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Sample records for 14c 32p 35s

  1. Separation of 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 125I, and 131I in radioisotope waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of 3H, 14C, 32P, 35S, 125I, and 131I in radioisotope (RI) waste materials such as the vials, pipette tips, tubes, syringes, and paper generated from the industrial, medical, educational, and research organizations were conducted by a wet oxidation method. Counts were obtained by a liquid scintillation counter for 3H, 14C, and 32P; a gas proportional counter for 35S; a low energy photon spectroscopy for 125I; and an HPGe detector for 131I. After the treatment of approximately 20 g of the sample, the counting value was determined to obtain a minimum detectable activity (MDA) of approximately 1 x 10-3 ? 5 x 10-2 Bq/g. The specific activities of short-half-life RIs (32P, 35S, 125I, and 131I) were not detectable and/or resulted in a low value (3H and 14C was observed to have the specific activities in the range of 10-2-105 and 10-2-104 Bq/g, respectively. (author)

  2. Behavior of 32P, 35S, 36Cl and 42K in magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A separation method of 32P from 35S using magnesium oxide as adsorbent of radiophosphorus is described. The behaviour of 32P and 35S, both carrier-free, on magnesium oxide, individually, in dependence of the amount of the adsorbent, of mixing time, of the pH of the loading solution and of potassium chloride concentration, is studied. The separation of the mentioned radioisotopes, using a misture of them, is also analysed. In order to apply this method to the routine production of carrier-free 35S by potassium chloride irradiation, the adsorption behaviour of the chloride and potassium on magnesium oxide using radioactive tracers of these elements, is studied. The separation of 35S from 32P is analyzed by the maximum range of ?- particles in aluminum. The absorption curves are presented and compared. (Author)

  3. Synthesis of organic substances labelled with 14C and 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief history of the development of the Section des Molecules marquees of the French Atomic Energy Commission, the author gives an outline of the synthesis of the following labelled compounds: benzene 14C-6; phenyl-p-fluorophenyl, thienyl-2 ? alanines ? 14C; noradrenaline ? 14C (arterenol ? 14C), dotriacontane 14C-16-17, aminoethane sulfinic acid (hypotaurine 35S). (author)

  4. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32P and methionine-free medium for 35S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  5. Synthesis of 14C- and 35S-labelled 2-mercaptobenzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C- and 35S-labelled 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 1-methyl-2-mercaptobenzimidazole were synthesized from 14C-carbon disulfide, 35S-thiourea, 14C-methyl iodide and 35S-thiourea, respectively, for use in studies on the mechanism of action of antithyroid drugs. The products were purified by chromatography on silica and isolated with radiochemical purities of greater than 98%, yields of 45-77% and specific activities of 2.1-5.3 mCi/mmole. (author)

  6. Preparation of /sup 14/C, /sup 35/S and /sup 13/C labelled forms of omeprazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, A.M.; Ife, R.J.; Mitchell, M.B.; Saunders, D.

    1986-01-01

    The syntheses of (benzimidazole-2- /sup 14/C)omeprazole, (benzimidazole-2-/sup 13/C)omeprazole, (/sup 35/S)omeprazole and (2-pyridyl- /sup 14/C-methyl)-omeprazole are described. The first three compounds were prepared from the appropriate isotopically labelled carbon disulphide. The key step in the synthesis of (2-pyridyl- /sup 14/C-methyl)omeprazole is nucleophilic alkylation of a l-ethoxypyridinium salt using (/sup 14/C)methyl magnesium idodide. This is the first time that a reaction of this type has been used to prepare a 2-(methyl-/sup 14/C)methylpyridine.

  7. Lethal Effect on Bacterium of Decay of Incorporated Radioactive Atoms (3H, 14C, 32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effect of decay of 3H, 14C and 32P incorporated into a bacterium depends on the nature of the organic molecule labelled, on the position of the isotope within it and on the isotope itself. In sum, results obtained to date show that: The decay of 3H atoms incorporated into certain macromolecules of a bacterium causes sterilization through ionization by the ß- particle emitted; transmutation is of negligible importance. This self-irradiation is comparable in effect with X-rays and is affected in a similar manner by the same factors: temperature, presence of a radioprotector, radiosensitivity of the strain. Decay of 14C or 32P atoms incorporated into bacterial DNA is lethal because of the transmutation effect; ionizations produced by emitted ß- particles may be disregarded. Survival curves for 32P transmutations depend on the experimental conditions. Some of the results obtained with 32P are similar to those obtained with X-rays, e.g. effects of temperature, radical capture and oxygen, while others are similar to those of u.v. light, e.g., effect of growth conditions. Comparative tests made with 32P indicate that the recoil energy of transmutation is not the phenomenon responsible for the lethal effect observed. Comparison of the results obtained after X-irradiation or decay of 3H or 32P incorporated into the DNA of bacteria of the same strain of E. coli shows that the efficiency of a 32P transmutation is about four times greater than that of an ionization produced at random within the same DNA. (author)

  8. Technique for Simultaneous Determination of [35S]Sulfide and [14C]Carbon Dioxide in Anaerobic Aqueous Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Craig D.; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Molongoski, John J.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the simultaneous determination of [35S]sulfide and [14C]carbon dioxide produced in anaerobic aqueous samples dual-labeled with [35S]sulfate and a 14C-organic substrate is described. The method involves the passive distillation of sulfide and carbon dioxide from an acidified water sample and their subsequent separation by selective chemical absorption. The recovery of sulfide was 93% for amounts ranging from 0.35 to 50 ?mol; recovery of carbon dioxide was 99% in amounts up to 20 ?mol. Within these delineated ranges of total sulfide and carbon dioxide, 1 nmol of [35S]sulfide and 7.5 nmol of [14C]carbon dioxide were separated and quantified. Correction factors were formulated for low levels of radioisotopic cross-contamination by sulfide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic acids. The overall standard error of the method was 4% for sulfide and 6% for carbon dioxide. PMID:16345742

  9. A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35S and 14C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35S and 14C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

  10. The mineral nutrition of millet (Pennisetum-typhoides): Migration of 32P and 35S - Similarities with the migration of photosynthetic assimilates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a study of the transport of 32P and 35S injected into leaves or of 14CO2 absorbed thereby. It is shown that the radioisotopes mostly travel towards the upper parts of the plant and towards the seeds when they originate from upper leaves after male flowering. The later fillers, however, do not play any role as a reserve in the mineral or carbon nutrition of adult fillers. No appreciable absorption of 35S or 32P by the roots is observed after male flowering. (author)

  11. Metabolism of 35S- and 14C-labeled propylthiouracil in a model in vitro system containing thyroid peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous communications we described an in vitro model system containing highly purified thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by the antithyroid drugs, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). We showed that inhibition of iodination of thyroglobulin in this system may be reversible or irreversible depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and drug and the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drugs occurred under both conditions, but was more limited under irreversible conditions of inhibition. It was of interest to examine the nature of the drug metabolites associated with reversible and irreversible conditions of inhibition. For this purpose we have employed the 35S- and 14C-labeled drugs and a recently developed reverse phase HPLC procedure. Results of a similar study with MMI were reported in an earlier communication. In the present study we report our findings with PTU. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, PTU was readily metabolized and by 15 min was reduced to a few percent of the starting value. The earliest detectable metabolite with both [35S]- and [14C]PTU was the disulfide, which reached a peak in about 15 min and then slowly declined. Coincident with the decline in the disulfide was the appearance of more polar metabolites. In the case of [35S]PTU, these corresponded to sulfate/sulfite, PTU sulfonate, and a product tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate. The latter two were also observed as 14C-labeled metabolites produced from [14C]PTU. Two nonpolar desulfurated 14C-labeled metabolites were also observed. Surprisingly, these did not correspond to either propyluracil or propyldeoxyuracil, the anticipated most likely products of PTU desulfuration. The identity of these desulfurated metabolites of PTU in the TPO model system remains to be determined

  12. Genetic effects of 35S decay in cells of yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisial. Rep.5. Comparative studies of the lethal and mutagenic effects of decay of 35S and 32P incorporated into cells of radiation sensitive mutant xrs 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lethal effect of the 35S and 32P decays in the cells of the radiosensitive mutant xrs 2 was studied. Dose - effect dependence was exponential one for the strain xrs 2. On the survival curve there was no bend corresponding to the transition to the fraction of budding cells. The mutant strain was 7 times more sensitive than the wild type to the transmutation of both isotopes. The cells of the mutant strain are devoid of high sensitivity to the mutagenic effect of the decay of both isotopes mutations in locuses ade 1 and ade 2 were taken into account. The mutant strain and the wild type strain differ in the nature of mutations induced by the 35S decay in locus ade 2. In xrs 2 strain, 82 per cent of mutations-base pair substitutions and 18 per cent of mutations with different nature are induced; in the wild type strain this values one 97 and 3 per cent respectively. Besides, it is shown that total and sectoral mutants, induced by the 35S decay in strain xrs 2, differ in the type of interallelic complementation

  13. Adsorption and thermal desorption of 14C-CO and 35S-H2S on Pt/SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When CO is adsorbed on Pt/SiO2 at room temperature and then heated to 450 deg C, CO and CO2 are thermally desorbed. Flow experiments using 14C-CO and 35S-H2S as tracers have now revealed that H2S can inhibit the production of CO2 in thermal desorption. Adsorption of 14C-CO followed by H2S reduces the formation of 14C-CO2. Adsorption of H2S followed by 14C-CO inhibits adsorption completely. 35S-H2S adsorptions revealed that adsorption occured to an extent significantly beyond the monolayer capacity of the metal. (author)

  14. Comparison of the production rate of bacteria in the rumen of buffalo calves estimated by using 32P and 35S-labelled mixed rumen bacteria as a marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled bacteria were used to estimate their growth rate and a comparison has been made of the values obtained by using 35S labelled bacterial markers. Since 32P is a hard ?-emitter the radioactivity measurement can be made without scintillation fluid by Cherenkov counting which may be economical. (author)

  15. Effects of source distribution, dose, and linear energy transfer capacity on inactivation and mutation of mycobacteria after 2H, 35S, and 32P incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a selected model, the paper makes a contribution to the question whether the energy dose as a macroscopically-physically defined quantity can be usefully applied in cell ranges with linear dimensions of the order of 1 ?m, i.e. whether there is still a correlation between the energy dose and quantitatively measurable biological radiation effects. The problem is investigated with the aid of the intracellular ? decay of the 3H, 35S, and 32P nuclei on mycobacteria (BCG) in liquid media. Quantitative findings of radiobiological experiments are linked with model dose calculations to form dose-effect curves. The experimental principle consists in adding radioactively labelled compounds to the nutrient solution of bacteria at normal growth temperatures, thus obtaining an intracellular ? source region caused by their uptake. The uptake conditions for the three radionuclides are varied by using different chemical bonds (2H) or carrier concentrations (3H, 35S). As biological reactions, inactivation in the form of growth inhibition and mutagenic induction of resistance to isonicotinic acid hydrazide are recorded. (orig./MG)

  16. Identification for pure-beta nuclides of 14C and 35S with plastic scintillator applied to conventional liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra for pure-beta nuclides with liquid scintillator by using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC) are usually shifted to low energy region caused by optical and chemical quenching processes. So the end-point of LSC spectrum does not show the theoretical maximum beta-ray energy (Emax). On the other hand, the end points of the spectra of 14C and 35S showed their Emax, when a plastic scintillator (PS) was used for measurement as a substitute for a liquid scintillator. Therefore, the possibility of identification of 14C and 35S with plastic scintillator applied to conventional liquid scintillation counter is the aim of this study. Spectra could be measured with good reproducibility. Moreover the reusability of the PS rinsed within a day or covered with a thin film was also confirmed. (author)

  17. Metabolism of /sup 35/S- and /sup 14/C-labeled propylthiouracil in a model in vitro system containing thyroid peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taurog, A.; Dorris, M.L.; Guziec, F.S. Jr.; Uetrecht, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    In previous communications we described an in vitro model system containing highly purified thyroid peroxidase (TPO) for studying the mechanism of inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis by the antithyroid drugs, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and 1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole (MMI). We showed that inhibition of iodination of thyroglobulin in this system may be reversible or irreversible depending on the relative concentrations of iodide and drug and the TPO concentration. Metabolism of the drugs occurred under both conditions, but was more limited under irreversible conditions of inhibition. It was of interest to examine the nature of the drug metabolites associated with reversible and irreversible conditions of inhibition. For this purpose we have employed the 35S- and 14C-labeled drugs and a recently developed reverse phase HPLC procedure. Results of a similar study with MMI were reported in an earlier communication. In the present study we report our findings with PTU. Under conditions of reversible inhibition, PTU was readily metabolized and by 15 min was reduced to a few percent of the starting value. The earliest detectable metabolite with both (35S)- and (14C)PTU was the disulfide, which reached a peak in about 15 min and then slowly declined. Coincident with the decline in the disulfide was the appearance of more polar metabolites. In the case of (35S)PTU, these corresponded to sulfate/sulfite, PTU sulfonate, and a product tentatively identified as PTU sulfinate. The latter two were also observed as 14C-labeled metabolites produced from (14C)PTU. Two nonpolar desulfurated 14C-labeled metabolites were also observed. Surprisingly, these did not correspond to either propyluracil or propyldeoxyuracil, the anticipated most likely products of PTU desulfuration. The identity of these desulfurated metabolites of PTU in the TPO model system remains to be determined.

  18. Uptake of [35S] carbonyl sulphide and [14C] carbon dioxide by crops in the vicinity of an advanced gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake into major crops of 35S and 14C released to the atmosphere during operation of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station was studied at an on-site experimental plot. Both radionuclides were measured in air and edible crop parts, while the effect of boiling on the 35S content of the latter was also investigated. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors and the implications of these were assessed for both collective dose and dose to a hypothetical critical group. The transfer factor for 35S to green vegetables was found to be much smaller than believed previously, to the extent that the vegetable consumption pathway is of secondary importance to that of fresh milk. A possible reduction is indicated in critical group individual 35S doses of 20-60% and in collective dose by a factor of about 2, but vegetable consumption remains of potential radiological significance. It was confirmed that the specific activity approach used currently for assessments of 'first pass' dose from 14C releases is broadly correct, but a possible reduction of up to 3.5 times is indicated in the air-crop transfer for root vegetables. (author)

  19. Influence of boron nutrition on net uptake and efflux of 32P and 14C-glucose in Helianthus annuus roots and cell cultures of Daucus carota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P and 14C-glucose uptake were reduced under B deficiency in both Daucus cell suspensions and Helianthus roots. Similarly, efflux rates were found to be smaller in B deficient material. Efflux rates tended to be more affected than net uptake of both 32P and glucose. This may explain why sunflower roots showed a higher glucose net uptake immediately after transferring from a B sufficient to a B deficient nutrient solution. The data confirm earlier findings of B as an essential element for membrane function and integrity. B-deficiency effects could be reversed by the addition of B within less than one hour. Cell suspensions reacted similarly to roots with respect to B deficiency and may thus be suitable for further research on B deficiency effects. (orig.)

  20. In vitro incorporation of 1-14C-acetate and 32P-orthophosphoric acid into phospholipids at various stages of growth of Pythium irregulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pythium irregulare showed an increase (11.6 to 38.9%) in total lipids and a simultaneous decrease (40.5 to 7.3%) in phospholipid content of total lipids during growth period of 15 days. Incubation of fungus of different ages viz. 2,3,4,5,7,9,11,13 and 15 days old with 32P-orthophosphoric acid for 4 hr showed that the specific activity of mycelium was maximum with the 5-days old fungus. Highest content of total and polar lipids was, however observed with the 3 days old sample. Incubation studies with sodium acetate 1-14C with fungus of various stages of growth showed maxima of specific activity in mycelium, total, polar and non-polar lipids on the 5th day. From specific activity estimation of 32P and 14C in each of the phosphatides, it was concluded that the labels were incorporated at a higher rate into phosphatidyl enthanolamine during early stages of growth. The reverse was true for the later period of growth, indicating that phosphatidyl ethanolamine was possibly converted to phosphatidyl choline. (auth.)

  1. Autoradiography of 32P and 14C incorporation into protoplasts as a means of determining the percentage of virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripping Film Autoradiography (SFA) was used to measure protoplast infection. Control and infected protoplasts were incubated in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate or [14C]leucine fixed onto glass slides and placed in contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. Infected protoplasts were distinguished by blackened areas of exposed film which coincided with protoplasts containing labelled virus products. The use of SFA is demonstrated for two different virus/protoplast systems, namely tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco and turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) in rape. The method detects infection as early as 12-16 h post-inoculation and UV irradiation is not necessary for reducing background interference from labelled host proteins. (Auth.)

  2. Effect of aldicarb on growth and radio-carbon (14C) and radio-phosphorus (32P) assimilation by Rhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies on the effect of aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methyl thio) propionaldehde-o-methyl carbamoyl oxime), a soil applied systemic insecticide, on Rhizobium japonicum revealed that the chemical (at 1,2 and 5 ppm levels) stimulated the growth of the organism initially upto 48 hr which declined thereafter upto 72 hr. The incorporation of 14C-glucose by the cells considerably reduced due to the insecticide treatment. The production of extracellular, water-soluble slime (polysacchardes) was also reduced considerably with increased concentrations of the chemical. However, the incorporation of 14C-radio-activity in the extracellular slime generally enhanced due to the treatment, upto 6 hr after injection of the radioactivity, which declined significantly later at 15 hr, indicating a qualitative difference in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by the insecticide treated cells. The insecticide treatment drastically reduced the incorporation of 32P-disodium hydrogen phosphate into Rhizobium cells, but enhanced the specific activity of the extracellular polysacchrides. (author)

  3. 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose and 3H-ABA transport in developing maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the development of the maize embryo the authors have studied the transport of 14C-leucine, 35S-methionine, 3H-lysine, 14C-3-O-methyl-glucose, and 3H-abscisic acid in isolated Tx5855 or sweet corn embryos. pH optima ranged from pH 4.2 for methionine, pH 5.0 and pH 5.75 for leucine, pH 6.5 for lysine, to pH 5.5-6.5 for 3-O-methyl-glucose. Uptake rates of all radiolabelled compounds were linear during the first three hrs of incubation. Only leucine showed a saturable component with an apparent Km 10-4M. When comparing the uptake rates during the entire range of embryogenesis in inbred line TX5855, leucine and 3-O-methyl-glucose show parallel changes in uptake rates (moles/gm fw/hr or moles/embryo/hr). In isolated sweet corn embryos, ABA (10-5 to 10-8M) showed no effect on 3-O-methyl-glucose or methionine uptake, but showed a 25-40% increase in leucine and lysine uptake as compared with no ABA addition. These characterizations of metabolite uptake provide a basis for the design of future studies with isolated maize embryos

  4. Development of a junction {beta} - spectrometer; Spectrometrie {beta} par detecteur a jonction. Application a l'etude des spectres du {sup 14}C et du {sup 35}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    A {beta} spectrometry unit using junctions of the silicon surface barrier type has been built. The resolving power of this spectrometer has been studied as well as the influence of a certain number of parameters (temperature, polarization voltage) on its characteristics. A study with this unit of some internal conversion electron spectra ({sup 113}Sn, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi) has led both to a determination of its characteristics and of an energy calibration, and to the determination of certain internal conversion ratios of these radionuclides. This spectrometer was then used for a study of (5-spectra in particular that of {sup 35}S and {sup 14}C. The calculations and corrections required for the setting-up of Kuries representation are described. The programmes required for the carrying-out of these calculations with an I.B.M. computer are given. It has been verified that Kuries representation for {sup 14}C above 90 keV is in fact linear. The non-linear aspect observed by certain authors is probably due to the 'quality' of the sources used. The Fierz interference term has been determined. The maximum {beta} energies found are respectively: 167 {+-} 1 keV for {sup 35}S and 155 {+-} 2 keV for {sup 14}C. (author) [French] On a realise un ensemble spectrometrique {beta} a jonction du type barriere de surface au silicium. On a determine le pouvoir de resolution de ce spectrometre et etudie l'influence que peuvent avoir sur ses caracteristiques, un certain nombre de parametres (temperature, tension de polarisation). L'etude, a l'aide de cet ensemble, de quelques spectres d'electrons de conversion interne ({sup 113}Sn, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 139}Ce, {sup 195}Au, {sup 207}Bi), a servi d'une part, a determiner ses caracteristiques ainsi qu'a l'etalonner en energie, d'autre part, a determiner certains rapports de conversion interne de ces radionucleides. Ce spectrometre a ensuite ete utilise pour etudier les spectres {beta}, en particulier celui du {sup 35}S et celui du {sup 14}C. On decrit les calculs et corrections necessaires a l'etablissement de la representation de Kurie. On donne les programmes necessaires a l'execution de ces calculs avec une calculatrice I.B.M. On a verifie que la representation de Kurie du {sup 14}C au-dessus de 90 keV est bien lineaire. L'aspect non lineaire, observe par certains auteurs est probablement du a la 'qualite' des sources utilisees. On a determine le terme d'interference de Fierz. Les energies {beta} maximales trouvees sont respectivement: 167 {+-} 1 keV pour le {sup 35}S et 155 {+-} 2 keV pour le {sup 14}C. (auteur)

  5. Biosynthetic labeling with 32P: radiation damage to mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P C; Burgess, A W

    1985-02-01

    Theoretical calculations showed that biosynthetic radiolabeling of cells using typical concentrations of 32P (1 mCi/ml) resulted in high radiation doses (200-500 rad/h) being absorbed by the cells. Subsequent investigations with a mouse myelomonocytic leukemia cell line (WEHI-3B(D+)) showed significant loss of replicative ability during brief (less than 1 h) exposures to 1 mCi/ml of 32P. Complete loss of cell replicative ability was found with isotopic doses less than 100 rad (i.e., 100 muCi/ml for 5 h). Experiments employing a less radiosensitive pre-B-cell line (18.81) revealed that significant loss of viability occurred during incubation with 32P under identical conditions to those employed for the WEHI-3B(D+) cell line. Control experiments utilizing decayed batches of 32P and physical separation of the isotope solution from the cells confirmed that the cytotoxicity was caused by radiation emission rather than the presence of toxic components in the isotopic solution. The radiation doses absorbed by cells biosynthetically labeled with 59Fe, 33P, 35S, and 14C were calculated. Although significant levels of radiation can be absorbed 32P was considerably more radiotoxic than the other isotopes. The results of calculations indicated that the judicious choice of container geometry could reduce the absorbed radiation dose from 32P solutions. In particular the biosynthetic radiolabeling of cells in capillary tubes (diameter less than 1 mm) can reduce the absorbed rate to less than one-tenth of the dose received by cells suspended in Petri dishes or centrifuge tubes. PMID:3993903

  6. Real-time imaging of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present real-time images of 35S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, 35S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both 35S and 32P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of 35S show that 35S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand 32P, when applied as 32P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  7. 35S-labelled thiophosphorylated derivative of inositol trisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared the [35S]thiophosphate labelled inositol trisphosphate and [32P]phosphate labelled inositol trisphosphate (IP3) from human erythrocytes. These compounds were used as substrates for the inositol trisphosphate 5-phosphomonesterase assay in human erythrocyte membranes. During 60 min incubation with the enzyme, the 35S-labelled IP3 was not hydrolyzed, meanwhile the 32P-labelled IP3 was broken down to 19.8 2.4%. This suggests that due to the presence of thiophosphate in the molecule the 35S-labelled IP3 cannot serve as substrate for inositol trisphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase. The [35S]thiophosphorylated derivative thus represents a nonhydrolyzable analogue of IP3 and could be used in the study of its second messenger role. (author)

  8. A study of 32P-phosphate uptake in a plant by a real-time RI imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to visualize the process of nutrient absorption and distribution to study the physiological activity of the plant. We developed a real-time radioisotope (RI) imaging system, where RI tracers were applied to the plant sample. This system allowed the quantitative measurement concerning the uptake of nutrients labeled with radioisotopes, such as 45Ca, 35S, 32P and 14C as long as several days. The ?-rays emitted from the sample were converted to light by a CsI(Tl) scintillator and were guided to a highly sensitive CCD camera. The scintillator surface was covered with an Al plate to avoid LED light penetration but allow selected ?-ray penetration. We employed Lotus japonicus for the plant sample and observed the 32P-phosphate absorption in roots and the accumulation to the aboveground part of the plant. The environment condition of daytime and night was simulated by the ON/OFF of LED timer and the accumulation manner of the 32P-phosphate in roots and leaves during daytime and night was analyzed. The accumulation of 32P-phosphate in leaves was highly dependant on light irradiation and higher when the LEDs was turned on, whereas the absorption of 32P-phosphate in root was higher when the LEDs was turned off. The transfer function concerning the transportation of phosphate within the plant during the developmental stage was obtained from the analysis of 32P uptake images. We are now trying to get specific moving images of each radioisotope when two kinds of isotopes, such as 32P and 32S, were applied at the same time to the plant, through an image analysis. (orig.)

  9. Real-time imaging of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rape seed plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Yamawaki, M.; Ishibashi, H.; Tanoi, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radioisotope Plant Physiology

    2011-07-01

    We present real-time images of {sup 35}S-sulfate uptake in a rapeseed plant visualized by the system we developed. In the leaves of rapeseed plants, {sup 35}S accumulated in higher amounts and more rapidly in the more developed leaves. This real-time imaging system can be used to visualize the movement of both {sup 35}S and {sup 32}P in the same plant. In the pods of rapeseed, images of {sup 35}S show that {sup 35}S accumulated mostly in the terminal parts; on the other hand {sup 32}P, when applied as {sup 32}P-phosphoric acid, accumulated in the middle part of the pods. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of ?-sitosterol-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of synthesis of ?-sitosterol-4-14C starting with the enolactone 4-oxa-5-sitosten-3-one is discussed. Methyl-14C magnesium iodide is utilized for the introduction of the label. The authors selected this method for the isolation of ?-sitosterol-14C, introducing a series of changes into the original method. The authors discuss obtaining sitostenone, the ketoacid of sitostenone, the enol-lactone of the ketoacid of sitostenone, sitostenone-4-14C (by different methods), the enol-acetate of sitostenone-14C, and ? sitosterol-4-14C

  11. Determination of 32P in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for determining 32P in urine is described. After pretreatment of samples, 32P is extracted by butanol and the re-extracted by NH4Cl-NH4OH. Emulsion was made with re-extraction liquid and measured using Cherenkov-counting. The recovery of 32P is about 74.5±7.3%. The decontamination factors for main nuclides are more than 103. When the volume of sample is 100 mL, background of counter is 30 cpm, counting time is 60 min, lowest detection limit of this method is 1.5Bq/L

  12. Synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (35S) by the interaction of 2-chloro benzothiazole and sodium hydrosulfide (35S) has been studied. Under the conditions determined in this study a pure product with a radioactive yield of 79 per cent can be obtained. (author)

  13. Synthesis of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetramethylthiuram disulfide (35S) has been prepared by exchange between elementary sulfur (35S) and sodium N-dithiocarbamate followed by an oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. The method allows to obtain rapidly a pure product with relatively high activity. The radioactive exchange is 82 per cent. (author)

  14. The use of radioisotopes 32P and 35S in studies on behavior of pesticides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes were used to determine the possibility and extent of contamination of underground waters by pesticides used in agriculture. The sorption and dynamics of the migration of two organo-phosphorous pesticides, fenitrothion and malathion, were studied. These two products are currently being proposed as agricultural pesticides. They would replace other substances of the chrlorinated hydrocarbon group, including DDT, which are more dangerous to health, but are themselves source of potential contamination of underground waters. Studies were carried out on different types of soil: sandy and clay. Isotherms were determined for the sorption of the pesticides examined, together with their distribution coefficients, Kd. The effects of pH values, exchangeable ions, organic substances (organic C and N) and the mechanical composition of the sorption of fenitrothion and malathion were studied

  15. Preparation of 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35S labelled thiosemicarbazone is prepared, on a millimole scale by reacting labelled thiocyanate with hydrazine sulfate in ethanolic medium. The hydrazine thiocyanate so formed is then condensed with aldehyde to form the thiosemicarbazone

  16. Isolation of (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-14C and (+)-neomenthol-14C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a 14CO2 chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed. (author)

  17. Absorbed dose from 14C xylose and 14C mannose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue distribution and excretion studies have been performed in rats and mice for up to 1 week after oral administration of 14C xylose and 14C mannose. The effective dose-equivalent is calculated to be 15 ?Sv/MBq for xylose and 120 ?Sv/MBq for mannose. Since there was no clearance of mannose during the period of the study, the effective dose-equivalent for mannose is almost entirely dependent upon the assumptions made about expected lifetime exposure. (author)

  18. Spectroscopy of 32P, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spins, parities and transition probabilities of levels in 32P at Esub(x) 3.5 MeV have been determined with the 29Si(?,p?)32P reaction at bombarding energies of Esub(?)=12.80, 12.93 and 16.30 MeV. Proton-gamma angular correlation experiments and DSA lifetime measurements lead to six unambiguous spin assignments and to many spin limitations. The measured mixing and branching ratios yield many transition strengths for dipole and electric quadrupole transitions. Five, sofar unknown, energy levels are reported. A doublet at 4.03 MeV excitation energy and a high-spin state (Esub(x)=4.27 MeV; Jsup(?)=5-) were observed. Shell-model predictions have been compared to the present experimental results. (Auth.)

  19. Biosynthetic preparation of 35-S labelled methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity methionine with sulfur-35 was prepared in our laboratory by growing Baker's yeast cells, in a medium containing 35S-sulfate. L-S35 methionine was prepared from the acid hydrolyzate of the proteins by chromatography on whatman paper. The specific activity was determined using o-phtaladehyde as a fluorophore to form a fluorescent complex. The specific activity was found to be usually greater than 800 Ci/mmol. (Author)

  20. Synthesis of barbituric acid-2 14C and alloxan-2 14C from urea 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea 14C and ethyl malonate have given rise to barbituric acid with a 93 per cent yield. The latter has been converted into its benzylidene derivative with a 81 per cent yield. Oxidation of the latter, by chromic oxide in anhydrous acetic acid provided alloxan-2 14C with 60 per cent yield. Purity of the compounds has been checked by paper chromatography. (author)

  1. A modified assay of adenylate cyclase using 3H and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adenylate cyclase assay of Salomon, Londos, and Rodbell has been modified by using [3H]ATP to produce [3H]cyclic AMP and monitoring the recovery with [14C]cyclic AMP. The modified assay remains sensitive and accurate, but avoids the inconvenience and expense of using 32P

  2. Spring mobilization of storage 32P in gingko trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old gingko (Gingko biloba L.) trees during dormant period in the glass house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all growing tissues, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 4-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 0.44% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood and bud) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from root tissues to new growing tissues (buds). Eight percent of the initial 32P in storage tissues was transported to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the bud tissues increased about 12 fold. (author)

  3. Spring mobilization of storage /sup 32/P in gingko trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, K.K. (City Univ. of Seoul, Korea); Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old gingko (Gingko biloba L.) trees during dormant period in the glass house and the mobilization of stored /sup 32/P determined in the following early growing season. /sup 32/P was detected in all growing tissues, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 4-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 0.44% of /sup 32/P was found in storage tissues although the accumulation of /sup 32/P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, /sup 32/P was transported from root tissues to new growing tissues. Eight percent of the initial /sup 32/P in storage tissues was transported to new growing tissues. During the period, the /sup 32/P in the bud tissues increased about 12 fold.

  4. Spring mobilization of storage 32P in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelled phosphorus was supplied to the roots of 1-year-old apple trees during dormant period in the green house and the mobilization of stored 32P determined in the following early growing season. 32P was detected in all new root and shoot growth, the level of radioactivity being greatest in the root tissues over the 5-week sampling period. At dormant period, only 2.5% of 32P was found in storage tissues (bark, wood, scion buds) although the accumulation of 32P occurred especially in root tissues. During early growing season, 32P was transported from storage tissues to new growing tissues. During this period, the 32P in the scion shoot tissues increased about 348 fold. (author)

  5. Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradation of [14C]Lignin, [14C]Cellulose, and [14C]Lignocellulose Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Ronald; Hodson, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Thermophilic (55C) anaerobic enrichment cultures were incubated with [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, [14C-polysaccharide]lignocellulose, and kraft [14C]lignin prepared from slash pine, Pinus elliottii, and 14C-labeled preparations of synthetic lignin and purified cellulose. Significant but low percentages (2 to 4%) of synthetic and natural pine lignin were recovered as labeled methane and carbon dioxide during 60-day incubations, whereas much greater percentages (13 to 23%) of kraft lignin were ...

  6. 17 CFR 240.14c-101 - Schedule 14C. Information required in information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule 14C. Information required in information statement. 240.14c-101 Section 240.14c-101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  7. Development of the new distillation method for 32P production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P as a pure β-ray emitter is widely used in nuclear medicine, genetic engineering, biological research, etc. The production process of 32P is mainly based on sulfur distillation after natural 32S(n,p)32P reaction. In this study, a new distillation process for 32P production has been developed and applied for production of 32P. Distillation and condensation of sulfur in the capsule occurred at about 180 .deg. C under 0.1 torr pressure and the distillation rate of sulfur dependened on the temperature of distillation zone. In the typical case, it took 1.5 - 2 hours for the complete distillation of 1 g of sulfur under 0.1 torr pressure and the recovery yield of sulfur was near 100%. Sulfur target in the evacuated capsule was irradiated for 72 hours in HANARO reactor and the fast neutron flux of irradiation hole was 2.8x1014 n/cm2·sec. The irradiated target was distilled at 220 .deg. C and then leached out 32P residue on the capsule surface. The yield of 32P was 8 mCi per 1g of natural sulfur and the qulity analysis of the final product was carried out for radionuclidic purity, radiochemical purity and solid residue. It is expected that the developed process can be useful for production of around 100 mCi 32P and also can be applied to produce 33P using enriched 33S targets

  8. Synthesis of [14C]methylphosphonic difluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C] methylphosphonic difluoride is described. First, [14C]methyl iodide was used to catalyse the conversion of trimethyl phosphite to dimethyl [14C]methylphosphonate by the Arbusov reaction. The dimethyl methylphosphonate was then chlorinated with PCl5 and fluorinated with SbF3. Radio-chemical yield from the reaction was 25%. (author)

  9. Preliminary studies on the sorption kinetics of 35S on soil using L-35 S-methionine and sodium 35S-sulphate as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S radiotracer investigations carried out primarily on a typical clay type soil sample to study the sorption and desorption characteristics of 35S present in it in an organic form as L -35 S-methionine and in an inorganic form as sodium 35S-sulphate are presented. The results indicate that the sorption of sodium sulphate in the tested soil is comparatively very less than that of methionine whereas its desorption from the soil with water is much more than that of methionine. It is also found that L-methionine, unlike sodium sulphate, does not remain in the soil for long but gets lost by some processes, worthy of further study. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Problems of 14C radiation hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data on the problem of the radiation danger of 14C coming to environment as a result of nuclear explosions and from enterprises of nuclear power are generalized. Problems related to migration, kinetics of exchange and biological effect of radiocarbon are considered. Biological danger of 14C accumulation in biosphere with provision for nuclear power development prospects has been estimated. Assumed irradiation doses due to 14C release from the enterprises of nuclear power are presented graphically. Somatic and genetic consequences of population irradiation with small doses of 14C radiation are noted

  11. Unconventional P-35S sequence identified in genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Al-Husseini, Nawar; Ibrahim-Alobaide, Mohammed A; Kbler, Eric; Farfoura, Mahmoud; Alobydi, Hytham; Al-Rousan, Hiyam

    2014-01-01

    The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter sequence, CaMV P-35S, is one of several commonly used genetic targets to detect genetically modified maize and is found in most GMOs. In this research we report the finding of an alternative P-35S sequence and its incidence in GM maize marketed in Jordan. The primer pair normally used to amplify a 123 bp DNA fragment of the CaMV P-35S promoter in GMOs also amplified a previously undetected alternative sequence of CaMV P-35S in GM maize samples which we term V3. The amplified V3 sequence comprises 386 base pairs and was not found in the standard wild-type maize, MON810 and MON 863 GM maize. The identified GM maize samples carrying the V3 sequence were found free of CaMV when compared with CaMV infected brown mustard sample. The data of sequence alignment analysis of the V3 genetic element showed 90% similarity with the matching P-35S sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus isolate CabbB-JI and 99% similarity with matching P-35S sequences found in several binary plant vectors, of which the binary vector locus JQ693018 is one example. The current study showed an increase of 44% in the incidence of the identified 386 bp sequence in GM maize sold in Jordan's markets during the period 2009 and 2012. PMID:24495911

  12. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (?-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 ?mol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  13. Synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C]Zolpidem, a new hypnotic agent having a non-benzodiazepine structure, is described. This compound was synthesised in a 64% overall radiochemical yield from potassium [14C]cyanide and with a specific radioactivity of 56 mCi/mmol. It was used for pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism studies. (author)

  14. Spontaneous 14C emission from 223Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra, recently discovered by Rose and Jones, has been confirmed, and the mass of the emitted particles unambiguously identified. The present measurement was performed with a 227Th source containing 9.2 mCi of 223Ra. An Enge split-pole magnetic spectrograph was used to suppress the intense alpha radiation and to identify the 14C particles. The spectrograph was calibrated with tandem-accelerated beams of 14C, 13C, and 12C. In six days of decay counting, twenty-four 14C events were observed yielding a branching ratio of (4.7 +- 1.3) x 10-10 for the emission of 14C from 223Ra relative to that of alpha particles. The value is in fair agreement with the result of Rose and Jones, (8.5 +- 2.5) x 10-10, and with more recent measurements from other laboratories

  15. Preparation of arginine (guanide 14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of anhydrous ammoniac at 800 deg. C on 14CO3Ba gives rise to barium cyanamide 14C with a yield of about 98 per cent. Addition on H2S on cyanamide 14C leads to thiourea 14C with a 85 per cent yield, which is quantitatively transformed into S-ethyl-isothiouronium iodide by treatment with methyl iodide. This 14C-isothiouronium salt is used to introduce 14C guanide group in ?-N-tosyl-ornithine; tosyl group in ?-N-tosyl-arginine thus obtained is then removed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Arginine is separated as flavianic acid salt and is purified on exchange resin Dowex-50. The overall yield based on 14CO3Ba is 25 per cent. (author)

  16. Synthesis of 14C labelled acrylic derivatives: diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate and isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobutyl [3-14C] cyanoacrylate and diethyl [3-14C] methylidenemalonate were synthesized by the intermediate of their protective Diels-Alder adduct with anthracene. These adducts were obtained in a one-pot procedure by Knoevenagel condensation of [14C] paraformaldehyde with isobutyl cyanoacetate and diethyl malonate respectively in the presence of a basic catalyst and anthracene. The adducts are stable crystalline compounds easily purified by recrystallization. The olefinic target compounds were obtained in high chemical and radiochemical purity (>99%) by thermolysis at 2200C in mineral oil in the presence of maleic anhydride. (author)

  17. 14C Records from Indonesian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate ocean currents and past climate events affecting the Indonesian throughflow (ITF), a radiocarbon record from a Porites coral collected from Alor Island, Indonesia, was constructed. Porites corals are often used in paleoclimate research and water mass circulation studies in the Tropics because of their abundance in the region and growth rate of 8 - 20 mm/y. These characteristics allow reconstructions of past environmental changes on weekly to annual time scales. At this point radiocarbon coral results from Alor cover approximately 30 years. An age model was constructed using the sea surface temperature proxy ?18O. Alor radiocarbon results were compared with previous measurements obtained from Padang and Langkai corals. a14C values obtained from the Alor coral display a strong seasonal cycle, high values during Australian summer and low values during Australian winter. Higher a 14C summer values indicate inflow of waters enriched by 14C through Makassar Strait from the North Pacific Ocean and Java Sea surface water. Summer a14C values are also enhanced by summer stratification. Winter values indicate upwelling of deep Ocean waters within the research area and transport of 14C-depleted waters from the Banda Sea, which has input from the South Pacific Ocean (lower a14C than North Pacific). Therefore, the a14C coral record reflects the movement of enriched water from North Pacific to Indian Ocean through Makassar Strait during summer and upwelling of depleted surface waters from the Banda Sea during the winter. Lower a14C dips could be attributed to strong El Nino events, which would enhance surface water mixing and upwelling of low radiocarbon deep waters. Water transport from North Pacific Ocean decreases during El Nino events also contributing to lowering of a14C signal.(author)

  18. 14C levels in Trombay environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive air sampling method has been used to measure the spatial distribution of the specific activity of 14C in air samples collected within the Trombay complex. The samples collected within radial distance of about 0.5 km from Cirus showed 3 to 5 times higher specific activity of 14C over the natural background level of 6.2 pCi/g C. The same decreased with the distance and approached the value of natural level at the site boundary (1.6 km). The specific activity of 14C in leaf samples collected within the complex showed the similar pattern. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Procedure for the preparation of [32P]phosphatidic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorylation procedure of F. Cramer, W. Rittersdorf, and W. Bohm [(1961) Chem. Ber. 654, 180] using bis(triethylammonium) phosphate and trichloroacetonitrile was shown to be effective in the synthesis of [32P]phosphatidic acid. From diacylglyceride and 0.5 mCi H332P4, 25-50 ?Ci of labeled material (sp act = 1 mCi/?mol) can be prepared in 2 h. The product was shown to be radiochemically pure by both TLC and HPLC. L- and DL-[32P]dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid prepared using this procedure were shown to be hydrolyzed by rat liver microsomes at approximately the same rates

  20. Uptake and distribution of 14C during and following exposure to [14C]methyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pigs were exposed to [14C]methyl isocyanate (14CH3-NCO, 14C MIC) for periods of 1 to 6 hr at concentrations of 0.5 to 15 ppm. Arterial blood samples taken during exposure revealed immediate and rapid uptake of 14C. Clearance of 14C was then gradual over a period of 3 days. Similarly 14C was present in urine and bile immediately following exposure, and clearance paralleled that observed in blood. Guinea pigs fitted with a tracheal cannula and exposed while under anesthesia showed a reduced 14C uptake in blood indicating that most of the 14C MIC uptake in normal guinea pigs occurred from retention of this agent in the upper respiratory tract passages. In exposed guinea pigs 14C was distributed to all examined tissues. In pregnant female mice similarly exposed to 14C MIC, 14C was observed in all tissues examined following exposure including the uterus, placenta, and fetus. While the form of 14C distributed in blood and tissues has not yet been identified, these findings may help to explain the toxicity of MIC or MIC reaction products on organs other than the respiratory tract, as noted by several investigators

  1. 14C Analysis via Intracavity Optogalvanic Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Murnick, Daniel; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2010-01-01

    A new ultra sensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of 14C-labeled carbon dioxide has recently been demonstrated. Capable of replacing accelerator mass spectrometers (AMS) for many applications, the technique quantifies zeptomoles of 14C in sub micromole CO2 samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity...

