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Sample records for 14-w 140-ghz gyrotron

  1. Operational Characteristics of a 14-W 140-GHz Gyrotron for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Joye, Colin D.; Griffin, Robert G.; Hornstein, Melissa K.; Hu, Kan-Nian; Kreischer, Kenneth E.; Rosay, Melanie; Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2006-01-01

    The operating characteristics of a 140-GHz 14-W long pulse gyrotron are presented. The device is being used in dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP/NMR) spectroscopy experiments. The gyrotron yields 14 W peak power at 139.65 GHz from the TE(0,3) operating mode using a 12.3-kV 25-mA electron beam. Additionally, up to 12 W peak has been observed in the TE(2,3) mode at 136.90 GHz. A series of mode converters transform the TE(0,3) operating mode to the TE(1,1) mod...

  2. Velocity diagnostics of electron beams within a 140 GHz gyrotron

    Experimental measurements of the average axial velocity vparallel of the electron beam within the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron have been performed. The method involves the simultaneous measurement of the radial electrostatic potential of the electron beam Vp and the beam current Ib. Vp is measured through the use of a capacitive probe installed near or within the gyrotron cavity, while Ib is measured with a previously installed Rogowski coil. Three capacitive probes have been designed and built, and two have operated within the gyrotron. The probe results are repeatable and consistent with theory. The measurements of vparallel and calculations of the corresponding transverse to longitudinal beam velocity ratio α = vperpendicular/vparallel at the cavity have been made at various gyrotron operation parameters. These measurements will provide insight into the causes of discrepancies between theoretical rf interaction efficiencies and experimental efficiencies obtained in experiments with the M.I.T. 140 GHz MW gyrotron. The expected values of vparallel and α are determined through the use of a computer code entitled EGUN. EGUN is used to model the cathode and anode regions of the gyrotron and it computes the trajectories and velocities of the electrons within the gyrotron. There is good correlation between the expected and measured values of α at low α, with the expected values from EGUN often falling within the standard errors of the measured values. 10 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs

  3. 140 GHz gyrotron development program. Quarterly report No. 4, January-March 1985

    The objective of this program is to develop a gyrotron oscillator capable of producing 100 kW CW at 140 GHz. Further analysis of the electron guns, interaction cavity, and beam tunnel designs for the first two experimental tubes, Experimental Tube 1 and preprototype Tube 1, is presented. A window deflection tester has been built and initial deflection test results are given. The first 140 GHz gyrotron magnet has successfully passed the major points in the acceptance test. The detailed results of the magnet acceptance test are discussed. Progress concerning the fabrication of 149 GHz gyrotron components, diagnostics, and protective devices, as well as the status of Experimental Tube 1, are summarized

  4. Design and operation of 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators for power levels up to 1 MW CW

    Jory, H.; Bier, R.; Craig, L.J.; Felch, K.; Ives, L.; Lopez, N.; Spang, S.

    1986-12-01

    Varian has designed and tested 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators that have generated output powers of 100 kW CW and 200 kW for 1 ms pulses. Upcoming tubes will be designed to operate at power levels of 200 kW CW and ultimately up to 1 MW CW. The important design considerations which are addressed in the higher power tubes include the design of the electron gun, interaction circuit, and output window. These issues will be discussed and the results of the earlier 140 GHz gyrotron work at Varian will be summarized.

  5. The 140 GHZ, 1 MW Gyrotron - Status and Recent Results

    Gantenbein, G.; Dammertz, G.; Illy, S.; Kern, S.; Leonhardt, W.; Piosczyk, B.; Schmid, M.; Thumm, M.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H. P.; Michel, G.; Kasparek, W.; Lechte, C.; Legrand, F.; Lievin, C.; Prinz, O.

    2009-04-01

    A 10 MW ECRH system is currently under construction for the stellarator W7-X which will be built up and operated by IPP in Greifswald, Germany. The present status of the complete system is reported in [1]. The RF power will be provided by 10 gyrotrons. A European collaboration has been established to develop and build the 10 gyrotrons each with an output power of 1 MW for continuous wave (CW) operation [2]. Nine gyrotrons are being manufactured by Thales Electron Devices (TED), Vélizy, France, one gyrotron was produced by CPI, Palo Alto, CA and passed the acceptance tests at IPP. The acceptance tests of the TED gyrotrons are performed at the test stand at FZK and on site at IPP. The first series tube yielded a total output power of 0.98 MW, with an efficiency of 31 % (without a single stage depressed collector) in short pulse operation and of 0.92 MW in pulses of 1800 s (efficiency of almost 45 % at a depression voltage of 29 kV) [3], The Gaussian mode output power was 0.91 MW. The RF power, measured in a calorimetric load at the end of a 25 m long quasi-optical transmission line with seven mirrors, was 0.87 MW. In this contribution typical results of the next series gyrotrons will be reported.

  6. Recent operating experience with Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz gyrotrons

    The design features and initial test results of Varian 70 GHz and 140 GHz CW gyrotrons are presented. The first experimental 140 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 102 kW at 24% efficiency under pulsed conditions in the desired TE0310 cavity mode. Further tests aimed at achieving the design goal of 100 kW CW are currently underway. The 70 GHz tube has achieved an output power of 200 kW under pulsed conditions and possesses a wide dynamic range for output power variations. 6 refs., 8 figs

  7. Installation and operation of the 400 kW 140 GHZ gyrotron on the MTX experiment

    This paper describes the installation and operation of the 400 kW 140 GHz gyrotron used for plasma heating on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Varian VGT-8140 gyrotron has operated at a power level of 400 kW for 100 ms in conjunction with MTX plasma shots. The gyrotron system is comprised of a high voltage (- 80 kV) modulated power supply, a multistation CAMAC computer control, a 5-tesla superconducting magnet, a series of conventional copper magnets, a circulating fluorinert (FC75) window cooling system, a circulating oil cooling system, a water cooling system, and microwave frequency and power diagnostics. Additionally, a Vlasov launcher is used to convert the gyrotron TE 15,2 mode to a Gaussian beam. Two versions of the Vlasov launcher have been used on the gyrotron, one version designed by LLNL and one version designed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The Varian VGT-8140 gyrotron has been installed on the MTX tokamak experiment to provide electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) of the tokamak plasma. The gyrotron has been operated with the tokamak for periods as long as 100 ms at power levels of 400 kW. he gyrotron will also be used as the RF driver for the intense microwave prototype (IMP) wiggler associated with the electron test accelerator (ETA). In this configuration, the IMP wiggler will produce multigigawatt, 140 GHz, 50-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. The plasma heating efficiency of the long RF pulse from the gyrotron can then be compared with the higher power but shorter RF pulses from the wiggler. The M2 mirror can be reversed to determine whether the gyrotron microwave beam or the IMP wiggler microwave beam is directed into the MTX tokamak. When the IMP wiggler is in operation, the gyrotron will be used as the master oscillator to drive the wiggler

  8. Experimental results of the 1 MW, 140 GHz, CW gyrotron for W7-X

    A 10 MW ECRH system will be provided by FZK in collaboration with several European associations for the stellarator W7-X. The RF power will be delivered by 10 gyrotrons operating at 140 GHz in CW with 1 MW each. The development of this gyrotron has been performed within a European collaboration in an industrial frame. Two R and D tubes have been built, up to know one serial tube has been passed the acceptance tests. The design of the gyrotron will be described and short pulse and long pulse results of the first serial gyrotron will be discussed. This gyrotron has been successfully operated at more then 900 kW with a pulse length of 30 min. (author)

  9. 140 GHz high-power gyrotron development for the stellarator W7-X

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has proven to be one of the most attractive heating schemes for stellarators. Therefore, ECRH was chosen to be the main heating method for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) now under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany. A 10 MW ECRH system with continuous wave (CW) possibilities, operating at 140 GHz will be built up to meet the scientific goals of the stellarator. Two prototype gyrotrons with an output power of 1 MW were developed in collaboration between European research laboratories and European industry (Thales Electron Devices, France). The gyrotrons are equipped with a single-stage depressed collector, an optimised quasi-optical mode converter and a CVD-diamond window. The prototypes have been successfully tested at FZK. With the second one, an output power of 0.89 MW at a pulse duration of 3 min and an output power of 0.54 MW for about 15 min have been obtained

  10. Installation and operation of the 400 kW 140 GHz gyrotron on the MTX experiment

    This paper describes the installation and operation of the 400 kW 140 GHz gyrotron used for plasma heating on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Varian VGT-8140 gyrotron has operated at a power level of 400 kW for 100 ms in conjunction with MTX plasma shots. The gyrotron system is comprised of a high voltage (-80 kV) modulated power supply, a multistation CAMAC computer control, a 5-tesla superconducting magnet, a series of conventional copper magnets, a circulating fluorinert (FC75) window cooling system, a circulating oil cooling system, a water cooling system, and microwave frequency and power diagnostics. Additionally, a Vlasov launcher is used to convert the gyrotron TE 15,2 mode to a Gaussian beam. Two versions of the Vlasov launcher have been used on the gyrotron, one version designed by LLNL and one version designed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The Gaussian beam from the Vlasov launcher is transported to the MTX tokamak by a series of 5 mirrors in a 35-meter-long, high-efficiency, quasioptical beam transport system. A twist polarizer is built into one of the mirrors to adjust for horizontal polarization in the tokamak. No windows are used between the Vlasov reflector and the MTX tokamak. A laser alignment system is used to perform the initial system alignment. A summary of the design and operating characteristics of each of these systems is included. Also included is a summary of the system operation and performance

  11. Experimental results of the 1 MW, 140 GHz, CW gyrotron for W7-X

    For the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X now under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany, a 10 MW ECRH system is foreseen. A European collaboration has been established between Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), IPP Garching/Greifswald, IPF Stuttgart, CRPP Lausanne, CEA Cadarache and TED Velizy, to develop and build the 10 gyrotrons each with an output power of 1 MW for continuous wave (CW) operation. The dependence of the output power and efficiency of the first series tube versus the beam current will be shown in short pulse operation (without depressed collector) and in CW operation (up to 30 minutes, depressed collector operation). RF-field measurements have been performed in order to characterise the output field of the gyrotron and to minimise losses during the transmission to the W7-X device. Several parameters have been optimised (e.g. beam radii, magnetic field) to maximise output power and efficiency of the tube. At FZK site, long pulse tests up to 180 s have been performed (limited by the available power supply), at IPP site the pulse length could be extended to 30 min, both at a power level of 1 MW and high efficiency. (author)

  12. Gyrotrons

    The purpose of this study is to bring together some relevant ideas and developments in the field of gyrotrons. The development of the electron cyclotron resonance maser (ECRM or Gyrotron) was an important break through in microwave electronics in the 1970s. As we look to the 1980's, we find scientists channelling their collective efforts to shorten the wavelength and increase output power and efficiency, thereby yielding an important device for generating high power microwave radiation. 24 refs

  13. Status of the 140 GHz, 10 MW CW transmission system for ECRH on the stellarator W7-X

    The stellarator W7-X, which is currently under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany, will be equipped with a 10 MW ECRH system working at 140 GHz in CW regime. The microwave power will be generated by 10 gyrotrons delivering 1 MW each and will be transmitted from the gyrotron hall to the W7-X stellarator ports via a fully optical system. The status of the construction of the transmission lines and the design of the launchers is reported. Low-power tests of a prototype system at IPF Stuttgart are reviewed. Now, the first two gyrotrons are operating at IPP Greifswald, and high-power long-pulse tests have started. Measurements on transmission performance, behaviour of the water-cooled mirrors under thermal and microwave loads as well as alignment issues, characteristics of directional couplers, calorimetric loads, and other diagnostics are discussed

  14. Recent Progress of 2MW 140GHz ECRH System on HL-2A

    Lu Z.H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide more capability of physics study for high-performance plasma, such as current profile control, neoclassical tearing modes suppression, transport study and so on, a new 2MW/140GHz/3s second-harmonic ECRH system with X-mode injection is on schedule on HL-2A. The total power of this system is 2MW and the pulse duration is 3 sec, which is generated by two gyrotrons manufactured by GYCOM. Two evacuated Φ63.5mm transmission lines were used to propagate these two 1MW/3s wave beams. A fast steerable launcher has been designed and installed on the HL-2A tokamak to inject four beams with narrow beam width and enable continuous beam scanning in toroidal and poloidal directions independently.

  15. Design of a 140 GHz, 100 W Gyroklystron Amplifier

    Joye, Colin; Shapiro, Michael; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar; Temkin, Richard

    2004-11-01

    We present the design and the simulation results for a 140 GHz, 100 watt CW gyroklystron amplifier for use in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) experiments. The amplifier was designed for a 15 kV, 150 mA annular electron beam and simulations show a saturated gain of 36 dB at a pitch factor of 1.5 for the TE02 mode with an efficiency of 6% and output power of 130 watts. The -3dB bandwidth is 1 GHz (0.7%) and 1.2 GHz of bandwidth is available at the 50-watt level. This design is also capable of emitting pulses on the nanosecond scale. The circuit consists of an input cavity, three bunching cavities and an output cavity with a nonlinear uptaper. This project is supported by NIBIB grant #5R01EB1965.

  16. Components for transmission of very high power mm-waves (200 kW at 28, 70 and 140 GHz) in overmoded circular waveguides

    Optimized overmoded circular waveguide components of transmission lines developed for high-power (200 kW) millimeter wave applications at 28, 70 and 140 GHz, as e.g. electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of plasmas for thermonuclear fusion research with gyrotrons, are described. Axisymmetric, narrow, pencil-like beams with well-defined polarization (HE11 hybrid mode) are used at open-ended corrugated waveguide antennas. The HE11 mode is generated from TEsub(On) gyrotron modes by the two multi-step mode conversion processes: (1) TEsub(On)->TE01->TE11->HE11 or (2) TEsub(On)->TE01->TM11->HE11. This paper reports computer-aided analyses and measurements on mode transducer systems of the first type at 28 and 70 GHz and of the second type at 140 GHz. In all cases the overall efficiency of the complete mode conversion sequence in the desired mode is approximately (92-95)%. The mode purity in the transmission lines is conserved by using corrugated gradual waveguide bends with optimized curvature distribution and diameter tapers with non-linear contours. Highly efficient corrugated-wall mode selective filters decouple the different waveguide sections. Mode content and reflected power are determined by a novel device (k-spectrometer). Absolute power calibration is done with newly developed calorimetric loads using an organic absorbing fluid. (orig.)

  17. Development in Russia of high power gyrotrons for fusion

    Full text: Electron cyclotron systems of fusion installations are based on powerful millimetre wave sources - gyrotrons, which are capable to produce now microwave power up to 1 MW in very long (hundreds of seconds) pulses. The paper presents the latest achievements in development at IAP/GYCOM of MW power level gyrotrons for fusion installations. Among them are a new versions of 170 GHz gyrotron for ITER and multi-frequency (105-140 GHz) gyrotron for Asdex-Up. The gyrotrons are equipped with diamond CVD windows and depressed collectors. The most efforts were spent for development of ITER gyrotron. The tests are carried out at specially prepared test stand in Kurchatov Institute. The following gyrotron output parameters were demonstrated so far in many pulses: 1MW/30 sec and 0.64 MW/300 sec. Also a gyrotron with a higher power -1.5 MW was designed and tested in short pulses. The tests continue. In two tested long-pulse dual-frequency gyrotrons, power in the output Gaussian beam exceeding 0.9MW at 140GHz and 0.7MW at 105GHz was attained at specified 10-s pulse duration. The multi-frequency gyrotron should operate at least at four frequencies in the frequency range 105GHz-140 GHz. Two window concepts for the gyrotron are considered: Brewster window and two-disc adjustable window. Last years significant efforts were done by IAP/GYCOM in order to solve the whole scope of problems associated with the use of CVD diamond windows in gyrotrons: growing of discs, their cutting and polishing, and then high-temperature brazing and mounting to a tube. Two setups for growing diamond discs have been put into operation. The first discs grown at IAP have acceptable mechanical and electrical parameters. The IAP/GYCOM discs have been successfully brazed at near 800 deg. C temperature to metal constructions and tested with high-power gyrotrons. (author)

  18. On the origin of 140 GHz emission from the 4 July 2012 solar flare

    Tsap, Yuriy T.; Smirnova, Victoria V.; Morgachev, Alexander S.; Motorina, Galina G.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Nagnibeda, Valery G.; Strekalova, Polina V.

    2016-04-01

    The sub-THz event observed on the 4 July 2012 with the Bauman Moscow State Technical University Radio Telescope RT-7.5 at 93 and 140 GHz as well as Kislovodsk and Metsähovi radio telescopes, Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), GOES, RHESSI, and SDO orbital stations is analyzed. The spectral flux between 93 and 140 GHz has been observed increasing with frequency. On the basis of the SDO/AIA data the differential emission measure has been calculated. It is shown that the thermal coronal plasma with the temperature above 0.5 MK cannot be responsible for the observed sub-THz flare emission. The non-thermal gyrosynchrotron mechanism can be responsible for the microwave emission near 10 GHz but the observed millimeter spectral characteristics are likely to be produced by the thermal bremsstrahlung emission from plasma with a temperature of about 0.1 MK.

  19. On the origin of 140 GHz emission from the 4 July 2012 solar flare

    Tsap, Yuriy T; Morgachev, Alexander S; Motorina, Galina G; Kontar, Eduard P; Nagnibeda, Valery G; Strekalova, Polina V

    2016-01-01

    The sub-THz event observed on the 4 July 2012 with the Bauman Moscow State Technical University Radio Telescope RT-7.5 at 93 and 140~GHz as well as Kislovodsk and Mets\\"ahovi radio telescopes, Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), GOES, RHESSI, and SDO orbital stations is analyzed. The spectral flux between 93 and 140 GHz has been observed increasing with frequency. On the basis of the SDO/AIA data the differential emission measure has been calculated. It is shown that the thermal coronal plasma with the temperature above 0.5~MK cannot be responsible for the observed sub-THz flare emission. The non-thermal gyrosynchrotron mechanism can be responsible for the microwave emission near $10$~GHz but the observed millimeter spectral characteristics are likely to be produced by the thermal bremsstrahlung emission from plasma with a temperature of about 0.1~MK.

  20. A 140 GHz pulsed EPR/212 MHz NMR spectrometer for DNP studies

    Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Bryant, Jeffrey A.; DeRocher, Ronald; Woskov, Paul P.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2012-10-01

    We described a versatile spectrometer designed for the study of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at low temperatures and high fields. The instrument functions both as an NMR spectrometer operating at 212 MHz (1H frequency) with DNP capabilities, and as a pulsed-EPR operating at 140 GHz. A coiled TE011 resonator acts as both an NMR coil and microwave resonator, and a double balanced (1H, 13C) radio frequency circuit greatly stabilizes the NMR performance. A new 140 GHz microwave bridge has also been developed, which utilizes a four-phase network and ELDOR channel at 8.75 GHz, that is then multiplied and mixed to obtain 140 GHz microwave pulses with an output power of 120 mW. Nutation frequencies obtained are as follows: 6 MHz on S = 1/2 electron spins, 100 kHz on 1H, and 50 kHz on 13C. We demonstrate basic EPR, ELDOR, ENDOR, and DNP experiments here. Our solid effect DNP results demonstrate an enhancement of 144 and sensitivity gain of 310 using OX063 trityl at 80 K and an enhancement of 157 and maximum sensitivity gain of 234 using Gd-DOTA at 20 K, which is significantly better performance than previously reported at high fields (⩾3 T).

  1. Results of 170 GHz gyrotron tests

    During the last few years the development of 170 GHz gyrotron for ITER have been under way. Sketchy description of experiment and test results of an improved design gyrotron with a depressed collector, are reported. The analysis of the phenomena causing the destruction of the output window is submitted. The projects for the following experiments are presented. The new 170 GHz/1 MW/50%/CW gyrotron with depressed collector and CVD diamond window was developed by GYCOM. This gyrotron was tested with BN window and then with diamond window. The gyrotron testing showed that practically all ITER requirements are satisfied except of pulse duration limited to that time by brick load arcing. Imperfection of arc protection system gave the possibility for arc-plasma to come to the window and destroy it. New loads have been created and tested at 140 GHz, with output gyrotron power Phf = 820 kW and the pulse duration T = 3.5 s. A new version of protection system has been developed and tested in experiment. The next gyrotron with modified electron gun has been manufactured. After first stage test, BN window will be replaced with new CVD diamond unit, which is assembling now. Testing of this gyrotron is planned to carry out in May 2002. (authors)

  2. Demonstration of a 140-GHz 1-kW Confocal Gyro-Traveling-Wave Amplifier

    Joye, Colin D.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The theory, design, and experimental results of a wideband 140-GHz 1-kW pulsed gyro-traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) are presented. The gyro-TWA operates in the HE06 mode of an overmoded quasi-optical waveguide using a gyrating electron beam. The electromagnetic theory, interaction theory, design processes, and experimental procedures are described in detail. At 37.7 kV and a 2.7-A beam current, the experiment has produced over 820 W of peak power with a –3-dB bandwidth of 0.8 GHz and a li...

  3. 140 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments at the W7-AS stellarator

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the W7-AS stellarator is performed with two systems of comparable heating power at 70GHz (0.8MW, 3s) and 140GHz (0.9MW, 0.4s). Experiments with 140GHz open a new parameter window with high density operation up to 1.1x1020m-3. H mode transitions were observed in high density discharges at 2.5T and at lower density at 1.25T. The operational window for the stellarator H mode with emphasis on the density and power threshold and the influence of gas puffing on the H transitions are discussed. Perturbation experiments with modulated ECRH power were performed to determine the heat transport and the power deposition profile. Density control is achieved in combined heating with neutral beam injection (NBI) despite the beam particle fuelling, whereas with NBI alone a steady density rise is observed. The impact of combined heating on the impurity confinement was investigated. Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) was studied in different magnetic field configurations and the influence of trapped particles on the ECCD efficiency was examined experimentally and compared with theory. ((orig.))

  4. High-power tests of a remote steering launcher mock-up at 140 GHz

    This paper reports the results of the high-power test of a remote steering launcher mock-up at 140 GHz, which were performed at the ECRH installation for the future stellarator W7-X at IPP Greifswald. The mock-up test system consists of a 6.62 m long corrugated square waveguide with a steerable optic at the entrance and various diagnostics at the exit of the waveguide. A straight and a dog-leg version of the launcher were investigated. The high-power tests of the straight setup have been performed with powers up to P0 = 700 kW (typically 500 kW) and pulse lengths of up to 10 seconds. For both polarizations (parallel and perpendicular to the steering plane), no arcing was observed in spite of the fact, that the experiments were performed under ambient atmospheric conditions. After the integration of 2 mitre bends in the setup, arcing limited the usable parameter range. The ohmic loss Px of the waveguide was measured via the temperature increase of the waveguide wall, and was used to calibrate the calculated angular dependence of the total ohmic losses of the waveguide. Short-pulse radiation pattern measurements with thermographic recording show high beam quality and confirm the steering range of -12 deg. < φ < 12deg

  5. Conditioning optics for astigmatic Gaussian beams at 140 GHz, 0.5 MW

    A quasi-optical system has been designed to couple the power coming from a gyrotron with astigmatic gaussian beam output, into an oversized corrugated waveguide (HE11 mode). The fraction of the power injected in the transmission line can be controlled by means of a wire grid beam splitter. Polarization control is provided by two rotating corrugated mirrors of electrical depth λ/4 and λ/8 respectively

  6. Photonic-Band-Gap Resonator Gyrotron

    We report the design and experimental demonstration of a gyrotron oscillator using a photonic-band-gap (PBG) structure to eliminate mode competition in a highly overmoded resonator. The PBG cavity supports a TE041 -like mode at 140GHz and is designed to have no competing modes over a minimum frequency range δω/ω of 30% about the design mode. Experimental operation of a PBG gyrotron at 68kV and 5A produced 25kW of peak power in the design mode. No other modes were observed over the full predicted operating range about the design mode. PBG cavities show great promise for applications in vacuum electron devices in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave bands

  7. Electron cyclotron heating at 140 GHZ on FTU tokamak in steady-state conditions and during current ramp-up

    Localized absorption of EC waves at 140 Ghz, 0.7 MW, in FTU is used to shape the current density profile (qa∼6) in a way to affect sawteeth. If absorption is localized near the inversion radius, temporary stabilization occurs. Sawteeth with a small inversion radius (r/a<0.2) do not affect electron energy confinement. Energy transport appears diffusive, and global confinement is found to be in good agreement with ITER89P L-mode scaling law. (author)

  8. Millimeter-wave, megawatt gyrotron development for ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heating applications

    Jory, H.; Felch, K.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Tsirulnikov, M. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-09-17

    To address the electron cyclotron heating requirements of planned fusion experiments such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), Varian is developing gyrotrons at frequencies ranging from 100--300 GHz with output power capabilities up to 1 MW CW. Experimental gyrotrons have been built at frequencies between 100--140 GHz, and a study program has addressed the critical elements of designing 280--300 GHz gyrotrons capable of generating CW power levels up to 1 MW. Initial test vehicles at 140 GHz have utilized TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavities, and have been designed to generate short-pulse (up to 20 ms) power levels of 1 MW and up to 400 kW CW. Recently, short-pulse power levels of 1040 kW at 38% efficiency have been obtained and average powers of 200 kW have been achieved. Long-pulse operation has been extended to pulse durations of 0.5 seconds at power levels of 400 kW. Gyrotron oscillators capable of generating output powers of 500 kW CW at a frequency of 110 GHz have recently been designed and a prototype is currently being tested. Design work for a 1 MW CW gyrotron at 110 GHz, is in progress. The 1 MW CW tube will employ an output coupling approach where the microwave output is separated from the microwave output. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Experimental results of series gyrotrons for the stellarator W7-X

    A powerful ECRH system with 10 MW RF power at 140 GHz and CW operation is foreseen for the stellarator W7-X, being under construction at IPP Greifswald. The RF power will be delivered by 10 gyrotrons, each capable of 1 MW, CW. Nine gyrotrons are being manufactured by Thales Electron Devices (TED), Velizy, France, one gyrotron was produced by CPI, Palo Alto, CA. Testing of the TED gyrotrons is performed at the test stand at FZK (pulse duration 3 min) and the final tests are performed at IPP (pulse length 30 min). Both, the first TED series gyrotron and the CPI gyrotron have passed the acceptance tests successfully. The acceptance tests of the TED series gyrotrons are ongoing. The RF output beam quality of all tubes tested so far is at a constant high level of about 97% in the Gaussian beam. In short pulse operation the gyrotrons have achieved the specified parameters. However, for long pulse operation the performance decreases due to the occurrence of parasitic oscillations which are assumed to be excited by the electron beam in the beam tunnel close to the cavity. Experimental results of this effect and possible modifications of the beam tunnel geometry will be discussed. (author)

  10. Gyrotron Development in the EU for Present Fusion Experiments and for ITER

    The long term strategy of the EU in the field of gyrotrons in fusion plasma applications is based on two approaches: R and D in laboratories to develop advanced concepts and industrial development of state-of-the-art tubes for use in present experiments like TCV, Tore Supra (118 GHz, 0.5 MW, CW) and W7-X (140 GHz, 1 MW, CW). The results from these two approaches are then applied to the development of a coaxial cavity gyrotron operating at 170 GHz and delivering 2 MW-CW for the electron cyclotron wave system of ITER. This paper will recall the main achievements of this program and will outline the present status of the 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron development

  11. Optimization of oversized corrugated waveguide bends for higher-order TE0n-modes at 140 GHz

    Oversized corrugated 900 waveguide bends with a waveguide diameter of 27.79 mm were optimized for TE0n (n = 3...6) transmission lines to transmit power of about 200 kW for Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance-Heating of plasmas in thermonuclear fusion research at a frequency of 140 GHz. The corrugation removes the degeneracy of the mode pairs TE0n/TM1n. The bends were optimized by numerical integration of the coupled-mode differential equations for six coupled modes: TE0n, HE1n, EH1n, EH1,n+1, HE2n and EH2n. During the optimization procedure three parameters were varied: curvature distribution, corrugation depth and arc length. Following curvature distributions were studied: sine-sine-squared, triangular and specific Fourier series. The last one was found to be the best. The optimum corrugation depth increases with increasing mode number n, whereas the arc length decreases. It was found, that a small elliptical deformation of less than 0.04 mm has a negligible influence on TE03- and TE04-bends. In the case of TE05- and TE06-bends the arc length must be increased in order to maintain a pure output mode. (orig.)

