dry weight and per plant bases. Genotypic differences were observed in the transport of 32P to the tops under Fe-stress. The transport index was decreased in barley but enhanced in wheat. (author). 16 refs

  5. Exchange of Radioactive Phosphorus 32P between the Components of an Artificial Plant Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zarzycki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens and Carex pilosa Scop.; sases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L. Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Podus avium Mili., Aegopodiurti podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%.

  6. Radioactive microspheres labelled with 32P in the treatment of tumours of the parenchymatous organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was obtaining of radioactive microspheres with stable binding of the radionuclide, which could permanently remain in the target organ and would be distributed evenly in the healthy tissue and tumour providing a good uniformity of the irradiation field. Microspheres of strictly defined diameter were obtained by passing of a ion-exchange resin through standard sieves and by fractionated sedimentation. A high efficiency of the reaction of labelling of the microspheres with 32P-phosphate was achieved. Radioactive microspheres bound 32P permanently in vitro and in vivo. The ion-exchange resin was labelled also with radionuclides 99Tc or 131I using it for animal experiments. The microspheres labelled with 32P may be a promissing radiopharmaceutic agent for internal radiotherapy of tumours. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  7. Exchange of radioactive phosphorus 32P between the components of an artificial plant community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil) the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens) and Carex pilosa Scop.; cases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L.) Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Padus avium Mill., Aegopodium podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold) between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%. (author)

  8. Difference of 14C turnovers in brain and in transplanted glioma after intravenous injection of 14C-1-pyruvate rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 14 from 14C-1-pyruvate injected intravenously into glioma-transplanted rats was incorporated into various compounds in the brain and in the tumor. In the brain the majority of activity was found in CO2 (60%), and minor activities were found in alanine, lactate (15%), glutamate, and aspartate, with decreasing order, 5 min after injection. In the tumor, at 5 min. the largest activity was in lactate (56%), and lower activities were found in CO2 (24%), alanine, glutamate, and aspartate. The total 14C concentration in the tumor was twice that in the brain at 5 min and 15 min. The results was in accordance with the prediction that in brain, where the mitochondrial function is active, 14C-1-pyruvate will be oxidized completely into 14CO2, and that in tumor, where the mitochondrial function is insufficient, 14C-1-pyruvate will be converted only into 14C-lactate and prevent further degradation. It may be assumed that this difference in the turnover of 14C and 14C-1-pyruvate between brain and tumor could constitute a basis for the ''hot'' visualization of human brain tumor using cyclotron-produced 11C-1-pyruvate and positron-emission tomography. (orig.)

  9. Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

  10. Interstitial irradiation using 32P-chromic phosphate during resection of cardio-esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of 32P-chromic phosphate (32P-colloid) by stromal injection during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection. Methods: To 91 patients with clinically diagnosed cardio-esophageal carcinoma, infiltrative injection of 32P-colloid (296-370 MBq/10 ml) was administer either into the interstitial tissues neighboring to the site of lesion and the region of lymphatic drainage after resection of the tumor or, for those patients whose tumor could not be removed, 32P-colloid was injected into the tumor proper and the lymphatic drainage region. The control group included 99 patients with the same diagnosis, who were operated in the same period of time but not injected with 32P-colloid. The peri-operative complication, time and rate of lymphatic metastasis, and the post-operative survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year were followed. Results: No operative death occurred in both groups. The incidences of peri-operative complication were not different statistically between these two group (P>0.05). The time of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of mediastinal, supraclavicular ,and abdominal lymph node metastasis were all statistically different between these two groups (P0.05) between these two groups ,while the 3- and 5-year rates were significantly different (P32P-colloid during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection is a simple and safe procedure in controlling the post-operative lymphatic metastasis and has very fair clinical effectiveness in improving intermediate and late survival rates. (author)

  11. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte A, C

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  12. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  13. Determination of 14C content in fermentation alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measuring of activity in 14C of ethylic alcohol permits to distinguish fermentation alcohol from synthetic alcohol. This activity is used to determine the corresponding percentages of these alcohols in cases of mixture

  14. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  15. A simple synthesis of propionic-3-14C acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propionic-3-14C acid was prepared by methylation of tricarbethoxymethane and subsequent hydrolysis. This method avoids the problems of malonic ester synthesis. A pure monoalkyl derivative was obtained. (author)

  16. Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-70C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

  17. Whole body autoradiography with mice using 14C-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body autoradiography was performed using common histology equipment. Results were useful with some restrictions. 14C-thymidine and/or itsmetabolites were found in those tissues with high rate of mitosis. (Author)

  18. 14C in human diet in three Spanish locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C reach humans via the diet. In this study we present the results of diet samples from three locations type Spanish, Seville, Caceres and Tenerife. These diets are collected quarterly and historical dates back to early 2008.

  19. Incorporation of 32P and Growth of Pseudomonad UP-2 on n-Tetracosane

    OpenAIRE

    Zilber, I. Kirschner; Rosenberg, E; Gutnick, D.

    1980-01-01

    Cultures of the marine pseudomonad UP-2 growing on n-tetracosane contained both free cells and cells bound to the solid hydrocarbon. After separation by filtration through a Whatman no. 1 filter, the numbers of free and bound cells were estimated from the amount of 32P incorporated into each fraction and the determined value of 32P incorporation per viable cell in the filtrate (free cells). During the early exponential growth phase, over 80% of the cells were bound to large pieces of n-tetrac...

  20. Synoviorthesis of the knee joint with 32P-chromic phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-CrPO4 in colloid form has been used for radiosynoviorthesis. There were no acute or subacute side reactions observed. The therapy results were equal to those following 90Y colloid application: 60% very good to good results after 6 months. The substance can be kept on stock since it has a relatively long shelf-life. The cost reduction and the simplification of treatment planning have proved to be the most important advantages of 32P-CrPO4. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Mn deficiency on uptake, transport and distribution of 32P in cauliflower and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of 32P uptake, transport and distribution has been recorded in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis cv. Late Maghi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Marglobe) plants grown at deficient (0.00055 ppm) and optimal (0.55 ppm) levels of Mn supply in refined sand culture. Manganese deficiency enhanced the transport of 32P from roots to tops in both the species but the uptake and distribution pattern was found to vary with the species, plant parts and in terms of concentration and total uptake. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  2. The 32P uptake test in the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma - is the method obsolete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the 32P uptake test for the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma in 41 patients are reported. The sensitivity was 80%, the specifity 86%, if a count rate ratio of more than 1.4 between tumor and normal tissue was considered as pathological. Ratios between 1.4 and 1.6 ought to be considered as equivocal in which case specifity increases to 90%. The 32P uptake test still remains of method a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma. (orig.)

  3. Studies on degradation and excretion of 32P-methamidophos by lactating cattle, following oral application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-labelled methamidophos (thiophosphoric acid O,S-dimethylester amide) was orally applied to lactating cattle, with the dosage being 2 mg/kg body weight. The half-life of the active agent in blood serum was 10 +- 2 hours. As long as after six hours, up to 1 ppm of extracable 32P activity with components of unmetabolized active agent was recorded in vivo from blood and milk. Active agent was excreted also in urine. Its concentration declined rapidly after 24 hours, though clearly detectable quantities were still present in the circulation. Metabolites were not identified. Binding of methamidophos to proteins and pharmacokinetics measured are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

  5. A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  6. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  7. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of [35S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [35S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [35S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  8. Accumulation of (/sup 35/S)taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA); Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y. (Department of Pathological Neurobiology, Institute for Basic Research in Mental Retardation, Staten Island, NY, USA)

    1981-12-28

    Accumulation of (/sup 35/S)taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. (/sup 35/S)Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of (/sup 35/S)taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons.

  9. Anthropogenic influences on 14C activity level in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic influences on the 14C activity level in the environment are briefly discussed. The largest increase in 14C activity was due to nuclear weapon tests during the 1960s, when this activity doubled as compared to the 1963 natural level. Current releases of 14C from nuclear facilities are only about 10 % of natural production. Another anthropogenic effect is associated with CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (dilution of 14C in carbon isotopic mixture - Suess effect). Determination of 14C in various types of sample can enhance our knowledge about natural carbon cycling. Hence, radiocarbon provides tool for the calculation of the local/regional/global Suess effect or determination of carbon delay in various types of sinks. Our monitoring of atmospheric 14CO2 at sites with different stress from fossil fuel combustion is aimed to estimate local and regional Suess effect and associated phenomena. Extrapolated data from the Jungfraujoch monitoring station were used to establish a reference 'background' 14C activity level for the years of monitoring

  10. 14C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the 14C levels in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide 14C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen (17O), nitrogen (14N) and carbon (13C). Part of the 14C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO2, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of 14C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The 14C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background 14C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of 14C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the 14C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of 14C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of 14C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of 14C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of 14C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada

  11. Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, B.; Boos, W.

    1989-01-01

    At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose (H.M. Giaeyer, B.O. Styrvold, I. Kaasen, and A.R. Strøm, J. Bacteriol. 170:2841-2849, 1988). This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria o...

  12. Bioavailability in rats of bound 14C residues from corn plants treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn plants grown to the silage stage were treated with 14C ring-labeled and unlabeled atrazine. The aerial portion of the plants was exhaustively extracted with solvents and the extracted material containing bound 14C residues was fed to rats. For comparison extracted material from control plants fortified with [14C]atrazine was also fed to rats. After 4 days, 88% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 10% in the urine from rats fed plant material containing bound 14C residues. In contrast, only 32% of the dose was eliminated in the feces while 60% was voided via the urine when the corn material fortified with [14C]atrazine was fed to rats. Most of the 14C residues in feces from rats fed bound diet remained nonextractable and their amounts and nature were similar to those in the corn material. Atrazine added to the corn material before feeding was metabolized effectively when consumed by rats. The data demonstrated that bound residues in corn plant treated with atrazine have a low degree of bioavailability in rats

  13. Studies on the shelf-life of L-35S methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study conducted on the shelf -life of L-35S- methionine, an important radiotracer used in protein synthesis experiments is reported. Aliquots of 35S-methionine from bulk sample prepared by us were kept under chosen conditions of storage and were analysed by paper chromatography coupled with autoradiography. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of 35S-methionine at various time interval spanning over a period of about one half-life of 35S radioisotope (87.4 days) was determined. It was observed that the RCP came down only to about 89% from the original value of 96% at the end of the period of study under the chosen conditions. (author)

  14. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. The absorbed dose to bone marrow in the treatment of polycythaemia by 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of absorbed dose to bone marrow in the treatment of polycythaemia by 32P, based on the determination of activities in bone and marrow biopsies taken at various times from 1 to 27 days after injection of the radionuclide. Activities were measured in the cortex, trabeculation and marrow of biopsies taken from the iliac crest, and also in sternal marrow. The biological half-life of 32P in marrow from the iliac crest was found to be nine days; that derived for sternal marrow was lower, but the difference was not statistically significant; the value for trabecular bone was 27 days. The biological half life for 32P in the body, as measured by whole-body counting, was 39 days. Calculations of the dose-rate to trabecular marrow have been made by a method based on that of Whitwell and Spiers (1971, Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the French Society for Radioprotection, Grenoble, France, 401), but modified to allow for the presence of 32P in the marrow as well as in trabecular bone. The dose-rates followed a single exponential decay with a half-life of 6.7 days. The integrated dose including that during the first day was 24 rad per mCi injected. (author)

  16. Synthesis and rapid purification of {sup 32}P-labeled photoactive analogs of farnesyl pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turek, T.C.; Gaon, Igor; Distefano, M.D. [Minnesota Univ., Chemistry Dept., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    To study the binding sites of protein prenyltransferases, we have synthesized photoaffinity labeling analogs that contain photoactive benzophenone units. Here we describe the syntheses and a method for the rapid purification of two {sup 32}P-labeled analogs; phosphorylation was accomplished by reacting the corresponding alcohols with CCl{sub 3}CN and [{sup 32}P]-H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in CH{sub 3}CN and the purification was performed using C{sub 18} reversed-phase cartridges. Analog [{sup 32}P]-3a was prepared from 2.4 mg of starting alcohol and was obtained in 3.3% yield, 50% radiochemically purity and 480 Ci/mol specific activity. Further purification by preparative thin layer chromatography yielded material with a radiochemical purity of 90%. A second analog, [{sup 32}P], was prepared from 1.2 mg of alcohol and was obtained in 1.0% yield, 54% radiochemical purity and 700 Ci/mol specific activity. Further purification by preparative thin layer chromatography yielded material with a radiochemical purity of 91%. (author).

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Labeling of specific proteins in rat ovarian plasma membranes with [?-32P]GTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report evidence that [?-32P]GTP preferentially labels two proteins in rat ovary and parotid membranes that differ structurally from the proteins that are substrates for ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin and which are thought to be involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP. (Auth.)

  2. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. A pre-concentration technique for determination of 32P in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial 32P (T1/2 = 14.28 days) can be used to trace behavior of a major nutrient, phosphate, in aquatic systems. Although liquid scintillation or Cerenkov counting of high energy betas of 32P is very sensitive, its usefulness for low level activities is limited by inefficient pre-concentration techniques. Precipitation of ZrPO4 was found is an excellent method for pre-concentration of 32P from natural waters. After acidification (pH ? 2) of a 1-liter sample, about 1 ml 20 mM phosphate carrier is added and equilibrated with natural phosphates. Excess Zr carrier (about 40 mg) is then added to fully precipitate both the natural and added phosphates in the sample. The ZrPO4 precipitates are collected onto a Whatman GF/B type filter which becomes translucent in Ultima Gold A/B cocktail. Constantly high 32P recoveries (about 97%) were obtained through the entire procedure for hundreds of samples during a hydrologic tracer test. Furthermore, about one dozen samples per hour could be processed, and when counting with a portable liquid scintillation counter the results are about 500-fold more sensitive than direct Cerenkov counting. (author)

  4. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  5. Counting rate of spherical ion exchange resin containing 32P homogeneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity from a spherical ion exchange resin containing radioisotopes homogeneously was calculated. For the calculations a mean distance defined by the length from an arbitrary point in the sphere to the spherical surface was used. The radioactivity to be radiated from the point in the mean distance and observed at the surface of the sphere was estimated in the form of integrals, considering a relative intensity obtained from the use of the mean distance. The integral was performed from the center of the sphere to the radius using a numerical method. Homogeneous adsorption of 32P in a spherical ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-425) was carried out as H2PO4- labeled with 32P. ?-rays of 32P transmitting through the resin were measured. The numbers of 32P adsorbed in the sphere were calculated from the concentration decrease of a H2PO4- solution in an adsorption flask. The estimated radioactivity was in good agreement with the observed one. (auth.)

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  8. The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32P in the form of carrier free KH232PO4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in ?% arcsin converted from 32P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

  9. The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter Extends into the Transcribed Region

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, Sandra; Rothnie, Helen M.; Chen, Gang; HE, XIAOYUAN; Hohn, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A 60-nucleotide region (S1) downstream of the transcription start site of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA can enhance gene expression. By using transient expression assays with plant protoplasts, this activity was shown to be at least partially due to the effect of transcriptional enhancers within this region. We identify sequence motifs with enhancer function, which are normally masked by the powerful upstream enhancers of the 35S promoter. A repeated CT-rich motif is involved both in e...

  10. Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenström, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

  11. 17 CFR 240.14c-7 - Providing copies of material for certain beneficial owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...of material for certain beneficial owners. 240.14c-7 Section 240.14c-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  12. 17 CFR 240.14c-4 - Presentation of information in information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Presentation of information in information statement. 240.14c-4 Section 240.14c-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  13. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Annual report to be furnished security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  14. 17 CFR 240.14c-2 - Distribution of information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false Distribution of information statement. 240.14c-2 Section 240.14c-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  15. 17 CFR 240.14c-6 - False or misleading statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false False or misleading statements. 240.14c-6 Section 240.14c-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  16. Synthesis of [16-14C]trichodiene the precursor to trichothecenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of radiolabelled trichodiene with 14C at the olefinic methyl (C-16) is described. The isotope was introduced using a 14C-Wittig reagent prepared in situ from triphenyl phosphine and 14C-methyliodide. (author)

  17. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

  18. Experimental study of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle on human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the therapeutic and toxic effects of 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactic) acid (32P-CP-PLLA) microparticle intratumoral administration into BALB/c nude mice bearing BxPc-3 human pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty four nude mice bearing tumors were injected with 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 M Bq 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively. The relative tumor growth rates were observed every day, and white blood cells, platelets and body weight were measured. At 14 d after administration, the tumors were removed, histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Results: The relative tumor growth rates of each treatment group was lower than 40%. Histological examination showed the degenerative necrosis at the site nearby the microparticle. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Microvessel density (MVD) and the expression of Bcl-2 in treated group were lower than those in control group.In contrast, the expression of bax in treated group were higher than those in control group. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein significantly decreased in the treatment group,which were 3.83 ± 0.43, 0.47 ± 0.13, 1.10 ± 0.32, 2.19 ± 0.57 for 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 MBq 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively (t=2.36-2.77, P<0.05). MVD were 31.2 ± 2.3, 23.8 ± 1.5, 14.8 ±0.8, 11.0 ± 1.2, respectively. Dose dependence was observed in both HE and IHC staining after 14 d treatment (t=2.30-2.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Intratumoral injection of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle might be a safe, easy and effective radionuclide interventional therapy for pancreatic carcinoma. (authors)

  19. Studies on absorption, conversion of sulfate by rape seedling and accumulation of glucosinolate in rape seed by using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings grown in sandy culture absorbed 35SO42- from cultural solution rapidly and the 35S was incorperated into glucosinolates, amino acids and proteins. Percentage of glucosinolates-35S in extractable 35S with 70% methanol declined and those of amino acid-35S rose regularly with time after labelling. The relative content of 35S incorperated into bound constituents as well as extractable components was constant after 5 days of labelling. From two weeks after flowering, the relative content of GS-35S in pods and seeds increased linearly with time until eight weeks after flowering when all 35S extracted with 70% methanol in seeds were in form of glucosinolate. The amount of 35S-GS per pod increased linearly from the first week to the eighth week after flowering. It seems that the accumulation of GS in seeds is related to the accumulation of dry matter in seeds

  20. Distribution of radioactivity from 14C-formaldehyde in pregnant mice and their fetuses.

    OpenAIRE

    Katakura, Y; Kishi, R; Okui, T; Ikeda, T; Miyake, H.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of 14C after the administration of 14C-formaldehyde was studied in pregnant mice by a whole body low temperature autoradiographic technique. The concentrations of formaldehyde and its metabolites in maternal and fetal blood and tissues were determined in unsectioned tissues by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. The binding of 14C from 14C-formaldehyde to cells and DNA in maternal and fetal mouse liver was also measured. Radioactivity of 14C deriving from 14C-formaldehyde...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice. Methods: Mice received one dose of 14C-urea orally. 14C concentrations in blood, organs and excrements of mice were measured by a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Results: Mice received one dose of 2.96 MBq/kg of 14C-urea orally, the blood concentration-time curve conformed to two compartment open model, T1/2(?) was 0.72 h, T1/2(?) was 5.15 h, Tmax was 0.11 h, Cmax was 1.57 kBq/ml, plasma clearance was 0.617 L·kg-1·h-1, respectively. Measurements conducted at 0.25, 2, 24 h after deglutition, respectively. In the 12 organs measured, radioactivity was found most intensive in kidney, liver, lung and spleen, less in heart, stomach, intestines and muscles, and least in brain and fat tissue. The peak was found at 2 h in lung. Radioactivity in the 12 organs measured reduced by time in 24 h but relatively higher concentration standing in liver. In 24 h, excretion via urine was 45.45%, stool excretion 19.30%, and that was 64.75% of intake dosage in total. Conclusion: Orally administrated 14C-urea will be quickly absorbed and cleaned out, mainly via urine, no specific accumulation in 12 organs was found

  2. Whole-body autoradiographic study on the distribution of pivampicillin-14C labeled at the ampicillin and ester moieties in mice, as compared with those of ampicillin-14C, formaldehyde-14C and pivalic acid-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of pivampicillin-14C labeled at the phenylglycyl and the oxymethylene moieties and ampicillin-14C were investigated by whole-body autoradiography after oral administration to mice. The distribution of formaldehyde-14C and pivalic acid-14C was also investigated for comparison. The results revealed that, i) pivampicillin is absorbed from intestine much more rapidly and to a larger extent than ampicillin, ii) the distribution pattern was, however, the same for the two drugs, being mainly restricted to the excretory organs such as the liver, kidney, gall and urinary bladders and intestinal tract, and iii) the oxymethylene moiety, the ester group, showed a completely different distribution pattern, being distributed in the bone marrow, pancreas, intestinal mucosa, spleen and thymus; the pattern being the same as that after administration of formaldehyde-14C. It was therefore suggested that pivampicillin is hydrolyzed in vivo to form ampicillin and formaldehyde before entering into the general circulation and that formaldehyde formed is partly incorporated into the general metabolic pathways in the tissues of a rapid cell division or protein synthesis. Pivalic acid, which is to be liverated simultaneously, was shown to be well absorbed, distributed in the bone, kidney, olfactory bulb, salivary gland and some adipose tissues and finally excreted into the urine mostly as its conjugated forms. (author)

  3. In vitro synthesis and purification of UDP-[14C] galacturonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectins comprise a major component of the cell wall and much research has focused on degradation of pectins during ripening and senescence. However, little research has been conducted on pectin synthesis, partly due to a lack of commercial availability of UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid for use as a substrate in assaying galacturonan synthase. We report on the modification and integration of several procedures to synthesize UDP-[14C] galacturonic acid from commercially available UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid. A microsomal pellet containing UDP-D-glucuronate-4-epimerase was extracted from 5-day-old mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus) and radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.) by ultracentrifugation at 30,000 rpm for 50 min. The UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid produced was separated from remaining UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and other products by electrophoresis in pyridine:acetate:H2O on silica gel. Spots were detected by autoradiography, eluted with 80% ethanol, and purified using anion exchange chromatography

  4. Determination of 14C in liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to establish the parameters to determine the activity of total 14C in liquid radioactive waste by using the liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. Carbon-14 has been recognized as one of the main dose contributors in future release scenarios from the radioactive waste repository. The total 14C present in the sample is determined in the CO2 form through the acid treatment and oxidation. The CO2 absorption method is quick, inexpensive, and simple. The CO2 is absorbed in a solution of NaOH, which an aliquot is taken and mixed to scintillation cocktail. The activity of the total 14C is determined using a optimized counting window. Effective radiochemical yield was determined using sucrose and urea standards, showing a value about 50 % for both standards. (author)

  5. Rapid, high-resolution 14C chronology of ooids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupré, Steven R.; Roberts, Mark L.; Burton, Joshua R.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-06-01

    Ooids are small, spherical to ellipsoidal grains composed of concentric layers of CaCO3 that could potentially serve as biogeochemical records of the environments in which they grew. Such records, however, must be placed in the proper temporal context. Therefore, we developed a novel acidification system and employed an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) with a gas accepting ion source to obtain radiocarbon (14C) chronologies extending radially through ooids within one 8-h workday. The method was applied to ooids from Highborne Cay, Bahamas and Shark Bay, Australia, yielding reproducible 14C chronologies, as well as constraints on the rates and durations of ooid growth and independent estimates of local 14C reservoir ages.

  6. Phosphorus absorption (32P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free 32P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to 32P injection. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during production of H332Po4 and effective reduction of 35S release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during the production of H332PO4 was characterized in order to reduce 35S release from the radioisotope production laboratory. An air sample was evacuated from the cell in which the H332PO4 production was being carried out, and collected in a sample gas reservoir. Gaseous sulfur species contained in the sample was condensed in a cold trap maintained at -180 degree C and analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was the only sulfur species detected. Equilibrium constant calculations showed that SO2 would be expected to be the predominant species produced by reactions of sulfur molecules (Sn : n = 2 ? 8) with oxygen in air. Release of 35SO2 was remarkably reduced by revised production procedures that prevent the reaction between the sulfur vapor and oxygen. (4 figs., 1 tab.)

  8. Incorporation of (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of (2-14C)acetate and (1-14C)palmitate into the lipids of washed ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa was followed up to 4 and 2 hr respectively. There was significant incorporation of acetate into the total lipids both in the presence and absence of glucose in the medium. The presence of glucose (0.5%) in the medium significantly stimulated the incorporation of acetate into the sperm lipids at 2 hr. Inclusion of 3% bovine serum albumin in the incubation medium significantly stimulated the acetate incorporation at 4 hr whereas no such effect was observed at 2 hr of incubation. The incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids was significantly high in the presence of glucose and was highest at 1 hr of incubation. No incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate was observed in the absence of glucose. The greater extent of palmitate incorporation than acetate suggested that the de novo synthesis of lipids using 14C-acetate was comparatively lower than utilization of 14-palmitate for esterification with sperm lipids in buffaloes. (author)

  9. AMS of {sup 14}C at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. [ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    At the ETH/PSI AMS facility {sup 14}C test measurements have been performed at low terminal voltages of 0.5 and 1 MV in order to study the feasibility of AMS with very small accelerators. These experiments have demonstrated that interfering molecules ({sup 13}CH and {sup 12}CH{sub 2}) in charge states 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} can be destroyed in an adequate Ar gas stripper. These new results imply the feasibility of a new generation of very small accelerator systems for {sup 14}C. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  10. Origin of the anomalous long lifetime of 14C

    CERN Document Server

    Maris, P; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Nam, H; Dean, D J

    2011-01-01

    We report the microscopic origins of the anomalously suppressed beta decay of 14C to 14N using the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) with the Hamiltonian from chiral effective field theory (EFT) including three-nucleon force (3NF) terms. The 3NF induces unexpectedly large cancellations within the p-shell between contributions to beta decay, which reduce the traditionally large contributions from the NN interactions by an order of magnitude, leading to the long lifetime of 14C.

  11. Causes of an AD 774-775 14C increase

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, Adrian L; 10.1038/nature11695

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric 14C production is a potential window into the energy of solar proton and other cosmic ray events. It was previously concluded that results from AD 774-775 are orders of magnitude greater than known solar events. We find that the coronal mass ejection energy based on 14C production is much smaller than claimed, but still substantially larger than the maximum historical Carrington Event of 1859. Such an event would cause great damage to modern technology, and in view of recent confirmation of superflares on solar-type stars, this issue merits attention.

  12. 14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rauws, E A; Van Royen, E A; Langenberg, W; Woensel, J V; Vrij, A A; Tytgat, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled breath of Campylobacter pylori culture positive individuals within 20-30 minutes. Likelihood analysis reve...