  2. Synthesis of ethanol 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct reduction by LiAlH4, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-14C by LiAlH4, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-14C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author)

  3. 14C distribution in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of 14C produced by nuclear bomb testing that entered the Atlantic Ocean by late 1972 was 1.71 x 10-8 ?mol/cm2 of ocean surface area for the west Atlantic (360S-450N) and 1.18 x 10-8 ?mol/cm2 for the east Atlantic (500S-280N) Geochemical Ocean Sections Study stations. There are strong latitudinal differences in the integrated amount of bomb 14C content in Atlantic waters. Bomb-produced 14C is mostly encountered near the center of the large mid-latitude gyres, whereas the equatorial region has a lower 14C inventory. The average ocean wide vertical distribution of bomb 14C in the Atlantic can be explained by a vertical eddy diffusion coefficient of 4.0 cm2/s in the surface mixed layer plus thermocline gyre reservoirs. The average 14C activity per unit area measured in the Atlantic yields an atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchange rate of 23 mol/m2 yr, which is equivalent with an atmospheric CO2 residence time of 6.8 years

  4. 7Be and 32P in the Antarctic atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 1977 the atmospheric concentration of 7Be aerosols has been monitored daily at Dumont-Durville station (Terre Adelie - 66040 South, 1400 East). These data were completed after January 1978 by 32P measurements. These two nuclides appear to be in good correlation (r = 0.9). Mean monthly 7Be concentrations of about 0.4 dpm/m3 were measured, therefore 1.5 time higher than at the South Pole. This result could be explained by the proximity of Dumont Durville to the geomagnetic pole. A small seasonal variation was observed, with maxima during the Austral Summer. This last effect is much more marked in the case of 32P, whose mean annual concentration is about 6 x 10-3 dpm/m3. Conclusions drawn from the 7Be/32P activity ratios are discussed. The mean monthly ratio is always greater than 40 at Dumont Durville. This result can only be explained by a stratospheric origin of 7Be and 32P, measured at sea level, in this station. Theoretical considerations show that, in the case of stratospheric air masses injected into the troposphere, the 7Be/32P activity ratio should be greater than the stratospheric limit of 100, and reach even about 200. This last value was actually observed a few times during our 2 year records. Good negative correlations observed between 7Be concentrations and both 222Rn concentrations and air humidity show that stratosphere to troposphere injections of spallation products happen at polar latitudes. This result would mean that most of the stratospheric materials detected in Antarctica are not transported at low altitude after an injection into the troposphere at mid-latitudes, but rather directly exchanged over the Antarctic continent

  5. Effect of iodide on glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids stimulated by different agents in dog thyroid slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since iodide (I-) inhibits TSH stimulation of cAMP formation, which mediates most of the effects of the hormone, it has been assumed that this accounts for the inhibitory action of iodide on the thyroid. However, TSH stimulation of 32P incorporation into phospholipids and stimulation of thyroid metabolism by other agonists, such as carbachol, phorbol esters, and ionophore A23187, is not cAMP mediated. The present studies examined the effect of iodide on stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by TSH and other agonists to determine if the inhibition of cAMP formation was responsible for the action of iodide. Preincubation of dog thyroid slices for 1 h with iodide (10(-4) M) inhibited TSH-, (Bu)2cAMP-, carbachol-, methylene blue-, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-, ionophore A23187-, prostaglandin E1-, and cholera toxin-stimulated glucose oxidation. I- also inhibited the stimulation by TSH, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, carbachol, and ionophore A23187 of 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The inhibition was similar whether iodide was added 2 h before or simultaneously with the agonist. I- itself sometimes stimulated basal glucose oxidation, but had no effect on basal 32P incorporation into phospholipids. The effects of iodide on basal and agonist-stimulated thyroid metabolism were blocked by methimazole (10(-3) M). When dog thyroid slices were preloaded with 32PO4 or [1-14C]glucose, the iodide inhibition of agonist stimulation disappeared, suggesting that the effect of iodide involves the transport process. In conclusion, I- inhibited stimulation of glucose oxidation and 32P incorporation into phospholipids by all agonists, indicating that the effect is independent of the cAMP system and that iodide autoregulation does not only involve this system. Oxidation and organification of iodide are necessary for the inhibition

  6. Calculation of measurement uncertainty for counting of 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S presented in radioisotope (RI) waste from various institutes was separated and analyzed by LSC. The measurement uncertainty was evaluated for the sample, beta (?-) counting and recovery. The sample uncertainty was calculated the sample mass (7.8 x 10-4%), the concentration of the tracer (0.618%) and used volume of tracer (0.520%). The counting uncertainty was also calculated the precipitate mass (0.973%) and the counting of 35S (2.37%). The recovery uncertainty was 3.61%. Then the relative sum uncertainty was 5.13% and the expanded uncertainty was 10.26%

  7. Radioactive waste with 14C in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is a long half-life radioisotope, which is present in radioactive waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 14C can also be found in waste generated by medical diagnostic laboratories or any one generated by fields that deal with research and development (mainly connected with the biochemists area). According to international precedents the disposal of 14C based on the final amount found in radioactive waste and its chemical form have conditioned the design and operation of the facilities (either because of the amount of it or the chemical form in which 14C was present). We have to take into account that the design of facilities for radioactive waste disposal is included among the obligations of the National Radioactive Waste Management Program (PNGRR). It is absolutely necessary to count with enough information about the characteristics of any waste containing 14C that is generated in Argentina, in order to be able to fulfil the requirements previously mentioned. The main characteristics of interest in the frame of the present project are: a) the principal reactions that take place for the formation of 14C; b) The specific concentration of activity in materials where this radio nuclei is formed or is accumulated; c) To know which is the current step in the process of managing these wastes (in Argentina and all over the world). Either if it refers to bulk or conditioned storage, inside the generating facility; d) Transportation possibilities of 14C under these conditions; e) The accumulated volume and the generation rate of this kind of waste in Argentina. This paper presents an initial collection and evaluation of the information related to the characteristics already mentioned, having gathered published material from the literature and information in the PNGRR up to this moment. The description of the characteristics of the radioactive waste containing 14C from nuclear power plants, hospitals and research and development institutes will be described once its physical, chemical and radiological properties have been reviewed. The differences or similarities of radioactive waste generated by nuclear power plants, depending on the type or reactor, will be specifically cited. This will allow us to properly evaluate the data literature that mainly refers to the characterization of waste containing 14C that has been generated by nuclear power plants. A first evaluation of the information gathered is performed here, taking into account the different kinds of work that should be dealt with in order to fulfil the matrix of data entry required to design disposal facilities. (author)

  8. Dry extraction of 14C02 and 14C0 from Antarctic ice

    OpenAIRE

    van Roijen, J. J.; R. Bintanja; Borg, R. van den; Broeke, M.R. van den; de Jong, A.F.M.; Oerlemans, J

    1994-01-01

    A dry extraction method was used to obtain trapped CO, of 2-5 kg ice samples from a blue ice zone in East Antarctica. In situ produced 14C was also extracted in 14C0, and 14C0 concentrations at a ratio of 3.4 f 0.9. Correction of trapped 14C0, from in situ resulted in ice dates in the range 5-15 ka. The realistic rates for accumulation and ablation of ice indicate about total efficiency of extraction.

  9. Deposition of [35S]-carbonyl sulphide to vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is the principal form of 35S in the coolant of CO2-cooled nuclear reactors under operational conditions. Measurements were made of the deposition velocity (Vg) of [35S]-COS (on a single-side leaf area basis) to a range of vegetable cultivars under turbulent conditions simulating maximal deposition in the field. The Vg for all the cultivars was -4 m.s-1. Uptake was greatest for brassicas and radishes (mean Vg 4.60-5.79x10-4m.s-1) and least for lettuces, onions and spinach (mean Vg 2.48-3.96x10-4m.s-1). Under illuminated conditions, when the stomata are open, differences in stomatal resistance accounted for -3, about seven times ambient) had no effect on the stomata. The results show that the use of Vg values of [35S]-COS to ryegrass in models to estimate ingested radiation dose following the consumption of green vegetables would increase the margin of safety by overestimating the 35S content of the crop by 30-300%. (author)

  10. Leaf absorption of 32P in the pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a method to study the influence of various factors of the absorption of 32P applied under the form of phosphates by a plant cultivated in conditions ensuring a normal development. Experiments provided indications on leaf absorption and 32P transport by pumpkin leaves: phosphor 32 is absorbed and then quickly transported into the different organs of the plant (24 hours after treatment, it is present in aerial and underground parts), the quantity of absorbed phosphor increases with phosphor concentration in the applied solution, atmosphere humidity is an important factor for phosphor penetration into the leaves, plants absorb phosphor in darkness as well as in light, and the absorption of phosphor is not modified when applied with low glucose concentrations

  11. 14C-AMS in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry has been applied to biomedical research in the past 5 years. While there are a number of facilities involved in biomedical measurements of 26Al and 41Ca, the use of 14C-AMS for tracing organic compounds in vivo and in vitro remains somewhat isolated at our laboratory with a few contributions from two other AMS systems. We present some examples of our research using 14C-AMS. Our successes in measuring low dose kinetics of chemical compounds has implications for pharmacology, toxicology, carcinogenisis, nutrition, drug development and clinical tests

  12. Radiation and biological effects of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct and indirect radiation effects of radiocarbon on the human organism are briefly described and the pathways are listed of radiocarbon penetration in the human organism (food chain, inhalation). The content of stable carbon, the concentration of natural 14C and the absorbed dose are tabulated for vital organs. The relations are discussed between the 14C concentration in the atmosphere and in the human organism as a result of nuclear weapons tests and later of the development of nuclear power. (E.S.). 1 fig., 1 tab., 10 refs

  13. 14C Behaviour in PWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although 14C is produced in relatively small amounts in PWR coolant, it is important to know its fate, for example whether it is released by gaseous discharge, removed by absorption on ion exchange (IX) resins or deposited on the fuel pin surfaces. 14C can exist in a range of possible chemical forms: inorganic carbon compounds (probably mainly CO2), elemental carbon, and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons. This paper presents results from a preliminary survey of the possible reactions of 14C in PWR coolant. The main conclusions of the study are: - A combination of thermal and radiolytic reactions controls the chemistry of 14C in reactor coolant. A simple chemical kinetic model predicts that CH3OH would be the initial product from radiolytic reactions of 14C following its formation from 17O. CH3OH is predicted to arise as a result of reactions of OH. with CH4 and CH3, and it persists because there is no known radiation chemical reduction mechanism. - Thermodynamic considerations show that CH3OH can be thermally reduced to CH4 in PWR conditions, although formation of CO2 from small organics is the most thermodynamically favourable outcome. Such reactions could be catalysed on active nickel surfaces in the primary circuit. - Limited plant data would suggest that CH4 is the dominant form in PWR and CO2 in BWR. This implies that radiation chemistry may be important in determining the speciation. - Addition of acetate does not affect the amount of 14C formed, but the addition of large amounts of stable carbon would lead to a large range of additional products, some of which would be expected to deposit on fuel pin surfaces as high molecular weight hydrocarbons. However, the subsequent thermal decomposition reactions of these products are not known. - Acetate addition may represent a small input of 12C compared with organic material released from CVCS resins, although the importance of this may depend on whether that is predominantly soluble material or suspended fines. The ultimate fate of 14C may be affected by operating conditions, e.g. the CVCS let down rate to the VCT, hydrogen concentration, dose-rate and organic concentration. If the VCT hydrogen purge is not operating, particulate carbon could build up, and could either be trapped by IX resin beds or deposited on fuel pin surfaces. Good plant data are vital for the elucidation of 14C behaviour. (authors)

  14. 32P-labeling test for DNA damage.

    OpenAIRE

    Randerath, K; Reddy, M V; Gupta, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and splee...

  15. /sup 32/P-labeling test for DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerath, K.; Reddy, M.V.; Gupta, R.C.

    1981-10-01

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a /sup 32/P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, ..beta..-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea) were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'-/sup 32/P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 10/sup 5/ DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent binding.

  16. 32P-labeling test for DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalent adducts formed by the reaction of DNA with chemical carcinogens and mutagens may be detected by a 32P-labeling test. DNA preparations exposed to chemicals known to bind covalently to DNA [N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, formaldehyde, ?-propiolactone, propylene oxide, streptozotocin, nitrogen mustard, and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] were digested to a mixture of deoxynucleoside 3'-monophosphates by incubation with micrococcal endonuclease (EC 3.1.31.1) and spleen exonuclease (EC 3.1.16.1). The digests were treated with [?-32P]ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (ATP:5'-dephosphopolynucleotide 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.78) to convert the monophosphates to 5'-32P-labeled deoxynucleoside 3',5'-bis-phosphates. These compounds were then separated on polyethyl-eneimine-cellulose thin layers in ammonium formate and ammonium sulfate solutions. Autoradiograms of the chromatograms obtained by this high-resolution procedure showed the presence of nucleotides derived from chemically altered, as well as normal, DNA constituents. Maps from DNA exposed to any of the chemicals used exhibited a spot pattern typical for the particular chemical. This method detected a single adduct in 105 DNA nucleotides without requiring that the compound under investigation be radioactive and thus provides a useful test to screen chemicals for their capacity to damage DNA by covalent binding

  17. Genomic 5-methylcytosine determination by 32P-postlabeling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive method for the quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine in DNA has been developed by the adaptation of the Randerath 32P-postlabeling technique. Nucleic acids were digested to 3'-monophosphate nucleotides, which were converted to 32P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotides, the 3'-phosphate was cleaved by the action of nuclease P1, and the resultant 5'-[32P]-monophosphate nucleotides were separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Less than 1 microgram of DNA was required for the precise quantitation of 5-methyldeoxycytidine content to a detectable limit of 0.01% of the total cytidine residues methylated. The genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content may thus be quantitated in tissue samples, small or selective cell populations, senescing or terminally differentiating cells, or DNA from any source. We report here, for the first time, the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial and normal human pulmonary mesothelial cells. The chromatographic separation of all of the normal and some of the rare monophosphate deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides has been characterized. Thus, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and the RNA contamination of DNA or the DNA contamination of RNA can also be quantitated during the same analysis

  18. Isolation of (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haut, S.A.; Core, M.T. (Philip Morris Research and Development, Richmond, Va. (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Uniformly labelled (-)-menthol-/sup 14/C and (+)-neomenthol-/sup 14/C were isolated and purified from the oil of peppermint plants grown in a /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ chamber by preparative high performance liquid chromatography. This procedure is much simpler than previous methods and allows for large amounts of labelled oil to be processed.

  19. Study of the reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the elastic scattering of polarized protons in 14 C, it has been very limited. Some angular distributions exists to low energy, as well as measures of excitation functions to several angles for the differential section and the vectorial analyzer power. A detailed study of the elastic scattering of protons by 14 C, it give us experimental information of the excited states in 15 N. The study of these states, is since of considerable interest it is not very easy to obtain a target of 14 C also in a reaction 14 C (p,p) 14 C is possible to obtain information of levels in 15 N to an excitation energy EX >14.95 MeV. (Author)

  20. 17 CFR 240.14c-5 - Filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Filing requirements. 240.14c-5 Section 240.14c-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  1. Uptake of 35S sulphate by Xenopus cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypohysectomized juvenile Xenopus were injected with growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) of either ovine or bullfrog origin and the growthpromoting activity of these hormones was measured by monitoring the uptake of 35S sulphate by the xiphisternal cartilage in vitro. Analysis of the labelled cartilage revealed that the acid mucopolysaccharide fraction contained about 60 - 80 % of the label and that most of them were incorporated into chondroitin sulphates. All of the hormones tested enhaced the 35S sulphate uptake dose-dependently. Among them bullfrog GH was most effective, then followed ovine GH and ovine PRL. Bullfrog PRL was far less effective than other three. The sensitive assay for frog GH developed in the present experiment may be applicable to the assay for somatomedin-like activity and contribute to the analysis of the mode of action of GH in amphibians. (author)

  2. Decomposition and excretion of 32P-naled in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-labelled organophosphorus insecticide naled is decomposed in milk in vitro at 5 0C with a half-life of 35 h with dichlorvos as a metabolite, that is also formed at short time heating and UV-irradiation. The recovery in milk powder is 25% (naled + dichlorvos) of the initial concentration. Following spray application of 0.05 mg naled/kg body mass to 2 lactating cows, 5 - 8 ppb of naled and 7 - 9 ppb of dichlorvos were found in the milk 5 h after application, not exceeding the tolerance level of 0.02 mg/kg according to regulations in the GDR. (author)

  3. Phosphorus 32P test in primary retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 20 patients with primary retinal detachment the 32P radioisotope test was performed injecting intravenously 500-750 ?Ci of the isotope and doing measurements with a F-Messeelektronik counter after 48 and 72 hours. The radioisotope index calculated at the site of greater detachment in 17 eye-balls in relation to the sites with apposed retina in the same eye or the other eye differed in these cases. Among the obtained results the large number of negative indices calls for attention (12 out of 17 cases) and in 2 cases the obtained values were +30 and +59 which may cause diagnostic errors in cases with suspected intraocular neoplasm. (author)

  4. Dynamics of phosphorus mineralization from 32P labelled greenmanure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled Sesbania aculeata was amended with soil at 0.25 and 0.5 per cent, both on dry weight basis, and incubated in anaerobic condition for 60 days. The P mineralization pattern depicted a two-step process, a rapid declining phase upto 30 days and a slow increasing phase thereafter. The Bray-1 reagent extracted nonsynthesised ionic P in the green manure amounting to 25 per cent of the total green manure P on the initial day of incubation. The mineralization process was related with the C:N and C:P ratio of the green manure and discussed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Synthesis of 14C-labelled crotamiton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C-labelled crotamiton, which is a fungicide, an insecticide as well as a scabicide is described. Starting from 2-bromonitrobenzene and Cu14CN, o-toluidine, labelled with 14C at the methyl group was prepared by the following sequence of reactions: NO2-C6H4-Br ? NO2-C6H4-14CN ? NO2-C6H4-14COOH ? NO2-C6H4-14CH2OH ? NO2-C6H4-14CH2Br ? NH2-C6H4-14CH3. Labelled o-toluidine was then heated with crotonic anhydride to give crotonic acid o-toluidide which was then ethylated by treatment with sodium hydride and ethyl iodide to obtain labelled crotamiton. (author)

  6. Production of [14C]rubratoxin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [14C]rubratoxin B was produced by culuturing Penicillium rubrum Stoll for 13 days at 220C in medium containing [14C]glucose. The most efficient incorporation of glucose into rubratoxin occurred when Raulin-Thom medium enriched with 2.5% malt extract was supplemented with 2.5% added glucose. The presence of 1.0 mCi of radioactivity in 50 ml of medium with 2.5% added glucose resulted in the production of 38 mg of labeled, chromatographically pure rubratoxin with a specific activity of 0.47 Ci/mole. The purpose was to produce radiolabeled rubratoxin for use in investigations of its various biological activities and also for use in techniques such as autoradiography of tissue sections and radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  7. Bomb 14C as a biological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residence times of atmospheric 14CO2 in dietary and human tissue samples have been determined. Using data on the dietary and environmental 14C content, a comprehensive survey of dietary habits of the UK population has been performed to evaluate percentages of protein, lipid and carbohydrate supplied by different commodities. The predicted 14C content of mature tissues, of tissues under growth, and of arterial lipid deposits all for the years 1953-1973 were computed, from which estimates of the turnover times of liver, kidney, spleen, heart, muscle, lung, brain, testes/ovaries, pancreas and thyroid were obtained. It is stressed that the turnover values determined here are representative of each tissue in is entirety, or at least of its protein-lipid fractions. The possible pathogenesis or timescale of treatment of atherosclerosis as suggested by these studies is discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Studies on 14C-extractable residue, 14C-bound residue and mineralization of 14C-labeled metsulfuron-methyl in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate 14C-extractable residue (14C-ER), 14C-bound residue (14C-BR) and mineralization of 14C-labeled metsulfuron-methyl in soils. The main factors affecting 14C-BR formation and the distribution pattern of 14C-BR in humus were also discussed in details. The results were as follows: (1) The total 14C-ER content of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in seven kinds of soil was positively related to soil pH and negatively related to clay content significantly during the initial 20 days of incubation, however, only positively relation to soil pH was found after 30 days of incubation. Moreover, the half-life values of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl parent compound derived from 14C-ER in Soils tested ranged from 13.3 to 66.6 days. The degradation rate conefficient ? (day-1) was negatively related to soil pH. (2) The 14C-BR content of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in soils was significantly negatively related to soil pH and positively related to the clay content during the initial 20 days of incubation, but only was significantly negatively related to soil pH after 30 days incubation. Again, the soil pH was found to be the dominant factor affecting BR formation of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl among the basic properties of soil. The maximum content of 14C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in the soils accounted for 19.3%-52.6% of applied amount. (3) During the whole periods of the incubation, the 14C-BR of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl in the soils was found to be mainly associated with fulvic acid and humin. The relative percentage of 14C-BR in fulvic acid was higher than in humin, while the content of the 14C-BR distributed in humic acid only account for less than 1% of applied amount. Therefore, fulvic acid played an important role in the process of BR formation of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl. (4) About 12.9%-27% of applied amount of 14C-metsulfuron-methyl was mineralized to 14CO2 through opening 14C-triazine ring in soils tested after 180 days of the incubation. It was difficult for 14C-metsulfuron-methyl to mineralize to 14CO2 in an alkaline soil. (authors)

  9. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of 14C-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (14C-D4) and 14C-decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (14C-D5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Marina L; McMahon, Joan M; McNett, Debra A; Tobin, Joseph M; Plotzke, Kathleen P

    2008-03-01

    Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) are cyclic siloxanes used as chemical intermediates with some applications in consumer products. The in vitro percutaneous absorption of 14C-D4 and 14C-D5 was studied in flow-through diffusion cells. Single doses were applied neat and in antiperspirant formulations to dermatomed human skin for 24h. The majority of applied D4 and D5 ( approximately 90%) volatilized before being absorbed. Only 0.5% of applied D4 was absorbed while the absorption of D5 (0.04%) was one order of magnitude lower. The largest percentage (>90%) of the absorbed D4 and D5 was found in the skin. The fate of D4 and D5 absorbed in the skin was studied in rat in vivo. A single dose of 14C-D4 (10, 4.8 and 2mg/cm2) and 14C-D5 (10mg/cm2) was topically applied inside a dosing chamber attached to the dorsal area. Rats were housed in metabolism cages up to 24h to enable collection of urine, feces, expired/escaped volatiles. The majority of applied D4 or D5 had volatilized from the skin surface. Less than 1.0% of the applied D4 and only 0.2% of applied D5 was absorbed with approximately 60% of absorbed D4 and 30% of absorbed D5 reaching systemic compartments. The amount absorbed into the skin decreased with time showing that residual D4 and D5 diffused back to the skin surface and continued to evaporate. Overall, a low tendency to pass through the skin into systemic compartments was demonstrated for both D4 (< or = 0.5% of applied dose) and D5 (<0.1% of applied dose). PMID:18178298

  10. Effects of ethanol on recombinant rat GABAA receptors. [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determone the roles of the alternatively spliced short and long forms of the ?2 subunit in the effect of ethanol on the GABAA receptor function, picrotoxin-sensitive [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding was studied in recombinant rat ?1?2?2 and ?6?2?2 recepto expressed in human embryonic kidney 392 cells. Ethanol (10-500 mM) in the absence of added GABA had only minor effects on [35S]TBPS binding irrespective of the ?2 splice variant, its effects being greater in ?6?2?2 than in ?1?2?2 receptors. Ethanol (100 mM) decreased the binding in all four subunit combinations at various concentrations of GABA, again an effect independent of the ?2 variant. The two ?2 variants had different effect on GABA modulation of the binding, with the long ?2 variant decreasing the efficiency of GABA inhibition in ?6?2 receptors and enhancing the biphasic GABA stimulation and inhibition in ?1?2?2 receptors. The findings confirm the importance of the ? subunits in the allosteric interactions between the convulsant binding site and other effector sites, which can be modified only to a minor extent by the tupe of the ?2 splice variant. (au) 31 refs

  11. 14C measurements in aquifers with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of various groundwater systems indicates that methane is a common trace constituent and occasionally a major carbon species in groundwaters. Thermocatalytic methane had delta13CCH4 > -45%0 and microbially-produced or biogenic methane had delta13CCH4 0. Groundwaters containing significant biogenic methane had abnormally heavy delta13C values for the inorganic carbon. Thermocatalytic methane had no apparent effect on the inorganic carbon. Because methanogenesis seriously affects the carbon isotope geochemistry of groundwaters, the correction of raw 14C ages of affected groundwaters must consider these effects. Conceptual models are developed which adjust the 14C activity of the groundwater for the effects of methanogenesis and for the dilution of carbon present during infiltration by simple dissolution of rock carbonate. These preliminary models are applied to groundwaters from the Alliston sand aquifer where methanogenesis has affected most samples. In this system, methanogenic bacteria using organic matter present in the aquifer matrix as substrate, have added inorganic carbon to the groundwater which has initiated further carbonate rock dissolution. These processes have diluted the inorganic carbon 14C activity. (orig.)

  12. Translocation of 14C photosynthates in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on translocation of 14C photosynthates in some of the high yielding rice varieties indicated the following: (1) the translocation of photosynthates from leaf to stem was faster in early varieties like Bala than in early to medium types, Hamsa or IR.8 (2) the fixation of 14CO2 in leaves was more in Vijaya and its sister selections (CR.10 cultures, T.90xIR.8) than in IR.8 or Jaya at the early stages of panicle development. However, the movement of 14C photosynthates to panicle was faster in IR.8 and Jaya while in CR.10 cultures they accumulated initially to stem and sheath and (3) low light enhanced translocation of 14C photosynthates from leaf to panicle in Bala, Hamsa, IR.8 and Jaya while in Padma it was impaired. In general, CR.10 cultures (Vijaya, CR.10-5071) were found to be efficient in photosynthesis and translocation under low light intensity and such character was possibly derived from the local parent, T.90. (author)

  13. Internal bremsstrahlung spectra from 185W and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal bremsstrahlung spectra from the ? decay of 185W and 32P were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer with a standard geometrical arrangement. After making all the necessary corrections the experimental results are compared with the allowed theory of the Knipp, Uhlenbeck, and Bloch (KUB theory) and also with the Coulomb corrected theories of Lewis, Ford, and Nilsson. In the case of 185W it is found that from 78 to 200 keV the experimental distribution is in good agreement with the KUB theory whereas beyond 200 keV and below 78 keV the experimental points are far above even the highest Coulomb corrected theoretical distribution of Nilsson. The internal bremsstrahlung from this isotope has not been previously investigated. In the case of 32P the experimental relative intensity spectrum is compared with the KUB theory and also with the Coulomb corrected theory of Lewis and Ford. Fairly good agreement is obtained from 30 to 200 keV with the KUB theory but in the energy region from 200 to 900 keV, the experimental results deviate positively from both the KUB and Lewis and Ford theories. The experimental excess over the Lewis and Ford theory is 15% on the average

  14. Metabolism of [14C]acetylisoniazid and [14C]acetylhydrazine by the rat and rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats and rabbits were singly dosed with either 1-[14C]acetyl isoniazid (acetylisonicotinoylhydrazine, acetyl-INH, 200 mg/kg po) or 1-[14C]acetylhydrazine (50 or 100 mg/kg ip). Urine and expired 14CO2 were collected, and after 6 hr the animals were killed for the analysis of tissue 14C concentrations and covalent binding of 14C to hepatic protein. Rats excreted proportionately more 14C in urine and had lower 14C levels in their tissues compared to rabbits. When acetyl-INH was administered, covalent hepatic protein binding of the acetyl moiety was greater in the rabbit than the rat, but the opposite was observed when acetylhydrazine was administered. Analysis of blood and urine by TLC revealed that the rabbit more rapidly metabolized both acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine, and acetylhydrazine to diacetylhydrazine than did the rat. These observations suggest that higher amidase activity in the rabbit compared to the rat leads to faster conversion of acetyl-INH to acetylhydrazine which in turn leads to greater covalent binding and hepatotoxicity

  15. High-spin level structure of 35S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, S.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Recchia, F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Bouhelal, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; de Angelis, G.; Deloncle, I.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Gottardo, A.; Haas, F.; Huyuk, T.; Laftchiev, H.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Menegazzo, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Poves, A.; Sahin, E.; Singh, P. P.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobn, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus 35S has been studied by in-beam ?-ray spectroscopy using the 24Mg(14N,3p) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=40 MeV. A level scheme extended up to J?=17/2+ at 8023 keV and J?=13/2- at 6352 keV has been established. Lifetimes of six excited states have been determined by applying the Doppler shift attenuation method. The experimental data have been compared with the results of large-scale shell model calculations performed using different effective interactions and model spaces allowing particle-hole excitations across the N =Z=20 shell gap.

  16. Bioconversion of alpha-[14C]zearalenol and beta-[14C]zearalenol into [14C]zearalenone by Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum'.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, K E; Hagler, W M; Hamilton, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of Fusarium roseium 'Gibbosum' on rice were treated with [14C]zearalenone, alpha[14C]zearalenol, or beta-[14C]zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the beta-[14C]zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual b...

  17. Preparation of the 35S-labelled intermediates of two sulphureous pesticides by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-labelled intermediates of two sulphureous pesticides, palathion and fenitrothion, were prepared from isotopic exchange between 35S-sulphate and two intermediates (O, O, -dimethyl-S-disulphophosphate and O, O, -dimethyl-S-phosphorochloridothionate) with the existence of element sulphur. Then, 35S-palathion and 35S-fenitrothion were synthesized

  18. Radioluminography for quantitative autoradiography of 14C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoji, N; Hayama, E; Shigematsu, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether or not quantitative analysis of autoradiographs could be obtained with a [14C]-labelled compound by the use of new type radiosensor, so called 'imaging plate' (IP). Since X-ray films were first used as a radiosensor for macroautoradiography by Ullberg (1), many kinds of X-ray films have been used but the other sensors have never been used. Our results indicated that there was an excellent relation between relative intensity (PSL-BG) and radioactivity on a given area which was completely linear. The linearity was observed in a relatively wide range between 10(1)-10(5) dpm orders of radioactivity. About 100 times greater sensitivity of the IP than any X-ray film was demonstrated by the use of not only [14C]-radioactive standard sources but also by experimentally provided [14C)-radioactive spots developed on a TLC plate and macroautoradiographs (MARG). In order to obtain reliable quantitative data from a MARG image, it was required that a thin specimen section be kept at a constant level of thickness under freezing condition through out the exposure time. Results also showed that the linear relation of relative intensity versus radioactivity of the specimens had a very wide range from 10(1)-10(5) dpm/mg of exposure within 7 days. Furthermore, the relation of relative intensity versus relative exposure (radioactivity x exposure time) was linear within the latitude of relative intensity form 10(1)-10(5) (PSL-BG). Finally, a combination of the IP and BAS2000, computerized image display system, was well equipped to completely erase a background memory before use. PMID:8582442

  19. Synthetic 14C-labeled lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the synthesis of 14C-labeled coniferyl alcohol, with the label in the ?- and ?-carbons of the side chain, in the methoxyl carbon, or uniformly in the aromatic ring carbons. These coniferyl alcohols permit the synthesis of synthetic gymnosperm-type lignins. As mentioned, these lignins should suffice for most investigations. The authors summarize methods that have been, or could be, used for synthesizing labeled sinapyl and p-coumaryl alcohols, if it is desired to prepare homopolymers from these other precursors or copolymers derived from mixtures. They reference methods that can be used to label specific carbon atoms in the side chains

  20. Quantifying 32P-labeled and unlabeled nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombinant DNA technology depends on detection methods for nucleic acids compatible with amounts ranging from picograms to grams and from tenths of a microliter to liters. In practical terms there are three basic techniques: (1) absorbance methods suitable for a minimum concentration of micrograms per milliliter, (2) fluorescence methods capable of detecting nanograms of DNA and micrograms of RNA, and (3) methods based on the detection of 32P. Because of the overwhelming importance in molecular biology of the third group, this chapter will stress exquisitely sensitive methods for measuring radioactivity in very small volumes. An illustration in which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction performed in 20 ?l is monitored by consuming less than 2% of the total volume will be presented

  1. Root distribution pattern of Colocasia- 32P plant injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P plant injection technique was employed to study the variation in the root production and distribution patterns of colocasia var. Cheruchempu grown in the coconut garden and in the open. Root production of colocasia was more with the plants grown in the open compared to the plants grown in the coconut garden. The root distribution pattern of colocasia differed with light environments under which the plants are grown. Colocasia grown in the coconut garden developed a compact root system while that grown in the open condition developed a spreading root system. The root zone comprising 20 cm laterally around the plant and 40 cm vertically from the surface (L0-20 D0-40) can be considered as the active root zone of colocasia. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Essential thrombocythemia treated with oral sup(32)P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.D.; Oh, B.S.; Jang, W.S.; Roh, K.H.; Park, B.I.; Cho, M.K. (National Police Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1983-04-01

    A 65-year old man was admitted due to protracted gum bleeding after dental surgery. The peripheral blood smear showed thrombocytosis(1,160,000/mm/sup 3/) with bizarre, giant platelets. The paltelet adhesiveness revealed 28% (normal control 31-85%) by Salzman method and the platelet aggregation revealed moderately delayed response to collagen, but normal responsiveness to A.D,P, and no responsiveness to epinephrine, the spleen scan(sup(99m)Tc-NaTcO/sub 4/) showed the finding of splenic infraction. The gum bleeding ceased after transfusion of 8 units of platelet rich plasma, and he was treated with oral sup(32)P(2.5mCi/m/sub 2/) under the diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count returned toward normal 2 months after treatment, and he was in good healthy condition.

  3. A land surface 14C transfer model and numerical experiments on belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model simulating transport and exchange for 14C (or 14CO2) in a land surface ecosystem was developed and the belowground 14C accumulation and its impact on vegetation 14C accumulation at a hypothetical cultivated field were studied with the model through numerical experiments. The developed model involved physical 14CO2 transport in surface atmosphere and soil and physiological 14CO2 exchanges in leaves, and was incorporated into a dynamical model (SOLVEG-II) that calculates transport and exchange for heat, water and CO2. The model was tested through a simulation of an existing-experiment on an acute exposure of grape plants to 14CO2. The calculated 14C amount in leaves agreed with the observations within a factor of 1.7. A hypothetical scenario used for the numerical experiments considered an annual 14C input into surface soil layers via 14C-enriched foliage or root litter under a continually heightened atmospheric 14CO2 concentration. The specific activity of 14C in the surface soil layers increased with time and several decades after the start of accumulation it eventually converged to eight times the initial specific activity. At this equilibrium state, the increased belowground 14CO2 production enhanced the atmospheric 14CO2 level and, consequently, 14CO2 uptake by vegetation increased to 1.1 times the control calculated without belowground 14C accumulation. The model results also demonstrated that 14C accumulated in soil can maintain an enhanced vegetation 14C level for at least several decades even after the end of accumulation. - Highlights: ? A numerical model for 14C transport in land surface ecosystem was developed. ? Impact of belowground 14C accumulation on vegetation 14C level was studied through numerical experiments with the model. ? 14C accumulation in surface soil enhanced vegetation 14C level by a factor of 1.1.

  4. Phosphate fertilizer studies using 32P dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agronomic effectiveness of highly soluble phosphate fertilizers for annual crop production is well known and documented. In recent years considerable research effort has been focused on search for alternative means of cheaper forms of P fertilizers to fill the needs of poor farmers, who has limited capital availability for purchase of fertilizers. Since some countries in the world have naturally occurring phosphate rocks (PR), the most appealing alternative is for direct application of PR. The low capital and energy inputs required to prepare these PR for use makes it the cheapest mineral P fertilizers possible. Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Vietnam are some countries in the Asian region blessed with natural PR. Coupled with the inherently acidic and P deficient soils found in this region, research on direct application of these PR for crop production is indeed timely. Studies done in the temperate regions on direct application of PR have concluded that PR are not suitable for use in intensive agricultural system, because PR cannot maintain a sufficiently high P concentration in the soil solution for high crop yields. Research in direct application of PR to acidic soils of the Asian region have proven otherwise. The use of radioactive 32P isotope has helped in quantification of the amounts of P from the PR tested being utilized by the crop, and its distribution in the plant can also be monitored. In Malaysia, highly reactive North Carolina phosphate rock has been found to be as effective as triple superphosphate, where a total of about 18% of the P fertilizer applied was utilized by three consecutive crops of sweet corn grown under field conditions. Initial glasshouse screening of efficacy of PR can also be determined by the use of the 32P isotope. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Synthesis of metnyl-2-/2-14C/benzimidazolecarbamate and 2-amino/2-14C/benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl-2-[2-14C] benzimidazolecarbamate ([2-14C]MBC) was synthesized from [14C] thiourea in three stage synthesis. S-methyl [14C] thiourea was obtained in the first stage, and treated with methyl chloroformiate giving carbamate derivative. Condensation of this compound with o-phenylenediamine led to [2-14C]MBC in radiochemical yield 66.9% and with radiochemical purity 98.5%. Hydrolysis of the [2-14C]MBC furnished 2-amino [2-14C] benzimidazole in radiochemical yield 65,8% and with radiochemical purity 97.3%

  6. Deglacial 14C plateau suites recalibrated by Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record - Revised 14C reservoir ages from three ocean basins corroborate extreme surface water variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnthein, M.; Balmer, S.; Grootes, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) reservoir/ventilation ages (?14C) provide unique insights into the dynamics of ocean water masses over LGM and deglacial times. The 14C plateau-tuning technique enables us to derive both an absolute chronology for marine sediment records and a high-resolution record of changing ?14C values for deglacial surface and deep waters (Sarnthein et al., 2007; AGU Monogr. 173, 175). We designate as 14C plateau a sediment section in the age-depth profile with several almost constant planktic 14C ages - variation less than 100 to 300 yr - which form a plateau-shaped scatter band that extends over ~5 to 50 and up to 200 cm in sediment cores with sedimentation rates of >10 cm/ky. Previously, a suite of >15 plateau boundary ages were calibrated to a joint reference record of U/Th-dated 14C time series measured on coral samples, the Cariaco sediment record, and speleothems (Fairbanks et al., 2005, QSR 24; Hughen et al., 2006, QSR 25; Beck et al., 2001, Science 292). We now used the varve-counted atmospheric 14C record of Lake Suigetsu (Ramsey et al., 2012, Science 338, 370) to recalibrate the boundary ages and average ages of 14C plateaus and apply the amended plateau-tuning technique to a dozen ?14C records from the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. Main results are: (1) The Suigetsu atmospheric 14C record reflects all 14C plateaus, their internal structures and relative length previously identified, but implies a rise in the average plateau age by 700 yr at its end, and 2500 14C yr in stratified subpolar regions and upwelled waters such as in the South China Sea, values that differ significantly from a widely assumed constant planktic ?14C age of 400 yr. (3) Suites of deglacial planktic ?14C ages are closely reproducible in 14C records measured on neighbor core sites. (4) Apparent deep-water 14C ventilation ages (benthic ?14C), obtained from the sum of planktic ?14C and coeval benthic-planktic ?14C age differences, vary from an equivalent of ocean basins.

  7. A method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate by chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozio?kiewicz, W; Pankowski, J; Janecka, A

    1978-01-01

    A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-[32P] triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with [32P]-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-[32P]ATP. PMID:219425

  8. Study on rising the counting efficiency of 32P by the liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study compares the Cerekov counting with the liquid scintillation counting for 32P, while the experimental comparisons were made for 32P counting efficiency to the various sample bottles and the effect of scintillation solutions. The results show the way of rising the counting efficiency for 32P

  9. A procedure for batch separation of 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes a method for separating 14C-hexose from 14C-sucrose in extracts of plant tissue. Portions of ethanol extracts are treated with activated charcoal in microcentrifuge tubes. Aliquots are removed, ethanol evaporated and replaced with reaction mixture that phosphorylates hexose (HEPPS, K2HPO4, Mg(C2H3O2)2, ovalbumen, Na2ATP, yeast hexokinase). After a time course, the hexokinase reaction is stopped (slowed considerably) to minimize effects of contamination enzyme activities. The stopping agent used is lyxose, a nonphosphorylable analogue of glucose. The strong anionic charge of phosphate introduced through the hexokinase action results in binding (> 95%) of hexose-phosphate to anion-exchange resin. Sucrose remains unbound (> 95%) in solution. This batch ion-exchange is performed in microcentrifuge tubes to allow many samples to be processed simultaneously. Recovery of radiolabel in extracts is complete (99%), and determinations are repeatable (cv = 23%). This method for routinely separating and quantifying 14C-hexose and 14C-sucrose in plant tissue extracts can contribute to the economy and feasibility of studies of 14C-photoassimilate partitioning to soluble sugars within and among plant tissues

  10. Forensic applications of 14C at CIRCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, F.; Fiumano, V.; Capano, M.; Passariello, I.; Cesare, N. De.; Terrasi, F.

    2011-12-01

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ( 14C) AMS measurements (? R/ R Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb- 14C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2?) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  11. Distribution of labeled products from [1-14C], [U-14C] and [16-14C]-palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes and liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acids (FA) labeled in different carbon positions are used to study the distribution of labeled oxidation products. With rat hepatocytes (Hep) the authors observed significant differences in the distribution of label into products from [1-14C] and [U-14C]-palmitate (P). The total recovery of label in products (14CO2 + acid soluble fraction (ASF)) was identical between the two labeled FA. However, 14CO2 production from [U-14C]-P was only 40% of that from [1-14C]-P. A recent report showed that approximately = 95% of succinate (Suc) utilized by Hep does not complete one full turn through the citric acid cycle. The authors observed that 14CO2 evolution from [2,3-14C]-Suc was approximately = 9% of that from [1,4-14C]-Suc, indicating that the differences in label distribution between [1-14C] and [U-14C]-P are partially due to less 14CO2 production from label in the even carbon positions of the FA with consequently more label remaining in the ASF. The 14CO2 production from [16-14C]-P was only 4% of that from [1-14C]-P a value less than expected from the Suc experiments. Ketone bodies (KB) comprised 78% of total labeled products from [16-14C]-P as compared to 28% from [1-14C]-P and 41% from [U-14C]-P, giving support to the previously reported preferential use of the omega-C2 unit for KB synthesis without entry into the acetyl-CoA pool. Studies with isolated rat liver mitochondria gave results similar to those with Hep, indicating minimal involvement of perioxisomal ?-oxidation

  12. Synthesis of [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to ?-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring ?-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, ?-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or ?-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-14C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-14C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-14C]glycine betaine and [methyl-14C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  13. Pesticides labelled with 14C. Pt. 1: Synthesis of [6-14C]hexazinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexazinone - a s-triazine type contact herbicides - was labelled with 14C for the investigation of metabolic pathways. A convenient synthesis was elaborated for labelling of the carbon atom in the 6 position of the triazine ring. The molar activity of Hexazinone was 797.0 MBq/mmole (21.54 mCi/mmole). (Author)

  14. [14C]Lignin-labeled lignocelluloses and 14C-labeled milled wood lignins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses lignin which is synthesized in vascular plants by way of a branching sequence of reactions during which CO2 is converted first to shikimic acid. Conversion of two amino acids is described. The authors summarize methods used to prepare, characterize, and use two types of specifically 14C- labeled lignins

  15. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with 32P nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with 32P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law

  16. An overview of DNA fingerprinting with sup 32 P nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The DNA probes radiolabeled with {sup 32}P, a primary tool employed by researchers in the life sciences for > 20 yr, are used by private companies, state-run laboratories, and the FBI to generate autoradiographs displaying the unique banding patterns that constitute the DNA fingerprint. The ability to identify an individual or animal from a biological sample has profound implications. Unidentified bodies, unrecognizable remains, and missing children can be tested and the DNA fingerprint compared to those of family members for positive identification. Paternity can be established before a child's birth. Immigration disputes can easily be resolved. Other uses include pedigree determination and testing for cell-line cross-contamination. Using a DNA fingerprint to determine the guilt or innocence of an individual allegedly involved in a violent crime is very controversial and has great legal and moral implications for society. Forensic laboratories have been challenged to ensure a level of quality control and quality assurance consistent with the weight given to these tests when used as evidence in a court of law.