  12. Investigation of a 140 GHz gryo-backward wave oscillator and a 95 GHz gyro-traveling wave

    There is current interest in developing a high-power source of continuously tunable millimeter wave radiation as a RF driver for high-power gyrotron, CARM, or FEL amplifiers. The gyrotron backward wave oscillator is a voltage-tunable fast-wave device that can satisfy these requirements. This thesis reports on the design and experimental investigation of a 130--145 GHz gyrotron backward wave oscillator Novel operating features of this design include the use of a 80-kV, 6.2-A Pierce-wiggler electron beam source, a broadband motheye window and an overmoded TE1,2 cylindrical interaction waveguide. Although this device has demonstrated voltage-tunable operation over the design range in the TE1,2 mode, the frequency tuning is not continuous, output powers were low and full-beam transmission through the interaction region was not possible. Simulations indicate that the beam has very high velocity spread induced by space charge forces in the compression region. After increasing the diameter of the beam tunnel to achieve full transmission, the TE1,2 was not found. It is felt that the scraping off of the beam edge in the initial experiments allowed a better quality beam to enter the interaction region and inhibited coupling into competing forward wave modes. The need for radar systems with greater resolution has led to renewed interest in the development of efficient high-power amplifiers at 95 GHz. Current sources are limited to 6--8 kW of output power due to ohmic loading on the slow-wave circuit. A gyrotron traveling wave tube amplifier is capable of efficient operation over a wide bandwidth with the added attraction of low ohmic loading on the smooth fast-wave circuit. This thesis reports of the design a 95-GHz gyrotron traveling wave tube amplifier that is capable of high power (125 kW), high gain (38 dB), large bandwidth > 5 GHz and high efficiencies (> 30%)

  13. Design considerations in achieving 1 MW CW operation with a whispering-gallery-mode gyrotron

    Varian is developing high-power, CW gyrotrons at frequencies in the range 100 GHz to 150 GHz, for use in electron cyclotron heating applications. Early test vehicles have utilized a TE15,2,1 interaction cavity, have achieved short-pulse power levels of 820 kW and average power levels of 80 kW at 140 GHz. Present tests are aimed at reaching 400 kW under CW operating conditions and up to 1 MW for short pulse durations. Work is also underway on modifications to the present design that will enable power levels of up to 1 MW CW to be achieved. 7 refs., 2 figs

  14. State-of-the-art and recent developments of high-power gyrotron oscillators

    Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high-power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. High unit power and high efficiency single-mode CW gyrotrons with conventional cylindrical (1 MW) and advanced coaxial (2 MW) cavities are worldwide under development. 118 GHz, 140 GHz and 170 GHz conventional cavity gyrotrons with output power Pout≅0.5 MW, pulse length τ≅5.0 s and efficiency η≅35% are commercially available. Advanced internal quasi-optical mode converters generate linearly polarized output wave beams from the high-order cavity modes (e.g., TE22,6) with efficiencies of 90-95% and separate the millimeter-wave beam from the electron beam, thus allowing the use of large CW-relevant depressed collectors for energy recovery. Overall efficiencies between 50 and 60% have been already achieved at JAERI, FZK, and GYCOM employing single-stage depressed collectors (SDC). First successful experiments at FZK employing a broadband Brewster window gave up to 1.5 MW output power at around 50% efficiency (SDC) for all operating mode series in the frequency range from 114 to 166 GHz (frequency tuning in 3.7 GHz steps by variation of the magnetic field strength in the cavity). Gyrotrons with advanced coaxial cavities designed for operation in the TE28,16 and TE31,17 modes at 140 and 165 GHz, respectively, are under development and test at IAP Nizhny Novgorod and FZK Karlsruhe. A maximum output power of 1.7 MW has been measured at 165 GHz with an efficiency of 35.2% (SDC, FZK). Cryogenically edge-cooled single-disk sapphire (T=77 K) and Au-doped silicon (T=230 K) windows as well as CVD-diamond windows with water edge-cooling at room temperature are under investigation in order to solve the window problem. Commercial CVD-diamond disks will easily allow the transmission of 2 MW power level at 170 GHz, CW. Bonding and

  15. State-of-the-art and recent developments of high-power gyrotron oscillators

    Thumm, Manfred

    1999-05-01

    Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high-power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. High unit power and high efficiency single-mode CW gyrotrons with conventional cylindrical (1 MW) and advanced coaxial (2 MW) cavities are worldwide under development. 118 GHz, 140 GHz and 170 GHz conventional cavity gyrotrons with output power Pout≈0.5 MW, pulse length τ≈5.0 s and efficiency η≈35% are commercially available. Advanced internal quasi-optical mode converters generate linearly polarized output wave beams from the high-order cavity modes (e.g., TE22,6) with efficiencies of 90-95% and separate the millimeter-wave beam from the electron beam, thus allowing the use of large CW-relevant depressed collectors for energy recovery. Overall efficiencies between 50 and 60% have been already achieved at JAERI, FZK, and GYCOM employing single-stage depressed collectors (SDC). First successful experiments at FZK employing a broadband Brewster window gave up to 1.5 MW output power at around 50% efficiency (SDC) for all operating mode series in the frequency range from 114 to 166 GHz (frequency tuning in 3.7 GHz steps by variation of the magnetic field strength in the cavity). Gyrotrons with advanced coaxial cavities designed for operation in the TE28,16 and TE31,17 modes at 140 and 165 GHz, respectively, are under development and test at IAP Nizhny Novgorod and FZK Karlsruhe. A maximum output power of 1.7 MW has been measured at 165 GHz with an efficiency of 35.2% (SDC, FZK). Cryogenically edge-cooled single-disk sapphire (T=77 K) and Au-doped silicon (T=230 K) windows as well as CVD-diamond windows with water edge-cooling at room temperature are under investigation in order to solve the window problem. Commercial CVD-diamond disks will easily allow the transmission of 2 MW power level at 170 GHz, CW. Bonding and

  16. Gyrotron: an ECH system component

    The gyrotron, or electron-cyclotron maser, in the form of a gyromonotron, is being developed as a source of millimeter wave energy for fusion plasma heating. The characteristics of this high power, high efficiency electron tube are described in terms of the requirements for the beam power supply system, the mechanical support system, the cooling system, the focusing and tuning magnets, and the waveguide system. Requirements of power level and transmission efficiency dictate the use of oversize waveguide. The implications, both to the user and to the interaction mechanisms in the gyrotron, of the use of oversize waveguide are treated. The effects of variations of various operating parameters upon the gyrotron's power output and stability are also discussed. Data from gyrotron development and system operation are used where appropriate

  17. Design of an ultra-broadband single-disk output window for a frequency step-tunable 1 MW gyrotron

    Output window design is one of the key issues to realize broadband output of a multi-frequency gyrotron. Corresponding to the recent development of a frequency step-tunable 1 MW gyrotron at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), this paper reports about a newly designed ultra-broadband CVD-diamond disk Brewster window. The thickness of the disk and the geometry of the window unit have been optimized to get low power reflection over a broadband incident angle range around the Brewster angle at different operating frequencies. Detailed calculations of mm-wave transmission characteristics for this Brewster window have been performed for all the considered operation modes from TE17,6 at 105 GHz up to TE23,8 at 143 GHz, and for thickness of the disk from 1.5 to 2.0 mm. Calculations show if one prefers to place the low reflection area in the middle of the discussed frequency range (120-130 GHz), the thickness of 1.6 mm is near optimum and its -20 dB bandwidth angle is more than 30o. For operation near 105 and 140 GHz, a 1.9 mm disk is preferable and its -20 dB bandwidth angle is around 30o

  18. Gyrotron oscillators for fusion heating

    Recent experiments have been performed to determine the ultimate power capability of a 28 GHz 200 kW CW gyrotron design. A power output of 342 kW CW was measured in these tests with an efficiency of 37%. Progress in the development of 60 GHz 200 kW pulsed and CW gyrotrons is discussed. An output of 200 kW with 100 msec pulse length has been achieved with the pulsed design

  19. Advances in high power calorimetric matched loads for short pulses and CW gyrotrons

    ) and the CW version at 2 MW, 170 GHz, are described in the paper. High power tests on short-pulse loads have been done using a double frequency gyrotron, 105 GHz/600 kW for 0.5 s and 140 GHz/800 kW for 1 s. Also a method for emulating 2 MW conditions while using 1 MW gyrotron has been applied to test the load to be used for the European 2 MW coaxial cavity gyrotron development programme

  20. Advances in High Power Calorimetric Matched Loads for Short Pulses and CW Gyrotrons

    the CW version at 2 MW, 170 GHz, are described in the paper. High power tests on short-pulse loads have been done using a double frequency gyrotron, 105 GHz/600 kW for 0.5 s and 140 GHz/800 kW for 1 s. Also a method for emulating 2 MW conditions while using 1 MW gyrotron has been applied for testing the load to be used for the European 2 MW coaxial cavity gyrotron development programme. (author)

  1. Systematic Observation of Time-Dependent Phenomena in the RF Output Spectrum of High Power Gyrotrons

    Kern Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At IHM/KIT, high power gyrotrons with conventional cavity (e.g. 1 MW CW at 140 GHz for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X and coaxial cavity (2 MW shortpulse at 170 GHz for ITER for fusion applications are being developed and verified experimentally. Especially with respect to the problem of parasitic RF oscillations in the beam tunnel of some W7-X tubes, investigations of the gyrotron RF output spectrum have proved to be a valuable source of diagnostic information. Signs of transient effects in millisecond pulses, like frequency switching or intermittent low-frequency modulation, have indicated that truly time-dependent measurements with high frequency resolution and dynamic range could give deeper insight into these phenomena. In this paper, an improved measurement system is presented, which employs a fast oscilloscope as receiver. Shorttime Fourier transform (STFT is applied to the time-domain signal, yielding time-variant spectra with frequency resolutions only limited by acquisition length and STFT segmentation choice. Typical reasonable resolutions are in the range of 100 kHz to 10 MHz with a currently memory-limited maximum acquisition length of 4 ms. A key feature of the system consists in the unambiguity of frequency measurement: The system receives through two parallel channels, each using a harmonic mixer (h = 9 – 12 to convert the signal from RF millimeter wave frequencies (full D-Band, 110 – 170 GHz to IF (0 – 3 GHz. For each IF output signal of each individual mixer, injection side and receiving harmonic are initially not known. Using accordingly determined LO frequencies, this information is retrieved from the redundancy of the channels, yielding unambiguously reconstructed RF spectra with a total span of twice the usable receiver IF bandwidth, up to ≈ 6 GHz in our case. Using the system, which is still being improved continuously, various transient effects like cavity mode switching, parasitic oscillation frequency variation

  2. Systematic Observation of Time-Dependent Phenomena in the RF Output Spectrum of High Power Gyrotrons

    Schlaich, Andreas; Gantenbein, Gerd; Kern, Stefan; Thumm, Manfred

    2012-09-01

    At IHM/KIT, high power gyrotrons with conventional cavity (e.g. 1 MW CW at 140 GHz for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X) and coaxial cavity (2 MW shortpulse at 170 GHz for ITER) for fusion applications are being developed and verified experimentally. Especially with respect to the problem of parasitic RF oscillations in the beam tunnel of some W7-X tubes, investigations of the gyrotron RF output spectrum have proved to be a valuable source of diagnostic information. Signs of transient effects in millisecond pulses, like frequency switching or intermittent low-frequency modulation, have indicated that truly time-dependent measurements with high frequency resolution and dynamic range could give deeper insight into these phenomena. In this paper, an improved measurement system is presented, which employs a fast oscilloscope as receiver. Shorttime Fourier transform (STFT) is applied to the time-domain signal, yielding time-variant spectra with frequency resolutions only limited by acquisition length and STFT segmentation choice. Typical reasonable resolutions are in the range of 100 kHz to 10 MHz with a currently memory-limited maximum acquisition length of 4 ms. A key feature of the system consists in the unambiguity of frequency measurement: The system receives through two parallel channels, each using a harmonic mixer (h = 9 - 12) to convert the signal from RF millimeter wave frequencies (full D-Band, 110 - 170 GHz) to IF (0 - 3 GHz). For each IF output signal of each individual mixer, injection side and receiving harmonic are initially not known. Using accordingly determined LO frequencies, this information is retrieved from the redundancy of the channels, yielding unambiguously reconstructed RF spectra with a total span of twice the usable receiver IF bandwidth, up to ≈ 6 GHz in our case. Using the system, which is still being improved continuously, various transient effects like cavity mode switching, parasitic oscillation frequency variation, and lowfrequency

  3. Hysteresis and Frequency Tunability of Gyrotrons

    Dumbrajs, O.; Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first devoted theoretical and experimental study of the hysteresis phenomenon in relation to frequency tunability of gyrotrons. In addition, we generalize the theory describing electron tuning of frequency in gyrotrons developed earlier to arbitrary harmonics. It is found that theoretical magnetic and voltage hysteresis loops are about two times larger than experimental loops. In gyrotrons whose cavities have high quality factors, hysteresis allows one only little to broaden the frequency tunability range.

  4. Matched calorimetric loads for high power, long pulse millimeter-wave gyrotrons

    A compact matched load for high power gyrotron testing in ECRH plants for fusion research applications is in development, with the main goal of providing reflection-free absorption and fast calorimetric measurement of the millimeter-wave power, also at long pulse duration. It is based on the results of the tests at full power and pulse length (140 GHz, 0.5 MW, 0.5 s) on similar loads installed on the ECRH plant of the FTU Tokamak in Frascati. Basically, the load is made of an integrating sphere in copper, with the inner wall covered by plasma spray with a mixture of lossy ceramics, providing an average wall reflectivity in the order of 40%. Absorbing material degradation, small-scale and large-scale damage patterns, caused by fatigue and long-term exposure to high power mm-wave, have been analyzed in detail, with the aim of improving the performances in terms of power handling capability and energy extraction efficiency. Physical-chemical analyses, performed on the original and on the degraded absorbing material, showed the effects of the mm-wave exposure. Damage patterns were recognized as interference of multiple reflections inside the load, with radiation accumulation close to the entrance port, as confirmed by a detailed numerical analysis. Increase in power and energy deposition capabilities require improvements of the present design in different areas: - strategies for the mitigation of the different causes of non-homogeneous deposition; - use of different plasma-sprayed materials as mm-wave absorbers; - improved cooling channel geometry with increased heat transfer rate to the cooling medium, for achieving 1 MW-CW power capability. (authors)

  5. Analytic theory of the gyrotron

    An analytic theory is derived for a gyrotron operating in the linear gain regime. The gyrotron is a coherent source of microwave and millimeter wave radiation based on an electron beam emitting at cyclotron resonance Ω in a strong, uniform magnetic field. Relativistic equations of motion and first order perturbation theory are used. Results are obtained in both laboratory and normalized variables. An expression for cavity threshold gain is derived in the linear regime. An analytic expression for the electron phase angle in momentum space shows that the effect of the RF field is to form bunches that are equal to the unperturbed transit phase plus a correction term which varies as the sine of the input phase angle. The expression for the phase angle is plotted and bunching effects in and out of phase (0 and -π) with respect to the RF field are evident for detunings leading to gain and absorption, respectively. For exact resonance, field frequency ω = Ω, a bunch also forms at a phase of -π/2. This beam yields the same energy exchange with the RF field as an unbunched, (nonrelativistic) beam. 6 refs., 10 figs

  6. Gyrotrons for fusion. Status and prospects

    Gyrotrons are the most advanced high-power sources of millimeter wavelength radiation. They have been used for many years in electron-cyclotron-wave (ECW) systems of many existing fusion installations. Typically modern gyrotrons produce power of 0.5...0.8 MW in pulses of 2-3 seconds, or lower power in longer pulses (e.g. 300-400 kW in pulses up to 10-15 seconds). For the next generation of fusion installations, such as ITER or W7-X the ECW systems based on gyrotrons capable to produce 1MW/CW radiation are considered. Definitely, such gyrotrons with enhanced performance are very interesting also for the use also at existing installations

  7. A review on the sub-THz/THz gyrotrons

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Bera, Anirban; Sinha, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A review on the sub-THz/THz gyrotrons is performed in this manuscript. The present development status of gyrotrons can be divided into three streams for the sake of better understanding: 1. low frequency (200 GHz) gyrotrons for various innovative applications. In this manuscript, the third stream of gyrotron development is reviewed. In last few decades several innovative applications are searched in sub-THz/THz band where the gyrotrons could be used as an efficient source of RF radiation. The applications of sub-THz/THz gyrotrons including the futuristic scope of the device are also discussed in this article. Further, several criticalities arise in the design and development when the gyrotron operation shifts toward the high frequency band. Various such design and technological challenges are also discussed here. Finally the development status of sub-THz/THz gyrotrons as per the use in various scientific and technological applications is also discussed.

  8. Recent result of gyrotron operation in NIFS

    Ito Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last Large Helical Device (LHD experimental campaign, a 154GHz gyrotron which had been conditioned to generate 1 MW/2 s, 0.5 MW/CW was installed for LHD experiments. Four high power gyrotrons (three-77 GHz/1~1.5 MW and one-154 GHz/1 MW and a CW gyrotron (84 GHz/0.2 MW are ready. Our experiment requires high energy and various injection patterns for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH. Higher individual injection power and various injection patterns, we developed a power enhancement method by stepped anode acceleration voltage control and operated the gyrotron in the hard excitation region. These operations were realized by a remote controlled waveform generator. However the oscillation map of high power or long pulse operation in the hard excitation region were limited because in order to achieve the hard excitation region by the anode voltage control one must pass through the high anode current phase within a time short enough that the anode or the anode power supply is not overloaded. This limitation becomes more critical when the gyrotron beam current is increased in order to increase the output power. In the long pulse operation it was impossible to reach the hard excitation region in a low beam current (<10A.

  9. The 110 GHz Gyrotron System on DIII-D: Gyrotron Tests and Physics Results

    The DIII-D tokamak has installed a system with three gyrotrons at the 1 MW level operating at 110 GHz. Physics experiments on electron cyclotron current drive, heating, and transport have been performed. Good efficiency has been achieved both for on-axis and off-axis current drive with relevance for control of the current density profile leading to advanced regimes of tokamak operation, although there is a difference between off-axis ECCD efficiency inside and outside the magnetic axis. Heating efficiency is excellent and electron temperatures up to 10 keV have been achieved. The gyrotron system is versatile, with poloidal scan and control of the polarization of the injected rf beam. Phase correcting mirrors form a Gaussian beam and focus it into the waveguide. Both perpendicular and oblique launch into the tokamak have been used. Three different gyrotron designs are installed and therefore unique problems specific to each have been encountered, including parasitic oscillations, mode hops during modulation and polarization control problems. Two of the gyrotrons suffered damage during operations, one due to filament failure and one due to a vacuum leak. The repairs and subsequent testing will be described. The transmission system uses evacuated, windowless waveguide and the three gyrotrons have output windows of three different materials. One gyrotron uses a diamond window and generates a Gaussian beam directly. The development of the system and specific tests and results from each of the gyrotrons will be presented. The DIII-D project has committed to an upgrade of the system, which will add three gyrotrons in the 1 MW class, all using diamond output windows, to permit operation at up to ten seconds per pulse at one megawatt output for each gyrotron

  10. Linear theory of frequency pulling in gyrotrons

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Luo, Li; Liu, Pu-kun

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the electron beam on the gyrotron operating frequency (the frequency pulling) is studied analytically in the framework of the linear (or small-signal) theory. The theory is applicable for gyrotrons operating at any cyclotron harmonics and in modes with arbitrary axial structures. The present consideration is limited to cases of operation at the fundamental cyclotron resonance and the second harmonic; also two specific axial profiles of the resonator modes are analyzed: the constant and the sinusoidal distributions. In the case of the sinusoidal distribution, we considered the operation in modes with one, two, and three axial variations. It is shown how to use the theory developed for analyzing the frequency tunability due to the frequency pulling effect in a gyrotron with specified parameters of the electron beam.

  11. Compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron amplifiers

    Guo, H.Z.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Tate, J.; Chen, S.H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Plasma Research

    1995-12-31

    A compact, harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling wave amplifier is being developed. The device is a three-stage tube with the output section running as a fourth harmonic gyro-TWT, the input section running as a fundamental gyro-TWT, and the middle operating at the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. Radiation is suppressed by servers between the sections. The operating beam of the tube is produced by a magnetron injection gun (MIG). A TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit consisting of mode converters and a filter waveguide is employed for both input and output sections to solve the mode competition problem, which is pervasive in gyro-TWT operation. The input section has an input coupler designed as a TE{sub 0n} mode launcher. It excites a signal at the fundamental cyclotron frequency (17.5 GHz), which is amplified in the first TWT interaction region. So far the device is similar to a two-stage harmonic gyro-TWT. The distinction is that in the three-stage device the second section will be optimized not for output power but for fourth harmonic bunching of the beam. A gyroklystron amplifier has also been designed. The configuration is similar to the gyro-TWT but with the traveling wave interaction structures replaced by mode selective special complex cavities. Cold test results of the wideband input coupler and the TE{sub 0n} mode selective interaction circuit have been obtained.

  12. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  13. Recent achievements on tests of series gyrotrons for W7-X and planned extension at the KIT gyrotron test facility

    Schmid, M., E-mail: martin.schmid@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Choudhury, A. Roy; Dammertz, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Erckmann, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Association EURATOM-IPP, Greifswald (Germany); Gantenbein, G.; Illy, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE) (Germany); Kern, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Legrand, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Thales Electron Devices, Vélicy (France); Rzesnicki, T.; Samartsev, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Schlaich, A.; Thumm, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM) (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE) (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Solution found to suppress parasitic beam tunnel oscillations on high power gyrotrons. ► Electron beam sweeping technique to avoid plastic deformation on collector of high power gyrotrons. ► Ongoing investigations on limitations of gyrotron efficiency. ► Upgrade of 10 MW CW modulator for gyrotrons with multistage depressed collectors. -- Abstract: Parasitic beam tunnel oscillations have been hampering the series production of gyrotrons for W7-X. This problem has now been overcome thanks to the introduction of a specially corrugated beam tunnel. Two gyrotrons equipped with the new beam tunnel have fully passed the acceptance tests. Despite excellent power capability, the expected efficiency has not yet been achieved, possibly due to the presence of parasitic oscillations suspected to be dynamic after-cavity-oscillations (ACI's) or due to insufficient electron beam quality. Both theoretical and experimental investigations on these topics are ongoing. On previous W7-X gyrotrons collector fatigue has been observed, not (yet) leading to any failures so far. The plastic deformation occurring on the collector has now been eliminated due to the strict use (on all gyrotrons) of a sweeping method which combines the conventional 7 Hz solenoid sweeping technique with a 50 Hz transverse-field sweep system. Starting in 2013, the gyrotron test facility at KIT will be enhanced, chiefly with a new 10 MW DC modulator, capable of testing gyrotrons up to 4 MW CW output power with multi-stage-depressed collectors.

  14. Recent achievements on tests of series gyrotrons for W7-X and planned extension at the KIT gyrotron test facility

    Highlights: ► Solution found to suppress parasitic beam tunnel oscillations on high power gyrotrons. ► Electron beam sweeping technique to avoid plastic deformation on collector of high power gyrotrons. ► Ongoing investigations on limitations of gyrotron efficiency. ► Upgrade of 10 MW CW modulator for gyrotrons with multistage depressed collectors. -- Abstract: Parasitic beam tunnel oscillations have been hampering the series production of gyrotrons for W7-X. This problem has now been overcome thanks to the introduction of a specially corrugated beam tunnel. Two gyrotrons equipped with the new beam tunnel have fully passed the acceptance tests. Despite excellent power capability, the expected efficiency has not yet been achieved, possibly due to the presence of parasitic oscillations suspected to be dynamic after-cavity-oscillations (ACI's) or due to insufficient electron beam quality. Both theoretical and experimental investigations on these topics are ongoing. On previous W7-X gyrotrons collector fatigue has been observed, not (yet) leading to any failures so far. The plastic deformation occurring on the collector has now been eliminated due to the strict use (on all gyrotrons) of a sweeping method which combines the conventional 7 Hz solenoid sweeping technique with a 50 Hz transverse-field sweep system. Starting in 2013, the gyrotron test facility at KIT will be enhanced, chiefly with a new 10 MW DC modulator, capable of testing gyrotrons up to 4 MW CW output power with multi-stage-depressed collectors

  15. Development of high power long pulse gyrotron for ITER

    A development of 170GHz gyrotron has been carried out as a task of ITER/EDA, and remarkable progress was obtained. Critical issues on the gyrotron development; low efficiency, high heat load at the resonator, window problem, have been solved by breakthroughs; a depressed collector, 1MW single mode oscillation with a high order mode TE31,8, and development of the diamond window gyrotron, respectively. The prototype ITER gyrotron which integrated these technologies were fabricated and tested. Up to now, the power output of 0.45MW, 8sec has been obtained with a diamond window gyrotron. These results give a clear prospect of the 1MW/CW 170GHz gyrotron. (author)

  16. 100 GHz, 1 MW, CW gyrotron study program. Final report

    The results of a study program to investigate the feasibility of various approaches in designing a 100 GHz, 1 MW CW gyrotron are presented. A summary is given of the possible configurations for a high average power, high frequency gyrotron, including an historical survey of experimental results which are relevant to the various approaches. A set of basic scaling considerations which enable qualitative comparisons between particular gyrotron interaction circuits is presented. These calculations are important in understanding the role of various electron beam and circuit parameters in achieving a viable gyrotron design. Following these scaling exercises, a series of design calculations is presented for a possible approach in achieving 100 GHz, 1 MW CW. These calculations include analyses of the electron gun and interaction circuit parts of the gyrotron, and a general analysis of other aspects of a high average power, high frequency gyrotron. Scalability of important aspects of the design to other frequencies is also discussed, as well as key technology issues

  17. Gyrotron electromagnetic wiggler for a compact free electron laser

    We have demonstrated a novel, high power (≥1 MW), short wavelength (2 mm) gyrotron electromagnetic (GEM) wiggler for use in a compact free electron laser (FEL). The gyrotron consisted of an electron gun and resonator section followed by a special high Q cavity for storing the power created in the gyrotron resonator. The electromagnetic field stored in the high Q cavity would then be appropriate for use as a wiggler field in an infrared or visible FEL with a moderate energy (4 to 10 MeV) electron beam. The gyrotron experiment tested the practical limits due to ohmic loss, mode conversion, etc. on the strength of such a stored field. It also tested the effect of strong feedback from the high Q cavity back onto the gyrotron resonator. The proposed research utilized the technology of high power, high frequency gyrotrons developed at M.I.T. as part of the Department of Energy program on development of sources for plasma heating

  18. Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons

    Nusinovich, Gregory Semeon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-29

    This report summarized results of the work performed at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics of the University of Maryland (College Park, MD) in the framework of the DOE Grant “Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons”. The report covers the work performed in 2011-2014. The research work was performed in three directions: - possibilities of stable gyrotron operation in very high-order modes offering the output power exceeding 1 MW level in long-pulse/continuous-wave regimes, - effect of small imperfections in gyrotron fabrication and alignment on the gyrotron efficiency and operation, - some issues in physics of beam-wave interaction in gyrotrons.

  19. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper

  20. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  1. 28 GHz Gyrotron ECRH Upgrade for LDX

    Michael, P. C.; Woskov, P. P.; Ellsworth, J. L.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D. T.; Mauel, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2009-11-01

    A 10 kW, CW, 28 GHz gyrotron is being implemented on LDX to increase the plasma density and to more fully explore the potential of high beta plasma stability in a dipole magnetic configuration. Higher density increases the heating of ions by thermal equilibration and allows for improved wave propagation in planned ICRF experiments. This represents over a 50% increase in the 17 kW ECRH from sources at 2.45, 6.4, and 10.5 GHz. The higher frequency will also make possible access to plasma densities of up to 10^13 cm-3. The 1 Tesla resonances are located above and below the floating coil near the dipole axial region. The gyrotron beam will be transmitted in TE01 mode in 32.5 mm diameter guide using one 90 bend and a short Tesla resonance region. A layout of the planned system will be presented.

  2. Design of Single disc RF window for High Power Gyrotron

    In this paper investigates the design of water edge cooled single-disc CVD-diamond window for 120 GHz, 1MW gyrotron. The design of RF window for 120 GHz, 1MW gyrotron has been carried out using the CST microwave studio. In 120 GHz gyrotron single disc of diameter 90 mm and thickness 2.0 mm CVD diamond window has been used in the simulation. The return loss (S11) and transmission loss (S21) of the 120 GHz gyrotron window have been found - 40.0 dB and -0.02 dB respectively. Thermal analysis of single disc rf window has also been carried out using ANSYS software for high power 120 GHz gyrotron. The temperature range on the disc surface has been found to be 100 °C - 300 ° C.