  13. Organic 14C activity in an abyssal marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that one measure of transport rates and residence times of organic carbon within the various organic carbon pools in the ocean is to follow perturbations from the 1952-58 and 1961-62 atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests on the natural 14C activities of living, detrital and dissolved organic matter. Measurements of the 14C activity of the total sedimentary organic carbon are here reported in an abyssal red clay, as no such data were available for this organic pool. (author)

  14. Structure of newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans and (35S)-proteoglycan turnover products of cartilage explant cultures from dogs with experimental osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of newly synthesized proteoglycans from explant cultures of cartilage from joints subjected to transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (osteoarthritic) and from normal (non- or sham-operated) joints was examined. The structure of the products of proteoglycan turnover was also examined using explants of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage maintained in culture for a 48 h chase period. The findings were as follows: Newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans extracted from cartilage explants from osteoarthritic joints whether examined 3 weeks, 3 months, or 6 months after surgery were larger than those from corresponding normal cartilage. This can be explained by the synthesis in osteoarthritic cartilage of abnormally long chondroitin sulfate chains on newly synthesised proteoglycans. The extracts also contained a newly formed small proteoglycan species that was unable to interact with hyaluronic acid. The proportion of this species was higher in osteoarthritic cartilage compared with normal, examined 3 weeks after surgery, but was generally absent from cartilage obtained 3 and 6 months after surgery. Compared with controls, a smaller proportion of the (35S)-proteoglycans released into the maintenance medium of explant cultures of osteoarthritic cartilage during a 48 h chase period was able to interact with hyaluronic acid. However, although furnished with longer (35S)-glycosaminoglycan chains, these proteoglycans were smaller than those from control explants

  15. Incorporation of U-14C-glucose into the lipids U-14C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of U-14C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with 14C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The 14C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. (author)

  16. Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-?-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ?M, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ?M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

  17. The uptake and metabolism of 35S02 in plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide were exposed simultaneously to 35S02. The total quantity of gas taken up, and its distribution between a surface leachate, an ethanol-soluble fraction and an insoluble fraction were compared. The sensitive Medicago sativa took up more gas per unit leaf area than Phaseolus vulgaris or two strains of Lolium perenne (S24, and the native 'Hemlmshore' strain). Fifteen to thirty-eight percent of the radioactivity was removed from all leaves by leaching, and this proportion changed little with time. The leachate contained 35S032-and 35S042-. The proportion of 35S032-was greatest in P.vulgaris and least in M. sativa. The internal radioactivity was largely soluble in L. perenne, but insoluble in M. sativa. In P. vulgaris, most soluble activity was found in expanding leaves. Little difference in the uptake or metabolism of 35S02 was found in the two Lolium strains. The results are discussed with reference to possible roles of 'avoidance' and 'tolerance' in determining resistance to S02. (author)

  18. Biological fate of 32P malathion in gallus domesticus (Desi poultry birds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this study, a minor surgical technique was developed for the separation of urine and faeces in birds and fate of 32P malathion was studied, following a single oral dose of 394 mg/kg. The birds showed characteristic signs and symptoms of organophosphorus poisoning and the results suggested that the compound is rapidly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, significant quantities being detected in plasma after 0.5 h of ingestion. Highest concentration of 32P in various organs decreased and at 48 h, it was not detected except in liver, kidney, lung and spleen when only traces were observed. The cumulative urinary and faecal excretion study revealed that within 24 h 90% is rapidly excreted mainly via the urine and only small amounts in the faeces. Metabolism studies showed that the compound is quickly metabolised. Because of the rapid turnover of the compound, this study indicated that the accumulation of this compound is unlikely in the body system

  19. Analysis of DNA adducts by 32P labeling and thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a description of a recently developed 32p-postlabeling assay for covalent carcinogen/mutagen-DNA adducts. Various versions of the assay are described that exhibit different properties, such as sensitivity of adduct detection. Studies of covalent carcinogen-DNA interactions have typically employed radiolabeled compounds to detect and quantitate the formation of DNA adducts. In order to extend laboratory studies of genotoxic damage to chemicals that are not readily available in radioactive form, several new techniques have been reported. These include fluorometric procedures, immunoassays, electrophore labeling, and biochemical 32p labeling. The authors suggest that the latter approach is distinct from the other approaches by its rather general applicability to adducts of known or unknown origin and structure

  20. Formation of 32P-labelled Polyphosphates in Reactor-irradiated Solutions of Orthophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, JØrgen Folkvard; Pagsberg, Palle BjØrn

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate were reactor irradiated and analysed by electrophoresis. The resulting distributions of 32P-activity in phosphorus oxyanions resemble the ones obtained with reactor-irradiated solid phosphates. Even in dilute solutions, polymers are formed; their total yield increases with the concentration of the irradiated solution and varies in a complicated way with the pH. These observations and some experiments with addition of radical scavengers indicate that oxidation of the 32P-recoils by OH-radicals is an important step in the polymerization. It is suggested that the actual formation of a P&z.sbnd;O&z.sbnd;P bridge takes place as an addition of a Lewis acid to a lone pair of electrons on a phosphate ion.

  1. Contribution of Sewage Sludge to Phosphorus Nutrition of Tomato Plants:Using 32P as Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to assess the benefits of amending sandy soil with different rates of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge (SS) in terms of its contribution to phosphorus nutrition of tomato plants using 32P as tracer. Soil were amended with four rates of sewage sludge equivalent to 20,40,60 and 80 t/ha. Tomato seedling were transplanted followed by the application of 32P-labelled KH2PO4. Dry matter yield, plant tissue and soil phosphorus concentration and phosphorus uptake were measured after one month of sowing. Dry matter production, plant tissue P concentration and P uptake and soil P have increased significantly as the sludge application rate increased. The increase was higher in irradiated than in non-irradiated sewage sludge, however, the differences aren't rate for both irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge

  2. Single-Well Technique using 32P for Determining Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic method for determining the direction, ?, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ?. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

  3. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

  4. Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

  5. Circadian rhythm of pineal uptake of 32P in domestic fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of radioactive phosphorus by the pineal gland in White Leghorn cockerels (Gallus domesticus) showed a diurnal variation with maxima in the light phase and minima in the dark phase of the light: dark cycle. Constant light caused the rhythm to disappear while constant dark had no effect other than lowering the amplitude of the variations. These data indicate that the rhythm in pineal uptake of 32P is circadian. (author)

  6. Formation of 32P-labelled Polyphosphates in Reactor-irradiated Solutions of Orthophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate were reactor irradiated and analysed by electrophoresis. The resulting distributions of 32P-activity in phosphorus oxyanions resemble the ones obtained with reactor-irradiated solid phosphates. Even in dilute solutions, polymers are formed; their total yield increases with the concentration of the irradiated solution and varies in a complicated way with the pH. These observations and some experiments with addition of radical scavengers indicate that ...

  7. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  8. Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose. This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria of a mutant (DF214) that could not metabolize glucose. The total yield of radiochemically pure trehalose from glucose was routinely more than 50%

  9. Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

  10. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32P exchange technique. (author)

  11. Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

  12. DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([?- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

  13. Screening method of varietal resistance to planthoppers labelled with radioisotope 32P; pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The screening method of varietal resistance on the planthoppers has generally been evaluated as a reaction of plant after infesting insects. However, feeding amount of insects to the varieties was investigated in this experiment. The new method using 32P for rice varietal resistance to planthoppers was carried out through the following method. Insects tested were caged for a few hours on the plant which has absorbed 32P solution in small vials for 24-48 hours. After feeding, insects were killed in the refrigerator with formalin solution, and then were measured by the feeding amount as a count per minute (CPM) with the G.M. Counter. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The optimum amount of H3PO4 solution was found to be 2-3 ml. 2. Radioactivity of 0.7 ?Ci.32P was sufficient to check varietal difference of feeding amount by the brown planthopper. 3. Radioisotope was found from the body of insects but not in the cuticular layer nymphs cast off. (author)

  14. Dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carla C.; Moralles, Mauricio; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, IPEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Centro do Reator de Pesquisas, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN, CP 11049, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, IPEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from {sup 32}P-loaded glass microspheres and also from {sup 90}Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

  15. Dose-rate distribution of 32P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from 32P-loaded glass microspheres and also from 90Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of 32P and 90Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the 32P and 90Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

  16. Dose Assessment of Phosphorus-32 (32P for the Treatment of Recurrent Pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nazempoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pterygium is a wing-shaped, vascular, fleshy growth that originates from the conjunctiva and can spread into the corneal limbus and beyond. Beta irradiation after bare sclera surgery of primary pterygium is a simple, effective, and safe treatment, which reduces the risk of local recurrence. Materials and Methods Dosimetric components of strontium-90 (90Sr, phosphorous-32 (32P, and ruthenium-106 (106Ru, in form of ophthalmic applicators, were evaluated, using the Monte Carlo method. Results The obtained results indicated that 32P applicator could deliver higher doses (about 10 Gy to a target, located within a close distance from the surface, compared to 90Sr and 106Ru; it also delivered a lower dose to normal tissues. Conclusion The risk of pterygium has increased given the geographical location and climate of Iran. Spread of dust in the country over the past few years has also contributed to the rising rate of this condition. Our results showed that using 32P applicator is a cost-effective method for pterygium treatment.

  17. Method of preparing 14C-labelled aldopentoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation is based on epimerization of the initial 14C-labelled D- or L-aldopentose in the catalytic presence of molybdic acid. The aldopentoses formed show unchanged sense of optical rotation relative to the initial aldopentose, unchanged order of carbon atoms and specific activity. (J.P.)

  18. Determination of extractable and nonextractable radioactivity from small field plots 45 and 95 weeks after treatment with [14C]dicamba, (2,4-dichloro[14C]phenoxy)acetic acid, [14C]triallate, and [14C]trifluralin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of ring-labeled [14C]dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid), ring-labeled [14C]-2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], [2-14C]triallate [S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl) diisopropylthiocarbamate], and ring-labeled [14C]trifluralin (?,?,?-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) was studied under field conditions at rates of 1 kg/ha in small sandy loam plots. Duplicate plots were sampled to a depth of 10 cm after 45 and 95 weeks and extracted with aqueous acetonitrile to determine amounts of extractable radioactivity. The extracted soils were then oxidatively combusted to determine nonextractable, or bound, radioactivity. After 45 weeks, soluble radioactivity recovered from the dicamba-, 2,4-D-, triallate-, and trifluralin-treated plots was <1, 2, 50, and 77% of that applied, while the nonextractable activity accounted for 2, 10, 15, and 10% of that applied. After 95 weeks, <1, 1, 16, and 38% of the applied radioactivity were, on the average, extractable from the dicamba-, 2,4-D-, triallate-, and trifluralin-treated plots, while 3, 6, 30, and 22%, respectively, remained in a solvent nonextractable form. 31 references, 4 tables

  19. Mineralization of 14C-labeled agrochemicals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labeled compounds were used to study the mineralization of methamidophos, 2,4-D and metsulfuron in soil. Mineralization rate was influenced by the type of soil, concentration of chemical in the soil, the initial soil microbial population and the nature of the chemical. (author)

  20. Physical Research Laboratory radiocarbon 14C dates : CS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C dates of archaeological samples measured at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad are presented. Samples were converted into methane and measured in gas proportional counters. Ninety-five percent activity of NBS oxalic acid was used as modern standard. The dates in years B.P. are given for each sample based on the half-life values of 5568 +- 30 years and 5730 +- 40 years, the latter within parenthesis. The dates are not calibrated for 14C/12C variations. To convert the dates into AD/BC scale, 1950 AD should be used as reference year. A number of 14C dates (PRL-81, -83, -67, -68) now confirm that the Painted Grey Ware culture extended upto the 3rd century BC. Some of the dates from Barkhera (PRL-113), Bateshwar (PRL-200), Bhimbetka (PRL-17) and Koldihawa (PRL-100, 101) are older than normally expected, probably indicative of some hitherto unknown basal cultures in these regions. 14C dates on in situ Megalithic materials do not seem to go beyond 200 BC. (author)

  1. Stanovení úrovn? aktivity 14C v biot? okolí JE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sv?tlík, Ivo; Michálek, V.; Tomášková, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 16, 3/4 (2008), s. 82-88. ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAAX00130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C * nuclear power plants * biota Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality

  2. Biomonitoring of 14C in the vicinity of NPPs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sv?tlík, Ivo; Molnár, M.; Svingor, E.; Rinyu, L.; Futó, I.; Michálek, V.

    Brasov : IRPA, 2007, s. 1-10. [IRPA Regional Congress for Central and Eastern Europe. Brasov (RO), 24.09.2007-28.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C excess * Suess effect * biota monitoring * nuclear power plants Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  3. Residues of 14C-lindane in stored faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 70% of the applied 14C-lindane penetrated into stored faba beans during 30 weeks. The percentage of bound residues in the grains did not exceed 3%. Feeding of the bound residues to mice considerably reduced body weight gain. (author)

  4. Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 346±79 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250?Ci/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K2,1, K1,2) and compartments pool size (V1, V2) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

  5. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

  6. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  7. Synthesis of [sup 14]C-radiolabeled ractopamine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terando, N.H. (DowElanco, Greenfield Labs., Greenfield, IN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Ractopamine HC1 was uniformly labeled with carbon-14 in one of two phenyl rings as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. The six-step synthesis was completed in a 14% yield. Product instability on silica gel complicated purification, but development of a chromatographic method afforded ractopamine HCl-[sup 14]C with a radiochemical purity of 98.2%. (author).

  8. Synthesis of 14C-radiolabeled ractopamine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ractopamine HC1 was uniformly labeled with carbon-14 in one of two phenyl rings as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. The six-step synthesis was completed in a 14% yield. Product instability on silica gel complicated purification, but development of a chromatographic method afforded ractopamine HCl-14C with a radiochemical purity of 98.2%. (author)

  9. Production of a negative 14C beam from tantalum carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain several tens nano Amps negative 14C beam for the Orsay MP Tandem in good conditions of yield and safety, a method for fabrication of polycristalline Ta carbides (Ta2C, TaC) has been developped, allowing only one handling

  10. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-12-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  11. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  12. Electron microscopic autoradiography of 35S during dentinogenesis in young cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of 35S from the dental pulp to the predentin and the dentin was studied by means of quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography in the tooth-germs of new-born cats following intravenous injection of 35S. Autoradiographs at 5 minutes, 20 minutes and 5 hours after injection consistently showed the uptake of 35S by the Golgi apparatus, indicating that the apparatus is a site of sulfation of the mucopolysaccharides in the predentin and dentin. At 5 hours, silver grains aggregated in the cytoplasm of the odontoblastic process and the predentin. No silver grains were observed in the Golgi areas, and the odontoblastic process was associated with the elongated dense vesicles which were formed by the Golgi apparatus. At 24 hours after injection, a random distribution of many silver grains was observed throughout the predentin and the interodontoblastic space. (auth.)

  13. Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

    2001-02-23

    We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of the invasion of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} and bomb {sup 14}C into the atmosphere and surface oceans. Therefore the {Delta}{sup 14}C data that are produced in this study can be used to validate the ocean uptake of fossil fuel CO2 in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. This study takes advantage of the quasi-conservative nature of {sup 14}C as a water mass tracer by using {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in corals to identify changes in the shallow circulation of the Pacific. Although the data itself provides fundamental information on surface water mass movement the true strength is a combined approach which is greater than the individual parts; the data helps uncover deficiencies in ocean circulation models and the model results place long {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in a dynamic framework which helps to identify those locations where additional observations are most needed.

  14. Cosmogenic 35S: A unique tracer to Antarctic atmospheric chemistry and the polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Dominguez, Gerardo; Savarino, Joel; Thiemens, Mark

    2011-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 35S (half life ˜87 d) exists in both 35SO2 gas and 35SO42- aerosol phase in the atmosphere. Cosmogenic 35S fulfils a unique niche in that it has an ideal half-life for use as a tracer of atmospheric processes, possesses a gas phase precursor and undergoes gas to particle conversion, providing a chronometer that complements other measurements of radiogenic isotopes of different half lives and chemical properties. Based on radiogenic 35S measurements and concomitant model calculations, we demonstrate that 35S is a unique tracer to understand stratospheric-tropospheric air mass transport dynamics and the atmospheric oxidation capacity on a short time scale. Reported are the first measurements of 35S contained in SO42- aerosols (bulk and size aggregated) at Antarctica. 35SO42- concentrations at Dome C and Dumont D'Urville exhibit summer maxima and winter minima with a secondary winter peak. Higher oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and long range transport of mid latitude air increases 35SO42- activity in summer whereas a lack of air mass mixing coupled with low oxidant concentration in winter significantly decreases 35SO42- activity. A 3% contribution from stratospheric 35SO42- into the free troposphere during stratosphere-troposphere air mass mixing accounts for the secondary winter 35SO42- peak. In the future, this work will be extended to 35S activity measurements of both gas and aerosol phases to further understand gas to particle conversion, vortex dynamics and trace polar stratospheric cloud sedimentation frequency.

  15. Radioactive skin bandages incorporating 90Y, 188Re and 32P for treatment of superficial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive bandages incorporating b-emitters 90Y, 188Re and 32P were prepared with an aim to have a radiation source that will deliver a uniform radiation dose to the site of tumor treatment. There have been reports of specially designed b- emitting paper and skin patches incorporating high-energy beta emitters such as 188Re and 166Ho. 90Y-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates, 188Re-Tin particles and 32P-Chromic phosphate particles were prepared and separately filtered through Millipore filters. Filters incorporating 90Y, 188Re and 32P activity were immobilized between nitrocellulose membranes and placed on adhesive bandage. In-vitro stability of bandages was tested in saline and no leakage of activity was observed from the bandages. 90Y bandages were tested on fibrosarcoma bearing Swiss mice and 188Re bandages and 32P bandages were tested in melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Radioactive bandages were applied on tumors and parameters such as dose, fractionation of dose and time of contact were varied and effect was studied by following the tumor size. At ?18 MBq, there was no significant effect on tumor growth even on placing the patch for 24h. But, animals treated with >37MBq for 3h, showed delay in rate of growth compared to the controls. The best effect was observed on treatment with a second dose of 37-74 MBq after a week, when the tumors regressed fully. In those animals, skin surface appeared hard and necrotic but reversed to normal in few days. Histology studies were done to observe the effect on skin epithelium. Tumor histology slides from treated animals showed regression of tumor. Loss of hair follicles and sebaceous glands was observed in the treated area. Autoradiography and gamma camera imaging of radioactive bandage showed uniformity of dose distribution. Electron Gamma Shower Code (EGS4) system was used to calculate the dose rate distribution due to radioactive bandages at various depths from skin surface. Dose rate calculations revealed that reasonably high dose of ? 2.2 Gy/h/MBq is imparted by radioactive bandages to the tumor site. Both fibrosarcoma and melanoma responded well to treatment with radioactive bandages. Tumor growth was delayed at doses >37MBq. Fractionated doses were effective in complete regression of the tumor. Radioactive bandages incorporating beta emitters such as 90Y, 188Re and 32P could be a promising modality for treatment of superficial tumors. (author)

  16. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A 32P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 107 to 108 nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are 32P-labeled at their 5'-hydroxyl groups by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P] phosphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. 32P-labeled derivatives are resolved by TLC, detected by autoradiography, and quantitated by counting. This assay has been recently utilized for the determination and partial characterization of DNA adducts formed in somatic and reproductive tissues of rats given the clinically used anticancer drug, mitomycin C. The drug exhibits similar levels of covalent binding to DNA in most tissues. Further studies have revealed that adducted nucleotides are primarily guanine derivatives that are resistant to 3'-dephosphorylation by Penicillium citrinum nuclease P1. The latter observation has been utilized to enhance the 32P-assay's sensitivity to 1 adduct in 1010 nucleotides for a 10-?g DNA sample by postincubation of DNA digests with nuclease P1 before 32P-labeling. The new assay has also shown utility in the analysis of very low levels of age- and tissue-related DNA modifications, which might arise from dietary or endogenous compounds, in untreated rats and humans

  17. An experimental study on effect of 32P colloid on lymphatic metastasis of transplanted H22 hepatoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the anticancer effects and biodistribution of chromic 32P phosphate colloid in mice with lymphatic metastasis of hepatoma after intratumoral injection. Methods: Forty-eight Km mice with H22 ascites hepatoma were injected with 32P colloid intratumorally. The distribution of 32P in regional lymph nodes and other organs was observed dynamically, and its anticancer effectiveness was investigated in the tumor and regional lymph nodes. Results: 32P mainly remained in the tumor and regional lymph nodes, while the 32P of organs, such as liver, spleen, lung, only retained a mild activity. By histopathologic observation, neoplasm foci could be found in pad, right popliteal lymph node and groin lymph node, and necrosis was seen in the tumor and its metastatic foci in right popliteal lymph node. On day 17 after 32P treatment, the transplanted tumor foci necrosed thoroughly, and normal structure of regional lymph nodes disappeared, which was replaced by necrotic tissue and hemorrhage. Conclusion: The intratumoral administration of chromic [32P] colloid could be used for treatment of the primary tumor, and lymphatic metastatic focus as well, in order to produce obvious anticancer effects

  18. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S ? with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S ?, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S ?. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S ? irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  19. Synthesis of 7?-chloro-16?-methylprednisolone 17?,21-dipropionate-4-14C (alclometasone dipropionate-4-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the bioavailability, metabolism and protein-binding effects of the new antiinflammatory corticoid, alclometasone dipropionate, it was required to obtain the biochemically stable 14C-labelled substrate. In the present publication we describe an efficient synthesis of the title compound. (author)

  20. Formation and fate of bound residues of [14C]benzene and [14C]chlorobenzenes in soil and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdoor experiments with [14C]hexachlorobenzene, [14C]pentachlorobenzene, [14C]1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and [14C]benzene in soil-crop systems indicate that the formation rate of bound residues in soil and plants, expressed as bound residues in percentage of total residue in the sample, decreases with increasing number of chlorine in the molecule and, thus, with increasing chemical stability. The time course of formation and fate of bound residues in soil and plants is characterized by a very slow decrease of residue levels in soil, indicating that biodegradation of bound residues hardly exceeds their reformation from the parent compound during one vegetation period, and by a decrease of residue levels in plants. The portion of bound residues as compared to the total residue increases with time, indicating that bound residues are more persistent than the parent compounds and their soluble metabolites; benzene is an exception. Cress plants, in general, contain less bound residues than do barley plants. Again, benzene is an exception. In deeper soil layers, soil-bound residues occur also. The ratio between bound and extractable residues does not differ to a larger extent between the soil layers

  1. Potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant following administration of sodium 32P-phosphate to the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P uptake test to diagnose an intraocular tumour was performed on a lactating woman. Breast feeding of her infant had been stopped and after injection of the 32P, a sample of breast milk on two consecutive days was collected. The concentration of 32P in the milk was greater in the second sample than the first, but it was calculated that the potential whole body radiation dose to her infant on the second day would not have exceeded 180 ?Sv(18 mrem). (author)

  2. Potential application of beef liver nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the synthesis of 32P and 33P labeled biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzyme, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) has been purified from aqueous extract of beef liver mitochondria by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by Gel filtration technique. This enzyme catalyzes the transphosphorylation reactions between a number of nucleoside di- and triphosphates. Commercially, pure enzyme is presently unavailable for the production of labeled nucleotides. The purification procedure reported in the present study was found to be superior to the earlier reported DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography method. The purified enzyme has been successfully used to synthesize ?- 32P dCTP, ?- 32P CTP, ?- 32P UTP, ? - 33P dCTP and ? - 33P UTP. (author)

  3. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of the biological side effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture. Study of sulfur dioxide effects on phosphorus metabolism in plants using 32-P as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of bean plants to low sulphur dioxide concentrations (0.02-0.32 ppm, up to 72 hours) stimulated the incorporation of 32P into RNA, DNA, phospholipids and the acid soluble fraction, without altering the total phosphorus content. Statistically significant 32P increases were only observed with RNA. Uptake of 35SO2 (14 ppm) by bean leaves was shown to be fairly rapid and the radioactivity was translocated in the roots within 1 to 6 hours following exposure. Subcellular leaf fractions showed that the supernatant contained 60-90% of the absorbed radioactivity. The chloroplasts and microsomes showed higher 35S content than the mitochondrial fraction. In vitro studies on pea-derived chloroplasts included photosynthetic phosphorylation and electron transport. Phosphorylation was found to be inhibited in presence of SO2 (I50=3.7 mM). The nature of inhibition seems to be of the reversible-competitive type with an apparent inhibitor constant (Ki) of 1.5 mM. The electron transport system remained unaffected. It is maintained that the identification of some lesions in this study would contribute to a better understanding of the nature of the complex interactions between cultivated plants and sulphur dioxide

  4. Model experiments for 14C water-age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C age of water samples is calculated by assuming that fossil carbonate is dissolved by biogenic CO2 according to the equation x1 · CaCO3 + (x1+y1) · CO2 + H2O = 2x1 · HCO3 + y1 · CO2 where x and y are the number of moles of the two carbon components before and after the dissolution process. In a closed system the relation y1 = K(T) (x1)3 must be satisfied additionally. The equilibrium constant K(T), which depends on the temperature, controls the concentrations of free CO2 and HCO3. To investigate the mechanism of the dissolution, laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were carried out. Non-radioactive CaCO3, which had a ?13C-value of +30 per mille, and radioactive CO2 with ?13C = -22 per mille were used. The purpose of these investigations was to check the validity of theoretical assumptions regarding the average 14C-activity and the ?13C-value of the total carbon which is dissolved as CO2 and HCO3. Furthermore, it was investigated whether, within the duration of the experiment, a possible exchange takes place between the undissolved carbon present in the CaCO3 and that present in the HCO3. The importance of this lies in the fact that the method of 14C age determination is based on the assumption that such an exchange does not take place. The experiments which have been performed up to now show that in case of the simple CaCO3 - CO2 system, which has been considered first, this assumption is not justified even for a constant water temperature. If variations in the water temperature occur during the history of the water sample, precipitation and redissolution processes influence the 14C- and ?13C -values differently. This is due to isotopic fractionation processes between the HCO3 and CO2 phase. A correction for the initial 14C-activity by means of the ?13C-value is no longer possible, and the reliability of the 14C-dating method becomes questionable. (author)

  5. The 14C partitioning of [1,2-14C] sodium acetate in three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in Japanese agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon (14C) partitioning ratios in the soil solid, liquid, and gas phases was determined by batch sorption experiments using 63 paddy soil and 79 upland soil samples to understand the behavior of 14C in agricultural fields. The mean 14C partitioning ratios for all agricultural soil samples were 35 % for the soil solid phase, 5 % for the liquid phase, and 60 % for the gas phase. A comparison of the 14C partitioning between paddy and upland samples showed significant differences. This difference was caused by soil solution pH. Land use would affect the behavior of the 14C as the sodium acetate form. (author)

  6. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on agricultural environment and ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimehypo is a nereistoxin derivative, which was developed and manufactured in China. In order of appraise its environmeatal safety comprehensively, the radioisotopic tracer technique and other methods were applied to investigate on the effects of 35S-labelled dimehypo (35S-dimehypo) on agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorptivity and high mobility, especially water-carrying mobility in soil, fair stability in soil and water, and slowness in degradation. Its main product of degradation, nereistoxin, was of lower mobility than its material compound in soil. 35S-dimehypo could enter the bodies of grass carps Ctenopharyngodon idellus along with bails or via the respiratory tracts, and could be excreted fast after the fish were removed from the contaminated source. Liquid and granulated 35S-dimehypo were fed to quail and fowls respectively, and could also be excreted rapidly in excretion and urine. Its much less distribution coefficient in caprylalcoholwater system suggested no accumulation in the adipose tissue of organism. The release of its effective composition in the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete

  7. Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

  8. [35S]ATP gamma S binding sites in the purified heart sarcolemma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified heart sarcolemma membranes were found to bind a slowly hydrolyzable analogue of ATP [35S-labeled adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate [(35S]ATP gamma S)] in a specific manner and exhibited two apparent affinity sites. The high-affinity site had a dissociation constant (KD) of 4.7-8.3 nM [maximum binding (Bmax) = 9.5-18.4 pmol/mg protein], whereas the low-affinity site had a KD of 655-1,257 nM (Bmax = 812-2,955 pmol/mg protein). Like ATP, other nucleotides such as GTP, UTP, ITP, and CTP were effective in displacing [35S]ATP gamma S binding. Although crude membrane preparations from different tissues also exhibited both high- and low-affinity sites for [35S]ATP gamma S, KD values for the high affinity sites were severalfold higher than that for the purified heart membranes. It is proposed that the high-affinity binding site for nucleotides may represent the ATP receptor in the heart cell membrane

  9. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  10. A high resolution method for 14C analysis of a coral from South China Sea: Implication for "AD 775" 14C event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ping; Shen, Chengde; Yi, Weixi; Wang, Ning; Ding, Xingfang; Liu, Kexin; Fu, Dongpo; Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    A pre-heating method that improves the background and precision of 14C dating significantly was applied for fossil coral dating with high resolution in our lab in Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GIGCAS). The reaction tube is heated under 300 °C in a vacuum line before it is used for graphitization. The method can reduce the contamination absorbed in TiH2, Zn and Fe power placed in the graphitization tube. With the pre-heating and average drilling method, bi-weekly resolution 14C dating in a fossil coral is carried out to investigate the "AD 775 14C spike event". Different from the tree ring 14C archives with the 14C spike of ?15‰ (?14C), the 14C spike in the coral shows an abrupt peak of 45‰ and two smaller spikes of ?14C > 20‰ in half a year in AD 776. And then, the 14C content in coral decreases gradually in AD 777. The peak time of the 14C spike event likely occurs in the summer of AD 776 according to the ?18O variation in coral. High-resolution dating of 14C in coral provides not only a more detail process of the event than that from tree rings, but also the first report of the event from sea ecosystem. Both of them suggest an extraterrestrial origin of the event cause.