  17. Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P2O5+70 g K2O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P2O2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

  18. Enzymatic method for the synthesis of [14C]pyridoxal 5-phosphate from [14C]pyridoxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of [14C]pyridoxal 5-phosphate is presented. [14C]Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was synthesized from [14C]pyriodoxine through the successive actions of pyridoxal kinase and pyrdoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase in a reaction mixture containing ATP, [14C]pyridoxine, and both enzymes. [14C]Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was isolated by omega-aminohexyl-Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The overall yield of the product was more than 60%, starting from 550 nmol of [14C]pyridoxine. The radiochemical purity of the products, as determined by thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatography, was greater than 98%

  19. Rarotonga Radiocarbon (delta 14C) for 1950 to 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce Rarotonga coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per mil as documented by an...

  20. Decomposition of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine in soils; immobilization in soils and uptake by plants of these 14C herbicides and their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of phenmedipham and atrazine occured by biological way. The mineralisation of phenmediphame started by a dealkylation followed by a cleavage of the aromatic ring disposed between the two carbamoyl linkages and finished by a very weak degradation of the second benzenic ring. The percentage of mineralisation was always more important when lower levels of herbicides were applied. Free phenmedipham and atrazine were still detected after one year incubation. Adsorption on soil constituents of 14C phenmedipham and its 14C residues was partially biological; that of 14C atrazine and its 14C residues was solely chemical. The complexation was less strong when higher levels of pesticides were applied. Aerian parts as well as radicular systems of wheat, oat and maize sown on soils incubated during one year in presence of 10 and 100 ppm of 14C phenmedipham and 14C atrazine were radioactive

  1. 17 CFR 240.14c-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 240.14c-1 Section 240.14c-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  2. An easy enzymatic method for [14 C]trehalose preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An easy and practical method for [14 C]trehalose preparation is described. By incubating [14 C]glucose, ?-glucose-1-phosphate and trehalose phosphorylase from Euglena gracilis the disaccharide was obtained with a yield ranging from 33% to 75% depending on the specific activity of the [14 C]glucose utilized. Trehalose was purified by paper chromatography. (author)

  3. Increased [32P]-phosphorylation of tryptic peptides of erythrocyte spectrin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased [32P]-incorporation in tryptic peptides of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin Band 2 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was studied in a consecutive series of 10 matched DMD/control pairs. Spectrin was [32P]-phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-independent endogenous membrane protein kinase in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. [32P]-labeled spectrin was isolated, purified, and subjected to tryptic cleavage with excess trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated on a high-resolution 5%/15% stacking SDS--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system. Liquid scintillation counting was performed on sequential slices of unstained gels. A broad [32P]-labeled band containing a number of [32P]-polypeptides was found to be more highly [32P]-phosphorylated in DMD patients than in their matched controls. This band migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 4.8-5.2 kilodaltons and contained approximately 55% of total [32P] radioactivity covalently bound to spectrin peptides. These data demonstrated an increased [32P]-phosphorylation of an identifiable tryptic peptide fraction in DMD that is consistent with previous reports of increased spectrin Band 2 [32P]-phosphorylation in DMD

  4. Contribution of soil-32P, fertilizer-32P and VA mycorrhizal fungi to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P labelled fertilizer and five synthetic phosphates (dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate and apatite), which were used to simulate inorganic phosphates such as Ca2-P, Ca8-P, FeP, Al-P and Ca10-P in calcareous soil, were applied to corn plants inoculating with and without vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous soil. The results showed that VA mycorrhizal fungi and dicalcium phosphate, octocalcium phosphate, iron phosphate, aluminium phosphate promoted growth and increased phosphorus content of corn plant. The four synthetic phosphates except apatite had higher contributions to corn plant growth than VA mycorrhizal fungi. Contributions of fertilizer-P, soil-P and synthetic phosphates to phosphorus nutrition of corn plant were in order of synthetic phosphates (except apatite) > soil- P > fertilizer-P. Inoculating with VA mycorrhizal fungi increased the contribution of soil-P and decreased the contribution of synthetic phosphates, but did not affect the contribution of fertilizer-P

  5. Brachytherapy on restenosis. 32P radioisotope in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a notorious decline in age-adjusted death rates for cardiovascular pathologies, coronary artery disease still remains as the main cause of mortality above the age of 40 in men and 60 in women. More than 25% of death in persons over the age of 35 are due to coronary disease. In about 50% of men and 30% of women, the first manifestation of the disease is an acute myocardial infarction and 10% a sudden cardiac death. In Argentina it is estimated that in 1998 about 100.000-115.000 people suffered as first manifestation of coronary illness a myocardial acute infarct. Angioplasty has an important and well established site in the treatment of the coronary illness and restenosis represents the principal complication of this method for myocardial re-vascularization. About a 35-40% of treated arteries present restenosis within the first six month the intervention with the concomitant need of re-interventions, re-hospitalizations, by-pass surgery, work discontinuity and the high cost for the health system. A number of drugs were tested as anti-restenosis: anticoagulants, aspirin, antispasmodics and lipid-lowering agents but none was clearly efficient; also, experimental studies in which intravascular irradiation with different source types and energies, radiation doses and doses rate to prevent restenosis was utilized; however, there is no consensus in many aspects of this intravascular brachytherapy. The first step in this work was to induce the experimental model in rabbits. Afterwards, by means of the balloon methodology and stent implantation, brachytherapy experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological effect on different layers of arteries, with different Doses using a beta particle emitting radioisotope (32P). The arteriosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand rabbits through the administration of a diet with high cholesterol content. Angioplastic interventions on femoral arteries were done with balloon methodology and controlled by fluoroscopy when rabbits had reached 3,0-3,5 Kg body weight. Studies were done with different doses (10 and 20 Gy) of beta ionizing radiation (32P sources) administered with balloon dilatation. Animals were sacrificed at the same time after irradiation; vasodilation, edema, hemorrhages, mononuclear infiltrate in the periadventitial tissue and other biological changes were analyzed and compared with control. Evaluation of Absorbed dosis and Dosis Equivalent on different tissues were done by Montecalo and appropriate equations. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation into the different layers of the arterial wall (i.e. histological percent stenosis area and number of neointimal cell layer), microscopic observation and computational count with the adequate software indicated that imflamatory elementsaccumulation and neointimal cell proliferation (demonstrated through PCNA+ and apoptotic cells detection) were milder in irradiated rabbits and that the inhibition of cell proliferation was proportional to the applied Absorbed dose. The ionizing radiation produce inhibitory effect on restenosis in New Zealand rabbits. Results obtained may open the possibility to apply this technique in human patients in Argentina. (author)

  6. Distribution of radioactive phosphorus (32 P) in sheep tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve male lambs (Corriedale) were separated in two groups according to their average age (114 days and 208 days). The animals of each group were selected in twos according to weight to provide duplicates. After a 7 days period of adaptation, during which time the lambs received anunrestricted mineral supplement, they were given intravenous injections of 1 ml of Na2H32PO4. The amount of radioactivity administered varied with time; from 500 μci to 225.9 μci for the 6 younger animals, and from 500 μci to 87.5 μci for the 6 older ones. At 8, 16, and 24 hours after the injections, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed by bleeding. As well as the serum and blood, pieces of tongue, brain, heart, diaphragm spleen, kidney, liver and bone were collected. These tissues were dried, incinerated and the extracts obtained with H2SO4 counted by Cerenkov radiation in a liquid scintillation counter. The level of inorganic phosphorus in the serum was determined with material obtained the day before the experiment. The younger animals had lower levels of serum inorganic phosphorus and retained higher levels of 32P on their tissues. The isotope was found in a decreasing order in the following tissues: liver, kidney, spleen heart, and tongue. The brain presented the least retention. The order of magnitude by which the tissues retained the isotope was not influenced by the age of the animals, by the experimental period, or by the level of serum inorganic phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus retained by the tissues was affected not only by the age of the animals, but also by the level of phosphorus in the blood and, for some tissues, by the experimental period

  7. On the 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, E. D.; Rogachev, G. V.; MITCHELL, J; Miller, L.; Kemper, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at temperatures below 0.3 GK depends on the properties of two near threshold resonances in 18O, the 1- at 6.198 MeV and the 3- at 6.404 MeV. The alpha+14C Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for these resonances were determined using the alpha-transfer reactions 14C(7Li,t) and 14C(6Li,d) at sub-Coulomb energies. The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at low temperatures has been evaluated. Implications of the new reaction rate on the e...

  8. Environmental 14C activity: the atmosphere and the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural equilibrium of 14C activity in atmospheric CO2 and in the biosphere has been disturbed globally by various anthropogenic activities. Intensive atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests in the mid 20th century doubled the natural 14C activity in the atmosphere. Since the bomb test ban, this activity has constantly been decreasing and has almost reached its natural level. This article presents the results of 14C activity monitoring in atmospheric CO2, tree rings and biological samples at several locations in Croatia and Slovenia. Global changes in 14C activity have been observed at clean-airsites. In urban areas, lower atmospheric 14C activity is owed to intense fossil fuel combustion, especially in the winter. Higher 14C activity is observed in near the nuclear power plant during and immediately after refuelling outage. If refuelling is performed in the spring, when plants start to vegetate, increased 14C activity is also reflected on them. (authors)

  9. The synthesis of [3-14C]indirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3-14C]indirubin is synthesized in three steps from potassium [14C]cyanide. Firstly, Potassium [14C]cyanide reacts with N,N'-diphenylthiourea to get N,N'-diphenyl [14C]cyanoamidine. Then, cyclizated in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride and hydrolizated with hydrochloric acid, amidine is leaded to [3-14C]isatin. Finally, [3-14C]isatin is condensed with excess potassium 3-indolelate to yield [3-14C]indirubin in 20.34% overall radiochemical yield from K14CN with a specific activity of 2 GBq/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99.9% (TLC)

  10. Absorption of 32P-phosphate and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in mulberry attacked by the root-knot nematoda, Meloidogyne mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive phosphate was applied to mulberry plants infected with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne mali, to analyze root uptake and translocation into leaves. A much larger accumulation of 32P was observed in the roots and leaves on the upper part of the stem in the infected plant than in the uninfected one. The photosynthetic activity measured by the short-term 14 CO2 fixation by a leaf segment in the leaf of the infected plant was half that of the uninfected plant. However, no significant differences in the percentage distribution of 14C in various photosynthetic products were recognized, and main 14C compounds consist of alanine of serine in the leaves of both plant. It was suggested that the low growth performance and dwarfing in the mulberry plant attacked by the nematode were caused by the remarkable increase of phosphate uptake under the limited supply of photosynthetic products. (author)

  11. Disposition of 14C-acetohydroxamic acid and 14C-acetamide in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) has been identified as a potential agent for the treatment of infection-induced staghorn renal calculi in patients. The pharmacokinetics and disposition of 14C-acetamide have been evaluated in rats following iv and oral administration. The results of these experiments suggest that, following oral administration to rats, AHA is absorbed very rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and is metabolized to acetamide and CO2. Approximately 50-56% of the iv dose and 40-49% of the oral dose of 14C-AHA is excreted in the urine, suggesting a significant nonrenal elimination pathway for AHA and metabolite(s). Administration of 14C-acetamide to rats revealed that the compound is predominantly eliminated via the renal route, accounting for 68% of the administered radioactive dose. However, approximately 30% of the dose in the case of both AHA and acetamide could not be recovered, either in the urine or in the breath, during the 72-hr period of the experiment. This suggests that acetamide, may undergo further metabolism to get incorporated into the acetate pool. This would result in very slow elimination of the remaining activity as 14CO2 or as another unknown metabolite

  12. Experiences on radiological monitoring during production of 32P labeled bio-molecules at JONAKI, Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P labeled bio-molecules are very important research tools in the field of modern biology and genetic engineering. JONAKI Laboratory established by the Department of Atomic Energy at Hyderabad handles about 5Ci of 32P in a month for producing the 32P labeled bio-molecules for research. This paper presents experiences on health physics activities which include area/air monitoring, waste management and environmental monitoring

  13. 'In vitro' determination of the rate of 32P uptake by erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ''in vitro'' methodology based on 32p uptake by erythrocytes was established as a potencial method for a phosphorus sub-clinical deficiency diagnosis in ruminant. Blood samples stored up to 48 hours were incubated with 32p at different periods and temperatures. There was no effect of storage time and the greatest 32p uptake values were obtained with incubation over 2 hours at 38 to 500C. (author)

  14. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  15. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  16. Upward and lateral translocation of 32P supplied to roots of apple and citrus trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P was supplied to the roots of stem-ringed 1-year-old apple trees and 2-year old citrus trees on which bark segments were isolated above and below the ring. 32P was translocated to shoots and leaves although considerable translocation occurred especially in wood and bark tissues. The accumulation of 32P in isolated bark segments indicated that the occurrence of these materials in this tissue was via radial translocation from xylem tissue, and that the main upward translocation pathway of 32P supplied to roots is through the xylem. (author)

  17. The 32P test and other methods in the diagnosis of intraocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why the 32P test was reintroduced into The Netherlands for the diagnosis of intraocular tumours and how the present study was started is explained. The physical features of 32P and the biochemical behaviour of radioactive phosphate in healthy and neoplastic tissue are described. The complications, which can be encountered after the administration of 32P, are mentioned. A review of the 32P test in ophthalmology is given, with special attention to the methods used and the development of instruments for the measurements. The way in which the 32P test was performed in this study is described. The 32P test results obtained in the patients of this study are described. A good diagnostic accuracy of the 32P test was present in the 192 lesions located in the posterior segment, with a correct result obtained in 186 patients. Only three malignant and three benign lesions showed an incorrect test result. The results obtained with scintigraphy, fluorescein angiography, perimetry, transillumination, and ultrasonography are given and compared with data in the literature. The value of fluorescein angiography, perimetry, and the 32P test for the diagnosis of various lesions, with relevance to the differential diagnosis of a choroidal tumour, is described. The 32P tests performed in 12 patients with an extraocular lesion are mentioned. (Auth.)

  18. Determination of phagocytosis of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of 32P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and 32P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of 32P from 32P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined

  19. Fate of 14C-labelled compounds in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model ecosystems have played an important role in predicting environmental behavior of agrochemicals. The microcosms used in these studies generally include soil units containing usual biotic components common for that ecosystem. In present studies, scope of two such ecosystems has been extended to study the fate of 14C-labelled pesticides in marine environment. 14C-labelled pesticides used in these studies were chlorpyrifos, DDT and HCH. Two systems were developed in laboratory simulating marine environment to study the fate of these pesticides. The first system was developed in an all glass aquarium tank with marine sediments, seawater, clams and algae and is referred to as marine ecosystem. The second system was developed to permit the total 14C-mass balance studies. It contained marine sediments under moist (60% water holding capacity) or flooded conditions and it is referred to as continuous flow system. Fate of 14C-DDT was studied in marine ecosystem while degradation of 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-HCH was studied in continuous flow system. 14C-DDT did not bioaccumulate in clams while at the end of 60 days 50% of the applied 14C-activity was present in sediment fraction of marine ecosystem. 14C-HCH degradation showed about 22-26% mineralization while 45-55% of the applied activity was recovered as organic volatiles. No significant bound residues were formed. 14C-chorpyrifos underwent considerable degradation in marine environment. TCP was the major degradation product. (author)

  20. 14C concentration of aerosols collected at Fukuoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the contribution of carbon originated from fossil fuel to carbon in aerosols by using 14C concentration as an indicator for contamination of fossil fuel. The 14C concentration of contemporary material is comparable to the atmospheric concentration at the time it was formed, while fossil fuel such as petroleum and coal contains essentially no 14C, because its age is much greater than the 5730-yr half-life of 14C. Therefore, the contribution of carbon originated from fossil fuel to carbon in aerosols would be estimated by measuring the ratio of the 14C concentration in aerosols to that in a contemporary material. We measured 14C concentrations of aerosols (total and aerodynamic class sizes) collected at Fukuoka from January 1999 to January 2000, and evaluated the monthly variations of the contribution and the size dependence. (author)

  1. Improved microcatalytic procedure for preparing 14C-labelled hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterogeneously catalyzed hydrocarbon converting reactions may be used for the highly efficient production of 14C-hydrocarbons using the microcatalytically pulsed mode of operation with product recycling in connection with the now available highly active and selective catalysts. The further development of the procedure by its extension to multicomponent feedstocks and/or multistep reactions, i.e. to the combiation of several reaction and separation cycles in one compound apparatus, is reported. This allows the simultaneous production of several 14C-hydrocarbons in parallel in one apparatus from one 14C-feedstocks. The procedure is discussed in detail for the preparation of [ring-U-14C]toluene, [ring-U-14C]methylcyclohexane, and [G-14C]dimethylcyclopentane. (author)

  2. Development of a 14C detectable real-time radioisotope imaging system for plants under intermittent light environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic products in a living plant was developed and evaluated through a test run. 14C is a common radioisotope of carbon and useful to trace the photosynthetic products as well as a low energy beta emitter. The rationale of this study was to develop a RRIS that has the ability to detect low energy beta emitters, such as 14C, 35S, and 45Ca. To achieve compatibility between the detection of low energy beta emitters and irradiation of the test plant, an intermittent lighting system was added to the RRIS. Furthermore, a commercially available digital camera was added to the RRIS for acquisition of photographic images of the test plants. The capabilities of the new RRIS were evaluated through a test run by using seedlings of rice plants and 35S-labeled sulfate. It was shown that the new RRIS was able to detect 35S absorbed by rice plant seedlings, and it was able to acquire photon-counting images and photographic images of the test plants simultaneously. Despite some limitations, the new RRIS provides a means to study the kinetics of elements in plants by utilizing low energy beta emitters. (author)

  3. Transfer of 14C to prenatal and neonatal rats from their mothers exposed to 14C compounds by ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 14C through placenta or milk was investigated and the radiation dose to fetal and newborn rats was estimated. Female rats at gestational stages or after delivery were exposed to 14C in the form of sodium bicarbonate, thymidine and lysine by a single ingestion. Radioactivity in maternal tissues and conceptuses (placenta, fetal membrane and fetus) and in the newborn was determined at various times after ingestion. After exposure to these 14C compounds, there was no significant difference between the 14C concentration in the fetus and that in the maternal tissues, suggesting that the placenta has no effect in preventing or accelerating the placental transfer of 14C. The concentration and content of 14C in the fetus and newborn were, however, dependent on the chemical form of 14C and on the prenatal or neonatal stage at the time of ingestion. The result of the dose estimation showed that 14C-lysine gave significantly higher prenatal and neonatal doses than 14C-sodium bicarbonate or 14C-thymidine. (author)

  4. Equilibration of [3H]glucosamine and [35S]sulfate with intracellular pools of UDP-N-acetylhexosamine and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) in cultured fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotides and sugar nucleotides were extracted from cultures of human fibroblasts with perchloric acid, separated by isotachophoresis, and quantified by uv absorption analysis at 254 nm. ATP (936 pmol/micrograms DNA) was, as expected, the dominating nucleotide pool. The energy charge was estimated to 0.9. The UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool was also a very prominent compound (596 pmol/micrograms DNA). After incubation of fibroblasts with [3H]glucosamine, more than 95% of the acid-soluble radioactivity was found in the UDP-N-acetylhexosamine pool. Incubation with [35S]sulfate resulted in the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). The latter could, however, only be measured as radioactivity, as the amount was too small to be quantified as total mass. Pulse-labeling of fibroblasts with [35S]sulfate and [3H]glucosamine from 5 min to 16 h showed that [35S]PAPS was equilibrated in less than 10 min, while [3H]glucosamine required a longer time, 2-4 h, to attain a steady state with UDP-N-acetylhexosamine. [14C]Glucose required approximately the same time as [3H]glucosamine to reach steady state with UDP-acetylhexosamine, which suggests that the reason for the long equilibration time is the slow turnover of this pool

  5. Investigations on preparation of 32P-labelled organo-phosphorus pesticides - - malathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General methods of preparation of labelled insecticides starting from red phosphorus and phosphoric acid labelled with 32P are outlined. Investigations on the three step synthesis of 32P-malathion are discussed. The need for high purity reagents and absolute dry conditions are stressed. Methods for purification and identification by paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography are discussed in detail. (author)

  6. Radiophosphorus (32P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (32P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of 32P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to 32P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial 32P treatment nor to additional treatments with 32P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with 32P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with 32P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with 32P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment

  7. Radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) treatment of bone marrow disorders in dogs: 11 cases (1970-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Turrel, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Between March 1970 and February 1987, radiophosphorus (/sup 32/P) was used to treat bone marrow disorders in 6 dogs; 4 had polycythemia vera and 2 had essential thrombocythemia. Activities of /sup 32/P given initially ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mCi/m2. Four dogs responded well to /sup 32/P treatment, with gradual resolution of high RBC or platelet counts. Two of these dogs died of intercurrent disease unrelated to their bone marrow disorder, before blood counts could be stabilized. Two dogs did not respond to the initial /sup 32/P treatment nor to additional treatments with /sup 32/P, and had clinical signs and blood counts stabilized by use of phlebotomy or chemotherapeutic agents. We reviewed and analyzed 5 other cases of bone marrow disorders in dogs treated with /sup 32/P and included the findings from their records with the records of our 6 dogs in this retrospective analysis. Of the 8 dogs with polycythemia vera treated with /sup 32/P, 5 were given a single treatment that controlled clinical signs and blood counts for the remainder of the follow-up period. Of the 3 dogs treated for thrombocytosis with /sup 32/P, 2 had blood counts that responded to a single treatment.

  8. Clinical observation of 5686 cases of infant hemangioma treated by 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic method of treating infant hemangioma by radioisotopes 32P. Methods: Simple hemangiomata were treated by 32P dermal application method. The authors prepared 32P at the activity of 165.98 kBq/cm2/h, diluted it with 2 ml water, and then dropped it on filter paper. The authors applied the paper to the impaired site according to the shape and the size of hemangioma. The impaired site received 32P radiation at the dosage of 9.41 Gy/cm2 each time. The treatment was repeated once every month. Cavernous hemangiomata were treated by local injections of colloid 32P at the dosage of 370 kBq/cm3 once every 2-3 months. Mixed hemangiomata received combined treatment mentioned above. Results: 3383 cases (99.0%) of simple hemangioma were cured by 32P dermal application method. 1241 case (98.7%) of cavernous hemangioma were cured. 397 cases (83.0%) of mixed hemangioma were cured. 534 cases (98.1%) of naevus flammeus were improved by 32P application method. The total effective rate was 99.8%. The cure rate was 88.3%. Conclusion: Treating hemangioma with 32P is satisfactory for its high efficiency and low toxicity. It may be advisable for infant skin disease

  9. Determination of a calibration factor for the nondestructive assay of Guidant 32P brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calibration factor ('dial setting') for the nondestructive assay of Guidant TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy wire sources has been determined for measurements with the Capintec CRC-12 (sic. 'dose calibrator') ionization chamber. The calibration factor was derived from ionization current measurements with the CRC-12 followed by very quantitative, destructive assays of the 32P content in two sources

  10. Application of single-chip computer in 14C dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing a single chip computer with a LSC the 14C dating can be controlled successfully in an automatic way. Its function includes the record of the counts, chock of the errors changing sample in a pre-set time, calculation of the 14C ages and printing out the dates. Because it has an effective function as well as a small volume, it is suitable to set up in a general 14C laboratory to improve the operation condition. These advantages have practical significance for the automation of 14C measurement

  11. 14C emission fine structure by Radium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First works have shown the fine structure in the 14C spectra emitted by 223Ra and have confirmed the similitude between this emission and ? emission. In this thesis, the author has measured the 14C energy spectra emitted by 222Ra even-even nucleus. In all these experiments, the number of detected carbon has been more important that in the experiment of discovery of these radioactivities. The author states precisely the 14C/? branching ratios and the 14C emission decay for the two studied isotopes

  12. Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralization of 14C-carbofuran (2,3 dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl-methylcarbamate) to 14CO2 as well as the formation of extractable and bound 14C-residues in clay loam soil were investigated under laboratory conditions. The 14C-carbofuran rapidly mineralized to 14CO2 and, after 20 days of incubation, 35.6% of the applied 14C was lost as 14CO2. The steady decrease of extractable 14C-residues was accomplished by a corresponding increase of bound 14C-residues over a 20-day incubation period. At the end of the experiment, the extractable and bound 14C-residues amounted to 7% and 59%, respectively, of applied radiocarbon. The soil containing bound 14C-residues was fractionated into humic substances. The humic acid, fulvic acid and humin fractions contained 22.39%, 26.04% and 17.56%, respectively, of the applied radiocarbon. The amount of 14C in microbial biomass was 15%. (author)

  13. Behaviour of 14 C-Maneb and 14 C-ETU in soils under field and laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon14-Maneb or 14 C-ETU was applied to soil contained in polyethylene tubes driven into the ground under field conditions. Most of the activity was found in both cases only in the top soil layers: 0-5 cm for Maneb: 0-10 cm for ETU. Half-life of total radiochemical 14 C-labeled residues was of 6 weeks for ETU and 18 weeks for Maneb. High percentage of bound residue (non-extracted activity) was detected in soil treated with 14 C-Maneb. When soil samples (Humic Gley and Purple Latosoil) were incubated with 14 C-ETU in laboratory conditions, microbial degradation occurred with 28% 14 C O2 evolved from both soil samples; no 14 C O2 was detected on sterilized soil samples. (author)

  14. Enzymatic method for the synthesis of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxal 5-phosphate from (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, T.; Takasugi, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Nozaki, M.

    1986-10-01

    A new enzymatic method for the synthesis of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxal 5-phosphate is presented. (/sup 14/C)Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was synthesized from (/sup 14/C)pyriodoxine through the successive actions of pyridoxal kinase and pyrdoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase in a reaction mixture containing ATP, (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine, and both enzymes. (/sup 14/C)Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was isolated by omega-aminohexyl-Sepharose 6B column chromatography. The overall yield of the product was more than 60%, starting from 550 nmol of (/sup 14/C)pyridoxine. The radiochemical purity of the products, as determined by thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatography, was greater than 98%.

  15. Synthesis of [3-14C]-L-tryptophan and 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of selectively labeled [3-14C]-L-tryptophan and its derivative 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan using chemical and multienzymatic methods is reported. The key intermediate for this synthesis, 3-14C]-DL-alanine was obtained from 14CH3I as a result of its condensation with N- (diphenylmethylene)glycine tert-butyl ester. Next, the mixture containing [3-14C]-DL-alanine, indole or 5-hydroxyindole has been converted to [3-14C]-L-tryptophan or 5'-hydroxy-[3-14C]-L-tryptophan, respectively, in a one-pot multienzymatic reaction using four enzymes: -amino acid oxidase, catalase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and tryptophanase. (author)

  16. Root-uptake of {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid and {sup 14}C transfer to rice edible parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ogiyama@nirs.go.jp; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-5522 (Japan); Inubushi, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Horticulture, Chiba University, 648 Matsudo, Matsudo-shi 271-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of {sup 14}C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The {sup 14}C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide ({sup 14}CO{sub 2}) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of {sup 14}C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had {sup 14}C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also {sup 14}C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that {sup 14}CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the {sup 14}C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the {sup 14}C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate {sup 14}C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of {sup 14}C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated {sup 14}C through the plant roots not because of uptake of {sup 14}C-acetic acid but because of uptake of {sup 14}C in gaseous forms such as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}.

  17. Root-uptake of 14C derived from acetic acid and 14C transfer to rice edible parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of culture experiments using paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) were performed to examine root-uptake of 14C in the form of acetic acid: double pot experiment (hydroponics), wet culture experiment (submerged sand medium), and chamber experiment (hydroponics and submerged sand medium). The 14C radioactivity in the plant, mediums, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (14CO2) in the chamber were determined, and the distribution of 14C in the plant was visualized using autoradiography. In the double pot experiment, the shoot of the plant and the lower root which was soaked in the culture solution had 14C radioactivity, but the upper root which did not have contact with the solution had none. There were also 14C radioactivity in the grains and roots in the wet culture experiment. Results of the chamber experiment showed that 14CO2 gas was released from the culture solution in both types of cultures. Results indicated that the 14C-acetic acid absorbed by rice plant through its root would be very small. Most of the 14C-acetic acid was transformed into gaseous forms either in the culture solution or rhizosphere. A relatively longer time would be needed to assimilate 14C derived from acetic acid to grain parts after it was once absorbed by the shoot through the root. Availability of 14C for the plant in sand culture was considered to be decreased compared with that for the plant in the hydroponics experiment. It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated 14C through the plant roots not because of uptake of 14C-acetic acid but because of uptake of 14C in gaseous forms such as 14CO2.

  18. Environmental background 14C levels in Japan in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For assessment of radiation doses due to 14C released from nuclear facilities, it is necessary to know the background level of environmental 14C originated from the natural cosmic-ray production and the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The authors selected grapes as an indicator of 14C levels in the environment including atmosphere, and determined the specific activities of 14C in ethanol extracted from wine made from grapes cultivated in several prefectures or unknown places in Japan in each year from 1990 to 2000. The specific activities of 14C were almost uniform all over Japan in each year, though they showed the weak tendency to slightly decrease with increasing population densities in the prefecture where the wine grapes were cultivated. It is considered that this small regional variation in the specific activities of 14C arose from Suess effect, because population densities can be regarded as an index of the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The specific activities of 14C gradually decreased in the 1990s. That is, they were 260 mBq/gC in 1990, and became 244 mBq/gC in 2000. This 14C level in 2000 was still about 7% higher than the pre-bomb level. The decrease in 14C originated from the past atmospheric nuclear weapons tests could be described by a single exponential function with a half-time of 10.3 years in 1990s. This half-time was shorter than that in the Europe, Canada and the South Pacific. This difference in the decreasing rate between Japan and other countries may be explained by a fact that the amount of CO2 emission from fossil-fuel combustion continued to increase in Japan in this period. The specific activities of 14C in wine ethanol determined in this study showed good agreement with those in atmospheric CO2 predicted by a mathematical model. They were also in the same levels as the 14C specific activities in atmospheric CO2, tree leaves, grass and plant food in Japan and other countries, which were determined by the benzene synthesis-liquid scintillation counting or other methods. These methods of 14C determination are not so simple as the method adopted in this study. It is therefore considered that the method of determination of the 14C activities in wine ethanol is simple and precise enough to estimate the 14C activities in atmospheric CO2 and plants including crops, and thus contributes to assessment of doses due to environmental 14C. (author)

  19. Preparation of methylbenzene-ring-14C from benzene-14C on the basis of a microcatalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The known processes of benzene alkylation are relatively non-selective and give low yields. Therefore, they are not very suitable for the preparation of toluene- and xylene-ring-14C. Since the catalytic disproportionation of toluene into benzene and xylene is already used it was attempted to develop a procedure for the preparation of the above-mentioned 14C-compounds by reversing this reaction and using benzene-14C. The obtained results are presented and the developed synthesis is explained, using the preparation of toluene-ring-14C as an example. The average activity yield is 58%. (author)

  20. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous fraction of living materials, such as collagen from tooth and bone, tissue, skin, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human body samples formed in this time intervals, we can establish a relationship of their 14C concentrations with calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the chemicals that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified, by their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination has been applied to a forensic study, i.e., two criminal cases of murder. For each case, by comparing the measured 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C, the time of death of the body and the age of the victim were estimated. The estimated values were consistent with the real ones that were revealed by the confession of the real murderers. (author)

  1. Bound residues of 14C-malathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of soil-bound 14C-residues of malathion to maize plants and microbes was investigated under laboratory conditions. Maize plants were grown in clay loam soil treated with 14C-malathion and it was found that 2.5% of the total bound 14C and 6.6% of the freshly added 14C was removed by the maize plants. In both cases the shoots contained more radioactivity than the roots and the uptake rate from freshly treated soil was three times higher than from soil containing bound residues. The analysis of the residual soil after harvesting the plants showed that 6.17% and 12.02% of the residual 14C from bound and freshly applied malathion, respectively, could be extracted. This indicates that a part of the bound 14C-residues was released during plant growth. The results further indicate that microbes can incorporate bound residues into their cellular mass more effectively than the plants and that microbial biomass can be used as an index for studying the bioavailability of agrochemicals applied to soil. In the soil containing bound 14C-residues, no malathion was detected by high-temperature distillation and gas chromatography. When the methanol-extractable 14C-residues were analysed with a flame photometric detector and gas chromatography, an unidentified compound was found which did not correspond to either malathion or malaoxon. (author)

  2. First-order 14C dating Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-order 14C dating was developed to facilitate quantitative neotectonic analysis on coasts. The technique relies on liquid scintillation counting of absorbed CO2 derived from carefully pretreated shell carbonate. It usefully complements conventional 14C assay in the construction of Holocene deformation chronologies and their use in structural interpretation. (Author)

  3. Pilot study of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of labelling bovine muscle tissue with 14C, in order to produce material suitable for intercomparison exercises. Approximately 1 kg of tissue was prepared by grinding, blending, labelling with 14C-methylated bovine haemoglobin and thoroughly mixing by repeated blending. The product was sealed in cans and sterilized to preserve it. Portions of raw material were dried to test the homogeneity of moisture content. Homogeneity of 14C in the natural and labelled materials was tested by analyzing sub-samples of 2-3 g in weight of the freeze-dried materials. The 14C content was determined by combusting and collecting the CO2 for liquid scintillation counting. The material was found to be homogeneous to the extent of 2-4% (R.S.D.), which is comparable with the R.S.D. of the 14C measurements. The 14C concentration in the labelled material was 8190 ±220 Bq·kg-1 of carbon. It was concluded that bovine muscle prepared in this manner would be suitable for intercomparison exercises. The 14C level in unlabelled tissue was found to be 260 ±7 Bq·kg-1 of carbon, which is similar to the level of 14C previously determined in milk and both are consistent with levels measured in vegetation in Eastern Ontario

  4. The transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur-35 is released during the routine operation of UK gas-cooled reactors. An experiment to determine the rates of transfer of different forms of 35S to goat milk is described. Lactating goats received 35S orally as single administrations of sulphate, L-methionine, or grass contaminated either through root uptake of 35S as sulphate or through aerial deposition of 35S as carbonyl sulphide onto the grass. Transfer was higher for 35S administered as methionine compared with 35S administered as sulphate. Changes in activity concentrations in milk for all sources of 35S demonstrated two components of loss. The first component had a half-life of circa 1 d for all sources, the second was longer in goats administered carbonyl sulphide (44 d) than in all of the other treatments (circa 10 d). The rate of transfer of 35S to milk of a further group of goats receiving 35S-sulphate daily appeared to reach equilibrium within 30 d. Extrapolation of transfer parameters derived to other dairy ruminants is discussed

  5. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  6. On the 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J; Miller, L; Kemper, K W

    2009-01-01

    The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at temperatures below 0.3 GK depends on the properties of two near threshold resonances in 18O, the 1- at 6.198 MeV and the 3- at 6.404 MeV. The alpha+14C Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANCs) for these resonances were determined using the alpha-transfer reactions 14C(7Li,t) and 14C(6Li,d) at sub-Coulomb energies. The 14C(alpha,gamma) reaction rate at low temperatures has been evaluated. Implications of the new reaction rate on the evolution of accreting helium white dwarfs and on the nucleosynthesis of low mass stars during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase are discussed.

  7. Radiocarbon 14C differentiation of sparkling and carbonated wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific 14C-activities, percent of modern 14C-activity, and calculated percent of fermentation CO2 are presented for CO2 contained in commercial sparkling wines, labeled as champagne or produced by the bulk (charmat) process. These data are given for the production years 1976-1982. The survey encompassed effervescent wines produced in Spain, Italy, West Germany, California, and New York. Addition of synthetic CO2 to approximately 40 samples represented as sparkling wines was indicated by low 14C-activities of CO2 in these wines. Data for 14C-activity were also presented for the ethanol distilled from sparkling wines for the years 1977-1980. In all cases, the 14C-activity of ethanol was appropriate to the year of vintage

  8. Behavior of 14C-BHC residues in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-(U-14C)-BHC was applied to rice plants grown in a pot and its fate in the growth, polishing and oil-extraction processes of the grain was investigated. The 14C-activity was absorbed and translocated widely in the plant and the recovery of applied 14C-activity in the straw and grain was about 2.8%, of which 9.4% was found in the brown rice. The % partitioning of 14C-residues in bran and polished rice was 12:88 and that in oil and oilcake was 37:63. Characterization of 14C-residues the presence of ?-BHC, pentachlorocyclohexene, trichlorobenzene and hydrophilic metabolites, whose proportions were different in the straw and grain. (Author)

  9. A cleanup procedure towards the preparation of chemically pure ? - 32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of high purity ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides enzymatically, involves the transfer of the radio labelled phosphorus from either ?-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or ?-guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Subsequent removal of these ribose nucleotides is essential for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. In the present work we describe a chemical method for the improvement of the chemical purity, based on the preferential oxidation of ribose sugars by periodate. The efficiency of the process was validated using tracer ?-32P ATP and ?-32P dATP. The result were further corroborated by HPLC. The process developed is an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. (author)

  10. Study on labelling of rapeseed mustard plants by 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation was done to label rapeseed-mustard plants (Brassica campestris cv. YST-151 and Brassica juncea cv. Varuna) by using 32P radiotracer technique by different methods. Phosphorous being an essential nutrient, plant absorb reasonable amount of 32P thus enabling an easy way of detection. Different methods were used to label the host plant with 32P namely application of radioisotope in soil; injection of radioisotope into plant stem and application of radioisotope in nutrient solution. The best method was found by application of radioisotope in the nutrient solution as it gave highest uptake and required least time out of the 3 given methods for labeling of plants. (author)

  11. Biosynthesis of [14C]zearalenone from [1-14C]acetate by Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum'.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagler, W M; Mirocha, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Addition of [1-14C]acetate or [1,2-14C]acetate to actively growing cultures of Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum' on rice yielded zearalenone with a specific activity ranging between 1.63 and 46.5 microCi/mmol.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection studies using 14C UBT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 14 (14C) is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of 14C is about 5,730 years, and it decays by emitting a low energy beta (â) particle of mean energy 49 KeV. The biological half life of 14C is 10 to 12 days. 14C is present in the environment and in all organic materials and behaves in the environment in the same manner as other carbon isotopes. In medicine, 14C can be injected to study abnormalities of metabolism that underlie diabetes, gout, anaemia and acromegaly (adult 'gigantism'), and for diagnosis of Helicobacterpylori (H pylori), The discovery H Pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982 changed the approach to treat peptic ulcer disease (PUD), Since then H pylori has been the focus of clinical research and debate. The causal relationship between H pylori infection and chronic gastritis is well established, H pylori infection is one of the most common human infections worldwide. This organism has been shown to infect over half of the world's population. By the application of radiation much progress has been made worldwide in the field of medicine. This article presents the application of 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) for the diagnosis of the H pylori bacteria which present in the stomach and duodenum, 14C UBT relies on the urease activity of H pylori to detect the presence of active infection. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai has developed 14C UBT method and already in regular practice in many hospitals across the country. Orally administered 14C urea will be hydrolyzed into ammonia (NH4) and 14C labelled carbon dioxide (14CO2). The presence of a significant amount of (14CO2) in the exhaled breath indicates active H pylori infection. 14C UBT is relatively inexpensive, is easy to perform, and does not require endoscopy. 14C UBT has proved to be one of the most accurate methods for assessing H pylori status. The ionizing radiation dose involved in this test is extremely low, much lower than the radiation dose due to natural sources. Nearly 100 samples collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic persons of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka were analysed and the results with discussion are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeve, W.; Wagner, H.; Khler, P.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-07-01

    The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater (DIC) is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, which is the time elapsed since a body of water has been in contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with ageing, i.e. the time component of circulation, and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". The latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere-ocean equilibration of 14C particularly in high latitudes where many water masses form. In the ocean's interior, preformed 14C-age behaves like a passive tracer. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. Here, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age. Between models, the variability of preformed 14C-age can also be considerable (factor of 2), related to the combination of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics or gas exchange. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation, the choice of the gas-exchange constant from within the currently accepted range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age, it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a model's circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

  14. Myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C metabolism through microbian action in an andosol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myo-inositol-14C, phytic acid-14C and ferric phytate-14C compounds were incubated in an andosol soil at 70% of the field capacity and at 36.5 deg C during twelve days. These compounds suffered a microbian oxidation at 14CO2 of 61.0, 1.9 and 0% respectively. The fixation of the phytic acid-14C was observed through the fast decrease in the metabolism, due to the formation of complexes with the Fe and Al (phytates). The myo-inositol-14C metabolism was reduced by a factor of nine at the second incubation day. The following mechanisms were observed in the myo-inositol metabolism: (i) adsorption of the inositol by the soil minerals, (ii) adsorption by humic acids, (iii) myo-inositol phosphorylation and (iv) epimerization of myo-inositol to chiro-inositol. It was found that the (i) and (ii) formation depends on the soil microbian activity. The (i), (ii) and (iii) interactions were considered as possible mechanisms for the inhibition of the myo-inositol microbian oxidation. The inhibition of the myo-inositol oxidation through adsorption or phosphorylation is considered as a chemical blockade for the hydroaxial group, avoiding this way a microbian oxidation stereospecific of this hydroxil group. (author)

  15. Effects of Pseudomonas species on the release of bound 14C residues from soil treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of bound (nonextractable) 14C residues from soil previously treated with [14C]atrazine was investigated by incubation of the solvent-extracted soil with two species of Pseudomonas capable of metabolizing atrazine. The two species, 192 and 194, released bound 14C residues from the soil. Addition of glucose, known to increase microbiological activities, to the incubated soil appeared to enhance the release of soil-bound 14C residues, in particular in the presence of Pseudomonas species 192. The 14C bound residues in soil, mainly present as the parent compound and its hydroxy and monodealkylated analogues, were released into the incubation mixture and were subsequently metabolized by the two species involving dechlorination and dealkylation

  16. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, Walter; Liebl, Jakob; Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced {sup 14}C had doubled the {sup 14}C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO{sub 2} cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing {sup 14}C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing {sup 14}C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the {sup 14}C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, {sup 14}C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of {sup 14}C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  17. Dating human DNA with the 14C bomb peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1963 the limited nuclear test ban treaty stopped nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. By then the addition from bomb-produced 14C had doubled the 14C content of the atmosphere. Through the CO2 cycle this excess exchanged with the hydrosphere and biosphere leading to a rapidly decreasing 14C level in the atmosphere. Today we are almost back to the pre-nuclear level. As a consequence all people on Earth who lived during the second half of the 20th century were exposed to this rapidly changing 14C signal. A few years ago, a group at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm started to use the 14C bomb peak signal in DNA to determine retrospectively the age of cells from various parts of the human body (brain, heart, fat). In a collaboration with this group, we have studied the age of olfactory bulb neurons in the human brain. For this investigation, 14C AMS measurements were developed at VERA for very small carbon samples in the range from 2 to 4 micrograms. In the presentation the general concept of 14C bomb peak dating of human DNA and several applications are discussed.