  3. A high-order particle-in-cell method for low density plasma flow and the simulation of gyrotron resonator devices

    of its huge computational demand and the thereby resulting long calculation time. Using the presented high-order discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell scheme on high-performance-computers, this thesis demonstrates for the first time that full-wave and transient research- and design-simulations of gyrotron resonators with high mode-indices can be efficiently performed. For benchmark issues the developed discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell scheme is verified with a 30 GHz resonant cavity and the results are compared to the SELFT code, which is a state-of-the-art design code for resonators. The discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell scheme is used to simulate the resonator of the 1 MW, 140 GHz, TE(28,8)-mode gyrotron, used for plasma heating of the Wendelstein 7-X fusion-reactor. Due to the huge number of degrees of freedom and particles, this type of simulation can only be performed on high-performance-computers with enough memory and computational power. Hence, the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell code is improved by a new parallelization approach for the high-order shape-function deposition method on unstructured grids, allowing for a high-order coupling between the particles and the electromagnetic field. To further improve the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell code, a multi-rate time-stepping method, based on an Adams-Bashforth approach, for the hyperbolic divergence cleaning is developed and verified. This new approach considers the different time scales occurring in the hyperbolic divergence cleaning allowing for a more efficient time-stepping-algorithm then standard time-stepping-schemes. A rule for the construction of arbitrary-order multi-rate time-stepping methods has been derived. The presented simulations provide new physical insights to the complex particle-field-interaction appearing in gyrotrons. The discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell scheme can be used to analyse transient phenomena, such as beam-miss-alignment, mode competition

  4. Feasibility of a dual regime gyrotron

    The design concept of a 42/84 GHz, 500 kW, CW, dual-regime gyrotron for ECRH of plasma in an experimental Tokamak will be presented in this paper. Operation at 42 GHz is fundamental where as that in 84 GHz will be second harmonic so that a similar guidance system will be retained for dual regime operation. In this paper, the mode competition and mode selection procedures are presented for such a dual regime operation. Cold cavity design and self-consistent calculations will be carried out for power and efficiencies. (author)

  5. Development of submillimeter wave source Gyrotron FU Series for plasma diagnostics

    Our gyrotrons developed in Fukui University (FU), Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region are high frequency, medium power gyrotrons and are used as millimeter to submillimeter wave radiation sources for application to new far-infrared technologies including plasma diagnostics. We have already developed Gyrotron FU Series which consists of 8 gyrotrons. The gyrotron series has achieved frequency tunability in wide range (from 38 GHz to 889 GHz). The highest frequency is corresponding to a wavelength of 337 μm. This is a current record for high frequency operation of gyrotron. Recently, we have developed a high harmonic gyrotron with an axis-encircling electron beam and a THz gyrotron with a pulse magnet. In this presentation, the present status of Gyrotron FU Series is described. (authors)

  6. 28 GHz Gyrotron ECRH on LDX

    Woskov, P. P.; Kesner, J.; Michael, P. C.; Garnier, D. T.; Mauel, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    A 10 kW, CW, 28 GHz gyrotron has been implemented on LDX to increase the plasma density and to more fully explore the potential of high beta plasma stability in a dipole magnetic configuration. This added power represents about a 60% increase in ECRH to a new total of 26.9 kW with sources at 2.45, 6.4, and 10.5 GHz. The 1 Tesla resonances in LDX form small rings encompassing the entire plasma cross-section above and below the floating coil (F-coil) near the dipole axial region. A 32.5 mm diameter TE01 waveguide with a partial Vlasov step cut launches a diverging beam from above the F-coil that depends on internal wall reflections for plasma coupling. Initial gyrotron only plasmas exhibit steep natural profiles with fewer hot electrons than with the other sources. The background scattered radiation suggests that only about half the power is being absorbed with the present launcher.

  7. Submillimeter-wave harmonic gyrotron experiment

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the operation at submillimeter wavelengths of a harmonic gyrotron is reported. Using a waveguide cavity with an iris at the output end of the straight section, 14 different second-harmonic modes were observed with frequencies of 301--503 GHz, output powers of 1-22 kW, and a 12-MHz emission frequency bandwidth. The highest output power was 22 kW, with a total efficiency of 3.5% at 467 GHz, and an output power of 15 kW with a 6% efficiency was obtained at 417 GHz. Research was conducted using a 65--75 kV up to 10-A electron gun with 1--1.5 μs pulse-length and a 4-Hz repetition rate, which produced a helical electron beam in magnetic fields of up to 14 T. These results represent the first operation of a high-power harmonic gyrotron in the submillimeter region

  8. Quasi-optical gyrotron: present status and future prospect

    A review of the main experiments on quasi-optical gyrotron is presented. Methods to improve the efficiency (pencil beam electron gun and depressed collector) will be discussed. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  9. Technical developments at the KIT gyrotron test facility

    Parasitic beam tunnel oscillations have been discovered on some of the series production gyrotrons for W7-X and also on the coaxial pre-prototype gyrotron for ITER. Solutions to remedy these problems have resulted in a modified beam tunnel design, technologically close to the existing beam tunnel. The new design has successfully been tested on both the coaxial and also the f-step-tunable gyrotrons and has subsequently been implemented on one of the W7-X series-production-tubes presently undergoing factory acceptance tests in Karlsruhe. The ECRH test loads at KIT are operated under normal atmospheric conditions. Several loads have eventually failed in 1 MW long pulse experiments and KIT has therefore started to design its own loads. The first KIT-load is based on a fixed conical mirror and an aluminum cylinder coated with a lossy material for increased absorption. The new load has so far successfully been used during the acceptance tests of two 1-MW CW gyrotrons. Nevertheless a new load based on pure (uncoated) stainless steel absorbers is being developed as a backup solution for the ongoing high priority gyrotron testing. A superconducting magnet capable of rapid field changes between 4.15 and 5.67 T for frequency step-tunable gyrotrons has been procured, has demonstrated a (static) field of 7.2 T and its capability of rapid field-changes.

  10. Technical developments at the KIT gyrotron test facility

    Schmid, Martin, E-mail: martin.schmid@kit.edu [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Erckmann, Volker [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Association EURATOM-IPP, Greifswald (Germany); Gantenbein, Gerd; Illy, Stefan; Kern, Stefan [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lievin, Christophe [Thales Electron Devices, Velicy (France); Samartsev, Andrey [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schlaich, Andreas [Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rzesnicki, Thomaz [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Thumm, Manfred [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Parasitic beam tunnel oscillations have been discovered on some of the series production gyrotrons for W7-X and also on the coaxial pre-prototype gyrotron for ITER. Solutions to remedy these problems have resulted in a modified beam tunnel design, technologically close to the existing beam tunnel. The new design has successfully been tested on both the coaxial and also the f-step-tunable gyrotrons and has subsequently been implemented on one of the W7-X series-production-tubes presently undergoing factory acceptance tests in Karlsruhe. The ECRH test loads at KIT are operated under normal atmospheric conditions. Several loads have eventually failed in 1 MW long pulse experiments and KIT has therefore started to design its own loads. The first KIT-load is based on a fixed conical mirror and an aluminum cylinder coated with a lossy material for increased absorption. The new load has so far successfully been used during the acceptance tests of two 1-MW CW gyrotrons. Nevertheless a new load based on pure (uncoated) stainless steel absorbers is being developed as a backup solution for the ongoing high priority gyrotron testing. A superconducting magnet capable of rapid field changes between 4.15 and 5.67 T for frequency step-tunable gyrotrons has been procured, has demonstrated a (static) field of 7.2 T and its capability of rapid field-changes.

  11. A simple quantum-electronic approach to the Gyrotron and its application to the solid-state gyrotron

    Ho, P.-T.; Granatstein, V. L.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, unifying theory of the gyrotron is presented. It is of the Lamb type. Within its framework, important results from different approaches can be easily obtained. As an application, gyrotron action in InSb is reexamined, and coherent emission at 10 to the 12th Hz appears possible with an output power of about 0.5 mW/sq mm of the device.

  12. Efficiency optimization for quasi-optical gyrotrons

    Optimization studies for resonator cavities of quasi-optical gyrotrons have been carried out. With the constraint that the RF field is limited by peak power load on the mirrors, the electronic efficiency can have a value of up to 10% higher than the confocal results by using spherical mirrors with g=1-d/R close to -1. Optimized nonspherical cavities yield similar results. When output coupling through circular slots is considered, confocal (g=0) as well as more extreme designs near the resonator stability boundary are less favorable and the optimum configurations found are spherical mirrors with g-factors of about -0.3, -0.6, and possibly -0.75. (author) 16 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  13. Gyrotrons for magnetic fusion applications at 110 GHz and 170 GHz

    Cahalan P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies of 110 GHz and 170 GHz have recently been fabricated at CPI. The 110 GHz gyrotron is designed to produce 1.2 MW of output power for 10-second pulses, and will be used for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. This gyrotron has completed factory testing and has been delivered to General Atomics for installation and additional testing. The 170 GHz gyrotron, though specified as a 500 kW CW system, has been designed with the goal of generating up to 1 MW CW. Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use this gyrotron in ITER ECH transmission line testing. This gyrotron has been fabricated and is awaiting factory testing, Design features of each gyrotron are described, and test data for the 110 GHz gyrotron are presented.

  14. Quasi-optical harmonic gyrotron and gyroklystron

    A method and apparatus for suppressing lower order cyclotron harmonics in order to permit resonance within a quasi-optical gyrotron/gyroklystron configuration of a desired higher order harmonic. In the gyrotron/gyroklystron configuration at least one open resonator defined by at least two mirrors is positioned downstream from an electron beam source for receiving the beam of electrons and for exchanging energy therewith. This method includes the steps of choosing a mirror radius size p for the mirrors forming at least one open resonator which is large enough relative to the spot size of a desired radiation cyclotron harmonic w /sub n/ so that the harmonic w /sub n/ oscillates within the at least one resonator, but small enough so that the spot size for the next lower cyclotron harmonic w /sub m/ is larger than the mirror so that the harmonic w /sub m/ does not oscillate due to diffraction losses. This method further includes the step of generating an electron beam via the electron beam source with a beam current which is greater than or equal to the starting current I /sub n/ for the desired nth cyclotron harmonic, but less than the starting current I /sub m/ for the mth cyclotron harmonic. The method also includes the step of extracting radiation energy at the nth cyclotron harmonic from the at least one open resonator. The desired mirror radius size p for a given cyclotron harmonic frequency w /sub n/, for a desired diffraction loss Y /sub n/ for that harmonic n, a given half length separation L /sub y/ between the mirrors, and a given radius of curvature R /sub M/, can be determined by the equation wherein r /sub on/ is the spot size at the mirror for radiation at the nth cyclotron harmonic

  15. Gyrotron source system for ITER plasma start up

    Full text: For a reliable plasma current start-up with a limited toroidal electric field of ∼0.3V/m, ITER would require Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) assistance during this phase. An ECH Start-up system with an installed capacity of 3MW RF power, at a frequency of ∼127 GHz with a maximum pulse length of 10 s, is being envisaged for ITER Plasma Start-up system. The Indian Participating Team (IN PT) is currently working on the details of the gyrotron source including auxiliary power supplies, High voltage power supplies, protections and controls for the ECH Start-up system. The specified gyrotron sources are expected to be commercially available involving certain development on the part of supplier to re adopt the proven technologies to a new design suitable for the specified frequency. Diode type tube configuration would be preferred, as this would allow a simpler High voltage power supply configuration. The required HVPS would be based on PSM technology and one HVPS would be driving all the three start up gyrotrons in parallel. The required auxiliary power supplies like the Ion pump power supplies, Magnet power supplies, filament power supplies and the gyrotron tanks would be procured as per the basic designs and /or tube specifications. A VME based Data Acquisition and Control system would be built with various fast (critical) and slow interlocks for the safe operation of the tubes. For the critical faults, the HVPS would be removed within a time scale of 10 μs. Various parameters like rf, vacuum, cooling and DC parameters would be monitored and/or set remotely. Integrated testing of the gyrotron source system into a calorimetric water load is planned at IN-PT site. The paper highlights the details of the integrated gyrotron system as planned by the Indian participating team. (author)

  16. Oscillating virtual cathode, large-orbit gyrotron and driver

    VanHaaften, F.W.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Fazio, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Studies using an oscillating virtual cathode (vircator) and a large-orbit gyrotron to generate microwave levels of several hundred megawatts are being conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A pulse level of approx.1 MV, with length approaching 1 ..mu..s at a repetition rate of a few hertz, is anticipated for extension of these studies from the present single-shot mode with 100-ns pulse width. The increased pulse width is needed to test longer pulse length microwave sources. Pulse forming network (PFN), transformer-coupled drivers have been studied and are part of the subject of this paper. The large-orbit gyrotron is discussed here.

  17. Active heater control and regulation for the Varian VGT-8011 gyrotron

    The Varian VGT-8011 gyrotron is currently being used in the new 110 GHz 2 MW ECH system installed on D3-D. This new ECH system augments the 60 GHz system which uses Varian VA-8060 gyrotrons. The new 110 GHz system will be used for ECH experiments on D3-D with a pulse width capability of 10 sec. In order to maintain a constant RF outpower level during long pulse operation, active filament-heater control and regulation is required to maintain a constant cathode current. On past D3-D experiments involving the use of Varian VA-8060 gyrotrons for ECH power, significant gyrotron heater-emission depletion was experienced for pulse widths > 300 msec. This decline in heater-emission directly results in gyrotron-cathode current droop. Since RF power from gyrotrons decreases as cathode current decreases, it is necessary to maintain a constant cathode current level during gyrotron pulses for efficient gyrotron operation. Therefore, it was determined that a filament-heater control system should be developed for the Varian VGT-8011 gyrotron which will include cathode-current feed-back. This paper discusses the mechanisms used to regulate gyrotron filament-heater voltage by using cathode-current feed-back. 1 fig

  18. New results and applications for the quasioptical gyrotron. Interim report

    Fliflet, A.W.; Fischer, R.P.; Manheimer, W.M.

    1993-02-26

    The quasioptical gyrotron (QOG), which features an open resonator formed by a pair of spherical mirrors instead of the conventional gyrotron waveguide cavity, has been under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory as a tunable high power millimeterwave source for tokamak plasma heating, advanced radars, and power beaming. In the free running oscillator configuration, the QOG has produced a peak power of 6OOkW at a frequency of 120GHZ, and a peak efficiency of 12% at 200kW. Results have recently been obtained for a quasioptical gyroklystron (QOGK) realized by the addition of an open-mirror prebunching resonator driven by an 85GHz, 1.5kW Extended Interaction Oscillator. Efficiency enhancement by mode priming has been investigated, and efficiencies up to 19% have been obtained by increasing the detuning of the operating mode. An overall efficiency of 30% was obtained by the addition of a simple depressed collector. The high circulating power in the QOG resonator is currently being considered for use as an electromagnetic wiggler for compact IR free-electron lasers. The QOG is also promising as a source for an active sensor of upper atmosphere trace impurities.... Gyrotrons, Gyroklystron, Atmospheric sensing, Quasioptical gyrotron, Electromagnetic wiggler, Free-electron laser.

  19. Research on advanced high power gyrotrons at FZK

    The experimental 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron for ITER has been assembled and installed in the SC magnet. The operation started in May 2004 with performing the alignment and conditioning of the tube. The main goal of the experiments is to verify the design of components for a 2 MW, CW industrial prototype

  20. The DIII-D ECH multiple gyrotron control system

    DIII-D's ECH upgrade with 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons is ongoing, and with it, an upgrade of the control system. The ECH Multiple Gyrotron Control System uses software distributed among networked computers, interfaced to a programmable logic controller (PLC), the timing and pulse system, power supplies, vacuum and wave guide controls, and instrumentation. During DIII-D operations, the system will allow a chief and a co-operator to control and monitor a number of gyrotrons from different manufacturers. The software, written using LabVIEW, allows for remote and multiple operator control. Thus any supported computer can become a control station and multiple projects can be simultaneously accommodated. Each operator can be given access to the controls of all gyrotrons or to a subset of controls. Status information is also remotely available. The use of a PLC simplifies the hardware and software design. It reduces interlock and control circuitry, includes monitoring for slow analog signals, and allows one software driver to efficiently interface to a number of systems. In addition, the interlock logic can be easily changed and control points can be forced as needed. The pulse system is designed around arbitrary function generators. Various modulation schemes can be accommodated, including real-time control of the modulation. This discussion will include the hardware and software design of the control system and its current implementation

  1. Design study of a test stand for ITER gyrotron

    In the frame of development of the ITER electron cyclotron wave (ECW) system, a two MW CW coaxial cavity gyrotron will be developed during the Sixth Framework Program (2003-2006). Such development relies on the availability of a test stand capable of providing the electrical energy and cooling capacity. This test stand will possibly be used, in a later stage, for the component test of the ITER ECW system. This paper will first present the main parameters of this new coaxial gyrotron. Then we describe the test stand itself, including the general requirements for testing and evaluating the behaviour of the RF source and then a description of the electrical system design. Compared to the ITER reference design, the test stand emphasises the requirement of flexibility, which is necessary during the development of the gyrotron. The additional electrical equipment is included in the overview of the electrical system. The cooling system will be an important part of the design study. Indeed, the design efficiency of such a depressed collector gyrotron is ∼50%, implying >4 MW of continuous heat dissipation and evacuation by the cooling equipment. The specifications of the cooling system must also comply with ITER reference design values

  2. Development of high power gyrotron with energy recovery system

    A gyrotron with an energy recovery system was developed and its stable operation was performed. The efficiency was improved from 30% to 50% at 610kW, 50msec, and the long pulse, high efficiency operation, 350kW, 5sec, 48% was demonstrated. These results should bring a large cost reduction of ECH system. (orig.)

  3. Electron beam emission and interaction of double-beam gyrotron

    Highlights: ► The complete electrical design of electron gun and interaction structure of double-beam gyrotron. ► EGUN code is used for the simulation of electron gun of double-beam gyrotron. ► MAGIC code is used for the simulation of interaction structure of double-beam gyrotron. ► Design validations with other codes. - Abstract: This paper presents the numerical simulation of a double-beam magnetron injection gun (DB-MIG) and beam-wave interaction for 60 GHz, 500 kW gyrotron. The beam-wave interaction calculations, power and frequency growth estimation are performed by using PIC code MAGIC. The maximum output power of 510 kW at 41.5% efficiency, beam currents of 6 A and 12 A, electron beam velocity ratios of 1.41 and 1.25 and beam voltage of 69 kV are estimated. To obtain the design parameters, the DB-MIG with maximum transverse velocity spread less than 5% is designed. The computer simulations are performed by using the commercially available code EGUN and the in-house developed code MIGANS. The simulated results of DB-MIG design obtained by using the EGUN code are also validated with another trajectory code TRAK, which are in good agreement.

  4. A high efficiency, high power 100 GHz gyrotron

    Gyrotrons, operating at 28 GHz, 35 GHz and 60 GHz are currently producing 100-200 KW, pulsed and CW, for electron cyclotron heating experiments in magnetically-confined gaseous fusion machines. Recently, considerable interest has been expressed towards the development of a 100 GHz, 1.0 MW CW gyrotron for increasing the electron temperature above that achieved with the lower frequency, lower power devices listed above. Toward this goal, Hughes Aircraft Company has developed a 100 GHz, 0.5 MW gyrotron operating at low duty at 30 msec pulse widths. This device employs a single anode magnetron injection gun operating at a cathode voltage of 90 kV at 14A cathode current. Control of the electron beam is by cathode pulsing or CW. RF control is accomplished by low-level cathode magnetic field modulation. Computations show that velocity spread, both perpendicular and parallel, is considerable lower, rotational energy is higher and voltage gradients are significantly lower than for a comparable double anode magnetron injection gun, typically employed on lower frequency gyrotrons

  5. Development of 100 GHz band high power gyrotron for fusion experimental reactor

    In JAERI, 1MW gyrotrons of 170GHz and 110GHz are under development for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and JT-60U, respectively. Both gyrotrons have a depressed collector for an efficiency improvement and a low loss synthetic diamond window that enables Gaussian beam output over 1MW. Three 110GHz gyrotrons are used on an electron cyclotron heating and current drive(ECH/ECCD) system on JT-60U, in which the output power of ∼0.8MW/3sec was generated from each gyrotron. As for 170GHz, output power of 1.2MW with electron beam of 85kV/49A was obtained on a short pulse gyrotron. The efficiency of ∼57% was attained at 1.1MW with the depressed collector. Based on these results, the 1MW 170GHz gyrotron for long pulse operation was fabricated. (author)

  6. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of beam instabilities in gyrotrons

    Extensive simulations are performed to investigate effects of electron cyclotron instabilities on the gyrotron beam quality, using two-dimensional axisymmetric particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic models, as well as realistic geometries of the gyrotron are considered. It is found that a large beam density can lead to an electrostatic-instability-induced energy spread which substantially degrades the gyrotron efficiency. (author) 11 figs., 14 refs

  7. ECH control system for new 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotrons at DIII-D

    Two new Varian 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotrons are currently being developed and are due to be tested at General Atomics next year. A new cost-effective gyrotron control system to operate multiple gyrotrons simultaneously is being developed. Different systems and combinations that were considered include CAMAC, PLC, VXIbus, and a local computer. This paper will explain the decision making processes used in choosing and implementing the new control system architecture

  8. A generic mode selection strategy for high-order mode gyrotrons operating at multiple frequencies

    Franck, Joachim; Avramidis, Konstantinos; Gantenbein, Gerd; Illy, Stefan; Jin, Jianbo; Thumm, Manfred; Jelonnek, John

    2015-01-01

    High-power, high-frequency gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive, such as proposed for the demonstration thermonuclear fusion reactor DEMO, require operating modes of very high order. As it is shown, the selection of the operating modes for such gyrotrons can be based on multi-frequency operability. A general selection strategy is derived, suitable for multi-purpose multi-frequency gyrotrons with quasi-optical mode converter and single-disc output window. Two examples, one of them relevant for future DEMO gyrotron designs, are discussed.

  9. Recent Tests on 117.5 GHz and 170 GHz Gyrotrons

    Felch K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies of 117.5 GHz and 170 GHz have recently been fabricated and tested at CPI. The 117.5 GHz gyrotron was designed to produce up to 1.8 MW for 10-second pulses, and will be used for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. The 170 GHz gyrotron is specified as a 500 kW CW system, but has been designed with the goal of generating up to 1 MW CW. Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the gyrotron in ITER ECH transmission line testing.

  10. Study of the parasitic oscillations in a gyrotron

    This work is dedicated to the study of parasitic instabilities in a gyrotron, and to the influence of such instabilities on the interaction efficiency. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave radiation source, based on the resonant interaction between a weakly relativistic electron beam immersed in a guiding magnetic field, and an electromagnetic wave. The gyrotron investigated here operates at a frequency close to 100 GHz: its main feature is that it is quasi optical. In this configuration, the electron beam interacts with a high order TEM eigenmode of a Fabry-Perot resonator, the axis of which is perpendicular to the electron beam path. During the development of this source, the highest efficiency that was achieved is approximately 30% lower than the theoretical predictions. At the same time, parasitic oscillations at frequencies close to the maximum relativistic cyclotronic frequency are detected. The power associated with these oscillations ranges from a few watts to a few kilowatts, with threshold currents of the order of 100 mA. It is suspected that the excitation of parasitic oscillations in the beam duct section before the interaction region might have a dramatic effect on the electron beam distribution function inducing, in particular, an energy spread. The cyclotron maser instability responsible for the energy exchange between particles and fields in a gyrotron, is very sensitive to energy spreads. It is thus necessary to identify the origin of the parasitic radiation. A few physical mechanisms suspected to lead to a degradation of the electron beam properties were investigated: the cyclotron maser process itself, the Bernstein electrostatic instability and the Langmuir instability. The experimental work concentrated on the study of the beam ducts between the electron gun and the resonant cavity. (author) figs., tabs., 90 refs

  11. Characterization of a gyrotron cavity at 10 GHz

    Experiments have been conducted to characterize a gyrotron cavity designed to operate in the Te 021 mode at 10 GHz. Small holes were introduced into the cavity to couple in and detect the probing power. Evaluation of the loaded Q factor is based on bandwidth measurements whereas standing-wave electric field profile is determined by using perturbation techniques. Good agreement between measured and predicted values of resonant frequencies and Q factors for several fundamental TE modes is found. (author)

  12. Modeling of mode purity in high power gyrotrons

    Cai, S.Y.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Saraph, G.P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1993-04-01

    Spurious mode generation at the same frequency of the operational mode in a high power gyrotron can significantly reduce the power handling capability and the stability of a gyrotron oscillator because these modes are usually not matched at the output window and thus have high absorption and reflection rates. To study the generation of this kind of mode, the authors developed a numerical model based on an existing multimode self-consistent time-dependent computer code. This model includes both TE and TM modes and accounts for mode transformations due to the waveguide inhomogeneity. With this new tool, they study the mode transformation in the gyrotron and the possibility of excitation of parasitic TE and TM modes in the up taper section due to the gyroklystron mechanism. Their preliminary results show moderate excitation of both TE and TM modes at the same frequency as the main operating mode at locations near their cutoff. Details of the model and further simulation results will be presented.

  13. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    Avramidis, K. A., E-mail: konstantinos.avramidis@kit.edu [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  14. Solid-state gyrotron body power supply, test results

    Santinelli, M. [Association Euratom-ENEA, ENEA CR Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy)], E-mail: santinelli@frascati.enea.it; Claesen, R.; Coletti, A. [Association Euratom-ENEA, ENEA CR Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bonicelli, T.; Mondino, P.L. [EFDA, EFDA CSU Garching, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pretelli, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Sita, L.; Taddia, G. [OCEM SpA, Via 2 Agosto 1980 no. 11, 40016 San Giorgio di Piano (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A 170 GHz, 2 MW, steady-state gyrotron is being developed in collaboration between European research associations and industries to be used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system of ITER, the gyrotron is presently in the prototype state. EFDA entrusted ENEA with the design of a new power supply for the gyrotron's body; in which, the traditional power vacuum tubes are replaced with solid-state components (IGBT); furthermore ENEA had the task of developing the new body power supply (BPS), following the initial conceptual design. The BPS is formed by 50 identical bidirectional (in current) modules, connected in series; the BPS's control system regulates the output voltage by changing the modulation index. OCEM Spa, under ENEA's supervision, has manufactured the BPS. Tests, done at the start of this year, showed the substantial agreement between the initial technical specifications and the values achieved. Particularly the ramp-up/down-emergency time (50-10 {mu}s), the accuracy ({+-}0.5%), the sine wave modulation (45-20 kV at 5 kHz) and the maximum phase shift (<10 deg.) have been tested. In the article, the new stair-way modulation (SWM) scheme will be sketched and the test results will be described in detail.