  11. Synthesis of 3H- and 14C-ketanserin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketanserin, 3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione is a new serotonin S2-receptor blocking agent used in hypertension and related diseases. Pharmacokinetic studies required the synthesis of monolabelled 3H- and 14C-ketanserin tartrate. The tritium compound had the label placed at the fluorobenzoyl moiety, whereas for 14C-ketanserin the heterocyclic part of the quinazolinedione system was chosen. Receptor binding studies and application in radioimmunoassay necessitated the synthesis of a molecule at higher specific activity, hence a dilabelled molecule was constructed with tritium atoms placed at opposite positions in the molecule. The title compounds were obtained at specific activities of 169.5, 5.66 and 34900 mCi/mmol, respectively and with HPLC purities of > 98%. (author)

  12. 4He decay of excited states in 14C

    CERN Document Server

    Soic, N; Donadille, L; Clarke, N M; Leask, P J; Catford, W N; Jones, K L; Mahboub, D; Fulton, B R; Greenhalgh, B J; Watson, D L; Weisser, D C

    2003-01-01

    A study of the 7Li(9Be,4He 10Be)2H reaction at E{beam}=70 MeV has been performed using resonant particle spectroscopy techniques and provides the first measurements of alpha-decaying states in 14C. Excited states are observed at 14.7, 15.5, 16.4, 18.5, 19.8, 20.6, 21.4, 22.4 and 24.0 MeV. The experimental technique was able to resolve decays to the various particle bound states in 10Be, and provides evidence for the preferential decay of the high energy excited states into states in 10Be at ~6 MeV. The decay processes are used to indicate the possible cluster structure of the 14C excited states.

  13. A critical review of atmospheric 14 C activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 C activity of atmospheric CO2 has been measured at the Rudjer Boskovi Institute as a part of environmental monitoring in order to determine possible differences between clean-air sites, industrialized city and sites in the vicinity of nuclear power plant. Samples of CO2 from the atmosphere have been collected by absorption of CO2 on the saturated carbonate-free NaOH solution for a period of 1 month under stationary conditions. The obtained Na2 CO3 has been dissolved in HCl and the produced CO2 used for CH4 preparation by catalytic reaction with H2 at 450 degrees Celsius. A gas proportional counter filled with CH4 has been used for 14 C activity measurement. The method of collection of CO2 does not require any power source and can be therefore used for sampling at the remote sites, such as mountains or forests. However,due to the lack of mixing of the Na OH solution, the absorption process is limited on the surface of the solution, and there exists the possibility of fractionation of carbon isotopes due to different reaction rate constants of 12 C and 13 C. A continuous record of atmospheric 14 CO2 activity exists for the city of Zagreb (1986 to 2005), while shorter records (1-2 years) exist for several other sites of various characteristics: two clean-air sites (Mt. Medvednica, altitude about 1000 m a.s.l., for period 1995 to 1996, and the Plitvice National Park for period 2003 to 2005), and a site close to the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (1984 to 1986).Within the bilateral Croatian-Slovene project we have recently measured also the stable isotope composition (?13 C) of Na2CO3 collected at two different sampling sites in order to determine seasonal fluctuations in both 14 C and 13 C isotope composition. Unexpectedly low ?13 C values have been obtained about (-25±2)0/00 instead of expected (-7±1)0/00. Such low values have been attributed to the carbon isotope fractionation during the CO2 absorption on the highly alkaline medium because of different reaction rate constants of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 with OH. Since the reported 14 C activities have to be corrected for the ?13 C content of the sample, the low ?13 C values of the collected Na2CO3 have to be taken into account. Therefore, our complete database on atmospheric 14 C activities has been recalculated. The change of ?13 C from-7 to -25 increases the reported 14 C activity (?14 C) for 36 nd this difference could explain previously reported rather low atmospheric 14 C activity as compared to other similar sites in Europe. In this paper we present the revised data for all sampling sites and we discuss the differences. (authors)

  14. Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. de Oliveira Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose, sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultados permitiram concluir que 33% do S adicionado foi absorvido, e desse total 27% foi translocado, não havendo influência dos aditivos sobre esses processos. O ácido sulfúrico e o sulfato de amonio destacaram-se como os melhores fornecedores de enxofre, via foliar, para o feijoeiro.A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of sulphur sources, in the presence or absence of additives (urea and glucose, on the sulphur uptake by bean leaves. The treatments: solutions of sulphuric acid, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc sulphates labelled with 35S, containing or not the additives, were applied to the first trifoliate of the plants to assess the sulphur uptake and translocation. The results enable to conclude that 33% of the added sulphur was absorved, and 27% out of this total was translocated. The additives did not have any influence on uptake and translocation. The sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate solutions were the best sulphur suppliers for the bean plant.

  15. Efeito de fontes e de aditivos na absorção de 35S via foliar pelo feijoeiro / Sources and additive effects on 35S foliar uptake by bean plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.A. de, Oliveira Jr.; I.C., Rêgo; W.B., Scivittaro; O.F. de, Lima Filho; R., Stefanutti; G.R., Gonzáles; A.E., Boaretto.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em casa de vegetação um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fontes de enxofre, na presença ou não de aditivos (uréia e glicose), sobre a absorção do demento pelas folhas de feijoeiro. Os tratamentos: soluções de ácido sulfúrico e de sulfates de amonio, potássio, magnésio, [...] manganês e zinco marcadas com 35S, contendo ou não os aditivos, foram aplicados ao primeiro trifólio das plantas para avaliar a absorção e translocação de enxofre. Os resultados permitiram concluir que 33% do S adicionado foi absorvido, e desse total 27% foi translocado, não havendo influência dos aditivos sobre esses processos. O ácido sulfúrico e o sulfato de amonio destacaram-se como os melhores fornecedores de enxofre, via foliar, para o feijoeiro. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effect of sulphur sources, in the presence or absence of additives (urea and glucose), on the sulphur uptake by bean leaves. The treatments: solutions of sulphuric acid, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc sulphate [...] s labelled with 35S, containing or not the additives, were applied to the first trifoliate of the plants to assess the sulphur uptake and translocation. The results enable to conclude that 33% of the added sulphur was absorved, and 27% out of this total was translocated. The additives did not have any influence on uptake and translocation. The sulphuric acid and ammonium sulphate solutions were the best sulphur suppliers for the bean plant.

  16. 14C-pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored maize grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of 14C-pirimiphos-methyl in maize grains were determined during 6 months under storage conditions simulating actual practice in Brazil. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. A total of 78% of the applied dose was recovered at 0-24 h and this amount decreased to 16% after 180 d of storage. Cooking had no effect on the levels of the residue recovered. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

  17. May 14C be used to date contemporary art?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963–1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to “precisely” date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  18. Origin of the anomalous long lifetime of 14C

    OpenAIRE

    Maris, P.; vary, J. P.; Navratil, P; Ormand, W. E.; Nam, H; Dean, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the microscopic origins of the anomalously suppressed beta decay of 14C to 14N using the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) with the Hamiltonian from chiral effective field theory (EFT) including three-nucleon force (3NF) terms. The 3NF induces unexpectedly large cancellations within the p-shell between contributions to beta decay, which reduce the traditionally large contributions from the NN interactions by an order of magnitude, leading to the long lifetime of...

  19. Intestinal absorption of $^{14}$C from $^{14}$C-phenanthrene, $^{14}$C-benzo[a]pyrene and $^{14}$C-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin: approaches with the Caco-2 cell line and with portal absorption measurements in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cavret, Séverine; Laurent, Claire; Feidt, Cyril; Laurent, François; Rychen, Guido

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the transfer through the intestinal barrier of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene) and a dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin) which differed in their physicochemical properties. Both in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. For the in vitro study, Caco-2 cells, cultivated on permeable filters, permitted to measure the transepithelial permeability of the studied $^{14}$C-labelled molecules. For the in viv...

  20. Pediatric microdose and microtracer studies using 14C in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M A; Mooij, M G; Vaes, W H J; Windhorst, A D; Hendrikse, N H; Knibbe, C A J; Kõrgvee, L T; Maruszak, W; Grynkiewicz, G; Garner, R C; Tibboel, D; Park, B K; de Wildt, S N

    2015-09-01

    Important information gaps remain on the efficacy and safety of drugs in children. Pediatric drug development encounters several ethical, practical, and scientific challenges. One barrier to the evaluation of medicines for children is a lack of innovative methodologies that have been adapted to the needs of children. This article presents our successful experience of pediatric microdose and microtracer studies using (14) C-labeled probes in Europe to illustrate the strengths and limitations of these approaches. PMID:26095095

  1. Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2009-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  2. Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  3. Determination of 14C-lindane residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-lindane was applied as dust to paddy rice. Surface, extractable and bound residues were determined in paddy rice up to a storage period of nine months. The surface and methanol-extractable residues decreased with storage time. The husk contained a greater amount of lindane compared to the grains. After removing surface residues, the grain was found to contain 2.7 mg/kg of extractable lindane and/or equivalent residues after nine months from treatment. (author)

  4. May {sup 14}C be used to date contemporary art?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caforio, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mando, P.A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Petrucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Taccetti, F. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, {sup 14}C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, {sup 14}C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to 'precisely' date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured {sup 14}C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the {sup 14}C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  5. A novel synthesis of isoeugenol, [ring-(U)-(14) C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immoos, John E

    2015-09-10

    A novel method for the preparation of isoeugenol, [ring-(U)-(14) C] is presented. Phenols and phenyl esters substituted in the para position with 1-hydroxyethyl or 1-hydroxypropyl acetate esters when treated with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in dimethylformamide (DMF) eliminate the alkyl carboxylate function to give the unsaturated compound. The reaction fails with unsubstituted or ether substituted phenyl 1-hydroxyacetate esters. PMID:26306463

  6. Search for cluster structure of excited states in 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied three different 2n-transfer reactions on a 12C target, the 2p pick-up reaction on 16O and the 5He transfer in the reaction 9Be(7Li,d)14C. Combined with a systematic search through experimental results for transfer reactions, inelastic excitations and other data, we have established an almost complete spectroscopy for 14C up to 18 MeV excitation. We identify states with single-particle structure that have oblate shapes and states corresponding to proton excitations that are connected to oblate (triangular) cluster states. Further we list states of prolate shape which have no simple structure related to the low-lying oblate states of 12C. These are proposed to have strong ?-clustering and to form rotational bands as a parity inversion doublet, with high moment of inertia. With these results it is possible for the first time to identify chain states expected in the isotope 14C. (orig.)

  7. Airy structure in 16O+14C nuclear rainbow scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Airy structure in 16 O +14 C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double-folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for 16 O by using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at EL=132 , 281, and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum around ? =76? in the angular distribution at EL=132 MeV is assigned as the second-order Airy minimum A 2 in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order A 3 . The Airy minima in the 90? excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known 16 O +16 O and 12 C +12 C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the 16 O +14 C cluster structure in the low-energy region around Ec .m .=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted theoretically for the first time for a non-4 N 16O +14 C system that Airy elephants in the 90? excitation function are present.

  8. 14C measurement of soil in post-mining landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and development of new soil organic matter under extreme soil conditions was investigated in the Lusatian lignite mining district. In order to assess the development of forest ecosystems the pedogenesis (soil development) was studied, especially the contribution of soil organic matter formed during the decomposition of plant residues and the significance of lignite inherent to the parent substrate. To determine the depth gradient of soil organic matter accumulation a differentiation between lignite derived (14C ''free'') and recent carbon in the mine spoil was necessary. This was performed by AMS 14C measurement of the total organic carbon TOC (lignite derived and recent organic matter) of the soil. For TOC extraction a suitable preparation method was used. The calculation for obtaining the soil organic matter and lignite content is discussed and results of different study sites are presented. It is shown that 14C measurements of soil samples by AMS is a very helpful tool to evaluate the accumulation of recently formed organic carbon and to differentiate this carbon pool from the geogenic, i.e. lignite derived organic carbon supply in post-mining soils

  9. Biodegradation of 14 C-atrazine under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly 14 C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The 14 C O2 was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the 14 CO2 evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with 14 C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

  10. Mineralization of 14C atrazine in three Colombia soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of mineralization of l4C atrazine (6-chorine-N-ethyl-N-(1methyl ethyl) 1,3,5 triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed in three soils of different characteristics coming one of them from Mosquera, Cundinamarca (clay loam) and two of Saldana, Tolima (silty loam and sandy loam). Technical and radiolabel atrazine (specific activity 47,756 mCi/mg) mixture was applied to soil samples in a dose of 2.0 kg/ha. Results showed different behavior of the mineralization of the herbicide for each soil at the end of 17 weeks. The highest mineralization percentage, 15 %, was registered in the soil with higher organic matter content (12.1 %) and was the one coming from Mosquera, Cundinamarca. It was evaluated the bound and methanol extractable 14C in the fifth, ninth an seventeenth weeks and also it was analyzed atrazine and its metabolites in the extracts by thin layer chromatography. The extraction data revealed that the majority of the 14C was bound to the soil (62-83 %) and the minor fraction was methanol extractable in all the three soils. The analysis showed that the 14C in all soils was present as atrazine and hydroxy atrazine. In the sandy loam soil was observed the highest degradation of atrazine to hidroxyatrazine that it is not produced by biological process. It was not detectable other atrazine metabolites

  11. Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

  12. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M. A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  13. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber

  14. Syntheses of 2-(diacetoxymethyl-14C)-5-nitrofuran and carbon- 14 labeled nitrofurazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the microscale syntheses of carbon-14 labeled 5-nitrofuran derivatives of high specific activities was developed. Ethyl 2-furancarboxylate-carboxy-14C was prepared in an improved yield from Ba14C03. 2-Furancarboxaldehyde-formyl-14C was prepared by reduction of ethyl 2-furancarboxylate-carboxy-14C followed by ?-Mn02 oxidation of 2-(hydroxymethyl-14C) furan. 2-(Diacetoxymethyl-14C)-5-nitrofuran, an immediate precursor of many radiolabeled 5-nitrofuran drugs, was prepared in a new two-reaction one-flask procedure from 2-furancarboxaldehyde-formyl-14C in 7.3% overall radiochemical yield from Ba14 C03. Carbon-14 labeled nitrofurazone was then prepared from 2-(diacetoxymethyl-14C)-5-nitrofuran. (author)

  15. Standardization of 32P activity determination method in soil-root cores for root distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The root distribution of wheat variety UP 301 was obtained by determining the 32P activity in soil-root cores by two methods, viz., ignition and triacid digestion. Root distribution obtained by these two methods was compared with that by standard root core washing procedure. The percent error in root distribution as determined by triacid digestion method was within +- 2.1 to +- 9.0 as against +- 5.5 to +- 21.2 by ignition method. Thus triacid digestion method proved better over the ignition method. (author)

  16. Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

  17. Root activity studies of guava plants (Psidium Quajava, L) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted on two year old guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) grown on Bungor series soil (Typic paleudult) at the UTN Agricultural Experimental Plot, Bangi, Selangor. The active roots of these guava plants were found to be present in abundance at about 100 cm away from the base of the tree at a depth of 10 cm. Fertilizers could be applied in that area. Sampling of every fourth leaf (for young trees) for counting, to represent the 32P counts in the leaves can be used in future studies. The leaves and branches (green parts) of guava also have a more consistent P contents, as compared to other parts. (author)

  18. Evaluation of efficiency of P sources for rice using 32P as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P tracer studies were conducted in micro-plot and pot experiments to evaluate the efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates containing 30, 50 and 70% of the P in the water-soluble form and tri- and tetra-ammonium polyphosphates, in comparison with water-soluble phosphate for rice grown on a light-textured acid alluvials oil. Ammonium nitrate phosphate containing 50% of the P in the water-soluble form was as efficient as water-soluble phosphates on this soil in respect of dry-matter production, P uptake and utilization of applied P. (author)

  19. Studeis on the immobilization of water soluble phosphatic fertilizer in some soils with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using superphosphate lablled with 32P, we studied immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer on 12 typies of soil. The experimental result showed that major factors to govern immobilization of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizer are: quickly availible Fe that showed positive correlation with the immobilization when it was 4.64-65.72 ppm; and pH that showed negative correlation with the immobilization when it was between 5.35 and 8.88. CaCO3 and organic matter showed a great effect on the immobilization though there wasn't obvious correlation among them

  20. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal 32P uptake at various times of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid 32P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased

  1. The inclusion of 35S sodium sulfate in tissues soluble proteins in feather keratin of broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ-tissue peculiarities of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into soluble tissue proteins of skin, muscles, liver, pancreas, duodenum were established in experiments with chickens of one, 23, 41 and 60 day age. It is shown that skin is the organ, accumulating 35S sodium sulfate. It was revealed that intensity of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into muscule proteins and feather keratin in 23- and 41-day age decreased. Specificity of isotope distribution in separate feather components was established

  2. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

    1987-01-01

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A 32P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(7) to 10(8) nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are 32P-labeled...

  3. Comparison of 32P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium 32P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with 32P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with 32P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with 32P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while 32P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or 32P treatment

  4. Studies on the effects of acetylcholine and antiepileptic drugs on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phospholipids in rat brain synaptosomes. Of the four antiepileptic drugs investigated in the present study, namely phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate, only phenytoin blocked the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, and the acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. Phenytoin alone, like atropine alone, had no effect on the 32P labeling of phospholipids nor on the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP. Omission of Na+ drastically reduced both the 32P labeling of synaptosomal phospholipids and the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP and furthermore it significantly decreased the phosphoinositide effect. It was concluded that certain antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, could exert their pharmacological actions through their antimuscarinic effects. In addition the finding that phenytoin, which acts to regulate NA+ and Ca2+ permeability of neuronal membranes, also inhibited the phosphoinositide effects in synaptosomes, support the conclusions that Ca2+ and Na+ are probably involved in the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon in excitable tissues

  5. A 'Cleanup Procedure' involving periodate oxidation in the enzymatic synthesis of chemically pure ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic synthesis of ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides involves the transfer of radiolabelled phosphorus from either ?-32P adenosine triphosphate (?-ATP) or ?-32P guanosine triphosphate (?-GTP). Subsequent removal of these ribonucleotides is essential for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. Agarose-phenyl boronate columns, which bind specifically to cis-diol moieties, have been used for the removal of ribonucleotide contaminants. However, this involves column losses and additional radiation exposure. In the present work we describe a chemical method for the improvement of the chemical purity, based on the preferential oxidation of ribose sugars by periodate. The cis-diol moiety of ribose is specifically oxidised to the dialdehyde. The excess periodate ions were destroyed using ethylene glycol. The phosphate group was then cleaved by ?-elimination using alkali. The product was purified using anion exchange chromatography. The efficiency of the process was validated using tracer ?-32P ATP and ?-32P dATP. Samples at various steps were analysed by TLC, autoradiography and HPLC. During the process ATP is oxidised whereas 2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) remains intact. The ?-32P dATP synthesized by this process was assayed for its incorporation in ?-DNA by the random priming method and was found to be effectively incorporated. The process developed is an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides

  6. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  7. Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

  8. Persistence of the herbicides [14C]chlorsulfuron and [14C]metsulfuron methyl in prairie soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of [14C]metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of [14C]chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils

  9. Amount and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to [14C]triclopyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L [14C] triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed

  10. Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p) 14C using polarized proton beam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Murillo; M., Fernández; J., Ramírez; M.G., Mejia-Gil; R., Policroniades; A., Varela; S.E., Darden; S., Sen; R.M., Prior; E., Chávez.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se midió la distribución angular de la sección eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersión elástica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energía sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El análisis de los datos en términos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la m [...] atriz "S" nos permite deducir los números cuánticos y parámetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energía de excitación. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas. Abstract in english Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers were measured for 14C(p, p)14C for proton energies between 3.7 and 11.0 MeV in very small energy steps. A number of strong resonances are seen. Phase-shift analysis of the elastic scattering data yielded level parameters of eleven states i [...] n 15N in the excitation energy region 13.7-21.0 MeV. Previous assignments of spin, parity and energy of levels are discussed.

  11. Mineralization of ( sup 14 C)hexadecane and ( sup 14 C)phenanthrene in crude oil: Specificity among bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foght, J.M.; Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from freshwater, marine, and estuarine samples were tested for the ability to produce {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from n-(1-{sup 14}C)hexadecane or (9-{sup 14}C)phenanthrene added to Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Of 138 isolates tested, 54 (39%) mineralized the model aliphatic compound hexadecane and 6 (4%) mineralized the model aromatic compound phenanthrene. None mineralized both compounds. There was no apparent correlation between degradative ability and genus or source. Additional hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from diverse sources were tested and found to mineralize either hexadecane or phenanthrene. Of 61 hexadecane- and 21 phenanthrene-mineralizing bacteria tested, none mineralized both model compounds. Selected isolates and commercially available cultures were tested for mineralization of specific {sup 14}C-labelled mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic aromatics. An apparent hierarchy of degradation was observed: strains mineralizing the mono- and di-cyclic aromatics toluene and napthalene did not mineralize biphenyl or the tricyclic aromatics anthracene and phenanthrene, whereas those strains that mineralized the tricyclic aromatics also mineralized the smaller substrates. Similarly, not all n-alkane-mineralizing isolates tested mineralized the isoprenoid pristane. A combined culture consisting of one aliphatic- and one aromatic-degrading isolate was tested for mineralization of the model compounds and for degradation of other crude oil components by gas chromatography. No synergism or antagonism was observed compared with degradation by the individual isolates. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate or potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a single intravenous dose of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate [( 14C]PFO, 13.3 mg/kg) or of potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate [( 14C]PFOS, 3.4 mg/kg) to rats, cholestyramine fed daily as a 4% mixture in feed was shown to increase the total carbon-14 eliminated via feces and to decrease liver concentration of carbon-14. Rats were fed cholestyramine in feed for 14 days after administration of [14C]PFO and for 21 days after administration of [14C]PFOS. Control rats were administered radiolabeled fluorochemical but were not treated with cholestyramine. Cholestyramine treatment increased mean cumulative carbon-14 elimination in feces by 9.8-fold for rats administered [14C]PFO and by 9.5-fold for rats administered [14C]PFOS. After [14C]PFO, a mean of 4% of the dose of carbon-14 was in liver of cholestyramine-treated rats at 14 days versus 7.6% in control rats; after [14C]PFOS, 11.3% of the dose was in liver at 21 days versus 40.3% in control rats. After administration of either radiolabeled compound, plasma and red blood cell carbon-14 concentrations, which were relatively lower than liver concentrations, were also significantly reduced by cholestyramine treatment

  13. Dosimetry characterization of a 32P source wire used for intravascular brachytherapy with automated stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth-dose curve measurements and Monte Carlo simulations for a catheter-based 32P intravascular brachytherapy source wire are described. The measured dose rates were obtained using both radiochromic-dye film and an extrapolation chamber (EC). Calibrated radiochromic-dye films were irradiated at distances between 0.5 and 5 mm from the source axis in polystyrene phantoms, and scanned with high-resolution densitometers. Measurements with an automated EC with a 1 mm diameter collecting electrode were also performed at a distance of 2 mm from the source in polystyrene. The measured dose rates obtained from the film and EC were divided by the measured source activity to obtain measured values of dose rate per unit contained activity. Dosimetric calculations of the catheter-based 32P wire geometry were also obtained using several Monte Carlo codes (CYLTRAN, MCNP, PENELOPE, and EGS). The measured and calculated values of dose rate per unit contained activity are in good agreement (<10%) within the relevant treatment distances (1 to 4 mm). With carefully selected input parameters, the calculated depth-dose curves using these codes were within 5% at 4 mm depth. At greater depths the discrepancies between the codes increase. We discuss likely mechanisms for these differences

  14. (32)P colloid radiosynovectomy in treatment of chronic haemophilic synovitis: Iran experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Asadollahi, S; Farzan, M; Shahriaran, S; Aghili, M; Izadyar, S; Lak, M

    2007-03-01

    Repeated intra-articular bleeding with subsequent development of chronic synovitis and cartilage changes, leading to haemophilic arthropathy, is one the most debilitating problems in haemophilic patients. Radiosynovectomy is a familiar therapeutic choice in management of chronic synovitis in haemophilia. We report the treatments results of synoviorthesis with (32)P chromic phosphate with emphasis on clinical aspects. Between 2002 and 2006 we performed 66 procedures in 53 patients. Seven patients were excluded. The remaining 46 patients were followed for an average of 31 months. The mean age of patients at the time of injection was 15.9 years (range: 6-28). There were three repeat injections. According to Fernandez-pallazi and Cavilgia clinical classification (Table 1) [23], nine joints were Stage II and 46 were Stage III. In latest follow-up, 77% of patients reported at least a 50% decrease in bleeding frequency after treatment (P < 0.0001). The need for antihaemophilic factor consumption dropped by about 74% postradiosynovectomy (P < 0.0001). In most of the injected joints, the range of motion remained stable or improved. A trend was found for the number of haemarthrosis to increase after a period of considerable improvement. Synoviorthesis using (32)P effectively reduces the intra-articular bleeding rate and factor concentrate use. Durability of the response seems to be unpredictable, perhaps attributable to the late intervention. An early radiosynovectomy might be more helpful in terms of stability of response to treatment. PMID:17286772

  15. Multiple DNA adducts in lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers determined by 32P-postlabeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes could serve as a means of monitoring human exposure to potential genotoxic agents. In the study, DNA from peripheral lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers was examined for adducts by the P1 nuclease 32P-post-labeling technique. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) maps from both groups revealed multiple DNA adducts which ranged from no adducts for one individual to six adducts for a different individual. The total DNA adduct concentrations were approximately one adduct in 10 to the seventh-10 to the eighth power normal nucleotides. Comparison of the adduct TLC profiles revealed individual variation in both pattern and level of DNA adducts. The type and amount of adduct was not influenced by smoking history and remained unchanged in four out of six subjects who were resampled after a one month interval. One adduct detected in lymphocyte DNA co-migrated on TLC with an adduct derived by in vitro incubation of lymphocytes with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The 3H-nucloside values were consistent with values obtained by 32P-postlabeling of the same sample (correlation coefficient of 0.88). No relationship was apparent between the capacity of lymphocytes to form a (3H)-B(a)P-derived adduct in vitro and the concentration of the adduct, or total adducts present in untreated lymphocytes

  16. Detection and characterization of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-postlabeling has emerged as a major tool for detecting DNA adducts, since (1) it can detect unknown adducts resulting from complex mixtures; (2) it requires microgram quantities of DNA; and (3) it is extremely sensitive (1 adduct/1010 nucleotides). The assay comprises degradation of DNA to 3'-mononucleotides, 5'-32p-labeling, adduct separation by multi-directional PEI-cellulose TLC, and detection by autoradiography. The presence of open-quotes extra spotsclose quotes on the chromatogram derived from treated as compared to untreated DNA indicates for DNA adducts. Since spectroscopic techniques require nanogram quantities, and material available from an adduct spot is usually in femtogram range, characterization of adducts has thus far depended upon chromatographic resemblance with reference compounds. However, alternate procedures based on physico-chemical properties of adducts have been suggested to gain insight into the chemical nature of unknown adducts. The assay has been applied to over 140 carcinogens, making it ideally suited for complex mixture exposures as in human settings

  17. Preparation, Characterization, and Microbial Degradation of Specifically Radiolabeled [14C]Lignocelluloses from Marine and Freshwater Macrophytes †

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Ronald; Maccubbin, A. E.; Hodson, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Specifically radiolabeled [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses were prepared from the aquatic macrophytes Spartina alterniflora, Juncus roemerianus, Rhizophora mangle, and Carex walteriana by using [14C]phenylalanine, [14C]tyrosine, and [14C]cinnamic acid as precursors. Specifically radiolabeled [14C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses were prepared by using [14C]glucose as precursor. The rates of microbial degradation varied among [14C-lignin]lignocelluloses labeled with different lignin precursors within...