  18. Aspects of the metabolism of U-14C arginine, U-14C histidine and U-14C lysine by adult female Glossina morsitans during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-14C arginine, U-14C histidine or U-14C lysine was injected into haemolymph of pregnant female Glossina morsitans. Radioactivity was detected in the post-parturient female and its larval offspring mostly in arginine or histidine, but in the case of lysine injection radioactivity was detected in the two life stages in lysine lipids and a range of nonessential amino acids. The pattern of radioactivity in the developing oocyte and larva was related to growth characteristics of these young stages. Whereas arginine and histidine were mostly excreted unchanged, lysine derived radioactivity was detected in the excreted uric acid and expired carbon dioxide; radioactivity in such products was greater in early than late pregnancy. (author)

  19. Method of preparing D-[U-14C?glucose and D-[U-14C?mannose from ?-[U-14C?glucan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial ?-[U-14C?glucan is hydrolyzed with 1M to 2M hydrochloric acid at a temperature of 80 to 100 degC for 2 to 4 hours; the solution shall be adjusted to pH 1 to 3 and epimerized at a temperature of 80 to 100 degC for 0.5 to 1 hour under the catalytic action of 0.1 to 2% molybdenic acid. The epimerization will result in an equilibrium mixture of D-[U-14C?glucose and D-[U-14C?mannose in a ratio of 3:1. Both compounds are very often used in the study of chemical and biochemical transformations of saccharides. (A.K.)

  20. Application of AMS 14C measurements to criminal investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C variations of atmospheric CO2 as well as carbonaceous materials of human body, such as collagen fractions from teeth and bone, tissue, hair, nail, etc., of modern humans dead or alive, are influenced by 14C produced artificially by nuclear bomb tests in the atmosphere from late 1950s to early 1960s. By careful investigation of 14C concentration of tree rings and human tissue samples formed in this time ranges, we can establish a relation between their 14C concentrations and calendar year. By applying this relation to a sample whose 14C concentration can be measured, we can estimate the formation age of the sample. In addition, sources of the drugs that were used in some criminal cases can be possibly identified by the analysis of their carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C and 14C/12C). This method of age determination was applied to a forensic study; i.e., to two similar cases of murder. One of the two cases is for a dead body of a modern human who was killed in 1978 and buried under the floor of the house owned by the murderer. The body was excavated in 2004 according to the confession by the murderer. 14C abundances of several pieces of hair and one tooth (the third molar) from the body were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and compared with the annual change on concentrations of bomb-produced 14C. The time of death of the body was estimated to be at around 1977, and her age was from 30 to 37 years old at that time. These estimations were consistent with the real values that were revealed after the case was solved by the confession of the real murderer who gave himself up to the police. For the other case, 14C analysis was also consistent with the fact revealed by police investigations as well as by the confession of the real murderer.

  1. Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism of 14C-Labelled Dichlobenil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographs of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) indicated that 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) was slightly absorbed by the leaf and some translocation occurred following foliar application. Plants with roots submersed in radioactive aqueous solution absorbed and translocated the 14C throughout the plant. An investigation of some of the chemical and physical properties of 14C-nitrile-labelled dichlobenil was conducted. Loss because of volatilization from counting planchets was considerably reduced by application of acrylic plastic immediately after the solution dried. The plastic coating also eliminated contamination of counting chambers and windows. Two higher plants (bean and alligatorweed ) and four fungi (Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) were selected for metabolism studies. Dichlobenil- 14C was added to Hoagland and Arnon's nutrient solution containing beans or alligatorweed and to liquid cultures containing the other organisms for 12 to 120 h. Extracts from the plants or fungi were chromatographed on silica gel thin-layers. Autoradiographs of the thin-layer chromatographed aqueous extracts revealed a C-labelled compound of Rf 0.25 that differed from that of dichlobenil, which was 0.6. After esterification of the extracts, a 14C-labelled compound was observed at Rf 0.95 on thin-layer chromatograms. Chromatography of the unaltered extracts with 2,6- dichlorobenzoic acid revealed identical Rf-values. The esterified aqueous extracts chromatographed precisely with methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. Gas chromatography of the 14C-labelled compound with an Rf of 0.95 exhibited a retention time identical to that of methyl-2,6-dichlorobenzoate. The quantity of 14C-labelled compound that chromatographed as 2,6-dichlorobenzoate increased with time of exposure of the various test organisms to dichlobenil -14C. Other metabolites of dichlobenil -14C. were not resolved by these chromatographic procedures. (author)

  2. Portal absorption of 14C after ingestion of spiked milk with 14C-phenanthrene, 14C-benzo[a]pyrene or 14C-TCDD in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Claire; Feidt, Cyril; Grova, Nathalie; Mpassi, Didier; Lichtfouse, Eric; Laurent, Franois; Rychen, Guido

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring widely in the terrestrial environment. In order to study the PAHs and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) transfer in the food chain, pigs have been fed with milk mixed either with 14C-phenanthrene, with 14C-benzo[a]pyrene or with 14C-TCDD. The analysis of portal and arterial blood radioactivity showed that both PAHs and TCDD were absorbed with a maximum concentration at 46 h after milk ing...

  3. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure ?-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method for the preparation of large amounts of enantiomerically pure ?-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan using the enzymatic resolution of the corresponding D,L-methyl ester is reported. The radiolabelled ?-methyl group was introduced using the ?-methylation of the lithium enolate of the Schiff base of L-tryptophan methyl ester. Hydrolysis of the Schiff base with 1 N HCl provided the D,L-methyl ester of ?-[14C]methyl tryptophan. Enantioselective enzymatic hydrolysis of the L-methyl ester by ?-chymotrypsin gave the enantiometrically pure ?-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan. The overall yield of this preparation was 33%. (author)

  4. 14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

  5. Standardization of 32P/33P and 204Tl by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two solutions, one of 32P with a significant contribution of 33P, and another one of 204Tl were standardized by liquid scintillation counting in the frame of two intercomparison exercises organized by the BIPM in 2002. For the 32P solution, the counting efficiencies for 32P and 33P were obtained by the CIEMAT/NIST method. The individual contributions of 32P and 33P were determined by fitting a set of measurements to a function of the half-lives and counting efficiencies of both component nuclides. 204Tl was also standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method using two counters, three scintillators, HiSafe 3, Insta-Gel Plus and Ultima-Gold, and two different kinds of samples. A total of 480 samples were measured over 45 days with results in full agreement within the uncertainties considered. The efficiency values are also compared to those used in the previous 204Tl intercomparison (1997)

  6. PEMANFAATAN RADIOISOTOP 32P UNTUK PENANDAAN (LABELLED COMPOUND PADA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhid Darwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling with Radioisotop 32P was performed at various dose application. The research conducted by Insitute of Vector and Reservoir Control Research and Development, Salatiga in collaboration with The National of Atomic Agency that aimed to know the effective dose and radioactivity disposal of the Radioisotop 32 P. The research used several doses: 0,3 Ci (micro currie; 0,5 Ci; and 0,7 Ci of each 25 gr larvaefood for 50 larvae with dry and wet radiation then observed the effect of radiation against larvae stadium and mosquitoes. The result shows that at 0,5 pCi isotop 32P dose application, Ae. aegypti mosquitoe can survive with 333,3 cps (currie per second residual radioactivity and detected in 75 cm distance. The Radioisotop 32P can be used as Ae. aegypti mosquitoes labelling/marking.

  7. Recalculation of data on sup 32 P activity induced in sulfur in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tatsuji (Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Historical data for {sup 32}P activity induced in sulfur by fast neutrons have been corrected for decay with a recent half-life value of {sup 32}P and recalculated with an experimentally determined efficiency ratio of the electroscope for beta rays from {sup 32}P and natural uranium used as a standard. Most samples would have been pure enough so that no correction for the weight of sulfur has been made. The possibility of interference with {sup 32}P activity measurements due to induced activity of other elements in the samples could also be excluded. The revised data show little difference from the original ones except for one sample which contained much impurity. Uncertainty of the data was also discussed. (author).

  8. Standardization of 32P/33P and 204Tl by liquid scintillation counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, L Rodríguez; García-Toraño, E; Los Arcos, J M

    2004-01-01

    Two solutions, one of 32P with a significant contribution of 33P, and another one of 204Tl were standardized by liquid scintillation counting in the frame of two intercomparison exercises organized by the BIPM in 2002. For the 32P solution, the counting efficiencies for 32P and 33P were obtained by the CIEMAT/NIST method. The individual contributions of 32P and 33P were determined by fitting a set of measurements to a function of the half-lives and counting efficiencies of both component nuclides. 204Tl was also standardized by the CIEMAT/NIST method using two counters, three scintillators, HiSafe 3, Insta-Gel Plus and Ultima-Gold, and two different kinds of samples. A total of 480 samples were measured over 45 days with results in full agreement within the uncertainties considered. The efficiency values are also compared to those used in the previous 204Tl intercomparison (1997). PMID:14987713

  9. 32P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi 32P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of 32P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to 32P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of 32P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition

  10. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  11. Root activity studies of cashew plants (Anacardium Occidentale L.) using 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preliminary study, we are looking at levels 32P and depths of soil injections on uptake by plants using the injection techniques in root activity studies. 32P activities can be detected in the leaves and flower parts of plants two weeks after injection in the soil. Reasonable count rate can be obtained by using lower level of 32P (1.6 mCi/tree) than recommended (5 mCi/tree). 32P counts were higher in younger than older leaves. Flowers had the least count. Differences in injection depths (5 and 15 cm) could not be detected. Differences in count rate were detected due to position of leaves and flowers (upper and lower canopy) in some of the sampling intervals. (author)

  12. Biotechnological production of high specific activity L-35S-cysteine and L-35S-methionine by using a diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High specific activity L-35 S-cysteine and L-35 S-methionine were synthesised by using a wild type diploid strain of baker's yeast-Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were grown in a sulphur depleted synthetic medium in which Na235 SO4 (50 mCi/ml) was supplemented as the sole sulphur source. The level of incorporation was 60% on an average. The protein hydrolysate of the cultured cells was subjected to paper and column chromatographic separations to get the individual L-35 S-aminoacids. The radiochemical yields of cysteine and methionine were 6-7% and 18-20% respectively. The radiochemical purity of the products was >95%. The highest specific activity for the products obtained by employing this method was 1100 Ci/mmole from the starting material, Na235 SO4, with a specific activity of 1350 Ci/mmole. (Author)

  13. Validation of {sup 32}P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Park, Minjeong; Park, Seyoung; Yoo, Jaeryong; Ha, Wiho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hanki [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, {sup 32}P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, {sup 32}P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for {sup 32}P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using {sup 32}P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, {sup 32}P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate {sup 32}P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for {sup 32}P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using {sup 32}P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed.

  14. Validation of 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement method of urine samples for life science workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various research fields, phosphorus has been used by using behavior characteristics as the form of radiolabelled compound in natural environment and human body. Cherenkov counting method using LSC is also well known for beta emitting radionuclides with high energy. In particular, 32P is emitting beta particles with above 263 keV which is threshold energy for Cherenkov radiation effect. Using this physical characteristic, 32P measurement by Cherenkov radiation will be a good method for radiobioassay. The advantages of Cherenkov radiation counting for 32P are to remove interferences of low energy beta and gamma emitters and reduce the expenses in counting sample preparation. Also, chemical quenching effect can be excluded because Cherenkov radiation is produced by physical phenomenon. In case of indirect measurement, minimum detectable activity (MDA) of counting samples can be improved by increasing sample volume without scintillation cocktail. Pretreatment conditions were also discussed considering the characteristics of urine samples. And real urine samples collected from workers using 32P source in the field of life sciences were measured following the practical procedure established in this study. In this study, 32P Cherenkov radiation measurement for radiation workers in the field of life science was conducted. To evaluate 32P activity of urine sample, Cherenkov radiation counting method was applied to real cases. The accuracy of measurement results were validated by using various methods. And measurement conditions for 32P counting of urine samples were also discussed to establish standardized procedures. The measurement of most samples collected from workers was below MDA. Each one case of two workers was above MDA. The 2 workers did waste management in common. The overall results did not show significant level but some cases were a little high compared with background level which is needed to evaluate dose conservatively. In the future, detailed dose assessment using 32P measurement results and monitoring programs for workers of other research field should be performed

  15. Evaluation of a 32P patch designed for the treatment of skin diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: Objective: to design and evaluate a 32P patch for the treatment of skin diseases. Materials and methods: the patch was prepared from [32P]-chromic phosphate and silicone. The (a) activity concentration, (b) homogeneity, (c) integrity, (d) therapeutic efficacy for two treatment schemes in an animal model of skin cancer, (e) bio elimination and biodistribution in healthy and treated animals and (t) dosimetry to plan the treatment schemes were determined. Results: the 32P patch demonstrated homogeneity of activity and dose. On the other hand, it showed integrity under degradation conditions like the ones in a treatment. According to the bio elimination and biodistribution studies, no leakage of 32P from the patch was observed. The treated tumors reduced their mean diameter compared to controls. The single dose therapeutic scheme showed higher percentage of complete and partial remissions compared to the fractionated scheme. These results were confirmed by the histopathological analysis of the samples. Conclusion: the 32P patch was designed and produced according to specifications for the treatment of superficial lesions of the skin. Although the 32P patch is an open source, it behaves like a sealed one for its use in brachytherapy treatments. (author)

  16. 32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7?,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies. (author)

  17. 32P-postlabeling analysis of non-radioactive aromatic carcinogen-DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed enzymatic 32P-postlabeling method was applied to the analysis of DNA's containing non-radioactive arylamine, arylamide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. DNA reacted in vitro with N-hydroxy-2-amino-fluorene, N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene, and 7#betta#,8?-dihydroxy-9?, 10?-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene, respectively, as well as DNA preparations from the livers of rats treated with N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, were enzymatically digested to deoxyribonucleoside 3'-monophosphates, which were then converted to [5'-32P]deoxyribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphates by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P]phosphate transfer from [#betta#-32P]ATP. The 32P-labeled nucleotides were resolved by anion-exchange t.l.c. on polyethyleneimine-cellulose and detected by autoradiography. Aromatic adduct nucleotides were found to be retained at the origin in aqueous electrolyte solutions but to migrate as distinct spots in solvents containing 7-8.5 M urea. Advantage was taken of this observation to remove 32P-labeled normal DNA nucleotides from adduct nucleotides. This purification enabled the detection of a single adduct in 107-108 normal nucleotides. The method appears applicable to the ultrasensitive detection of a large number of carcinogen-DNA adducts of diverse structure without requiring radioactive carcinogens or specific antibodies

  18. Preparation of 32P coated stents and their clinical application for prevention of restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta emitting radionuclides have been reported to be effective when used in Intravascular Radionuclide Therapy (IVRT), for prevention of restenosis. In particular, the decay features of 32P (pure ?, EBmax ? l.7 MeV, T1/2=14.3 d) make it an attractive nuclide for any local treatment, such as IVRT. 32P, if coated on stents used in angioplasty, can deliver radiation dose to the stenosed tissues, with 95% of the total dose expended within 4-5 mm of the tissue. In the present study, 32P coated stents were prepared by optimizing the various parameters and tested for its usefulness in IVRT after QC tests. 32P coated stents were prepared by both physical adsorption and electrodeposition. It was found that of the two methods, electrodeposited stents, showed better retention of the coated radioactivity and better uniformity. Stents were coated with 32P activity in the range of 37 -740 kBq and taken up for clinical trials by the treating physicians. It was observed that stents with 32P activities in the range of 27.75 to 55.5 kBq/cm were found to be most effective

  19. Screening method of varietal resistance to planthoppers labelled with radioisotope 32P; pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New screening method of varietal resistance by isotope 32P was examined in these experiments. Insects were fed for 24 hrs. in the vials, with rice seedlings absorbed the solution of 0.6-7 Ci 32P for 24 to 48 hrs. Feeding amounts of 3 species of planthoppers at the different stages and duration of infestation were investigated for effective process of screening method of the varietal resistance using isotope 32P. Feeding amount of 32P of brown planthopper was observed for the different varieties. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. Brown planthopper fed greatest and the feeding amount was increased in order of white-backed planthopper and small brown planthopper. Female hoppers fed more than male. 2. Feeding amount was increased in order of adult (female), 5th instar, adult (male), 4th instar, 3rd instar 2nd instar and 1st instar. The duration of 24-48 hours is considered sufficient for insect infestation. 3. New screening method by 32P was compared with seedling bulk screening method in view of feeding amount and plant reaction. Feeding amount of 32P by brown planthopper in Milyang 47, resistant variety to this insect, was very low, while in TN 1, susceptible variety, it was very high about one hundred times of Milyang 47. (author)

  20. Preparation of D-[U-14C]galactose and ?-D-[U-14C]galactose-1-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically pure D-[U-14C]galactose was prepared on a preparatory scale using the galactokinase enzyme. The suggested procedure allows to also prepare a ?-D-[U-14C]galactose-1-phosphate and L-[U-14]galactose giving good yield. The experiments proved that the raw fraction isolated from yeast of the Kluyveromyces fragilis strain or the Kluyveromyces lactis strain shows sufficient activity. Phosphorylation of D-[U-14C]galactose practically terminates after 30 mins of incubation. DL-[U-14C]galactose isolated using preparatory paper chromatography from the acid hydrolyzate of [U-14C] polysaccharide is a satisfactory radioactive precursor. The developed preparation procedure theoretically contributed towards the further elucidation of the problem of the proportional representation of galactose stereo-isomers in extracellular polysaccharide isolated from red algae. In this respect data in the literature differ and some sources state a significantly higher propertion of L-galactose. The experiments showed that [U-14C] polysaccharide isolated from the red algae Porphyridium cruentum prevalently contains D-[U-14C]galactose, which confirms the process of enzyme reaction. (author). 1 tab., 4 refs

  1. Difference of 14C turnovers in brain and in transplanted glioma after intravenous injection of 14C-1-pyruvate rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon 14 from 14C-1-pyruvate injected intravenously into glioma-transplanted rats was incorporated into various compounds in the brain and in the tumor. In the brain the majority of activity was found in CO2 (60%), and minor activities were found in alanine, lactate (15%), glutamate, and aspartate, with decreasing order, 5 min after injection. In the tumor, at 5 min. the largest activity was in lactate (56%), and lower activities were found in CO2 (24%), alanine, glutamate, and aspartate. The total 14C concentration in the tumor was twice that in the brain at 5 min and 15 min. The results was in accordance with the prediction that in brain, where the mitochondrial function is active, 14C-1-pyruvate will be oxidized completely into 14CO2, and that in tumor, where the mitochondrial function is insufficient, 14C-1-pyruvate will be converted only into 14C-lactate and prevent further degradation. It may be assumed that this difference in the turnover of 14C and 14C-1-pyruvate between brain and tumor could constitute a basis for the ''hot'' visualization of human brain tumor using cyclotron-produced 11C-1-pyruvate and positron-emission tomography. (orig.)

  2. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppi, U.; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A.

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  3. A simple synthesis of propionic-3-14C acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propionic-3-14C acid was prepared by methylation of tricarbethoxymethane and subsequent hydrolysis. This method avoids the problems of malonic ester synthesis. A pure monoalkyl derivative was obtained. (author)

  4. Determination of 14C content in fermentation alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measuring of activity in 14C of ethylic alcohol permits to distinguish fermentation alcohol from synthetic alcohol. This activity is used to determine the corresponding percentages of these alcohols in cases of mixture

  5. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  6. Incorporation of 14C-succinate in Synechococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus (= Anacystis nidulans) was grown under normal air conditions (0.03 vol.% CO2) and in low white light (0.5 x 103 ?W/cm2) at 37 0C. Kinetics of 14C incorporation into several soluble products and pigments were studied after adding 14C-succinate during photosynthesis and in the dark using the autoradiographic method. Radioactivity was found mainly in glutamate and aspartate during the photosynthetic period independent on 3-(3',4'-dichlorphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea preincubation. In the dark period 14C label could also be detected in malate. Short-term kinetics experiments showed a decrease in 14C label of glutamate and a parallel increase of aspartate. Results were discussed in respect to the interrupted tricarboxylic acid cycle. (author)

  7. Model for release of gaseous 14C from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C is contained in cladding, intergrain boundaries and UO2 in spent nuclear fuel, and can be released as gaseous 14CO2 in an oxidizing environment. Approximately 2.5% of the inventory can be released quickly from gap, grain boundary and cladding surface. 14C within cladding can be released upon oxidation of the metal, but is probably a minor source. Most 14C is contained in UO2 fuel, and can be released when the fuel oxidizes. Releases from fuel depend on diffusion of oxygen through the grain boundaries and a layer of U3O7, and diffusion of 14CO2 out through same two layers. A model of UO2 oxidation was based on experimental data, and used in a model for 14C release. This model is demonstrated on a hypothetical repository in an unsaturated environment, and shows a strong dependence on the time at which containers fail

  8. Whole body autoradiography with mice using 14C-thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body autoradiography was performed using common histology equipment. Results were useful with some restrictions. 14C-thymidine and/or itsmetabolites were found in those tissues with high rate of mitosis. (Author)

  9. Forensic applications of 14C bomb-pulse dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the basics of 14C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the 14C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of 14C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. 14C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin

  10. 14C in human diet in three Spanish locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C reach humans via the diet. In this study we present the results of diet samples from three locations type Spanish, Seville, Caceres and Tenerife. These diets are collected quarterly and historical dates back to early 2008.

  11. Residues of 14C-cyolane in cottonseed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic insecticide cyolane [2-(0,0-diethylphosphoryl)-imino-1,3-dithiolane] was prepared from 14C-ethanol, phosphorus oxychloride and 2-amino-1,3-dithiolane. Cotton plants were treated with two applications of the insecticide under conditions of local agricultural practice. 14C-residues in the crude oil and cake of the harvested cotton seeds amounted to 1.63 and 0.014 mg/kg respectively. About 50% of the 14C-activity present in the crude oil was found to be eliminated by simulated commercial processes used for refining of the oil. Alkali treatment and bleaching removed 16% and 25% of the radioactive residues respectively. Winterization of the bleached oil at 5-70C for 3 days effected a further elimination of 13%. 14C-residues in the cotton seed products and in the samples of the refined oil were characterized and the main constituents identified using chromatographic techniques. (author)

  12. 14C-age tracers in global ocean circulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Koeve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural abundance of 14C in total CO2 dissolved in seawater is a property applied to evaluate the water age structure and circulation in the ocean and in ocean models. In this study we use three different representations of the global ocean circulation augmented with a suite of idealised tracers to study the potential and limitations of using natural 14C to determine water age, the time elapsed since a body of water had contact with the atmosphere. We find that, globally, bulk 14C-age is dominated by two equally important components, one associated with aging, i.e. the time component of circulation and one associated with a "preformed 14C-age". This latter quantity exists because of the slow and incomplete atmosphere/ocean equilibration of 14C in particular in high latitudes where many water masses form. The relative contribution of the preformed component to bulk 14C-age varies regionally within a given model, but also between models. Regional variability, e.g. in the Atlantic Ocean is associated with the mixing of waters with very different end members of preformed 14C-age. In the Atlantic, variations in the preformed component over space and time mask the circulation component to an extent that its patterns are not detectable from bulk 14C-age alone. Between models the variability of age can also be considerable (factor of 2, related to the combinations of physical model parameters, which influence circulation dynamics, and gas exchange in the models. The preformed component was found to be very sensitive to gas exchange and moderately sensitive to ice cover. In our model evaluation exercise, the choice of the gas exchange constant from within the current range of uncertainty had such a strong influence on preformed and bulk 14C-age that if model evaluation would be based on bulk 14C-age it could easily impair the evaluation and tuning of a models circulation on global and regional scales. Based on the results of this study, we propose that considering preformed 14C-age is critical for a correct assessment of circulation in ocean models.

  13. A simplified In Situ cosmogenic 14C extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and testing of a new, simplified in situ radiocarbon extraction system at the University of Arizona. Blank levels for the new system are low ((234 ?? 11) ?? 103 atoms (1 ??; n = 7)) and stable. The precision of a given measurement depends on the concentration of 14C, but is typically 14C extraction system at Arizona, and lends itself to future automation. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  14. Preparation of 14C-catechins by tea cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of 14C labelled catechins was studied by feeding 14C labelled precursor to tea cultured cells. Two labelled precursors were tested and their effects were compared. The dynamics of absorption and transformation of fed precursors were analyzed and the effects of pre-culture as well as UV light pretreatment on product labelling rate were evaluated. Product analysis was also made by HSCCC and HPLC techniques

  15. 14C-Metampicillin stability in several physiological sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of 14C-metampicillin incorporated to several physiological sera for medical uses has been studied. Influence of environmental conditions as well as possible interaction with the solvent have been specially analyzed. Degradation level of the labelled multiplication has been determined and its degradation products have been separated by using chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Likewise, the 14C-metam picill synthesis has been described. Finally, the results obtained have been discussed and evaluated. (Author) 9 refs

  16. Radiochemical synthesis of 14C-labelled pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic derivatives of pesticides labelled with either 14C or tritium are indispensable experimental tools for toxicology or metabolism studies required for registration of new compounds. The radiochemical synthetic pathways leading to the preparation of 14C-labelled pesticides of high specific activity, good chemical/radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity are presented for three groups of pesticides; triazines, aryl-haloids, and organometallic compounds. (N.T.). 10 refs., 1 tab

  17. Method to produce 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to produce 14C labelled compounds by aerobic growth of an alga of the anacystis kind in a medium containing 14C in such a form that it is taken up by the microorganism, is described according to the invention. The alga anacystis nidulans has some advantages over the green alga chlorella so far commonly used to produce labelled compounds: The generation time is considerably shorter, the radiation resistance greater, the production of nuclei acids and proteins is higher. (VJ)

  18. Synthesis of [14C]-labelled dihydropyridine calcium channel entry blockers: nicardipine-[4[14C] and RS-93522-[4-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hantzsch synthesis has been applied to the general preparation of 4-aryl-dihydropyridines labelled in the metabolically stable 4-position of the dihydropyridine ring. The synthesis is based on the preparation of a key common intermediate, m-nitrobenzaldehyde-[formyl-14C], in high yield from Ba14CO3. (author)

  19. Turnover of eastern Caribbean deep water from 14C measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14C balance for the Eastern Caribbean deep water indicates the average inflow of Atlantic water into the basin to be 2.3 X 105 m3/sec (+-30%), or about 2-4 times the values estimated previously. The balance uses a model representation of the deep-water turnover, and is based on 14C concentrations at a station in the Venezuelan Basin which average ? 14C = 89% below 800 m depth with a total range of only 9%, as well as on a 14C concentration of the Atlantic inflow of ? 14C = -71% as obtained from measurements outside the Antilles Arch. The turnover time of the basin water below 2500 m depth is 55 years, which corresponds to an average upwelling velocity at this depth of about 35 m/year. With such upwelling, the temperature profile below 1800 m (the depth of the sill determining the inflow of new water) requires a vertical eddy diffusivity of about 5 cm2/sec. The oxygen consumption, and silica and CO2 regeneration, rates below 2500 m depth are obtained as -0.18, +0.08, and +0.2 ?mole kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The CO2 regeneration has but a negligible effect on the 14C balance. (Auth.)

  20. Anthropogenic influences on 14C activity level in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthropogenic influences on the 14C activity level in the environment are briefly discussed. The largest increase in 14C activity was due to nuclear weapon tests during the 1960s, when this activity doubled as compared to the 1963 natural level. Current releases of 14C from nuclear facilities are only about 10 % of natural production. Another anthropogenic effect is associated with CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (dilution of 14C in carbon isotopic mixture - Suess effect). Determination of 14C in various types of sample can enhance our knowledge about natural carbon cycling. Hence, radiocarbon provides tool for the calculation of the local/regional/global Suess effect or determination of carbon delay in various types of sinks. Our monitoring of atmospheric 14CO2 at sites with different stress from fossil fuel combustion is aimed to estimate local and regional Suess effect and associated phenomena. Extrapolated data from the Jungfraujoch monitoring station were used to establish a reference 'background' 14C activity level for the years of monitoring

  1. Developing a flow sheet for the production of 32P using magnesium sulphate target in KAMINI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P is a widely used radio-nuclide in bone pain palliation therapy. 32P can be produced in FBTR through 32S (n, p) 32P. In order to investigate the feasibility of the production and develop a flow sheet for the chemical processing of the irradiated target, a trial run was carried out using KAMINI reactor. This paper describes the irradiation of sulphate target in KAMINI reactor and chemical processing of the target to separate 32P. (author)

  2. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subspeciation of total cell proteins from multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids labelled with [35S]methionine or [35S]thioATP and of coagulase negative staphylococci labelled with [35S]methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors demonstrate that [35S]methionine labelling of proteins followed by PAGE can be used to distinguish biochemically similar, multi-antibiotic-resistant skin diphtheroids; thirty-one isolates fell into four subgroups. The method also distinguished ten separate electrophoretypes of coagulase-negative staphylococci which correlated approximately with eight biotypes; the fifty-one isolates of biotypes SII, the commonest clinical isolate, were electrophoretically identical, thus suggesting that they are, indeed, members of a single subgroup. The authors also report a novel method of radiolabelling the phosphoproteins using [35S]thioATP and have demonstrated the method using the above diphtheroids. These were again distinguished into the same four subgroups although the patterns of phosphoproteins were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those of the proteins. This thioATP labelling method should have wide application also. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Method of the rapid preparation of adenosine 5'-gamma-(32P) triphosphate by chemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziolkiewicz, W.; Pankowski, J.; Janecka, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new chemical method for the synthesis of adenosine 5'-gamma-(32P) triphosphate has been developed based on the reaction of adenosine 5'-diphosphate with ethyl chloroformate. The resulting active mixed anhydride was able to react with (32P)-triethylammonium orthophosphate to give gamma-(32P)ATP.

  4. Intramolecular labelling of sucrose made by leaves from [14C] carbon dioxide or [3-14C] serine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pea leaves were illuminated in air containing 150 or 1000 p.p.m. of 14CO2 for various times. Alternatively segments of wheat leaves were supplied with [3-14C]serine for 40 min in the light in air with 145, 326 or 994 p.p.m. of 12CO2. Sucrose was extracted from the leaf material, hydrolysed with invertase, and 14C in the pairs of carbon atoms C-3 + C-4, C-2 + C-5 and C-1 + C-6 in the glucose moiety was measured. The results obtained after metabolism of 14CO2 were consistent with the operation of the photosynthetic carbon-reduction cycle; the effects of CO2 concentration on distribution of 14C in the carbon chain of glucose after metabolism of [3-14C]serine is more easily explained by metabolism through the glycollate pathway than by the carbon-reduction cycle. (author)

  5. Lymphokine-induced uptake of [14C]glucosamine, [14C]glucose, and [3H]leucine by macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymphokine-activated (LK+) and control (LK-) macrophages were cultured for 66 h and then pulsed with [14C]glucosamine. Uptake of [14C]glucosamine was greater in LK+ than in LK- cultures. If, after 66 h, the medium was replaced with fresh medium and then pulsed with either [14C]glucose or [14C]glucosamine, the uptake of isotope was greatly reduced compared to cultures with no change of medium. However, uptake of both radiolabeled substances was still found to be greater in LK+ cultures than in LK- cultures. Although uptake of both substances was enhanced by lymphokines, the uptake kinetics of each isotope was different. Under similar conditions the uptake of [3H]leucine was not enhanced by lymphokine activation. These data are interpreted to mean that LK+ macrophages are metabolically stimulated and utilize more glucose and glucosamine. The difference in kinetics implies a different utilization by macrophages for each substance

  6. Fractionation of phosphorus added as a vegetal residue (32 P) and a fertilizer (32 P) between soil, plant and microbial biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane straw and/or P-fertilizer phosphorus-32 labelled were added to a Red Yellow podzolic soil from Goiana-PE. The treated samples were used in a pot experiment, growing sorghum plants for 4 and 6 weeks, and in an incubation experiment with incubation periods of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks without plants in order to follow the dynamics of the P added. After each harvest and incubation period the soil were analysed for 31 P and 32 P in the microbial biomass and in sequential extracts with resin (Pi), 0.5 M Na H Co3 (Pi, Po) and 0.1 N NaOH (Pi, Po). The 31 P and 32 P contents of the sorghum in the pot experiment were also determined. (author)

  7. Construction of expression vector containing glnA gene and detection of NPT II activity in the transgenic rice calli using 32P-labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glnA gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was amplified from Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 by PCR technique. the amplified 1.4 kb DNA fragment was cloned at the EcoRV site of Bluescript-SK. Both sequencing and restriction digestion data showed that the 1.4 kb DNA fragment flanked with BamHI site at each end was really the glnA gene of A. brasilense Sp7. The glnA gene was ligated with Bg1 II site of pCo24. As a result, an expression vector pGSC35 with CaMV35S promoter was obtained. Using colony in situ hybridization with ?-32P-dATP labelled probes to screen the positive clones, another glnA gene expression vector pAGNB92 with rice actin 1 promoter was constructed after three rounds of ligation and transformation. Protoplasts isolated from rice cell suspension line cv. T986 were transformed with glnA expression vectors pGSC35 and pAGNB92 containing neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) gene by using PEG fusion and electroporation. Transformed microcalli were selected on media containing G418 disulfate salt. NPT II activity was detected in 37% of G418 resistant calli by using dot blot hybridization with ?-32P-ATP and kanamycin as substrate

  8. Synthesis of 1-carboxy-N,N,N-tri-[methyl-14C] methanaminium chloride (betaine [methyl-14C] hydrochloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl bromoacetate was reacted with trimethylamine-[14C] dissolved in methanol, forming the methyl ester of [14C] labeled betaine hydrobromide. The methyl ester was hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium to (carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt, and then transformed into the hydrychloride by treatment with an equivalent amount of hydrochloric acid, yielding high purity material with a specific activity of 19.2 ?Ci/mmol and overall yield of 81.7%. (author)

  9. Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, B.; Boos, W.

    1989-01-01

    At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose (H.M. Giaeyer, B.O. Styrvold, I. Kaasen, and A.R. Strm, J. Bacteriol. 170:2841-2849, 1988). This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria o...

  10. Bioavailability in rats of bound 14C residues from corn plants treated with [14C]atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn plants grown to the silage stage were treated with 14C ring-labeled and unlabeled atrazine. The aerial portion of the plants was exhaustively extracted with solvents and the extracted material containing bound 14C residues was fed to rats. For comparison extracted material from control plants fortified with [14C]atrazine was also fed to rats. After 4 days, 88% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 10% in the urine from rats fed plant material containing bound 14C residues. In contrast, only 32% of the dose was eliminated in the feces while 60% was voided via the urine when the corn material fortified with [14C]atrazine was fed to rats. Most of the 14C residues in feces from rats fed bound diet remained nonextractable and their amounts and nature were similar to those in the corn material. Atrazine added to the corn material before feeding was metabolized effectively when consumed by rats. The data demonstrated that bound residues in corn plant treated with atrazine have a low degree of bioavailability in rats

  11. Characterization of 14C in Swedish light water reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Asa; Aronsson, Per-Olof; Lundgren, Klas; Stenstrm, Kristina

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a 4-y investigation of 14C in different waste streams of both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Due to the potential impact of 14C on human health, minimizing waste and releases from the nuclear power industry is of considerable interest. The experimental data and conclusions may be implemented to select appropriate waste management strategies and practices at reactor units and disposal facilities. Organic and inorganic 14C in spent ion exchange resins, process water systems, ejector off-gas and replaced steam generator tubes were analyzed using a recently developed extraction method. Separate analysis of the chemical species is of importance in order to model and predict the fate of 14C within process systems as well as in dose calculations for disposal facilities. By combining the results of this investigation with newly calculated production rates, mass balance assessments were made of the 14C originating from production in the coolant. Of the 14C formed in the coolant of BWRs, 0.6-0.8% was found to be accumulated in the ion exchange resins (core-specific production rate in the coolant of a 2,500 MWth BWR calculated to be 580 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The corresponding value for PWRs was 6-10% (production rate in a 2,775 MWth PWR calculated to be 350 GBq GW(e)(-1) y(-1)). The 14C released with liquid discharges was found to be insignificant, constituting less than 0.5% of the production in the coolant. The stack releases, routinely measured at the power plants, were found to correspond to 60-155% of the calculated coolant production, with large variations between the BWR units. PMID:18617793

  12. Use of colloids of chromic [32P] phosphate in treatment of solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an intratumorally single dose of chromic [32P] phosphate for the treatment of solid tumors, studies of bioelimination, biodistribution, and therapeutic action were carried out. Only for comparative purposes were similar studies undertaken using a solution of sodium [32P] orthophosphate-gelatin. Results show that when sodium [32P] orthophosphate-gelatin was intratumorally injected, the percentage of total elimination, after 32 days of treatment, was equal to 85.90 8.70%, with a higher percentage in urine (64.50 13.70%) than in feces (21.40 4.50%). In biodistribution studies, the greater percentage was found in bone (15.54 2.21%), whereas only 2.51 0.39% remained in the tumor. When chromic [32P] phosphate was intratumorally injected, we found that the total elimination was equal to 51.70 6.90%, with a higher amount in feces (32.70 4.80%) than in urine (19.00 3.60%). Biodistribution studies demonstrated that 28.93 1.30% was still in the tumor and 19.01 1.30% of the injected activity was found in the liver. On the other hand, when therapeutic action was evaluated, no tumoral regression was observed. These results demonstrate that the colloid of chromic [32P] phosphate cannot be used in the treatment of solid tumors as it mobilizes from the injection point, delivering a high dose to the entire organism

  13. Preparation and evaluation of various 32P sources for intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high per cent of restenoses, being a long-term complication of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), can be significantly reduced by short-range ionizing radiation applied locally, immediately after PTCA. In search for dosimetrically favourable and easy to handle radiation sources for this purpose, we tried a pure ?- emitter 32P (t1/2=14.3 days). Ways of preparation of 32 P sources were the following: (1) Neutron activation of 31P layers implanted into metallic surfaces by ionic methods; (2) Conversion coating of metallic surfaces in aqueous solutions containing 32PO43- ions; (3) Direct application of Na2H32 PO4 solutions in the angioplasty balloon. It was shown that: (1) 32 P sources obtained by 31 P ion implantation followed by neutron activation can be useful, but only if activation of the support material by thermal neutrons is negligible; (2) Phosphate layers on stainless steel surface exhibit rather poor adhesion. Similar layers on titanium require further studies; (3) Liquid 32 P sources ensure very good radial dose distribution but only utmost care in filling the balloon can give a reliable activity-dose dependence. Dosimetry of liquid sources, performed in a PMMA phantom by thermoluminescence method showed that 32 P sources of radioactive concentration of 200 MBq/cm3 can deposit therapeutic dose during about 12 min of exposition. TL detectors manufactured for this purpose in our laboratory show very good spatial resolution and can be recommended for similar studies. (author)

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics of 35-S and 99m-Tc-labeled heparin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental work demonstrated a significative difference between 99m-Tc and 35-S-labeled Heparin pharmacokinetics which might be related to a differential tissular accumulation of the labeled molecules

  15. The uptake of brace35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of [35S] methimazole by sheep thyroid slices has been shown to be activated in the presence of iodide. The total uptake (Q) of [35S] methimazole was shown to be the sum of a saturable process and a non-saturable process. The constants Qsub(max), K3 and P in the two-term equation were determined using a published statistical method and a Fortran IV computer programme. Diiodotyrosine (DIT) at a 0.1 mM concentration stimulated the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole appreciably in the absence of iodide, whilst thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) inhibited uptake in the presence of iodide and was of no effect in the absence of iodide. Propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibited the saturable uptake of [35S] methimazole whilst perchlorate had no effect. (author)

  16. In vivo biosynthesis and turnover of 35S-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal glomerular basement membrane was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of radioactive sulfate into normal adult rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of [35S]glycosaminoglycans in purified basement membrane was determined from the specific activity of 35S in pronase digests of basement membranes isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radioactive labeling occurred 24 h after injection following which the specific activity of basement membrane sulfate, expressed as cpm/?g uronic acid, progressively declined over the ensuing period of study. The biologic half-life of radioactive sulfate in basement membrane was estimated at about 7 days, which is within the range previously reported for [35S]glycosaminoglycans in whole renal cortex. The findings indicata that 35S-labeled components of glomerular basement membrane have a relatively rapid turnover. (orig.)

  17. Monitoring of the 14C activity in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The distribution of atmospheric radiocarbon has been extensively investigated both in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere as well as in the Tropics for a number of decades. Systematic global observations of 14CO2 in the troposphere were made during and after atmospheric nuclear weapon tests in the 1950s and 1960s by several laboratories. Nowadays the monitoring of 14C in regions adjacent to nuclear power plants (NPP) or sites of land-filled radioactive wastes has growing importance in determining the frequency and activity of anthropogenic 14C released to the environment. On the other hand, the depletion of 14C in the atmosphere gives information about the regional fossil fuel CO2 contributions (Figure 1., Prague-Bulovka). The 14C activity of the atmosphere has been monitored in the vicinity of Paks NPP by sampling environmental air monthly since 1994. Four differential sampling units collect air samples less than 2 km away from the 100- m-high stacks of Paks NPP (A-type stations), and for reference a sampler is operated at a station (B24) ca. 30 km away from Paks NPP. The highest 14C values were measured at the site located less than 1km away from Paks NPP. The influence of the 14C discharge in the environment decreases rapidly with the distance from the source and under normal operating conditions the effect of Paks NPP is negligible at a distance of 2.5km. In Figure 1. we have compared our data for Paks NPP measured during the time span of 2000 - 2005 with data from different European monitoring stations. (The 14C activities are given in ? values: ?14C(% (Asample/Astandard-1) x 1000.) In 2000-2001 the excess 14C at Paks NPP compared to the B24 was 5-10 (per mille) but its ? value didn't exceed the tropospheric background (1). With the growing traffic the inactive CO2 emission (Suess effect) exceeded the influence of the NPP (2). After a cleaning tank incident at unit 2 of Paks NPP in April 2003 a 5-10 (per mille) rise of ?14CO2 was observed at all stations (3). During the remediation activities this decreased slowly in 2004 and ceased by the second half of 2005 (4). (author)

  18. In vitro synthesis and purification of UDP-[14C] galacturonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectins comprise a major component of the cell wall and much research has focused on degradation of pectins during ripening and senescence. However, little research has been conducted on pectin synthesis, partly due to a lack of commercial availability of UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid for use as a substrate in assaying galacturonan synthase. We report on the modification and integration of several procedures to synthesize UDP-[14C] galacturonic acid from commercially available UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid. A microsomal pellet containing UDP-D-glucuronate-4-epimerase was extracted from 5-day-old mung bean hypocotyls (Phaseolus aureus) and radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.) by ultracentrifugation at 30,000 rpm for 50 min. The UDP-[14C]galacturonic acid produced was separated from remaining UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and other products by electrophoresis in pyridine:acetate:H2O on silica gel. Spots were detected by autoradiography, eluted with 80% ethanol, and purified using anion exchange chromatography

  19. Pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pharmacokinetics of 14C-urea in mice. Methods: Mice received one dose of 14C-urea orally. 14C concentrations in blood, organs and excrements of mice were measured by a Liquid Scintillation Counter. Results: Mice received one dose of 2.96 MBq/kg of 14C-urea orally, the blood concentration-time curve conformed to two compartment open model, T1/2(?) was 0.72 h, T1/2(?) was 5.15 h, Tmax was 0.11 h, Cmax was 1.57 kBq/ml, plasma clearance was 0.617 Lkg-1h-1, respectively. Measurements conducted at 0.25, 2, 24 h after deglutition, respectively. In the 12 organs measured, radioactivity was found most intensive in kidney, liver, lung and spleen, less in heart, stomach, intestines and muscles, and least in brain and fat tissue. The peak was found at 2 h in lung. Radioactivity in the 12 organs measured reduced by time in 24 h but relatively higher concentration standing in liver. In 24 h, excretion via urine was 45.45%, stool excretion 19.30%, and that was 64.75% of intake dosage in total. Conclusion: Orally administrated 14C-urea will be quickly absorbed and cleaned out, mainly via urine, no specific accumulation in 12 organs was found

  20. The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter Extends into the Transcribed Region

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, Sandra; Rothnie, Helen M.; Chen, Gang; HE, XIAOYUAN; Hohn, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A 60-nucleotide region (S1) downstream of the transcription start site of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA can enhance gene expression. By using transient expression assays with plant protoplasts, this activity was shown to be at least partially due to the effect of transcriptional enhancers within this region. We identify sequence motifs with enhancer function, which are normally masked by the powerful upstream enhancers of the 35S promoter. A repeated CT-rich motif is involved both in e...