  15. User's manual for LINEAR, a computer program that calculates the linear characteristics of a gyrotron

    This program calculates the linear characteristics of a gyrotron. This program is capable of: (1) calculating the starting current or frequency detuning for each gyrotron mode, (2) generating mode spectra, (3) plotting these linear characteristics as a function of device parameters (e.g., beam voltage), and (4) doing the above for any axial rf field profile

  16. Development and application of superconducting magnet for gyrotron with 4 mm wave length

    A superconducting magnet for gyrotron with 4 mm wave legnth is developed, its main magnetic field reaches 3 T. The gyrotron combined with the magnet producesfundamental wave long pulse, its power is more than 60 kW, pulse duration 10 ∼ 20 ms, frequency 70 GHz. It is used for plasma preionization experiment on HL-1 Tokamak

  17. Gyrotron and power supply development for upgrading the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D

    Highlights: ► Vendor completed design of 1.5 MW, 117.5 GHz gyrotron for DIII-D. ► Fabrication of gyrotron by vendor underway. ► Finalizing design of solid-state high voltage modulator for cathode power supply. ► Fabrication of solid-state high voltage modulator has begun. ► Finalizing design of high voltage linear amplifier for gyrotron body power supply. -- Abstract: An upgrade of the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D to almost 15 MW is being planned which will expand it from a system with six 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotrons to one with ten gyrotrons. A depressed collector 1.2 MW 110 GHz gyrotron is being commissioned as the seventh gyrotron. A new 117.5 GHz 1.5 MW depressed collector gyrotron has been designed, and the first article will be the eighth gyrotron. Two more are planned, increasing the system to ten total gyrotrons, and the existing 1 MW gyrotrons will subsequently be replaced with 1.5 MW gyrotrons. Communications and Power Industries completed the design of the 117.5 GHz gyrotron, and are now fabricating the first article. The design was optimized for a nominal 1.5 MW at a beam voltage of 105 kV, collector potential depression of 30 kV, and beam current of 50 A, but can achieve 1.8 MW at 60 A. The design of the collector permits modulation above 100 Hz by either the body or the cathode power supply, or both, while modulation below 100 Hz must use only the cathode power supply. General Atomics is developing solid-state power supplies for this upgrade: a solid-state modulator for the cathode power supply and a linear high voltage amplifier for the body power supply. The solid-state modulator has series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors that are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse-width modulation regulator to control the output voltage. The design of the linear high voltage amplifier has series-connected transistors to control the output voltage, which was successfully demonstrated in a proof-of-principle test at 2 kV. The

  18. Gyrotron and power supply development for upgrading the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D

    Tooker, Joseph F., E-mail: tooker@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Huynh, Paul [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Felch, Kevin; Blank, Monica; Borchardt, Philipp; Cauffman, Steve [Communications and Power Industries, 811 Hanson Way, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Vendor completed design of 1.5 MW, 117.5 GHz gyrotron for DIII-D. ► Fabrication of gyrotron by vendor underway. ► Finalizing design of solid-state high voltage modulator for cathode power supply. ► Fabrication of solid-state high voltage modulator has begun. ► Finalizing design of high voltage linear amplifier for gyrotron body power supply. -- Abstract: An upgrade of the electron cyclotron heating system on DIII-D to almost 15 MW is being planned which will expand it from a system with six 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotrons to one with ten gyrotrons. A depressed collector 1.2 MW 110 GHz gyrotron is being commissioned as the seventh gyrotron. A new 117.5 GHz 1.5 MW depressed collector gyrotron has been designed, and the first article will be the eighth gyrotron. Two more are planned, increasing the system to ten total gyrotrons, and the existing 1 MW gyrotrons will subsequently be replaced with 1.5 MW gyrotrons. Communications and Power Industries completed the design of the 117.5 GHz gyrotron, and are now fabricating the first article. The design was optimized for a nominal 1.5 MW at a beam voltage of 105 kV, collector potential depression of 30 kV, and beam current of 50 A, but can achieve 1.8 MW at 60 A. The design of the collector permits modulation above 100 Hz by either the body or the cathode power supply, or both, while modulation below 100 Hz must use only the cathode power supply. General Atomics is developing solid-state power supplies for this upgrade: a solid-state modulator for the cathode power supply and a linear high voltage amplifier for the body power supply. The solid-state modulator has series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors that are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse-width modulation regulator to control the output voltage. The design of the linear high voltage amplifier has series-connected transistors to control the output voltage, which was successfully demonstrated in a proof-of-principle test at 2 kV. The

  19. Infrared monitoring of 110 GHz gyrotron windows at DIII-D

    The combination of low millimeter wave losses and excellent thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties make artificial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds a compelling choice for 1 MW 110 GHz gyrotron windows. Five gyrotrons are currently operating at the DIII-D tokamak. Three Gycom gyrotrons have boron nitride (BN) ceramic windows. Due to temperature increases of the windows up to about 930 deg. C, the pulse duration of these tubes is limited to 2 s for output power near 800 kW. Two Communications and Power Industries (CPI) gyrotrons with diamond windows are also installed and operating. The diamond disks of these windows and the construction of their water-cooling assemblies are different. This paper reviews the infrared (IR) measurements of both types of gyrotron windows, with emphasis on the two diamond designs. (authors)

  20. Perspective gyrotron with mode converter for co- and counter-rotation operating modes

    A gyrotron oscillator operating efficiently at modes of both rotations was developed and tested. The gyrotron operation can be switched between two modes: co- and counter rotating ones with respect to electron rotation in a resonance magnetic field. A synthesized mode converter provides output of both waves in the form of two different paraxial wave beams corresponding to direction of the mode rotation. Measured gyrotron power (up to 2 MW), interaction efficiency (34%), and diffraction losses in the mode converter (≈2%) agree well with the design values. The proposed gyrotron scheme alloys principal enhancement in the device parameters—possibility of electronic switching of output wave beam direction and possibility to arrange an effective scheme to provide frequency/phase locking of a gyrotron-oscillator

  1. Perspective gyrotron with mode converter for co- and counter-rotation operating modes

    Chirkov, A. V.; Denisov, G. G.; Kuftin, A. N.

    2015-06-01

    A gyrotron oscillator operating efficiently at modes of both rotations was developed and tested. The gyrotron operation can be switched between two modes: co- and counter rotating ones with respect to electron rotation in a resonance magnetic field. A synthesized mode converter provides output of both waves in the form of two different paraxial wave beams corresponding to direction of the mode rotation. Measured gyrotron power (up to 2 MW), interaction efficiency (34%), and diffraction losses in the mode converter (≈2%) agree well with the design values. The proposed gyrotron scheme alloys principal enhancement in the device parameters—possibility of electronic switching of output wave beam direction and possibility to arrange an effective scheme to provide frequency/phase locking of a gyrotron-oscillator.

  2. Performance of 170 GHz high-power gyrotron for CW operation

    A quasi-steady-state oscillation of 100 s with 0.5 MW power level was demonstrated on a 170 GHz ITER gyrotron. The temperature of major components of the gyrotron reached the steady state, which gives a prospect for a 1 MW-CW, 170 GHz ITER gyrotron. For a further pulse extension and power increase, the gyrotron and its control system have been modified; i.e. a built-in radiator has been optimized for improvement of an efficiency of gyrotron output power and reduction of stray radiation, and pre-program controls of a cathode heater power, magnetic field at the cavity and voltage between anode and cathode, have been employed for stabilization of the beam current and the output power. (author)

  3. Research on a 170 GHz, 2 MW coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation

    Hou, Shenyong, E-mail: houshenyong@sohu.com [Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing, 408001 (China); Yu, Sheng; Li, Hongfu [University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, a coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation is researched. The electron kineto-equations and the first order transmission line equations of the gyrotron are derived from Lorentz force equation and the transmission line theory, respectively. And then, a 2 MW, 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation is designed. By means of numerical calculation, the beam-wave interaction of the coaxial cavity gyrotron with inner-outer corrugation is investigated. Results show that the efficient and the outpower of the gyrotron are 42.3% and 2.38 MW, respectively.

  4. High power 303 GHz gyrotron for CTS in LHD

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kasa, J.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Kotera, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.

    2015-10-01

    A high-power pulsed gyrotron is under development for 300 GHz-band collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics in the Large Helical Device (LHD). High-density plasmas in the LHD require a probe wave with power exceeding 100 kW in the sub-terahertz region to obtain sufficient signal intensity and large scattering angles. At the same time, the frequency bandwidth should be less than several tens of megahertz to protect the CTS receiver using a notch filter against stray radiations. Moreover, duty cycles of ~ 10% are desired for the time domain analysis of the CTS spectrum. At present, a 77 GHz gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating is used as a CTS wave source in the LHD. However, the use of such a low-frequency wave suffers from refraction, cutoff and absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. Additionally, the signal detection is severely affected by background noise from electron cyclotron emission. To resolve those problems, high-power gyrotrons in the 300 GHz range have been developed. In this frequency range, avoiding mode competition is critical to realizing high-power and stable oscillation. A moderately over-moded cavity was investigated to isolate a desired mode from neighbouring modes. After successful tests with a prototype tube, the practical one was constructed with a cavity for TE22,2 operation mode, a triode electron gun forming intense laminar electron beams, and an internal mode convertor. We have experimentally confirmed single mode oscillation of the TE22,2 mode at the frequency of 303.3 GHz. The spectrum peak is sufficiently narrow. The output power of 290 kW has been obtained at the moment.

  5. High power 303 GHz gyrotron for CTS in LHD

    A high-power pulsed gyrotron is under development for 300 GHz-band collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics in the Large Helical Device (LHD). High-density plasmas in the LHD require a probe wave with power exceeding 100 kW in the sub-terahertz region to obtain sufficient signal intensity and large scattering angles. At the same time, the frequency bandwidth should be less than several tens of megahertz to protect the CTS receiver using a notch filter against stray radiations. Moreover, duty cycles of ∼ 10% are desired for the time domain analysis of the CTS spectrum. At present, a 77 GHz gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating is used as a CTS wave source in the LHD. However, the use of such a low-frequency wave suffers from refraction, cutoff and absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. Additionally, the signal detection is severely affected by background noise from electron cyclotron emission. To resolve those problems, high-power gyrotrons in the 300 GHz range have been developed. In this frequency range, avoiding mode competition is critical to realizing high-power and stable oscillation. A moderately over-moded cavity was investigated to isolate a desired mode from neighbouring modes. After successful tests with a prototype tube, the practical one was constructed with a cavity for TE22,2 operation mode, a triode electron gun forming intense laminar electron beams, and an internal mode convertor. We have experimentally confirmed single mode oscillation of the TE22,2 mode at the frequency of 303.3 GHz. The spectrum peak is sufficiently narrow. The output power of 290 kW has been obtained at the moment

  6. The Development of 460 GHz gyrotrons for 700 MHz DNP-NMR spectroscopy

    Idehara, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Khutoryan, E. M.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Ueda, K.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-07-01

    Two demountable gyrotrons with internal mode converters were developded as sub-THz radiation sources for 700 MHz DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) enhanced NMR spectroscopy. Experimental study on the DNP-NMR spectroscopy will be carried out in Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research, as a collaboration with FIR UF. Both gyrotrons operate near 460 GHz and the output CW power measured at the end of transmission system made by circular waveguides is typically 20 to 30 watts. One of them named Gyrotron FU CW GVI (we are using "Gyrotron FU CW GO-1" as an official name in Osaka University) is designed to have a special function of high speed frequency modulation δ f within 100 MHz band. This will expand excitable band width of ESR and increase the number of electron spins contributing to DNP. The other gyrotron, Gyrotron FU CW GVIA ("Gyrotron FU CW GO-II") has a function of frequency tunability Δ f in the range of wider than 1.5 GHz, which is achieved in steady state by changing magnetic field intensity. This function should be used for adjusting the output frequency at the optimal value to achieve the highest enhancement factor of DNP.

  7. Thermal Stress Analysis of 1 MW Gyrotron Collector

    At the DIII-D tokamak, up to 6 gyrotrons supply ECH power to the plasma. Each gyrotron injects 800 kW for 5 s at the tokamak during normal operation and are designed to generate 1 MW for 10 s pulse lengths. A power of ∼ 2000 kW is absorbed by the collector of each gyrotron from the electron beam. The gyrotrons are manufactured by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). The collectors are 0.6 m diameter cylinders, 60 cm in height. The collector walls are 20.7 mm thick and have 196 coolant holes of 5.3 mm diameter. Each pair of adjacent coolant holes is connected in series to provide 98 cooling paths. The collector material is oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC) and the collectors are cooled by water at a design flow rate of 300 gpm. In order to reduce the peak thermal load on the collector walls, the beam is swept over the collector wall at 4 Hz and an amplitude of about 15 cm using an external coil. Sweeping reduces the effective peak heat flux from 1400 W/cm2 to 600 W/cm2. During 2004 and 2005, some of the collectors failed due to stress cracks. In order to investigate reasons for these failures, a nonlinear elastic plastic thermal stress analysis of the collector was undertaken. The thermal stress analysis results indicated that the effective strain for OFHC material under the operating conditions limited the cycle life of the collector due to fatigue, resulting in failures. The desired service life of more than 105 thermal cycles can be obtained by 1) operational changes, such as: increasing the frequency and amplitude of sweeping to reduce the average heat flux, 2) design changes, such as: increasing the height and/or diameter of collector, enhancing the heat transfer coefficient by roughening the coolant channel walls or 3) changing the material of the collector to dispersion strengthened copper such as Glidcop. The analysis and conclusions will be presented. (author)

  8. Influence of construction concepts on training behavior of gyrotron magnets

    A series of 60 NbTi gyrotron magnets intended mainly for high frequency plasma heating complexes at Tokamak T-10 and Tokamak T-15, and prototypes and later improved versions for the same applications within ITER project, were developed and tested. A variety of constructional and technological concepts was applied. As a result of empirical experience in parallel with the application of established theoretical models to the magnet development, a remarkable improvement in winding mechanical stability was reached. The differences in magnet winding construction are related to operational as well as training and quench behaviour. (Author)

  9. Development of ITER CODAC compatible gyrotron local control system and its operation

    JAEA has developed a prototype of the gyrotron local control system required in the ITER ECH and CD system. This system is compatible with the ITER plant control design handbook. The code is based on the ITER CODAC Core System and implements functions of the state transition management and monitoring in the gyrotron operating system and the power supply control and data acquisition. We have succeeded in the demonstration test of high power operation of an ITER 170 GHz gyrotron using the present system and the ITER compatible setup and protocol. (J.P.N.)

  10. A 2 MW, 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron - experimental verification of the design of main components

    A 2 MW, CW, 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron is under development in cooperation between European Research Institutions (FZK Karlsruhe, CRPP Lausanne, HUT Helsinki) and the European tube industry (TED, Velizy, France). The design of critical components has recently been examined experimentally at FZK Karlsruhe with a short pulse (∼ few ms) coaxial cavity gyrotron. This gyrotron uses the same cavity and the same quasioptical (q.o.) RF-output system as designed for the industrial prototype and a very similar electron gun

  11. Stabilization of Gyrotron Frequency by PID Feedback Control on the Acceleration Voltage

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-12-01

    The results of frequency stabilization by proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback control of acceleration voltage in the 460-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GVI (the official name in Osaka University is Gyrotron FU CW GOI) are presented. The experiment was organized on the basis of the frequency modulation by modulation of acceleration voltage of beam electrons. The frequency stabilization during 10 h experiment was better than 10-6, which is compared with the results of the frequency deviation in free-running gyrotron operation.

  12. New results and applications for the quasioptical gyrotron

    Fliflet, A.W.; Fischer, R.P.; Manheimer, W.M. (Plasma Physics Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375-5320 (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The quasioptical gyrotron (QOG), which features an open resonator formed by a pair of spherical mirrors instead of the conventional gyrotron waveguide cavity, has been under development at the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory as a tunable high power millimeter-wave source for tokamak plasma heating, advanced radars, and power beaming. Results have recently been obtained for a quasioptical gyroklystron (QOGK) realized by the addition of an open-mirror prebunching resonator driven by an 85 GHz, 1.5 kW extended interaction oscillator. Efficiency enhancement by mode priming has been investigated, and efficiencies up to 19% have been obtained by increasing the frequency detuning of the operating mode. An overall efficiency of 30% was obtained by the addition of a simple depressed collector. Phase-locked operation was demonstrated at a power of 57 kW and efficiency of 16%. The high circulating power in the QOG resonator is currently being considered for use as an electromagnetic wiggler for compact infrared free-electron lasers. The QOG is also promising as a source for an active sensor of upper atmosphere trace impurities.

  13. Application of Fusion Gyrotrons to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

    Woskov, P.; Einstein, H.; Oglesby, K.

    2013-10-01

    The potential size of geothermal energy resources is second only to fusion energy. Advances are needed in drilling technology and heat reservoir formation to realize this potential. Millimeter-wave (MMW) gyrotrons and related technologies developed for fusion energy research could contribute to enabling EGS. Directed MMW energy can be used to advance rock penetration capabilities, borehole casing, and fracking. MMWs are ideally suited because they can penetrate through small particulate extraction plumes, can be efficiently guided long distances in borehole dimensions, and continuous megawatt sources are commercially available. Laboratory experiments with a 10 kW, 28 GHz CPI gyrotron have shown that granite rock can be fractured and melted with power intensities of about 1 kW/cm2 and minute exposure times. Observed melted rock MMW emissivity and estimated thermodynamics suggest that penetrating hot, hard crystalline rock formations may be economic with fusion research developed MMW sources. Supported by USDOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Impact Technologies, LLC.

  14. Numerical study on a 0.4 THz second harmonic gyrotron with high power

    Terahertz and sub-terahertz science and technology are promising topics today. However, it is difficult to obtain high power source of terahertz wave. In this paper, the mode competition and beam-wave interaction in a gradually tapered cavity are studied to achieve high efficiency of a 0.4THz second harmonic gyrotron in practice. In order to attain high power and stable radiation, the TE32,5 mode is selected as the operating mode of the desired gyrotron to realize single mode oscillation. The issues of studying on the high-order mode gyrotrons are solved effectively by transforming the generalized telegraphist's equations. The efficiency and output power of the gyrotron under different conditions have been calculated by the code, which is based on the transformed equations. Consequently, the results show that single mode second harmonic radiation with power of over 150 kW at frequency of 0.4 THz could be achieved

  15. Frequency Locking and Stabilization Regimes in High-Power Gyrotrons with Low-Q Resonators

    Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Rozental', R. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Using a nonstationary self-consistent model, we analyze the frequency locking and stabilization regimes arising in gyrotrons with low-Q resonators under the action of an external signal or when reflections from a remote nonresonant load are introduced. In the simulations, we used the parameters of high-power gyrotrons designed for controlled thermonuclear fusion with optimized resonator profile. This approach makes it possible to determine output characteristics of the gyrotrons operated in considered regimes taking into account the effect of the incident wave (external or reflected) on the longitudinal field structure with greater precision compared with the earlier results based on the fixed RF-field structure approximation, while qualitative results of the two approaches coincide. Analysis of the effect of reflections from a remote load has demonstrated a substantial dependence of the efficiency of the gyrotron frequency stabilization on the ratio between the characteristic time scale of the synchronism detuning fluctuations and the signal delay time.

  16. On the mode-competition of high power gyrotrons operating in rotationally symmetric modes

    The gyrotron has proven to be a powerful source in the millimeterwaves region. However fusion application calls for more power per tube. Therefore highly overmoded resonators are required, with a vary dense mode spectrum, which leads to mode-competition. The influence of external parameters - such as the electron beam, magnetic field and load - on mode competition has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. It could be shown, that even in a dense mode spectrum single-mode operation of a gyrotron is possible. Due to the optimized startup conditions high-power single-mode oscillation could be achieved in the KfK 150 GHz gyrotron experiment. In the appendices a self-consistent multi-mode theory is developed and the problems in numerically solving the differential equations of the gyrotron are investigated. (orig.)

  17. Performance, diagnostics, controls and plans for the gyrotron system on the DIII-D tokamak

    Ponce D.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The DIII-D ECH complex is being upgraded with three new depressed collector gyrotrons. The performance of the existing system has been very good. As more gyrotrons having higher power are added to the system, diagnostics of gyrotron operation, optimization of the performance and qualification of components for higher power become more important. A new FPGA-based gyrotron control system is being installed, additional capabilities for rapid real time variation of the rf injection angles by the DIII-D Plasma Control System are being tested and infrastructure enhancements are being completed. Longer term plans continue to include ECH as a major component in the DIII-D heating and current drive capabilities.

  18. Gyrotron physics from linear to chaotic regimes: experiment and numerical modeling

    Braunmüller, Falk Hans

    2016-01-01

    Gyrotrons belong to the family of high-power coherent radiation sources known as Electron Cyclotron Masers (ECMs) and are based on the physical mechanism of the ECM-instability, converting electron rotational kinetic energy into coherent electromagnetic radiation. The worldwide gyrotron R&D is mainly driven by the application in heating a magnetically confined fusion plasma, which requires coherent radiation sources with MW power-level in the sub-THz frequency range. In the last two decades,...

  19. Development of frequency step tunable 1 MW gyrotron at 131 to 146.5 GHz

    Samartsev, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Dammertz, G.; Illy, S.; Kern, S.; Leonhardt, W.; Schlaich, A.; Schmid, M.; Thumm, M., E-mail: andrey.samartsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Effective control of power absorption in tokamaks and stellarators could be achieved by the frequency tuning of ECH and CD power delivered by high-power gyrotrons. In this report some results of the development of a frequency tunable gyrotron with fused-silica Brewster window are presented. Excitation of several modes at 1 MW power level in the range of frequencies from 131 to 146.5 GHz is achieved. (author)

  20. Cold test of cylindrical open resonator for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron

    Vivek Yadav; Sudeep Sharan; Hasina Khatun; Nitin Kumar; M K Alaria; B Jha; S C Deorani; A K Sinha; P K Jain

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents experimental results for cold testing of a gyrotron open resonator. Experiments were carried out to measure resonant frequency and their particular quality factor for TE mode at the frequency 42 GHz. The perturbation technique was used to determine the axial, radial and azimuthal electric field profile for identification of TE031 mode at operating frequency 42 GHz. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical studies was found. The results verify the design and fabrication of the specific gyrotron cavity.

  1. Gyrotron development at the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais

    The conceptual design of a 35GHz gyrotron operating in the TE021 mode, intended for plasma heating experiments, is presented. The electrooptical system is synthesized from the electron beam parameters in the cavity region and the electrodynamical system includes a conventional resonator consisting of truncated cones. The starting and operating characteristics are calculated by integrating the exact equation of electron motion under the action of an RF fiel with fixed spatial distribution. For the moment, the experimental activities, in addition to providing all the infrastructure for the laboratory, are concentrated on the construction of a system of magnetic coils, able to generated a 15kG magnetic induction with a fluctuation of 0.1% over an extension of 13cm, on the manufacture of cavities by using electroforming techniques and on the development of techniques for the construction of electron guns. (author)

  2. Design of Cathode Heater Assembly for High Power Gyrotron

    Bhattacharya, Ranajoy; Khatun, Hasina; Singh, Narendra Kr.; Singh, Udaybir; Sinha, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    A 3D model of dispenser cathode with toroid shape heater assembly is simulated using simulation software, ANSYS Multi-physics. The reported design study of cathode heater assembly of 1 MW 120 GHz gyrotron helps to optimize the input heater power with respect to cathode surface temperature. The simulation study shows that the input power depends strongly on the heater dimension as well as material properties including the potting material. The optimum input power helps to achieve desired current density (10 A/cm2) and cathode surface temperature (1000 °C). Further, the thermal and structural analyses are carried out to study the temperature distribution on the cathode assembly due to the heat dissipation and mechanical strength of the assembly.

  3. Design of a Compact Sub-Terahertz Gyrotron for Spectroscopic Applications

    Sabchevski, Svilen Petrov; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we present the initial design of a novel and versatile high frequency gyrotron with parameters suitable for application to various spectroscopic studies that require coherent radiation in the subterahertz frequency range (such as NMR/DNP spectroscopy, ESR spectroscopy, spectrometer based on the X-ray detected magnetic resonance etc.). The most characteristic feature of the design is that it utilises a compact, cryogen-free 8 T superconducting magnet. As a result, the overall dimensions of the entire device are considerably reduced in comparison with the previously developed tubes belonging to the Gyrotron FU and Gyrotron FU CW series. This makes the novel gyrotron highly portable to diverse laboratory environments and easily embeddable to different measuring systems. The electron-optical system (EOS) of the tube is based on a compact low-voltage magnetron injection gun (MIG), which has been specially designed and optimized together with the resonant cavity using our problem-oriented software package GYROSIM for CAD of gyrotrons. The tube operates at the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency and generates a radiation with an output power of about 100 W and a frequency tunable up to around 424 GHz, respectively.

  4. Development of dual frequency gyrotron and high power test of EC components

    Sakamoto K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In JAEA, development of high-power long-pulse gyrotrons is underway. The output power of the gyrotron was applied for high-power long-pulse tests of the transmission line (TL and the equatorial launcher (EL mock up for ITER. The feature of design in the dual frequency gyrotron is the simultaneously satisfying the matching of both frequencies at a window and the same radiation angle at an internal mode convertor for both frequencies. The dual frequency gyrotron was developed and high power operations at 170 GHz and 137 GHz were carried out. The 170 GHz high power experiment of 40 m length ITER relevant TL was carried out and transmission efficiency and mode purity change caused by long pulse operation were measured. The mock-up model of EL was also tested using 170 GHz gyrotron. The power transmission through the quasi-optical beam line in EL was demonstrated using the full scale mock up model. Furthermore, the high power test results of the transmission components will be summarized.

  5. High power operation of Gaussian beam gyrotron with CVD diamond window for JT-60U

    A 110 GHz-Gaussian beam output gyrotron with CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond window was developed for the electron cyclotron heating and current drive on JT-60U. A stable Gaussian output beam power of 1.1 MW-0.1 s was obtained with the efficiency of 39% with depressed collector operation. Due to Gaussian beam output from the gyrotron, the coupling efficiency to HE11 mode in the mirror optical unit was 94%. Moreover, the transmission efficiency of 89% for HE11 mode was performed at the power level of 1 MW on the 40 m-transmission test line of φ31.751 mm corrugated waveguide and 8-miter bends included 1-pair of polarizer. The gyrotron and transmission line were installed into JT-60U system and 0.6 MW-0.3 s power was successfully injected into JT-60U plasmas as an initial operation

  6. Control of the Superconducting Magnets current Power Supplies of the TJ-II Gyrotrons

    The TJ-II ECRH heating system consists of two gyrotrons, which can deliver a maximum power of 300 kW at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron is going to be used in the Bernstein waves heating system. In order to get the required frequency, the gyrotrons need and homogeneous magnetic field of several tesla, which is generated by a superconducting coil field by a current source. This document describes the current source control as well as the high precision ammeters control. These ammeters measure the current in the superconducting coils. The user interface and the programming of the control system are described. The communication between devices is also explained. (author) 9 Refs

  7. A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Barnes, Alexander B; Nanni, Emilio A; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE(₅,₂,q) mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. PMID:22743211

  8. A 250 GHz gyrotron with a 3 GHz tuning bandwidth for dynamic nuclear polarization

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementing a long (23 mm) interaction cavity that can excite higher order axial modes by changing either the magnetic field of the gyrotron or the cathode potential. This interaction cavity excites the rotating TE5,2,q mode, and an internal mode converter outputs a high-quality microwave beam with >94% Gaussian content. The gyrotron was integrated into a DNP spectrometer, resulting in a measured DNP enhancement of 54 on the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin.

  9. Commissioning a Megawatt-class Gyrotron with Collector Potential Depression

    Lohr, J.; Cengher, M.; Gorelov, Y. A.; Ponce, D.; Prater, R.

    2013-10-01

    A 110 GHz depressed collector gyrotron has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. The commissioning process rapidly achieved operation at full parameters, 45 A and 94 kV total voltage, with 29 kV depression. Although short pulse, 2 ms, factory testing demonstrated 1.2 MW at 41% electrical efficiency, long pulse testing at DIII-D achieved only 33% efficiency at full power parameters, for pulse lengths up to 10 s. Maximum generated power was ~950 kW, considerably below the 1.2 MW target. During attempts to increase the power at 5 s pulse length, it was noted that the collector cooling water was boiling. This led to the discovery that 14 of the 160 cooling channels in the collector had been blocked by braze material during manufacture of the tube. The locations of blocked channels were identified using infrared imaging of the outside of the collector during rapid changes in the cooling water temperature. Despite these difficulties, the rf beam itself was of very high quality and the stray rf found calorimetrically in the Matching Optics Unit, which couples the Gaussian rf beam to the waveguide, was only 2% of the generated power, about half that of our previous best quality high power beam. Details of the power measurements and collector observations will be presented. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Status of the 2 MW, 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron for ITER

    Full text: A 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron with 2 MW output power in continuous wave (CW) operation is under development in cooperation between European research centres together with European industry. A first industrial prototype of such a gyrotron has already been fabricated and delivered to CRPP Lausanne, where a suitable test facility has been constructed. Due to a delay in fabrication the delivery of the gyrotron magnet is expected in May 2007. Thus experimental tests are expected for the second half of this year. In parallel to the industrial activities, experimental operation with a short pulse (∼ few ms) 170 GHz coaxial gyrotron ('pre-prototype') which uses the same main components as designed for the industrial tube has been continued. The mechanism of parasitic low frequency (LF) oscillations around 260 MHz has been identified. Based on this identification, small modifications of the geometry of the coaxial insert have been made. As a result the starting current for the LF oscillations has been increased by a factor of about 3 causing a strong reduction of the LF amplitude. Measurements with a prototype of a microwave load, which has been designed and fabricated for operation with the 2 MW prototype tube, have been performed. In addition to the distribution of the microwave power absorbed on the wall, the amount of power reflected back into the gyrotron has been measured and its influence on gyrotron performance has been investigated. The performance of the quasi optical (q.o.) RF output system presently installed in the industrial prototype tube is insufficient, mainly because of the low Gaussian content of the RF output beam. As a first step a new launcher with a different wall corrugation and a new adapted phase correcting mirror has been designed and fabricated. According to simulations an increase of the Gaussian content to about 87% is expected. This q.o. RF output system has been installed in the pre-prototype tube for performing hot

  11. Infrared measurements of the synthetic diamond window of a 110 GHz high power Gyrotron

    Artificially grown diamond has extremely low absorption for microwaves in the millimeter wave range, making this material an attractive candidate for output windows on high power gyrotrons. Several windows have failed in this application due to higher than expected losses. Infrared measurements of the window temperature on a high power gyrotron operating at 110 GHz have been performed. The peak central temperature and time to equilibrium during the rf pulse were consistent with the low loss properties of the material determined from low power cavity measurements

  12. Gyrotron with a sectioned cavity based on excitation of a far-from-cutoff operating mode

    A typical problem of weakly relativistic low-power gyrotrons (especially in the case of operation at high cyclotron harmonics) is the use of long cavities ensuring extremely high diffraction Q-factors for the operating near-cutoff waves. As a result, a great share of the rf power radiated by electrons is spent in Ohmic losses. In this paper, we propose to use a sectioned cavity with π-shifts of the wave phase between sections. In such a cavity, a far-from-cutoff axial mode of the operating cavity having a decreased diffraction Q-factor is excited by the electron beam in a gyrotron-like regime

  13. High-power and long-pulse gyrotron development in JAERI

    A maximum pulse duration of 1.3s was achieved with a power of 410kW at a frequency of 110GHz and a maximum power of 550kW was obtained with short-pulse operations (ca. 2ms). The oscillation mode of the gyrotron is the TE22,2 whispering gallery mode, which is transformed into a gaussian-like beam by a built-in quasi-optical mode converter. R.f. power is extracted through a sapphire double-disc window cooled by FC-75. In long-pulse operation, no damage was observed in the gyrotron. ((orig.))