  18. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl- channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (? 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  19. Distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retina after intravitreal and intravascular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of [35S] taurine in mouse retinae was studied by autoradiographic techniques after either intravitreal or intravascular injection. The route of injection did not affect the final localization. The major sites of label accumulation were the outer nuclear layer, the inner nuclear layer, and Mueller cell processes adjacent to the vitreal surface. The distribution was consistent with the interpretation that taurine was localized within two cellular compartments of mouse retina, photoreceptor cells and Mueller cells. (author)

  20. Distribution of radioactivity in the mouse organism after administration of 35S-chondroitin sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The follow-up of chondroitin sulphate (ChS) distribution in the organism after its administration by various routes is interesting in view of the possibility of clinical applications. Mice received intraperitoneally and intragastrically 35S-ChS and the distribution of radioactivity was followed in 10 chosen organs. The dynamics of changes in radioactivity were found to differ in dependence on the type of organ and route of administration. (author)

  1. Atmospheric contamination by radiolyse products of 35S methionine aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the opening of a container of 35S methionine, 35 to 60 kBq of radioactivity, depending on the extent of radiolysis, can escape in the form of volatile compounds. Although this represents only 0.2% of the ALI (annual limit on intake) it is preferable to work with a ventilated fume hood and, if possible, to use a syringe to sample the labelled methionine

  2. A new metabolically trapped agent by brain monoamine oxidase: N-methyl labeled (14C) N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of metabolically trapped agent for measuring regional brain function was designed and evaluated. N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA) was synthesized with trifluoroacetylphenylethylamine and 14C-methyl iodide. A high concentration of 14C-MPEA accumulated in mouse brain 1 min after injection, and radioactivities in the brain remained for a long period. By radiochemical analysis, it was found 14Ck-MPEA was metabolized in the brain to 14C-methylamine. 14C-methylamine was trapped by the blood-brain barrier because of its cationic charge at physiological pH. When the mouse was pretreated with a MAO inhibitor (pargyline hydrochloride 100 mg/kg IP) the radioactivity was rapidly excreted from the brain with a half-life of about 45 min. These results indicate that 14C-MPEA has potential for the measurement of brain MAO activity. (orig.)

  3. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkins disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer

  4. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomand, A; Bucholz, B A; Clifford, A J; Duecker, S R; Johnson, H; Schneider, P D; Zulim, R A

    1999-03-25

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkin?s disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer.

  5. Biochemical investigations for interpretation of in vivo measurements of the 32P uptake into irradiated and non-irradiated experimental neoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better understand the results of extracorporal measurements of the 32P incorporation in irradiated and unirradiated tumours and to assess their interpretability, biochemical studies on 32P incorporation were carried out. For this, a tumour was produced in the fibrous tissue in the back of the neck of mice by inoculation with a cell suspension. The animals were irradiated tangentially with shielded body and projecting tumour. 32P was applied 3 or 15 h before tumour resection and, in irradiated tumours, 1-8 days after irradiation. The results indicate that irradiation is the most effective in reducing the 32P content of the nucleic acids. Still, this content is generally so low compared to the total 32P content, especially 3 hours after 32P injection, that extracorporal measurements are hardly able to detect changes, especially in view of the fact that changes in the 32P content of other fractions overlap. (orig./MG)

  6. Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish System have been studied. The results show: (1) when 2 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the early rice, there is 0.01 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.55 ppm in the fish; (2) when 3 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the late rice, there is 0.04 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.40 ppm in the fish. ADI of methamidophos is 0.0006 mg/kg body according to FAD/WHO recommendation in 1985, so Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in the rice is 0.078 ppm, MRL in the fish is 2.3 ppm. The residue in the rice and fish does not exceed the MRL by FAO/WHO recommendation, when the amount of used methamidophos was controlled. 35S-methamidophos in the simulated system disappears as exponential function. The half-life of 35S-methamidophos on the Azolla, water, fish and straw are 1.5, 2.8, 6.2 and 2.2 days respectively

  7. Synthesis of uniformly labelled organic compounds by polymerization of 14C ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C uniformly labelled compounds is described. By polymerization of 14C ethylene, linear olefins with a double bond at ? position were obtained. From these olefins, uniformly labelled alkanes, alcohols and acids were prepared

  8. Urvina Bay, Galapagos Coral Radiocarbon (delta 14C) Data for 1956 to 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Urvina Bay coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. (90 deg W, 0.5 deg S) Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per...

  9. Radiative neutron capture on 14C and 14N

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyeva, N V; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, A V

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of description of the experimental data on total cross sections of the radiative neutron capture on 14C and 14N is considered within the frame of the potential cluster model with forbidden states and their classification according to Young schemes. It is shown that the using model and the potential construction methods allow to reproduce correctly the behavior of experimental cross sections at the energies from 10 meV (10-2 eV) to 1 MeV.

  10. Combustion synthesis of ceramic matrices for immobilization of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the use of combustion synthesis for immobilization of 14C was considered. Ceramic matrices have been prepared by this method using two different devices: one non-conventional with preheating of the samples and the other conventional device where ignition was produced thanks to tungsten filament. These two devices gave rise to different mechanisms of reactions involving different amounts of unreacted carbon graphite inside the matrix. The SHS samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  11. Gas ion sources for 14C analysis: Development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 gas accepting ion sources permit analytical instruments to be interfaced directly to an AMS system for 14C analysis. Instrumentation such as an elemental analyzer, gas bench, gas chromatograph and ampoule cracker have been implemented and routine gas measurements are performed and compliment traditional solid graphite measurements. Analysis of small samples with less than 50 ?g of carbon is readily achievable allowing molecular level radiocarbon data to be obtained for a range of sample types. Previous work using the microwave plasma gas ion source at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will be shown and discussed in the context of current work at ETH Zurich using a hybrid Cs sputter source. (author)

  12. Pyrolysis of 1-/sup 14/C-pent-1-ene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopinke, F.D.; Bach, G.; Ondruschka, B.; Zimmermann, G. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Organische Chemie)

    1983-01-01

    In the thermal decomposition of 1-/sup 14/C-pent-1-ene at 550 to 650 /sup 0/C a mixture of saturated and olefinic hydrocarbons <= C/sub 6/ is formed. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography, the distribution of radioactvity in the main products by radio gas chromatography. The results are discussed on the basis of a conventional radical reaction scheme including 1.4- and 1.5-H-shifts in intermediate alkyl and alkenyl radicals. The distribution of pyrolysis products and of their radioactivity allows a semiquantitative description of the complex decomposition of n-pent-1-en.

  13. 14C-coumaphos residues in Egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-coumaphos was applied dermally to two lactating goats, with 2 weeks interval. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results showed that coumaphos has a slow penetration rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. Milk residues were 0.20-0.25 ppm following appication, declining gradually to 0.03-0.06 ppm after 2 weeks. The liver and kidney were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other organs and milk after the withdrawal period. (author)

  14. Implants with {sup 32}P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology; {sup 32}P-haltige Folien als Implantate fuer die LDR-Brachytherapie gutartiger Stenosen in der Urologie und Gastroenterologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, Walter [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike [Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern (Germany). Laser-Forschungslabor] [and others

    2013-03-01

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting {sup 32}P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of {sup 32}P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the {sup 32}P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of {sup 32}P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated {sup 32}P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  15. Pesticides labelled with 14C. Pt. 2: Synthesis of propiconazole labelled in three different positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propiconazole was labelled with 14C: in three different positions in the benzene ring, in the position 5 of the dioxolane ring, and in the triazole ring. The synthesis of three new key intermediates (m-dichloro[U-14C]benzene], 1,2,4-[U-14C]triazole, [1-14C]-pentane-1,2-diol) were also elaborated. (Author)

  16. Production and characterization of [14C]protein A, a long-lived immunological reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the production of [14C]protein A is described which involves reductive methylation of lysine residues with [14C]formaldehyde and NaCNBH3. The binding of [14C]protein A to IgG is apparently unaltered, as determined by competitive binding studies. The use of [14C]protein A may be preferred to that of 125I-protein A when a radioactive label with a long half-life is desirable. (Auth.)

  17. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of bound 14C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14C residues, as measured by 14C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  18. Comparative in vitro metabolism of 1-14C-oleic acid and 1-14C-erucic acid in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro oxidation of 14C-oleic and 1-14C-erucic acid and their incorporation into lipids by liver, heart and skeletal muscles from female albino rats were studied. These tissues were obtained from rats maintained for 120 days on low fat diet or diets containing 15% mustard oil or 15% groundnut oil. In all these tissues from rats on different types of diets, the oxidation of 1-14C-erucic acid was lower than that 1-14C-oleic acid. There was little accumulation of lipids in heart after 120 days of feeding mustard oil. Oxidation of 1-14C-erucic acid was enhanced in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats conditioned to the mustard oil diet supplying erucic acid. Oxidation of erucic acid was maximum in liver and least in heart, whereas there were no differences in the oxidation of 1-14C-oleic acid in these tissues. Incorporation of 1-14C-oleic acid into triglycerides and phospholipids was not affected by the type of diet or tissues Incorporation of 1-14C-erucic acid was mainly into triglycerides of heart and skeletal muscles of rats not accustomed to mustard oil diet whereas these tissues from rats accustomed to mustard oil diets incorporated 1-14C-erucic acid both into the triglycerides and phospholipids. (author)

  19. Chromosome Studies in Patients with Polycythaemia Vera after Treatment with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromosomes of bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of forty-six patients with polycythaemia vera were analysed to trace the sequence of events leading to the development of bone-marrow failure or 'leukaemia'. All except one of the patients had received radiophosphorus (32P). It might be expected that the yield of chromosomal aberrations of the two-break type (translocations etc.) from the low dose-rate beta radiation of 32P would be small. However, 'unstable' types of abnormality (dicentrics, fragments) and stable types (translocations, inversions, deletions) were observed in 6-25% of the blood lymphocytes; there was no evidence of clones of abnormal cells. In the majority of patients the bone marrow was predominantly normal diploid; occasional sporadic cells with 'stable' chromosomal abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of the cases, but 'unstable' aberrations were rare. In seven cases there were clones of cells characterised by deletions or translocations. All these chromosomal changes are probably radiation-induced. Clones of cells with a similar abnormality, an apparent deletion of one of the F-group chromosomes, were observed in the bone marrow in ten patients. Eight of these had received 32P and two busulphan. In two cases the clone appeared to develop after treatment. A similar anomaly has been reported in several cases of idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia who had not been irradiated. Progression into the leukaemic phase of the disease is associated in some cases with gross chromosomal abnormalities, such as shift of the stem line chromosome number and bizarre chromosome 'markers'. In other cases, some of whom have not been irradiated for several years, the chromosomal changes are less pronounced and may result from non-disjunctional gain of one or more chromosomes or chromosome loss. One case showed a step-by-step clonal evolution over a two-year period. None of the chromosomal abnormalities in the 'leukaemic' phase appear to be a direct result of radiation-induced chromosomal breakage. (author)

  20. Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of 32P chromic phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracavitary injections of 32P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous 32P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V30) for 340 MBq 32P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V30 relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V30 of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V30 stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm2. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF 14C-ATRAZINE FOLLOWING AN ACUTE LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE IN THE WISTAR RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of atrazine in the lactating dam and suckling neonate following an acute exposure to either 2 or 4 mg/kg 14C-atrazine (14C-ATR) by gavage. 14C-ATR was administered to the nursing dam on postnatal day 3 by oral gavag...

  2. 14C-labeling of bromobutide, 2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-N-(?,?-dimethylbenzyl)butyramide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromobutide, a novel herbicide, was labeled with carbon-14 independently at the carbonyl group and the phenyl ring for use in metabolic studies. 14C-Carbonation of neopentylmagnesium chloride gave 3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyric acid quantitatively. Chlorination of 3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyric acid with thionyl chloride followed by ?-bromination with bromine yielded 2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyryl halide, which was subsequently condensed with ?,?-dimethybenzylamine to afford [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide. The overall yield of [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide was 76% from barium [14C]carbonate. Similarly, condensation of ?,?-dimenthyl[phenyl-14C]benzylamine, which was prepared from ?-methyl[phenyl-U-14C]styrene in three steps, with 2-bromo-3,3-dimethylbutyryl halide gave [phenyl-14C]bromobutide in 67% yield after purification. The specific activities of [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide and [phenyl-14C]bromobutide were 1.38 and 0.781 GBq/mmol (37.2 and 21.1 mCi/mmol), respectively. (author)

  3. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  4. 14C-sucrose and 14C-malonate precursor feeding studies on lipid biosynthesis in peanut plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucrose is the principal photosynthetic product that gets transported to various organs of the plant and serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of food reserves like starch and lipids. Acetate and malonate are the most important precursor compounds involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids. The role of acetate in the fatty acid biosynthesis has been probed in detail by Stumpf. However, only very limited work has been reported using malonate as a substrate. In the present study, the role of sucrose and malonate in the lipid biogenesis in peanut plant has been examined using 14C-labeled compounds. (author). 7 refs

  5. Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p 14C using polarized proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se midió la distribución angular de la sección eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersión elástica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energía sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El análisis de los datos en términos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la matriz "S" nos permite deducir los números cuánticos y parámetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energía de excitación. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas.

  6. Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting 32P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of 32P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the 32P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of 32P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated 32P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. (orig.)

  7. [Implants with 32P-foils for LDR-brachytherapy of benign stenosis in urology and gastroenterology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Walter; Becker, Ricarda; Otto, Henrike; Bader, Markus; Clemente, Lucas; Reinhardt, Sabine; Schäfer, Claus; Schirra, Jörg; Uschold, Stephanie; Welzmüller, Andreas; Sroka, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    For LDR-brachytherapy, a limited number of implant geometries and materials are available. To avoid wound healing related hyper-proliferation (stenosis, keloids) a novel radioactive foil system was developed based on beta emitting (32)P, which can be easily integrated in existing implants such as urethral catheters or bile duct stents. As substrate material for these foils PEEK (polyetherethercetone) was chosen because of its radiation hardness during neutron activation of (32)P. The activity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and gamma spectroscopy, dose distributions were measured with scintillation detectors and radiochromic films. The correlation between activity and dose was checked by Monte-Carlo-simulations (Geant4). Prototypes of the (32)P-implants have shown in wash-out tests the required tightness for sealed radioactive sources. In animal tests on urethra and bile duct, the uncomplicated and save application of (32)P-foils mounted on standard implants has been demonstrated, which is almost unchanged due to the simple radiation protection with plexiglass. This concept of radioactive implants with integrated (32)P-foils could extend essentially the application possibilities of LDR-brachytherapy. PMID:22917569

  8. Phosphorus Use Efficiency by Brazilian Upland Rice Genotypes Evaluated by the 32P Dilution Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work were to identify the most efficient upland rice genotypes in phosphorus (P) utilization, and to verify if P from the seed affects the classification of upland rice genotypes on P uptake efficiency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the 32P isotope technique, and plants were grown in pots with samples of dystrophic Typic Haplustox (Oxisol). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted of 47 upland rice genotypes and two standard plant species, efficient or inefficient in P uptake. The results were assessed through correlation and cluster analysis (multivariate). The Carisma upland rice genotype was the most efficient in P uptake, and Caripuna was the most efficient on P utilization. The P derived from seed does not influence the identification of upland rice genotypes in P uptake efficiency. (author)

  9. Evaluation of P availability from Fe and A1 labelled (32P) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetically Fe and A1 labelled phosphates (32P) show a certain amount of available P to the plants when applied to Sao Paulo State soils. This availability decreases from considered amorphous A1-phosphate (A1-P sub(am)) to A1 phosphate with a certain cristalinity grade (A1-P sub(cr)) and than from this to Fe-P sub(am) followed by Fe-P sub(cr), and it is influenced by both the soil characteristics and mainly by the iron constituents of the samples. In this way, one can not expect that the 0,05 N2H SO4 and the CHANG and JACKSON (1957a) solutions can define properly the available P of these soils. The addition of lime to the soils do not drive to a better P absorption by the plants and its effects are dubious

  10. Detection of methylation damage in DNA of gastric cancer tissues using 32P-postlabelling assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. The causes are still unknown but it has been speculated that gastric cancer is associated with consumption of foods rich in nitrates/nitrites or a high dietary intake of salt or pickled food. In the present study, we studied the level of alkylated DNA adducts formed in gastric cancer tissues in comparison with that in normal gastric mucosa. DNA was extracted from surgically removed gastric cancer tissues and patient-matched normal gastric mucosa. The level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine was measured by 32P-postlabelling assay after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enrichment. We found that the level of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine of gastric cancerous tissues was significantly higher than that of normal gastric mucosa (P=0.01685). (author)

  11. Incorporation of ortho[32p] phosphate into phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.) The specific radioactivities of individual molecular species of muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine have been measured by a combination of argentation thin-layer chromatography and countercurrent distribution. 2.) The specific radioactivities of individual molecular species of muscle phosphoglycerides have been determined 3h after intraperitoneal injection of ortho[32P] phosphate. Under these conditions, the specific radioactivities of the species present in rat muscle were found to be measures of the relative turnover times of these molecules. 3.) The specific radioactivity of phosphatidylcholine was approximately three times that of phosphatidylethanolamine. The 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl and 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholines had the fastest turnover, and the 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl the slowest. 4.) The results indicate that phosphoglycerides in muscle turn over more slowly and more evenly than do liver phosphoglycerides

  12. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32 P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain 32P in form of H332PO4, starting from irradiated S?. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S? in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion 32PO43- in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  13. Studies on the quantitative uptake of 32P-labelled Trakephone by aphids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reports methodical studies concerning the quantitative uptake of active substances by Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) and Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba L. enriched by 32P-labelled Trakephone. Aphids increasing in size were found to take up rising quantities of active substance. The uptake is the more continuous the more sessile the pests are. Feeding is delayed by the presence of Trakephone in the plant. The quantification of the active substance amounts is only practical in parts per million using the weight of the aphids. Higher concentrations of active substances in the plant will increase the uptake by the aphids. The autoradiogram qualitatively demonstrates the beginning of the uptake of active substances. It may be taken into consideration for examining the repellent properties of chemical compounds towards aphids. (author)

  14. Translocation, distribution and degradation of the systemic organophosphorus insecticide 32P-methamidophos in conifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic organophosphate methamidophos has been studied in conifers (spruce, pine, larch, and dauglas-fir) with regard to the translocation, distribution and degradation. The 32P-labelled insecticide was spread on the pretreated bark as an adhesive paste, and the following behaviour was investigated by counting and autoradiography during at most 48 d in trees up to 80 years of age. The localization of the insecticide in the phloem/xylem region of the trunk and the fixation of quantitative amounts of the insecticide and metabolites in the treated tree was the base for developing a new and effective method for control of the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) including the use of pheromone dispensers. (author)

  15. Effect of fasting on 32P translocations in pre-labelled pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid, short-lived efflux of inorganic 32P-orthophosphate that occurs when pre-labelled pancreatic islets are exposed to nutrient insulin secretagogues (the ''phosphate flush'') has been proposed to reflect some early step in ?-cell secretory activation. In the present study, glucose-initiated phosphate efflux was studied during fasting.Pancreatic islets were isolated from fed and 48-h fasted rats by collagenase digestion. After pre-labelling with 32P-orthophosphate and basal perifusion with 0.5 mg/ml glucose, tissue analyses disclosed similar stores of radioactivity in the two groups of islets. Stimulatory perfusion with glucose at this time failed to promote insulin release from islets which had been secured from fasted donors although the ''phosphate flush'' was preserved. However, the characteristics of phosphate efflux were altered. Maximal glucose-induced phosphate release was greater with islets from fasted animals whereas phosphate release in response to low level stimulation with glucose was diminished. Accordingly, the dose-response curve for glucose-initiated phosphate efflux in islets from fasted rats was displaced to the right and compatible with a decreased sensitivity to glucose at the activation site for the ''phosphate flush.'' Thus, while glucose is unable to enhance insulin release in vitro after fasting, glucose still elicits increased phosphate efflux. However, the phenomenon appears to be attended by an impaired responsiveness to activation by glucose, supporting the contention that some early step in the sequence of stimulus secretion coupling in the ?-cell may be obtunded after food deprivation. (author)

  16. Phosphorus use efficiency by cotton measured through 32P isotope technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcante, N. C.; Muraoka, T.; Camacho, M. A.; César, F. R. C. F.; Bruno, I. P.

    2012-04-01

    Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), which is naturally poor in this nutrient. Most of the P applied by fertilizer in Cerrado soils are converted into low solubility forms and can not be easily absorbed by plants. This occurs for characteristics of adsorption, conditioned by the predominance of low pH and aluminum and iron oxides in the clay fraction. The development of genotypes and cultivars with greater capacity to grow up in soils with low P availability ('phosphorus efficiency') is interesting to improve the agriculture in these areas in a sustainable way. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main product for the fibers used nationally and globally in the textile chain. This study aim was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption and utilization of P by cotton cultivars/genotypes grown in Cerrado soil by the isotopic dilution technique. The soil classified as Ultisols, was labeled with the radioisotope 32P.The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design factorial 2 x 17. Factors were considered two levels of P (insufficient = 20 mg kg-1 and sufficient = 120 mg kg-1) and 17 genetic materials of cotton recommended for Cerrado region. Phosphorus levels influenced significantly the shoots dry matter production, the P content and accumulation, the 32P specific activity, the L value and L value less seed cotton P by cultivars and genotypes. The hierarchical clustering analysis used to verify the similarities between the cultivars and genotypes of cotton, classified them into internally homogeneous groups and heterogeneous between different groups. Cultivars FMT 523, FM 910 and CNPA GO 2043 were the most responsive to phosphate fertilizer in sufficient level of P, while the genotype Barbadense 01 and cultivars FM 966LL, IPR Jataí, BRS Aroeira and BRS Buriti were most efficient absorbing P in soils with insufficient level.

  17. 32P analysis of DNA adducts in tissues of benzene-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid tumors have been reported in the Zymbal gland, oral and nasal cavities, liver, and mammary gland of Sprague-Dawley rats following chronic, high-dose administration of benzene. The carcinogenic activity of benzene is thought to be caused by activation to toxic metabolites that can interact with DNA, forming covalent adducts. A nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabeling assay, having a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides, was found suitable for measuring aromatic DNA adducts derived in vitro from catechol, benzenetriol (BT), phenol, hydroquinone (HQ), and benzoquinone (BQ), potential metabolites of benzene. When DNA specimens isolated from tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 hr after an oral gavage dose of 200 to 500 mg/kg, 5 days/week, in olive oil (3 mL/kg) for 1 day, 1 week, 5 weeks, and 10 weeks were analyzed by the 32P-postlabeling procedure, no aromatic adducts were detected unequivocally with DNA samples of liver, kidney, bone marrow, and mammary gland. With Zymbal gland DNA, three weak spots at levels totaling four lesions per 10(9) DNA nucleotides were seen only after 10 weeks of treatment, and these adducts did not correspond chromatographically to major adducts in vitro from the above specified compounds. Consequently, this finding requires confirmatory experiments. This distinct adduct pattern may relate to tumor induction in this organ following benzene administration. Our results also indicate that DNA adducts derived from catechol, BT, phenol, HQ, and BQ are either not formed in vivo with benzene or formed at levels below the detection limit of 1 adduct per 10(9-10) DNA nucleotides

  18. The sup 32 P uptake test in the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma - is the method obsolete. Der sup 32 P-Test zur Diagnose intraokulaerer Melanome - eine obsolete Untersuchungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, B.; Kuegelgen, O. von; Jung, C.; Heinze, H.G. (Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin); Mueller-Jensen, K. (Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany). Augenklinik)

    1991-10-01

    Results of the {sup 32}P uptake test for the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma in 41 patients are reported. The sensitivity was 80%, the specifity 86%, if a count rate ratio of more than 1.4 between tumor and normal tissue was considered as pathological. Ratios between 1.4 and 1.6 ought to be considered as equivocal in which case specifity increases to 90%. The {sup 32}P uptake test still remains of method a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma. (orig.).