  1. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32}P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte A, C

    2003-07-01

    The {sup 32} P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The {sup 32} P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The {sup 32} P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the {sup 32} P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the {sup 32} P to leave of the irradiation of S {alpha} with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S {alpha}, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate {sup 32} P of the S {alpha}. In general, it was reached to obtain {sup 32} P from S {alpha} irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  2. Synthesis of |21-14C| -3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one and |21-14C| -5?-cholestan-3?-OL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    |21-14C|-3?-Hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one was synthesised from 3?-acetoxy-5?-androstan-17?-carboxylic acid chloride and |14C2|dimethyl-cadmium. Reaction of the labelled product with isohexyl bromide yielded, after dehydration and catalytic hydrogenation, |21-14C|-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (|21-14C|-coprostanol). (author)

  3. Adjuvant internal hepatic radiotherapy using colloidal 32P chromic phosphate in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the value of adjuvant radiotherapy given in the form of colloidal chromic phosphate 32P suspension administered via portal vein, in preventing the growth of occult metastases in the liver. Twenty two patients (10 patients of treated group with 12 controls) were followed 12 months after operation. There was no significant change in the CBC and liver functions after administration of 32P labeled colloidal chromic phosphate. Although local recurrence rates were very similar in both groups of colorectal cancer (3/12 in the control group and 4/10 in the treated group), liver metastasis rates were quite different: 4/12 in the control group and none (0/10) in the treated group. In conclusion, 32P labeled colloidal chromic phosphate is expected to prevent liver metastases of completely resected colorectal cancer. (author)

  4. Exchange of radioactive phosphorus 32P between the components of an artificial plant community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil) the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens) and Carex pilosa Scop.; cases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L.) Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Padus avium Mill., Aegopodium podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold) between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%. (author)

  5. Movement of 32P in sunflower plants inoculated with single and dual inocula of VAM fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower plants were inoculated with single and dual inocula of Glomus intraradix and Glomus mosseae. 32P-labelled phosphate was applied after sufficient infection was obtained in all treatments. Plants inoculated with dual inocula of the two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi showed significantly higher shoot weight than those inoculated with single inocula and control treatments. Of the 32P transported to the plants, the percentage of 32P transported to the shoot was 59.9 in G. intraradix + G. mosseae, 25.12 in G. intraradix, 33.31 in G. mosseae and 35.2 in uninoculated control. The present study reveals that the increased growth in plants inoculated with dual inocula compared to those inoculated with single inocula of VAM fungi may be due to the increased transfer of P to the shoot from the root. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Laboratory and field studies with /sup 32/P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smittle, B.J.; Focks, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with /sup 32/P by feeding fourth-stage larvae /sup 32/P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The /sup 32/P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population.

  7. Laboratory and field studies with 32P labeled Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Females and eggs of Toxorhynchites r. rutilus were labeled with 32P by feeding fourth-stage larvae 32P labeled Aedes aegypti larvae. Eggs from females up to 3 weeks in age had detectable levels of radioactivity and individual eggs contained ca. 0.3% of the mother's total radioactivity. Comparisons of labeled and unlabeled females in indoor and outdoor cage tests indicated that survival and fecundity of the 2 groups were approximately equal. No differences were noted for dispersal and fecundity of labeled and control females released in field tests. The 32P-labeled Tx. r. rutilus females behave similarly to unlabeled females, and this method of radiolabeling provides a sound tool for tracking laboratory-reared females released into an area with an indigenous population

  8. Radioactive microspheres labelled with 32P in the treatment of tumours of the parenchymatous organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the work was obtaining of radioactive microspheres with stable binding of the radionuclide, which could permanently remain in the target organ and would be distributed evenly in the healthy tissue and tumour providing a good uniformity of the irradiation field. Microspheres of strictly defined diameter were obtained by passing of a ion-exchange resin through standard sieves and by fractionated sedimentation. A high efficiency of the reaction of labelling of the microspheres with 32P-phosphate was achieved. Radioactive microspheres bound 32P permanently in vitro and in vivo. The ion-exchange resin was labelled also with radionuclides 99Tc or 131I using it for animal experiments. The microspheres labelled with 32P may be a promissing radiopharmaceutic agent for internal radiotherapy of tumours. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. Effect of Fe deficiency on uptake and transport of 32P in barley and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv. K19) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.ev. K68) plants were grown in sand culture at deficient (0.056 ppm) and optimal (5.6 ppm) levels of Fe supply. For uptake studies, the sand-grown plants were transferred to aerated solution cultures containing labelled-P (0.2 ?Ci 32P/L). After 48 hr, the radioactivity was measured in the different plant parts. Iron deficiency resulted in an enhancement in the uptake of 32P in barley and wheat roots on both per mg dry weight and per plant bases. Genotypic differences were observed in the transport of 32P to the tops under Fe-stress. The transport index was decreased in barley but enhanced in wheat. (author). 16 refs

  10. Exchange of Radioactive Phosphorus 32P between the Components of an Artificial Plant Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zarzycki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In artificial plant communities (wooden cases with soil the following plants were grown together for one year: case No. 1: Betula verrucosa Ehrh. (2 specimens and Carex pilosa Scop.; sases No. 2 and 3: Alnus incana (L. Mnch., Fraxinus excelsior L., Podus avium Mili., Aegopodiurti podagraria L., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and others. Into the stalks or stems of one to three plants of every case 32P was introduced. After 3 months all the plants in every case contained radiactive phosphorus. There were great differences in 32P concentration (up to ten-fold between plants grown in the same case. The concentration of 32P in plants into which it had not been introduced was of the range of 0.1%.

  11. Influence of cycloheximide on translocation of 32P in Laminaria digitata (Linne) Lamouroux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cycloheximide strongly reduced translocation of 32P when applied to various regions of Laminaria digitata thallus. In addition, the part of the different organs is demonstrated. The results show that CHM action was restricted to the treated zone since 32P migrations were not reduced in surrounding regions. At the same time, CHM influence on other metabolic processes possibly involved in translocation, was studied. Thus, as concerns 32P uptake by thallus pieces, CHM inhibition took effect but after a 4 hour action period. Moreover, no effect on O2 uptake was observed. These results are believed to favour an inhibitory action on protein synthesis more than to affect oxidative phosphorylations. The present data are considered to support the view that in algae as well as in higher plants, the mechanisms of the translocation of inorganic substances depend on the protein metabolism. (orig.)

  12. Determination of basal and stimulated levels of inositol triphosphate in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies indicated that thrombin-stimulation of platelets prelabeled with [3H]inositol or [32P]orthophosphate results in an increase of radioactive inositol triphosphate, a substance thought to modulate the levels of free intracellular calcium. In the present study, we improved the method of resolution of inositol triphosphate from other compounds that are also labeled with [32P]orthophosphate using a combination of enzyme treatment and electrophoresis. We have further demonstrated that the specific activities of metabolic ATP and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (the precursor of inositol triphosphate) are identical in [32P]orthophosphate-labeled platelets. It follows that the amount of inositol triphosphate is proportional to its radioactivity in the metabolic compartment of the cells. Using this protocol, the concentration of inositol triphosphate in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets were determined to be 1-4 and 10-30 pmol/108 cells, respectively

  13. RNA molecular turn-over in Tobacco cell cultures. I. 32P-phosphate isotope exchange of tRNA and rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem was raised whether the hypermodified bases, contained in the sequence of some tRNA, were the source of plant natural cytokinins. The kinetics of the incorporation of [32P]-phosphate and the loss of radioactive phosphorous during chase experiments were measured in fractions extracted from tobacco cell cultures, grown in shaken liquid medium. The radioactive phosphate was incorporated in tRNA and rRNA at the same rate and it was diluted at the same rate during chase experiments. The isotope exchange in these RNA fractions was slow and a half-life of about 5 days could be estimated. The relative stability of RNA was confirmed by the kinetics of chase of [8-14C]-guanosine. The significance of these findings is discussed in connection with the observed flow of the [32P]-phosphate through the metabolic compartments of the cells. It is concluded that the degradation rate of bulk tRNA in Tobacco cells is too slow to account for the flow of endogenous cytokinins and to explain the independence of the cells versus exogenous hormone. These results do not eliminate the possibility of a rapid turn-over involving a limited number of tRNA species

  14. Rapid, high-resolution 14C chronology of ooids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupr, Steven R.; Roberts, Mark L.; Burton, Joshua R.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-06-01

    Ooids are small, spherical to ellipsoidal grains composed of concentric layers of CaCO3 that could potentially serve as biogeochemical records of the environments in which they grew. Such records, however, must be placed in the proper temporal context. Therefore, we developed a novel acidification system and employed an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) with a gas accepting ion source to obtain radiocarbon (14C) chronologies extending radially through ooids within one 8-h workday. The method was applied to ooids from Highborne Cay, Bahamas and Shark Bay, Australia, yielding reproducible 14C chronologies, as well as constraints on the rates and durations of ooid growth and independent estimates of local 14C reservoir ages.

  15. Determination of 14C in liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to establish the parameters to determine the activity of total 14C in liquid radioactive waste by using the liquid scintillation spectrometry technique. Carbon-14 has been recognized as one of the main dose contributors in future release scenarios from the radioactive waste repository. The total 14C present in the sample is determined in the CO2 form through the acid treatment and oxidation. The CO2 absorption method is quick, inexpensive, and simple. The CO2 is absorbed in a solution of NaOH, which an aliquot is taken and mixed to scintillation cocktail. The activity of the total 14C is determined using a optimized counting window. Effective radiochemical yield was determined using sucrose and urea standards, showing a value about 50 % for both standards. (author)

  16. Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

  17. Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

  18. Interstitial irradiation using 32P-chromic phosphate during resection of cardio-esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of 32P-chromic phosphate (32P-colloid) by stromal injection during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection. Methods: To 91 patients with clinically diagnosed cardio-esophageal carcinoma, infiltrative injection of 32P-colloid (296-370 MBq/10 ml) was administer either into the interstitial tissues neighboring to the site of lesion and the region of lymphatic drainage after resection of the tumor or, for those patients whose tumor could not be removed, 32P-colloid was injected into the tumor proper and the lymphatic drainage region. The control group included 99 patients with the same diagnosis, who were operated in the same period of time but not injected with 32P-colloid. The peri-operative complication, time and rate of lymphatic metastasis, and the post-operative survival rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year were followed. Results: No operative death occurred in both groups. The incidences of peri-operative complication were not different statistically between these two group (P>0.05). The time of lymph node metastasis and the incidences of mediastinal, supraclavicular ,and abdominal lymph node metastasis were all statistically different between these two groups (P0.05) between these two groups ,while the 3- and 5-year rates were significantly different (P32P-colloid during cardio-esophageal carcinoma resection is a simple and safe procedure in controlling the post-operative lymphatic metastasis and has very fair clinical effectiveness in improving intermediate and late survival rates. (author)

  19. Assessment of chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during production of H332Po4 and effective reduction of 35S release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical form of gaseous 35S species produced during the production of H332PO4 was characterized in order to reduce 35S release from the radioisotope production laboratory. An air sample was evacuated from the cell in which the H332PO4 production was being carried out, and collected in a sample gas reservoir. Gaseous sulfur species contained in the sample was condensed in a cold trap maintained at -180 degree C and analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was the only sulfur species detected. Equilibrium constant calculations showed that SO2 would be expected to be the predominant species produced by reactions of sulfur molecules (Sn : n = 2 ? 8) with oxygen in air. Release of 35SO2 was remarkably reduced by revised production procedures that prevent the reaction between the sulfur vapor and oxygen. (4 figs., 1 tab.)

  20. The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

  1. Incorporation of 32P and Growth of Pseudomonad UP-2 on n-Tetracosane

    OpenAIRE

    Zilber, I. Kirschner; Rosenberg, E; Gutnick, D.

    1980-01-01

    Cultures of the marine pseudomonad UP-2 growing on n-tetracosane contained both free cells and cells bound to the solid hydrocarbon. After separation by filtration through a Whatman no. 1 filter, the numbers of free and bound cells were estimated from the amount of 32P incorporated into each fraction and the determined value of 32P incorporation per viable cell in the filtrate (free cells). During the early exponential growth phase, over 80% of the cells were bound to large pieces of n-tetrac...

  2. The 32P uptake test in the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma - is the method obsolete?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the 32P uptake test for the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma in 41 patients are reported. The sensitivity was 80%, the specifity 86%, if a count rate ratio of more than 1.4 between tumor and normal tissue was considered as pathological. Ratios between 1.4 and 1.6 ought to be considered as equivocal in which case specifity increases to 90%. The 32P uptake test still remains of method a clinical relevance in the diagnosis of chorioideal melanoma. (orig.)

  3. Synoviorthesis of the knee joint with 32P-chromic phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-CrPO4 in colloid form has been used for radiosynoviorthesis. There were no acute or subacute side reactions observed. The therapy results were equal to those following 90Y colloid application: 60% very good to good results after 6 months. The substance can be kept on stock since it has a relatively long shelf-life. The cost reduction and the simplification of treatment planning have proved to be the most important advantages of 32P-CrPO4. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Mn deficiency on uptake, transport and distribution of 32P in cauliflower and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of 32P uptake, transport and distribution has been recorded in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis cv. Late Maghi) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Marglobe) plants grown at deficient (0.00055 ppm) and optimal (0.55 ppm) levels of Mn supply in refined sand culture. Manganese deficiency enhanced the transport of 32P from roots to tops in both the species but the uptake and distribution pattern was found to vary with the species, plant parts and in terms of concentration and total uptake. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  5. Labelling of eggs of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann) through radioactive sperm ( 32p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of Med-fly eggs, using the sperm in the transmission of radioisotope 32P is described. A hundred hatched couples were used, the males fed on a diet made of 5 g sugar and 1.66g of hydrolized protein. This diet was labelled with a solution of Na2HPO4, in which the atom of phosphorus was labelled with 32P isotope. It showed an activity calculated at 343,9 ?Ci. Statistical treatment of the data indicated that the eggs became labelled and remained labelled until the 5th day after mating, even on eggs laid by female who mated with untreated males

  6. Studies on degradation and excretion of 32P-methamidophos by lactating cattle, following oral application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32P-labelled methamidophos (thiophosphoric acid O,S-dimethylester amide) was orally applied to lactating cattle, with the dosage being 2 mg/kg body weight. The half-life of the active agent in blood serum was 10 +- 2 hours. As long as after six hours, up to 1 ppm of extracable 32P activity with components of unmetabolized active agent was recorded in vivo from blood and milk. Active agent was excreted also in urine. Its concentration declined rapidly after 24 hours, though clearly detectable quantities were still present in the circulation. Metabolites were not identified. Binding of methamidophos to proteins and pharmacokinetics measured are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Origin of the anomalous long lifetime of 14C

    CERN Document Server

    Maris, P; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Nam, H; Dean, D J

    2011-01-01

    We report the microscopic origins of the anomalously suppressed beta decay of 14C to 14N using the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) with the Hamiltonian from chiral effective field theory (EFT) including three-nucleon force (3NF) terms. The 3NF induces unexpectedly large cancellations within the p-shell between contributions to beta decay, which reduce the traditionally large contributions from the NN interactions by an order of magnitude, leading to the long lifetime of 14C.

  8. Causes of an AD 774-775 14C increase

    CERN Document Server

    Melott, Adrian L; 10.1038/nature11695

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric 14C production is a potential window into the energy of solar proton and other cosmic ray events. It was previously concluded that results from AD 774-775 are orders of magnitude greater than known solar events. We find that the coronal mass ejection energy based on 14C production is much smaller than claimed, but still substantially larger than the maximum historical Carrington Event of 1859. Such an event would cause great damage to modern technology, and in view of recent confirmation of superflares on solar-type stars, this issue merits attention.

  9. 14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rauws, E A; Van Royen, E A; Langenberg, W; Woensel, J V; Vrij, A A; Tytgat, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled breath of Campylobacter pylori culture positive individuals within 20-30 minutes. Likelihood analysis reve...

  10. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion.

  11. Organic 14C activity in an abyssal marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that one measure of transport rates and residence times of organic carbon within the various organic carbon pools in the ocean is to follow perturbations from the 1952-58 and 1961-62 atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests on the natural 14C activities of living, detrital and dissolved organic matter. Measurements of the 14C activity of the total sedimentary organic carbon are here reported in an abyssal red clay, as no such data were available for this organic pool. (author)

  12. Standardization and intercalibration trials with 14C isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable standardization of stock solution of 14C and the counting equipment is an essential pre-requisite in order to get comparable and meaningful values in primary production measured by 14C techniques. In the course of a comparative study of different methods of standardization it was found that the biological and scintillation methods gave comparable values for stock solutions. The presence of toxic substances in stock solutions can produce disconcertingly divergent values if proper care is not taken in the preparation of ampoules. The results of experimental work on these aspects to ensure accuracy and comparability in the values obtained both in eutrophic and oligotrophic environments are discussed. (author)

  13. Spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose and Jones recently discovered in an ingeniously simple experiment that 223Ra, an ? emitter with a half-life of 11.4 days, occasionally emits 14C nuclei of 29.8 MeV energy. The branching ratio relative to ? decay was measured to be (8.5 +/- 2.5) x 10-10. 223Ra occurs in the natural decay chain of 235U, with 227Ac being a convenient precursor and source material. In the present study the authors have confirmed the spontaneous emission of 14C from 223Ra and unambiguously identified the mass of the emitted particles

  14. AMS of {sup 14}C at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, M.; Huber, R.; Jacob, S. [ETHZ, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    At the ETH/PSI AMS facility {sup 14}C test measurements have been performed at low terminal voltages of 0.5 and 1 MV in order to study the feasibility of AMS with very small accelerators. These experiments have demonstrated that interfering molecules ({sup 13}CH and {sup 12}CH{sub 2}) in charge states 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} can be destroyed in an adequate Ar gas stripper. These new results imply the feasibility of a new generation of very small accelerator systems for {sup 14}C. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  15. Search for exotic cluster configurations in 14C nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, L. Yu; Chernyshev, B. A.; Gurov, Yu B.; Karpuhin, V. S.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Pritula, R. V.; Schurenkova, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of 2-dimentional Dalitz diagram, measured in 14C(?-, pd)X reaction, allowed to distinguish the pion absorption by p intranuclear cluster and to obtain an indication on the existence of 3p + 11Li configuration in 14C nucleus. Highly excited states of 12,13Be isotopes were found with the energy of Ex ? 30 MeV for the first time. It was shown that these states decay as follows 12Be*?p + 11Li and 13Be*?d + 11Li.

  16. Incorporation of (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of (2-14C)acetate and (1-14C)palmitate into the lipids of washed ejaculated buffalo spermatozoa was followed up to 4 and 2 hr respectively. There was significant incorporation of acetate into the total lipids both in the presence and absence of glucose in the medium. The presence of glucose (0.5%) in the medium significantly stimulated the incorporation of acetate into the sperm lipids at 2 hr. Inclusion of 3% bovine serum albumin in the incubation medium significantly stimulated the acetate incorporation at 4 hr whereas no such effect was observed at 2 hr of incubation. The incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate into buffalo sperm lipids was significantly high in the presence of glucose and was highest at 1 hr of incubation. No incorporation of (1-14C)palmitate was observed in the absence of glucose. The greater extent of palmitate incorporation than acetate suggested that the de novo synthesis of lipids using 14C-acetate was comparatively lower than utilization of 14-palmitate for esterification with sperm lipids in buffaloes. (author)

  17. Effect of tolbutamide on 14C-sodium bicarbonate and 14C-alanine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolbutamide (TOLB) is a sulfonylurea commonly used in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Studies have shown that TOLB affects gluconeogenesis and glycolysis from various substrates in the liver. Specifically, TOLB inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate in a dose-dependent manner. In order to further clarify tolbutamide's mechanism of action, its effect on the incorporation of 14C from NaH14CO3 and 14C-alanine into glucose, lactate or pyruvate in the presence of lactate was measured. Rat hepatocytes were incubated with lactate (2.0 mM) with or without TOLB (1.0 mM) in the presence of NaH14CO3 or 14C-alanine. TOLB inhibited the incorporation of C14 from NaHCO3 and alanine into glucose by 55 and 56%, respectively. TOLB did not alter the incorporation of C14 from NaHCO3 into lactate or pyruvate. TOLB did not affect the incorporation of 14C from alanine into lactate but produced a pooling of 14C as pyruvate. The authors data support studies demonstrating the TOLB produces its actions, in part, by increasing the concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and inhibiting pyruvate carboxylase

  18. Structure of newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans and (35S)-proteoglycan turnover products of cartilage explant cultures from dogs with experimental osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of newly synthesized proteoglycans from explant cultures of cartilage from joints subjected to transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (osteoarthritic) and from normal (non- or sham-operated) joints was examined. The structure of the products of proteoglycan turnover was also examined using explants of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage maintained in culture for a 48 h chase period. The findings were as follows: Newly synthesized (35S)-proteoglycans extracted from cartilage explants from osteoarthritic joints whether examined 3 weeks, 3 months, or 6 months after surgery were larger than those from corresponding normal cartilage. This can be explained by the synthesis in osteoarthritic cartilage of abnormally long chondroitin sulfate chains on newly synthesised proteoglycans. The extracts also contained a newly formed small proteoglycan species that was unable to interact with hyaluronic acid. The proportion of this species was higher in osteoarthritic cartilage compared with normal, examined 3 weeks after surgery, but was generally absent from cartilage obtained 3 and 6 months after surgery. Compared with controls, a smaller proportion of the (35S)-proteoglycans released into the maintenance medium of explant cultures of osteoarthritic cartilage during a 48 h chase period was able to interact with hyaluronic acid. However, although furnished with longer (35S)-glycosaminoglycan chains, these proteoglycans were smaller than those from control explants

  19. Incorporation of U-14C-glucose into the lipids U-14C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of U-14C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with 14C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The 14C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. (author)

  20. Convenient preparative synthesis of [14C]trehalose from [14C]glucose by intact Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At high osmolarity, Escherichia coli synthesizes trehalose intracellularly, irrespective of the nature of the carbon source. Synthesis proceeds via the transfer of UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, yielding trehalose 6-phosphate, followed by its dephosphorylation to trehalose. This reaction was exploited to preparatively synthesize [14C]trehalose from exogenous [14C]glucose by using intact bacteria of a mutant (DF214) that could not metabolize glucose. The total yield of radiochemically pure trehalose from glucose was routinely more than 50%

  1. Determination of extractable and nonextractable radioactivity from small field plots 45 and 95 weeks after treatment with [14C]dicamba, (2,4-dichloro[14C]phenoxy)acetic acid, [14C]triallate, and [14C]trifluralin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of ring-labeled [14C]dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid), ring-labeled [14C]-2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid], [2-14C]triallate [S-(2,3,3-trichloroallyl) diisopropylthiocarbamate], and ring-labeled [14C]trifluralin (?,?,?-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) was studied under field conditions at rates of 1 kg/ha in small sandy loam plots. Duplicate plots were sampled to a depth of 10 cm after 45 and 95 weeks and extracted with aqueous acetonitrile to determine amounts of extractable radioactivity. The extracted soils were then oxidatively combusted to determine nonextractable, or bound, radioactivity. After 45 weeks, soluble radioactivity recovered from the dicamba-, 2,4-D-, triallate-, and trifluralin-treated plots was <1, 2, 50, and 77% of that applied, while the nonextractable activity accounted for 2, 10, 15, and 10% of that applied. After 95 weeks, <1, 1, 16, and 38% of the applied radioactivity were, on the average, extractable from the dicamba-, 2,4-D-, triallate-, and trifluralin-treated plots, while 3, 6, 30, and 22%, respectively, remained in a solvent nonextractable form. 31 references, 4 tables

  2. Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate

  3. Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron, distribution of the bound residues in the components of humus, and their absorption by step-crop (rice) were investigated in paddy soil and black soil under simulated aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. The results show that: (1) The bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soil were very considerable and increasing with the incubation time. The organic substance and humidity contained in the soil affected the bound residues remarkably. The bound residues in black soil with more organic substance and clay particles were higher than those in paddy soil, and under anaerobic conditions were higher than under aerobic conditions. (2) Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron mainly bound with the components of soil humus, the distribution of which was in the order of humin>humic acid>fulvic acid. (3) Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soils could be absorbed by step-crop (rice) and moved to the upper part, that would cause chemical injury, chlorosis and necrosis for the leaf tip

  4. The synthesis of [14C] C I pigment violet 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the custom synthesis of radiolabeled compounds in the authors laboratory, aside from spectroscopic examination, their identity and radiochemical purity is routinely corroborated by demonstration of cochromatography with an authentic cold standard. In the synthesis of [14C] red pigment 1 for the Cosmetic Toiletry and Fragrance Association, its insolubility precluded this. The preparation as well as characterization of 1 is described

  5. Physical Research Laboratory radiocarbon 14C dates : CS-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C dates of archaeological samples measured at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad are presented. Samples were converted into methane and measured in gas proportional counters. Ninety-five percent activity of NBS oxalic acid was used as modern standard. The dates in years B.P. are given for each sample based on the half-life values of 5568 +- 30 years and 5730 +- 40 years, the latter within parenthesis. The dates are not calibrated for 14C/12C variations. To convert the dates into AD/BC scale, 1950 AD should be used as reference year. A number of 14C dates (PRL-81, -83, -67, -68) now confirm that the Painted Grey Ware culture extended upto the 3rd century BC. Some of the dates from Barkhera (PRL-113), Bateshwar (PRL-200), Bhimbetka (PRL-17) and Koldihawa (PRL-100, 101) are older than normally expected, probably indicative of some hitherto unknown basal cultures in these regions. 14C dates on in situ Megalithic materials do not seem to go beyond 200 BC. (author)

  6. Stanoven rovn? aktivity 14C v biot? okol JE.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sv?tlk, Ivo; Michlek, V.; Tomkov, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 16, 3/4 (2008), s. 82-88. ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAAX00130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C * nuclear power plants * biota Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality

  7. Biomonitoring of 14C in the vicinity of NPPs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sv?tlk, Ivo; Molnr, M.; Svingor, E.; Rinyu, L.; Fut, I.; Michlek, V.

    Brasov : IRPA, 2007, s. 1-10. [IRPA Regional Congress for Central and Eastern Europe. Brasov (RO), 24.09.2007-28.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 14C excess * Suess effect * biota monitoring * nuclear power plants Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  8. Photosynthetic incorporation of 14C by Stevia rebaudiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic incorporation of 14 by Stevia rebaudiana specimens was investigated. The 14C incorporation, when the isotope was furnished to the plant in form of 14CO2, was rapid. After 24 hours, the radioactivity has been incorporated into a great number of compounds including pigments, terpenes, glucose, cellulose and also stevioside and its derivatives. (M.A.C.)

  9. Method of preparing 14C-labelled aldopentoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation is based on epimerization of the initial 14C-labelled D- or L-aldopentose in the catalytic presence of molybdic acid. The aldopentoses formed show unchanged sense of optical rotation relative to the initial aldopentose, unchanged order of carbon atoms and specific activity. (J.P.)

  10. Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 34679 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250?Ci/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K2,1, K1,2) and compartments pool size (V1, V2) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

  11. Mineralization of 14C-labeled agrochemicals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labeled compounds were used to study the mineralization of methamidophos, 2,4-D and metsulfuron in soil. Mineralization rate was influenced by the type of soil, concentration of chemical in the soil, the initial soil microbial population and the nature of the chemical. (author)

  12. Residues of 14C-lindane in stored faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 70% of the applied 14C-lindane penetrated into stored faba beans during 30 weeks. The percentage of bound residues in the grains did not exceed 3%. Feeding of the bound residues to mice considerably reduced body weight gain. (author)

  13. 14C measurements in Bulgarian and Hungarian wines from 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurements of 14C in ethanol samples extracted from wines of different wine districts in Bulgaria and Hungary in 1986 showed that the atmospheric reservoir remained practically undisturbed by the emission due to the Chernobyl accident. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  14. Synthesis of [sup 14]C-radiolabeled ractopamine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terando, N.H. (DowElanco, Greenfield Labs., Greenfield, IN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Ractopamine HC1 was uniformly labeled with carbon-14 in one of two phenyl rings as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. The six-step synthesis was completed in a 14% yield. Product instability on silica gel complicated purification, but development of a chromatographic method afforded ractopamine HCl-[sup 14]C with a radiochemical purity of 98.2%. (author).

  15. Synthesis of 14C-radiolabeled ractopamine hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ractopamine HC1 was uniformly labeled with carbon-14 in one of two phenyl rings as a requirement for animal metabolism studies. The six-step synthesis was completed in a 14% yield. Product instability on silica gel complicated purification, but development of a chromatographic method afforded ractopamine HCl-14C with a radiochemical purity of 98.2%. (author)

  16. Production of a negative 14C beam from tantalum carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain several tens nano Amps negative 14C beam for the Orsay MP Tandem in good conditions of yield and safety, a method for fabrication of polycristalline Ta carbides (Ta2C, TaC) has been developped, allowing only one handling

  17. Process for the production of 14C-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes the production of 14C-labelled compounds from solution with the aid of algae. A microorganism of the Anacystic species is used, preferably Anacystis nidulans which is also known as 'Indiana 625'. The experiments and their results are described in detail. (UWI)

  18. Microorganisms labelled with 14C for measurement of phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic method for determination of phagocytic activity is presented. The method of labelling of Staphylococcus aureus 519 with 14C is described. Effects of various parameters (e.g. time of incubation, serum dilution, number of phagocytes and bacteria used in the test on phagocytosis) were studied. The effect of tuftsin and its lysine analogue on phagocytic granulocytes is also described. (author)

  19. Microorganism labeled with 14C for measurement of phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotopic method for determination of phagocytic activity is presented. The method of labeling of Staphylococcus aureus 519 with 14C is described. Effects of various parameters (e.g. time of incubation, serum dilution, number of phagocytes and bacteria undergoing phagocytosis) on phagocytosis were studied. The effect of tuftsin and its lysine analogue on phagocytic granulocytes is also described. (author)

  20. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 oC for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 14'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 14C-parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 14C- pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  1. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  2. Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

    2001-02-23

    We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of the invasion of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} and bomb {sup 14}C into the atmosphere and surface oceans. Therefore the {Delta}{sup 14}C data that are produced in this study can be used to validate the ocean uptake of fossil fuel CO2 in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. This study takes advantage of the quasi-conservative nature of {sup 14}C as a water mass tracer by using {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in corals to identify changes in the shallow circulation of the Pacific. Although the data itself provides fundamental information on surface water mass movement the true strength is a combined approach which is greater than the individual parts; the data helps uncover deficiencies in ocean circulation models and the model results place long {Delta}{sup 14}C time series in a dynamic framework which helps to identify those locations where additional observations are most needed.

  3. Labeling of specific proteins in rat ovarian plasma membranes with [?-32P]GTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report evidence that [?-32P]GTP preferentially labels two proteins in rat ovary and parotid membranes that differ structurally from the proteins that are substrates for ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin and which are thought to be involved in the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP. (Auth.)

  4. The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32P in the form of carrier free KH232PO4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in ?% arcsin converted from 32P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Chromium(III) phosphate labelled with 32P for use in metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was obtained for the first time a suspension of chromium Phosphate (III) labelled with 32P, with predominant size of particles among 5-10 μm, potentially useful in the treatment of solid tumors and Radiosynoctomy. A dispersion was obtained with prevalence of sizes of the colloidal order with 80% above 0,2 μm, potentially useful for Radiosynovectomy

  10. Chemical synthesis of nucleoside-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, A; Panusz, H; Pankowski, J; Kozio?kiewicz, W

    1980-01-01

    A simple chemical procedure for the preparation of four common ribonucleoside 5-gamma-[32P]triphosphates of high specific activity (up to 10 Ci/mmole) based on the condensation of orthophosphoric acid with the corresponding nucleoside 5-diphosphate in the presence of ethyl chloroformate as well as the methods of purification and identification of the products are described. PMID:7375446

  11. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Solvent Extraction Separation of Phosphorus for the Measurement of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus is a major element in life and plays essential roles in the human body. On the other hand, phosphorus organic compound has high toxicity, therefore, the determination of trace amount of phosphorus is important in environment studies. Development of an analytical method for the determination of low levels of phosphorus is very important as a very few analytical techniques yield reliable results for this element at trace levels. Radioactive phosphorus, 32P (T1/2 = 14.3 d, Emax 1.71 MeV) is the highest energy beta-emitting radionuclides and now generally accepted as an effective therapeutic agent for chronic leukemia and excess red blood cells. But, 32P used in diagnosis and treatment are generated radioactive waste such as pipette tips, latex gloves, angioplastic balloons, Kimwipes etc.. We'll analyze 32P in medical radioactive waste in the future. Even if 32P has low level activity and short halflife, we have to control radioactive materials in medical waste. In this work, experiment separation using solvent extraction of inactive phosphorus as preliminary experiments for the establishment of analysis. Phosphorus is extracted tri-n-octylamine (TNOA)/ xylene, which is the most suitable solvent and then is measured by UV-visable spectrophotometer

  13. Solvent Extraction Separation of Phosphorus for the Measurement of {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Heung N.; Ahn, Hong Joo; Han, Sun ho; Jee, Kwang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Phosphorus is a major element in life and plays essential roles in the human body. On the other hand, phosphorus organic compound has high toxicity, therefore, the determination of trace amount of phosphorus is important in environment studies. Development of an analytical method for the determination of low levels of phosphorus is very important as a very few analytical techniques yield reliable results for this element at trace levels. Radioactive phosphorus, {sup 32}P (T1/2 = 14.3 d, Emax 1.71 MeV) is the highest energy beta-emitting radionuclides and now generally accepted as an effective therapeutic agent for chronic leukemia and excess red blood cells. But, {sup 32}P used in diagnosis and treatment are generated radioactive waste such as pipette tips, latex gloves, angioplastic balloons, Kimwipes etc.. We'll analyze {sup 32}P in medical radioactive waste in the future. Even if {sup 32}P has low level activity and short halflife, we have to control radioactive materials in medical waste. In this work, experiment separation using solvent extraction of inactive phosphorus as preliminary experiments for the establishment of analysis. Phosphorus is extracted tri-n-octylamine (TNOA)/ xylene, which is the most suitable solvent and then is measured by UV-visable spectrophotometer.

  14. Counting rate of spherical ion exchange resin containing 32P homogeneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity from a spherical ion exchange resin containing radioisotopes homogeneously was calculated. For the calculations a mean distance defined by the length from an arbitrary point in the sphere to the spherical surface was used. The radioactivity to be radiated from the point in the mean distance and observed at the surface of the sphere was estimated in the form of integrals, considering a relative intensity obtained from the use of the mean distance. The integral was performed from the center of the sphere to the radius using a numerical method. Homogeneous adsorption of 32P in a spherical ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-425) was carried out as H2PO4- labeled with 32P. ?-rays of 32P transmitting through the resin were measured. The numbers of 32P adsorbed in the sphere were calculated from the concentration decrease of a H2PO4- solution in an adsorption flask. The estimated radioactivity was in good agreement with the observed one. (auth.)

  15. Uptake of 3HHO and 32P by roots of wheat and rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements were made of 3HHO and 32P taken up from labelled soil by roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica campestris L.). Single roots were encased in labelled soil for 3 days, and the amount of 3HHO and 32P retained in the shoots was determined. Plants were grown to five stages of maturity in growth boxes under controlled conditions. Roots were labelled at up to four depths (to 90 cm) depending on the rooting depth at each stage of maturity. Uptake of 3HHP per unit length of root increased as the plant age increased, while uptake of 32P decreased to below detection levels by 45 days after germination. Larger amounts of both nutrients were translocated to and retained in the shoots from surface roots than from roots located deeper in the soil although the soil was uniform in temperature, bulk density, and composition through the growth boxes. Wheat roots were more efficient than rape roots in absorbing 3HHO; however, rape roots took up larger amounts of 32P per unit length of root. Neither native nor added P located more than 30 cm deep is of much importance to these annual crops, since uptake is minimal and the main demand for this nutrient occurs at early growth stages when the root system is restricted to the surface layers

  16. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 0.15 and 0.59 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  17. /sup 32/P and acute leukemia: development of leukemia in a patient with hemoglobin Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, G.C. Jr.; Richert-Boe, K.; Koler, R.D.

    1978-08-01

    In 1954 a then 31-yr-old male was found to have erythrocytosis. Over the ensuing decade he received 72 mCi /sup 32/P. In 1964 his daughters were found to have erythrocytosis. Further investigation led to the discovery of hemoglobin Yakima, a variant with high oxygen affinity. He received no further therapy and was well until 1975, when he developed the preleukemic syndrome. Within 12 mo he developed acute nonlymphocytic leukemia accompanied by fetal erythropoiesis. Because the initial discovery of this type of hemoglobinopathy came 27 yr after the introduction of /sup 32/P for use in the treatment of polycythemia vera, and because there are now known to be more than 39 different high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobins, we anticipate that more patients such as ours have been exposed to /sup 32/P. The exposed population should be closely followed, since this will likely permit assessment of the risk of /sup 32/P-induced leukemia in a nonneoplastic condition.

  18. Dosimetric comparison of 90Y, 32P, and 186Re radiocolloids in craniopharyngioma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In the radionuclide treatment of some forms of brain tumors such as craniopharyngiomas, the selection of the appropriate radionuclide for therapy is a key element in treatment planning. The aim was to study the influence by considering the beta-emitter radionuclide dose rate in an intracranial cyst. Methods: Dosimetry was performed using the MCNP4C radiation transport code. Analytical dosimetry was additionally performed using the Loevinger and the Berger formulas in the MATLAB software. Each result was compared under identical conditions. The advantages and disadvantages of using 90Y versus 32P and 186Re were investigated. Results: The dose rate at the inner surface of the cyst wall was estimated to be 400 mGy/h for a 1 MBq/ml concentration of 90Y. Under identical conditions of treatment, the corresponding dose rates were 300 mGy/h for 32P and 160 mGy/h for 186Re. For a well-defined cyst radius and identical wall thickness, higher dose rates resulted for 90Y. Conclusions: To achieve the same radiological burden, the required amount of physical activity of injectable solution is lower for 32P. This is found to be a consequence of both the radionuclide physical half-life and the pattern of energy deposition from the emitted radiation. According to the half-life and dose-rate results, 90Y would be a good substitute for 32P.

  19. Synthesis and rapid purification of {sup 32}P-labeled photoactive analogs of farnesyl pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turek, T.C.; Gaon, Igor; Distefano, M.D. [Minnesota Univ., Chemistry Dept., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    To study the binding sites of protein prenyltransferases, we have synthesized photoaffinity labeling analogs that contain photoactive benzophenone units. Here we describe the syntheses and a method for the rapid purification of two {sup 32}P-labeled analogs; phosphorylation was accomplished by reacting the corresponding alcohols with CCl{sub 3}CN and [{sup 32}P]-H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in CH{sub 3}CN and the purification was performed using C{sub 18} reversed-phase cartridges. Analog [{sup 32}P]-3a was prepared from 2.4 mg of starting alcohol and was obtained in 3.3% yield, 50% radiochemically purity and 480 Ci/mol specific activity. Further purification by preparative thin layer chromatography yielded material with a radiochemical purity of 90%. A second analog, [{sup 32}P], was prepared from 1.2 mg of alcohol and was obtained in 1.0% yield, 54% radiochemical purity and 700 Ci/mol specific activity. Further purification by preparative thin layer chromatography yielded material with a radiochemical purity of 91%. (author).

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P 05 53.796N, 162 07.065W, between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Effects of 32 P incorporated in plasmid DNA: strand breaks and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the 32 P decay effects in DNA, bacterial plasmid were labeled with different activities of the radioisotope in vivo: 1,2 and 6 x 105 Bk/ml of bacterial culture, leading to 1,2 and 6 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid or in vitro: 0.7, 1.5 and 3.5 x 103 Bk/?g of nucleic acid, stored at -20 deg C and its electroforetic profiles, transformation capacity of wild type and DNA repair. E. coli mutants cells and mutagenesis, were followed during three months. The results achieved in this work suggest that: the decay of the incorporated 32 P in vivo is able to change the pBR322 electroforetic profile, we detected a decrease on the form III (super coiled) and increase on the form II (circular), indicating single strands breaks; the decay incorporated 32 in vitro does not modify the electrophoretic profile of pBR322, suggesting that in some way the effects of the radioactive decay of incorporated 32 P is dependent of the DNA topology, the damages induced by 32 P decay increase mutation frequency in pAC189 plasmids. MRF is increased by a factor of three after 6 t1/2 of storage, indicating direct or indirect action through mismatch DNA repair pathway. (author)

  4. The uptake and metabolism of 35S02 in plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of differing sensitivity to sulphur dioxide were exposed simultaneously to 35S02. The total quantity of gas taken up, and its distribution between a surface leachate, an ethanol-soluble fraction and an insoluble fraction were compared. The sensitive Medicago sativa took up more gas per unit leaf area than Phaseolus vulgaris or two strains of Lolium perenne (S24, and the native 'Hemlmshore' strain). Fifteen to thirty-eight percent of the radioactivity was removed from all leaves by leaching, and this proportion changed little with time. The leachate contained 35S032-and 35S042-. The proportion of 35S032-was greatest in P.vulgaris and least in M. sativa. The internal radioactivity was largely soluble in L. perenne, but insoluble in M. sativa. In P. vulgaris, most soluble activity was found in expanding leaves. Little difference in the uptake or metabolism of 35S02 was found in the two Lolium strains. The results are discussed with reference to possible roles of 'avoidance' and 'tolerance' in determining resistance to S02. (author)

  5. Effect of anticonvulsant drugs on (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding in vitro and ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using several concentrations of eight anticonvulsant drugs in clinical use (carbamazepine, clonazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ethosuximide, primidone, sodium valproate, and D,L-?-vinyl GABA), we studied their abilities in vitro to displace (35S)t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) from its binding site in a homogenate of rat brain. Thereafter ethosuximide (150 mg/kg), phenobarbital (30 mg/kg), clonazepam (0.3 mg/kg), or phenytoin (100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into rats for 16-20 days; and the effect of drug administration on 35S-TBPS binding was studied in the cortex and hippocampus ex vivo. Phenobarbital (100 ?M, P35S-TBPS binding in vitro by 10-16%. After drug administration of phenobarbital (concentration in plasma 168 ?M), the number of binding sites decreased and the binding affinity (p35S-TBPS binding in vitro at the concentration analogous to therapeutic plasma levels or ex vivo at the dose used. These results suggest that the use of phenobarbital may modulate the TBPS binding site, but the role of the present findings in the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital needs to be further studied. (author)

  6. (35S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (35S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (35S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. 35S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (3H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (35S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (35S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures. (author)

  7. (/sup 35/S) Proteoglycan metabolism of arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.; Grounwald, J.; Buddecke, E. (Muenster. Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Atherosclerosis Research and Inst. of Physiological Chemistry)

    1982-12-01

    Arterial smooth muscle cells cultured from normotensive and hypertensive rats incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into the extracellular and pericellular sulfated proteoglycans and endocytose extracellular (/sup 35/S)proteoglycans at a significantly higher rate in the phase of logarithmic growth than did nondividing cells. /sup 35/S incorporation into proteoglycans was positively correlated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into cellular TCA-precipitable material. The rates of (/sup 35/S)proteoglycan synthesis and endocytosis per cell per day were higher in smooth muscle cells from hypertensive than from normotensive animals, the observed differences being related to a higher average protein content of smooth muscle cells cultured from hypertensive rats as compared with cells of normotensive animals. Gel filtration under dissociative conditions separated the (/sup 35/S)proteoglycans into high and low molecular weight fractions (A,B) differing in glycosaminoglycan composition and their ability to be endocytosed by smooth muscle cells. The relative proportion of the high molecular weight proteoglycan fraction A decreased continuously from sparse to confluent cell cultures.