  14. Broadband continuously frequency tunable gyrotron for 600 MHz DNP-NMR spectroscopy

    A broadband continuously frequency tunable gyrotron with a triode-type magnetron injection gun was developed as power source for analysis of protein structures. The TE7,3 oscillation mode was selected to avoid mode competitions in the high magnetic field side. Axial modes of the TE7,3,-10 were sequentially excited by changing the cavity magnetic field, and frequency tuning of about 4 GHz around 395 GHz was observed with output power greater than 50 W. The frequency also varied about 1 GHz as the anode-cathode voltage varied. Thus, the broadest tuning bandwidth in the 400 GHz band gyrotrons was achieved. (author)

  15. Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF

    Idehara, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at FIR UF that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power Terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a CW regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably DNP-NMR, ESR, XDMR, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, new medical technologies.

  16. Suppression and nonlinear excitation of parasitic modes in second harmonic gyrotrons operating in a very high order mode

    In recent years, there was an active development of high-power, sub-terahertz (sub-THz) gyrotrons for numerous applications. For example, a 0.67 THz gyrotron delivering more than 200 kW with about 20% efficiency was developed. This record high efficiency was achieved because the gyrotron operated in a high-order TE31,8-mode with the power of ohmic losses less than 10% of the power of outgoing radiation. That gyrotron operated at the fundamental cyclotron resonance, and a high magnetic field of about 27 T was created by a pulse solenoid. For numerous applications, it is beneficial to use gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics which can operate in available cryomagnets with fields not exceeding 15 T. However, typically, the gyrotron operation at harmonics faces severe competition from parasitic modes at the fundamental resonance. In the present paper, we consider a similar 0.67 THz gyrotron designed for operation in the same TE31,8-mode, but at the second harmonic. We focus on two nonlinear effects typical for interaction between the fundamental and second harmonic modes, viz., the mode suppression and the nonlinear excitation of the mode at the fundamental harmonic by the second harmonic oscillations. Our study includes both the analytical theory and numerical simulations performed with the self-consistent code MAGY. The simulations show that stable second harmonic operation in the TE31,8 mode is possible with only modest sacrifice of efficiency and power

  17. Low Noise Amplifiers for 140 Ghz Wide-Band Cryogenic Receivers

    Larkoski, Patricia V.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Samoska, Lorene; Lai, Richard; Sarkozy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We report S-parameter and noise measurements for three different Indium Phosphide 35-nanometer-gate-length High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designs operating in the frequency range centered on 140 gigahertz. When packaged in a Waveguide Rectangular-6.1 waveguide housing, the LNAs have an average measured noise figure of 3.0 decibels - 3.6 decibels over the 122-170 gigahertz band. One LNA was cooled to 20 degrees Kelvin and a record low noise temperature of 46 Kelvin, or 0.64 decibels noise figure, was measured at 152 gigahertz. These amplifiers can be used to develop receivers for instruments that operate in the 130-170 gigahertz atmospheric window, which is an important frequency band for ground-based astronomy and millimeter-wave imaging applications.

  18. High-power 140 GHz ECRH experiments at the W7-AS stellarator

    ECRH was combined with NBI at moderate and high densities with on- and off-axis heating. Density control was achieved for combined heating in long pulse operation despite the beam fueling in contrast to discharges with pure NBI heating. Particle confinement degradation by profile changes inferred by ECRH is discussed as a possible mechanism. The impurity confinement is strongly affected and is discussed for on- and off-axis combined heating conditions

  19. Recent results with 140 GHz ECRH at the W7-AS stellarator

    H-mode transitions, which are well known from tokamaks were observed in W7-AS. The operational window for the H-mode is discussed. The basic features of the Stellarator H-mode were reported in previous papers. Here we concentrate on the influence of gas puffing on the H-transitions and heat wave experiments. Combined heating experiments with NBI were performed, which is inherently related to high density operation. Typical high-power NBI-heated plasmas in W7-AS are non-stationary, because beam particle fuelling and recycling causes a steady density rise. Under combined heating conditions, however, the density can be controlled despite the beam fuelling and a strong impact on the impurity confinement was found. (orig.)

  20. Time-domain self-consistent theory of frequency-locking regimes in gyrotrons with low-Q resonators

    A time-domain theory of frequency-locking gyrotron oscillators with low-Q resonators has been developed. The presented theory is based on the description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation taking into account the external signal by modification of boundary conditions. We show that the developed model can be effectively used for simulations of both single- and multi-mode operation regimes in gyrotrons driven by an external signal. For the case of low-Q resonators typical for powerful gyrotrons, the external signal can influence the axial field profile inside the interaction space significantly and, correspondingly, the value of the electron orbital efficiency

  1. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnet...

  2. Performance history and upgrades for the DIII-D gyrotron complex

    The gyrotron installation on the DIII-D tokamak has been in operation at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron resonance since the mid-1990s. Prior to that a large installation of ten 60 GHz tubes was operated at the fundamental resonance. The system has been upgraded regularly and is an everyday tool for experiments on DIII-D

  3. A Fully-Sealed Carbon-Nanotube Cold-Cathode Terahertz Gyrotron.

    Yuan, Xuesong; Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Ningsheng; Yan, Yang; Wu, Jianqiang; Shen, Yan; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi

    2016-01-01

    Gigahertz to terahertz radiation sources based on cold-cathode vacuum electron technology are pursued, because its unique characteristics of instant switch-on and power saving are important to military and space applications. Gigahertz gyrotron was reported using carbon nanotube (CNT) cold-cathode. It is reported here in first time that a fully-sealed CNT cold-cathode 0.22 THz-gyrotron is realized, typically with output power of 500 mW. To achieve this, we have studied mechanisms responsible for CNTs growth on curved shape metal surface, field emission from the sidewall of a CNT, and crystallized interface junction between CNT and substrate material. We have obtained uniform growth of CNTs on and direct growth from cone-cylinder stainless-steel electrode surface, and field emission from both tips and sidewalls of CNTs. It is essential for the success of a CNT terahertz gyrotron to have such high quality, high emitting performance CNTs. Also, we have developed a magnetic injection electron gun using CNT cold-cathode to exploit the advantages of such a conventional gun design, so that a large area emitting surface is utilized to deliver large current for electron beam. The results indicate that higher output power and higher radiation frequency terahertz gyrotron may be made using CNT cold-cathode electron gun. PMID:27609247

  4. Simulation tools for computer-aided design and numerical investigations of high-power gyrotrons

    Modelling and simulation are essential tools for computer-aided design (CAD), analysis and optimization of high-power gyrotrons used as radiation sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in the thermonuclear reactor ITER. In this communication, we present the current status of our simulation tools and discuss their further development.

  5. Development program for a 200 kW, cw gyrotron. Final report

    Development of a millimeter-wave device to produce 200 kW of continuous wave power at 60 GHz is described. The device, a gyrotron oscillator, is intended for electron-cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas. The design philosophy is herein discussed and experimental results, both diagnostic and long pulse, are given

  6. Frequency-Based Investigation of Charge Neutralization Processes and Thermal Cavity Expansion in Gyrotrons

    Schlaich, Andreas; Wu, Chuanren; Pagonakis, Ioannis; Avramidis, Konstantinos; Illy, Stefan; Gantenbein, Gerd; Jelonnek, John; Thumm, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    During the first hundred milliseconds, the frequency and RF output power of long pulse operating gyrotrons undergo deterministic variation. This well-known behavior is caused by the thermal expansion of the cavity and internal electrostatic processes related to the ionization of residual gas. A macroscopic analytical investigation of the gas conditions in modern gyrotrons indicates that ionization processes are unlikely to influence the overall internal gas pressure. In combination with electrostatic potential considerations, it was found that the beam depression voltage is not fully neutralized; in the case of W7-X gyrotrons, a maximum value of about 60 % neutralization is expected, in conflict with the common assumption of full neutralization in steady state. Using experimentally measured frequency shifts and the Evridiki gyrotron interaction simulation code, a fitting process was employed to further investigate these effects. The results are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions and allow a separation of the time constants of the two processes causing the frequency tuning.

  7. To the theory of high-power gyrotrons with uptapered resonators

    In high-power gyrotrons it is desirable to combine an optimal resonator length with the optimal value of the resonator quality factor. In resonators with the constant radius of the central part, the possibilities of this combination are limited because the quality factor of the resonator sharply increases with its length. Therefore the attempts to increase the length for maximizing the efficiency leads to such increase in the quality factor which makes the optimal current too small. Resonators with slightly uptapered profiles offer more flexibility in this regard. In such resonators, one can separate optimization of the interaction length from optimization of the quality factor because the quality factor determined by diffractive losses can be reduced by increasing the angle of uptapering. In the present paper, these issues are analyzed by studying as a typical high-power 17 GHz gyrotron which is currently under development in Europe for ITER (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITER). The effect of a slight uptapering of the resonator wall on the efficiency enhancement and the purity of the radiation spectrum in the process of the gyrotron start-up and power modulation are studied. Results show that optimal modification of the shape of a slightly uptapered resonator may result in increasing the gyrotron power from 1052 to 1360 kW.

  8. Start-Up Scenario in Gyrotrons with a Nonstationary Microwave-Field Structure

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Yeddulla, M.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.; Vlasov, A. N.

    2006-03-01

    Megawatt class gyrotrons operate in very high-order modes. Therefore, control of a gyrotron oscillator’s start-up is important for excitation of the desired mode in the presence of the many undesired modes. Analysis of such scenario using the self-consistent code MAGY [M. Botton , IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26,ITPSBD0093-3813 882 (1998)10.1109/27.700860] reveals that during start-up not only mode amplitudes vary in time, but also their axial structure can be time dependent. Simulations done for a 1.5 MW gyrotron show that the excitation of a single operating TE22,6 mode can exhibit a sort of intermittency when, first, it is excited as a mode whose axial structure extends outside the interaction cavity, then it ceases and then reappears as a mode mostly localized in the cavity. This phenomenon makes it necessary to analyze start-up scenarios in such gyrotrons with the use of codes that account for the possible evolution of field profiles.

  9. Design of a second cyclotron harmonic gyrotron oscillator with photonic band-gap cavity

    A photonic band-gap cavity (PBGC) gyrotron with a frequency of about 98 GHz is designed. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are made for the PBGC operating at fundamental and second cyclotron harmonic with a TE34 waveguide mode to demonstrate the beam-wave interaction. The results show that mode competition is successfully eliminated in the PBGC using mode selectivity and choosing the appropriate operating parameters. As a result, the second harmonic PBGC gyrotron operating at TE34 mode achieves a higher output efficiency than that of the fundamental. It is also demonstrated that, in the case of the chosen parameters for TE34 waveguide mode, the use of PBG structure in the second harmonic gyrotron brings about not only a lower operating B-field but also a weaker mode competition. The results show that the high-order electromagnetic mode can be developed to interact with the high cyclotron harmonic using the selectivity of the PBGC, which gives an encouraging outlook for the development of high-harmonic gyrotrons.

  10. Performance History and Upgrades for the DIII-D Gyrotron Complex

    Lohr J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gyrotron installation on the DIII-D tokamak has been in operation at the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron resonance since the mid-1990s. Prior to that a large installation of ten 60 GHz tubes was operated at the fundamental resonance. The system has been upgraded regularly and is an everyday tool for experiments on DIII-D.

  11. To the theory of high-power gyrotrons with uptapered resonators

    Dumbrajs, O.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2010-05-01

    In high-power gyrotrons it is desirable to combine an optimal resonator length with the optimal value of the resonator quality factor. In resonators with the constant radius of the central part, the possibilities of this combination are limited because the quality factor of the resonator sharply increases with its length. Therefore the attempts to increase the length for maximizing the efficiency leads to such increase in the quality factor which makes the optimal current too small. Resonators with slightly uptapered profiles offer more flexibility in this regard. In such resonators, one can separate optimization of the interaction length from optimization of the quality factor because the quality factor determined by diffractive losses can be reduced by increasing the angle of uptapering. In the present paper, these issues are analyzed by studying as a typical high-power 17 GHz gyrotron which is currently under development in Europe for ITER (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITER). The effect of a slight uptapering of the resonator wall on the efficiency enhancement and the purity of the radiation spectrum in the process of the gyrotron start-up and power modulation are studied. Results show that optimal modification of the shape of a slightly uptapered resonator may result in increasing the gyrotron power from 1052 to 1360 kW.

  12. 5 MW CW supply system for the ITER gyrotrons Test Facility

    ECH (Electron Cyclotron Heating) for ITER will deliver into the plasma 20 MW of RF power. The procurement of the RF sources will be shared equally between the three following partners: Europe, Japan and Russia. Moreover, Europe decided to develop a RF source capable of 2 MW CW of RF power, based on the design of a coaxial gyrotron with a depressed collector. In order to be able to develop and test these RF sources, a Test Facility (TF) has been built at the CRPP premises in Lausanne (CH). The present paper will first remind the main operation conditions considered to test safely a gyrotron. The power supplies parameters allowing to fulfill these conditions will be reviewed. The core of the paper content will describe the newly installed Main High Voltage Power Supply (MHVPS), to be connected to the gyrotron cathode and capable of -60 kV/80 A-CW. The principle, the characteristics, the on-site test results will be described at the light of the requirements imposed by the gyrotron testing. Particular aspects of the installation and commissioning on-site will be highlighted in comparison with the ITER environment. The synchronized operation of the MHVPS and the BPS (Body Power Supply) on dummy load, piloted through the TF remote control, will be presented and commented. Since the TF supply structure has been built integrating the particular conditions and requirements expected for ITER, a conclusion will summarize the performances obtained at the light of these criteria.

  13. Operation of the 118 GHz very long pulse gyrotron for the ECRH experiment on Tore Supra

    An ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) system capable of delivering 2.4 MW CW is presently under development at CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) Cadarache, for the Tore Supra experiment, to provide plasma heating and current drive by Electron Cyclotron Resonance interaction. The generator is planned to consist of six gyrotrons TH 1506 B developed thanks to a collaboration between TED (Thales Electron Devices) and European laboratories; the gyrotrons are specified to provide RF waves with a frequency of 118 GHz and a unit power of 400 kW (500 kW) for a pulse length up to 600 s (5 s). At present, one prototype and one series tube are installed, which were first tested on dummy loads and then on plasma, individually and together. Even though the specification was not fulfilled, a record pulse of 300 kW during 110 s was achieved by the series gyrotron; the pulse was stopped by a strong degassing within the tube, due to the overheating of the internal mirror box. This seems to be the consequence of spurious frequencies generated in the injector. New upgraded tubes will be developed by TED and the next gyrotron is planned to be delivered during summer 2003. At the end of 2001, 800 kW generated by the two existing gyrotrons were coupled to the plasma, using various polarizations and injection angles allowed by the mobile mirrors of the antenna; the power was modulated at frequencies between 2 Hz and 25 Hz, on both tubes. As a result, about 50 ECRH pulses have successfully been coupled to the plasma, leading to a first comparison of theoretical deposition profiles with the experimental profiles observed through the ECE diagnostic. (authors)

  14. 1 MW and long pulse operation of Gaussian beam output gyrotron with CVD diamond window for fusion devices

    A 110 GHz-Gaussian beam output gyrotron with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window was developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on JT-60U. A stable Gaussian output beam power of 1.0 MW for 2 s was obtained with depressed collector operation. The temperature at the center of the diamond window was stabilized at the ΔT∼25 K. Gaussian beam output from the gyrotron remarkably improved the coupling efficiency to the HE11 mode in the transmission waveguide. 94% of the gyrotron output power was coupled to the corrugated waveguide of 31.75 mm in diameter, via a matching optics unit with two mirrors. A combination of the Gaussian output and the diamond window are indispensable for high power gyrotron operation at more than 1 MW and efficient coupling to the transmission line

  15. Relief Creation on Molybdenum Plates in Discharges Initiated by Gyrotron Radiation in Metal-Dielectric Powder Mixtures

    Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Malakhov, D. V.; Sorokin, A. A.; Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Letunov, A. A.; Petrov, A. E.; Ryabikina, I. G.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Sokolov, A. S.; Smirnov, V. A.; Kharchev, N. K.

    2016-02-01

    We show the possibility of creating a metal microcrystalline relief (micro- and nanosized) on molybdenum plates in a plasma gas-phase discharge initiated by gyrotron radiation in molybdenum-dielectric powder mixtures.

  16. Design studies of quasioptical launcher for a 170 GHz, 1.5 MW CW gyrotron for ITER project

    The first hand design of Quasi-optical launcher for 170 GHz, 1.5 MW CW gyrotron with TE36,10 is stated in present paper. The proposed launcher converts cavity mode (TE36,10) into free space TEM mode for easy transmission over transmission line. RF-output with 99.7% Gaussian fit profile is achieved with 99.9% energy conversion. Results support the bright, single Gaussian beam output from gyrotron. (author)

  17. Gyrotron: an application of the relativistic bunching of electrons to the generation of intense millimeter microwave radiation

    The cyclotron maser or gyrotron is capable of generating high power microwaves at millimeter wave frequencies for applications in fusion heating, radar astronomy and communications. Analytic and numerical simulation models are developed that describe the behavior of these devices under realistic laboratory conditions including the effects of circuit geometry, beam thermal spread, and mode competition. In Chapter 2, a generalized linear theory for the gyrotron is presented in the form of an integro-differential equation that can be solved within various circuit geometries thus describing gyro-amplifiers, gyro-oscillatory and gyroklystrons. In Chapter 3 a complete description of a finite size electromagnetic particle simulation model is presented that describes gyrotrons operating in a TE/sub mn/ waveguide mode. In Chapter 4 simulations and theoretical analysis are made of gyrotron amplifiers operating in the TE/sub 01/ mode. In Chapter 5 the linear eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies of gyrotron oscillators are examined. In Chapter 6 the experimental development of a GHz gyrotron is presented. Theoretical and numerical predictions of oscillation thresholds and efficiencies compare favorably with experimental data

  18. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    Singh, Ashutosh, E-mail: asingh.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Faculty of Physical Sciences, Institute of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow-Deva Road, Uttar Pradesh 225003 (India); Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Jain, P. K. [Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE{sub 041}–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE{sub 041}–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  19. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE041–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE041–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators

  20. The gyrotron - a key component of high-power microwave transmitters

    Radio-frequency heating of dense plasmas is a central feature of numerous experiments currently being carried out in fusion research facilities the world over. To heat the plasma to a thermonuclear state, microwave transmitters with power outputs of 1 MW at frequencies from a few GHz to more than 100 GHz are required. The only commercially available r.f. tube capable of generating continuous-wave powers of more than 100 kW at frequencies above 10 GHz is the gyrotron. Work is being carried out on the development of a quasi-optical gyroklystron (120-150 GHz/>200 kW) for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) of fusion plasmas. A prototype of a cylindrical gyromonotron for lower hybrid heating (LHH) at 8 GHz has already been built and successfully tested. The operating principles and design of the two types of gyrotron are described. (Auth.)

  1. Problem-Oriented Simulation Packages and Computational Infrastructure for Numerical Studies of Powerful Gyrotrons

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-05-01

    Powerful gyrotrons are necessary as sources of strong microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in various reactors (most notably ITER) for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Adequate physical models and efficient problem-oriented software packages are essential tools for numerical studies, analysis, optimization and computer-aided design (CAD) of such high-performance gyrotrons operating in a CW mode and delivering output power of the order of 1-2 MW. In this report we present the current status of our simulation tools (physical models, numerical codes, pre- and post-processing programs, etc.) as well as the computational infrastructure on which they are being developed, maintained and executed.

  2. Development and simulation of RF components for high power millimeter wave gyrotrons

    To test gyrotron RF components, efficient low-power generators for rotating high-order modes of high purity are necessary. Designs of generators for the TE15,3 mode at 84 GHz and for the TE31,8 mode at 168 GHz are presented and some preliminary test results are discussed. In addition, Toshiba gyrotron cavities at 168 GHz were analyzed for leakage of RF power in the beam tunnel. To decrease RF power leakage, the declination angle of the cut-off cavity cross section has to be decreased. A TE15,3 waveguide nonlinear uptaper is analyzed at 84 GHz as well as 168 GHz uptapers. Since the calculated conversion losses are slightly higher than designed value, an optimization of those uptapers may be required. (author)

  3. High-frequency gyrotrons and their application to tokamak plasma heating

    A comprehensive analysis of high frequency (100 to 200 GHz) and high power (> 100 kW) gyrotrons has been conducted. It is shown that high frequencies will be required in order for electron cyclotron radiation to propagate to the center of a compact tokamak power reactor. High power levels will be needed in order to ignite the plasma with a reasonable number of gyrotron units. In the first part of this research, a set of analytic expressions, valid for all TE cavity modes and all harmonics, is derived for the starting current and frequency detuning using the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the weakly relativistic limit. The use of an optical cavity is also investigated

  4. Development of the Multifrequency Gyrotron FU CW GV with Gaussian Beam Output

    Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Ichioka, Ryoichi; Kotera, Masaki; Saito, Teruo; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2015-08-01

    Gyrotron FU CW GV has been developed as a multifrequency gyrotron for operation over the frequency range from 162 to 265 GHz at frequencies separated by steps of approximately 10 GHz. The oscillation modes were selected; the radii of the caustic surfaces for the electromagnetic waves of the modes had similar values in the waveguide, and it was therefore expected that these modes would be converted into Gaussian beams by a mode converter. In reality, more than ten modes oscillated and the Gaussian-like beams were radiated. A double-disk window with variable spacing maintains the transmittance through the window at a high level over a wide range of frequencies. Using this window, output powers of more than 1 kW were observed for almost all the expected modes.

  5. Development of Gyrotron and JT-60U EC heating system for fusion reactor

    The progress of ECH technology, for ITER and JT-60U tokamak, are presented. In the development of gyrotron, 0.9MW/9.2sec, 0.5MW/30sec, 0.3MW/60sec, etc. have been demonstrated at 170GHz. At 110GHz, 1.3MW/1.2sec, 1.2MW/4.1sec, 1MW/5sec were obtained. It is found that the reduction of the stray radiation and the enhancement of cooling capability are keys for CW operation. Four 110GHz gyrotrons are under operation in the ECH system of JT-60U. The power up to approximately 3MW/2.7sec was injected into the plasma through the poloidally movable mirrors, and contributed to the electron heating up to 26keV(ne∼0.5x1013cm-3), and the suppression of the neo-classical tearing mode. (author)

  6. Comparison of Different Methods for Calculating Gyrotron Quasi-Optical Mode Converters

    Gashturi, A. P.; Chirkov, A. V.; Denisov, G. G.; Paveliev, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the use of combination of three methods for calculation and synthesis of high-efficiency microwave mode converters, such as radiators of gyrotrons. The analytical method yields immediate estimates of mode converter dimensions, the Scalar Integral Equation (SIE) allows one to synthesize efficiently the optimal profile of the mode converter, and the most accurate Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) is used to check all transmission characteristics of the converter including calculations of reflection and cross-polarization. The combination of these three methods is an optimal for the mode converter design. Just so the launcher was designed for a quasi-optical mode converter used in the 60 GHz gyrotron in the TE7,3 operating mode. The simulation results agree well with the measured data. The paper also presents for the first time an accurate derivation of the SIE method.

  7. Development of gyrotron and JT-60U EC heating system for fusion reactor

    The progress of ECH technology, for ITER and JT-60U tokamak, are presented. In the development of gyrotron, 0.9MW/9.2sec, 0.5MW/30sec, 0.3MW/60sec, etc. have been demonstrated at 170GHz. At 110GHz, 1.3MW/1.2sec, 1.2MW/4. 1sec. 1MW/5sec were obtained. It is found that the reduction of the stray radiation and the enhancement of cooling capability are keys for CW operation. Four 110GHz gyrotrons are under operation in the ECH system of JT-60U. The power up to approximately 3MW/2.7sec was injected into the plasma through the poloidally movable mirrors, and contributed to the electron heating up to 26keV(ne∼0.5x1013cm-3), and the suppression of the neo-classical tearing mode. (author)

  8. Time-domain theory of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers operating at grazing incidence

    Time-domain theory of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) operating at grazing incidence has been developed. The theory is based on a description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental results of the observation of subnanosecond pulse amplification in a gyro-TWT consisting of three gain sections separated by severs. The theory developed can also be used successfully for a description of amplification of monochromatic signals

  9. Time domain analysis of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with misaligned electron beam

    This article develops a time-domain theory to study the beam-wave interaction in gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) with a misaligned electron beam. The effects of beam misalignment on the TE01 mode gyro-TWA operating at the fundamental are discussed. Numerical results show that the effect of misalignment is less obvious when the input power is larger, and the influences of misalignment on the stable gain and the stable time are basically opposite

  10. Progress on the Development of High Power Long Pulse Gyrotron and Related Technologies

    Full text: In the development of a higher power dual-frequency gyrotron, a high order mode gyrotron, which permits to select the oscillation at 170 GHz or 137 GHz, has been fabricated and tested. Short pulse experiments (0.5 ms) were performed with 1.3 MW power output at more than 30% of the oscillation efficiency for both frequencies. In long pulse experiments, 760 kW/46%/60 s at 170 GHz and 540 kW/42%/20 s at 137 GHz are achieved. It is the first time long pulse experiments with the dual-frequency gyrotron/triode electron gun. Since the RF beam direction from the output window is designed to be almost the same for both frequencies, good power couplings to the transmission line, which are 96% for 170 GHz and 94% for 137 GHz, are obtained by using a pair of identical phase correcting mirrors. Pulse extension is underway aiming for > 1 MW at CW operation. A 5 kHz full power modulation experiment was performed using the 170 GHz gyrotron of TE31,8 mode oscillation. The 5 kHz full power modulation was achieved with the full beam modulation by employing a fast voltage switching between the anode and cathode of the triode type electron gun. This satisfies the requirement of ITER. For further improvement, an advanced anode power supply system is proposed to reduce the oscillation period of adjacent mode at the start-up phase of each pulse. (author)

  11. A 250 GHz Gyrotron with a 3 GHz Tuning Bandwidth for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Barnes, Alexander B.; Nanni, Emilio A.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a novel tunable 250 GHz gyrotron oscillator with >10 W output power over most of a 3 GHz band and >35 W peak power. The tuning bandwidth and power are sufficient to generate a >1 MHz nutation frequency across the entire nitroxide EPR lineshape for cross effect DNP, as well as to excite solid effect transitions utilizing other radicals, without the need for sweeping the NMR magnetic field. Substantially improved tunability is achieved by implementin...

  12. Feasibility of ion temperature measurement with a gyrotron scattering alpha particle diagnostic

    Collective Thomson scattering can be used to diagnose localized ion temperature as well as alpha particle velocity distribution and density in a D-T burning tokamak. With one diagnostic beam a simultaneous, but independent, measure of the bulk ion temperature and alpha particle parameters can be made. Use of a long pulse, millimeter-wave gyrotron offers a significant margin in signal to noise ratio capability (√Δftau > 1000) not previously possible with lasers. 9 refs., 2 figs

  13. Final Report for 'Gyrotron Design and Evaluation using New Particle-in-Cell Capability'

    ITER will depend on high power CW gyrotrons to deliver power to the plasma at ECR frequencies. However, gyrotrons can suffer from undesirable low frequency oscillations (LFO's) which are known to interfere with the gun-region diagnostics and data collection, and are also expected to produce undesirable energy and velocity spread in the beam. The origins and processes leading to these oscillations are poorly understood, and existing gyrotron R and D tools, such as static gun solvers and interaction region models, are not designed to look at time-dependant oscillatory behavior. We have applied a time-domain particle-in-cell method to investigate the LFO phenomenon. Our company is at the forefront of smooth-curved-boundary treatment of the electromagnetic fields and particle emission surfaces, and such methods are necessary to simulate the adiabatically trapped and reflected electrons thought to be driving the oscillations. This approach provides the means for understanding, in microscopic detail, the underlying physical processes driving the low-frequency oscillations. In the Phase I project, an electron gun region from an existing gyrotron, known to observe LFO's, was selected as a proof-of-principle geometry, and was modeled with the curved-geometry time-domain simulation tool, in order to establish the feasibility of simulating LFO physics with this tool on office-scale, and larger, parallel cluster computers. Generally, it was found to be feasible to model the simulation geometry, emission, and magnetic features of the electron gun. Ultimately, the tool will be used to investigate the origins and life cycle within the trapped particle population. This tool also provides the foundations and validation for potential application of the software to numerous other time-dependant beam and rf source problems in the commercial arena.