  19. Stimulation of phosphate uptake in human platelets by thrombin and collagen. Changes in specific 32P labeling of metabolic ATP and polyphosphoinositides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of [32P]phosphate by human, gel-filtered blood platelets and its incorporation into cytoplasmic ATP and polyphosphoinositides was studied. In unstimulated platelets, uptake was Na+o-dependent and saturable at approximately 20 nmol/min/10(11) cells with a half-maximal rate at 0.5 mM extracellular phosphate. Upon stimulation with thrombin or collagen, net influx of [32P]Pi was accelerated 5- to 10-fold. With thrombin, [32P]Pi efflux was also increased. After the first 2 min, efflux exceeded influx, resulting in the net release of [32P]Pi from the platelets. Since the stimulus-induced burst in [32P]Pi uptake paralleled the secretory responses, it might be an integral part of stimulus-response coupling in platelets. The stimulus-induced burst in net [32P]Pi uptake led to an enhanced labeling of metabolic ATP, which was already detectable at 5 s after stimulation with thrombin. Concomitantly, the incorporation of [32P]Pi into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was accelerated. The thrombin-induced increase in specific 32P radioactivity of cytoplasmic ATP fully accounted for the simultaneous increase in specific 32P radioactivity of these phosphoinositides. In studying the extent of 32P labeling of phosphorylated compounds in response to a cellular stimulus, it is therefore essential to measure the effect of the stimulus on the specific radioactivity of cytoplasmic ATP

  20. T=(5/2) 27Na from 14C+14C, and the N=16 shell gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time a comprehensive level and decay scheme has been obtained for a T=(5/2) nucleus in the s-d shell (27Na) by using a radioactive beam and target. Particle-? and p-?-? coincidences were measured following the 14C(14C,p?)27Na reaction at Elab=22 MeV. The results do not support an inversion of the 2s1/2 and 1d5/2 orbitals, as previously proposed for Tz?3, but they do suggest an increased N=16 gap between the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 orbitals due to the neutron excess. A consistent interpretation of the level scheme in terms of the s-d shell model using the USD Hamiltonian is possible below 4 MeV, but differences increase at higher excitation energies. Another interpretation is that the influences of both the p1/2 and f7/2 intruder orbitals increase simultaneously with increasing T, an effect not included in the USD Hamiltonian

  1. Preparation and HPLC isolation of L-[U-14C]tryptophan from enzyme hydrolysate labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptophan was obtained from biomass of the blue-green alga Synechococcus elongatus cultivated under 14CO2. After partial purification, the protein fraction was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using pronase. Semipreparative isolation of L-[U-14C]tryptophan was accomplished on a HPLC column of Separon S Hema 1000 CM, 2% ethanol were added to the eluent, and a precolumn packed with the basic anion exchanger Spheron 1000 DEAE was used. Always after the passage of L-[U-14C]tryptophan, the precolumn was decoupled. The substance was collected in 96% ethanol. After removing the solvent by vacuum evaporation, the sample was analyzed on a column packed with Separon SIX C18 in the eluent of 0.1M-NaH2PO4, 2% methanol. When the desired radiochemical purity was not attained, the sample was purified on Separon SIX C18 using 2% methanol. The final radiochemical purity achieved by using this method is 98%. (P.A.). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  2. Accumulation of 32p in the insect body of rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis walker) and labelling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of 32p in the insect body of rice stem borer (chilo suppressalis walker) and labelling efficiency. Labelling of C. suppressalis months with 32p though larval feeding with rice seedling indicated good result. Labelling efficiency at a given dose of 50 ?Vi/50 ml reached 81% at 100 ?Ci/50 ml was 95%. Forty percent of the total labelled individuals contained radioactivity greater than 1500 counts per minute as measured by liquid scintillation counter with 57.5% efficiency. Accumulation of 32p in the labelled insects was found mostly (50%) in the abdomen. The remaining 50% were distributed to the thorax (34%), to the head (9%) and to the wings (7%). (author). 6 refs

  3. Phosphate absorption and distribution in flue-cured tobacco under different ozone consistency by using 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption and distribution of phosphate in flue-cured tobacco under different ozone consistencies was studied by using 32P. The results showed that the percentage of root of whole tobacco plant assimilating 32p reduced as growing, but in stem it increased as growing in the sand culture. Root and stem of flue-cured tobacco assimilating 32P varied little in the whole growing period in the solution culture. Distribution situation in leaf with two consistencies was in the order of lower leaf>cutters leaf>upper leaf, and the ratio of radioactivity showed root>stem>lower leaf>cutters leaf>upper leaf. However, flue-cured tobacco assimilating phosphate in the two consistencies showed significantly positive correlation with length of growth period. Assimilating phosphate in the solution culture was more and faster than in the low ozone consistency culture

  4. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, F., E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Fiumano, V., E-mail: vittoriofiumano85@libero.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Capano, M., E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Piazza S. Francesco, 81055 Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Passariello, I., E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Cesare, N.De., E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Terrasi, F., E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) AMS measurements ({Delta}R/R < 0.3%) reduce the conventional uncertainty of the dating to few decades, allowing precise age estimation of materials containing carbon (C). The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) during its activity on AMS {sup 14}C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the 'Acerenza portrait' is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-{sup 14}C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2{sigma}) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  5. Disposition and Metabolic Profiles of [14C]Viramidine and [14C]Ribavirin in Rat and Monkey Red Blood Cells and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-chung; Lourenco, David; Xu, Guifen; Yeh, Li-Tain

    2004-01-01

    The disposition and metabolic profiles of [14C]viramidine and [14C]ribavirin were compared in rat and monkey red blood cells and liver. Our data reveal that the total ribavirin-related components (ribavirin plus its mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites) may account for most of the drug in monkey liver following prolonged oral administration of viramidine.

  6. Retention of 14C label is lower in old than in young Wistar rats after oral dosing with [14C]pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, W; Mocking, J A; van den Berg, H

    1992-07-01

    Ten young (6-mo-old) and ten old (31-mo-old) male Wistar rats fed a purified diet (250 g casein and 6 mg pyridoxine.HCl per kg) from weaning were given either a single oral dose or five repeated oral doses of 14C-labeled pyridoxine. At various times after dosing animals of each age group were killed. Absorption of orally dosed [14C]pyridoxine.HCl was not found to be different between young and old rats. Total body retention of 14C label administered was modestly but significantly lower in old than in young rats. However, distribution of 14C label over various tissues and among the various B-6 vitamers was similar. No significant age-related differences were observed in the biokinetic parameters derived from urinary excretion data. Contrary to the findings for 14C label distribution, age-related differences were observed for absolute level of tissue 14C-labeled vitamers. The lower [14C]pyridoxal-5'-phosphate content in liver and muscle, and [14C]pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate content in liver, of old animals indicated an age-related difference in liver and muscle vitamin B-6 disposition. In both young and old rats, and in both liver and muscle tissue, pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate was observed to be a faster-exchanging tissue vitamin B-6 pool than pyridoxal-5'-phosphate. PMID:1619473

  7. Comparative labelling of rat epididymal spermatozoa by intratesticularly administered 65ZnCl2 and [35S] cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spermatozoa of rats injected intratesticularly with 65ZnCl2 and 35S-cysteine were collected from the caput and cauda of the epididymis from 2 to 28 days after injection. The highest specific activities were observed in spermatozoa from the caput on day 10. Maximal levels in spermatozoa from the cauda were obtained on days 14 and 18 for 35S and day 18 for 65Zn. The 65Zn/35S ratios suggested that: 1) 35S associated with spermatozoa arrived in the epididymis slightly in advance of 65Zn; 2) approximately 60% of 65Zn was lost from spermatozoa and 75% from isolated sperm heads during transit from caput to cauda, assuming total retention of 35S; and 3) retention of 65Zn by the seminiferous epithelium was superior to that of 35S-cysteine. Only small percentages of either isotope were recovered in isolated sperm heads, suggesting that the primary sites of labelling were in the sperm tail. Superior retention of 65Zn by testis was confirmed by increasing 65Zn/35S ratios in individual fractions of testicular homogenates between 2 and 10 days after injection. In addition, both isotopes appeared to be transferred from the testis cytosol to particulate material during this period. (author)

  8. Metabolism of [14C]quizalofop-ethyl in soybean and cotton plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of [phenyl-U-14C]quizalofop-ethyl or [quinoxaline-14C]quizalofop-ethyl was investigated in soybean and cotton plants. [14C]Quizalofop-ethyl was applied to soybean or cotton plants at 4 oz of AI/acre as a postemergence spray, and plant samples were harvested initially (day 0) and at 3, 6, and 13.5 (maturity) weeks after treatment. No detectable 14C residues (14C residues, respectively. The proposed metabolic pathway of quizalofop-ethyl was similar in both soybean and cotton plants. In the foliage, quizalofop-ethyl was rapidly metabolized to 2-4-(6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yl)oxy-phenoxypropanoic acid (quizalofop) that metabolized to the phenol metabolites 6-chloroquinoxaline-2-ol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid. Glucose conjugates of quizalofop possibly were formed since addition of ?-glucosidase to aqueous extracts (containing polar 14C residues) of soybean foliage slowly released [14C]quizalofop

  9. Atmospheric nuclear weapon test history as characterized by the deposition of 14C in human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C concentration in the collagen of human teeth was retrospectively investigated to determine whether its incorporation was related to atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Teeth were extracted for dental therapy from July 1987 to February 1988 from patients who were residents in Japan. Tooth collagen was extracted with HCl and converted to amorphous C by heating in a vacuum line. Specimens for 14C analysis were prepared by mixing the amorphous C with silver powder. The 14C concentration was measured by mass spectrometer. The 14C concentration in tooth collagen rapidly increased in 1961 after the bomb tests, peaked around 1967-1968, and then gradually decreased. The collagen of human teeth maintains the 14C concentration at the age of root completion for life. The results of this study indicate that the history of environmental contamination from atmospheric nuclear weapon's tests has been characterized by deposition of 14C in the tooth collagen 14C of human beings

  10. Partitioning of 14C into solid, liquid, and gas phases in various paddy soils in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The partitioning ratios of 14C in solid, liquid, and gas phases were determined by batch sorption tests using 97 paddy soil samples. Each of the soil samples was suspended in deionized water containing [1, 2-14C] sodium acetate and shake-incubated for 7 days. More than 65% of the spiked 14C was released into the air, approximately 30% was partitioned into the solid phase, and the 14C remaining in the liquid phase was only a few percent. These results suggested that if the 14C incorporated into acetate migrated from a TRU repository site to paddy fields, most of the 14C would be released into the air and the rest would be partitioned into the soil phase. It is likely that microorganisms in the soils are responsible for these partitioning ratios because about 97% of the spiked 14C remained in the liquid phase in the microorganism-depleted sample. (author)

  11. Assessment of contributors to radiation dose following intakes of rapidly excreted [{sup 14}C]-compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, David M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3TB (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection default biokinetic model for the assessment of radiation dose received following intakes of unspecified [{sup 14}C]-compounds (DCM) appears to overestimate the radiation doses delivered by many [{sup 14}C]-compounds. The DCM does not specify the route of elimination and this review of the biokinetic data for four [{sup 14}C]-compounds, [{sup 14}C]sevelamer, [{sup 14}C]colestipol, [{sup 14}C]levetiracetam and [{sup 14}C]ifetroban, that are rapidly lost from the human body via different excretory pathways, indicates that the excretory pathway is the critical determinant for both the individual tissue doses and the effective dose. If there is significant faecal excretion the DCM does not overestimate the effective dose. (author)

  12. Assessment of contributors to radiation dose following intakes of rapidly excreted [14C]-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection default biokinetic model for the assessment of radiation dose received following intakes of unspecified [14C]-compounds (DCM) appears to overestimate the radiation doses delivered by many [14C]-compounds. The DCM does not specify the route of elimination and this review of the biokinetic data for four [14C]-compounds, [14C]sevelamer, [14C]colestipol, [14C]levetiracetam and [14C]ifetroban, that are rapidly lost from the human body via different excretory pathways, indicates that the excretory pathway is the critical determinant for both the individual tissue doses and the effective dose. If there is significant faecal excretion the DCM does not overestimate the effective dose. (author)

  13. Detection of radioactive 35S at Fukushima and other Japanese sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark H.; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Yamada, Keita; Mukotaka, Arata; Fujii, Ayako; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Noguchi, Izumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and concomitant tsunami during March 2011. An effect of this disaster was secondary formation of radioactive 35S via the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction, when neutrons from the partially melted reactor cores activated the coolant sea water. Here we report the first measurements of 35S in sulfate aerosols and rain water collected at six Japanese sampling sites, Hokkaido, Tsukuba, Kashiwa, Fuchu, Yokohama, and Fukushima, during March-September 2011. The measured 35SO42- concentrations in aerosols vary significantly. The Kashiwa (AORI) site shows the highest 35SO42- concentration (6.1 × 104 ± 200 atoms/m3) on 1 April 2011, which is nearly 100 times higher than the natural background activity. Considering the percentage loss of 35SO42- resulting from dry and wet deposition and dilution of the radiation plume in the boundary layer during transport, it was determined that the surface air concentration of 35SO42- at the Fukushima would have been 2.8 × 105 atoms/m3 during the week after the earthquake, which is in agreement with the model prediction [Priyadarshi et al.]. 35SO42- activity in rain water collected during March-May 2011 at Tokyo Tech Yokohama varies from 1.1 × 105 to 9.8 × 105 atoms/liter, whereas stream water collected near Fukushima was found to have 1.2 × 105 atoms/liter during April. Even after 6 months, 35SO42- activity remains very high (9.9 × 104 ± 770 atoms/m3) in the marine boundary layer in the Fukushima region, which implies that the reactor core was producing radioactive sulfur.

  14. In vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability using 35S to label the bacterial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in order to simplify a previously developed 15N-method for in vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability. Casein (Cas), whole soybeans (Sb) heated at 120oC for 20 min (SbTherm) and sunflower (Sfl) were incubated at 39oC for 4 hours in a water bathshaker with the following media: McDougall's buffer, strained and enriched with particle associated bacteria rumen fluid (2:1), rapidly (maltose, sucrose, glucose) and more slowly (pectin, soluble starch) degradable carbohydrates with final concentration of 815 mg/100 ml and 21.7 ?Ci/100 ml of35S (from Na235SO4). After the incubation had been ceased, a bacterial fraction was isolated through differential centrifugation and specific activity of bacterial (Bac) and high speed total solids (TS) nitrogen was measured. The ratio was used to calculate bacterial mass in TS and through the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in TS - the net bacterial growth (against control vessels without protein). The level of ammonia-N in the supernate after blank correction was used to find the ammonia-N released from protein degradation. The data showed that the rate (and extend) of degradation for the Cas (as a standard protein) was lower compared to those obtained through the 15N-method but it was higher than the rate derived through another in vitro method. The Cas equivalent of the Sb was higher than the figure we found in a previous experiment with solvent extracted soybean meal suggesting that the 35S-method underestimated the degradability of the Cas. After being tested on a wider range of foodstuffs, the proposed 35S-method might be considered as an alternative procedure which is less laborous than the 15N-method. (author)

  15. Synthesis of 6-quinoxalin-2,3-14C2-amine and derivatives via ethanedial-1,2-14C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity ethanedial-1,2-14C2 has been prepared in 74% radiochemical yield by oxidation of paraldehyde-14F6 with selenious acid. The crude ethanedial-14C2 was directly condensed with 1,2,4-benzenetriamine dihydrochloride in aqueous sodium carbonate giving 6-quinoxalin-2,3-14C2-amine in 56% yield. The quinoxaline was brominated and then converted to its isothiocyanate by reaction with thiophosgene. The isothiocyanate was directly converted to 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)quinoxaline-2,3-14C2 by reaction with ethylenediamine in refluxing 1:1 methanol toluene. The overall radiochemical yield was 11% from paraldehyde-14C6. (author)

  16. Syntheses of ?-aminobutyric-1-14C and of ?-aminoadipic-6-14C acid from methoxy-3 chloropropyl-magnesium and marked carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonation of ?-methoxypropyl-magnesium chloride by CO2 gives ?-methoxy-butyric carboxylic-14C acid with a yield of about 95 per cent. When the latter is treated successively with anhydrous HBr and with diazomethane, methyl carboxylic ?-bromobutyrate-14C is formed. This in turn gives ?-amino-butyric carboxylic-14C acid with an overall yield of 66 per cent with respect to Ba14CO3, when it is condensed with potassium phthalimide and hydrolyzed by acid. By reacting methyl-?-bromobutyrate-14C with the sodium derivative of ethyl cyanacetamido-acetate in ethanol, followed by an acid hydrolysis, ?-aminoadipic-6-14C acid is obtained with an overall yield of 46 per cent with respect to Ba14CO3. (author)

  17. Effect of a few amendments on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh meadow soil and the immobilization of the 14C residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a few amendments on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh soil and the distribution of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues after one year incubation were studied. The N and NPK fertilizers, glucose, cellulose and amorphous calcic humates had a positive effect on the mineralization of the herbicide. Straw, NAFS extract and amorphous lignin had little influence while colloidal lignin and colloidal calcic humates had a negative effect on the mineralization. All the amendments tested increased the quantity of 14C substances fixed on the soil constituents and so decreased pollution. Calculation of the quantity of free 14C in the soil after one year incubation showed for the various amendments values comprised between 56 and 93% of that of the control

  18. Influence of a few composts on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh meadow soil and the immobilization of the 14C residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of four composts on the mineralization of 14C phenmedipham in a fresh soil and the distribution of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues after one year incubation were studied. Straw compost had an important positive effect on the degradation of the herbicide. After a negative influence during the 15 first days of incubation, composts of mushroombeds, grapes and oak-bark - hen-dung had little influence. The soils treated with these three last composts showed a more important complexation of 14C than the control-soil or the soil treated with straw-compost. Calculation of the quantity of free 14C substances in the soil after one year incubation gave for the four composts values comprised between 39 and 84% of that of the control

  19. Measurement of cosmogenic radionuclide 35S in sulfate aerosol in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Savarino, J. P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report the first measurement of cosmogenically produced radionuclide 35S activity in sulfate aerosols collected at inland (Dome C: latitude 75.6, longitude 123.24, altitude 3233 m) and coastal site (Dumont D’Urville: latitude 66.39, longitude 140.01, altitude 43 m) in Antarctica. Sulfate aerosol samples were collected using a High-Volume aerosol sampler on a glass fiber filter paper for 7 days once a month for a year. The radioactivity was measured using low noise liquid scintillation spectrometer1.The measurements reveal a maximum abundance of 35SO4 in spring-summer (500-1200 35S atoms/m3) and minimum (50-200 atoms/m3) during winter. This variation is explained by considering the relative seasonality of the air circulation patterns prevailing at inland and the costal sites. Tropospheric-stratospheric air mixing in summer leads to higher 35SO4, whereas a lack of mixing within the winter polar vortex causes a significant decrease in 35SO4. The 35S activity was found to be higher in fine sulfate aerosol particle (PM 2.5) as compared to coarse (PM10) at DDU. The normalised activity, the ratio of 35SO4 to the total sulfate concentration, shows no link of 35SO4 (or activity) concentration to the local meteorological conditions responsible for sulfate aerosol formation. Rather, the observed high value indicates higher air mass mixing between the stratosphere and troposphere. A secondary 35SO4 peak is observed at both stations during July and August. Based on a preliminary model, an additional 4-6% stratospheric contribution, either due to the stratospheric air mass intrusion into the troposphere or evaporation of 35SO4 from cloud particles during Polar Stratospheric Cloud sedimentation is required to explain this enhancement during the polar winter. 1 Brother, L.A., G. Dominguez, A. Abramian, A. Corbin, Ben Bluen, and M. H. Thiemens, Otimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications, Proceedings National Acad. Sci. 107, 5311, 2010

  20. Observations on transition of polycythaemia vera into acute or chronic granulocytic leukaemia during treatment with radioactive phosphorus 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a group of 172 cases of polycythaemia vera treated with radioactive phosphorus 32P acute granulocytic leukaemia developed in 3 cases and chronic granulocytic leukaemia in 6 cases. Development of acute granulocytic leukaemia during treatment with radioactive phosphorus for polycythaemia vera may be considered with some probability as a result of leukaemia-inducing action of ionizing radiation. Transition of polycythaemia vera into chronic granulocytic leukaemia seems to a natural outcome of this complex myeloproliferative syndrome in patients with survival prolonged by treatment with 32P. (author)

  1. Synthesis of CH3CH2Br - 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of ethyl bromide labelled with 14C, starting from ethanol, has already been studied: 1- by TOLBERT, CHRISTENSON, NAI-HSUAN and SAH; 2- by SIXMA and HENDRIKS. After various blank tests of these two methods, we have finally obtained the best yields by treating the ethanol with a mixture of 40 per cent hydrobromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, in the apparatus normally used in the laboratory for the synthesis of CH3I slightly modified, so that the current of nitrogen carrying ethyl bromide and hydrobromic acid passes through a sintered glass disc before being bubbled through a solution of NaOH. We describe here the practical process used for the blank test which gave the best yield (91 per cent) and the active synthesis. (author)

  2. Fate of [14C]-zineb on lettuce plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [1,2-14C]-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb) was prepared and applied in droplets to leaves of lettuce plants. In aqueous suspension zineb decomposes mainly into ethylenethiourea (ETU) and 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-C]-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione (DIDT). Lettuce plants were harvested 0,1,3,7,14 and 21 days after treatment and analysed. A high proportion of radioactivity remained on the surface of the plant and could be washed off. The following identified products were present: unchanged zineb, ETU, DIDT, 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea. The ETU residue disappeared within 7 days, while 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea were formed gradually. Radioactivity inside the plant consisted mostly of ethyleneurea: no ETU was present. (author)

  3. Improved measurements of gaseous 14C samples at Micadas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of 1 to 40 ?g carbon are measured as CO2 in the gas ion source of the small AMS facility MICADAS at ETH Zurich. This measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. Low negative ion currents, however, are a drawback of gaseous measurements as they result in a reduced precision. To overcome this problem, we optimized several parameters of the new ion source at MICADAS. The performance now achieved allows to measure samples faster, more efficiently and with a higher precision. Therefore, the gas ion source at MICADAS even becomes feasible for dating in the 5 per mil range. A report on the state of our gas ion source is presented.

  4. Delta effects in the 14N(?,?+)14C? reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured pion angular distributions for 14N(?,?+)14Cg.s. at five photon energies spanning the delta resonance. Their objective is to study delta production and propagation inside the nucleus, and to look for medium effects associated with delta propagation. There have been few detailed studies of this type. While charged photopion production in the delta region is sensitive to delta excitations, it is in general difficult to clearly extract delta effects because there is an significant background associated with non-resonant processes. The non-resonant Born terms in the protoproduction operator are usually dominated by the spin-flip Kroll-Rudermann (KR) term. The present M1 transition between the 14N and 14C ground states is, however, an important special case because of the near-vanishing of the allowed Gamow-Teller matrix element due to nuclear structure effects

  5. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia]. E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.br; vltorrnis@cena.usp.br; regitano@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled ({sup 14}C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha{sup -1}, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their {sup 14}C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  6. Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela) (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35°S) / Presence of Antifer ultra Ameghino (=Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela) in the late Pleistocene-early Holocene of Central Chile (30-35°S)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Labarca E; M. Alejandra, Alcaraz.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo discute el estatus taxonómico de la especie Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, definida a partir de astas completas procedentes de la laguna Taguatagua y la quebrada de Quereo (Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano), en Chile central (30-35°S). Se concluye, a partir de un estudi [...] o morfológico y morfométrico detallado, que Antifer niemeyeri debe ser considerado sinónimo de Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889 dados los caracteres anatómicos compartidos con esta especie. Los resultados amplían la distribución geográfica del taxón, que previamente se registraba en Argentina, Uruguay y sur de Brasil, y confirman su biocrón para el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano (edad Lu-janense), aun cuando las fechas radiocarbónicas de Chile central (ca. 9.900 años 14C AP) corresponden a las más tardías para la especie. A la luz de la evidencia paleoclimática disponible, se vincula A ultra durante el Pleistoceno de Chile central a ambientes cálidos y abiertos. Considerando estos requerimientos, se discute su posible vía de ingreso al actual territorio chileno a través de corredores ubicados hacia el sur del macizo andino, y su coexistencia con Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782. De acuerdo a la información estratigráfica y paleoambiental, se postula que ambas especies habrían sido alopátridas, por lo menos en el área de estudio. Abstract in english This paper discusses the taxonomic status of Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela, 1984, defined from complete antlers from Taguatagua lake and Quereo canyon, both located in central Chile (30-35°S). From a detailed morphological and moiphometrical study, it is concluded that Antifer niemeyeri should be co [...] nsidered synonymous with Antifer ultra Ameghino, 1889, due to the anatomical characters shared between both forms. These results expand the geographical distribution of this taxa previously recorded in Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil, confirming their late Pleistocene-early Holocene biochron, in spite the fact that radiocarbon dates obtained in central Chile (ca. 9.900 14C yr BP) imply the youngest age for the species. According to the available paleoclimate evidence, A. ultra is linked to warm climate and an open landscape during the late Pleistocene of central Chile. Its possible routes of entry to central Chile through corridors located at the south of the Andean range and its coexistence with Hippocamelus bisulcus Molina, 1782, are also discussed. According to the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental data we suggest that both species have been allopatric, at least in the study area.