  8. Studies on absorption, conversion of sulfate by rape seedling and accumulation of glucosinolate in rape seed by using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings grown in sandy culture absorbed 35SO42- from cultural solution rapidly and the 35S was incorperated into glucosinolates, amino acids and proteins. Percentage of glucosinolates-35S in extractable 35S with 70% methanol declined and those of amino acid-35S rose regularly with time after labelling. The relative content of 35S incorperated into bound constituents as well as extractable components was constant after 5 days of labelling. From two weeks after flowering, the relative content of GS-35S in pods and seeds increased linearly with time until eight weeks after flowering when all 35S extracted with 70% methanol in seeds were in form of glucosinolate. The amount of 35S-GS per pod increased linearly from the first week to the eighth week after flowering. It seems that the accumulation of GS in seeds is related to the accumulation of dry matter in seeds

  9. 17 CFR 240.14c-7 - Providing copies of material for certain beneficial owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...of material for certain beneficial owners. 240.14c-7 Section 240.14c-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  10. 17 CFR 240.14c-4 - Presentation of information in information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Presentation of information in information statement. 240.14c-4 Section 240.14c-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  11. 17 CFR 240.14c-3 - Annual report to be furnished security holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Annual report to be furnished security holders. 240.14c-3 Section 240.14c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  12. 17 CFR 240.14c-2 - Distribution of information statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false Distribution of information statement. 240.14c-2 Section 240.14c-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  13. 17 CFR 240.14c-6 - False or misleading statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false False or misleading statements. 240.14c-6 Section 240.14c-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14c: Distribution of Information Pursuant to Section...

  14. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the biological effects of the 32P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a 32P-patch was prepared with Chromic 32P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in two main groups in order to perform the contact brachytherapy treatment using schemes of single (SD40 and SD60) and fractionated (FD40 and FD60) doses, with their respective control groups (CSD and CFD). Additionally, a control group without carcinogenic treatment was included in order to apply the 32P-patch in normal skin. The endpoint to evaluate treatment effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days and finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis. Additionally, PCNA staining was evaluated in all groups and the biologically effective dose (BED) of each scheme was calculated taken into account the linear-quadratic model. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of groups in the single dose scheme resulted higher for control than for treated tumors, and the same pattern was observed for groups of the fractionated dose scheme. This radioactive 32P-silicone-patch which, is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases and seems promissory as a radioactive device for clinical use. (author)

  15. Treatment of verruca of hands and feet with 32P application therapy and laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study and compare the clinical curative effect of extremity verruca with 32P and laser as well as their application values, 229 patients with extremity verruca were chosen by random from outpatient. Out of them, 83 patients were male and 146 were female, with the average age of 34.6 19.5 (x-bar s) years. They were randomly divided into two groups: for the laser treatment group consisting of 127 individuals, the wart bodies were eliminated by CO2 laser under local anaesthetization, if there were a lot of locus, the wart bodies were treated in turn. 102 individuals were treated with 32P application therapy. The liquid containing radionuclide 32P was dropped on filter papers, dried and then fixed on the corresponding focus surface for application therapy, applying 4-8 hours continuously (the absorbed dose at the lesion surface reaching 984-1968 cGy) each time and once a week until the lesion recovered. The clinical reaction and curative effect were observed. The clinical effective rate, cure rate, recurrence rate, side effective rate occurrence rate and complication occurrence rate for the laser treatment group are 100%, 55.9%, 44.1%, 17.3% and 25.2%, respectively while they are 100%, 91.2%, 5.9%, 19.6% and 7.8% respectively for the group of 32P application therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of extremity verruca with 32P application therapy is a simple and effective method with features such as safety, little pain, notable curative effect, lower recurrence rate, less side effect and complication. (authors)

  16. Experimental study of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle on human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the therapeutic and toxic effects of 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactic) acid (32P-CP-PLLA) microparticle intratumoral administration into BALB/c nude mice bearing BxPc-3 human pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty four nude mice bearing tumors were injected with 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 M Bq 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively. The relative tumor growth rates were observed every day, and white blood cells, platelets and body weight were measured. At 14 d after administration, the tumors were removed, histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Results: The relative tumor growth rates of each treatment group was lower than 40%. Histological examination showed the degenerative necrosis at the site nearby the microparticle. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the Microvessel density (MVD) and the expression of Bcl-2 in treated group were lower than those in control group.In contrast, the expression of bax in treated group were higher than those in control group. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein significantly decreased in the treatment group,which were 3.83 ± 0.43, 0.47 ± 0.13, 1.10 ± 0.32, 2.19 ± 0.57 for 0, 9.3, 18.5 and 37.0 MBq 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle, respectively (t=2.36-2.77, P<0.05). MVD were 31.2 ± 2.3, 23.8 ± 1.5, 14.8 ±0.8, 11.0 ± 1.2, respectively. Dose dependence was observed in both HE and IHC staining after 14 d treatment (t=2.30-2.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Intratumoral injection of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticle might be a safe, easy and effective radionuclide interventional therapy for pancreatic carcinoma. (authors)

  17. Distribution of radioactivity from 14C-formaldehyde in pregnant mice and their fetuses.

    OpenAIRE

    Katakura, Y; Kishi, R; Okui, T; Ikeda, T; Miyake, H.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of 14C after the administration of 14C-formaldehyde was studied in pregnant mice by a whole body low temperature autoradiographic technique. The concentrations of formaldehyde and its metabolites in maternal and fetal blood and tissues were determined in unsectioned tissues by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry. The binding of 14C from 14C-formaldehyde to cells and DNA in maternal and fetal mouse liver was also measured. Radioactivity of 14C deriving from 14C-formaldehyde...

  18. Electron microscopic autoradiography of 35S during dentinogenesis in young cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of 35S from the dental pulp to the predentin and the dentin was studied by means of quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography in the tooth-germs of new-born cats following intravenous injection of 35S. Autoradiographs at 5 minutes, 20 minutes and 5 hours after injection consistently showed the uptake of 35S by the Golgi apparatus, indicating that the apparatus is a site of sulfation of the mucopolysaccharides in the predentin and dentin. At 5 hours, silver grains aggregated in the cytoplasm of the odontoblastic process and the predentin. No silver grains were observed in the Golgi areas, and the odontoblastic process was associated with the elongated dense vesicles which were formed by the Golgi apparatus. At 24 hours after injection, a random distribution of many silver grains was observed throughout the predentin and the interodontoblastic space. (auth.)

  19. Synthesis of 7?-chloro-16?-methylprednisolone 17?,21-dipropionate-4-14C (alclometasone dipropionate-4-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the bioavailability, metabolism and protein-binding effects of the new antiinflammatory corticoid, alclometasone dipropionate, it was required to obtain the biochemically stable 14C-labelled substrate. In the present publication we describe an efficient synthesis of the title compound. (author)

  20. Formation and fate of bound residues of [14C]benzene and [14C]chlorobenzenes in soil and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outdoor experiments with [14C]hexachlorobenzene, [14C]pentachlorobenzene, [14C]1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and [14C]benzene in soil-crop systems indicate that the formation rate of bound residues in soil and plants, expressed as bound residues in percentage of total residue in the sample, decreases with increasing number of chlorine in the molecule and, thus, with increasing chemical stability. The time course of formation and fate of bound residues in soil and plants is characterized by a very slow decrease of residue levels in soil, indicating that biodegradation of bound residues hardly exceeds their reformation from the parent compound during one vegetation period, and by a decrease of residue levels in plants. The portion of bound residues as compared to the total residue increases with time, indicating that bound residues are more persistent than the parent compounds and their soluble metabolites; benzene is an exception. Cress plants, in general, contain less bound residues than do barley plants. Again, benzene is an exception. In deeper soil layers, soil-bound residues occur also. The ratio between bound and extractable residues does not differ to a larger extent between the soil layers

  1. Synthesis of [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine from DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loester, H.; Seim, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry

    1996-02-01

    The causes of carnitine deficiency syndromes are not completely understood, but decomposition of L-carnitine in vivo is likely to be involved. Carnitine is metabolized to {gamma}-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine is probably an intermediate in this pathway. To validate experimentally the precursor-product relationship between the three physiologically occuring {gamma}-betaines - L-carnitine, crotonobetaine, {gamma}-butyrobetaine - labelling with stable or radioactive isotopes became necessary. Methyl-labelled carnitine isomers (L(-)-, D(+)- or DL-) or {gamma}-butyrobetaine can be easily synthesized by methylation of 4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid isomers or 4-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Because of problems with the 4-aminocrotonic acid, we synthesized labelled crotonbetaine from labelled carnitine. Thus, DL-[methyl-{sup 14}C]carnitine was dehydrated by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. After removal of the latter the products were separated and purified by ion exchange chromatography on DOWEX 50 WX8 (200 - 400 mesh) and gradient elution with hydrochloric acid. In addition to the labelled main product [methyl-{sup 14}C]crotonobetaine (yield about 50 %), [methyl-{sup 14}C]glycine betaine and [methyl-{sup 14}C]acetonyl-trimethylammonium (ATMA) were formed. The end products were identified by combined thin layer chromatography/autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. (Author).

  2. Cosmogenic 35S: A unique tracer to Antarctic atmospheric chemistry and the polar vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Dominguez, Gerardo; Savarino, Joel; Thiemens, Mark

    2011-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 35S (half life 87 d) exists in both 35SO2 gas and 35SO42- aerosol phase in the atmosphere. Cosmogenic 35S fulfils a unique niche in that it has an ideal half-life for use as a tracer of atmospheric processes, possesses a gas phase precursor and undergoes gas to particle conversion, providing a chronometer that complements other measurements of radiogenic isotopes of different half lives and chemical properties. Based on radiogenic 35S measurements and concomitant model calculations, we demonstrate that 35S is a unique tracer to understand stratospheric-tropospheric air mass transport dynamics and the atmospheric oxidation capacity on a short time scale. Reported are the first measurements of 35S contained in SO42- aerosols (bulk and size aggregated) at Antarctica. 35SO42- concentrations at Dome C and Dumont D'Urville exhibit summer maxima and winter minima with a secondary winter peak. Higher oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and long range transport of mid latitude air increases 35SO42- activity in summer whereas a lack of air mass mixing coupled with low oxidant concentration in winter significantly decreases 35SO42- activity. A 3% contribution from stratospheric 35SO42- into the free troposphere during stratosphere-troposphere air mass mixing accounts for the secondary winter 35SO42- peak. In the future, this work will be extended to 35S activity measurements of both gas and aerosol phases to further understand gas to particle conversion, vortex dynamics and trace polar stratospheric cloud sedimentation frequency.

  3. Model experiments for 14C water-age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C age of water samples is calculated by assuming that fossil carbonate is dissolved by biogenic CO2 according to the equation x1 CaCO3 + (x1+y1) CO2 + H2O = 2x1 HCO3 + y1 CO2 where x and y are the number of moles of the two carbon components before and after the dissolution process. In a closed system the relation y1 = K(T) (x1)3 must be satisfied additionally. The equilibrium constant K(T), which depends on the temperature, controls the concentrations of free CO2 and HCO3. To investigate the mechanism of the dissolution, laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were carried out. Non-radioactive CaCO3, which had a ?13C-value of +30 per mille, and radioactive CO2 with ?13C = -22 per mille were used. The purpose of these investigations was to check the validity of theoretical assumptions regarding the average 14C-activity and the ?13C-value of the total carbon which is dissolved as CO2 and HCO3. Furthermore, it was investigated whether, within the duration of the experiment, a possible exchange takes place between the undissolved carbon present in the CaCO3 and that present in the HCO3. The importance of this lies in the fact that the method of 14C age determination is based on the assumption that such an exchange does not take place. The experiments which have been performed up to now show that in case of the simple CaCO3 - CO2 system, which has been considered first, this assumption is not justified even for a constant water temperature. If variations in the water temperature occur during the history of the water sample, precipitation and redissolution processes influence the 14C- and ?13C -values differently. This is due to isotopic fractionation processes between the HCO3 and CO2 phase. A correction for the initial 14C-activity by means of the ?13C-value is no longer possible, and the reliability of the 14C-dating method becomes questionable. (author)

  4. Cluster structures of excited states in {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tadahiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kanada-En' yo, Yoshiko, E-mail: suhara@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-09-16

    We investigate structures of excited states in {sup 14}C with a method of {beta}-{gamma} constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed 3{alpha}-cluster core structures are suggested in positive-and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, {sup 10}Be+{alpha} correlation is found in the cluster states above the {sup 10}Be+{alpha} threshold energy. By applying a generalized molecular orbital model to the linear-chain state of {sup 14}C, we confirm the {sup 10}Be+{alpha} correlation.

  5. 4He decay of excited states in 14C

    CERN Document Server

    Soic, N; Donadille, L; Clarke, N M; Leask, P J; Catford, W N; Jones, K L; Mahboub, D; Fulton, B R; Greenhalgh, B J; Watson, D L; Weisser, D C

    2003-01-01

    A study of the 7Li(9Be,4He 10Be)2H reaction at E{beam}=70 MeV has been performed using resonant particle spectroscopy techniques and provides the first measurements of alpha-decaying states in 14C. Excited states are observed at 14.7, 15.5, 16.4, 18.5, 19.8, 20.6, 21.4, 22.4 and 24.0 MeV. The experimental technique was able to resolve decays to the various particle bound states in 10Be, and provides evidence for the preferential decay of the high energy excited states into states in 10Be at ~6 MeV. The decay processes are used to indicate the possible cluster structure of the 14C excited states.

  6. Synthesis of 3H- and 14C-ketanserin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketanserin, 3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-2,4(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione is a new serotonin S2-receptor blocking agent used in hypertension and related diseases. Pharmacokinetic studies required the synthesis of monolabelled 3H- and 14C-ketanserin tartrate. The tritium compound had the label placed at the fluorobenzoyl moiety, whereas for 14C-ketanserin the heterocyclic part of the quinazolinedione system was chosen. Receptor binding studies and application in radioimmunoassay necessitated the synthesis of a molecule at higher specific activity, hence a dilabelled molecule was constructed with tritium atoms placed at opposite positions in the molecule. The title compounds were obtained at specific activities of 169.5, 5.66 and 34900 mCi/mmol, respectively and with HPLC purities of > 98%. (author)

  7. Feasibility studies of RFQ based 14C accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic accelerators with terminal voltage less than 1 MeV have been successfully used for 14C AMS. This contribution shows that a small RFQ accelerator may also be suitable for AMS 14C measurements. A well-designed RFQ accelerator can realize a low energy spread and high isotopic selection with a length of less than 1 m and reasonable power consumption. Compared with small tandem accelerators, a RFQ does not need isolation gas and can accept much higher beam currents. Its stripper would be at ground potential and there would be no further acceleration after stripping, so the background from charge exchange processes should be lower. The RFQ design and system are described

  8. Fate of 14C-monocrotophos in lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-monocrotophos was fed daily to two groups of lactating goats for five days at 5 and 10 mg per goat per day. The radioactivity in urine and faeces accounted for 50% and 7%, respectively, 24 hours after the first dose. About 25% of the radiocarbon was found in various organs. About 1-2% of the administered radiocarbon was secreted in milk. It was concluded that monocrotophos was rapidly eliminated through urine and faeces of teddy goats. 14C-residues in milk and urine were tentatively identified as monocrotophos, dimethylphosphate and N-desmethyl monocrotophos. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to 50% 24 hours after treatment, but no toxic symptoms were observed. (author)

  9. Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmid DNA labelled with 14C or 3H in thymine was isolated from the thymine-dependent strain of Escherichia coli 15 SPT bacteria. The specific activity of the plasmid DNA preparations lay in the range from 0.5 to 20 MBq/mg, their relative molecular weight was 1.7 x 106 dalton. Molecular weight, preparation purity, and the degree of damage of the plasmid DNA molecules were examined by UV absorption spectroscopy, by gel electrophoresis, and by electron micrography. The quality of the [thymine-2-14C] plasmid DNA was verified in a diagnostic test for the determination of the anti-dsDNA bonding activity in human serum. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 30 refs

  10. Cluster structures of excited states in $^{14}$C

    OpenAIRE

    Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2010-01-01

    Structures of excited states in $^{14}$C are investigated with a method of $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed $3\\alpha$-cluster core structures are suggested in positive- and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ correlation is found in th...

  11. May {sup 14}C be used to date contemporary art?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caforio, L. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mando, P.A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Petrucci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Taccetti, F. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, {sup 14}C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 1963-1965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, {sup 14}C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to 'precisely' date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured {sup 14}C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the {sup 14}C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  12. May 14C be used to date contemporary art?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiocarbon in forensics is by now widespread, thanks to the so-called bomb peak, which makes it possible to perform high-precision dating. Since 1955, 14C concentration in the atmosphere had strongly increased due to nuclear explosions, reaching its maximum value in 19631965. After the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 14C started to decrease as a consequence of the exchanges between atmosphere and the other natural carbon reservoirs. Nowadays, it is still slightly above the pre-bomb value. The work presented in this paper is based on the idea of exploiting the bomb peak to precisely date works of contemporary art, with the aim at identifying possible fakes. We analysed two kinds of materials from the 20th century: newspapers and painting canvases. Newspaper samples were taken because they might in principle be considered to represent dated samples (considering the date on the issues). Our data (28 samples) show a trend similar to atmospheric data in the literature, although with some differences; the paper peak is flatter and shifted towards more recent years (about five years) with respect to the atmospheric data. This can be explained by taking paper manufacturing processes into account. As to the canvas samples, the measured 14C concentrations were generally reasonably consistent with the expected concentrations (based on the year on the paintings). However, this does not indicate that the interpretation of the results is simpler and more straightforward. Obviously, we only measure the 14C concentration of the fibre used for the canvas, which does not necessarily measure the date the painting was manufactured. In this paper, sample preparation and experimental results will be discussed, in order to show the potential as well as the limitations of radiocarbon to date contemporary art.

  13. Origin of the anomalous long lifetime of 14C

    OpenAIRE

    Maris, P.; vary, J. P.; Navratil, P; Ormand, W. E.; Nam, H; Dean, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the microscopic origins of the anomalously suppressed beta decay of 14C to 14N using the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) with the Hamiltonian from chiral effective field theory (EFT) including three-nucleon force (3NF) terms. The 3NF induces unexpectedly large cancellations within the p-shell between contributions to beta decay, which reduce the traditionally large contributions from the NN interactions by an order of magnitude, leading to the long lifetime of...

  14. Intestinal absorption of $^{14}$C from $^{14}$C-phenanthrene, $^{14}$C-benzo[a]pyrene and $^{14}$C-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin: approaches with the Caco-2 cell line and with portal absorption measurements in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cavret, Sverine; Laurent, Claire; Feidt, Cyril; Laurent, Franois; Rychen, Guido

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the transfer through the intestinal barrier of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene) and a dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin) which differed in their physicochemical properties. Both in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. For the in vitro study, Caco-2 cells, cultivated on permeable filters, permitted to measure the transepithelial permeability of the studied $^{14}$C-labelled molecules. For the in viv...

  15. Pediatric microdose and microtracer studies using 14C in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M A; Mooij, M G; Vaes, W H J; Windhorst, A D; Hendrikse, N H; Knibbe, C A J; Krgvee, L T; Maruszak, W; Grynkiewicz, G; Garner, R C; Tibboel, D; Park, B K; de Wildt, S N

    2015-09-01

    Important information gaps remain on the efficacy and safety of drugs in children. Pediatric drug development encounters several ethical, practical, and scientific challenges. One barrier to the evaluation of medicines for children is a lack of innovative methodologies that have been adapted to the needs of children. This article presents our successful experience of pediatric microdose and microtracer studies using (14) C-labeled probes in Europe to illustrate the strengths and limitations of these approaches. PMID:26095095

  16. 14C-pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored maize grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of 14C-pirimiphos-methyl in maize grains were determined during 6 months under storage conditions simulating actual practice in Brazil. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. A total of 78% of the applied dose was recovered at 0-24 h and this amount decreased to 16% after 180 d of storage. Cooking had no effect on the levels of the residue recovered. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2009-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  18. Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  19. Determination of 14C-lindane residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-lindane was applied as dust to paddy rice. Surface, extractable and bound residues were determined in paddy rice up to a storage period of nine months. The surface and methanol-extractable residues decreased with storage time. The husk contained a greater amount of lindane compared to the grains. After removing surface residues, the grain was found to contain 2.7 mg/kg of extractable lindane and/or equivalent residues after nine months from treatment. (author)

  20. A novel synthesis of isoeugenol, [ring-(U)-(14) C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immoos, John E

    2015-09-10

    A novel method for the preparation of isoeugenol, [ring-(U)-(14) C] is presented. Phenols and phenyl esters substituted in the para position with 1-hydroxyethyl or 1-hydroxypropyl acetate esters when treated with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in dimethylformamide (DMF) eliminate the alkyl carboxylate function to give the unsaturated compound. The reaction fails with unsubstituted or ether substituted phenyl 1-hydroxyacetate esters. PMID:26306463

  1. 14C ages of the Quaternary strata in Japan, (130)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area under investigation, Gotsu and Waki terraces lie with a cliff between these two. Therefore, it is considered that from the beginning of the alluvial period to the present sea level, two periods of high sea level and one period of low sea level between them existed. The Gotsu terrace was possibly formed in Jomon marine transgression confirmed across the country, but its height is somewhat high. Concerning the high sea level after the Jomon marine transgression, while there are much uncertainties, minor transgressions have been recognized. 14C age determination was made where Waki terrace spreads widely in Gotsu sand dunes, as an indication of the minor transgressions was anticipated. The 14C age measured with charcoal chips was 265 +- 80 Y.B.P. (260 +- 80 Y.B.P.) unexpectedly. There are sand dunes covering partly the terraces and hills, containing two layers of black sand. In the upper layer, the 14C age of charcoal chips contained in it was 955 +- 75 Y.B.P. (930 +- 75 Y.B.P.). (J.P.N.)

  2. Metabolism of [14C]-monoethanolamine in Hordeum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of 14C-monoethanolamine (EA) and its hydrochloride was investigated in long term experiments with intact plants of spring barley (Hordeum vlugare L.) during ontogenesis. The metabolism of EA applied as the free base (0.67 mg per plant) to an unwounded part of the fifth leaf of the main shoot proceeds relatively quickly. To a great extent, the EA taken up and translocated out of the feeding leaf was converted to volatile compounds during ontogenesis. The remaining amounts are incorporated into lipid soluble substances or metabolized via choline to glycine betaine. Wilting barley plants show a higher capacity for converting exogenous EA via the betaine pathway. However, there is no proportionality between 14C-betaine synthesis from 14C-EA and betaine accumulation. There are remarkable differences between EA and its hydrochloride with respect to metabolism. The hydrochloride is not converted to volatile compounds and glycine betaine is the main metabolite. The betaine pathway is only of minor importance for the metabolism of exogenous EA in turgid barley plants. The hydrochloride is also not completely metabolized in this way. Possible consequences are discussed. (author)

  3. Airy structure in 16O+14C nuclear rainbow scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Airy structure in 16 O +14 C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double-folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for 16 O by using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at EL=132 , 281, and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum around ? =76? in the angular distribution at EL=132 MeV is assigned as the second-order Airy minimum A 2 in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order A 3 . The Airy minima in the 90? excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known 16 O +16 O and 12 C +12 C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the 16 O +14 C cluster structure in the low-energy region around Ec .m .=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted theoretically for the first time for a non-4 N 16O +14 C system that Airy elephants in the 90? excitation function are present.

  4. Search for cluster structure of excited states in 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied three different 2n-transfer reactions on a 12C target, the 2p pick-up reaction on 16O and the 5He transfer in the reaction 9Be(7Li,d)14C. Combined with a systematic search through experimental results for transfer reactions, inelastic excitations and other data, we have established an almost complete spectroscopy for 14C up to 18 MeV excitation. We identify states with single-particle structure that have oblate shapes and states corresponding to proton excitations that are connected to oblate (triangular) cluster states. Further we list states of prolate shape which have no simple structure related to the low-lying oblate states of 12C. These are proposed to have strong ?-clustering and to form rotational bands as a parity inversion doublet, with high moment of inertia. With these results it is possible for the first time to identify chain states expected in the isotope 14C. (orig.)

  5. Mineralization of 14C atrazine in three Colombia soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of mineralization of l4C atrazine (6-chorine-N-ethyl-N-(1methyl ethyl) 1,3,5 triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed in three soils of different characteristics coming one of them from Mosquera, Cundinamarca (clay loam) and two of Saldana, Tolima (silty loam and sandy loam). Technical and radiolabel atrazine (specific activity 47,756 mCi/mg) mixture was applied to soil samples in a dose of 2.0 kg/ha. Results showed different behavior of the mineralization of the herbicide for each soil at the end of 17 weeks. The highest mineralization percentage, 15 %, was registered in the soil with higher organic matter content (12.1 %) and was the one coming from Mosquera, Cundinamarca. It was evaluated the bound and methanol extractable 14C in the fifth, ninth an seventeenth weeks and also it was analyzed atrazine and its metabolites in the extracts by thin layer chromatography. The extraction data revealed that the majority of the 14C was bound to the soil (62-83 %) and the minor fraction was methanol extractable in all the three soils. The analysis showed that the 14C in all soils was present as atrazine and hydroxy atrazine. In the sandy loam soil was observed the highest degradation of atrazine to hidroxyatrazine that it is not produced by biological process. It was not detectable other atrazine metabolites

  6. 14C measurement of soil in post-mining landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and development of new soil organic matter under extreme soil conditions was investigated in the Lusatian lignite mining district. In order to assess the development of forest ecosystems the pedogenesis (soil development) was studied, especially the contribution of soil organic matter formed during the decomposition of plant residues and the significance of lignite inherent to the parent substrate. To determine the depth gradient of soil organic matter accumulation a differentiation between lignite derived (14C ''free'') and recent carbon in the mine spoil was necessary. This was performed by AMS 14C measurement of the total organic carbon TOC (lignite derived and recent organic matter) of the soil. For TOC extraction a suitable preparation method was used. The calculation for obtaining the soil organic matter and lignite content is discussed and results of different study sites are presented. It is shown that 14C measurements of soil samples by AMS is a very helpful tool to evaluate the accumulation of recently formed organic carbon and to differentiate this carbon pool from the geogenic, i.e. lignite derived organic carbon supply in post-mining soils

  7. Biodegradation of 14 C-atrazine under outdoor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformly 14 C-ring labeled atrazine (5 L/ha) was applied to a Typical Hapludox Brazilian Soil sample which was incubated under outdoor conditions. Sample of 200 g (dry weight base) of fresh soil were distributed in Erlenmeyer flasks and the moisture was adjusted for 2/3 rds of the soil field capacity. The flasks were then buried in the Lysimeter Station when they were incubated. The experiment started jointly with a corn planting. The 14 C O2 was analyzed every 15 day, during a period of 150 days. The desorbed, extracted and bound residues were analyzed. The extracted soil was fractionated and the residues in the humin, fulvic and humic acids were determined. At the end of the incubation period (150 days), the 14 CO2 evolved reached up to 36% of the total applied activity, the bound residues were detected in about the same (34%) during the inoculation period, and were distributed in the fractions of fulvic acids (29,91%), humic acids (6,83%) and humin (63,26%). The metabolites formed in the desorbed residues and in the extracted residues were determined using thin layer chromatography with 14 C-detector. After 150 days incubation, desorbed soil residues were identified as atrazine (52,72%), hydroxiatrazine (44%) and desisopropilatrazine (3,28%). The extractable residues contained atrazine (79,29%), hydroxiatrazine (16,22%), desisopropilatrazine (2,25%) and desetylatrazine (2,24%). (author)

  8. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of {sup 32} P; Diseno y construccion de un prototipo para la obtencion de {sup 32} P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-12-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it was designed, built and proved a prototype to obtain {sup 32}P in form of H{sub 3} {sup 32}PO{sub 4}, starting from irradiated S{alpha}. The beginning of the prototype it is based on a distillation system in dry of the S{alpha} in nitrogen atmosphere, and in the formation of the ion {sup 32}PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in acid solution. Due to the handling of radioactive material during the process, the prototype is inside a hot cell and it has a cylindrical oven that opens up lengthwise to the half, with controller of temperature and with a system of empty air for to transport reagents and products. The air-vacuum system is provided of filters and traps. The tests showed a recovery from 14 to 15% of the activity obtained during the irradiation. (Author)

  9. Foliar leaching, translocation, and biogenic emission of 35S in radiolabeled loblolly pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foliar leaching, basipetal (downward) translocation, and biogenic emission of sulfur (S), as traced by 35S, were examined in a field study of loblolly pines. Four trees were radiolabeled by injection with amounts of 35S in the 6-8 MBq range, and concentrations in needle fall, stemflow, throughfall, and aboveground biomass were measured over a period of 15-20 wk after injection. The contribution of dry deposition to sulfate-sulfur (SO42--S) concentrations in net throughfall (throughfall SO42--S concentration minus that in incident precipitation) beneath all four trees was > 90%. Calculations indicated that about half of the summertime SO2 dry deposition flux to the loblolly pines was fixed in the canopy and not subsequently leached by rainfall. Based on mass balance calculations, 35S losses through biogenic emissions from girdled trees were inferred to be 25-28% of the amount injected. Estimates based on chamber methods and mass balance calculations indicated a range in daily biogenic S emission of 0.1-10 ?g/g dry needles. Translocation of 35S to roots in nongirdled trees was estimated to be between 14 and 25% of the injection. It is hypothesized that biogenic emission and basipetal translocation of S (and not foliar leaching) are important mechanisms by which forest trees physiologically adapt to excess S in the environment

  10. The uptake of S from four different 35 S labbelled fertilizer by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of S derived from 35-S-labelled ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate, Kieserit (MgSO4) and Gypsum(CaSO4) of the specific activity of 0.1 mCi/g S by tea clone TRI 2025 planted in andosols was investigated. Randomized block design was used in the experiment. Fertilizers were give once at the rate of 40 kg S/ha. Counting of 35-S samples collected from the youngest and the lower leaves were done every week. Results of the experiment showed that the uptake patterns of S derived from fertilizers were the same for the youngest and the lower leaves. The activity of 35-S was clearly detected in leaves samples after one week of fertilizers application and increased continuously upto eight weeks. The total activity of 35-S in the plucked leaved derived from ammonium sulphate, potasium sulphate and Kieserite were little bit higher than from gypsum. (authors). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Determination of chemical states of sulphur 35 obtained from the 35Cl (n, p)35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical states of sulphur-35 obtained from the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction by the irradiation of potassium chloride without any previous treatment and with previous heating under vacuum, were determined. The influence of irradiation time and temperature after irradiation was examined. Paper electrophoresis technique was employed for the determination of the chemical states. (Author)

  12. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on agricultural environment and ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimehypo is a nereistoxin derivative, which was developed and manufactured in China. In order of appraise its environmeatal safety comprehensively, the radioisotopic tracer technique and other methods were applied to investigate on the effects of 35S-labelled dimehypo (35S-dimehypo) on agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorptivity and high mobility, especially water-carrying mobility in soil, fair stability in soil and water, and slowness in degradation. Its main product of degradation, nereistoxin, was of lower mobility than its material compound in soil. 35S-dimehypo could enter the bodies of grass carps Ctenopharyngodon idellus along with bails or via the respiratory tracts, and could be excreted fast after the fish were removed from the contaminated source. Liquid and granulated 35S-dimehypo were fed to quail and fowls respectively, and could also be excreted rapidly in excretion and urine. Its much less distribution coefficient in caprylalcoholwater system suggested no accumulation in the adipose tissue of organism. The release of its effective composition in the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete

  13. Formation of 32P-labelled Polyphosphates in Reactor-irradiated Solutions of Orthophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jrgen Folkvard; Pagsberg, Palle Bjrn

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate were reactor irradiated and analysed by electrophoresis. The resulting distributions of 32P-activity in phosphorus oxyanions resemble the ones obtained with reactor-irradiated solid phosphates. Even in dilute solutions, polymers are formed; their total yield increases with the concentration of the irradiated solution and varies in a complicated way with the pH. These observations and some experiments with addition of radical scavengers indicate that oxidation of the 32P-recoils by OH-radicals is an important step in the polymerization. It is suggested that the actual formation of a P&z.sbnd;O&z.sbnd;P bridge takes place as an addition of a Lewis acid to a lone pair of electrons on a phosphate ion.

  14. Enzymatic Determination of Choline in Brain with Choline Phosphokinase and 32P-Labelled ATP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enzymatic assay for free choline in brain has been developed. Rats or mice were killed by freezing in liquid nitrogen and the frozen brain was extracted with trichloroacetic acid. Interfering compounds were removed on an-anion-exchange resin and choline was converted to 32P- phosphorylcholine by the action of choline phosphokinase and 32P-ATP. The labelled phosphorylcholine obtained was separated by chromatography on Amberlite CC-400 (chloride form), and its radioactivity determined. The choline levels in rat and mouse brain were found to be 39 nmole/g and 42 nmole/g respectively. These values are considerably lower than those previously reported in the literature, apparently because of the increased specificity of the present method. (author)

  15. [32P]ATP inhibits the growth of xenografted tumors in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulan; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Agarwal, Rachana; Green, Gilbert M; Mease, Ronnie C; Sgouros, George; Huso, David L; Pomper, Martin G; Meltzer, Stephen J; Abraham, John M

    2012-05-15

    The search for new therapeutic agents that are effective against cancer has been difficult and expensive. The activity of anticancer candidate agents against human cancer-derived cell lines in immunocompromised mice is an important tool in this search. Because ATP is a naturally occurring small molecule, its radiolabeled form poses many advantages as a potential anticancer therapeutic agent. We previously found that a single, low-dose intravenous injection of [ ( 32) P]ATP inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors in nude mice for up to several weeks. The current study describes the biodistribution and the results and advantages of multi-dose administration of this potential drug. Future studies should investigate the mechanism involved in the possible use of [ ( 32) P]ATP as a cytotoxic agent that homes naturally to the tumor microenvironment. PMID:22544324

  16. Contribution of Sewage Sludge to Phosphorus Nutrition of Tomato Plants:Using 32P as Tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted to assess the benefits of amending sandy soil with different rates of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge (SS) in terms of its contribution to phosphorus nutrition of tomato plants using 32P as tracer. Soil were amended with four rates of sewage sludge equivalent to 20,40,60 and 80 t/ha. Tomato seedling were transplanted followed by the application of 32P-labelled KH2PO4. Dry matter yield, plant tissue and soil phosphorus concentration and phosphorus uptake were measured after one month of sowing. Dry matter production, plant tissue P concentration and P uptake and soil P have increased significantly as the sludge application rate increased. The increase was higher in irradiated than in non-irradiated sewage sludge, however, the differences aren't rate for both irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge

  17. Direct determination of the specific activity of RNA uniformly labeled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for the direct determination of the specific activity of RNA uniformly labeled with 32P is described. The procedure is based on the premise that upon disintegration of 32P to 32S, the phosphodiester bond is broken. Analysis of the rate of decay of the full-length molecule by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography can accurately determine the intramolecular specific activity of the RNA. An equation that predicts the relative intensity of the intact RNA molecules remaining as a function of time is presented. These predictions are confirmed using in vitro-synthesized RNA labeled at a known specific activity. This procedure has been used to determine the intramolecular specific activity of RNA labeled in vivo in yeast. It can also be employed to choose the best conditions for experiments utilizing uniformly labeled RNA or single-stranded DNA and requiring the detection of intact molecules

  18. Biological fate of 32P malathion in gallus domesticus (Desi poultry birds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this study, a minor surgical technique was developed for the separation of urine and faeces in birds and fate of 32P malathion was studied, following a single oral dose of 394 mg/kg. The birds showed characteristic signs and symptoms of organophosphorus poisoning and the results suggested that the compound is rapidly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract, significant quantities being detected in plasma after 0.5 h of ingestion. Highest concentration of 32P in various organs decreased and at 48 h, it was not detected except in liver, kidney, lung and spleen when only traces were observed. The cumulative urinary and faecal excretion study revealed that within 24 h 90% is rapidly excreted mainly via the urine and only small amounts in the faeces. Metabolism studies showed that the compound is quickly metabolised. Because of the rapid turnover of the compound, this study indicated that the accumulation of this compound is unlikely in the body system

  19. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. Analysis of DNA adducts by 32P labeling and thin layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a description of a recently developed 32p-postlabeling assay for covalent carcinogen/mutagen-DNA adducts. Various versions of the assay are described that exhibit different properties, such as sensitivity of adduct detection. Studies of covalent carcinogen-DNA interactions have typically employed radiolabeled compounds to detect and quantitate the formation of DNA adducts. In order to extend laboratory studies of genotoxic damage to chemicals that are not readily available in radioactive form, several new techniques have been reported. These include fluorometric procedures, immunoassays, electrophore labeling, and biochemical 32p labeling. The authors suggest that the latter approach is distinct from the other approaches by its rather general applicability to adducts of known or unknown origin and structure

  1. Single-Well Technique using 32P for Determining Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiographic method for determining the direction, ?, and the velocity, v, of groundwater flow has been developed. The radioisotope 32P is injected, as a point or a thin-column source, at the centre of the well by means of a simple device. The injection is performed at the desired depth without disturbing the water. The radioisotope is left to follow the horizontal flow of water. Some of the 32P is adsorbed onto the walls of two parallel detecting screens which are separated by a few centimetres and fitted inside the well. Both the inner and outer screens are radiographed; the darkest parts of the emulsions and the north direction marked on another film give the value of ?. The blackening of each film in the screens is measured. Velocities are determined either by the displacement method or from the calibration curve of the velocity versus relative blackening. (author)

  2. Formation of 32P-labelled Polyphosphates in Reactor-irradiated Solutions of Orthophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Jrgen Folkvard; Pagsberg, Palle Bjrn

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of potassium orthophosphate were reactor irradiated and analysed by electrophoresis. The resulting distributions of 32P-activity in phosphorus oxyanions resemble the ones obtained with reactor-irradiated solid phosphates. Even in dilute solutions, polymers are formed; their total yield increases with the concentration of the irradiated solution and varies in a complicated way with the pH. These observations and some experiments with addition of radical scavengers indicate that ...

  3. Haematological complications in polycythaemia vera and thrombocythaemia patients treated with radiophosphorus (32P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    230 patients with myeloproliferative disorders treated in the last 15 years with 32P were evaluated. None of the patients affected by essential thrombocythaemia developed haematological complications. In the larger group of polycythaemia patients (214 subjects) only 38 patients (17 males and 21 females) developed complications. 60.5% of these subjects had a minor complications: 1.8% showed a thrombocytopenia lower than 10010e9/lt, 2.3% anaemia with Hb lower than 10 g%, 2.6% leukopenia lower than 40.10e9/lt and 2.3% pancytopenia. All these complications were transient and eventually treated with limited blood transfusions. We could not identify a correlation between the dose used and the development of such complications. We noted only that the occurrence of anaemia, given a similar dose, was more frequent in females. Only 7% of all patients presented a major complication after 32P administration. In this case too, there was no correlation with the dose administered. Myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukaemia resulted to be the more frequent complication (9 out of 15) but we could not clarify if they represented a natural evolution of polycythaemia vera or were due to the treatment with 32P. Acute leukaemia developed only in 5 patients and again we could not recognized a correlation with the dose administered. Moreover, the time from the diagnosis of polycythaemia vera the onset of acute leukaemia ranged widely. 32P has a definite effect on the prevention of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in polycythaemia patients since it prolongs their life but it also increases the incidence of acute leukaemia. (author)

  4. Genotoxicity of Colloidal 32P Chromic Phosphate in the Mouse Bone Marrow Analyzed by Micronuclei Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate is used to prevent hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer. It is speculated that the intravenous injection of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate can cause genotoxicity. To evaluate the genotoxicity of intravenously injected colloidal 32P chromic phosphate, authors performed a micronuclei test in mice bone marrow. Mice(ICR strain, 25 ? 30 g) were divided to 4 groups: control, group 1 (19.166 KBq/g, usual therapeutic dose in human), group 2 (191.66 KBq/g), and group 3 (1916.6 KBq/g). Five mice of each group were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. Bone marrow were smeared and stained with Wright-Giemsa method. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) were counted under the light microscope, and the number of micronucleated PCEs and NCEs were recorded. The frequency of micronuclei in PCE and NCE in the control group was 0.3 0.06% and 0.45 0.10%, respectively. At group 1, frequency of micronuclei is not different from the control. However, frequencies of micronuclei in PCE at groups 2 and 3 were significantly increased from day 1 and persisted to day 14. The frequency of micronuclei in NCE was increased only at group 3. In conclusion, the frequency of micronuclei increases as the dose of colloidal 32P chromic phosphate increases, while micronuclei was not induced at the usual therapeutic dose. And the frequency of micronuclei persistently elevated for 14 days in the cases of higher doses.

  5. Uptake of 32P labelled superphosphate by endomycorrhizal papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In papaya (Carica papaya cv. Coorg honey dew), there was an increase in 32P uptake and total phosphorus in plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mossae and G. fasciculatum. Phosphorus derived from fertilizer (Pdff) was lower in mycorrhizal plants while soil derived P, utilisation of P and A values were higher showing thereby that mycorrhizal plants had utilised forms of phosphorus not available to non-mycorrhizal plants. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  6. Study of pollen dispersal of Pinus oocarpa Schiede through the utilization of radiophosphorus 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of tagging pollen of Pinus oocarpa Schiede with radiophosphorus 32P, in a closed forest are related. It was observed that the polen was distribuited until a distance of 300 meters, independently of wind velocity an almost not influenced by his direction. It was concluded that the isolation of seed growing areas is possible through a barrier superior to 300 meters only. (M.A.C.)