  14. Diffraction and Scattering in Launchers of Quasi-Optical Mode Converters for Gyrotrons

    Flamm, Jens Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    In this work different methods for the calculation of diffraction and scattering in launchers of quasi-optical mode converters for gyrotrons are compared, ranked and extended. The extension gives the opportunity to take a tapered average radius of the waveguide antenna into account. The comparison and the extension of the fast field calculation methods for component synthesis opens the possibility to reduce diffraction and stray radiation of reliable and powerful millimeter wave sources.

  15. Development of high power gyrotron and transmission line for ECH/ECCD system

    170 GHz, high power and long pulse gyrotron with CVD diamond output window (tanδ ≤ 1.4 x 10-4, σ = 1800 W/m/K) has successfully been developed. The operation of 0.45 MW-8.0 sec and of 0.52 MW-6.2 sec were performed. Temperature increase of the window center was 150 deg. C at the operation of 0.52 MW-6.2 sec, moreover, the increment saturated, which well agreed with the simulation result. No damage on the gyrotron window and the gyrotron itself was observed through the experiment. We have constructed the 40 m run transmission line to demonstrate the efficient transmission of high power and long pulse millimeter wave. The total transmission loss has been estimated as less than 18%, which includes the loss in mirror optical unit, assumed as 10%. The transmission efficiency, the mode purity and the polarization are mainly investigated in the high power transmission experiment. The diamond window assembly as tritium or vacuum barrier in a transmission line was fabricated for high pressure test. The disk was failed at pressure of 0.465 MPa, which is consistent with the material strength. (author)

  16. Analysis of the output mode from 60 GHz, 200 kW pulsed and CW gyrotrons

    A Varian 60 GHz, CW gyrotron has recently been operated at power levels up to 200 kW CW. The tube employs a TE011/TE021 complex interaction cavity which inhibits mode competition by the TE221 mode with the desired TE021 mode. The output mode of the cavity is nominally in the TE02 circular waveguide mode in overmoded waveguide. Since the output waveguide also serves as the gyrotron collector, mode conversion occurs in the taper sections and gaps incorporated into the collector. Measurements of the mode conversion on a 60 GHz, 200 kw, 100 ms pulse tube, have been made and compared with similar measurements on the 60 GHz. 200 kW, CW gyrotron. These measurements indicated that the CW tube had significantly more conversion of the TE02 mode into other TE/sub on/ modes than did the pulse tube. Current design work is aimed at reducing the mode conversion of the CW design to the same levels as the pulse design (less than or equal to 10% mode converison)

  17. A 0.33-THz second-harmonic frequency-tunable gyrotron

    Zheng-Di, Li; Chao-Hai, Du; Xiang-Bo, Qi; Li, Luo; Pu-Kun, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Dynamics of the axial mode transition process in a 0.33-THz second-harmonic gyrotron is investigated to reveal the physical mechanism of realizing broadband frequency tuning in an open cavity circuit. A new interaction mechanism about propagating waves, featured by wave competition and wave cooperation, is presented and provides a new insight into the beam-wave interaction. The two different features revealed in the two different operation regions of low-order axial modes (LOAMs) and high-order axial modes (HOAMs) respectively determine the characteristic of the overall performance of the device essentially. The device performance is obtained by the simulation based on the time-domain nonlinear theory and shows that using a 12-kV/150-mA electron beam and TE-3,4 mode, the second harmonic gyrotron can generate terahertz radiations with frequency-tuning ranges of about 0.85 GHz and 0.60 GHz via magnetic field and beam voltage tuning, respectively. Additionally, some non-stationary phenomena in the mode startup process are also analyzed. The investigation in this paper presents guidance for future developing high-performance frequency-tunable gyrotrons toward terahertz applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471007, 61531002, 61522101, and 11275206) and the Seeding Grant for Medicine and Information Science of Peking University, China (Grant No. 2014-MI-01).

  18. Microwave method for synthesis of micro- and nanostructures with controllable composition during gyrotron discharge

    Batanov, German M.; Borzosekov, Valentin D.; Golberg, Dmitri; Iskhakova, Ludmila D.; Kolik, Leonid V.; Konchekov, Evgeny M.; Kharchev, Nikolai K.; Letunov, Alexander A.; Malakhov, Dmitry V.; Milovich, Filipp O.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Alexander E.; Ryabikina, Irina G.; Sarksian, Karen A.; Stepakhin, Vladimir D.; Skvortsova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an approach toward the synthesis of micro- and nanostructures under nonequilibrium microwave discharges within metal-dielectric powder mixtures induced by powerful microwave gyrotron radiation. A new plasma-chemical reactor capable of sustaining a discharge regime with an afterglow phase of an order of magnitude longer than the gyrotron pulse duration was constructed for these experiments. In the nonequilibrium conditions of such a discharge, plasma-induced exothermic chemical reactions leading to the synthesis of various compounds were initiated. The synthesized structures were deposited on the reactor walls and on the impurity particles within the reactor. This method was tested under gyrotron-initiated discharges within various metal-dielectric powder mixtures of titanium-boron, molybdenum-boron, titanium-silicon-boron, molybdenum-boron nitride, molybdenum-tungsten-boron nitride, and so on. Depending on the powder mixture composition, reactor atmosphere, and other parameters, micro- and nanosized particles of boron nitride, titanium diboride, molybdenum boride, titanium boride, molybdenum, and molybdenum oxide, were synthesized, detected, and analyzed.

  19. Optimization of megawatt 77-GHz gyrotron operation for collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    To establish a method for suppressing the spurious radiation that interferes with collective Thomson scattering measurements with less degradation of the main mode output power, the frequency evolution, and the output power of the megawatt 77-GHz gyrotron were measured during operation under optimized parameters. According to a mode competition calculation, the main mode output power may be increased by setting a lower gyrotron anode voltage at a higher magnetic field strength in the gyrotron resonator. Although the output power increased from 300 kW to 530 kW without any spurious radiation when the optimized operational parameters were used, the output power was about 50% of that at a lower magnetic field strength, and thus the output pulse width was limited to 60 ms. When an approach using the optimized operational parameters and a PIN switch was applied, the output power increased to 800 kW without any harmful spurious radiation effect and the pulse width was expanded to 2 s. (author)

  20. Heater design and thermal analysis of cathode assembly for 170 GHZ, 1 MW gyrotron

    An activity of design and development of 170 GHz gyrotron is started at CEERI Pilani. 170 GHz is chosen ECRH frequency at ITER and total 24 MW of RF power generated from gyrotrons will be pumped into the ECRH system of ITER. This paper presents the design of toroid shape heater for dispenser cathode and the thermal analysis of complete cathode assembly for 3.2 MW triode type MIG for 170 GHz gyrotron. Finite element method based simulation tool ANSYS Work Banch (v.14.0) is used in the simulations. In the heater design, various electrical and geometrical parameters such as filament radius, number of turns, wire thickness, heater voltage, etc are optimized. The temperature on heater is optimized around 1600 °C considering the cathode temperature around 1100 °C. Tungsten is used as the filament material due to its excellent thermal properties. After the design of heater, thermal analysis is also performed for the complete cathode assembly. Various types of potting materials are also investigated. (author)

  1. Experimental Study Of A 1.5-mw, 110-ghz Gyrotron Oscillator

    Anderson, J P

    2005-01-01

    This thesis reports the design, construction and testing of a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator. This high power microwave tube has been proposed as the next evolutionary step for gyrotrons used to provide electron cyclotron heating required in fusion devices. A short pulse gyrotron based on the industrial tube design was built at MIT for experimental studies. The experiments are the first demonstration of such high powers at 110 GHz. Using a 96 kV, 40 A electron beam, over 1.4 MW was axially extracted in the design (TE22,6) mode in 3 μs pulses, corresponding to a microwave efficiency of 37%. The beam alpha, the ratio of transverse to axial velocity in the electron beam, was measured with a probe. At the high efficiency operating point the beam alpha was measured as 1.33. This value of alpha is less than the design value of 1.4, possibly accounting for the slightly reduced experimental efficiency. The output power and efficiency, as a function of magnetic field, beam voltage, and beam current, are in...

  2. On the dependence of the efficiency of a 240 GHz high-power gyrotron on the displacement of the electron beam and on the azimuthal index

    Dumbrajs, O. [Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP), Association EUROATOM-University of Latvia, Kengaraga iela 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Avramidis, K. A.; Franck, J.; Jelonnek, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Association EURATOM-KIT, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Two issues in the cavity design for a Megawatt-class, 240 GHz gyrotron are addressed. Those are first, the effect of a misaligned electron beam on the gyrotron efficiency and second, a possible azimuthal instability of the gyrotron. The aforementioned effects are important for any gyrotron operation, but could be more critical in the operation of Megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies above 200 GHz, which will be the anticipated requirement of DEMO. The target is to provide some basic trends to be considered during the refinement and optimization of the design. Self-consistent calculations are the base for simulations wherever possible. However, in cases for which self-consistent models were not available, fixed-field results are presented. In those cases, the conservative nature of the results should be kept in mind.

  3. On the dependence of the efficiency of a 240 GHz high-power gyrotron on the displacement of the electron beam and on the azimuthal index

    Two issues in the cavity design for a Megawatt-class, 240 GHz gyrotron are addressed. Those are first, the effect of a misaligned electron beam on the gyrotron efficiency and second, a possible azimuthal instability of the gyrotron. The aforementioned effects are important for any gyrotron operation, but could be more critical in the operation of Megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies above 200 GHz, which will be the anticipated requirement of DEMO. The target is to provide some basic trends to be considered during the refinement and optimization of the design. Self-consistent calculations are the base for simulations wherever possible. However, in cases for which self-consistent models were not available, fixed-field results are presented. In those cases, the conservative nature of the results should be kept in mind

  4. 2.2 MW Operation of the European Coaxial-Cavity Pre-Prototype Gyrotron for ITER

    Full text: A 2 MW, CW, 170 GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating and current drive in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is under development within an European Gyrotron Consortium (EGYC*). To support the development of the industrial prototype of a CW gyrotron, a short pulse tube (pre-prototype) is used at KIT (former FZK) for experimental verification of the design of critical components, such as electron gun, beam tunnel, cavity and quasi-optical (q.o.) RF-output coupler. Significant progress was achieved recently. In particular, RF output power of up to 2.2 MW with 30% output efficiency has been obtained in single-mode operation at 170 GHz. Furthermore, an excellent quality of the RF output beam with ∼ 96% fundamental Gaussian mode content has been obtained by using a new quasi-optical RF output system. The verification of these results with computer simulations will be presented. (author)

  5. Measurement of the electric field pattern of a Fabry-Perot resonator used in quasi-optical gyrotrons

    The field pattern of the resonator used in a quasi-optical gyrotron operating in the millimetre wave range is measured. Two resonators are studied: one composed of a spherical mirror and an ellipsoidal grating and the other symmetric using two mirrors with annular slots. The measurements indicate that the electric field distribution is gaussian, in spite of the complex geometry of the resonator, and thus provide an experimental basis for the assumption often used to compute the efficiency of quasi-optical gyrotrons. (author) 9 figs., 8 refs

  6. Study of a cylindrical cavity gyrotron, influence of power reflection and of the oscillation of a travelling mode

    The quality factor and oscillating mode of a gyrotron cavity are essential parameters to consider when trying to obtain a high power (>500 kW), high efficiency (∼50%) microwave source, which oscillates in a stable manner in the principal mode of the cavity. The study and development of an 8 GHz gyrotron whose resonant cavity is formed by a cylindrical waveguide of slowly varying radius, is undertaken. The study is principally concerned with the phenomena associated with the low quality factor of the TEo011 mode of the cavity. (author) figs., tabs., 102 refs

  7. Preliminary design of 1 MW, Ku-band gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    Chongqing JIAO

    2009-01-01

    The preliminary design results ofa 1-MW, Ku-band gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) are presented. Operating at the second cyclotron harmonic of the TE11 mode, the amplifier characterizes good stability even in the case of no distributed losses loaded, which could potentially allow it to be operated at high average power. Large signal simulation shows that the amplifier can generate a saturated peak power of about 1 MW with efficiency of 26.6%, gain of 31 dB, and 3-dB bandwidth of about 1 GHz when driven by a 100 kV, 40 A electron beam with 5% axial velocity spread.

  8. ECH-assisted Startup using ITER Prototype of 170 GHz Gyrotron in KSTAR

    Full text: The newly installed electron cyclotron heating and current drive (EC H&CD) system with a frequency of 170 GHz was successfully commissioned and used for the second-harmonic ECH- assisted startup in 2011 operational campaign of the KSTAR. As a RF power source, ITER pre-prototype of 170 GHz, 1 MW continuous-wave gyrotron was loaned from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The Gaussian beam output from the gyrotron passes through an edge- cooled diamond window and is coupled to an HE11 corrugated waveguide via two phase correcting mirrors in a matching optics unit (MOU). The power coupled to the HE11 corrugated waveguide is delivered to the launcher by the transmission total length of 70 meters. For the first 1 MW EC H&CD system, 1-beam based 1 MW equatorial launcher is installed in the KSTAR Bay E-m. The launcher has been designed and fabricated in collaboration with both Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). During the KSTAR 2011 campaign, 10-s pulse at 0.6 MW EC beam was reliably injected into the plasma. Also, 170 GHz second harmonic ECH-assisted start-up was successful leading to reduce the flux consumption at toroidal magnetic field of 3 T. In this experiment, the flux consumption until the plasma current flat-top was reduced from 4.13 Wb for pure Ohmic to 3.62 Wb (12% reduction) for the perpendicular injection. When the EC beam is launched with toroidal angle of 20 deg with respect to the outward radial direction at the steering mirror, more reduced magnetic flux consumption was obtained with 3.14 Wb (24% reduction) compared with pure OH plasmas. After the 2011 campaign, the gyrotron has been fully commissioned with the output power of 1 MW at the diamond window and the frequency of 170 GHz by precise alignment of the magnet to the gyrotron axis. (author)

  9. Experiment for Over 200 kW Oscillation of a 295 GHz Pulse Gyrotron

    YAMAGUCHI, YuuSuke; SAITO, Teruo; TATEMATSU, Yoshinori; IKEUCHI, Shinji; KASA, Jun; KOTERA, Masaki; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka; Kubo, Shin; SHIMOZUMA, Takashi; NISHIURA, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A high-power sub-THz gyrotron is under development as a power source of collective Thomson scatteringdiagnostic of fusion plasmas. It operates at a fundamental harmonic frequency of 295 GHz. A cavity whichrealizes stable and efficient single mode oscillation, an electron gun with an intense laminar electron beam, andan internal mode convertor are designed. A maximum oscillation power of 234kW is achieved with a Gaussianlike radiation pattern. The duration of 130kW pulse is extended up to 30 m...

  10. Experiment for over 200 kW oscillation of a 295 GHz pulse gyrotron

    A high-power sub-THz gyrotron is under development as a power source of collective Thomson scattering diagnostic of fusion plasmas. It operates at a fundamental harmonic frequency of 295 GHz. A cavity which realizes stable and efficient single mode oscillation, an electron gun with an intense laminar electron beam, and an internal mode convertor are designed. A maximum oscillation power of 234 kW is achieved with a Gaussian like radiation pattern. The duration of 130 kW pulse is extended up to 30 microseconds, which is limited by the configuration of power supply. (author)

  11. ECRH transmission system

    The M.I.T. gyrotron group operates a 140 GHz, short pulse (1μs) gyrotron with output power, at present, of up to 175 kW. Output radiation has been obtained in several modes, including TE03 at 140 GHz, TE23 at 137 GHz, TE42 at 128 GHz and TE52 at 145 GHz. Studies have been carried out of the mode purity, both in frequency and in space, of gyrotron output radiation. These studies investigate parasitic mode excitation and mode conversion of gyrotron output power. Far field patterns of gyrotron radiation have been investigated to determine mode symmetry and purity. These results are useful in estimating the efficiency of various transmission systems. Finally, a new approach to quasi-optical transmission lines and mode converters, using axisymmetric optics, is suggested

  12. Development of problem-oriented software packages for numerical studies and computer-aided design (CAD) of gyrotrons

    Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.

    2016-03-01

    Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of coherent CW (continuous wave) radiation in the frequency range situated between the long-wavelength edge of the infrared light (far-infrared region) and the microwaves, i.e., in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is usually called the THz-gap (or T-gap), since the output power of other devices (e.g., solid-state oscillators) operating in this interval is by several orders of magnitude lower. In the recent years, the unique capabilities of the sub-THz and THz gyrotrons have opened the road to many novel and future prospective applications in various physical studies and advanced high-power terahertz technologies. In this paper, we present the current status and functionality of the problem-oriented software packages (most notably GYROSIM and GYREOSS) used for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons for diverse applications. They consist of a hierarchy of codes specialized to modelling and simulation of different subsystems of the gyrotrons (EOS, resonant cavity, etc.) and are based on adequate physical models, efficient numerical methods and algorithms.

  13. A broadband gyrotron backward-wave oscillator with tapered interaction structure and magnetic field

    Li, G. D.; Chang, P. C.; Chiang, W. Y.; Lin, P. N.; Kao, S. H.; Lin, Y. N.; Huang, Y. J.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, H. Y.; Fan, C. T. [Wave Power Technology, 232 Youyi Road, Zhunan, Miaoli, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    The gyro-monotron and gyrotron backward-wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) are the two oscillator versions of gyrotrons. While serving different functions, they are also radically different in the RF field formation mechanisms. The gyro-monotron RF field profile is essentially fixed by the resonant interaction structure, while the gyro-BWO possesses an extra degree of freedom in that the axial RF field profile is self-determined by the beam-wave interaction in a waveguide structure. The present study examines ways to utilize the latter feature for bandwidth broadening with a tapered magnetic field, while also employing a tapered waveguide to enhance the interaction efficiency. We begin with a mode competition analysis, which suggests the theoretical feasibility of broadband frequency tuning in single-mode operation. It is then shown in theory that, by controlling the RF field profile with an up- or down-tapered magnetic field, the gyro-BWO is capable of efficient operation with a much improved tunable bandwidth.

  14. Safety and protection of 8T NbTi gyrotron magnet in persistent mode

    Successful series of 5T cryomagnetic systems for additional high frequency plasma heating in Tokamaks T10 and T15, produced in Czechoslovakia during the last decade with the authors participation in magnet design and testing encouraged them to continue in further development of gyrotron magnets for further generation with operational field B0 = 8T. Approximately of the size and dimensions as was the case of previous 5T series, the 8T gyrotron magnet was designed as a part of preliminary work with preparations for ITER project. To achieve high mechanical stability of the superconducting winding, numerical stress-strain analyzes of winding structure and appropriate technology of epoxy impregnation were applied. To improve winding mechanical stability, initially round φ1 mm varnish insulated conductor was flattened to ''race track'' cross section (1.25 x 0.75 mm2 for inner section, respectively, 1.31 x 0.65 mm2 for the rest of magnet). Stainless steel road (φ1mm) of the bandage was flattened in the same way too (up to 1.14 x 0.77 mm2). Danger of creating a hot spot region has been limited by radial magnet sectioning and sections shunting by low ohmic shunts. Superconducting switch was protected by couple of antiparallel silicon diodes mounted between magnet flanges in parallel to it. High threshold voltages of diodes at 4.2K allow to run up system with relatively high speed without any limitation on sign of magnet field polarity

  15. Upgrade Of The TH1506B 118 GHz Gyrotron Using Modeing Tools

    The first TH1506B prototype showing problems of overheating and spurious oscillations, a new modified gyrotron was built. During the tests, the extwo peaks, which was never predicted by simulations. Various low evel tests were performed on the mode converter with different shapes for the launcher but without real improvement. Besides measurements, the use of a new software Surf3D[l] showed that the problem mainly comes from the 3rd mirror whose curvature is too high and not well taken nto account by the calculation. This analysis software is based on ntegral equations and the complete 3D modelling alowed to determine a new profile for the 3rd mirror. An aluminium model of a new mirror was manufactured and thorough low level tests made at FZK showed that there was no double peak.The next step would consist in building a gyrotron based on this new design, to confirm the simulation and to valdate it for long pulses

  16. Combined Hyperthermia and Photodynamic Therapy Using a Sub-THz Gyrotron as a Radiation Source

    Miyoshi, Norio; Idehara, Toshitaka; Khutoryan, Eduard; Fukunaga, Yukihiro; Bibin, Andriana Bintang; Ito, Shinji; Sabchevski, Svilen Petrov

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present results of a hyperthermia treatment of malignant tumors using a gyrotron as a radiation source for heating of the cancerous tissue. They clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the irradiation by sub-THz waves, which leads to steady decrease of the volume of the tumor and finally to its disappearance. A combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy (PDT) that utilizes a novel multifunctional photosensitizer has also been explored. In the latter case, the results are even more convincing and promising. In particular, while after a hyperthermia treatment sometimes a regrowth of the tumor is being observed, in the case of combined hyperthermia and PDT such regrowth has never been noticed. Another combined therapy is based on a preheating of the tumor by gyrotron radiation to temperatures lower than the hyperthermia temperature of 43 °C and followed then by PDT. The results show that such combination significantly increases the efficiency of the treatment. We consider this phenomenon as a synergy effect since it is absent when hyperthermia and PDT are applied separately, and manifests itself only when both methods are combined.

  17. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations

  18. Characteristics of a superconducting magnet using a persistent current for a 110 GHz gyrotron

    Maebara, Sunao; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Tsuneoka, Masaki; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-03-01

    A superconducting magnet (SCM) using a persistent current for a 110 GHz gyrotron was developed to reduce liquid-helium loss, the boiled-off rate of 0.13 liter/hour was attained in a persistent current operation. It shows that the continuous operation for 50 days is capable without additional liquid-helium supply. Moreover, the 3040 liter in a year is used for a gyrotron test during five months and for the maintenance during seven months and liquid-helium savings of 65% was successfully demonstrated. The SCM is capable to excite the maximum magnetic field of 5.0 T in the persistent current mode. A mirror ratio between resonant cavity and magnetron injection gun (MIG) is 20 for operating the main coils in the persistent mode, since cavity coils and gun coils are connected in series. Auxiliary coils are equipped independently to control the mirror ratio, the mirror ratio of 13.6 - 37.0 at the 110 GHz is available. A two-stage refrigerator using helium gas was also installed and made liquid-nitrogen for cooling thermal shield of 80 K free. By developing this new type SCM, the number of routine works was drastically decreased in one time per 22-50 days, while routine works of a few times per week was needed up to now. (author).

  19. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2015-04-01

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  20. Design of the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system by using 170-GHz gyrotron in the KSTAR

    Park, Min; Kim, Sun-Ho; Kim, Sung-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu-Dong; Wang, Son-Jong [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The physics of energetic ions is one of the primary subjects to be understood toward the realization of a nuclear fusion power plant. Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) offers the possibility to diagnose the fast ions and the alpha particles in burning plasmas. Spatially- and temporally resolved one-dimensional velocity distributions of the fast ions can be obtained from the scattered radiation with fewer geometric constraints by utilizing millimeter waves from a high-power gyrotron as a probe beam. We studied the feasibility of CTS fast-ion measurements in the KSTAR by calculating the spectral density functions. Based on that, we suggest a design for the CTS system that uses the currently-operating 170-GHz gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in the KSTAR. The CTS system is presented as two subsystems: the antenna system and the heterodyne receiver system. The design procedure for an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror is described, and the CTS system requirements are discussed.

  1. Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation

    Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.

  2. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Torrezan, Antonio C; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Temkin, Richard J; Barnes, Alexander B; Griffin, Robert G

    2010-06-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE(11,2) and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE(11,2,q). The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:21243088

  3. Power-stabilization of high frequency gyrotrons using a double PID feedback control for applications to many high power THz spectroscopy

    Kuleshov, Alexei; Ueda, Keisuke; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2013-01-01

    High stabilization of the output power of high frequency gyrotrons for high power THzspectroscopy is an important issue in order to extend the applications of gyrotrons to wider subjects.For this objective, we tried a PID feedback control on a heater current of a triode magnetroninjection gun (MIG) for stabilization of an electron beam current and an additional PID control ofan anode voltage of the gun for direct stabilization of output power. This double PID controlachieves effective respons...

  4. Increase in efficiency of gyrotron by optimizing conditions of RF-field emission

    Operation efficiency of many electronics devices depends on the relation between integral flux of emitted energy and value of total energy in the volume of device. This relation is similar to the value of effective decrement which determines the relative part of the emitted useful energy per unit of time. The optimum values of this relation exist, at which greatest output power of devices and their greatest efficiency is reached. Change in the relative part of the emitted energy frequently depends on boundary conditions or concordance the output of device with the line of transmission of energy. However, for the more adequate descriptions of the instruments operation it is useful to switch over to use the value of the relative part of energy that emitted in unit of time as the guide parameter (or the value of effective decrement). Modern highly effective generators of RF field are gyrotrons which can be used for the heating of plasma in the thermonuclear fusion facilities and diagnostics of nature phenomenon. As known these devices are very sensitive to the selection of boundary conditions or conditions of concordance with the lines of transmissions of energy. In the present work it is examined the influence of changes in the boundary conditions and, accordingly, the change the relative part of the emitted energy, on the value of radiated power and efficiency of gyrotron. The optimum values of the relative part of the emitted energy are determined, at which the greatest level of radiated power and efficiency is reached. The presence of the low-density plasma changes the conditions for generation of RF-field and makes it possible to increase the maximally accessible output power of device. Therefore in the work the influence of the low-density plasma on change in the optimum parameters of the RF field generation are determined. It is shown, that in the vacuum case the greatest efficiency is reached when effective decrement is of order 0.7. The filling of gyrotron by

  5. Analysis of Mig-type electron guns for a 35GHz gyrotron

    A 35GHz gyrotron is currently under construction at the Associated Plasma Laboratory of the Institute for Space Research to be used in plasma heating and noninductive current drive experiments. A critical component of the device is the electrooptical system, which must generate a beam with low velocity spread and high transverse energy. One way to decrease the velocity spread is to use laminar beams. For laminar flow, where the trajectories do not cross, the axial component of the space-charge forces changes sign each half cycle models of magnetron injection guns that produce laminar beams are analyzed and procedures for controlling the pitch angle parameter, which defines the transverse-to-axial electron velocity ratio are investigated. (author)

  6. Studies of self-consistent field structure in a quasi-optical gyrotron

    The presence of an electron beam in a quasi-optical gyrotron cavity alters the structure of the fields from that of the empty cavity. A computer code has been written which calculates this alteration for either an electron beam or a thin dielectric tube placed in the cavity. Experiments measuring the quality factor of such a cavity performed for the case of a dielectric tube and the results agree with the predictions of the code. Simulations of the case of an electron beam indicate that self-consistent effects can be made small in that almost all the power leaves the cavity in a symmetric gaussian-like mode provided the resonator parameters are chosen carefully. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  7. 1 megawatt, 100 GHz gyrotron study. Final report, March 21-September 1, 1983

    This report provides the results of a design study on a gyrotron device employing a new type of hollow gyrobeam formation system and having a capability for delivering megawatt CW power at 100 GHz to an ECRH-heated, magnetically-confined plasma. The conceptual basis for the beam formation system is the tilt-angle gun (TAG) in which a conically-shaped electron beam is formed in a magnetically-shielded region and is then injected into the stray-field region of the main magnetic focusing system. Because fluid coolants can be accessed through the central pole of the TAG-type gun, rf interaction can be contemplated with cavity configurations not practical with the conventional MIG-type gyrobeam formation systems

  8. Free-electron masers vs. gyrotrons prospects for high-power sources at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Thumm, M K

    2002-01-01

    The possible applications of high-power millimeter (mm) and sub-mm waves from free-electron masers (FEMs) and gyro-devices span a wide range of technologies. The plasma physics community has already taken advantage of recent advances in applying high-power mm waves generated by long pulse or continuous wave (CW) gyrotron oscillators and short pulse very high-power FEMs in the areas of RF-plasma production, heating, non-inductive current drive, plasma stabilization and active plasma diagnostics for magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion research, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating (28-170 GHz), electron cyclotron current drive , collective Thomson scattering , microwave transmission and heat-wave propagation experiments. Continuously frequency tunable FEMs could widen these fields of applications. Another important application of CW gyrotrons is industrial materials processing, e.g. sintering of high-performance functional and structural nanostructured ceramics. Sub-mm wave sources are employed in...