  7. Cumulative damage effect of 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial delivery on beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the possibility and safety of 3'2P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial injection.Methods: Ten Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 2) according to different doses (185 and 370 MBq), different sites (gluteus maximus and liver) and cold colloid as a control group. At different time-points after surgery, the weights of dogs were measured, and the blood and blood biochemical inspections were examined. ECT imaging was performed and histomorphology was observed dynamically. The radioactive counts of body surface for 90 days, blood for 12 weeks and urine and feces for 30 days were measured continuously. Measured data were expressed by mean ± standard error ((x-bar) ± s) and SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: ECT imaging demonstrated that the whole liver imaging was obtained although the radioactive distribution was uneven in liver groups, and the radioactivity concentrated continuously in the area of injection, but no liver imaging in muscle groups. Dogs in group 4 lost weight progressively and reduced by 2.7 kg till 45 d after operation. While the mean weight increments in the other groups were 3.0, 1.6, 0.8 and 3.1 kg in order. In group 4, PLT and RBC reduced obviously. Dogs died at 23 or 45 d.AST and ALT were elevated sharply before death. In the other groups, blood and blood biochemistry inspection showed there were no significant statistical differences. The highest radioactive counts after operation were obtained from the injection spot, while the urinary bladder and the spleen were followed. The peak of blood cpm in liver groups presented at 5 min.Peak values were 0.5 x 107/min and 1.0 x 107/min, respectively. The blood cpm in the muscle groups was always maintained at 3 x l05/min. Histology study showed the hyperemia dropsy changes in muscle groups and 185 MBq liver group in 4 weeks, while after 8 weeks the organizational structure restored normally. There were partial liver cells necrosis in 4 weeks, and the massive liver cells balloon type changes in 6 weeks, as well as obvious hyperemia dropsy and the hepatic lobe structure unclear in 370 MBq liver group. For the radioactive counts of urine and excrement, the peak appeared at 13 and 12 d respectively, and the peak values were (42.0 ± 3.3) x 104 and (29.6 ± 4.5) x 104 /min in muscle groups, respectively; while the peak appeared at 5 and 9 d, respectively and the peak values were (49.0 ± 10.2) x 104 and (28.5 ± 7.1) x 104 /min in liver groups, respectively. Cumulative excretion ratios in urine and excrement were 36.58% and 10.62% in muscle groups, respectively and 23.48% and 8.76% in liver groups till 30 d, respectively. The liver absorbed doses were 30.6 and 55.6 Gy in liver groups, while those were 2.3 and 6.5 Gy in muscle groups. The maximus absorbed doses of gluteus were 53.4 and 98.1 Gy in muscle groups. Conclusions: When 32P- colloidal chromic phosphate of 794.39 MBq/m2 was injected into the liver of Beagle, the liver absorbed dose was 56 Gy, which could be lethal dose for its strong liver toxicity and systemic side effects. Injection of 463.98-772.93 MBq/m2 in muscle of Beagle could be safe. 32P-colloidal chromic phosphate interstitial injection is secure to treat the solid tumors with poor and middle blood supply which could be reached by puncture. (authors)

  8. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on the agricultural environment and ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimehypo is a new type of insecticide of the nereistoxin family of compounds which has been developed and manufactured in China. To appraise its environmental safety, radioisotope tracer techniques were applied to investigate the effects of 35S labelled dimehypo on the agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorption and high mobility in soil, stability in soil and water, and slow rate of degradation. The main product of degradation, nereistoxin has a lower mobility than the parent compound in the soil. Sulphur-35-dimehypo was taken up by the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon indellus) along with bait or via the respiratory tracts and was excreted rapidly after the fish were removed from the contaminated water. Liquid and granulated formulations of 35S-dimehypo were fed to quails and fowls, respectively. The radioactivity was excreted rapidly in faeces and urine. The low partition coefficient of the insecticide in caprylalcohol-water suggested no (or low) accumulation in the adipose tissue of the organism. The release of its active ingredients from the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. A new 14C calibration data set for the last deglaciation based on marine varves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K A; Kashgarian, M; Lehman, S J; Overpeck, J T; Peterson, L C; Southon, J R

    1999-02-22

    Varved sediments of the tropical Cariaco basin provide a new {sup 14}C calibration data set for the period of deglaciation (10,000 to 14,500 years before present: 10-14.5 cal ka BP). Independent evaluations of the Cariasco Basin calendar and {sup 14}C chronologies were based on the agreement of varve ages with the GISP2 ice core layer chronology for similar high-resolution paleoclimate records, in addition to {sup 14}C age agreement with terrestrial {sup 14}C dates, even during large climatic changes. These assessments indicate that the Cariaco Basin {sup 14}C reservoir age remained stable throughout the Younger Dryas and late Alleroed climatic events and that the varve and {sup 14}C chronologies provide an accurate alternative to existing calibrations based on coral U/Th dates. The Cariaco Basin calibration generally agrees with coral-derived calibrations but is more continuous and resolves century-scale details of {sup 14}C change not seen in the coral records. {sup 14}C plateaus can be identified at 9.6, 11.4, and 11.7 {sup 14}C ka BP, in addition to a large, sloping plateau during the Younger Dryas ({approximately}10 to 11 {sup 14}C ka BP). Accounting for features such as these is crucial to determining the relative timing and rates of change during abrupt global climate changes of the last deglaciation.

  10. CaMV 35S promoter directs beta-glucuronidase expression in Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Cai, Huaqing; Xu, Weihong; Hu, Yuanlei; Lin, Zhongping

    2002-03-01

    The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter has been most commonly used in plant transformation studies, but its activity in mushrooms has not been reported. p301-b is a binary vector containing a bialaphos resistance gene driven by the promoter of Lentinus edodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) gene. CaMV 35S-GUS was inserted into p301-b, and the resulting construct p301-bG was transformed to protoplasts of Ganoderma lucidum and basidiospores of Pleurotus citrinopileatus. GUS activity was observed in the transformants, indicating that CaMV 35S promoter can direct expression of exogenous gene in the mushrooms. This is the first report on the application of CaMV 35S promoter in genetic modification of mushrooms. PMID:11936254

  11. A new sensitive 32P-postlabeling assay based on the specific enzymatic conversion of bulky DNA lesions to radiolabeled dinucleotides and nucleoside 5'-monophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sensitive 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts has been developed. When DNA containing bulky adducts, X1, X2, .....Xn, is digested with nuclease P1 at pH 5, normal nucleotides are released as 5'-monophosphates, pN, while adducts are excised as 5'-phosphorylated dinucleotides, pXipN, because inter-nucleotide linkages on the 3' side of X resist attack by nuclease P1. Addition of prostatic acid phosphatase to such a digest results in 5'-dephosphorylation of the nucleotides to normal nucleosides, N, and adducted dinucleotides, XipN, carrying a 5'-terminal free hydroxyl group. The dinucleotides but not nucleosides are converted to 5'-32P-labeled dinucleotides,[32P]pXipN, by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]posphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. Upon mapping on polyethyleneimine-cellulose anion-exchange TLC, the labeled dinucleotide adducts produce characteristic autoradiographic fingerprints. Alternatively, they are further digested with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-monophosphates, [32P]pXi and pN. TLC profiles of the monophosphate adducts are distinct from those of the dinucleotides. These reactions provide the basis of the new 32P-postlabeling scheme, which is compared in this paper with a previously reported protocol yielding adducts in the form of 5'-32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphates, [32P]pXip. (author)

  12. Reviewing the Mid-First Millennium BC {sup 14}C 'warp' using {sup 14}C/bristlecone pine data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.E., E-mail: retaylor@ucr.edu [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States); Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Southon, John [Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    AMS-based {sup 14}C measurements have been obtained on 53 dendrochronologically-dated Bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) wood samples in decadal increments spanning 2300-2750 cal BP with particular interest focused on the decades centered on 2405 cal BP and 2625 cal BP. In general, there is overall agreement with the current IntCal04/09 consensus calibration curve for this period. For the 2400-2410 cal BP interval, our Bristlecone-based {sup 14}C value is consistent with the {sup 14}C value obtained by Belfast on Irish oak for that decade but not on German oak values obtained by Seattle. Our {sup 14}C value for the 2620-2630 cal BP interval is consistent with the German oak (Heidelberg)-based {sup 14}C decadal value. The {sup 10}Be-based reconstruction of {sup 14}C variations over the 2620-2630 cal BP interval also supports the Heidelberg data although clearly additional clarifications are required before the current tree ring-based {sup 14}C and ice core-based {sup 10}Be data for this interval can be accurately interpreted and valid inferences obtained.

  13. Effect of level of dietary protein on the distribution of 14C-activity from exogenous 14C-inosine in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary protein level on the metabolic fate of intraperitoneally administered (exogeneous) 8-14C-inosine in chicks was studied. Three different protein level diets (low, standard and high) were prepared. Chicks were fed on these diets for 10 days, respectively and the following results were found: (1) RNA content of liver, small intestine and muscle in chicks fed on a low protein diet was decreased as compared to other diet groups, but no difference was observed in kidney or pancreas. (2) 14C uptake by organs from exogeneous 8-14C-inosine was determined. The uptake of 14C in kidney, pancreas and small intestine was higher than that in liver and muscle. Moreover, the uptake by tissues in the low protein groups was significantly higher than that in either the standard or high protein groups, but no difference was observed between these latter two groups. (3) The rate of incorporation of 14C labelled purine by acid soluble materials and RNA was higher in kidney, pancreas and small intestine than in liver and muscle, and also higher in chicks fed on a low protein diet than in either the standard or high protein groups. (4) It was revealed that the 14C-labelled purine rings from 8-14C-inosine were incorporated into AMP and GMP as constituents of RNA. (author)

  14. Metabolism of 14C-L-arginine and 14C-L-proline in excised burst buds and stem sections of citrus trees (Citrus unshiu Marc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine and proline, which are the major forms of soluble reserve N, were fed singly in uniformly labelled 14C-form to excised 2-year-old stem sections with a new shoot, to wood sections, and to burst buds from a 21-year-old satsuma mandarin tree. Metabolism was studied by radioassay and autoradiography. In stem sections with a new shoot, both 14C-compounds were metabolized to acidic and neutral components, insoluble components, and 14CO2. This conversion occurred to a greater extent in sections fed with arginine than with proline. When 14C-arginine was fed, the highest 14C-activity in the cationic fraction of stem sections, bark, wood and new shoots was found in ?-guanidinobutyric acid, followed by ?-aminobutyric acid and proline; low levels of 14C was also found in ornithine and trace amounts in citrulline. These findings demonstrate that arginine is metabolized by at least two routes: via ornithine and via ?-guanidinobutyric acid. In every organ, the major metabolic products of 14C-proline were pyrrolidone-5-carboxlic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, asparagine, an unidentified compound (U5 in Fig. 4), ?-aminobutyric acid and arginine. The basic metabolic pathways in the conversion of Both 14C-compounds were the same in burst buds, new shoot, bark and wood, although there was a slight difference autoradiographically. (author)

  15. Studies on in vivo incorporation of 14C-acetate and 14C-mevalonate into cholesterol in the liver of rat intoxicated with carbon disulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an extension of former results, which testified that intoxication with CS2 raises the biosynthesis of cholesterol in the liver, the aim of this experiment was to investigate the dynamics of incorporation of the 14C-acetate into cholesterol in the liver of rats exposed to CS2, and to determine which step of cholesterol biosynthesis is accelerated with CS2. The studies of incorporation of 14C-acetate and 14C-mevalonate into liver cholesterol were carried out in vivo, in the control and CS2 intoxicated rats (concentration 1.5 mg/l, over 7 months) at various times after a single injection of 14C-acetate or 14C-mevalonate. The results of the experiment indicated that exposure of rats to CS2 causes: 1) increase in the specific radioactivity of liver cholesterol both after 14C-acetate and 14C-mevalonate injection, but incorporation of cholesterol precursors proceeds faster with acetate than with mevalonate; 2) no changes in the cholesterol concentration in the liver and in the liver weight; 3) faster increase and decline of specific activity of cholesterol in the liver; 4) increase in the specific radioactivity of cholesterol in the serum corresponding to the changes observed in the liver. (orig./GSE)

  16. Incorporation of 32P-Na2HPO4 into caseins and lipoprotein complexes of milk from a lactating buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-phosphate was given intravenously to a lactating buffalo to study the utilization of blood inorganic-phosphate by the mammary gland. The distribution of radioactivity in the mammary-cell-plasma membrane (MCPM), milk-fat-globule membrane (MFGM), low density lipoproteins (LDLP) and caseins was studied. Maximum radioactivity was incorporated into casein. Among the caseins, ?-casein complex had minimum radioactivity. Radioactivity from ?-casein complex appeared to be incorporated into ?-casein. On intravenous injection the peak specific activity of 32P appeared at the same time in the MCPM and MFGM, but on prolonged infusion it appeared first in the MCPM and then in MFGM, indicating MFGM and MCPM to be of common origin. The peak specific activity of lipids from casein micelles appeared later than that in MCPM and MFGM. Autoradiography of MCPM and MFGM lipids showed that 32P-phosphate was first incorporated into phosphatidyl choline (PC) and then into other phospholipids (PL). In LDLP, 32P-phosphate was incorporated into PC alone even after 25 hr of injection. The role of PC in PL biosynthesis in mammary gland has been discussed. (author)

  17. Bioevaluation study of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle brachytherapy in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Yang Min, E-mail: ymzfk@yahoo.com.hk [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Pan Donghui; Wang Lizhen [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Liu Lu; Huang Peilin [Nuclear Medicine Institute of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shao Guoqiang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University, Nanjing 210006 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapy effects of intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. Methods: 16 rabbits with tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. 4 rabbits served as untreated controls, and others received intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles with CT guidance. The total radioactivities in treated groups were as follows: a low activity was 93 MBq (n=4) (group 1), a medium activity was 185 MBq (n=4) (group 2) and a high activity was 370 MBq (n=4) (group 3). Brachytherapy treated VX2 tumors underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at 0 day, 3 day, 7 day and 14 day postinjection. In control group, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without any treatment. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images were performed at 14 days after intratumoral brachytherapy in treated groups. After Bremsstrahlung SPECT and last {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imagings, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological examination. Results: Bremsstrahlung SPECT images study indicated that there was no leakage of {sup 32}P out of the injection site at 14 days after treatment. Compared with the control, the tumor volumes in treated groups significantly decreased, and {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle produced a reduction in maximum or mean SUV of VX2 tumor (p<0.05). The percentage changes in maximum and mean SUV gradually decreased in group 1 and group 2 from day 3 to day 14 (p<0.05). A transient increase in {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation at group 3 occurred due to the inflammatory reaction elements. Activity dependence was seen in HE and PCNA staining after 14 days treatment among three treated groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggested that {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle localized on the injecting sites. This novel brachytherapy device efficiently suppressed the growth of the VX2 tumors implanted in the rabbit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA is a novel microparticle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA efficiently suppressed the VX2 tumor growth in the rabbit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This novel brachytherapy is safe and efficient.

  18. Liquid scintillation determination of the activity of 32P in sulphur dishes, used as criticality dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutrons produce the greatest contribution to the absorbed neutron dose in a criticality accident. Due to its interaction with these particles, low cost and high available purity, sulphur is used as criticality dosimeter. This element activates producing 32P, that has a half life of 14,3 days and emits high energy beta radiation (1710 keV). The measurement can be made in situ with a Geiger Mueller (GM) counter suitably shielded, although with low efficiency (about 10%). Measurement by liquid scintillation, due to its high efficiency (about 100%), can produce more reliable results to the confirmation of the initial measurement. In addition, it can be useful in the calibration of GM counter, for which it is required to know the activity present in the sulphur tablet. The measurement by liquid scintillation implies the dissolution of sulphur, which presents certain difficulty, and therefore some authors use an auxiliary thioacetamide disc to asses the activity in sulphur. In this paper we present a simple method based in the oxidation and volatilisation of sulphur by means of the heat use, using a programmable furnace, that allows to process the dosimeters, preserving the present phosphorus, to its later measurement by liquid scintillation. The methodology is sufficiently repetitive, it just consumes a short time of work, and allows the processing of the samples in the day, obtaining the result after an overnight measurement. (author)

  19. Studies on phosphorus use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa) using 32P tagged SSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted in kharif season during 2005 using rice (Oryza sativa L.) var. 1R36 as a test crop grown in low, medium and high P status soils in the greenhouse of the Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, to study the effect of added P through SSP (labelled 32P) alone and in combination with FYM, RP and bio-fertilizer on P uptake, fertilizer uptake and percent utilization of phosphorus. Results showed that combined use of RP, FYM and bio- fertilizer helped not only in better utilization of fertilizer phosphorus but it also helped in better utilization of soil phosphorus. The highest values 2.22, 1.79 and 1.57; and 8.43, 8.17 and 7.86; and 5.20, 4.23 and 3.78 of the per cent utilization of P were registered in SSP + RP + FYM + PSB at tillering, flowering and at harvest under low, medium and high P status soils, respectively. Combined use of RP, FYM and bio-fertilizer helped not only in better utilization of fertilizer phosphorus but it also helped in better utilization of soil phosphorus. PSB was effective only in soil where available P status of soil was low to medium. The application of RP applied along with FYM and PSB improved P utilization by the crop. (author)

  20. Application a 32P bioassay for P-fertilization of citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of phosphorus (as 32P) by excised root samples from Citrus trees growing in the soil with originally less than 30 mg kg-1 available P was significantly lowered after P-fertilization. This effect became more prominent in the 2nd and 3rd year of the experiment. High concentration of available P in the soil (80mg kg-1) resulted in a higher P-content in the excised roots and therefore decreased P-uptake. Application of phosphate fertilizer to such soil increased the content of available P but P concentration in Citrus leaves was not significantly changed. Branch length, fruit yield, and Brix sugar in fruit juice were also not influenced. These data show that response to P-fertilization can be tested by leaf analysis, growth or yield measurement. P-uptake of excised roots harvested from the soil with available P above 150 mg kg-1 reached a level of 400 ? 500 pg P/mg root, which indicates that P-fertilization is unnecessary at the soil of P-content above this limit

  1. Synoviorthesis with colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, G.E.; Girard, M.; Lamarre, C.; Jutras, M.; Danais, S.; Guay, J.P.; Belanger, R.D.

    1985-11-01

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done.

  2. Application a {sup 32}P bioassay for P-fertilization of citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jun; U, Zang Kual [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Uptake of phosphorus (as {sup 32}P) by excised root samples from Citrus trees growing in the soil with originally less than 30 mg kg{sup -1} available P was significantly lowered after P-fertilization. This effect became more prominent in the 2nd and 3rd year of the experiment. High concentration of available P in the soil (80mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a higher P-content in the excised roots and therefore decreased P-uptake. Application of phosphate fertilizer to such soil increased the content of available P but P concentration in Citrus leaves was not significantly changed. Branch length, fruit yield, and Brix sugar in fruit juice were also not influenced. These data show that response to P-fertilization can be tested by leaf analysis, growth or yield measurement. P-uptake of excised roots harvested from the soil with available P above 150 mg kg{sup -1} reached a level of 400 {approx} 500 pg P/mg root, which indicates that P-fertilization is unnecessary at the soil of P-content above this limit.

  3. Synoviorthesis with colloidal 32P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done

  4. A calculation of dose distribution around 32P spherical sources and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to avoid the radiation hazard in radiation therapy of craniopharyngioma by using 32P, it is helpful to prepare a detailed dose distribution in the vicinity of the source in the tissue. Valley's method is used for calculations. A problem of the method is pointed out and the method itself is refined numerically: it extends a region of xi where an approximate polynomial is available, and it determines an optimum degree of the polynomial as 9. Usefulness of the polynomial is examined by comparing with Berger's scaled absorbed dose distribution F(xi) and the Valley's result. The dose and dose rate distributions around uniformly distributed spherical sources are computed from the termwise integration of our polynomial of degree 9 over the range of xi from 0 to 1.7. The dose distributions calculated from the spherical surface to a point at 0.5 cm outside the source, are given, when the radii of sources are 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 cm respectively. The therapeutic dose for a craniopharyngioma which has a spherically shaped cyst, and the absorbed dose to the normal tissue, (oculomotor nerve), are obtained from these dose rate distributions. (auth.)

  5. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  6. Phosphate fixation capacity of Thai acid soils using 32P isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five acid soil samples from benchmark sites in Thailand were collected: Rangsit soil, two samples (Sulfic Tropaquepts or acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic Paleustults). The soil P status was characterized in the laboratory by the 32P isotope exchange technique using treatments with and without P addition. In another experiment, the P-fixing capacity of the same soils was examined. They were incubated for 30 days with two Thai phosphate rocks Lamphun PR and RP and Ratchaburi PR, and TSP was used as a standard fertilizer. All of them were added at a rate of 50 mg P kg-1 . The soils can be ranked according to their P- fixing capacity as follows: Rangsit series (acid sulfate soil) > Mae Tang series (Typic Paleustult) > Pakchong series (Oxic Paleustult) > Warin series (Oxic Paleustult). The P availability from TSP decreased after 30 days incubation with the soils. PR from Ratchaburi was more effective than Lamphun PR. (author)

  7. Visualization of Functional Neuropeptide Y Receptors in the Mouse Hippocampus and Neocortex Using [35S]GTP?S Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ElbrØnd-Bek, Heidi; GØtzsche, Casper René

    2015-01-01

    The peptide transmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in a plethora of actions in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus and neocortex (NeoCx). Previous studies using traditional receptor autoradiography show that NPY receptor binding is altered under various pathophysiological conditions. However, these do not provide information about downstream signal transduction. To this means, agonist-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding has in recent years been introduced as a method for measuring receptor activation of intracellular G-proteins. In the present study, this method was further optimized to visualize the distribution of individual NPY receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding in the mouse hippocampus and NeoCx using the endogenous ligand NPY in combination with optimized concentrations of selective antagonists for Y1, Y2, and Y5 NPY receptors. Consistent with previous studies, Y1 receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding was mainly found in the dentate gyrus and NeoCx while Y2 receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding predominated in the hippocampal CA3 and CA1. Only very low levels of Y5 receptor-mediated [35S]GTP?S binding appeared to be present in the hippocampus and NeoCx. Furthermore, the effect of NPY receptor antagonists per se was also studied. Both BIIE0246 and L-152,804 significantly attenuated the basal [35S]GTP?S binding response, suggesting inverse agonism.

  8. Carbonates in leaching reactions in context of 14C dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Danuta; Czernik, Justyna

    2015-10-01

    Lime mortars as a mixture of binder and aggregate may contain carbon of various origins. If the mortars are made of totally burnt lime, radiocarbon dating of binder yields the real age of building construction. The presence of carbonaceous aggregate has a significant influence on the 14C measurements results and depending on the type of aggregate and fraction they may cause overaging. Another problem, especially in case of hydraulic mortars that continue to be chemically active for a very long time, is the recrystallization usually connected with rejuvenation of the results but also, depending on local geological structures, with so called reservoir effect yielding apparent ages. An attempt in separating the binder from other carbonaceous components successfully was made for samples from Israel by Nawrocka-Michalska et al. (2007). The same preparation procedure, after taking into account the petrographic composition, was used for samples coming from Poland, Nawrocka et al. (2009). To verify the procedure used previously for non-hydraulic samples determination an experimental tests on carbonaceous mortars with crushed bricks from Novae in Bulgaria were made. Additionally, to identify different carbonaceous structures and their morphology, a cathodoluminescence and scanning electron microscope with electron dispersive spectrometer were applied. The crushed bricks and brick dust used in mortars production process have been interpreted as an alternative use to other pozzolanic materials. The reaction between lime and pozzolanic additives take place easily and affects the rate and course of carbonates decomposition in orthophosphric acid, during the samples pretreatment for dating. The composition of the Bulgarian samples together with influence of climate conditions on mortar carbonates do not allow for making straightforward conclusions in chronology context, but gives some new guidelines in terms of hydraulic mortars application for dating. This work has mainly methodological character, illustrating the special preparation methods used for mortars with complicated (in context of radiocarbon dating) petrographic composition. The local geology combined with finding sources of raw materials for the production of mortars is important issue in final interpretation of the 14C measurement results.

  9. Metabolism of ( sup 14 C)cholesterol to C-20 isomeric ( sup 14 C)pregn-5-ene-3,20-diols in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, R.; Thompson, M.J.; Svoboda, J.A.; Lusby, W.R.; Wilzer, K.R. Jr. (Insect and Nematode Hormone Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (USA))

    1989-03-01

    After injection into male and female fifth-instar larvae of Manduca sexta, ({sup 14}C)cholesterol was converted to C21 steroids, ({sup 14}C)pregn-5-ene-3 beta,20-diols. These metabolites were isolated from 8-day-old pupae and were identified by TLC, HPLC, and GC-MS as the C-20 isomers of pregnene-3 beta,20-diol. They also were isolated from male and female meconium fluid (of 16-day-old pupae) following injection of ({sup 14}C)cholesterol into 14-day-old pupae.