  7. Diffusion on donor elements (125Sb, 32P, /sup 74(73)/As) in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of donor elements in fine-grained and coarse-grained polycrystalline silicon is studied in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0C. The radioisotopes 125Sb, 32P, and /sup 74(73)/As are used to measure concentration-depth profiles by the sectioning technique. By autoradiography the lateral distribution of the radiotracers over the sample surface is made visible. An extensive comparison with literature data is given. (author)

  8. Uptake of [2-14C]abscisic acid and distribution of 14C in apple embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrus malus L. var. Golden delicious embryos were incubated with (+-)-[2-14C] abscisic acid (ABA). After incubations of various durations, the radioactivity was measured in whole embryos, cotyledons, and embryonic axes. With either 48-h or 16-d incubation periods, the uptake of [14C] ABA depended upon the mode of culture used. The lowest values corresponded to the absorption by the embryonic axis, the highest to the absorption by the distal parts of the two cotyledons. The cotyledons accumulated the main part of the radioactivity under all conditions. Dormant and almost completely after-ripened embryos cultivated for 4 d showed no significant differences in the radioactivity uptake for identical modes of culture. There was a linear relationship between exogenous ABA concentrations (0.5 to 3.10-5 M) and ABA uptake for embryos cultivated for 4 d with the distal parts of the cotyledons immersed in the medium. (orig.)

  9. Amount and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to [14C]triclopyr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level and identity of [14C] residues in bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to 2.5 mg/L [14C] triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) have been determined. The highest level of radioactivity observed in the flesh of a fish at any time point (0.13 mg/kg, calculated as equivalent mg triclopyr/kg fish) was less than 5% of the fish exposure level of 2.5 mg/L, while the maximum level in the remainder (head, skin, and viscera) was about 95% (2.33 mg/kg) of the fish exposure level, indicating no concentrating effect. The principal components observed in the fish tissues were triclopyr, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine and a conjugate. These components accounted for greater than 75% of all the residues observed

  10. Persistence of the herbicides [14C]chlorsulfuron and [14C]metsulfuron methyl in prairie soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metsulfuron methyl, whose structure is closely related to that of chlorsulfuron, is currently being evaluated on the Canadian prairies as a postemergence treatment for the control of broadleaf weeds in cereal crops, in non-crop land and for brush control. Although applied postemergence, some of the herbicide will come into contact with the soil making it necessary to determine the fate of metsulfuron methyl in the soil. These studies were undertaken to investigate the rate of breakdown and the fate of [14C]metsulfuron methyl in three soils under laboratory conditions where no leaching could occur. The rate of breakdown of [14C]chlorsulfuron was also investigated in one of the soils

  11. Novel dose calculation and characterization of {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute; Kiavar, Omid; Saidi, Pooneh [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Fatehi, Rozhin [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-11-15

    Derived from AAPM task group No. 60/149 protocol, applicable in treatment planning In this study, the two-dimensional dose distributions in water for a {sup 32}P intravascular brachytherapy stent have been calculated. The pure beta emitter source {sup 32}P which has been coated on Palmaz-Schatz stent is discussed. The dosimetric parameters required by the AAPM TG-60/149 formalism are discussed and calculated. Version 5 of the (MCNP) Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to calculate the dosimetry parameters around the source. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate at the reference point is found to be 2.8 Gy/{mu}Ci. Also in this study, the geometry function, G(r,{theta}), radial dose function, g(r), and the anisotropy function, F(r,{theta}), have been calculated at distances from 1.8 to 9 mm. The results of these calculations have been compared with other published calculated and measured values for an actual same source. High dose variants were visible near the {sup 32}P stent surface, but these values decreased with depth in water rapidly. There is an acceptable agreement between the calculated data in this study and other published data for the same source, which validate our simulations method. (orig.)

  12. DNA Labeled with 32P for Detection of the Resistance of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Isoniazid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA labeled by 32P for detection of the resistance of M.tuberculosis to isoniazid has been carried out with molecular biology technique based on nuclear science. Tuberculosis (TB) is the first rank of death caused infectious diseases in Indonesia. One case of difficulties in controlling TB is the spreading of M.tuberculosis which resistant to the drug such as isoniazid. In this research, resistance to isoniazid can be detected by analyzing inh A gene, which is encoding isoniazid resistance. Analysis was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to amplify deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from inhA gene and was labeled with alpha 32P deoxy cytosine triphosphate ([?- 32P]dCTP). Amplified product of DNA was analyzed with single strand conformation polymerism (SSCP) technique based on the alteration of DNA band mobility in acrylamide gel after visualization with autoradiography. Analyses that have been done on 100 samples, it was found that 13.0% of them were suspected resistant to isoniazid. Molecular biology technique could be used to detect resistance in a short time and specific, and could be used as supporting data in TB patient treatment. The alteration of mobility of DNA band inhA gene could be used for analyzing the resistance M.tuberculosis to isoniazid. (author)

  13. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32P exchange technique. (author)

  14. Effect of 32P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of 32P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of 32P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. 32P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment. (author)

  15. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following 32P treatment for polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orally administrated NA232PO4 mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits ?-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that 32P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of 32P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by 32P treatment in PCV. (author)

  16. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

  17. Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

  18. Screening method of varietal resistance to planthoppers labelled with radioisotope 32P; pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The screening method of varietal resistance on the planthoppers has generally been evaluated as a reaction of plant after infesting insects. However, feeding amount of insects to the varieties was investigated in this experiment. The new method using 32P for rice varietal resistance to planthoppers was carried out through the following method. Insects tested were caged for a few hours on the plant which has absorbed 32P solution in small vials for 24-48 hours. After feeding, insects were killed in the refrigerator with formalin solution, and then were measured by the feeding amount as a count per minute (CPM) with the G.M. Counter. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The optimum amount of H3PO4 solution was found to be 2-3 ml. 2. Radioactivity of 0.7 ?Ci.32P was sufficient to check varietal difference of feeding amount by the brown planthopper. 3. Radioisotope was found from the body of insects but not in the cuticular layer nymphs cast off. (author)

  19. Dose Assessment of Phosphorus-32 (32P for the Treatment of Recurrent Pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nazempoor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pterygium is a wing-shaped, vascular, fleshy growth that originates from the conjunctiva and can spread into the corneal limbus and beyond. Beta irradiation after bare sclera surgery of primary pterygium is a simple, effective, and safe treatment, which reduces the risk of local recurrence. Materials and Methods Dosimetric components of strontium-90 (90Sr, phosphorous-32 (32P, and ruthenium-106 (106Ru, in form of ophthalmic applicators, were evaluated, using the Monte Carlo method. Results The obtained results indicated that 32P applicator could deliver higher doses (about 10 Gy to a target, located within a close distance from the surface, compared to 90Sr and 106Ru; it also delivered a lower dose to normal tissues. Conclusion The risk of pterygium has increased given the geographical location and climate of Iran. Spread of dust in the country over the past few years has also contributed to the rising rate of this condition. Our results showed that using 32P applicator is a cost-effective method for pterygium treatment.

  20. Chemical digestion and radionuclidic assay of TiNi-encapsulated 32P intravascular brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very quantitative, destructive assay procedure was devised for accurately measuring the 32P activity content of TiNi-encapsulated intravascular brachytherapy sources and was applied to four different sources (termed 'seeds') which were developed and provided by Guidant Intravascular Intervention (formerly NeoCardia). These seeds are intended for use in the prophylactic treatment of restenosis following balloon angioplasty in heart-disease patients. The assays involved the dissolution of the TiNi jacket, extraction of the activity from the internal 32P-containing source material, quantitative solution transfers, and a gravimetrically-based dilution; followed by liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry of the resulting master solution with 3H-standard efficiency tracing using composition-matched LS cocktails. The LS spectrometry utilized a previously-developed method for resolving the always-present 33P impurity. The protocol included provisions for accounting for all possible losses of 32P in the digestion procedure (based on radiochemical tracing experiments), for any unrecovered activity in the remaining source material, and for any residual activity in the solution-transfer and containing vessels. Sections of the TiNi jackets adjacent to the cut-off active seed portions were also assayed for any contained activity. Such destructive assays were required for relating measurements of the absorbed dose spatial distribution for the seeds to theoretic dose modelling and for establishing calibration factors for subsequent non-destructive radionuclidic measurements on the seeds

  1. Dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carla C.; Moralles, Mauricio; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, IPEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Centro do Reator de Pesquisas, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN/CNEN, CP 11049, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, IPEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from {sup 32}P-loaded glass microspheres and also from {sup 90}Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the {sup 32}P and {sup 90}Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

  2. Dose-rate distribution of 32P-glass microspheres for intra-arterial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The intra-arterial administration of radioactive glass microspheres is an alternative therapy option for treating primary hepatocellular carcinoma, the main cause of liver cancer death, and metastatic liver cancer, another important kind of cancer induced in the liver. The technique involves the administration of radioactive microspheres in the hepatic artery, which are trapped preferentially in the tumor. Methods: In this work the GEANT4 toolkit was used to calculate the radial dose-rate distributions in water from 32P-loaded glass microspheres and also from 90Y-loaded glass microspheres. To validate the toolkit for this application, the authors compared the dose-rate distribution of 32P and 90Y point sources in water with data from the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements report 72. Results: Tables of radial dose-rate distributions are provided for practical use in brachytherapy planning with these microspheres. Conclusions: The simulations with the microspheres show that the shape of the beta ray energy spectra with respect to the 32P and 90Y sources is significantly modified by the glass matrix.

  3. Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p) 14C using polarized proton beam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Murillo; M., Fernndez; J., Ramrez; M.G., Mejia-Gil; R., Policroniades; A., Varela; S.E., Darden; S., Sen; R.M., Prior; E., Chvez.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se midi la distribucin angular de la seccin eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersin elstica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energa sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El anlisis de los datos en trminos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la m [...] atriz "S" nos permite deducir los nmeros cunticos y parmetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energa de excitacin. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas. Abstract in english Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers were measured for 14C(p, p)14C for proton energies between 3.7 and 11.0 MeV in very small energy steps. A number of strong resonances are seen. Phase-shift analysis of the elastic scattering data yielded level parameters of eleven states i [...] n 15N in the excitation energy region 13.7-21.0 MeV. Previous assignments of spin, parity and energy of levels are discussed.

  4. Autoradiography of [14C]paraquat or [14C]diquat in frogs and mice: accumulation in neuromelanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The herbicide paraquat has been suggested as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease because of its structural similarity to a metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which may induce a parkinsonism-like condition. MPTP as well as its metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine have melanin affinity, and the parkinsonism-inducing potency of MPTP is much stronger in species with melanin in the nerve cells. Autoradiography of [3H]MPTP in experimental animals has shown accumulation in melanin-containing tissues, including pigmented neurons. In the present whole body autoradiographic study accumulation and retention was seen in neuromelanin in frogs after i.p. injection of [14C]paraquat or[14C]diquat. By means of whole body autoradiography of [14C]diquat in mice (a species with no or very limited amounts of neuromelanin) a low, relatively uniformly distributed level of radioactivity was observed in brain tissue. Accumulation of toxic chemical compounds, such as paraquat, in neuromelanin may ultimately cause lesions in the pigmented nerve cells, leading to Parkinson's disease

  5. Mineralization of ( sup 14 C)hexadecane and ( sup 14 C)phenanthrene in crude oil: Specificity among bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foght, J.M.; Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from freshwater, marine, and estuarine samples were tested for the ability to produce {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from n-(1-{sup 14}C)hexadecane or (9-{sup 14}C)phenanthrene added to Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Of 138 isolates tested, 54 (39%) mineralized the model aliphatic compound hexadecane and 6 (4%) mineralized the model aromatic compound phenanthrene. None mineralized both compounds. There was no apparent correlation between degradative ability and genus or source. Additional hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from diverse sources were tested and found to mineralize either hexadecane or phenanthrene. Of 61 hexadecane- and 21 phenanthrene-mineralizing bacteria tested, none mineralized both model compounds. Selected isolates and commercially available cultures were tested for mineralization of specific {sup 14}C-labelled mono-, di-, and tri-cyclic aromatics. An apparent hierarchy of degradation was observed: strains mineralizing the mono- and di-cyclic aromatics toluene and napthalene did not mineralize biphenyl or the tricyclic aromatics anthracene and phenanthrene, whereas those strains that mineralized the tricyclic aromatics also mineralized the smaller substrates. Similarly, not all n-alkane-mineralizing isolates tested mineralized the isoprenoid pristane. A combined culture consisting of one aliphatic- and one aromatic-degrading isolate was tested for mineralization of the model compounds and for degradation of other crude oil components by gas chromatography. No synergism or antagonism was observed compared with degradation by the individual isolates. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Phosphorus absorption (32P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free 32P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to 32P injection. (orig.)

  7. Phosphorus absorption (/sup 32/P) by apple trees under drip irrigation as influenced by the physical properties of the soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 84 - Montfavet (France). Station d' Agronomie)

    1983-01-01

    P absorption by apple tree roots (Golden delicious/M2) is studied using carrier-free /sup 32/P. A qualitative model of the influence of some physical properties of the soil is proposed combining individual tree responses to /sup 32/P injection.

  8. Radioactive skin bandages incorporating 90Y, 188Re and 32P for treatment of superficial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive bandages incorporating b-emitters 90Y, 188Re and 32P were prepared with an aim to have a radiation source that will deliver a uniform radiation dose to the site of tumor treatment. There have been reports of specially designed b- emitting paper and skin patches incorporating high-energy beta emitters such as 188Re and 166Ho. 90Y-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates, 188Re-Tin particles and 32P-Chromic phosphate particles were prepared and separately filtered through Millipore filters. Filters incorporating 90Y, 188Re and 32P activity were immobilized between nitrocellulose membranes and placed on adhesive bandage. In-vitro stability of bandages was tested in saline and no leakage of activity was observed from the bandages. 90Y bandages were tested on fibrosarcoma bearing Swiss mice and 188Re bandages and 32P bandages were tested in melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. Radioactive bandages were applied on tumors and parameters such as dose, fractionation of dose and time of contact were varied and effect was studied by following the tumor size. At ?18 MBq, there was no significant effect on tumor growth even on placing the patch for 24h. But, animals treated with >37MBq for 3h, showed delay in rate of growth compared to the controls. The best effect was observed on treatment with a second dose of 37-74 MBq after a week, when the tumors regressed fully. In those animals, skin surface appeared hard and necrotic but reversed to normal in few days. Histology studies were done to observe the effect on skin epithelium. Tumor histology slides from treated animals showed regression of tumor. Loss of hair follicles and sebaceous glands was observed in the treated area. Autoradiography and gamma camera imaging of radioactive bandage showed uniformity of dose distribution. Electron Gamma Shower Code (EGS4) system was used to calculate the dose rate distribution due to radioactive bandages at various depths from skin surface. Dose rate calculations revealed that reasonably high dose of ? 2.2 Gy/h/MBq is imparted by radioactive bandages to the tumor site. Both fibrosarcoma and melanoma responded well to treatment with radioactive bandages. Tumor growth was delayed at doses >37MBq. Fractionated doses were effective in complete regression of the tumor. Radioactive bandages incorporating beta emitters such as 90Y, 188Re and 32P could be a promising modality for treatment of superficial tumors. (author)

  9. The 14C partitioning of [1,2-14C] sodium acetate in three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in Japanese agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon (14C) partitioning ratios in the soil solid, liquid, and gas phases was determined by batch sorption experiments using 63 paddy soil and 79 upland soil samples to understand the behavior of 14C in agricultural fields. The mean 14C partitioning ratios for all agricultural soil samples were 35 % for the soil solid phase, 5 % for the liquid phase, and 60 % for the gas phase. A comparison of the 14C partitioning between paddy and upland samples showed significant differences. This difference was caused by soil solution pH. Land use would affect the behavior of the 14C as the sodium acetate form. (author)

  10. Influence of postnatal hypoxia on 32P labelling of polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid in striatum synaptosomes from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striatum synaptosomes prepared from adult rats which had been exposed to postnatal hypoxia incorporate 32P-phosphate into phosphatidylinositol-4,5-trisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2) with decreased rate. 32P incorporation amounted to 57% of the control for PI-4,5-P2 labelling and was slightly diminished for phosphatidic acid and PI-4-P. Exposure to hypoxia of adult rats did not affect inositolphospholipid labelling. The inhibitory effect of dopamine on 32P-phosphate incorporation was reduced only after postnatal hypoxia. 32P incorporation rates and the dopamine inhibitory effect were not influenced by external calcium. A working hypothesis is suggested for the dopamine action on specific receptors which may be linked to the polyphosphoinositide metabolism and membrane calcium release. The long lasting effects of an early postnatal hypoxia on 32P incorporation rates into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid could reflect the role of the proposed dopamine receptor interaction. (author)

  11. Design and construction of a prototype for the obtention of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32 P are a pure emitting radioisotope of maximum energy of 1.71 MeV with half life of 14.28 days that he has applications in the industry, in agriculture, in medicine, in biology and in ecology (6,11,12,13,17,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32 33).The 32 P can be used in the industry like radiotracer in the investigation of some operations and processes and as element of measurement of some industrial meters. In agriculture is used as radiotracer (29) in the investigation of diverse biological processes that have to do with the production of diverse nutritious products. In medicine has uses but very therapeutic mainly in the treatment of some become cancerous (28, 31, 25, 27) in the diagnosis of blood disorders (24) and like part of materials of production of aortic prosthesis (6). The 32 P are also used in the molecular investigation in biology and in genetics (33), and in studies of ecosystems (32) and of DNA (22). One can obtain the 32 P by means of diverse nuclear reactions depending on the material used as matter it prevails, since it doesn't exist in the nature. But anyone in the ways of obtaining it it should imply a process of radiochemical separation that involves so many steps like they are required, depending on the material used as matter prevails, of the purity with which he wants himself to obtain and of the resources that it has available. The objective of this work was design, to build and to prove a prototype to obtain the 32 P to leave of the irradiation of S α with fast neutrons at experimental level, which implies also to design a process that contemplates diverse stages and procedures for each one of them. The process was outlined in five stages: matter purification prevails, preparation of irradiation capsules, irradiation of irradiation capsules, transport and opening capsules of irradiation and radiochemical separation. In the last stage it was where uses the prototype of radiochemical separation in basis to the outlined process and considering aspects of environmental and personal radiological safety, in such a way that the radiochemical separation carried out in two stages in the same prototype and with the less manipulation of the radioactive material.To know the functionality of the process and of the prototype, they were carried out three tests of these, in each one of those which the stages of the process were evaluated by means of mensuration of physicochemical parameters and by means of characterizations of the materials involved in these stages with diverse technical analytic instrumental: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, high-purity Ge semiconductor detector proportional detector proportional of low bottom gas and liquid scintillation detector. The results of the process for stages showed that with the outlined method of purification of the matter prevails six of nine constituent elements they were removed of chemical sludges of the raw materials of the process, S α, and that with the process and the prototype of radiochemical separation it was reached to separate 32 P of the S α. In general, it was reached to obtain 32 P from S α irradiated with relatively small quantities of radiochemical impurities. (Author)

  12. A high resolution method for 14C analysis of a coral from South China Sea: Implication for "AD 775" 14C event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ping; Shen, Chengde; Yi, Weixi; Wang, Ning; Ding, Xingfang; Liu, Kexin; Fu, Dongpo; Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    A pre-heating method that improves the background and precision of 14C dating significantly was applied for fossil coral dating with high resolution in our lab in Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GIGCAS). The reaction tube is heated under 300 C in a vacuum line before it is used for graphitization. The method can reduce the contamination absorbed in TiH2, Zn and Fe power placed in the graphitization tube. With the pre-heating and average drilling method, bi-weekly resolution 14C dating in a fossil coral is carried out to investigate the "AD 775 14C spike event". Different from the tree ring 14C archives with the 14C spike of ?15 (?14C), the 14C spike in the coral shows an abrupt peak of 45 and two smaller spikes of ?14C > 20 in half a year in AD 776. And then, the 14C content in coral decreases gradually in AD 777. The peak time of the 14C spike event likely occurs in the summer of AD 776 according to the ?18O variation in coral. High-resolution dating of 14C in coral provides not only a more detail process of the event than that from tree rings, but also the first report of the event from sea ecosystem. Both of them suggest an extraterrestrial origin of the event cause.

  13. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkins disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer

  14. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjomand, A; Bucholz, B A; Clifford, A J; Duecker, S R; Johnson, H; Schneider, P D; Zulim, R A

    1999-03-25

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkin?s disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer.

  15. Cluster structures of excited states in $^{14}$C

    CERN Document Server

    Suhara, Tadahiro

    2010-01-01

    Structures of excited states in $^{14}$C are investigated with a method of $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ constraint antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in combination with the generator coordinate method. Various excited states with the developed $3\\alpha$-cluster core structures are suggested in positive- and negative-parity states. In the positive-parity states, triaxial deformed and linear-chain structures are found to construct excited bands. Interestingly, $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ correlation is found in the cluster states above the $^{10}$Be+$\\alpha$ threshold energy.

  16. Combustion synthesis of ceramic matrices for immobilization of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the use of combustion synthesis for immobilization of 14C was considered. Ceramic matrices have been prepared by this method using two different devices: one non-conventional with preheating of the samples and the other conventional device where ignition was produced thanks to tungsten filament. These two devices gave rise to different mechanisms of reactions involving different amounts of unreacted carbon graphite inside the matrix. The SHS samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  17. Radiative neutron capture on 14C and 14N

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyeva, N V; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, A V

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of description of the experimental data on total cross sections of the radiative neutron capture on 14C and 14N is considered within the frame of the potential cluster model with forbidden states and their classification according to Young schemes. It is shown that the using model and the potential construction methods allow to reproduce correctly the behavior of experimental cross sections at the energies from 10 meV (10-2 eV) to 1 MeV.

  18. Metabolism of [14C]-lindane in plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of several biodegradation studies on [14C]-lindane in plants and animals. These results together with those from previous studies indicate a common biodegradation pattern for lindane in plants, insects and animals, as chlorobenzene and chlorophenolic metabolites are formed in all cases. Various isomers of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobenzene and chlorophenols; pentachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol have been found in plants, insects and animals. γ-PCCH has been found in plants and insects but not in mammals. The chemical nature of terminal residues of lindane in several foods including wheat, bread, eggs and meat products are discussed. (author)

  19. Gas ion sources for 14C analysis: Development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 gas accepting ion sources permit analytical instruments to be interfaced directly to an AMS system for 14C analysis. Instrumentation such as an elemental analyzer, gas bench, gas chromatograph and ampoule cracker have been implemented and routine gas measurements are performed and compliment traditional solid graphite measurements. Analysis of small samples with less than 50 ?g of carbon is readily achievable allowing molecular level radiocarbon data to be obtained for a range of sample types. Previous work using the microwave plasma gas ion source at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will be shown and discussed in the context of current work at ETH Zurich using a hybrid Cs sputter source. (author)

  20. 14C-lindane residues in palm processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to identify the residue level in palm fruits and its products by spiking the fruits at 5 ppm with 14C-[UL]-lindane and following up on the residue during simulated commercial processes. The study concluded that steam distillation (deodorization) is an effective process in removing lindane residues. Under experimental conditions, commercial processes removed some 74% of insecticide residues from crude palm oil. Based on the oil content (up to 50%) of the pulp the residue concentration in the refined oil may exceed 2.5% mg/kg. The result suggest that the refined oil may retain one quarter of lindane received by the fruit. 1 tab

  1. 14C-coumaphos residues in Egyptian lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-coumaphos was applied dermally to two lactating goats, with 2 weeks interval. One goat was sacrificed 24 hours after the second application, and the second animal after a withdrawal period of two weeks. The results showed that coumaphos has a slow penetration rate when dermally applied to lactating goats. Milk residues were 0.20-0.25 ppm following appication, declining gradually to 0.03-0.06 ppm after 2 weeks. The liver and kidney were found to contain considerable amounts of coumaphos residues in comparison with other organs and milk after the withdrawal period. (author)

  2. Pyrolysis of 1-/sup 14/C-pent-1-ene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopinke, F.D.; Bach, G.; Ondruschka, B.; Zimmermann, G. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Organische Chemie)

    1983-01-01

    In the thermal decomposition of 1-/sup 14/C-pent-1-ene at 550 to 650 /sup 0/C a mixture of saturated and olefinic hydrocarbons <= C/sub 6/ is formed. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography, the distribution of radioactvity in the main products by radio gas chromatography. The results are discussed on the basis of a conventional radical reaction scheme including 1.4- and 1.5-H-shifts in intermediate alkyl and alkenyl radicals. The distribution of pyrolysis products and of their radioactivity allows a semiquantitative description of the complex decomposition of n-pent-1-en.

  3. Long-distance transport of 35S-sulphur in 3-year-old beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35S-L-cysteine was fed to a mature leaf of 3-year-old beech trees via a flap. After 1 to 4 h the distribution of 35S-radioactivity was analysed in the leaves as well as the bark and wood of the trunk and the main root. Transport of 35S out of the fed leaf amounted to 0.31.2% of the total 35S taken up. The branches of the trees did not act as sink organs for the exported radioactivity. The main portion of the 35S-radioactivity transported out of the fed leaf was found in basipetal parts of the trunk. Only a small portion of 35S-radioactivity was transported in acropetal direction. The distribution of the 35S-radioactivity within the trunk showed a higher portion of 35S in the bark than in the wood. In both tissues, bark (70 to 80%) and wood (60 to 70%), the 35S was predominantly found in the HCl soluble fraction. However, 35S-cysteine, the compound fed to the leaves was not exported out of the fed leaf. Along the trunk 35S-cysteine was neither determined in bark nor in wood sections. The only low molecular mass S-compounds found was 35S-glutathione (GSH). The 35S-sulphate detected in bark and wood origined from cysteine oxidation in the leaf tissue and from contamination of the 35S-cysteine feeding solution. The ratio of GSH to sulphate decreased with increasing distance from the fed leaf. Apparently, 35S-radioactivity was transported as sulphate and GSH in the phloem in basipetal direction, but GSH was removed preferentially out of the phloem along the transport path. 35S-radioactivity exported out of the phloem and transported into the wood of the trunk was not retranslocated in the xylem. It may therefore be assumed that part of the 35S translocated was stored in ray cells, medullary sheath cells and/or pith parenchyma cells. Girdling experiments in which the bark of the trunk was peeled off basipetal to the branch containing the fed leaf support these assumptions. (author)

  4. Metabolism of (2-14C)thymine and (2-14C)thymidine in germinating black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine in the cotyledons and embryonic axes of black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seedlings was investigated. Both [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine degraded extensively into [14C]CO2. The rate of release of [14C]CO2 from [2-14C]thymine was much greater than that from [2-14C]thymidine. Radioactivity from both precursors was also observed ?-ureidoisobutyric acid. This indicated that thymine was degraded by the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation. Small amounts of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine were salvaged for deoxyribonucleotide and DNA synthesis. The highest incorporation of [2-14C]thymine and [2-14C]thymidine into the DNA fraction was observed in 24 hour-old cotyledons where net DNA synthesis was not observed. These precursors seem to be utilised for DNA synthesis of organelles of the cotyledonary cells, probably mitochondria. In embronic axes, [2-14C]thymine is more effectively salvaged for DNA synthesis than [2-14C]thymine. The incorporation rate increased during the early phase of germination and attained its maximum at 48 h after which it decreased. No thymidine kinase activity was detected in either cotyledons or in the embryonic axes. Thymidine salvage seems to be catalysed by nucleoside phosphotransferase which is present both in the cotyledons and in the embryonic axes. This suggests that, in contrast to other pyrimidine and purine bases and nucleosides, no specific salvage system for thymine and thymidine is present in black gram seedlings. (author)

  5. Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, M. F.; Nascimento, T. S.; Yamazaki, I. M.; Dias, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them.

  6. A comparison of methods for the intrinsic labeling of wheat protein with 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hard red winter wheat variety (Brule), grown to maturity in a greenhouse, was intrinsically labeled with 35S by either stem injection or addition of the isotope to the medium in which detached wheat heads were grown. Two levels of isotope were applied by each method at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days postanthesis. Significantly higher yield (weight/head) of grain was observed with injection compared to the incubation method. Of the isotope introduced by injection, 77% translocated into the wheat kernel, and of this amount at least 77% of the isotope in the kernel was associated with kernel protein and free sulfur amino acids. Data suggest that injection of wheat stems 15 days after anthesis, with doses up to 10 ?Ci of 35S, would be a suitable method of obtaining intrinsically labeled wheat protein for bioavailability studies

  7. Distribution of radioactivity in the mouse organism after administration of 35S-chondroitin sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The follow-up of chondroitin sulphate (ChS) distribution in the organism after its administration by various routes is interesting in view of the possibility of clinical applications. Mice received intraperitoneally and intragastrically 35S-ChS and the distribution of radioactivity was followed in 10 chosen organs. The dynamics of changes in radioactivity were found to differ in dependence on the type of organ and route of administration. (author)

  8. t-(/sup 35/S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites in invertebrate tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.W.; Szamraj, O.; Miller, T.

    1989-04-01

    Specific high affinity binding of the cage convulsant t-(35S)butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) was observed in membrane homogenates of housefly heads and crayfish abdominal muscles. (35S)TBPS binding in these two invertebrate tissues was inhibited by biologically active cage convulsants, picrotoxin analogs, and barbiturates. The housefly binding sites were inhibited most potently by several insecticides. Approximately 50% of total binding was displaceable by excess (0.1 mM) nonradioactive TBPS, picrotoxinin, ethyl bicyclophosphate, or dieldrin. Optimal binding assay conditions for housefly homogenates included pH 7.5, 22 degrees C temperature, 0.3 M chloride concentration, and incubation for 60 min; for crayfish homogenates, 4 degrees C temperature and 150-min incubations were optimal. Scatchard plots of equilibrium binding indicated one site in both tissues (KD = 50 nM, Bmax = 250 fmol/mg protein in housefly; KD = 25 nM, Bmax = 100 fmol/mg protein in crayfish). Association kinetics in housefly were consistent with one rate constant (k+1 = 8 X 10(6) M-1 min-1), but dissociation was described better by two rate constants (k-1 = 0.28 min-1 and 0.042 min-1; calculated KD values of 80 nM and 12 nM). Displacement by cage convulsants showed Hill numbers near 0.5, also consistent with two populations of affinity, while displacement by other drugs showed Hill numbers near 1.0. (35S)TBPS binding in insects was most potently inhibited by the insecticides dieldrin (IC50 = 50 nM), aldrin, and lindane (200 nM), in a stereospecific manner, consistent with this binding site being the receptor for biological toxicity. (35S)TBPS binding was also inhibited by relatively high concentrations of some pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin and cypermethrin (1-2 microM).

  9. Studies on the metabolism of inorganic sulphur by nitrifying bacterium - Nitrobacter agilis using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies on the incorporation of 35S-labelled sulphate into washed cell suspension of Nitrobacter agilis, the bound sulphate, sulphite, sulphide, cysteine, glutathione, homocysteine, methionine and taurine were found in the hydrolysed protein fraction. As in other micro-organisms, sulphate is first activated by ATP in Nitrobacter before it is reduced. The formation of APS and PAPS was also investigated in the present studies. (author)

  10. Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C nuclear rainbow scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, S

    2015-01-01

    The Airy structure in $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C rainbow scattering is studied with an extended double folding (EDF) model that describes all the diagonal and off-diagonal coupling potentials derived from the microscopic realistic wave functions for $^{16}$O using a density-dependent nucleon-nucleon force. The experimental angular distributions at $E_L$=132, 281 and 382.2 MeV are well reproduced by the calculations. By studying the energy evolution of the Airy structure, the Airy minimum at around $\\theta$=76$^\\circ$ in the angular distribution at $E_L$=132 MeV is assigned as the second order Airy minimum $A2$ in contrast to the recent literature which assigns it as the third order $A3$. The Airy minima in the 90$^\\circ$ excitation function is investigated in comparison with well-known $^{16}$O+$^{16}$O and $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C systems. Evolution of the Airy structure into the molecular resonances with the $^{16}$O+$^{14}$C cluster structure in the low energy region around $E_{c.m.}$=30 MeV is discussed. It is predicted ...

  11. Improving a gas ion source for 14C AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 4 years, gaseous samples of 150 ?g carbon have been routinely measured with the gas ion source of the small AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer) facility MICADAS (MIni CArbon DAting System) at ETH Zurich. The applied measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. A major drawback of gaseous 14C measurements, however, is the relatively low negative ion current, which results in longer measurement times and lower precision compared to graphitized samples. In December 2009, a new, improved Cs sputter ion source was installed at MICADAS and we began to optimize conditions for the measurement of gaseous samples. 12C? currents from the new ion source were improved from initially 3 to 1215 ?A for routine measurements and the negative ion yield was increased by a factor of 2, reaching 8% on average during routine operation. Moreover, the new measurement settings enable a doubled CO2 flow, thus substantially reducing measurement times. The achieved performance allows closing the sample size gap between gaseous and solid samples and makes the gas ion source a promising tool for dating with a measurement precision of 5 on samples as small as 50 ?g carbon.

  12. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  13. Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution and residue of 35S-methamidophos in simulated Rice-Azolla-Fish System have been studied. The results show: (1) when 2 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the early rice, there is 0.01 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.55 ppm in the fish; (2) when 3 x 50g of 50% methamidophos emultion/mu are sprayed on the late rice, there is 0.04 ppm in the brown rice, and 0.40 ppm in the fish. ADI of methamidophos is 0.0006 mg/kg body according to FAD/WHO recommendation in 1985, so Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in the rice is 0.078 ppm, MRL in the fish is 2.3 ppm. The residue in the rice and fish does not exceed the MRL by FAO/WHO recommendation, when the amount of used methamidophos was controlled. 35S-methamidophos in the simulated system disappears as exponential function. The half-life of 35S-methamidophos on the Azolla, water, fish and straw are 1.5, 2.8, 6.2 and 2.2 days respectively

  14. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [35S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [35S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [35S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  15. The inclusion of 35S sodium sulfate in tissues soluble proteins in feather keratin of broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ-tissue peculiarities of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into soluble tissue proteins of skin, muscles, liver, pancreas, duodenum were established in experiments with chickens of one, 23, 41 and 60 day age. It is shown that skin is the organ, accumulating 35S sodium sulfate. It was revealed that intensity of 35S sodium sulfate uptake into muscule proteins and feather keratin in 23- and 41-day age decreased. Specificity of isotope distribution in separate feather components was established

  16. 14C-sucrose and 14C-malonate precursor feeding studies on lipid biosynthesis in peanut plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucrose is the principal photosynthetic product that gets transported to various organs of the plant and serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of food reserves like starch and lipids. Acetate and malonate are the most important precursor compounds involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and lipids. The role of acetate in the fatty acid biosynthesis has been probed in detail by Stumpf. However, only very limited work has been reported using malonate as a substrate. In the present study, the role of sucrose and malonate in the lipid biogenesis in peanut plant has been examined using 14C-labeled compounds. (author). 7 refs

  17. Characterization of excited states of 15N through 14C(p,p 14C using polarized proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se midi la distribucin angular de la seccin eficaz diferencial y el poder analizador para la dispersin elstica de un haz de protones polarizados de entre 3.7 y 11 MeV de energa sobre 14C con pasos muy finos. El anlisis de los datos en trminos de ondas parciales y corrimientos de fase de la matriz "S" nos permite deducir los nmeros cunticos y parmetros de diez estados del 15N entre 13.7 y 21.0 MeV de energa de excitacin. Las asignaciones previamente publicadas para estos niveles son discutidas.

  18. Study of the resonance behaviour of the systems 12C + 12C and 14C + 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis the resonant behaviour of the elastic e.g. inelastic scattering of 12C + 12C and 14C + 14C is studied. For the system 12C + 12C the spin alignment Psub(zz) of the inelastic scattering 12C(12C,12C)12C*(2+, 4.43 MeV) at six energies between 18.5 and 32.8 MeV (c.m.) is determined. The measurement was performed by coincident detection of particles and ?-quanta, whereby the ? detector was oriented in the direction of the scattering norm. The obtained Psub(z)sub(z)-values fluctuate strongly at the maxima of the excitation function (from +0.03 to +0.84) as at the minima (from -0.04 to +0.76). This result agrees neither with the predictions of the band crossing model (Abe) nor with the expectations of non-resonant models. At 14C + 14C the elastic scattering at Esub(c.m.) = 6-35 MeV as well as the single or double inelastic scattering to 3-(6.73MeV) from 15 to 35 MeV (c.m.) was measured. In the elastic 900(c.m.) excitation functions strongly pronounced crude structures (width 2-3 MeV (c.m.)) are shown, which are similar to the scattering behaviour of 160 + 160 and can be qualitatively described by surface transparent optical potentials. By measurements of the angular distributions it could be shown, that at the maxima of the excitation function at 15.5, 19.5, 24, and 28 the partial waves L = 12, 14, 17, e.g. 18 dominate. In the inelastic scattering from about 25 MeV (c.m.) clearly intermediate structures were observed, but the absolute value of the cross sections lies at about one order of magnitude below that of 12C* + 12C(2+) e.g. 12C*(2+) + 12C*(2+). This result as well as the only weak appearance of intermediate structures in the elastic scattering leads to the conclusion of a weak coupling between ground state and the 3--state. (orig./HSI)

  19. A Field Method for Validating Estimated 32P Activities in Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid radioactive wastes containing 32P are commonly generated as a byproduct of biomedical research and academic endeavours. The amount of radioactivity contained in these wastes is usually based on generalised mass balance calculations and intimate knowledge of the experiments performed. But since most solid waste is actually incidental to the protocols conducted, activity estimates can be inaccurate. Hence, a rapid field test method to validate activity levels reported by generators would be useful; similar tests are regularly used for the validation of activities of wastes containing photon-emitting radionuclides. Although this methodology is not typically applied to wastes containing beta-emitting radionuclides, due to the significant potential for radiation attenuation by the solid waste material, the beta emission from 32P is actually energetic enough readily to penetrate most paper, plastic and glass solid waste constituents. In this study, waste packages with variable predetermined amounts of 32P were monitored at a set of pre-established points using standard portable survey instrumentation. A series of waste activity correction curves were developed and used as a basis for validating actual waste package activity content. The results of the study revealed that over 90% of the waste packages monitored exhibited significant discrepancies between the measured and reported activity content. Although the technique used in this study accurately indicated radioactive content over a wide range, it can be hampered by a significant probability of exhibiting false negative results. Nonetheless, the method can be used as a valuable tool for waste minimisation programmes when applied judiciously. (author)

  20. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber

  1. Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5?M, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 ?M. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake ( 70%) indicating the presence of >10?M particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

  2. Radial 32P ion implantation using a coaxial plasma reactor: Activity imaging and numerical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M. A.; Dufresne, V.; Paynter, R.; Sarkissian, A.; Stansfield, B.

    2004-12-01

    Beta-emitting biomedical implants are currently employed in angioplasty, in the treatment of certain types of cancers, and in the embolization of aneurysms with platinum coils. Radioisotopes such as 32P can be implanted using plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). In this article, we describe a reactor that was developed to implant radioisotopes into cylindrical metallic objects. The plasma first ionizes radioisotopes sputtered from a target, and then acts as the source of particles to be implanted into the biased biomedical device. The plasma therefore plays a major role in the ionization/implantation process. Following a sequence of implantation tests, the liners protecting the interior walls of the reactor were changed and the radioactivity on them measured. This study demonstrates that the radioactive deposits on these protective liners, adequately imaged by radiography, can indicate the distribution of the radioisotopes that are not implanted. The resulting maps give unique information about the activity distribution, which is influenced by the sputtering of the 32P-containing fragments, their ionization in the plasma, and also by the subsequent ion transport mechanisms. Such information can be interpreted and used to significantly improve the efficiency of the implantation procedure. Using a surface barrier detector, a comparative study established a relationship between the gray scale of radiographs of the liners, and activity measurements. An integration process allows the quantification of the activities on the walls and components of the reactor. Finally, the resulting integral of the 32P activity is correlated to the sum of the radioactivity amounts that were sputtered from radioactive targets inside the implanter before the dismantling procedure. This balance addresses the issue of security regarding PBII technology and confirms the confinement of the radioactivity inside the chamber.

  3. 32P-postlabeling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in fish from polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown bullheads (Ictalurus nebulosus) were sampled from sites in the Buffalo and Detroit Rivers where fish are exposed to high levels of sediment bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and suffer from an elevated frequency of liver cancer. DNA was isolated from the livers of these wild fish and from control specimens which were raised in clean aquariums. DNA was enzymatically digested to normal and adducted nucleotides, and hydrophobic/bulky adducts were enriched in the digests either by preparative reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, or selective nuclease P1 dephosphorylation of normal nucleotides. Aromatic DNA-carcinogen adducts were then quantitated using 32P-postlabeling analysis. Using both adduct enrichment procedures, chromatograms derived from DNA of fish from polluted areas showed a diffuse diagonal radioactive zone not present in DNA from aquarium raised fish. The diagonal zone appeared to consist at least in part of multiple overlapping discrete adduct spots which could be partially separated by gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography prior to 32P-postlabeling analysis, and most of which were more strongly retained on a reverse-phase column than the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct. The behavior of the adducts in the diagonal radioactive zone and of their unlabeled precursors is consistent with their identification as nucleotide adducts of a variety of bulky hydrophobic aromatic environmental compounds. Total pollution-related adduct levels as analyzed by HPLC adduct enrichment and 32P-postlabeling were 70.1 +/- 29 (SD) nmol/mol normal nucleotide in fish from the Buffalo River, and 52 and 56 nmol/mol for two specimens from the Detroit River

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C-oxaliplatin concentrations in biological samples and 14C contents in biological samples and antineoplastic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoguchi, Teiko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Konno, Noboru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Tokanai, Fuyuki

    2015-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is expected to play an important role in microdose trials. In this study, we measured the 14C concentration in 14C-oxaliplatin-spiked serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate samples in our Yamagata University (YU) - AMS system. The calibration curves of 14C concentration in serum, urine and supernatant of fecal homogenate were linear (the correlation coefficients were ?0.9893), and the precision and accuracy was within the acceptance criteria. To examine a 14C content of water in three vacuum blood collection tubes and a syringe were measured. 14C was not detected from water in these devices. The mean 14C content in urine samples of 6 healthy Japanese volunteers was 0.144 dpm/mL, and the intra-day fluctuation of 14C content in urine from a volunteer was little. The antineoplastic agents are administered to the patients in combination. Then, 14C contents of the antineoplastic agents were quantitated. 14C contents were different among 10 antineoplastic agents; 14C contents of paclitaxel injection and docetaxel hydrate injection were higher than those of the other injections. These results indicate that our quantitation method using YU-AMS system is suited for microdosing studies and that measurement of baseline and co-administered drugs might be necessary for the studies in low concentrations.