  9. Infrared Measurements of the RF Output of 170-GHz/2-MW Coaxial Cavity Gyrotron and Its Phase Retrieval Analysis

    Jawla, S.; Hogge, J.-P.; Alberti, S.; Goodman, T.; Piosczyk, B.; Rzesnicki, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report the experimental results of the infrared measurements of output RF beam of the European 2-MW 170-GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron for ITER. The output beam profile is measured by the infrared thermographic technique using an infrared camera and a target material which is being irradiated by the RF output. The beam intensity was measured at several locations along the propagation direction. The data were processed for noise reduction and perspective correction and then used with the phase...

  10. Development of 1 MW gyrotron and progress of ECH system for the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror in Tsukuba

    High power gyrotrons with TE4,2 cavity at 28 GHz and with TE18,6 cavity and a diamond window at 77 GHz have been developed for GAMMA 10 and LHD in the joint program of NIFS and University of Tsukuba. The maximum outputs of 570 kW at 28 GHz and 1.1 MW at 77 GHz were obtained corresponding to each design. The operations of more than 750 kW for 5 sec. and 810 kW for 3.5 sec. were achieved in the developing tubes at 77 GHz, which is the first high power-long pulse result of the 77 GHz tube. The experimental simulation of the effect of the stray RF in the 28 GHz tube indicates the stray RF is the one of the major causes limiting gyrotron performance. The output of more than 1 MW with 40% oscillation efficiency is expected from the design of the next 28 GHz gyrotron for GAMMA 10. Installation of the polarizer in the transmission line enhanced the performance of the ECH system in GAMMA 10, that is the first result which clearly showed ∼100% X mode excitation is a key to design the efficient fundamental ECH system of strong field side injection in mirror devices. (author)

  11. Development of a dual frequency (110/138 GHz gyrotron for JT-60SA and its extension to an oscillation at 82 GHz

    Kobayashia Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-frequency gyrotron, which can generate 110 GHz and 138 GHz waves independently, is being developed in JAEA to enable electron cyclotron heating (ECH and current drive (ECCD in a wider range of plasma discharge conditions of JT-60SA. Conditioning operation of the gyrotron toward 1 MW for 100 s, which is the target output power and pulse length for JT-60SA, is in progress without significant problems. Oscillations of 1 MW for 10 s and 0.5 MW for 198 s were obtained, so far, at both frequencies. Cooling water temperatures in the gyrotron and matching optics unit were saturated in the 198 s oscillation, and the observed maximum water temperature is sufficiently low. In addition to the above activity on the dual-frequency gyrotron development, an oscillation (0.3 MW for 20 ms at 82 GHz was demonstrated as an additional frequency of the dual-frequency gyrotron. A possibility of the use of fundamental harmonic wave at 82 GHz in JT-60SA has been shown.

  12. Theoretical study on mode competition between fundamental and second harmonic modes in a 0.42 THz gyrotron with gradually tapered complex cavity

    Zhao, Qixiang, E-mail: zxqi1105@gmail.com; Yu, Sheng; Zhang, Tianzhong [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Xiang [Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of mode competition in the complex cavity gyrotron are studied by using multi-frequency, time-dependent theory with the cold-cavity longitudinal profile approximation. Based on the theory, a code is written to simulate the mode competition in the gradually tapered complex cavity gyrotron operating at second harmonic oscillation. The simulations tracking seven competition modes show that single mode oscillation of the desired mode TE{sub 17.4} at 150 kW level can be expected with proper choice of operating parameters. Through studying on mode competition, it is proved that the complex cavity has a good capability for suppressing the mode competition. Meanwhile, it is found that TE{sub 17.3} could be excited in the first cavity as a competition mode when the gyrotron operating at large beam current, which leads to that TE{sub 17.3} and TE{sub 17.4} with different frequencies can coexist stably in the complex cavity gyrotron with very close amplitudes. Thus, the complex cavity might be used for multi-frequency output gyrotron.

  13. Theoretical study on mode competition between fundamental and second harmonic modes in a 0.42 THz gyrotron with gradually tapered complex cavity

    In this paper, the nonlinear dynamics of mode competition in the complex cavity gyrotron are studied by using multi-frequency, time-dependent theory with the cold-cavity longitudinal profile approximation. Based on the theory, a code is written to simulate the mode competition in the gradually tapered complex cavity gyrotron operating at second harmonic oscillation. The simulations tracking seven competition modes show that single mode oscillation of the desired mode TE17.4 at 150 kW level can be expected with proper choice of operating parameters. Through studying on mode competition, it is proved that the complex cavity has a good capability for suppressing the mode competition. Meanwhile, it is found that TE17.3 could be excited in the first cavity as a competition mode when the gyrotron operating at large beam current, which leads to that TE17.3 and TE17.4 with different frequencies can coexist stably in the complex cavity gyrotron with very close amplitudes. Thus, the complex cavity might be used for multi-frequency output gyrotron

  14. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications, Task B

    One of the main issues in the development of high power gyrotrons is the present discrepancy between the theoretically predicted efficiency and that observed in the experiments. Recent 140 GHz experiments by MIT employed three cavities; two of the cavities have different interaction lengths and the third cavity is a complex two-section cavity. In all cases, the maximum experimental efficiency is well below the theoretically predicted one. A better theoretical understanding of the causes of these discrepancies is essential to the scaling of gyrotrons to higher power and higher frequency. We continued our investigation with the objective of determining whether mode competition and velocity spread in the electron beam could in some way be influencing the current result from the MIT 140 GHz gyrotrons experiments and determining to what extent these effects would influence operation of a 1 MW, 280 GHz, TE42,7 gyrotron as conceived at MIT. In our investigations, we used two models, the ''fixed axial field profile'' model and the ''self-consistent determination of the axial field profile'' model. With the ''fixed axial field profile'' model we studied the effect of thermal spread on the efficiency of gyrotrons operation, mode competition between unequally spaced modes, and we simulated the start up of the MIT 140 GHz gyrotrons. Our main conclusions from all these studies are discussed in this paper

  15. State-of-the-art of high power gyro-devices and free electron masers 1994

    At present, gyrotron oscillators are mainly used as high power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. 140 GHz gyrotrons with output power Pout=0.54 MW, pulse length τ=3.0 s and efficiency η=42% are commercially available. Total efficiencies around 50% have been achieved using single-stage depressed collectors. Diagnostic gyrotrons deliver Pout=40 kW with τ=40 μs at frequencies up to 650 GHz (η≥4%). Recently, gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in material processing and plasma chemistry. Such technological applications require gyrotrons with the following parameters: f≥24 GHz, Pout=10-50 kW, CW, η≥30%. This paper reports on achievements and problems related to the development of very high power mm-wave gyrotrons for long pulse or CW operation and describes the microwave technological pecularities of the different development steps. In addition, this work gives a short overview of the present development of gyrotrons for technological applications, relativistic gyrotrons, quasi-optical gyrotrons, cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), gyro klystrons, gyro-TWT amplifiers, gyrotwystron amplifiers, gyro-BWO's, peniotrons and free electron masers (FEMs). The most impressive FEM output parameters are: Pout=2 GW, τ=20 ns, η=13% at 140 GHz (LLNL) and Pout=15 kW, τ=20 μs, η=5% in the range from 120 to 900 GHz (UCSB). (orig.)

  16. Low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in G band

    Harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. Lowering a beam voltage is an important step toward miniaturization of a harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA. However, the additional degree of freedom that is provided by the multitude cyclotron harmonics in a low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA still easily generates various competing modes. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with various radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress competing modes. Simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 14 dB to suppress the competing modes. Furthermore, the performance of the gyro-TWA is analyzed for studying the sensitivity of the saturated output power and full width at half maximum bandwidth of the gyro-TWA to the beam voltage and the magnetic field. A stable low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 24 kW at 200.4 GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 56 dB at an interaction efficiency of 20%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 3.0 GHz

  17. G-band harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier with a mode-selective circuit

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) permit for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. A high-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with large circuit dimensions and low ohmic loss can achieve a high average power. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE01 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE02 wave to be amplified. Wall losses can suppress some competing modes because they act as an effective sink of the energy of the modes. However, such wall losses do not suppress all competing modes as the fields are contracted in the copper section in the gyro-TWA. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with the specified radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress the competing modes. The simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 10 dB to suppress the competing modes (TE21, TE51, TE22, and TE03). A G-band second harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 50 kW at 198.8 GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 55 dB at an interaction efficiency of 10%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 5 GHz

  18. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam

  19. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by "fresh" electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.

  20. Analysis and design of double-anode magnetron injection gun for 170 GHz gyrotron

    Based on adiabatic compression theory and electro-optical theory, a double-anode magnetron injection gun for 170 GHz gyrotron was designed. By theoretical analysis and calculations, using simulation software to simulate and optimize the electron gun, and got the result that the velocity ratio of electron beam was 1.31, the transverse velocity spread was 3.5% and the axial velocity spread was 7.1%, the beam current was 51 A. The effects of the cathode magnetic field, the control Jantage and the second anode Jantage on the properties of electron beam were discussed and found that electron beam were very sensitive with these factors. When cathode magnetic field increased, the velocity ratio of electron beam decreased, the axial velocity spread increased first and then decreased, the transverse velocity spread decreased first and then increased. The increase of the first anode Jantage could improve the velocity ratio and velocity spread of electron beam. The closer the anode angle and cathode angle, the smaller axial velocity spread. The transverse velocity spread became smaller while the anode angle changed toward the direction of reducing the distance between anode could cathode. When the two anode Jantage did not change, the increase of the distance between cathode and anode could minish the velocity spread of electron beam but the velocity ratio decreased at the same time. (authors)

  1. A gyrotron-powered pellet accelerator for ITER - Improvements and experiments

    Assessments of design modifications of the gyrotron-powered pellet accelerator show that issues raised by the initial design can be eliminated by appropriate design changes. These include: (1) Use of an annular guide tube which separates the mm-wave waveguide function from the pellet guide-tube function will eliminate low density gas breakdown from the mm-wave guide. (2) A calculation concludes that the mm-wave electric fields, while strong, are nonetheless well-below breakdown because of the high density of solid hydrogen. (3) The ITER thermal-engineering design should make provisions for mounting the annular guidetube on the thermal shield which will passively cool the guide tubes. Microwave heating of the thermal shield will be less than 1% of the total heat load. (4) A mobile tamper, transparent to mm-waves, can eliminate the need for moving parts in the tokamak interior. Tamper recoil energy and momentum will be used to operate the loading of pellet cartridges but only well outside the tokamak chamber. Several experiments to test these ideas are outlined. With a minimum of engineering redesign, speed of ITER pellets could increase by an order of magnitude. An improved ablation model finds this increases the ablation penetration length by a factor-of-six. (author)

  2. Numerical analysis on bandwidth and growth rate of plasma-filled gyrotron devices

    The linear theory of a plasma-loaded gyrotron amplifier is studied in the fast and mixed wave modes. The analysis is done for an infinitely hollow thin electron beam, as the electrons have the same energy and angular momentum. The plasma is assumed to be cold. In the numerical analysis, the plasma has electrons and ions, with dielectric coefficient ε. The system configuration consists of the cylindrical plasma column loaded inside the electron beam and is placed parallel to the axis of conductive cylinder. There is a strong magnetic field, B0êz along the axis of the cylinder. The dispersion relation is derived with the Vlasov-Maxwell's equations. The effects of beam location, plasma column radius, electron beam parameters and azimuthal harmonic number on the growth rate for fast and mixed wave modes are investigated. Results show that the growth rate and bandwidth of the mixed wave mode is larger than the fast wave mode. It is shown that the bandwidth of this structure is largest for small value of the axial momentum spread. (author)

  3. Low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in G band

    Yeh, Y. S.; Guo, Y. W.; Kao, B. H.; Chen, C. H.; Wang, Z. W. [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hung, C. L. [Department of Communication Engineering, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Penghu, Taiwan (China); Chang, T. H. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-15

    Harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. Lowering a beam voltage is an important step toward miniaturization of a harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA. However, the additional degree of freedom that is provided by the multitude cyclotron harmonics in a low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA still easily generates various competing modes. An improved mode-selective circuit, using circular waveguides with various radii, can provide the rejection points within the frequency range to suppress competing modes. Simulated results reveal that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 14 dB to suppress the competing modes. Furthermore, the performance of the gyro-TWA is analyzed for studying the sensitivity of the saturated output power and full width at half maximum bandwidth of the gyro-TWA to the beam voltage and the magnetic field. A stable low-voltage harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA with the mode-selective circuit is predicted to yield a peak output power of 24 kW at 200.4 GHz, corresponding to a saturated gain of 56 dB at an interaction efficiency of 20%. The full width at half maximum bandwidth is 3.0 GHz.

  4. Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band

    Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W. [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hung, C. L. [Department of Communication Engineering, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Penghu, Taiwan (China); Chang, T. H. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE{sub 11} drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE{sub 21} wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.

  5. Development of a dual frequency (110/138 GHz) gyrotron for JT-60SA and its extension to an oscillation at 82 GHz

    Kobayashia Takayuki; Moriyama Shinichi; Isayama Akihiko; Sawahata Masayuki; Terakado Masayuki; Hiranai Shinichi; Wada Kenji; Sato Yoshikatsu; Hinata Jun; Yokokura Kenji; Hoshino Katsumichi; Sakamoto Keishi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-frequency gyrotron, which can generate 110 GHz and 138 GHz waves independently, is being developed in JAEA to enable electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in a wider range of plasma discharge conditions of JT-60SA. Conditioning operation of the gyrotron toward 1 MW for 100 s, which is the target output power and pulse length for JT-60SA, is in progress without significant problems. Oscillations of 1 MW for 10 s and 0.5 MW for 198 s were obtained, so far, at both fre...

  6. Development program for a 200 kW, CW gyrotron. Quarterly report No. 16, April-June 1983

    The objective of this program is the design and development of a millimeter-wave device to produce 200 kW of continuous wave power at 60 GHz. The device, a gyrotron oscillator, will be compatible with power delivery to an electron-cyclotron heated plasma. Smooth control of rf power over a 17 dB range is required, and the device should be capable of operation into a severely time-varying load mismatch. Progress is presented in the testing, analyses and understanding of S/N 1B behavior and in preparing S/N 3 for test in the coming report period

  7. Micro-pulses generation in ECR breakdown stimulated by gyrotron radiation at 37,5 GHz

    The present work is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of the creation of short pulsed (< 100 μs) multicharged ion beams. The possibility of quasi-stationary generation of short pulsed beams under conditions of quasi-gasdynamic plasma confinement was shown in recent experiments. Later another way of such beams creation based on the Pre-glow effect was proposed. In present work it was demonstrated that in the case when duration of microwave (MW) pulse is less than formation time of Pre-glow peak, realization of a regime when ion current is negligible during MW pulse and intense multicharged ions flux appears only when MW ends could be possible. Such pulses after the end of MW were called micro-pulses. In the present work the generation of micro-pulses was observed in experiments with ECR discharge stimulated by gyrotron radiation at 37,5 GHz, 100 kW. In this case pulses with duration less than 30 μs were obtained. Probably the same effect was observed in GANIL where 14 GHz radiation was used and pulses with duration about 2 ms were registered. In present work it was shown that the intensity of such micro-pulse could be higher than intensity of Pre-glow peak at the same conditions but with longer MW pulse. The generation of micro-pulses of nitrogen and argon multicharged ions with current of a few mA and length about 30 μs after MW pulse with duration of 30-100 μs was demonstrated. The low level of impurities, high current density and rather high average charge make possible to consider such micro-pulse regime as a possibility for the creation of a short pulsed ion source. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  8. 60 GHz gyrotron development program. Final report, April 1979-June 1984

    The original objective of this program was to develop a microwave amplifier or oscillator capable of producing 200 kW CW power output at 110 GHz. The use of cyclotron resonance interaction was pursued, and the design phases of this effort are discussed. Later, however, the program's objective was changed to develop a family of oscillators capable of producing 200 kw of peak output power at 60 GHz. Gyrotron behavior studies were performed at 28 GHz to obtain generic design information as quickly as possible. The first experimental device at 60 GHz produced over 200 kw of peak power at a pulse duration of 20 μs. Heating problems and mode interference were encountered. The second experimental tube incorporated an optimized gun location but also suffered from mode interference. The third experimental tube included modifications that reduced mode interference. It demonstrated 200 kw of peak output at 100 ms pulse duration. The fourth experimental tube, which used an older rf circuit design but in a CW configuration, produced 71.5 kW CW. The fifth experimental tube incorporated a thinner double-disc output window which improved window bandwidth and reduced window loss. This tube also incorporated modifications to the drift tunnel and cavity coupling, which had proven successful in the third experimental pulse tube tests. It produced 123 kW of CW output power at 60 GHz rf load coolant boiling and tube window failure terminated the tests. A new waterload was designed and constructed, and alternative window designs were explored

  9. Injector for a high frequency wave generating tube of the central injection Gyrotron type

    This theoretical and at the same time experimental study was carried out at the 'Service Ionique Generale' in Grenoble. High frequency wave generators are already in use there, making it possible to approach the fusion conditions of light elements such as deuterium. The plasma confined by the toroidal magnetic field uses to heat itself the electromagnetic energy provided by sources from which a good performance is required. Klystron and Magnetron are devices in which the interaction between the electric and magnetic fields of a resonating cavity and the continuous energy of a beam produces a positive result. In the Klystron, the velocity modulation is axial whereas in the Magnetron it is azimuthal. Therefore packets of electrons are formed. If this modulation of the velocities occurs radially, the beam will swell and compress periodically. The name of 'Central Injection Gyrotron' has been associated recently in the literature to this type of interaction exhibiting a good performance. Placing on trajectory the electrons forming the beam is one of the difficulties of the good working of this ultra high frenquency tube. Since no device gives safisfaction at the present time, the devising of a new type of injector specially adapted to the forming of the beam is therefore justified. The originality is that it uses on the electrostatic gun side a cathode immersed in a magnetic field of which the axial component is in the opposite direction to that which maintains the formed beam injected in the cavity. The magnetic correction of the trajectories is the most practical with respect to the experiment, providing that the electrostatic gun does not disperse them individually. This leads to seeking an improvement in the geometry of the gun. However, it will be necessary to consider the problems of power limitation due to the space charge

  10. TWANG-PIC, a novel gyro-averaged one-dimensional particle-in-cell code for interpretation of gyrotron experiments

    A new gyrotron simulation code for simulating the beam-wave interaction using a monomode time-dependent self-consistent model is presented. The new code TWANG-PIC is derived from the trajectory-based code TWANG by describing the electron motion in a gyro-averaged one-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach. In comparison to common PIC-codes, it is distinguished by its computation speed, which makes its use in parameter scans and in experiment interpretation possible. A benchmark of the new code is presented as well as a comparative study between the two codes. This study shows that the inclusion of a time-dependence in the electron equations, as it is the case in the PIC-approach, is mandatory for simulating any kind of non-stationary oscillations in gyrotrons. Finally, the new code is compared with experimental results and some implications of the violated model assumptions in the TWANG code are disclosed for a gyrotron experiment in which non-stationary regimes have been observed and for a critical case that is of interest in high power gyrotron development

  11. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a 30-GHz Gyrotron Resonator With an Explicit High-Order Discontinuous-Galerkin-Based Parallel Particle-In-Cell Method

    Stock, Andreas; Neudorfer, Jonathan; Riedlinger, Marc; Pirrung, Georg; Gassner, Gregor; Schneider, Rudolf; Roller, Sabine; Munz, Claus-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Fast design codes for the simulation of the particle–field interaction in the interior of gyrotron resonators are available. They procure their rapidity by making strong physical simplifications and approximations, which are not known to be valid for many variations of the geometry and the operat...

  12. State-of-the-art of high power gyro-devices and free electron masers

    At present, gyrotron oscillators are mainly used as high power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. 140 GHz gyrotrons with output power Pout = 0.58 MW, pulse length τ = 2.0 s and efficiency η = 34% are commercially available. Diagnostic gyrotrons deliver Pout = 40 kW with τ = 40 μs at frequencies up to 650 GHz (η ≥ 4%). Recently, gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in material processing and plasma chemistry. Such technological applications require gyrotrons with the following parameters: f ≥ 28 GHz, Pout = 10-30 kW, CW, η ≥ 30%. This paper reports on achievements and problems related to the development of very high power mm-wave gyrotrons for long pulse or CW operation and describes the microwave technological pecularities of the different development steps. In addition, this work gives a short overview of the present development of gyrotrons for technological applications, quasi-optical gyrotrons, cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), gyro-klystrons, gyro-TWT amplifiers, gyro-BWO's and free electron masers (FEMs). The most impressive FEM output parameters are: Pout = 2 GW, τ = 20 ns, η = 13% at 140 GHz (LLNL) and Pout = 15 kW, τ = 20 μs, η = 5% in the range from 120 to 900 GHz (UCSB). (orig.)

  13. Design of a Second Harmonic Double-Beam Continuous Wave Gyrotron with Operating Frequency of 0.79 THz

    Manuilov, V. N.; Glyavin, M. Yu; Sedov, A. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu; Idehara, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the most essential steps of a design study of a novel second harmonic gyrotron operating in CW (continuous wave) regime at a frequency of 0.79 THz and an output power of 1-100 W. It is based on a novel idea for suppression of the parasitic modes using a double-beam electron-optical system (EOS). It includes a triode magnetron injection gun (MIG), which forms two high-quality helical electron beams (HEB). Different schemes, namely one with two generating beams and another with one generating and one absorbing beam, have been investigated and compared. It has been shown that the scheme with two generating beams is more advantageous since it allows an effective suppression of the parasitic modes and a stable single-mode operation at the second harmonic resonance. A MIG which is appropriate for the realization of the latter scheme has been optimized using numerical codes for computer-aided design (CAD). It forms beams with practically equal pitch factors and moderate velocity spread. The construction of the gun is not sensitive to small misalignments and shifts of the electrodes and the magnetic field. Among the most promising characteristics of the presented design are an improved mode selection and a stable single-mode generation at currents that are two to three times higher than the currents in the single-beam (i.e., conventional) gyrotrons.

  14. Development Program for a 200-kW, c-w gyrotron. Quarterly report No. 14, October-December 1982

    The objective of this program is the design and development of a millimeter-wave device to produce 200 kW of continuous-wave power at 60 GHz. The device, a gyrotron oscillator, will be compatible with power delivery to an electron-cyclotron plasma. Smooth control of RF power output over a 17 dB range is required, and the device should be capable of operation into a severe time-varying load mismatch. Continued testing of S/N 1 A was limited by boiling in the water load. An efficiency of 48.9 percent was achieved at 3.3 amps cathode current. Extensive experimentation with eclectic water-load configurations was performed and significant progress was made toward a permanent load configuration. Testing was completed on S/N 2. This gyrotron had a limited operating range due to a nonconcentric cathode. After regunning, initial tests on S/N 2A produced 150 kW RF on the diagnostic modulator. Further investigation of a beam instability problem, which occurs under certain magnetic-field conditions, was performed on S/N 2A. Corrective action has been taken on S/N 3 to suppress this oscillation

  15. Optimizing the coupling of output of a quasi-optical gyrotron owing to a diffraction grating with ellipsoidal support

    The output scheme of a quasi-optical gyrotron has been optimized in order to produce a gaussian output microwave beam suitable for transmission over long distances. The technique which has been applied consists of substituting one of the mirrors of the Fabry-Perot resonator in which the particle-wave interaction takes place by a diffraction grating placed in the -1 order Littrow mount and designed such that only orders -1 and 0 can propagate. In such a configuration, the diffraction angle of the order -1 coincides exactly with the incidence direction, thus providing a feedback in the cavity, whereas the order 0 constitutes the output of the resonator. A theoretical study of the power content in each diffracted order of a planar grating of infinite extent with equally spaced linear grooves as a function of the grating parameters has been performed. It has been shown that parameter domains can be found, which provide appropriate efficiencies in both orders for an application on a quasi-optical gyrotron. The Littrow condition was then adapted in order to match the spherical wavefronts of a gaussian beam incident on a possibly non-planar surface. The grooves become thus curvilinear and are no longer equally spaced. Measurements made on a cold test stand have confirmed the validity of the Littrow condition extension and allowed to determine its limits. It has also been shown that this type of cavity provides a mode having an optimal gaussian content and giving a minimal cavity transmission. The angular dispersion of the grating leads to a higher cavity transmission and to a slightly lower gaussian content for the adjacent resonator modes. The fundamental eigenmode electric field profile has been measured inside the cavity and is similar to that of an equivalent resonator made with two spherical mirrors. (author) figs., tabs., 141 refs

  16. High-power pulsed gyrotron for 300 GHz-band collective Thomson scattering diagnostics in the Large Helical Device

    A high-power pulse gyrotron was developed to generate a probe wave for 300 GHz-band collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics in the Large Helical Device. In this frequency range, avoiding mode competition is critical to realizing high-power and stable oscillation with a narrow frequency bandwidth. A moderately over-moded cavity was investigated to ensure sufficient isolation of a desired mode from neighbouring modes, and to achieve high power output simultaneously. A cavity with the TE14,2 operation mode, a triode electron gun with an intense laminar electron beam, and an internal mode convertor were designed to construct a prototype tube. It was experimentally observed that oscillation of the TE14,2 mode was strong enough for mode competition, and provided high power with sufficient stability. The oscillation characteristics associated with the electron beam properties were compared with the numerical characteristics to find an optimum operating condition. As a result, single-mode operation with maximum output power of 246 kW was demonstrated at 294 GHz with 65 kV/14 A electron beam, yielding efficiency of ∼27%. The radiation pattern was confirmed to be highly Gaussian. The duration of the 130 kW pulse, which is presently limited by the power supply, was extended up to 30 µs. The experimental results validate our design concept and indicate the potential for realizing a gyrotron with higher power and longer pulse toward practical use in 300 GHz CTS diagnostics. (paper)

  17. Development of a water load for a Ka-band 10 kW continuous-wave gyrotron in an ECR ion source system

    Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Park, Jin Yong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Hong, In-Seok

    2015-02-01

    A gyrotron is used as a microwave power source in an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source system. In order to test the gyrotron, which operates at a frequency of 28 GHz in the continuous-wave (CW) mode, the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) developed a water load that absorbed up to 10 kW of power. The water load consists of an aluminum jacket, a quartz window, and a waveguide. A distilled water flow of 13 L/min, sealed with the quartz window, is used as the absorbent. At 28 GHz, the S 11 parameter and the voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of the water load design were calculated to be less than -30 dB and 1.05, respectively. In practical experiments, the increase in the water's temperature was approximately 10 °C at the highest power.

  18. Generation of electron beams in cyclotron motion and its interaction with electromagnetic fields in weakly irregular cavities: a study applied to conceptual elaboration of a 35 GHz gyrotron

    It is presented an investigation of different phenomena that occur in the gyrotron: 1) generation and transport of helical electron beams, 2) interaction of electrons in cyclotron motion with a transverse electric mode in resonant cavities operating near cutoff and 3) electron deposition over the collector active region. An exact ballistic model, which points out the nonlinear attributes of the relativistic equation of electron cyclotron motion and that includes a complex formulation for the longitudinal electric field distribution in weakly irregular waveguides, is used. Physically realizable RF field profiles are studied with the objective of maximizing gyrotron efficiency. For this purpose, an investigation is made of the resonant properties of truncated cones cavities and a new resonator type, with a profile described in terms of a continuous function, is developed. High perpendicular efficiencies (ηperpendicularMAX=0.86) have been calculated for interaction at the fundamental 1cyclotron harmonic and for uniform external magnetic field. A maximum efficiency scaling parameter S has been introduced, by which scaling relations ηperpendicularMAX= ηperpendicularMAX (S) are applicable to a variety of field profiles. The conceptual design of a 35 GHz gyrotron gives emphasis to selection criteria of operating parameters in compliance with technical constraints and with the requirement of soft self-excited oscillations. The proposed gyrotron operates in the azimuthally symetrical mode TE021 and is able to produce, with an electronic efficiency of 40%, an output power of 100 kW, in pulses of 20 ms, with a duty factor of 0.04%. (author)

  19. A point-like source of extreme ultraviolet radiation based on a discharge in a non-uniform gas flow, sustained by powerful gyrotron radiation of terahertz frequency band

    The possibility and prospects of extreme ultraviolet (UV) point-like source development are discussed in the present paper. The UV source is based on the discharge sustained by powerful gyrotron radiation of terahertz (THz) frequency band in non-uniform gas flow injected into vacuum volume through a nozzle with diameter less than 1 mm. Recent developments of THz-band gyrotrons with appropriate power level made such discharges possible. First experimental results on a point-like plasma creation by 100 kW radiation of 0.67 THz gyrotron are presented. The possibility of discharge localization within the area less than 1 mm is demonstrated. The discharge emission within the wavelength range from 112 nm to 650 nm was studied. The measured power of light emission in the range of 112–180 nm was measured to be up to 10 kW.

  20. Control of the Superconducting Magnets current Power Supplies of the TJ-II Gyrotrons; Control de las Fuentes de Corriente de las Bobinas Superconductoras de los Girotrones del TJ-II

    Ros, A.; Fernandez, A.; Tolkachev, A.; Catalan, G.