  10. Metabolism of [14C]cholesterol to C-20 isomeric [14C]pregn-5-ene-3,20-diols in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After injection into male and female fifth-instar larvae of Manduca sexta, [14C]cholesterol was converted to C21 steroids, [14C]pregn-5-ene-3 beta,20-diols. These metabolites were isolated from 8-day-old pupae and were identified by TLC, HPLC, and GC-MS as the C-20 isomers of pregnene-3 beta,20-diol. They also were isolated from male and female meconium fluid (of 16-day-old pupae) following injection of [14C]cholesterol into 14-day-old pupae

  11. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  12. Detection of the surface contamination with nuclides emitting low-energy ?-rays by direct measurement method using a GM survey-meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a direct measurement method using a GM survey-meter, the detection efficiency and detection limit against surface contamination with nuclides emitting ?-rays on a polyethylene-coated paper were examined. Three nuclides, 14C, 35S and 32P were used as a source. The detection efficiency against 14C, 35S and 32P at the place of 5.0 mm distance from the detection face of the survey-meter was approximately 1.4, 1.9 and 34.5%, respectively. Although the detection efficiency obtained for 32P was the same as the value showed in the instruction manual, that of 14C was smaller than that of the instruction manual. It is considered that such a difference in detection efficiency between 32P and 14C is ascribed to difference in source efficiency. Furthermore the detection limit against 14C, 35S and 32P at the distance of 5.0 mm was about 3.6, 2.6 and 0.2 Bq/cm2, respectively. Hence it appears that the direct measurement method using the GM survey-meter is useful to check the surface contamination with 14C or 35S in a controlled area since the surface contamination density limit in a controlled area is 40 Bq/cm2. (author)

  13. Effect of 32P-colloid interstitial irradiation on the treatment of occult lymphatic metastasis during lung cancer resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effectiveness of interstitial irradiation by 32P-colloid on the occult metastasis during lung cancer resection. Methods: Seventy-three patients with lung cancer underwent resection of the tumor and interstitial administration of 32P-colloid. At the same period, 58 matched patients underwent surgical therapy only and served as the control group. After operation the dynamic distribution of body surface 32P-colloid activity, incidence of complications, rates of supra-clavicular lymph node (SCL) metastasis in different pathologic patterns, and survival rates at 1, 3, 5 years after treatment were studied. Results: No operative death occurred in these two groups. The incidences of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of major complications after operation were of no prominent differences between these two groups (?2=0.012, 2.082, 0.003, P>0.05; ?2=0.021-0.144, P>0.05). The incidence of post-operative SCL metastasis in surgery plus 32P-colloid group was prominently lower than that in control group (?2=4.507-5.348, P2=0.659, P>0.05), but the differences of the 3-, 5-year survial rates between the groups were prominent (?2=4.207, 3.997, P32P-colloid during resection of lung cancer is a safe and effective procedure for controlling the occult lymphatic metastatic lesions and diminishing the focal relapse and distant metastasis, and it is bound to prolong the survival time of the patients. (authors)

  14. Determination of surface dose rate of indigenous (32)P patch brachytherapy source by experimental and Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D; Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Bakshi, A K; Dash, Ashutosh; Babu, D A R; Sharma, D N

    2015-09-01

    Isotope production and Application Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center developed (32)P patch sources for treatment of superficial tumors. Surface dose rate of a newly developed (32)P patch source of nominal diameter 25 mm was measured experimentally using standard extrapolation ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT film. Monte Carlo model of the (32)P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed to estimate the surface dose rates from these sources. The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films are 82.03±4.18 (k=2) and 79.13±2.53 (k=2) respectively. The two values of the surface dose rates measured using the two independent experimental methods are in good agreement to each other within a variation of 3.5%. The surface dose rate to tissue (cGy/min) estimated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code works out to be 77.78±1.16 (k=2). The maximum deviation between the surface dose rates to tissue obtained by Monte Carlo and the extrapolation chamber method is 5.2% whereas the difference between the surface dose rates obtained by radiochromic film measurement and the Monte Carlo simulation is 1.7%. The three values of the surface dose rates of the (32)P patch source obtained by three independent methods are in good agreement to one another within the uncertainties associated with their measurements and calculation. This work has demonstrated that MCNP based electron transport simulations are accurate enough for determining the dosimetry parameters of the indigenously developed (32)P patch sources for contact brachytherapy applications. PMID:26086681

  15. Effect of BA on uptake of 14C-sucrose and its distribution in peanut leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-sucrose was absorbed by leaves discs of peanut plant in both active and passive forms. In sink leaf treated with BA, the total uptakes of 14C-sucrose in leaf discs was enhanced by 23.9%. When 14C-sucrose was applied to the source leaf of peanut after BA smeared on the sink leaf, the 14C-sucrose accumulation at sink leaf and the 14C-sucrose export from labelling leaf were significantly enhanced. However, BA could not increase photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content of peanut leaf. BA plays the role of promoting the uptake of sucrose in the sink leaf and the export of 14C-sucrose from phloem of sink leaf

  16. Alternatives to reduce 14C emissions in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest of the public and of experts has increasingly focused on the formation of 14C in nuclear reactors and its release from reactors and reprocessing plants. The paper attempts an experimental check of the validity of theoretical estimations concerning 14C production rates. In particular, the applicability of the 14C analysis in irradiated LWR pellets is checked and transferred to HTR fuel concepts. Statements on the 14C content in matrix graphite, coating, and fuel make it possible to determine those process steps in which 14C release is highest. Possibilities to reduce 14C emissions by improved fuel element production technologies and by mechanical separation of graphite before combustion are theoretically estimated. (orig./GL)

  17. Fate of 14C-Labeled Microbial Products Derived from Nitrifying Bacteria in Autotrophic Nitrifying Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, Satoshi; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ito, Tsukasa

    2005-01-01

    The cross-feeding of microbial products derived from 14C-labeled nitrifying bacteria to heterotrophic bacteria coexisting in an autotrophic nitrifying biofilm was quantitatively analyzed by using microautoradiography combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). After only nitrifying bacteria were labeled with [14C]bicarbonate, biofilm samples were incubated with and without NH4+ as a sole energy source for 10 days. The transfer of 14C originally incorporated into nitrifying ba...

  18. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyo Ukai; Teruaki Nishikawa; Takeshi Fujiwara; Michio Namikoshi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  19. Dissipation and leaching of 14C-monocrotophos in soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissipation and leaching of 14C-monocrotophos was studied in the field. Two sets of PVC cylinders were used - one set received only 14C monocrotophos and the other received 14C-monocrotophos along with dimethoate, deltamethrin, endosulfan, cypermethrin and 1.06 mg unlabelled monocrotophos. Both setups showed a similar pattern of dissipation with a half-life of 277.2 days. Leaching of monocrotophos was observed into the 30cm soil layer. (author)

  20. An enzymic method for the determination of [1-14C] lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid and specific method for the determination of [1-14C] lactose in biological fluids is described. It is based on the enzymic removal of the 1-14C atom of lactose as [14C] carbon dioxide, using commercially available enzymes. The assay involves only one critical addition and the entire reaction can be carried out in a scintillation vial. (author)

  1. Absorption, Movement and Metabolism of 14C-cyfluthrin in Cotton Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lodhi; N.N. Malik; Azam, F.

    2000-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the uptake and metabolism in cotton leaves of 14C-labelled cyfluthrin, (C22H18Cl2FNO3, active ingredient of Baythroid insecticide). The labelled chemical was sprayed onto the selected portions of leaves which were subsequently studied for the movement (using autoradiography) and recovery of 14C (using extraction, purification procedures). Autoradiography showed a fairly rapid movement of 14C in the leaf tissues through vascular tissues. Movement ...

  2. Bound residues of 14C-chlorfenvinphos in winter rape and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding properties of chlorfenvinphos were studied by application of 14C-chlorfenvinphos to the leaves and stems of winter rape and two loamy sand soils of different organic matter content. After application of vinyl-14C-chlorfenvinphos to the plants at a dosage of 0.3 mg/plant, no bound radioactivity was detected either in the flowers and siliques or in the roots. In the leaves and/or stems, the bound 14C-residues, expressed as chlorfenvinphos, ranged from 0.02 ?g/g one hour after the treatment to 0.18 ?g/g at harvest. Repeated treatment applied to the plants 9 days after the first application caused no increase of the bound residue concentration. Various treatments of stem-bound 14C with alkali and acid led to release of some radioactivity. When vinyl-14C-chlorfenvinphos was applied to the soils, the bound 14C-residues increased and the extractable 14C-residues decreased with time, particularly in the soil of higher organic matter content. After 114 days, the bound 14C-residues, expressed as percentage of the applied 14C, amounted to 13.7% in the soil of higher and 11.2% in the soil of lower organic matter content. When soil was treated with ring-14C-chlorfenvinphos, the bound and extractable 14C-residues were somewhat higher than those determined for vinyl label. Experiments suggested that binding was related to the activity of soil microorganisms since soil sterilization resulted in a reduction of bound 14C-residues by 80% (vinyl label) and 79% (ring label). (author)

  3. 14C determination in different bio-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Arévalo, Francisco-Javier; Gómez Martínez, Isabel; Agulló García, Lidia; Reina Maldonado, María-Teresa; García León, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Radiocarbon determination can be used as a tool to investigate the presence of biological elements in different bio-based products, such as biodiesel blends. These products may also be produced from fossil materials obtaining the same final molecules, so that composition is chemically indistinguishable. The amount of radiocarbon in these products can reveal how much of these biological elements have been used, usually mixed with petrol derived components, free of 14C. Some of these products are liquid and thus the handling at the laboratory is not as straightforward as with solid samples. At Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) we have tested the viability of these samples using a graphitization system coupled to an elemental analyzer used for combustion of the samples, thus avoiding any vacuum process. Samples do not follow any chemical pre-treatment procedure and are directly graphitized. Specific equipment for liquid samples related to the elemental analyzer was tested. Measurement of samples was performed by low-energy AMS at the 1 MV HVEE facility at CNA, paying special attention to background limits and reproducibility during sample preparation.

  4. Stability of the 14 C-Radiolabelled insecticide guthion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under variable conditions simulating those of the agricultural practice, the effects of temperature and PH variations on the stability of 14 C-guthion have been studied. It was found that the insecticide is fairly stable in the acid medium and the half-life of the compound reached 230 days at 25 degree C and declined to about 7 days at 54 degree C, but in the alkaline medium, the degradation rate clearly increased as the PH increased and the half-life reached 24 hours in PH 11 at 25 degree C. In the neutral medium, the half-life was about eight days at 25 degree C while at 54 degree C, it was three days. The insecticide decomposed rapidly as the temperature was raised and the rate was much increased by the combined increase in heat and alkalinity. Some of the degradation products were identified as: O,O-dimethylthio- and di thiophosphoric acid, 4-O x O-3,4-dihydro, 1,2,3-benzo triazine and its hydroxymethyl derivative. 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Effects of nitrogen, metoxuron and methabenzthiazuron on growth and uptake of 35S by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution culture experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of four herbicides viz. nitrogen, terbutryne, metoxuron and methabenzthi zuron on the growth and sulphur uptake of wheat variety Kalyan Sona at Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. Wheat seedlings were exposed to complete nutrient solutions containing 35S (as H2SO4) and graded concentrations (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.5 and 5.0 ppm) of herbicides for 10 days. All the herbicide treatments decreased the dry weight of both root and shoot per plant. The reduction in dry matter production of wheat was minimum in case of nitrogen at all the dosages tried. With the increasing levels of herbicides, sulphur uptake of plant decreased but root to shoot transport of sulphur increased. (author)

  6. Fate of [14C]arsanilic acid in pigs and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsanilic acid uniformly labeled with 14C in the benzene ring was used to determine the metabolic fate of oral arsanilic acid in pigs and chickens. Arsanilic acid was well absorbed in both species, and urine was the predominant route of excretion. The bile was a minor (14C, respectively). Only 25% of the 14C in pig feces was extractable, and no metabolites could be isolated. Arsanilic acid was the only radioactive compound isolated from urine of colostomized roosters, and there was no suggestion of other metabolites from the isolation scheme employed. No attempt was made to isolate 14C compounds in feces from colostomized roosters or in excreta from normal roosters

  7. Production of [14C]fumonisin B1 by Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826 in corn cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Alberts, J F; Gelderblom, W C; Vleggaar, R; Marasas, W F; Rheeder, J P

    1993-01-01

    Kinetics of growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium moniliforme MRC 826 in corn "patty" cultures were investigated, and a technique was developed for the production of [14C]fumonisin B1 ([14C]FB1) by using L-[methyl-14C]methionine as the precursor. A significant (P < 0.01) correlation exists between fungal growth and FB1 (r = 0.89) and FB2 (r = 0.87) production in corn patties, beginning after 2 days and reaching the stationary phase after 14 days of incubation. [14C]FB1 was produced by a...

  8. Experimental determination of the 17O(n_th,alpha)14C reaction cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, Jan; Wagemans, Cyriel; Bieber, Ronald; Geltenbort, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The 17O(n_th,alpha)14C reaction cross section was determined at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble relative to the known 14N(n_th,p)14C cross section. The 17O(n_th,alpha)14C measurements were performed with several highly enriched oxygen gas samples and the flux calibration was done with 14N_2 from the air. This resulted in a precise value of (244+/-7)mb for the 17O(n_th,alpha)14C cross section.

  9. 14C of grasses as an indicator of fossil fuel CO2 pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Kashgarian, Michaele; Bol, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the amount of fossil fuel carbon stored in the vegetation is now crucial to understand the mechanisms ruling climate changes. In this respect, highly polluted areas such as major towns represent "natural" laboratories because fossil fuel CO2 (14C-free) is isotopically distinct from mean atmospheric CO2 (14C-labeled). Here, a 14C study of urban grasses near a major highway in Paris, France, shows that plants store up to 13% of fossil fuel carbon. 14C composition of urban grasses is t...

  10. Experimental determination of the $^{17}O(n_{th},\\alpha)$ $^{14}C$ reaction cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Wagemans, J; Bieber, R; Geltenbort, P; Wagemans, Jan; Wagemans, Cyriel; Bieber, Ronald; Geltenbort, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The 17O(n_th,alpha)14C reaction cross section was determined at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble relative to the known 14N(n_th,p)14C cross section. The 17O(n_th,alpha)14C measurements were performed with several highly enriched oxygen gas samples and the flux calibration was done with 14N_2 from the air. This resulted in a precise value of (244+/-7)mb for the 17O(n_th,alpha)14C cross section.

  11. An update on in situ cosmogenic 14C analysis at ETH Zürich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the improved performance of the modified in situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system at ETH Zürich. Samples are now processed faster (2 days in total) and are measured with a high analytical precision of usually 414C atoms. Analyses of samples from a ?300 year old rock avalanche prove that we can successfully apply in situ14C exposure dating to very young surfaces. Additionally, we present a modified calculation scheme for in situ14C concentrations which differs from that used for conventional radiocarbon dating. This new approach explicitly accounts for the characteristics of in situ14C production.

  12. Stimulus-dependent labeling of cultured ganglionic cell with [14C]2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors prepared cultures of dissociated cells from the ciliary (CG) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of 10-12-day-old chick embryos, and applied [14C]2-deoxyglucose ([14C]2-DG) to the cultured cells to examine the effects of stimulation on the labeling with [14C]2-DG at the single cell level. Electrical current stimulation increased [14C]2-DG uptake in CG and DRG neurons. The increase depended on frequency of the stimulation. These effects were potentiated by the application of tetraethylammonium, but suppressed by tetrodotoxin. Externally applied potassium ions increased the [14C]2-DG uptake in the CG cell, depending logarithmically on the concentration of applied KCl. The concentration-dependent increase agreed with potassium effect on the equilibrium potential. For CG cells, acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine induced remarkable increases of the [14C]2-DG uptake, while dopamine did not induce any change. For DRG cells, GABA and glycine facilitated the [14C]2-DG uptake, while ACh, glutamate and dopamine did not have any significant effects on it. These facilitatory actions of neurotransmitters on the [14C]2-DG uptake are mostly consistent with the excitatory effects of the substrates on both CG and DRG cells in culture. The results suggest that the [14C]2-DG uptake in single cells is intimately correlated with action potential generation and change in the resting potential. (Auth.)

  13. Synthesis of 14C isotopic isomers of tenidap - a novel antiinflammatory agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two isotopic isomers of tenidap, a novel anti-inflammatory agent, were prepared. Compound 6 (specific activity = 10.24 mCi/mmol), having 14C in the indole ring, was prepared in three steps (52% overall yield) starting from 1H-[14C]indole-2,3-dione. Compound 11 (specific activity 57.16 mCi/mmol, radiochemical purity = 99.0%), with 14C in the C-3 methylene, was prepared in two steps (66% overall yield) beginning with 2-thiophenecarboxylic-[14C-carbonyl] acid. (author)

  14. Photorespiratory CO2 release from l-[U-14C]serine in tomato leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14CO2 release from L-[U-14C]serine in the illuminated tomato leaf was investigated. Exogenously added [1-14C] and [2-14C]glycine were metabolized in the glycolate pathway and 14CO2 was evolved at a low CO2 concentration from [2-14C]glycine in a similar manner to that from L-[U-14C]serine (Yamauchi and Yamada, Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 26, 191-204 (1980)). ?-Hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid and isonicotinic acid hydrazide increased the [14C]glycolate and [14C]glycine accumulations, respectively, in leaves fed L-[U-14C]serine at a low CO2 concentration with a corresponding decrease in 14CO2 evolution. This may indicate that the carbon of serine was recycled back into the Calvin cycle and then incorporated into the glycolate pathway. The 14CO2 release from L-[U-14C] serine increased at high light intensity and high temperature. The contribution of CO2 release from serine to photorespiration is discussed. (author)

  15. Distribution and biodegradability of 14C-residues bound in various soil fractions after treatment of the soil with model 14C-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term fate of 14C-labelled 4-chloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and trichloroethylene in soil was studied under field conditions. As a natural reference compound, 14C-glucose was also studied. Most of the trichloroethylene applied was lost by volatilization and/or degradation during a 25-week period. The soils were exhaustively extracted with methanol and then re-extracted with acetate buffer solutions. The extracted soils were fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and inorganic fractions. With the exception of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline the bound residues were more than 31% of the amount of radiocarbon initially applied. Insoluble residues of the natural compound glucose were bound preferentially in the inorganic fraction, whereas 14C of the four xenobiotics was concentrated more in the humic acid fraction, with the portion increasing in the order: glucose 14C in soil is present in a metabolized form. (author)

  16. ASSOCIATION OF REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF MAIZE TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT, DS, WITH TISSUE-SPECIFIC PROCESSING OF THE 35S:TPASE TRANSCRIPT IN CARROT (DAUCUS CAROTA L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Ac/Ds based two-element transposon tagging system has been introduced into carrot. F1 progeny containing both 35S:TPase and the Ds element were derived from crosses between 35S:TPase and Ds bearing parents. While excision of Ds was not detected in any F1 plants carrying both 35S:TPase and the Ds...

  17. Evaluation of [14C]phenylacetate as a prototype tracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]Phenylacetate was designed as a prototype tracer for the measurement of glial metabolism, and its potency in comparison with that of [14C]acetate was evaluated in this study. Normal rats were intravenously injected with [14C]phenylacetate or [14C]acetate, and radioactivity concentrations were measured in the plasma, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and peripheral tissues by dissection method. In addition, [14C]phenylacetate uptake in the rat brain was compared by autoradiography with that of [14C]acetate following the injection of fluorocitrate, a selective glial toxin, into the brain. [14C]Phenylacetate was rapidly taken up into the brain and was retained at high levels up to 20 min postadministration. The levels of [14C]phenylacetate in the cerebral cortex were about threefold higher than those of [14C]acetate at 1 min postinjection. Microinjection of fluorocitrate into the right striatum resulted in a significant decrease of the uptake of both [14C]phenylacetate and [14C]acetate into the right striatum. Radiochemical analysis confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of [14C]phenylacetate in the rat brain, with less than 20% of radioactivity representing unmetabolized [14C]phenylacetate at 1 min postinjection. These results suggest that [14C]phenylacetate is rapidly taken up into the brain and is hydrolyzed and converted to [14C]acetate. [14C]Phenylacetate may have the potential to serve as a tracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in an intact brain

  18. {sup 14}C emission from Swedish nuclear power plants and its effect on the {sup 14}C levels in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, Bengt; Hellborg, R.; Kiisk, M.; Persson, Per [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Mattsson, Soeren; Thornberg, C. [Lund Univ., Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Skog, G. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Quaternary Geology

    2000-02-15

    The radionuclide {sup 14}C is produced in all types of nuclear reactors mainly by neutron induced reactions in oxygen ({sup 17}O), nitrogen ({sup 14}N) and carbon ({sup 13}C). Part of the {sup 14}C created is continuously released during normal operation as airborne effluents in various chemical forms (such as CO{sub 2}, CO and hydrocarbons) to the surroundings. Because of the biological importance of carbon and the long physical half-life of {sup 14}C, it is of interest to measure the releases and their incorporation into living material. The {sup 14}C activity concentrations in annual tree rings and air around two Swedish nuclear power plants (Barsebaeck and Forsmark) as well as the background {sup 14}C activity levels from two reference sites in southern Sweden during 1973-1996 are presented in this report. In order to verify the reliability of the method some investigations have been conducted at two foreign nuclear sites, Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in England, and Pickering nuclear generating station in Canada, where the releases of {sup 14}C are known to be substantial. Furthermore, results from some measurements in the vicinity of Paldiski submarine training centre in Estonia are presented. The results of the {sup 14}C measurements of air, vegetation and annual tree rings around the two Swedish nuclear power plants show very low enhancements of {sup 14}C, if at all above the uncertainty of the measurements. Even if the accuracy of the measurements of the annual tree rings is rather good (1-2%) the contribution of {sup 14}C from the reactors to the environment is so small that it is difficult to separate it from the prevailing background levels of {sup 14}C . This is the case for all sampling procedures: in air and vegetation as well as in annual tree rings. Only on a few occasions an actual increase is observed. However, although the calculations suffer from rather large uncertainties, the calculated release rate from Barsebaeck is in fair agreement with reported release data. The results of this investigation show that the effective doses to man related to the releases of {sup 14}C from the Swedish light-water reactors at Barsebaeck and Forsmark are very low, especially compared to the situation at other nuclear installations, such as the fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, and the heavy-water reactors at Pickering nuclear generating station, Canada.

  19. Metabolic fate of [8-14C] adenine and [8-14C] hypoxanthine in nodules and root tissues of soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 30% of radioactivity from [8-14C] adenine and more than 60% of that from [8-14C] hypoxanthine were recovered from the degradation products of purines, i.e. ureides and CO2, in nodules and roots of soybean plants. The nodules seem to have greater ability to degrade ureides. The nodules also posses s a greater capacity for salvaging purine bases than do the roots. (author). 8 ref s., 1 tab

  20. {8-14C}-Adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate - precursors for root-produced cytokinins in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the detection of reasonable levels of biologically active cytokinin-like compounds in one-month-old tomato plants, the possible involvement of {8-14C}-adenine and {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives, was studied. Intact tomato plants were used for a time-course study involving the uptake of {8-14C}-adenine and the tentative identification of compounds into which the 14C became incorporated. Using high performance liquid chromatography, radioactive trans-zeatin was identified as being present in the Dowex 50 root extract. The 12-hour time interval was used and the roots of the tomato plants were immersed in a more heavily radiolabelled medium. Modified separation techniques were used to achieve enhanced radioactivity recovery rates. This experiment demonstrated the presence of relatively high levels of tentatively identified radioactive zeatin in the Dowex 50 root and stem extracts. Radioactivity in the aqueous extracts was found not to be contributed by cytokinin nucleotides. A final experiment was carried out using decapitated root systems to determine if the root tissue alone could be implicated in the synthesis of cytokinins. Decapitated tomato root systems were supplied with either {8-14C}-adenine or {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The ratio of incorporation of {1-14C}-isopentenyl pyrophosphate into identified cytokinins was higher than for {8-14C}-adenine. It was concluded that both adenine and isopentenyl pyrophosphate are involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to an accumulation of free zeatin derivatives in tomato roots

  1. Tracer studies with palmitic acid-14C for the preparation of tripalmitin-14C by a recently reported esterification method [Paper No. AR-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the preparation of tripalmitin-14C on one millimolar scale from palmitic acid 1-14C and glycerol by esterification using N, N-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide as the condensing agent in presence of dimethyl amino pyridine is given. It is based on the recently reported method of Ziegler and Berger but has been modified to obtain the product in about 50 per cent yield with more than 99 per cent radiochemical purity. (author)

  2. Effect of fasting and different diets on 14C incorporation from U-14C glucose into glycogen and carbon dioxide by cerebral cortical slices of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some reports regarding change in the glycogen level due to fasting. Here an attempt is made by keeping the albino rats under fasting or feeding different diets on the rate of 14C incorporation into glycogen and carbon dioxide from U-14C glucose. Our study reveals that the above conditions do not alter any significant change in the glycogen and carbon dioxide in the cerebral cortical slices of albino rats. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab

  3. VALIDATION OF 14C-UREA BREATH TEST FOR DIAGNOSIS OF Helicobacter pylori / Validação do teste expiratório com 14C-uréia para o diagnóstico do Helicobacter pylori

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rejane, MATTAR; Fernando Marcuz, SILVA; Ana Maria, ALEXANDRINO; Antonio Atílio, LAUDANNA.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste expiratório com 14C-uréia diagnostica infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori no estômago. A urease, produzida por esta bactéria, quebra a 14C-uréia, resultando em HCO3- e NH4+, sendo expirado 14CO2 pelos pulmões e quantificado, então, por contador Beta. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi validar o te [...] ste expiratório com 14C-uréia, determinando o tempo ideal de coleta da amostra e o valor de corte. Foi definido o tempo de 20 min para coleta do exame após a ingestão de 5 uCi de 14C-uréia com valor de corte de 562 cpm. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do teste foram de 100% aos 20 min. As diferenças de contagens entre os grupos Helicobacter pylori negativos e Helicobacter pylori positivos foram estatisticamente significativas (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to validate the 14C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H. pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uC [...] i of 14C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p

  4. Irradiation of mouse brain: effects on incorporation of tyrosine--14C into catecholamines in vivo and on uptake of NE--14C by brain slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-term and long-term effects of deuteron irradiation are examined with regard to the rates of incorporation of tyrosine- 14C into catecholamines in the mouse brain. Groups of mice received doses of 5 K, 10 K, 15 K, or 20 K rad covering an area of 9 x 5 mm over the parietal, visual, and cerebellar cortex and extending to a depth of 2 mm from the skull. At 12 days, 40 days, or 12.5 months after irradiation 0.25 ?Ci of tyrosine- 14C was injected intracerebrally, and the animals were sacrificied 20 minutes after injection. Measurement of the endogenous NE content in the mouse brain indicated a decrease in NE level 40 days and 12.5 months after irradiation at 20 K rad. However, the rate of incorporation of tyrosine- 14C into catecholamines was increased with increasing doses of irradiation and peaked at 10 K rad. Results were consistent with all three groups of mice receiving the irradiation. Furthermore, within each dose range the group injected with tyrosine- 14C 40 days after irradiation showed the highest rate of incorporation. A different group of mice was sacrificed 60 days after receiving 5 K or 15 K rad or sham irradiation, and the uptake of NE- 14C in brain slices was studied. Results indicated that slices from brains irradiated at 15 K rad showed the highest uptake of NE- 14C. (U.S.)

  5. Comparison of [14C]glucose and [14C]deoxyglucose as tracers of brain glucose use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because glucose metabolism and functional activity in brain regions are normally coupled, knowledge of regional brain glucose use can yield insights into regional functional activity. The deoxyglucose (DG) method is widely used for this purpose in experimental animals and humans but questions have arisen regarding its limits and accuracy. Therefore an experiment was designed to compare the DG method on a structure-by-structure basis with another tracer of glucose use, [6-14C]glucose, in normal rats. The cerebral metabolic rates obtained using the two tracers were similar in the telencephalon, but the results using DG were substantially lower in the midbrain and hindbrain (diencephalon, 18%; mesencephalon, 20%; metencephalon, 29%; and myelencephalon, 35%). The primary DG metabolite, DG 6-phosphate (DG-6-P) was found to disappear in a non-uniform manner from the major brain structures: telencephalon less than diencephalon less than mesencephalon = metencephalon less than myelencephalon. Thus a correlation was found between the rate of DG-6-P loss and the extent to which the DG method gave lower values of glucose use. Thus this may explain, at least in part, the discrepancies between the two methods

  6. Investigations into the effects of inactive orthophosphate and pyrophosphate as well as the kinetic behaviour of pyrosphosphate labelled with 99mTc and 113 Sn(II) and of 32 P-orthophosphate and 32 P-pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When pyrophosphate is injected as a carrier substance immediately before the administration of 32 P-orthophosphate and 32 P-pyrophosphate to rats, renal elimination is considerably increased, as the levels thus attained are above the kidneys' reabsorption threshold. A a result, accumulation is simultaneously reduced for both soft and osseous tissues. Pretreatment with pyrophosphate leads to colloidal precipitation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and, to a lesser extent, 133 Sn-pyrophosphate that is attributable to the presence of quantities greater than the solubility product. This gives rise to activity increases in the soft tissues that are most pronounced for the liver and spleen, while accumulation in the bones and excretion with the urine are both reduced. It can thus be stated that an oversaturation of the plasma with phosphate does not result in an increased accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. The plasma concentration has no bearing on the affinity of those compounds to the bones.(TRV)

  7. No evidence for a deglacial intermediate water ?14C anomaly in the SW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortor, R. N.; Lund, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The last deglaciation was characterized by an increase in atmospheric pCO2 and decrease in atmospheric radiocarbon activity. One hypothesis is that these changes were due to out-gassing of 14C-depleted carbon from the abyssal ocean (Broecker and Barker, 2007). Reconstructions of foraminiferal ?14C from the eastern tropical Pacific (Marchitto et al., 2007; Stott et al. 2009), Arabian Sea (Bryan et al., 2010), and high latitude North Atlantic (Thornalley et al., 2011) show that severe depletions in 14C occurred at intermediate water depths during the last deglaciation. It has been suggested that 14C-depleted water from the abyss upwelled in the Southern Ocean and was then carried by Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) to these sites (Marchitto et al., 2007). On the South Icelandic Rise, Thornalley et al. (2011) find deglacial ?14C values up to 600% lower than the atmosphere. Since North Atlantic deep waters are not believed to be old enough to cause such an anomaly (Robinson et al. 2005), one possible source is AAIW (Thornalley et al., 2011). Here we evaluate whether or not a large deglacial 14C anomaly occurred at intermediate depths in the Southwest Atlantic. We find that the deglacial ?14C trend at our site is similar to the atmospheric ?14C trend. Our results are also largely consistent with data from U/Th-dated corals at shallower water depths on the Brazil Margin (Mangini et al., 2010). We find no evidence in the southwestern Atlantic of large deglacial ?14C anomalies like those observed in the high latitude North Atlantic (Thornalley et al., 2011). When our results are paired with those from the South Pacific (De Pol-Holz et al., 2010; Rose et al., 2010), it appears AAIW did not carry a highly 14C- depleted signal during the deglaciation. Another source of carbon is apparently required to explain the intermediate-depth ?14C anomalies in the North Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.