  5. Cholestyramine-enhanced fecal elimination of carbon-14 in rats after administration of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate or potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a single intravenous dose of ammonium [14C]perfluorooctanoate [( 14C]PFO, 13.3 mg/kg) or of potassium [14C]perfluorooctanesulfonate [( 14C]PFOS, 3.4 mg/kg) to rats, cholestyramine fed daily as a 4% mixture in feed was shown to increase the total carbon-14 eliminated via feces and to decrease liver concentration of carbon-14. Rats were fed cholestyramine in feed for 14 days after administration of [14C]PFO and for 21 days after administration of [14C]PFOS. Control rats were administered radiolabeled fluorochemical but were not treated with cholestyramine. Cholestyramine treatment increased mean cumulative carbon-14 elimination in feces by 9.8-fold for rats administered [14C]PFO and by 9.5-fold for rats administered [14C]PFOS. After [14C]PFO, a mean of 4% of the dose of carbon-14 was in liver of cholestyramine-treated rats at 14 days versus 7.6% in control rats; after [14C]PFOS, 11.3% of the dose was in liver at 21 days versus 40.3% in control rats. After administration of either radiolabeled compound, plasma and red blood cell carbon-14 concentrations, which were relatively lower than liver concentrations, were also significantly reduced by cholestyramine treatment

  6. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A 32P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 107 to 108 nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are 32P-labeled at their 5'-hydroxyl groups by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [32P] phosphate transfer from [?-32P]ATP. 32P-labeled derivatives are resolved by TLC, detected by autoradiography, and quantitated by counting. This assay has been recently utilized for the determination and partial characterization of DNA adducts formed in somatic and reproductive tissues of rats given the clinically used anticancer drug, mitomycin C. The drug exhibits similar levels of covalent binding to DNA in most tissues. Further studies have revealed that adducted nucleotides are primarily guanine derivatives that are resistant to 3'-dephosphorylation by Penicillium citrinum nuclease P1. The latter observation has been utilized to enhance the 32P-assay's sensitivity to 1 adduct in 1010 nucleotides for a 10-?g DNA sample by postincubation of DNA digests with nuclease P1 before 32P-labeling. The new assay has also shown utility in the analysis of very low levels of age- and tissue-related DNA modifications, which might arise from dietary or endogenous compounds, in untreated rats and humans

  7. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal /sup 32/P uptake at various times of injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breneman, W.R.; Zeller, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid /sup 32/P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased.

  8. Effect of lithosperm on thyroidal 32P uptake at various times of injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These experiments were performed to increase our understanding of possible side effects in the use of extracts of the plant Lithospermum ruderale (LSPM) as a contraceptive. Cold-water extracts of LSPM were used to note possible effects on injected TSH and on endogenous TSH which was increased by the use of propylthiouracil. It was demonstrated that LSPM had a biphasic effect on both endogenous and exogenous TSH activity as measured by chick thyroid 32P uptake. When given 18h before autopsy, LSPM decreased TSH activity in both, whereas when LSPM was administered 42h or 44h before autopsy, TSH activity was significantly increased

  9. Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

  10. The measurement of activity contained in a 32P stainless-steel stent by destructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destructive assays of stainless-steel stents containing 32P were performed. Prior to assay, 24 stents were intercompared on a NaI(Tl) well-type crystal. A subset of stents were then digested in a suitable carrier solution by the addition of concentrated hydrofluoric acid. The final solution was measured by the CIEMAT/NIST tritium efficiency tracing method for liquid scintillation counting. A separate experiment was performed which indicated no loss of activity during stent digestion. Expanded (k=2) uncertainties on stent activity ranged from 1.0% to 2.6%

  11. Formation of DNA adducts from oil-derived products analyzed by 32P-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkineni, L K; Zeisig, M; Baranczewski, P; Ekstrm, L G; Mller, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic potential of DNA adducts and to compare DNA adduct levels and patterns in petroleum vacuum distillates, coal tar distillate, bitumen fume condensates, and related substances that have a wide range of boiling temperatures. An in vitro assay was used for DNA adduct analysis with human and rat S-9 liver extract metabolic activation followed by 32P-postlabeling and 32P-high-performance liquid chromatography (32p-HPLC). For petroleum distillates originating from one crude oil there was a correlation between in vitro DNA adduct formation and mutagenic index, which showed an increase with a distillation temperature of 250 degrees C and a peak around a distillation point of approximately 400 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the genotoxicity (DNA adducts and mutagenicity) rapidly declined to very low levels. Different petroleum products showed a more than 100-fold range in DNA adduct formation, with severely hydrotreated base oil and bitumen fume condensates being lowest. Coal tar distillates showed ten times higher levels of DNA adduct formation than the most potent petroleum distillate. A clustered DNA adduct pattern was seen over a wide distillation range after metabolic activation with liver extracts of rat or human origin. These clusters were eluted in a region where alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons could be expected. The DNA adduct patterns were similar for base oil and bitumen fume condensates, whereas coal tar distillates had a wider retention time range of the DNA adducts formed. Reference substances were tested in the same in vitro assay. Two- and three-ringed nonalkylated aromatics were rather low in genotoxicity, but some of the three- to four-ringed alkylated aromatics were very potent inducers of DNA adducts. Compounds with an amino functional group showed a 270-fold higher level of DNA adduct formation than the same structures with a nitro functional group. The most potent DNA adduct inducers of the 16 substances tested were, in increasing order, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 9-vinylanthracene. Metabolic activation with human and rat liver extracts gave rise to the same DNA adduct clusters. When bioactivation with material from different human individuals was used, there was a significant correlation between the CYP 1A1 activity and the capacity to form DNA adducts. This pattern was also confirmed using the CYP 1A1 inhibitor ellipticine. The 32P-HPLC method was shown to be sensitive and reproducible, and it had the capacity to separate DNA adduct-forming substances when applied to a great variety of petroleum products. PMID:11218050

  12. Potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant following administration of sodium 32P-phosphate to the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P uptake test to diagnose an intraocular tumour was performed on a lactating woman. Breast feeding of her infant had been stopped and after injection of the 32P, a sample of breast milk on two consecutive days was collected. The concentration of 32P in the milk was greater in the second sample than the first, but it was calculated that the potential whole body radiation dose to her infant on the second day would not have exceeded 180 ?Sv(18 mrem). (author)

  13. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, F., E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Fiumano, V., E-mail: vittoriofiumano85@libero.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Capano, M., E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Piazza S. Francesco, 81055 Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Passariello, I., E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Cesare, N.De., E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Terrasi, F., E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it [CIRCE, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli and INNOVA, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The decreasing trend of the radiocarbon pulse produced during the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons (bomb-carbon) coupled with high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements, drastically increased the precision of radiocarbon age determinations since the second part of the sixties, allowing the application of radiocarbon AMS to a wide range of studies previously not directly involving conventional radiocarbon dating (i.e. food authenticity, forensic, biochemistry). In the framework of authenticity evaluation of artworks, high precision radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) AMS measurements ({Delta}R/R < 0.3%) reduce the conventional uncertainty of the dating to few decades, allowing precise age estimation of materials containing carbon (C). The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) during its activity on AMS {sup 14}C dating achieved high precision measurements opening the opportunity to these kinds of applications. This paper presents the main results obtained from radiocarbon measurements on a set of bone samples analyzed for the determination of the post-mortem interval in the framework of an unsolved case investigated by the Rome prosecutor office. The chronological characterization of the wooden support of the 'Acerenza portrait' is also presented with the aim to evaluate its age and to further investigate the possibility to attribute this artwork to Leonardo da Vinci. Bomb-{sup 14}C dating on the lipid and collagen fractions of bones allows the evaluation of the year of the death of the individuals by means of ad hoc calibration data sheet with the typical few years precision and difference between collagen apparent age and the year of death appeared in agreement with the age of one individual estimated by dating of tooth collagen. Conventional radiocarbon dating on both wood and wood extracted cellulose leads to an estimation of the portrait wood board age (2{sigma}) of 1459-1524 AD (57% relative probability), 1571-1631 AD interval (42% relative probability).and 1559-1563 AD (1% relative probability). These results attribute with the highest relative probability an age comprised within the life span of Leonardo (1452-1519) to the support.

  14. T=(5/2) 27Na from 14C+14C, and the N=16 shell gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time a comprehensive level and decay scheme has been obtained for a T=(5/2) nucleus in the s-d shell (27Na) by using a radioactive beam and target. Particle-? and p-?-? coincidences were measured following the 14C(14C,p?)27Na reaction at Elab=22 MeV. The results do not support an inversion of the 2s1/2 and 1d5/2 orbitals, as previously proposed for Tz?3, but they do suggest an increased N=16 gap between the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 orbitals due to the neutron excess. A consistent interpretation of the level scheme in terms of the s-d shell model using the USD Hamiltonian is possible below 4 MeV, but differences increase at higher excitation energies. Another interpretation is that the influences of both the p1/2 and f7/2 intruder orbitals increase simultaneously with increasing T, an effect not included in the USD Hamiltonian

  15. Preparation and HPLC isolation of L-[U-14C]tryptophan from enzyme hydrolysate labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptophan was obtained from biomass of the blue-green alga Synechococcus elongatus cultivated under 14CO2. After partial purification, the protein fraction was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using pronase. Semipreparative isolation of L-[U-14C]tryptophan was accomplished on a HPLC column of Separon S Hema 1000 CM, 2% ethanol were added to the eluent, and a precolumn packed with the basic anion exchanger Spheron 1000 DEAE was used. Always after the passage of L-[U-14C]tryptophan, the precolumn was decoupled. The substance was collected in 96% ethanol. After removing the solvent by vacuum evaporation, the sample was analyzed on a column packed with Separon SIX C18 in the eluent of 0.1M-NaH2PO4, 2% methanol. When the desired radiochemical purity was not attained, the sample was purified on Separon SIX C18 using 2% methanol. The final radiochemical purity achieved by using this method is 98%. (P.A.). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs

  16. The effect of ethanol on 35-S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of 35S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl (100 mM) containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal 35S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action (stimulation followed by inhibition) on 35S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. 35S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl- channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol (? 100 mM ethanol). Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on 35S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of 35S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit 35S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal 35S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of 35S-TBPS binding by diazepam. (author)

  17. The effect of ethanol on sup 35 -S-TBPS binding to mouse brain membranes in the presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljequist, S.; Culp, S.; Tabakoff, B. (Laboratory for Studies of Neuroadaptive Processes, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of in vitro and in vivo administration of ethanol on the binding of {sup 35}S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate ({sup 35}S-TBPS) to cortical brain membranes of C57B1 mice was investigated using KCl containing assay media. The in vitro addition of ethanol produced a dose-dependent inhibition of basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. In the presence of chloride ions, GABA and pentobarbital had a biphasic action on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding, whereas diazepam only stimulated the binding. Ethanol reduced the stimulatory effects of GABA and pentobarbital in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam. {sup 35}S-TBPS binding to cortical brain membranes was inhibited by the putative Cl{sup -} channel blocking agent DIDS. This inhibitory action of DIDS was significantly, and dose-dependently reduced by ethanol. Chronic ethanol ingestion in vivo, which produced tolerance to and physical dependence on ethanol in the animals, did not alter the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of GABA and pentobarbital on {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. The enhancement of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding produced by diazepam was slightly, but significantly, enhanced in brain membranes from animals which had undergone 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Chronic ethanol treatment did not change the potency of picrotoxin and of the peripheral BDZ-receptor ligand RO 5-4864 to competitively inhibit {sup 35}S-TBPS binding. Our results suggest that in vitro addition of ethanol alters the activity of the activity of the GABA benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor complex. Although there was no change in basal {sup 35}S-TBPS binding following chronic in vivo ethanol administration, our curent data suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion may cause specific changes of the GABA BDZ receptor proteins, in this study revealed as an altered modulation of {sup 35}S-TBPS binding by diazepam.

  18. A new metabolically trapped agent by brain monoamine oxidase: N-methyl labeled (14C) N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of metabolically trapped agent for measuring regional brain function was designed and evaluated. N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA) was synthesized with trifluoroacetylphenylethylamine and 14C-methyl iodide. A high concentration of 14C-MPEA accumulated in mouse brain 1 min after injection, and radioactivities in the brain remained for a long period. By radiochemical analysis, it was found 14Ck-MPEA was metabolized in the brain to 14C-methylamine. 14C-methylamine was trapped by the blood-brain barrier because of its cationic charge at physiological pH. When the mouse was pretreated with a MAO inhibitor (pargyline hydrochloride 100 mg/kg IP) the radioactivity was rapidly excreted from the brain with a half-life of about 45 min. These results indicate that 14C-MPEA has potential for the measurement of brain MAO activity. (orig.)

  19. A new metabolically trapped agent by brain monoamine oxidase: N-methyl labeled (14C) N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamu, I

    1983-01-01

    A new type of metabolically trapped agent for measuring regional brain function was designed and evaluated. N-methylphenylethylamine (14C-MPEA) was synthesized with trifluoroacetylphenylethylamine and 14C-methyl iodide. A high concentration of 14C-MPEA accumulated in mouse brain 1 min after injection, and radioactivities in the brain remained for a long period. By radiochemical analysis, it was found 14C-MPEA was metabolized in the brain to 14C-methylamine. 14C-methylamine was trapped by the blood-brain barrier because of its cationic charge at physiological pH. When the mouse was pretreated with a MAO inhibitor (pargyline hydrochloride 100 mg/kg IP) the radioactivity was rapidly excreted from the brain with a half-life of about 45 min. These results indicate that 11C-MPEA has potential for the measurement of brain MAO activity. PMID:6628439

  20. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  1. Synthesis of CH3CH2Br - 14C-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of ethyl bromide labelled with 14C, starting from ethanol, has already been studied: 1- by TOLBERT, CHRISTENSON, NAI-HSUAN and SAH; 2- by SIXMA and HENDRIKS. After various blank tests of these two methods, we have finally obtained the best yields by treating the ethanol with a mixture of 40 per cent hydrobromic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, in the apparatus normally used in the laboratory for the synthesis of CH3I slightly modified, so that the current of nitrogen carrying ethyl bromide and hydrobromic acid passes through a sintered glass disc before being bubbled through a solution of NaOH. We describe here the practical process used for the blank test which gave the best yield (91 per cent) and the active synthesis. (author)

  2. The degradation of [14C] parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of [14C] parathion from two Brazilian soils was studied by measuring the parathion which could be extracted by a mixture of hexane and propanol and the 14CO2 evolved. Recovery of unchanged parathion decreased faster in the soil richer in organic matter (soil 1) from which more radiocarbon was evolved as CO2 than from the soil poorerin organic matter (soil 2). Evolution of CO2 from soil 1 decreased rapidly when the soil dried out but little effect of moisture content was observed in soil 2. Radiocarbon remaining in the soils was assayed by combustion after 234 days and the total recovered in soil 1 was 95.6% and, in soil 2,78.7%, sufficient to give almost complete recovery from both soils. (Author)

  3. Improved measurements of gaseous 14C samples at Micadas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of 1 to 40 ?g carbon are measured as CO2 in the gas ion source of the small AMS facility MICADAS at ETH Zurich. This measurement technique offers a simple and fast way of 14C measurements without the need of sample graphitization. Low negative ion currents, however, are a drawback of gaseous measurements as they result in a reduced precision. To overcome this problem, we optimized several parameters of the new ion source at MICADAS. The performance now achieved allows to measure samples faster, more efficiently and with a higher precision. Therefore, the gas ion source at MICADAS even becomes feasible for dating in the 5 per mil range. A report on the state of our gas ion source is presented.

  4. Delta effects in the 14N(?,?+)14C? reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured pion angular distributions for 14N(?,?+)14Cg.s. at five photon energies spanning the delta resonance. Their objective is to study delta production and propagation inside the nucleus, and to look for medium effects associated with delta propagation. There have been few detailed studies of this type. While charged photopion production in the delta region is sensitive to delta excitations, it is in general difficult to clearly extract delta effects because there is an significant background associated with non-resonant processes. The non-resonant Born terms in the protoproduction operator are usually dominated by the spin-flip Kroll-Rudermann (KR) term. The present M1 transition between the 14N and 14C ground states is, however, an important special case because of the near-vanishing of the allowed Gamow-Teller matrix element due to nuclear structure effects

  5. Metabolic breakdown of14 c-methomyl by soil fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal species: Alternaria brassicola, helminthosporium sp. and verticillium agaricinum were incubated with radiolabelled methomyl (S14C-methyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy] thioacetimidate ). After filtration, the amounts of radioactivity in tissues and filtrates were analyzed for metabolic products. Of the applied radioactivity, the 3 fungal species were capable of degrading 38.9%, 35.3% and 29.3% into hydrolytic metabolites, respectively. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of hydrolytic fractions showed that two metabolic products ( unknowns 1 and 11 ) having Rf values of 0.30 and 0.47 could be detected in addition to a polar compound which contained the major radioactivity. The chloroform fraction contained mainly the parent material.2 tab

  6. Fate of [14C]-zineb on lettuce plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [1,2-14C]-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb) was prepared and applied in droplets to leaves of lettuce plants. In aqueous suspension zineb decomposes mainly into ethylenethiourea (ETU) and 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-C]-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione (DIDT). Lettuce plants were harvested 0,1,3,7,14 and 21 days after treatment and analysed. A high proportion of radioactivity remained on the surface of the plant and could be washed off. The following identified products were present: unchanged zineb, ETU, DIDT, 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea. The ETU residue disappeared within 7 days, while 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea were formed gradually. Radioactivity inside the plant consisted mostly of ethyleneurea: no ETU was present. (author)

  7. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 32P1/2 and 32P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs

  8. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled (14C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha-1, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their 14C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  9. Removal of 14C from nitrogen annulus gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry, ambient temperature process using Ca(OH)2 as the sorbent to remove 14CO2 from moderator cover gas was further developed to remove 14C from the extremely dry nitrogen annulus gas. Thermal gravimetric analysis was carried out to study the thermal stability of Ca(OH)2 and the CO2-Ca(OH)2 reaction at elevated temperatures under extremely low humidity conditions. Results shows that to achieve high utilization and avoid decomposition of Ca(OH)2, humidification of the annulus gas was necessary at high or low temperatures. Results of the bench scale (1-10 L/min) oxidizer study showed that, with 0.5% Pd or alumina as the catalyst, it was possible to achieve complete oxidation of CO and over 80% oxidation of CH4 with 1% hydrogen in the nitrogen. The gas superficial velocity should be less than or equal to30 cm/s and the residence time greater than or equal to0.5 s. A pilot scale (up to 160 L/min) system including a catalytic oxidizer, a humidifier/demister, a Ca(OH)2 reactor, a condenser/demister and regenerable molecular sieve dryers, was assembled and tested with simulated nitrogen annulus gas. Results showed that complete oxidation of the CO and 60-100% oxidation of the CH4 with 0.5% H2 in the simulated gas were achieved in the pilot plant. The CO2 concentration was reduced from 30-60 ?L/L at the inlet of the Ca(OH)2 reactor to 1 ?L/L or less at the outlet. After modifications of the dryer to overcome the problems encountered, the simulated annulus gas was dried to 0C dew point before recirculation. Equipment specifications and operating conditions of a 14C removal system for nitrogen annulus gas are summarized

  10. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia]. E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.br; vltorrnis@cena.usp.br; regitano@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled ({sup 14}C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha{sup -1}, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their {sup 14}C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo-based dose calculation for 32 P patch source for superficial brachytherapy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer treatment involving 32 P source is an easy, less expensive method of treatment limited to small and superficial lesions of approximately 1 mm deep. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC has indigenously developed 32 P nafion-based patch source (1 cm ? 1 cm for treating skin cancer. For this source, the values of dose per unit activity at different depths including dose profiles in water are calculated using the EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo code system. For an initial activity of 1 Bq distributed in 1 cm 2 surface area of the source, the calculated central axis depth dose values are 3.62 ? 10 -10 GyBq -1 and 8.41 ? 10 -11 GyBq -1 at 0.0125 and 1 mm depths in water, respectively. Hence, the treatment time calculated for delivering therapeutic dose of 30 Gy at 1 mm depth along the central axis of the source involving 37 MBq activity is about 2.7 hrs.

  12. (32)P colloid radiosynovectomy in treatment of chronic haemophilic synovitis: Iran experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Asadollahi, S; Farzan, M; Shahriaran, S; Aghili, M; Izadyar, S; Lak, M

    2007-03-01

    Repeated intra-articular bleeding with subsequent development of chronic synovitis and cartilage changes, leading to haemophilic arthropathy, is one the most debilitating problems in haemophilic patients. Radiosynovectomy is a familiar therapeutic choice in management of chronic synovitis in haemophilia. We report the treatments results of synoviorthesis with (32)P chromic phosphate with emphasis on clinical aspects. Between 2002 and 2006 we performed 66 procedures in 53 patients. Seven patients were excluded. The remaining 46 patients were followed for an average of 31 months. The mean age of patients at the time of injection was 15.9 years (range: 6-28). There were three repeat injections. According to Fernandez-pallazi and Cavilgia clinical classification (Table 1) [23], nine joints were Stage II and 46 were Stage III. In latest follow-up, 77% of patients reported at least a 50% decrease in bleeding frequency after treatment (P < 0.0001). The need for antihaemophilic factor consumption dropped by about 74% postradiosynovectomy (P < 0.0001). In most of the injected joints, the range of motion remained stable or improved. A trend was found for the number of haemarthrosis to increase after a period of considerable improvement. Synoviorthesis using (32)P effectively reduces the intra-articular bleeding rate and factor concentrate use. Durability of the response seems to be unpredictable, perhaps attributable to the late intervention. An early radiosynovectomy might be more helpful in terms of stability of response to treatment. PMID:17286772

  13. Dosimetry characterization of a 32P source wire used for intravascular brachytherapy with automated stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth-dose curve measurements and Monte Carlo simulations for a catheter-based 32P intravascular brachytherapy source wire are described. The measured dose rates were obtained using both radiochromic-dye film and an extrapolation chamber (EC). Calibrated radiochromic-dye films were irradiated at distances between 0.5 and 5 mm from the source axis in polystyrene phantoms, and scanned with high-resolution densitometers. Measurements with an automated EC with a 1 mm diameter collecting electrode were also performed at a distance of 2 mm from the source in polystyrene. The measured dose rates obtained from the film and EC were divided by the measured source activity to obtain measured values of dose rate per unit contained activity. Dosimetric calculations of the catheter-based 32P wire geometry were also obtained using several Monte Carlo codes (CYLTRAN, MCNP, PENELOPE, and EGS). The measured and calculated values of dose rate per unit contained activity are in good agreement (<10%) within the relevant treatment distances (1 to 4 mm). With carefully selected input parameters, the calculated depth-dose curves using these codes were within 5% at 4 mm depth. At greater depths the discrepancies between the codes increase. We discuss likely mechanisms for these differences

  14. Determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro form 32P-labelled phosphate incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracellular phosphate pool in incubations of rumen fluid or washed cell suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria (WCS) was labelled with 32P. From the constant extracellular phosphate pool specific activity and the amount of radioactivity incorporated during incubation, the amount of P incorporated in the microbial fraction was calculated. From the value for nitrogen: P determined in microbial matter, the amount of N incorporated was calculated as a measure of microbial growth. Incorporation of soluble non-protein-N in incubations devoid of substrate protein was 50 and 80% of the values obtained using isotope method for rumen fluid and WCS respectively. Incorporation of 32P in P-containing microbial components (mainly nucleic acids) was compared with net synthesis of these components in incubations of WCS. When N incorporation, calculated from results obtained using isotope method in incubations with rumen fluid, was compared with the amount of carbohydrate substrate fermented and the type of fermentation, values between 18.3 and 44.6 g N incorporated kg of organic matter fermented were obtained. The use of isotopes for determination of rumen microbial growth in vitro is critically discussed. (author)

  15. Detection and characterization of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-postlabeling has emerged as a major tool for detecting DNA adducts, since (1) it can detect unknown adducts resulting from complex mixtures; (2) it requires microgram quantities of DNA; and (3) it is extremely sensitive (1 adduct/1010 nucleotides). The assay comprises degradation of DNA to 3'-mononucleotides, 5'-32p-labeling, adduct separation by multi-directional PEI-cellulose TLC, and detection by autoradiography. The presence of open-quotes extra spotsclose quotes on the chromatogram derived from treated as compared to untreated DNA indicates for DNA adducts. Since spectroscopic techniques require nanogram quantities, and material available from an adduct spot is usually in femtogram range, characterization of adducts has thus far depended upon chromatographic resemblance with reference compounds. However, alternate procedures based on physico-chemical properties of adducts have been suggested to gain insight into the chemical nature of unknown adducts. The assay has been applied to over 140 carcinogens, making it ideally suited for complex mixture exposures as in human settings

  16. Comparative in vitro metabolism of 1-14C-oleic acid and 1-14C-erucic acid in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro oxidation of 14C-oleic and 1-14C-erucic acid and their incorporation into lipids by liver, heart and skeletal muscles from female albino rats were studied. These tissues were obtained from rats maintained for 120 days on low fat diet or diets containing 15% mustard oil or 15% groundnut oil. In all these tissues from rats on different types of diets, the oxidation of 1-14C-erucic acid was lower than that 1-14C-oleic acid. There was little accumulation of lipids in heart after 120 days of feeding mustard oil. Oxidation of 1-14C-erucic acid was enhanced in liver, heart and skeletal muscles of rats conditioned to the mustard oil diet supplying erucic acid. Oxidation of erucic acid was maximum in liver and least in heart, whereas there were no differences in the oxidation of 1-14C-oleic acid in these tissues. Incorporation of 1-14C-oleic acid into triglycerides and phospholipids was not affected by the type of diet or tissues Incorporation of 1-14C-erucic acid was mainly into triglycerides of heart and skeletal muscles of rats not accustomed to mustard oil diet whereas these tissues from rats accustomed to mustard oil diets incorporated 1-14C-erucic acid both into the triglycerides and phospholipids. (author)

  17. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of bound 14C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14C residues, as measured by 14C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  18. The incorporation of [14C] glucosamine into dolichol diphosphate N-acetyl [14C] glucosamine by unbroken liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of whole Chang liver cells with D-[1-14C]glucosamine results in incorporation of radioactivity into both proteins and lipids. A minor (approximately 3%) amount of the labelled lipid has the chromatographic, solubility and chemical properties of dolichol diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine. A similar compound is formed when membrane preparations of the cells are incubated with UDP-N-acetyl [14C]glucosamine. The same membrane fractions catalyse the transfer of [14C]-mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to dolichol phosphate. (orig.)

  19. Determination of phosphorous in cannabis by neutron activation analysis - measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillaton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron activaton analysis with measurement of 32P Cerenkov radiation by liquid scintillation spectrometer was used to determine phosphorus in cannabis. After irradiation of the sample, wet ashing was carried out with conc. nitric acid and 70% perchloric acid. The solution in l M perchloric acid transferred to an inorganic ion-exchange column containing acid aluminium oxide and phosphorus was quantitatively eluted with 1M hydrofluoric acid. The 32P radioactivity of each fraction of the eluate was counted with Cerenkov radiation by a liquid scintillation spectrometer from 2 to 7 weeks after the irradiation. The activity curve decayed with 32P half-life. The isotope channel ratio technique was applied for the quench correction. The optimal experimental conditions for chemical separation of phosphorus and for measuring the 32P Cerenkov radiation were also examined. (Author)

  20. Detection of radioactive 35S at Fukushima and other Japanese sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Antra; Hill-Falkenthal, Jason; Thiemens, Mark H.; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Yamada, Keita; Mukotaka, Arata; Fujii, Ayako; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Noguchi, Izumi; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant was severely damaged by an earthquake and concomitant tsunami during March 2011. An effect of this disaster was secondary formation of radioactive 35S via the 35Cl(n,p)35S reaction, when neutrons from the partially melted reactor cores activated the coolant sea water. Here we report the first measurements of 35S in sulfate aerosols and rain water collected at six Japanese sampling sites, Hokkaido, Tsukuba, Kashiwa, Fuchu, Yokohama, and Fukushima, during March-September 2011. The measured 35SO42- concentrations in aerosols vary significantly. The Kashiwa (AORI) site shows the highest 35SO42- concentration (6.1 104 200 atoms/m3) on 1 April 2011, which is nearly 100 times higher than the natural background activity. Considering the percentage loss of 35SO42- resulting from dry and wet deposition and dilution of the radiation plume in the boundary layer during transport, it was determined that the surface air concentration of 35SO42- at the Fukushima would have been 2.8 105 atoms/m3 during the week after the earthquake, which is in agreement with the model prediction [Priyadarshi et al.]. 35SO42- activity in rain water collected during March-May 2011 at Tokyo Tech Yokohama varies from 1.1 105 to 9.8 105 atoms/liter, whereas stream water collected near Fukushima was found to have 1.2 105 atoms/liter during April. Even after 6 months, 35SO42- activity remains very high (9.9 104 770 atoms/m3) in the marine boundary layer in the Fukushima region, which implies that the reactor core was producing radioactive sulfur.

  1. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-04-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

  2. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain

  3. Measurement of cosmogenic radionuclide 35S in sulfate aerosol in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Savarino, J. P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report the first measurement of cosmogenically produced radionuclide 35S activity in sulfate aerosols collected at inland (Dome C: latitude 75.6, longitude 123.24, altitude 3233 m) and coastal site (Dumont DUrville: latitude 66.39, longitude 140.01, altitude 43 m) in Antarctica. Sulfate aerosol samples were collected using a High-Volume aerosol sampler on a glass fiber filter paper for 7 days once a month for a year. The radioactivity was measured using low noise liquid scintillation spectrometer1.The measurements reveal a maximum abundance of 35SO4 in spring-summer (500-1200 35S atoms/m3) and minimum (50-200 atoms/m3) during winter. This variation is explained by considering the relative seasonality of the air circulation patterns prevailing at inland and the costal sites. Tropospheric-stratospheric air mixing in summer leads to higher 35SO4, whereas a lack of mixing within the winter polar vortex causes a significant decrease in 35SO4. The 35S activity was found to be higher in fine sulfate aerosol particle (PM 2.5) as compared to coarse (PM10) at DDU. The normalised activity, the ratio of 35SO4 to the total sulfate concentration, shows no link of 35SO4 (or activity) concentration to the local meteorological conditions responsible for sulfate aerosol formation. Rather, the observed high value indicates higher air mass mixing between the stratosphere and troposphere. A secondary 35SO4 peak is observed at both stations during July and August. Based on a preliminary model, an additional 4-6% stratospheric contribution, either due to the stratospheric air mass intrusion into the troposphere or evaporation of 35SO4 from cloud particles during Polar Stratospheric Cloud sedimentation is required to explain this enhancement during the polar winter. 1 Brother, L.A., G. Dominguez, A. Abramian, A. Corbin, Ben Bluen, and M. H. Thiemens, Otimized low-level liquid scintillation spectroscopy of 35S for atmospheric and biogeochemical chemistry applications, Proceedings National Acad. Sci. 107, 5311, 2010

  4. Urvina Bay, Galapagos Coral Radiocarbon (delta 14C) Data for 1956 to 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Urvina Bay coral radiocarbon (14C) timeseries. (90 deg W, 0.5 deg S) Coral radiocarbon (Delta-14C) on untreated, low-speed drilled samples. Precision is +/- 4 per...

  5. Defective [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with normal skeletal muscle, muscle from patients with Duchenne dystrophy had decreased [U-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation. [1-14 C] palmitic acid oxidation was normal. These results may indicate a defect in intramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

  6. Synthesis of uniformly labelled organic compounds by polymerization of 14C ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of 14C uniformly labelled compounds is described. By polymerization of 14C ethylene, linear olefins with a double bond at α position were obtained. From these olefins, uniformly labelled alkanes, alcohols and acids were prepared

  7. 32P-postlabeling assay for carcinogen-DNA adducts: nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of its sensitivity and applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M V; Randerath, K

    1987-01-01

    Exceedingly sensitive assays are required for the detection of DNA adducts formed in humans exposed to low levels of environmental genotoxicants and therapeutic drugs. A 32P-postlabeling procedure for detection and quantitation of aromatic carcinogen-DNA lesions with a sensitivity limit of 1 adduct in 10(7) to 10(8) nucleotides has been described previously. In the standard procedure, DNA is enzymatically digested to 3'-phosphorylated normal and adducted mononucleotides, which are 32P-labeled...

  8. Pesticides labelled with 14C. Pt. 2: Synthesis of propiconazole labelled in three different positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propiconazole was labelled with 14C: in three different positions in the benzene ring, in the position 5 of the dioxolane ring, and in the triazole ring. The synthesis of three new key intermediates (m-dichloro[U-14C]benzene], 1,2,4-[U-14C]triazole, [1-14C]-pentane-1,2-diol) were also elaborated. (Author)

  9. A 'Cleanup Procedure' involving periodate oxidation in the enzymatic synthesis of chemically pure ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzymatic synthesis of ?-32P and ?-33P labelled deoxyribonucleotides involves the transfer of radiolabelled phosphorus from either ?-32P adenosine triphosphate (?-ATP) or ?-32P guanosine triphosphate (?-GTP). Subsequent removal of these ribonucleotides is essential for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides. Agarose-phenyl boronate columns, which bind specifically to cis-diol moieties, have been used for the removal of ribonucleotide contaminants. However, this involves column losses and additional radiation exposure. In the present work we describe a chemical method for the improvement of the chemical purity, based on the preferential oxidation of ribose sugars by periodate. The cis-diol moiety of ribose is specifically oxidised to the dialdehyde. The excess periodate ions were destroyed using ethylene glycol. The phosphate group was then cleaved by ?-elimination using alkali. The product was purified using anion exchange chromatography. The efficiency of the process was validated using tracer ?-32P ATP and ?-32P dATP. Samples at various steps were analysed by TLC, autoradiography and HPLC. During the process ATP is oxidised whereas 2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) remains intact. The ?-32P dATP synthesized by this process was assayed for its incorporation in ?-DNA by the random priming method and was found to be effectively incorporated. The process developed is an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of chemically pure deoxyribonucleotides

  10. Uptake of 32P and 86Rb as influenced by temperature, transpiration suppress and shading treatment in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to know the uptake pattern of phosphorous and potassium in rice plants using by two radioisotopes, 32P and 86Rb as tracers for two years, 1987 and 1988. Rice plants were grown in the hydroponic culture with Yoshida's solution, and treated with different temperatures, transpiration suppress, shading, and phosphorous and potassium deletions. The uptake amount of 32P and 86Rb were increased with the increasing temperature in root sphere of rice plant, particularly remarkable increase of 86Rb uptake at 35deg C. The uptake of 32P tended to be promoted at the treatment of low air-high water temperature (17-30deg C), while that of 86Rb was not significantly differenced from different temperature treatments. The effect of transpiration on the uptake of 32P and 86Rb was extremely low. This phenomenon may suggest that the absorption be depending on active uptake rather than passive one by transpiration stream. The total carbohydrate contents of rice root were decreased by shading treatment, resulting significant reduction in the uptake of 32P and 86Rb. The uptake of 86Rb was remarkably increased in the treatment of potassium deletion, but that of 32P was not significantly increased in the delection of phosphorous

  11. Studies on the effects of acetylcholine and antiepileptic drugs on 32P incorporation into phospholipids of rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the effects of antiepileptic drugs on the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phospholipids in rat brain synaptosomes. Of the four antiepileptic drugs investigated in the present study, namely phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and valproate, only phenytoin blocked the acetylcholine-stimulated 32P labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid, and the acetylcholine-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides. Phenytoin alone, like atropine alone, had no effect on the 32P labeling of phospholipids nor on the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP. Omission of Na+ drastically reduced both the 32P labeling of synaptosomal phospholipids and the specific radioactivity of [32P]ATP and furthermore it significantly decreased the phosphoinositide effect. It was concluded that certain antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin, could exert their pharmacological actions through their antimuscarinic effects. In addition the finding that phenytoin, which acts to regulate NA+ and Ca2+ permeability of neuronal membranes, also inhibited the phosphoinositide effects in synaptosomes, support the conclusions that Ca2+ and Na+ are probably involved in the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon in excitable tissues

  12. Differences in phospholipid incorporation of 32P relevant to alpha 1-receptor coupling events in rat and rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of membrane phospholipids with 32P was compared in rat and rabbit aorta under basal conditions and during alpha 1-receptor stimulation. Incorporation of 32P proceeded at a significantly higher rate in rat tissue. The ratio of basal labelling following 30 min of incubation for rat/rabbit arteries was 4.8 for phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PIP2), 6.0 for phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP), 9.0 for phosphatidylinositol (PI), 6.0 for phosphatidic acid (PA) and 18.7 for phosphatidylcholine (PC). Addition of 10(-5)M norepinephrine (NE) to labelled tissues resulted in a similar decrease in [32P]-PIP2 in both rat and rabbit tissues. Greater percent increases were seen in rabbit tissue of [32P]-PA (4-6 fold), and [32P]-PI (3-5 fold), when measured over the initial 10 minutes of agonist exposure. While NE caused a gradual increase of 32P incorporation into PC in rabbit aorta, reaching 180% above control after 10 minutes, PC labelling was not increased in rat aorta. Our findings provide evidence for the enhanced labelling of rat vs rabbit aorta phospholipids. This may account for differences in receptor responses and associated Ca+ movements which have been previously recognized to exist between aorta of these two species

  13. Comparison of /sup 32/P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, H.; Choi, K.; Sohn, C.; Yaes, R.; Rotman, M.

    1986-06-01

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium /sup 32/P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with /sup 32/P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with /sup 32/P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with /sup 32/P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while /sup 32/P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or /sup 32/P treatment.

  14. Comparison of 32P therapy and sequential hemibody irradiation (HBI) for bony metastases as methods of whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a retrospective study of 15 patients with prostate carcinoma and diffuse bone metastases treated with sodium 32P for palliation of pain at Downstate Medical Center and Kings County Hospital from 1973 to 1978. The response rates, duration of response, and toxicities are compared with those of other series of patients treated with 32P and with sequential hemibody irradiation. The response rates and duration of response are similar with both modalities ranging from 58 to 95% with a duration of 3.3 to 6 months with 32P and from 75 to 86% with a median duration of 5.5 months with hemibody irradiation. There are significant differences in the patterns of response and in the toxicities of the two treatment methods. Both methods cause significant bone marrow depression. Acute radiation syndrome, radiation pneumonitis, and alopecia are seen with sequential hemibody irradiation and not with 32P, but their incidence can be reduced by careful treatment planning. Hemibody irradiation can provide pain relief within 24 to 48 h, while 32P may produce an initial exacerbation of pain. Lower hemibody irradiation alone is less toxic than either upper hemibody irradiation or 32P treatment

  15. Pediatric dosimetry for intrapleural lung injections of 32P chromic phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracavitary injections of 32P chromic phosphate are used in the therapy of pleuropulmonary blastoma and pulmonary sarcomas in children. The lung dose, however, has never been calculated despite the potential risk of lung toxicity from treatment. In this work the dosimetry has been calculated in target tissue and lung for pediatric phantoms. Pleural cavities were modeled in the Monte Carlo code MCNP within the pediatric MIRD phantoms. Both the depth-dose curves in the pleural lining and into the lung as well as 3D dose distributions were calculated for either homogeneous or inhomogeneous 32P activity distributions. Dose-volume histograms for the lung tissue and isodose graphs were generated. The results for the 2D depth-dose curve to the pleural lining and tumor around the pleural cavity correspond well with the point kernel model-based recommendations. With a 2 mm thick pleural lining, one-third of the lung parenchyma volume gets a dose more than 30 Gy (V30) for 340 MBq 32P in a 10 year old. This is close to lung tolerance. Younger children will receive a larger dose to the lung when the lung density remains equal to the adult value; the V30 relative lung volume for a 5 year old is 35% at an activity of 256 MBq and for a 1 year old 165 MBq yields a V30 of 43%. At higher densities of the lung tissue V30 stays below 32%. All activities yield a therapeutic dose of at least 225 Gy in the pleural lining. With a more normal pleural lining thickness (0.5 mm instead of 2 mm) the injected activities will have to be reduced by a factor 5 to obtain tolerable lung doses in pediatric patients. Previous dosimetry recommendations for the adult apply well down to lung surface areas of 400 cm2. Monte Carlo dosimetry quantitates the three-dimensional dose distribution, providing a better insight into the maximum tolerable activity for this therapy.

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF 14C-ATRAZINE FOLLOWING AN ACUTE LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE IN THE WISTAR RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of atrazine in the lactating dam and suckling neonate following an acute exposure to either 2 or 4 mg/kg 14C-atrazine (14C-ATR) by gavage. 14C-ATR was administered to the nursing dam on postnatal day 3 by oral gavag...

  17. DNA methylation by methylbromfenvinfos 14C in in vivo and in vitro experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of DNA methylation in vitro by methylbromfenvinfos (14C-methyl), an organophosphorous insecticide of Polish production, and methylation of nuclear DNA in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the insecticide and also after administration of mutagenic alkylating agents: methanomethyl sulphonate 14C, and N,N-dimethylnitrosoamine 14C, were studied. (author)

  18. 14C-labeling of bromobutide, 2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl-N-(?,?-dimethylbenzyl)butyramide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromobutide, a novel herbicide, was labeled with carbon-14 independently at the carbonyl group and the phenyl ring for use in metabolic studies. 14C-Carbonation of neopentylmagnesium chloride gave 3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyric acid quantitatively. Chlorination of 3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyric acid with thionyl chloride followed by ?-bromination with bromine yielded 2-bromo-3,3-dimethyl[1-14C]butyryl halide, which was subsequently condensed with ?,?-dimethybenzylamine to afford [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide. The overall yield of [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide was 76% from barium [14C]carbonate. Similarly, condensation of ?,?-dimenthyl[phenyl-14C]benzylamine, which was prepared from ?-methyl[phenyl-U-14C]styrene in three steps, with 2-bromo-3,3-dimethylbutyryl halide gave [phenyl-14C]bromobutide in 67% yield after purification. The specific activities of [carbonyl-14C]bromobutide and [phenyl-14C]bromobutide were 1.38 and 0.781 GBq/mmol (37.2 and 21.1 mCi/mmol), respectively. (author)

  19. Effects of 35S-dimehypo pesticide on the agricultural environment and ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimehypo is a new type of insecticide of the nereistoxin family of compounds which has been developed and manufactured in China. To appraise its environmental safety, radioisotope tracer techniques were applied to investigate the effects of 35S labelled dimehypo on the agricultural environment and ecosystem. The results revealed its low adsorption and high mobility in soil, stability in soil and water, and slow rate of degradation. The main product of degradation, nereistoxin has a lower mobility than the parent compound in the soil. Sulphur-35-dimehypo was taken up by the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon indellus) along with bait or via the respiratory tracts and was excreted rapidly after the fish were removed from the contaminated water. Liquid and granulated formulations of 35S-dimehypo were fed to quails and fowls, respectively. The radioactivity was excreted rapidly in faeces and urine. The low partition coefficient of the insecticide in caprylalcohol-water suggested no (or low) accumulation in the adipose tissue of the organism. The release of its active ingredients from the granules prepared with porcelain clay or clay soil is prompt and complete. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. [35S]cysteamine: facile synthesis, in vivo biokinetics, and subcellular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas chemical radioprotection against external beams of ionizing radiation is well studied in radiobiology, the aspects relating to tissue incorporated radionuclides have received little attention. The increased use of radionuclides in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, as well as the presence of both manmade and natural radioactivity in the environment, indeed call for such investigations. Our ongoing work on a variety of radioprotectors has revealed that cysteamine (MEA), S-2-aminoethylisothio uroniumbromide hydrobromide (AET), and others (e.g. ascorbic acid), protect spermatogonial cells in mouse testis from the effects of chronic irradiation with intratesticularly localized radionuclides. In these experiments, dose modification factors ranging from 2 to 4 and 10 to 14 were obtained using spermhead survival and induction of spermhead abnormalities, respectively, as the biological end points. Similar experiments were carried out by changing the mode of administration of cysteamine to oral intubation. In these studies a dose modification factor of ? 3 was observed in the spermhead survival assay. In an effort to understand the protection offered by MEA, the present work describes a one-pot synthesis of high specific activity [35S]cysteamine from elemental [35S]sulphur and its use in determining the biokinetics and biodistribution of MEA following intratesticular (i.t.) or oral administration in mice. (Author)