  8. Bound residues of 14C-chlorfenvinphos in soil and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation and distribution of bound residues of 14C-chlorfenvinphos (2-chloro-1(2,4-dichlorophenyl) vinyl diethyl phosphate) in winter rape and in soil, and their availability to rats and wheat plants were investigated. After application of 14C-chlorfenvinphos to rape plants, no bound radioactivity was detected either in the flowers and siliques or in the roots. In the leaves and/or stems the bound 14C-residues ranged from 0.02 ?g/g one hour after treatment to 0.18 ?g/g at harvest. Bound 14C was located in lignin (12.1%) and other constituents of the plant tissue. Rats fed plant material that had been exhaustively extracted with methanol and water excreted radioactivity via the faeces. No radioactivity was excreted in urine or expired as 14CO2. A steady increase of bound radioactivity was observed in soil treated with 14C-chlorfenvinphos. Bound 14C-residues, expressed as percentage of the applied 14C, were 13.7% in soil of higher organic matter content and 11.2% in soil of lower organic matter content (after 16 weeks of incubation). Soil sterilization resulted in a significant reduction of bound 14C-residues, indicating that binding was related to the activity of soil microorganisms. Fractionation of soil organic matter showed that 42.1% of the bound 14C was in fulvic acid, 28.4% in humic acid and 29.5% in humin. In bioavailability studies with wheat plants sown in soil extracted exhaustively with methanol, a total uptake of bound 14C of 2.5% was found; the uptake from unextracted soil was 5.0% and the uptake from freshly fortified soil was 22.8%. The presence of bound 14C-residues did not affect the growth of wheat. (author)

  9. Effect of Calcium and Phosphorus Ratios in Feed on the Specific Radioactivity of 32P Recovered in Excreta and Blood Plasma by Growing Broiler Chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P was injected into male broiler chicks aged 14 days. The experiment lasted until day 29. During the experiment specific radioactivity of 32P recovered in excreta and in plasma were quantitatively evaluated at different Ca:P ratios (I=1:1; II=1.5:1; III=2:1; IV=2.5:1) in four groups given experimental diets. The phosphorus content was the same in all groups. Specific radioactivity of 32P in excreta and in plasma amounted to (Bq/mg P):614, 588, 193 and 180; and 928, 964, 1103 and 1136 in groups(I,II,III and IV ) respectively. Widening of the Ca:P ratio in the feed decreased the radio of 32 P specific radioactivity in excreta to 32 P specific radioactivity in plasma

  10. Photolabeling of the phosphate binding site of mitochondrial F1-ATPase by [32P]azidonitrophenyl phosphate. Identification of the photolabeled amino acid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [32P]Azidonitrophenyl phosphate [(32P]ANPP) is a photoactivatable analogue of Pi. It competes efficiently with Pi for binding to the F1 sector of beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and photolabels the Pi binding site located in the beta subunit of F1. By cleavage of the photolabeled beta subunit of F1 with cyanogen bromide, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, bound [32P]ANPP was localized in a fragment spanning Thr 299-Phe 326. By Edman degradation of the radiolabeled tryptic peptide spanning Ile 296-Arg 337, [32P]ANPP was found to be attached covalently by its photoreactive group to Ile 304, Gln 308, and Tyr 311. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which the phosphate group of [32P]ANPP interacts with a glycine-rich sequence of the beta subunit, spanning Gly 156-Lys 162, which is spatially close to the photolabeled Ile 304-Tyr 311 segment of the same subunit

  11. Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, A.; Riekkinen, P.J.; Saano, V.; Tuomisto, L.

    1987-01-01

    Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-..gamma..-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (/sup 35/S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (/sup 35/S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on /sup 35/S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ..mu..M, P<0.001), ethosuximide (500 ..mu..M, P<0.001), and phenytoin (40 ..mu..M, P<0.001) decreased the specific /sup 35/S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ..mu..M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p<0.05) in the cortex increased. Other anticonvulsants did not modulate /sup 35/S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied.

  12. Studies on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of orally administered 35S-dextran sulfate in rats and dogs, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 35S-radioactivities in plasma after oral administration of 35S-dextran sulfate (35S-DS) remained at high levels for 4 hrs. in both rats and dogs. The 35S-radioactivity excreted in urine was found to be 2 - 3% of the dose within 24 - 96 hours, irrespective of species and sex. Fecal excretion of the radioactivity in dogs was 90 - 93% of the dose within 96 hrs. After oral administration of 35S-DS to rats, the radioactivity was concentrated in the liver and kidney in addition to the intestinal tissue. Smaller amounts of radioactivity were also found in other tissues such as the heart, lung, spleen and cerebrum. The radioactivity in the liver and kidney was higher, and declined more slowly, than in plasma. When compared to Tomizawa's data obtained in rats (1971), the ratios of the absorbed radioactivity to dose were approximately equal, as judged from the urinary excretion data, but absorption appeared to be more rapid and the levels of plasma radioactivity seemed to be better sustained. (Evans, J.)

  13. [14C]Benzyl acetate is a potential radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a suitable radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism, we synthesized four different types of ester derivatives of [14C]acetate, namely, [14C]phenyl acetate, [14C]para-nitrophenyl acetate, [14C]2,4-dinitrophenyl acetate and [14C]benzyl acetate ([14C]BA), and evaluated their potencies in rats. Among the derivatives, the highest brain uptake at 30 s postinjection was observed for [14C]BA, which was more than 23 times higher than that of [14C]acetate itself. A long-term retention of [14C]BA radioactivity in the brain was observed, whereas rapid clearance of radioactivity was seen in the heart. [14C]BA was rapidly hydrolyzed in the intact rat brain, and less than 5% of radiolabeled parent was observed 1 min after the injection. Radiochemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography revealed that [14C]BA was rapidly converted to [14C]glutamine and [14C]glutamate in the cortex within 10 min after injection. Furthermore, the uptake of [14C]BA was significantly decreased following microinjection of fluorocitrate, a selective glial toxin. These results strongly suggest that [14C]BA may be a useful radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the intact rat brain

  14. [{sup 14}C]Benzyl acetate is a potential radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momosaki, Sotaro [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: momosaki@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hosoi, Rie; Sanuki, Tomoya [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Todoroki, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma, Johnan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Gee, Antony [GlaxoSmithkline, Clinical Research Unit, ACCI, CB2 2GC Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Inoue, Osamu [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    In order to develop a suitable radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism, we synthesized four different types of ester derivatives of [{sup 14}C]acetate, namely, [{sup 14}C]phenyl acetate, [{sup 14}C]para-nitrophenyl acetate, [{sup 14}C]2,4-dinitrophenyl acetate and [{sup 14}C]benzyl acetate ([{sup 14}C]BA), and evaluated their potencies in rats. Among the derivatives, the highest brain uptake at 30 s postinjection was observed for [{sup 14}C]BA, which was more than 23 times higher than that of [{sup 14}C]acetate itself. A long-term retention of [{sup 14}C]BA radioactivity in the brain was observed, whereas rapid clearance of radioactivity was seen in the heart. [{sup 14}C]BA was rapidly hydrolyzed in the intact rat brain, and less than 5% of radiolabeled parent was observed 1 min after the injection. Radiochemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography revealed that [{sup 14}C]BA was rapidly converted to [{sup 14}C]glutamine and [{sup 14}C]glutamate in the cortex within 10 min after injection. Furthermore, the uptake of [{sup 14}C]BA was significantly decreased following microinjection of fluorocitrate, a selective glial toxin. These results strongly suggest that [{sup 14}C]BA may be a useful radiotracer for the measurement of glial metabolism in the intact rat brain.

  15. Determination of natural 32P and 33P in rainwater, marine particles and plankton by low-level beta counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed for determining the natural levels of 32P and 33P in samples of rainwater, marine particulate matter and plankton. Preconcentration from rainwater consists of the extraction of radiophosphorus on alumina. Filtration of large volumes of seawater is required to obtain sufficient quantities of suspended particulate matter. The radiochemical scheme, which consists of a series of precipitations and a column separation, results in a pure source containing the two beta emitters. The activities of 32P and 33P in the source are determined separately by an external absorber method on low-level beta counters. The yields are monitored by the addition of stable phosphate in rainwater samples and by the natural levels of stable phosphate in marine particulate matter and plankton. The methods allow the specific activities and the activity ratio to be determined with a 10% precision. (orig.)

  16. Preparation of 14C-labelled poly(l-menthyl isopropenyl carbonates)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C-labelled poly(l-menthyl isopropenyl carbonate) is described. Experimental conditions are included for incorporation of 14C into each of the carbon atoms in the molecule. High pressure liquid chromatography conditions are given for separation and purification of the labelled intermediates. (author)

  17. ABSENCE OF 14 C IN PM 2.5 EMISSIONS FROM GASOHOL COMBUSTION IN SMALL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    PM2.5 combustion emissions from small engines using ethanol-containing gasoline (gasohol) were analyzed for their 14C content, which was found to be much smaller than in the fuel. This suggests that using 14C measurements on ambient aerosol to ...

  18. Analysis of 14C contribution to the dose commitment from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose commitment 14C released from an operating PWR plant to the environment was re-evaluated. The GASDOS code, a Korean version of GASPAR II code developed by the USNRC, was used for the assessment with the revised dose factors given in the recent ICRP 72. With an arbitrary selection of the Kori site, the nominal release rate, 370 GBq a year for 14C, was assumed. The results shows that contributions of 14C to the total doses at the mid-point of plant life are as much as 87% within the near-field of 80 km radius and 94% over the far-field beyond. The average dose commitment due to one year of operation evaluated for infinite time interval by integration of the annual doses reaches 2.2 man-Sv even when the isotopic dilution of 14C in the biosphere due to fossil fuel burning is considered. In spite of the significant dose commitment incurred by 14C, it is difficult to find a reasonable solution to mitigate the radiological consequences. Reduction of production rate of 14C is hardly expected because the assumed source term originates from the interaction of the reactor coolant water. Removal of 14C from the reactor coolant gives rise to a waste disposal problem, which calls difficulties due to the extraordinarily long half-life of 14C. And a deep-sea disposal scheme is proposed uniquely for this particularly long-lived radioisotope

  19. Accelerator mass spectrometry with 14C and 10Be in Utrecht

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Utrecht facility for accelerator mass spectrometry is now in operation for routine measurements of 14C and 10Be in natural samples. Sample preparation techniques have been introduced. A 1% precision for 14C/12C ratios is routinely achieved. In the last year, more than 500 samples have been prepared and measured for various applications in archeology, geology and paleontology. (orig.)

  20. Transport and utilization of 14C photosynthate in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out to study the translocation, distribution and utilization of photosynthate from different leaf and branch positions in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Among the branches, middle had the higher assimilation of 14C followed by the top and bottom branches in Pant A 3, whereas in Pant A 2, all branches had equal amount of 14C assimilation. Floral leaf (L 8) had higher 14C assimilation than basal leaf (L 2) and main stem leaf of both the varieties. Export of 14C assimilate was highest from top branch followed by middle and bottom branches in Pant A 3. In Pant A 2, bottom branch had higher 14C export than middle and top branch. Most of the 14C assimilate exported from branches as well as leaves was localized in stem during early reproductive phase. Pods and flowers gained relatively low amount of assimilates. During vegetative phase, 68 percent export of assimilate occurred within 24 hr after assimilation. The data of this investigation show that stem of pigeon pea is a great potential sink of 14C assimilate during the early reproductive phase and competes vigorously with developing pods for 14C assimilate during the pod filling stage. The development of varieties which may cease stem growth at the onset of flowering would be useful in increasing the productivity of pigeon pea. (author)

  1. Synthesis of [14C]Cellobiose with Clostridium thermocellum Cellobiose Phosphorylase

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Thomas K.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Cellobiose labeled either at the reducing end (4-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-d-[U-14C]glucopyranose) or at the nonreducing end (4-O-?-d-[U-14C]glucopyranosyl-d -glucopyranose) was synthesized with Clostridium thermocellum cellobiose phosphorylase at greater than 98% purity. The radioactive cellobioses were identical to authentic cellobiose in melting point, optical rotation, isotopic dilution, and chromatographic properties.

  2. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  3. Study on the degradation of 14C maneb during the fabrication of concentrated tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomatoes were contaminated with 14C maneb to know the degradation of this fungicide during the technological process of tomato under laboratory conditions. 57,2% of the initial amount of 14C maneb applied was found in the many metabolites ETM, ETU and EU, were found during the technological transformation of tomato

  4. The synthesis of [methylenedioxy-14C]paroxetine BRL 29060A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paroxetine (1), BRL 29060A, a potent antidepressant, has been prepared radiolabelled with carbon-14 in the methylenedioxy group in 5 steps and 20.9% overall yield from [14C]dibromomethane. Two alternative preparations of 3,4-[methylenedioxy-14C]phenol are also described. (Author)

  5. The synthesis of [methylenedioxy-[sup 14]C]paroxetine BRL 29060A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrie, K.W.M.; Rustidge, D.C. (SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals Research and Development, Harlow (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    Paroxetine (1), BRL 29060A, a potent antidepressant, has been prepared radiolabelled with carbon-14 in the methylenedioxy group in 5 steps and 20.9% overall yield from [[sup 14]C]dibromomethane. Two alternative preparations of 3,4-[methylenedioxy-[sup 14]C]phenol are also described. (Author).

  6. Systemic translocation and metabolism of 14C-metalaxyl in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic uptake and translocation of 14C-metalaxyl to citrus seedlings from soils (Humic Gley and Yellow Red Latosol) with different physical - chemical properties are studied. Seedlings of Citrus limonia are treated with 14C-metalaxyl. (M.A.C.)

  7. The preparation of alkyl benzene sulphonate, 14C-labelled in the benzene ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparation of sodium alkyl sulphonate 14C-labelled in the benzene ring. The composition of the resultant product largely corresponded to that of a technical alkyl benzene sulphonate. It was obtained by sulphonation of alkyl benzene which, in turn, had been made by reacting 14C-labelled benzene with a technical olefin fraction. (orig.)

  8. Benzene Synthesis for 14C Measurements and Evaluation of Uncertainty in Mollusk Shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the method and Instrumentation used by Environmental Isotopes laboratory of the CIEMAT Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (DIAE) for the synthesis of benzene from carbonates of mollusk shells and the liquid scintillation counting of 14C for radiocarbon dating in these samples. The usefulness of mollusk shells for 14C dating are considered. (Author) 15 refs

  9. The effect of acetylcholine on 14C-assimilates translocation of Isatis tinctoria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of acetylcholine on 14C-assimilates translocation are studied with source-channel-sink of Isatis tinctoria L. The experiments show that 0.01 mmol/L treatments of acetylcholine on the phloem, can improve the output of 14C-assimilates in leaves indicating that acetylcholine enhances the activity of phloem transport. (authors)

  10. Development of a general method for detection and quantification of the P35S promoter based on assessment of existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhua; Wang, Yulei; Li, Jun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) is a commonly used target for detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). There are currently 24 reported detection methods, targeting different regions of the P35S promoter. Initial assessment revealed that due to the absence of primer binding sites in the P35S sequence, 19 of the 24 reported methods failed to detect P35S in MON88913 cotton, and the other two methods could only be applied to certain GMOs. The rest three reported methods were not suitable for measurement of P35S in some testing events, because SNPs in binding sites of the primer/probe would result in abnormal amplification plots and poor linear regression parameters. In this study, we discovered a conserved region in the P35S sequence through sequencing of P35S promoters from multiple transgenic events, and developed new qualitative and quantitative detection systems targeting this conserved region. The qualitative PCR could detect the P35S promoter in 23 unique GMO events with high specificity and sensitivity. The quantitative method was suitable for measurement of P35S promoter, exhibiting good agreement between the amount of template and Ct values for each testing event. This study provides a general P35S screening method, with greater coverage than existing methods. PMID:25483893

  11. Results of knee radiosynoviortesis in haemophilic and rheumatoid arthritic patients with 32P colloid of local production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of radioactive treatment in knee joints with refractory synovitis in haemophilic patients, using a colloidal suspension of 32P, a pure beta emitter, developed domestically. Results were then compared with those from chemical synovectomy. A population of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was treated and compared against intra-articular steroids and systemic drugs. Fifty-eight male haemophilic patients, aged 4-52 years, were treated. Nine of them had re-injections (67 procedures). Adults received 37-74 MBq; children of 2-6 years received one third the adult's activity; 6-10 years received one half the activity, whereas 10-16 years were injected with three quarters the activity given to adults. Anti-haemophilic factors (AHF) therapy, clinical examination as well as a pre-3-phase MDP scan were registered and followed-up with MDP scans through 9 months. The intra-articular therapies for either 32P in 44 patients or the antibiotic Rifampicin-99mTc macroaggregates in 14 patients were monitored in the gamma camera with 32P bremsstrahlung emission, searching for leakage. Twelve RA patients were studied: six received 32P and the others intra-articular corticoids. Comparison of RoIs in treated knees during soft tissue scintigraphies in pre- and post-third MDP control shows knee improvement. Joint motion increased. Bleeding episodes, as well as requirements of AHF in 80% of the radiosinovectomies, diminished. Intra-articular Rifampicin treatment requires several injections. Outcomes in RA lasted 3 months and were less promising. Radiosinovectomy in haemophilic patients with one injection provides 3-6 months relief. The paediatric benefit from radiosinovectomy outweighs potential radiation hazards. Radiosinovectomy is a safe, cost effective alternative therapy in emerging nations, where availability of AHF is difficult and expensive. (author)

  12. Cosmogenic 32P and 33P used as tracers to study phosphorus recycling in the upper ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a method based on two naturally occurring radioisotopes, 32P and 33P to study phosphorus recycling in the upper ocean. We have studied their concentrations in the dissolved inorganic phosphorus, dissolved organic phosphorus and particulate organic phosphorus from waters within and below the mixed layer. These isotopes permit study of P cycling on the timescales compatible with those involved in biogeochemical processes and in trophic interactions within the food web. (author)

  13. The influence of the fungicide Folcidin on the distribution and metabolism of 32P in gherkin plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high accumulation of 32P was observed in the leaves of intact gherkin plants 9 days after their roots had been treated with a 0.005% suspension of the systemic fungicide Folcidin 50WP (cypendazole), and 8 days after the roots had been exposed to labelled phosphate. Folcidin also affected phosphorus metabolism in the plants. A high biological cytokinin-like activity of the fungicide was established using a callus cytokinin bioassay. (author)

  14. Transformation of Lesquerella Fendleri with the New Binary Vector pGPro4-35S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Q. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Crop genetic engineering requires the use of various promoters to control the expression of introduced transgenes. Some of the binary vectors currently available for promoter characterization in dicotyledonous plants have pitfalls due to their construction, such as containing a selectable marker cassette with enhancer sequences that can potentially interfere with the expression specificity of nearby promoters. Also, many binary vectors are quite large in size and contain few useful restriction sites making their in vitro manipulation technically challenging. Approach: A small (7698 bp and flexible binary vector named pGPro4 was constructed to possess unique features favorable for promoter analysis in dicot plants. A nopaline synthase (nos promoter was used to control the expression of the selectable marker of pGPro4 to prevent the problem of interference with the neighboring promoter-reporter fusion. In pGPro4, the nos promoter and hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII sequences are flanked by loxP sites, which allow for Cre recombinase-mediated removal when hygromycin resistance is no longer desired. pGPro4 also contains a bifunctional ?-glucuronidase-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (gusA-eGFP reporter gene that provides visual detection of reporter gene expression using either fluorescence in live cells or histochemical detection of ?-glucuronidase activity. Results and Conclusion: To demonstrate the usefulness of the pGPro4 vector, a CaMV35S promoter was fused to gusA-eGFP and the resulting plasmid, pGPro4-35S, was used to transform Lesquerella fendleri. Primary shoots were generated from explants at an expected frequency of 10-27.5%, indicating that the nos promoter drove sufficient hptII expression to generate hygromycin resistant plants. Six independent transgenic L. fendleri lines were grown to maturity and generated T1 seeds. The bifunctionality of the gusA-eGFP reporter gene was verified by detecting both green fluorescence and ?-glucuronidase activity in multiple T1 L. fendleri seedlings from 5 of the 6 the independent transgenic lines.

  15. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [1-14C]-perfluorohexanoate ([14C]-PFHx) in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, tissue distribution, elimination, and metabolism of [1-14C]-PFHx in rats and mice dosed orally at 2 or 100 mg/kg was evaluated following a single dose or after 14 consecutive doses. Absorption was rapid in rats as evidenced by a short time to maximum concentration (Cmax) of 30 min in male rats and 15 min in female rats at both the 2 and 100 mg/kg dose level. The plasma elimination half-life was somewhat longer in males (1.5-1.7 h) than in females (0.5-0.7 h). Absorption in the mouse was also rapid with the maximum plasma concentration occurring between 15 and 30 min after dosing. The maximum concentration was not appreciably different between male and female mice (8 ?g equiv./g at 2 mg/kg; ?350 ?g equiv./g at 100 mg/kg). The primary route of elimination was via the urine. PFHx was not metabolized in rat or mouse hepatocytes, nor were any metabolites observed after oral dosing in either rodent species. Essentially 100% of the dose was eliminated in urine within 24 h demonstrating that PFHx is readily absorbed and bioavailability approaches 100%, even at a dose as high as 100 mg/kg. The route and extent of elimination was unchanged after 14 days of daily dosing. Tissues were collected at three time points (rat: 0.5, 2, and 24 h; mice: 0.25, 1, and 24 h) after dosing to investigate the tissue clearance kinetics of PFHx following a single dose at 2 or 100 mg/kg. In all tissues except skin, PFHx was not quantifiable 24 h after dosing in both sexes of the two species.

  16. Structure and 57Fe Moessbauer effect in R2Fe14C compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the ternary compound Lu2Fe14C was determined and shown to be isotypic with Nd2Fe14B. 57Fe Moessbauer spectra were taken of the compounds Lu2Fe14C and Gd2Fe14C at 300 K and 10 K. Analysis of the spectra showed that the average iron moment in R2Fe14C is approximately the same as in R2Fe14B. The Moessbauer spectra were decomposed into six subspectra according to the six different iron sites in R2Fe14C. There are considerable differences in the sizes of the iron moments associated with the six iron sites. (orig.)

  17. Effects of commercial processing procedures on 14C-pirimiphos-methyl residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean plants were treated with two applications of 14C-pirimiphos-methyl under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the harvested seeds averaged 2.25 mg/kg; corresponding to 0.37% of the applied dose. The insecticide residue in crude oil and cake amounted to 1.6 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. About 75% of the 14C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.4 ppm, mainly in the form of pirimiphos-methyl and 2-diethylamino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine. Refining of soybean oil fortified with 14C-pirimiphos-methyl led also to a high loss of 14C-residues (79%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting of pirimiphos-methyl and its phenol. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Influence of increasing combustion temperature on the AMS 14C dating of modern crop phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinhui; Yang, Xue; Zheng, Yonggang

    2014-10-01

    Several attempts have been made to directly date phytoliths, but most 14C results are not consistent with other independent chronologies. Due to the limited dataset, there is not a clear explanation for these discrepancies. Herein, we report the 14C ages of phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) from contemporary rice and millet crops that were combusted at different temperatures to investigate the relationship between the combustion temperature and resulting 14C age. Our results show that the 14C age of PhytOC increases directly with combustion temperature (up to 1100°C) and results in age overestimations of hundreds of years. Considerably older ages are observed at higher temperatures, suggesting that it may be possible to distinguish between two fractions of organic carbon in phytoliths: labile and recalcitrant carbon. These findings challenge the assumption that PhytOC is homogeneous, an assumption made by those who have previously attempted to directly date phytoliths using 14C.

  19. Gamov-Teller transitions from 14N ground to 14C ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2014-01-01

    Gamov-Teller transitions from the $^{14}$N ground state to the $^{14}$C ground and excited states were investigated, based on the model of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. The calculated strengths for the allowed transitions to the $0^+$, $1^+$, and $2^+$ states of $^{14}$C were compared with the experimental data measured by high-resolution charge-exchange reactions. The calculated GT transition to the $2^+_1$ state is strong while those to the $0^+_{2,3}$ and $2^+_{2,3}$ states having dominant $2\\hbar\\omega$ excited configurations are relatively weak. The present calculation can not describe the anonymously long life time of $^{14}$C, though the strength of the $^{14}$C ground state is somewhat suppressed because of the cluster (many-body) correlation in the ground states of $^{14}$C and $^{14}$N.

  20. Radioecological applications of 14 C measurements at the Lund Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14 C is a radionuclide that - apart from cosmic-ray induced, atmospheric production - is produced by man, e.g. through neutron-induced reactions in all types of nuclear reactors. In this paper the environmental 14 C levels - resulting from natural as well as man-made production - are discussed. The paper also reviews the program for radiological applications of 14 C performed at the Lund accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility, and sample preparation and measurement techniques are outlined. A summary of previously published data of air-borne 14 C releases from nuclear power plants in Sweden is given, as well as measured environmental 14 C levels in the vicinity of nuclear installations in Sweden, Estonia, Canada and Great Britain. Some recent results of measurements from the surroundings of the CANDU reactor in Cernavoda, Romania, also presented. (authors)