    2006-07-01

    The TJ-II ECRH heating system consists of two gyrotrons, which can deliver a maximum power of 300 kW at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron is going to be used in the Bernstein waves heating system. In order to get the required frequency, the gyrotrons need and homogeneous magnetic field of several tesla, which is generated by a superconducting coil field by a current source. This document describes the current source control as well as the high precision ammeters control. These ammeters measure the current in the superconducting coils. The user interface and the programming of the control system are described. The communication between devices is also explained. (author) 9 Refs.

  1. Status, Operation, and Extension of the ECRH System at ASDEX Upgrade

    Wagner, D.; Stober, J.; Leuterer, F.; Monaco, F.; Müller, S.; Münich, M.; Rapson, C. J.; Reich, M.; Schubert, M.; Schütz, H.; Treutterer, W.; Zohm, H.; Thumm, M.; Scherer, T.; Meier, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Lechte, C.; Plaum, B.; Goodman, T.; Litvak, A. G.; Denisov, G. G.; Chirkov, A.; Zapevalov, V.; Malygin, V.; Popov, L. G.; Nichiporenko, V. O.; Myasnikov, V. E.; Tai, E. M.; Solyanova, E. A.; Malygin, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The upgraded electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) has been routinely used with eight gyrotrons during the last experimental campaign. A further upgrade will replace the existing system of four short-pulse (140 GHz, 2 s, 500 kW) gyrotrons. The final goal is to have around 6.5-7 MW at 140 GHz (or 5.5 MW at 105 GHz) from eight units available in the plasma during the whole AUG discharge (10 s). The system operates at 140 and 105 GHz with X2, O2 and X3 schemes. For B > 3 T also an ITER-like O1-scenario can be run using the 105 GHz option. Four of the eight launching antennas are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition.

  2. Stabilization of the potential multi-steady-state absolute instabilities in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    The problem of spurious oscillations induced by absolute instabilities is the most challenging one that hinders the development of the millimeter-wave gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWTs). A spurious oscillation exists as a high order axial mode (HOAM) in the interaction circuit. This paper is devoted to demonstrating the complicated steady states of these HOAMs and exploring corresponding techniques to stabilize these potential multi-steady-state absolute instabilities. The stability-oriented design principle is conveyed in a start-to-end design flow of a Ka-band TE11 mode gyro-TWT. Strong magnetic tapering near the downstream port, which is capable of cutting short the effective interaction circuit of a spurious oscillation and simultaneously boosting the amplification performance, is for the first time proposed to further improve the system stability. It is also found that an ideal prebunched electron beam in the linear stage is the necessary condition to efficient amplification in the nonlinear stage, suggesting that it is feasible to design a stable prebunching stage to replace the distributed-loss-loaded linear stage. The stability-oriented design principle provides more explicit reference for future design of a zero-drive stable gyro-TWT.

  3. High power rf amplifiers for accelerator applications: The large orbit gyrotron and the high current, space charge enhanced relativistic klystron

    Stringfield, R.M.; Fazio, M.V.; Rickel, D.G.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Peratt, A.L.; Kinross-Wright, J.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Faehl, R.; Carlsten, B.; Destler, W.W.; Warner, L.B.

    1990-01-01

    Los Alamos is investigating a number of high power microwave sources for their potential to power advanced accelerators. Included in this investigation are the large orbit gyrotron amplifier and oscillator (LOG) and the relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). LOG amplifier development is newly underway. Electron beam power levels of 3 GW, 70 ns duration, are planned, with anticipated conversion efficiencies into RF on the order of 20 percent. Ongoing investigations on this device include experimental improvement of the electron beam optics, and computational studies of resonator design and RF extraction. Recent RKA studies have operated at electron beam powers into the device of 1.35 GW in microsecond duration pulses. The device has yielded modulated electron beam power approaching 300 MW using 3--5 kW of RF input drive. RF powers extracted into waveguide have been up to 70 MW, suggesting that more power is available from the device that we have converted to-date in the extractor. We have examined several aspects of operation, including beam bunching phenomena and RF power extraction techniques. In addition, investigations of the amplifier gain as a function of input drive, electron beam parameters and axial magnetic field strength also have been explored. The effect of ions formed during device operation also has been considered.

  4. State-of-the-art of high power gyro-devices and free electron masers. Update 2005

    Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), stability control and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The maximum pulse length of commercially available 140 GHz, megawatt-class gyrotrons employing synthetic diamond output windows is 30 minutes (CPI and European FZK-CRPP-CEA-TED collaboration). The world record parameters of the European 140 GHz gyrotron are: 0.92 MW output power at 30 min. pulse duration, 97.5% Gaussian mode purity and 43% efficiency, employing a single-stage depressed collector for energy recovery. This results in an energy content of 1.66 GJ. A maximum output power of 1.2 MW in 4.1 s pulses was generated with the JAERI-TOSHIBA 110 GHz gyrotron. The Russian and the Japan 170 GHz ITER gyrotrons achieved 0.5 MW with pulse durations of 80 s and 500 s, respectively. Diagnostic gyrotrons deliver Pout=40 kW with τ=40 μs at frequencies up to 650 GHz (η=4%). Gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in materials processing. Such technological applications require gyrotrons with the following parameters: f≥24 GHz, Pout=4-50 kW, CW, η≥30%. This paper gives an update of the experimental achievements related to the development of high power gyrotron oscillators for long pulse or CW operation and pulsed gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics. In addition, this work gives a short overview of the present development status of coaxial-cavity gyrotrons, gyrotrons for technological applications, relativistic gyrotrons, quasi-optical gyrotrons, fast- and slow-wave cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), gyroklystrons, gyro-TWT amplifiers, gyrotwystron amplifiers, gyro-BWO's, gyropeniotrons, magnicons, gyroharmonic converters, free electron masers (FEMs) and of vacuum windows for such high-power mm-wave sources. The highest CW powers produced by

  5. 200 kW gyrotron power supply and protection system for the electron cyclotron resonant heating experiment on Thor, CNR, Milano

    A high voltage (100 kV) regulated power supply and protection system for gyrotron has been completely developed and tested at the ENEA Laboratory of Frascati by the electrical, electronics and mechanical staff of the Technology Division. The system uses a high voltage, high power tetrode as a series voltage regulator and as a fast switching unit either to control the pulse duration (1 / 10 ms) or in the protection system, completed by a shunt crowbar as back-up protection. The crowbar is fired only if the tetrode does not clear the fault in the fixed time or when the tetrode has an arcing. In the first case the total intervention time is less than 20 μs. The main design lines of the system and the results of the tests performed on it are described. (author)

  6. Design of megawatt gyrotrons

    The design parameters of a 120 GHz gyromonotron capable of output powers in excess of 1 MW are determined. A nonlinear model of the interaction between the beam and rf field is used in which the efficiency is a function of only three normalized variables. By expressing the technological constraints in terms of these variables, permissible design parameters yielding high efficiency operation can be calculated. Constraints that are considered include ohmic heating of the walls, voltage depression of the beam, reduced coupling between the beam and rf field due to beam thickness, and efficiency degradation due to space charge forces within the beam. An analysis of the tradeoffs between current and voltage at the 1 MW level indicates that lower order modes can be utilized at lower voltages, but the constraints based on current limitations are difficult to satisfy. An 80 kV, 29 A design is presented that achieves a total efficiency of 44%. The primary uncertainty of these designs is the severity of competition due to parasitic modes. However, a number of isolated asymmetric modes appear capable of single mode emission at 1 MW based on present experimental results. Multimegawatt operation is also considered. It is shown that powers exceeding 20 MW are possible if single mode operation can be achieved in very high order modes. The methodology presented in this paper is general and can be easily adapted to other frequencies and output powers

  7. Design of the magnetron injection gun for 170 GHz gyrotron%170 GHz回旋管电子枪的设计

    曾旭; 王峨锋; 刘本田; 李志良; 冯进军

    2013-01-01

      170 GHz回旋管是等离子体核聚变中电子回旋谐振加热的理想功率源,在功率上要求具有1 MW以上的输出功率。要产生这么大的输出功率,就需要具有足够大横向能量的电子注与高频场的横向电场进行互作用,因此要对电子枪进行专门的设计。利用绝热压缩理论及相关的仿真软件对双阳极磁控注入电子枪进行了设计,得到了较好的电子注参数。所设计的电子枪能在工作电压80 kV、工作电流40 A 的条件下为170 GHz 基波回旋管提供所需的回旋电子注,其引导中心半径为8.27 mm,横纵速度比1.5。%A 170 GHz gryotron is an ideal power source for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) in the plasma fusion. The required output power from a single gyrotron tube at 170 GHz operating frequency for ECRH application is 1 MW or more. For generating the high output power,a Magnetron Injection Gun(MIG) which can provide the electron beam with large enough transverse energy for interacting with the transverse filed of the electromagnetic wave is designed. Ideal parameters of the double-anode MIG are obtained according to the adiabatic compression theory and the correlative simulation software. The designed MIG can provide the necessary beams for the 170 GHz fundamental harmonic gyrotron under 80 kV of voltage and 40 A of current with the guidance center radius of 8.27 mm and the pitch factor of 1.5.

  8. Backscattering of gyrotron radiation and short-wavelength turbulence during electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the L-2M stellarator

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D., E-mail: tinborz@gmail.com; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    Backscattering of gyrotron radiation ({theta} = {pi}) by short-wavelength density fluctuations (k{sub Up-Tack} = 30 cm{sup -1}) in the plasma of the L-2M stellarator was studied under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma heating at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (75 GHz). The scattering of the O-wave emerging due to the splitting of the linearly polarized gyrotron radiation into the X- and O-waves was analyzed. The signal obtained after homodyne detection of scattered radiation is a result of interference of the reference signal, the quasi-steady component, and the fast oscillating component. The coefficients of reflection of the quasi-steady component, R{sub =}{sup 2}(Y), and fast oscillating component, R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y), of scattered radiation are estimated. The growth of the R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y) coefficient from 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} with increasing ECR heating power from 190 to 430 kW is found to correlate with the decrease in the energy lifetime from 1.9 to 1.46 ms. The relative density of short-wavelength fluctuations is estimated to be Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub {approx}}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket / Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub e}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. It is shown that the frequencies of short-wavelength fluctuations are in the range 10-150 kHz. The recorded short-wavelength fluctuations can be interpreted as structural turbulence, the energy of which comprises {approx}10% of the total fluctuations energy. Simulations of transport processes show that neoclassical heat fluxes are much smaller than anomalous ones. It is suggested that short-wavelength turbulence plays a decisive role in the anomalous heat transport.

  9. Further Characterization of 394-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GII with Additional PID Control System for 600-MHz DNP-SSNMR Spectroscopy

    Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2016-09-01

    A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.

  10. Further Characterization of 394-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GII with Additional PID Control System for 600-MHz DNP-SSNMR Spectroscopy

    Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka

    2016-04-01

    A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.

  11. 94 GHz TE02模回旋管Vlasov模式变换器的设计与模拟%Design and Simulation of Vlasov Mode Converter for 94 GHz TE02 Mode Gyrotron

    王斌; 杜朝海; 刘濮鲲; 耿志辉; 徐寿喜

    2011-01-01

    该文研究并设计了一个由Vlasov阶梯型开口辐射器、椭圆面反射器和抛物面反射器组成的TE02模回旋管准光模式变换器.首先采用几何光学研究了阶梯型开口辐射器、椭圆面反射器和抛物面反射器的具体形状,再利用矢量绕射理论分析了其工作过程,最后结合 94 GHz TE02模回旋管的具体参数,编写仿真程序详细讨论了工作模式在此模式变换器中的变换过程.模拟结果表明,94 GHz回旋管中的TE02模在输出窗处被转换为能量集中的准高斯波束,转换效率为78.35%.%The quasi-optical mode converter for the TE02 mode gyrotron, consisting of a Vlasov stepped-cut launcher,an elliptical reflector and a parabolic reflector, was designed, fabricated and studied. Firstly, the stepped-cut launcher, the elliptical reflector and the parabolic reflector were analytically evaluated with geometric optics. Next, the operation process of the converter was analyzed with vector diffra fion theory. And finally,operation of the mode conversion was simulated,based on the physical model of Vlasov mede converter for 94 GHz TE02 mode gyrotron. The simulated results show that the TE02 mode inside the 94 GHz gyrotron was converted into a higly Gaussian-like beam at the output window, and that the conversion efficiency was 78.35%.

  12. Two-gigawatt burst-mode operation of the intense microwave prototype (IMP) free-electron laser (FEL) for the microwave tokamak experiment (MTX)

    The MTX explored the plasma heating effects of 140 GHz microwaves from both Gyrotrons and from the IMP FEL wiggler. The Gyrotron was long pulse length (0.5 seconds maximum) and the FEL produced short-pulse length, high-peak power, single and burst modes of 140 GHZ microwaves. Full-power operations of the IMP FEL wiggler were commenced in April of 1992 and continued into October of 1992. The Experimental Test Accelerator H (ETA-II) provided a 50-nanosecond, 6-MeV, 2--3 kAmp electron beam that was introduced co-linear into the IMP FEL with a 140 GHz Gyrotron master oscillator (MO). The FEL was able to amplify the MO signal from approximately 7 kW to peaks consistently in the range of 1--2 GW. This microwave pulse was transmitted into the MTX and allowed the exploration of the linear and non-linear effects of short pulse, intense power in the MTX plasma. Single pulses were used to explore and gain operating experience in the parameter space of the IMP FEL, and finally evaluate transmission and absorption in the MTX. Single-pulse operations were repeatable. After the MTX was shut down burst-mode operations were successful at 2 kHz. This paper will describe the IMP FEL, Microwave Transmission System to MTX, the diagnostics used for calorimetric measurements, and the operations of the entire Microwave system. A discussion of correlated and uncorrelated errors that affect FEL performance will be made Linear and non-linear absorption data of the microwaves in the MTX plasma will be presented

  13. A MAGICTRAC [Microwave Antenna for Whispering-Gallery-Mode Conversion using a Twist Reflector Antenna Converter] design for the MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] transport system

    A design of a MAGICTRAC (Microwave Antenna for Whispering-Gallery-Mode Conversion using a Twist Reflector Antenna Converter) device is presented for use on the MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment) transport system. The MAGICTRAC device, consisting of a mode converting waveguide taper and three metal reflectors, transforms the TE15,2 circular waveguide mode output of a VARIAN Associates 140 GHz gyrotron into a free-space Gaussian-like beam with >95% efficiency. Dimensions of the MAGICTRAC are chosen to produce a beam matched to the MTX quasi-optical transport system

  14. Évaluation de technologies organiques faibles pertes et d’impression plastique 3D afin de contribuer au développement de solutions antennaires innovantes dans la bande 60 GHz – 140GHz.

    Bisognin, Aimeric

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of the capabilities of wireless communication devices (smartphone, tablets …) which require higher and higher data rate, leads to a significant increase of the data traffic needed by each end user. This strong consumer demand for higher data-rate and coverage is stressing a lot the capacity of existing cellular networks. In order to cope with this challenge, one of the most promising solution consists in a network densification based on the deployment of low-power and short-ra...

  15. Emittance of short-pulsed high-current ion beams formed from the plasma of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge sustained by high-power millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation

    Razin, S.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80-100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2-1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.

  16. Design of a feedback system to stabilise instabilities by ECRH using a combined ECW launcher and ECE receiver

    At the TEXTOR tokamak a 140 GHz, 800 kW, 10 s gyrotron is employed for studies on ECW heating and ECCD. A key program is the suppression of tearing modes, which is aided by the unique facility at TEXTOR to program magnetic structures during a discharge (DED). A scheme is under development which aims to detect the perturbations on the electron cyclotron emission caused by these instabilities via the same line of sight as is used by the ECRH beam, and to use this information for feedback control of the instability. A brief overview of TEXTOR and relevant island parameters is given as well as a description of the upgraded ECRH system. This is followed by a description of the design of the transmission line coupler and receiver for island detection which constitutes the main topic of the paper. The final section sketches the feedback controller that processes the receiver signals, and controls the moveable launcher and the gyrotron power

  17. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications: Task A -- Experimental and numerical study of microwave sources for ECRH incorporating depressed collectors and with ITER-relevant parameters, and Task B -- Theory and modeling of high frequency, high power gyrotron operation. Final report, July 15, 1994--July 14, 1995

    A proof-of-principle short pulse (∼ 100 ns) experiment has successfully demonstrated operation of a sheet-beam FEL amplifier with output power of 250 kW at 86 Ghz and with 24 dB saturated gain and ∼ 3% efficiency. Gain in the linear region was 30 dB. Measured performance parameters were in good agreement with predictions of a multi-mode, time dependence code. Also, a code has been developed to design depressed collectors which will enhance efficiency of ECRH sources (both FELs and gyrotrons). Extensive analytical and theoretical work in support of high power gyrotron development at Varian and MIT, and in support of ITER has been carried out. Specific studies are described. The effect of beam quality on the operation of the 145 GHz gyrotrons at MIT has been characterized using experimentally measured beam velocity distribution functions. The observed performance of these devices is consistent with a 10% RMS perpendicular velocity spread. An extensive study of mode competition in the 110 GHZ experiments at Varian and MIT has been carried out. Design criteria for the suppression of parasitic modes have been given for these experiments. The issues of mode competition and beam quality in the proposed 170 GHz megawatt gyrotrons for ITER have been investigated. Designs of cavities which eliminate unwanted modes have been made, and their sensitivity to beam quality studied. The constraints of lower power density and absence of mode competition coupled with the anticipated beam quality restrict efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by increasing the power density in the wall, improving beam quality, or perhaps by using a more advanced cavity. Studies of the causes of velocity spread in MIG guns have been initiated. Further, the effect of beam cavity misalignment on mode competition has been addressed

  18. State-of-the-art of high power gyro-devices and free electron masers update 2002

    Gyrotron oscillators (gyromonotrons) are mainly used as high power millimeter wave sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), stability control and diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas for generation of energy by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The maximum pulse length of commercially available 1 MW gyrotrons employing synthetic diamond output windows is 5 s at 110 GHz (CPI and JAERI-TOSHIBA), 12 s at 140 GHz (FZK-CRPP-CEA-TED) and 9 s at 170 GHz (JAERI-TOSHIBA), with efficiencies slightly above 30%. Total efficiencies of 45-50% have been obtained using single-stage depressed collectors (for energy recovery). The energy world record of 160 MJ (0.89 MW at 180 s pulse length and 140 GHz) at power levels higher than 0.8 MW has been achieved by the European FZK-CRPP-CEA-TED collaboration at FZK where the pulse length restriction to 180 s is due to the HV power supply at Ibeam ∼ 40 A. At lower beam current (Ibeam = 26 A) it was even possible to obtain 506 MJ (0.54 MW for 937 s). The longest shot lasted for 1300 s at 0.26 MW output power. These very long pulses were limited by a pressure increase in the tube. A maximum output power of 1.2 MW in 4.1 s pulses was generated with the JAERI-TOSHIBA 110 GHz gyrotron. The Russian and the Japan 170 GHz ITER gyrotrons achieved 0.5 MW at 80 s pulse duration and 0.3 MW at 60 s, respectively. Diagnostic gyrotrons deliver Pout = 40 kW with τ = 40 μs at frequencies up to 650 GHz (η ≥ 4%). Gyrotron oscillators have also been successfully used in materials processing. Such technological applications require gyrotrons with the following parameters: f ≥ 24 GHz, Pout = 10-50 kW, CW, η ≥ 30%. This paper gives an update of the experimental achievements related to the development of high power gyrotron oscillators for long pulse or CW operation and pulsed gyrotrons for plasma diagnostics. In addition, this work gives a short overview of the present development status

  19. [Time-Resolved XEOL Experiment System on BL14W1 at SSRF].

    Zhang, Zhao-hong; Jiang, Zheng; Xue, Song; Zheng, Li-fang

    2015-08-01

    A novel time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence (TRXEOL) experiment system was developed for X ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy(XAFS) beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). The TRXEOL system is composed of three parts: timing system, spectrometer system and nuclear instrument module (NIM) system. These three systems were integrated to measure and record the optical luminescence from the sample excited by the synchrotron X-ray pulses, according to the time-correlated single photon counting methodology. It's the first time in the domestic synchrotron radiation facilities to achieve TRXEOL experiment using the synchrotron X-ray pulses and the time structure of the storage ring. In this work, a SSRF-self-developed timing system was used, which is based on the Field programmable Gate Array and the high-speed serial communication technology. The timing system can provide trigger pulse synchronized with the X-ray pulse. The timing jitter is about 6 ps, and the timing delay resolution is 5 ps. The NIM system is the core of the TRXEOL experiment system, it has three main modules: the Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD), the Time to Amplitude Converter (TAC) and the Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA). During one excitation circle, the spectrometer and the Photomultiplier Tube detector translate the induced luminescence of the sample excited by a single X-ray pulse into electrical pulse. The CFD module eliminates the timing walk larger than 50 ps induced by the amplitude of the electrical pulse. The TAC module calculates the time interval between the timing trigger pulse and the luminescence electrical pulse, and converts the interval into proportional amplitude of voltage. After plenty of circles, the MCA module gets the luminescence decay curve by recording and analyzing the voltage signals. And the data acquisition system gets the TRXEOL spectra by scanning the spectrometer and acquiring the frequency of the voltage pulses from the TAC module. The TRXEOL experiment system helps researchers measure optical decay curves and spectra of the sample in different time windows. Many luminescence behaviors would be explained more deeply, together with the aid of the optical XAFS to get the electron structure of the sample. A sample of ZnO nanowire was studied using the TRXEOL system. The ordinary XEOL spectrum obtained could distinguish the 390 nm wavelength and the 500 nm wavelength luminescence center. The decay curve at 0 nm wavelength could clearly show the fast luminescence process and the slow luminescence process. The full width at half maximum of the fast luminescence decay curve was about 0.5 ns, showing that the minimum time resolution of the TRXEOL system is less than 1 ns. The TRXEOL spectra obtained could respectively get the luminescence information within different time windows. It was demo nstrated that the TRXEOL system is not only feasible and reliable, but also supply XAFS beamline with the technical preparatio ns of time resolved techniques. PMID:26672318

  20. Architecture of central control system for the 10 MW ECRH - plant at W7-X

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is the main heating method for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X). The mission of W7-X is to demonstrate the inherent steady state capability of stellarators at reactor relevant plasma parameters. A modular 10 MW ECRH plant at 140 GHz with 1 MW CW-capability power for each module is presently under construction at IPP-Greifswald as well as the W7-X, to meet the scientific objectives. The commissioning of the ECRH plant is well under way; three gyrotrons are operational at IPP in Greifswald. The strict modular design allows to operate each gyrotron separately and independent from all others. The ECRH plant consists not only of gyrotrons and high voltage power supplies, but also of many other devices such as superconductive magnets, collector sweep coils, gyrotron cooling systems with many water circuits and last but not least the quasi-optical transmission line for microwaves with remote controlled mirrors and further water cooled circuits. All these devices are essential for long pulse operation. A steady state ECRH has specific requirements on the stellarator machine itself, on the microwave sources, transmission elements and in particular on the central control system. The quasi steady state operation (up to 30 min) asks for real time microwave power adjustment during the different segments of one stellarator long pulse. Therefore the ECRH plant must operate with a maximum reliability and availability. A capable central control system is an important condition to achieve this goal. The central control system for the 10 MW ECRH - plant at W7-X comprises three main parts. In detail these are the voltage and current regulation of each gyrotron, the interlock system to prevent the gyrotrons from damages and the remote control system based on a hierarchy set of PLC's and computers. The architecture of this central control system is presented. (author)

  1. Characteristics of the light emission from CVD diamond windows

    Video and infrared signals were registered from brazed and bare CVD diamond disks forming the windows of an evacuated transmission cell placed into the beam line of a high power gyrotron facility at 140 GHz (Maquette tube). Intense light emission forming spot-like patterns, that was observed under vacuum conditions, has a broad maximum around 770 nm, which is attributed to light emitting processes of non-purely thermal nature. Carbon residues, likely of amorphous structure, which can be formed by decomposition of organic fibres, such as cellulose, are shown to be one source of this spectacular phenomenon. Here, no critical limitation is seen for the performance of high power diamond windows. (authors)

  2. Modification of the collective Thomson scattering radiometer in the search for parametric decay on TEXTOR

    Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P.; Stejner, M. [Association EURATOM - DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Risoe Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bongers, W.; Moseev, D.; Westerhof, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM - FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    Strong scattering of high-power millimeter waves at 140 GHz has been shown to take place in heating and current-drive experiments at TEXTOR when a tearing mode is present in the plasma. The scattering signal is at present supposed to be generated by the parametric decay instability. Here we describe the heterodyne detection system used to characterize the newly discovered signal measured at TEXTOR, and we present spectral shapes in which the signal can appear under different conditions. The radiation is collected by the receiver through a quasi-optical transmission line that is independent of the electron cyclotron resonance heating transmission line, and so the scattering geometry is variable. The signal is detected with 42 frequency channels ranging from 136 to 142 GHz. We demonstrate that the large signal does not originate from gyrotron spurious radiation. The measured signal agrees well with independent backscattering radiometer data.

  3. Microwave transmission systems for the plasma separation process

    The Plasma Separation Process now employs a 28 GHz cw gyrotron (VGA-8000) for electron cyclotron heating. Frequency increases to 56 GHz in FY 84 and approx. 140 GHz in FY '87 are planned. The tripple miter bend waveguide system in use with the VGA-8000 will be upgraded to provide mode control. The mode output of the tube is being measured; cippled wall converters will transform the tube output (TE01, TE02, TE03) to a single mode. Transmission will proceed through reduced diameter corrugated waveguide bends or bends will be eliminated by use of a horizontally mounted tube. Directional couplers will measure forward power in the dominant mode and multi-mode reflected power

  4. Advanced electron cyclotron heating systems for next-step fusion experiments

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the major candidates for heating and current drive on ITER (170GHz) and W7-X (140GHz). ECH is extremely attractive from physics and reactor engineering points of view, offering start-up assist, efficient and localized power deposition, simple and compact launching structures with high injected power density, and a simple interface with shielding and blanket. High unit power (1MW or greater) and high efficiency (35% or greater) single-mode continuous-wave (CW) gyrotron oscillators are under development in order to reduce significantly the systems costs by reducing the size of the auxiliary support systems. 140GHz gyrotrons with 0.55MW output power in the Gaussian free-space TEM0,0 mode with a pulse length τ up to 3.0s and efficiency η of 42% are already commercially available (Gycom). Improved internal quasi-optical mode transducers generate the TEM0,0 output mode with efficiencies of 90-95% and separate the electron beam from the r.f. beam, thus allowing the use of large CW relevant depressed collectors for energy recovery. Tube efficiencies around 50% have been already achieved at JAERI and KfK. Face cooled double-disk sapphire windows, cryogenically edge-cooled single-disk sapphire windows (liquid-nitrogen, liquid-neon or liquid-helium cooling), distributed windows (metal or ceramics) as well as diamond and silicon windows are under investigation in order to solve the window problem. Long-distance high-power millimeter wave transmission from the source to the plasma device with very low ohmic losses and high mode purity can be accomplished by (1) a closed, highly overmoded, circumferentially corrugated or dielectrically lined, tubular HE1,1-hybrid mode waveguide and (2) open quasi-optical TEM0,0 transmission through a gaussian beam waveguide using focusing reflectors as phase-correcting elements. (orig.)

  5. Overview of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment operation and developments

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we assembled and presently operate the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) to demonstrate the feasibility of using intense microwave pulses (up to 6 GW peak power) from a free electron laser (FEL) to provide electron cyclotron heating (ECH) for use in tokamaks, particularly high field machines. The MTX consists primarily of the ALCATOR C tokamak and power supplies from MIT, along with FEL; the FEL is made up of the ETA-II linear induction accelerator and the IMP steady-state wiggler. A four-barrel pellet injector was added to the tokamak to produce peaked density profiles. The tokamak operations started in November 1988, with full duration plasmas being obtained at a toroidal field of both 5 and 9 tesla. Initial results were obtained with the single pulse 140 GHz FEL at peak power levels of 200 to 400 MW late in 1989. Due to excessive transverse electron beam motion, and arcing in the accelerator cells, the accelerator was modified. These modifications have been successfully tested on a small portion of the rebuilt accelerator and have been incorporated in the remaining portion of the accelerator. A 140 GHz, 400 kW gyrotron was used to perform preliminary heating experiments during the fall of 1990. This same gyrotron system is serving as the master oscillator for the burst mode FEL. The new IMP steady state wiggler will be used to produce the high power microwaves for the burst mode. The FEL construction has been completed, and it will be used for heating experiments scheduled for this fall. This paper describes the recent experimental operations. It also briefly outlines the additions and improvements to the experiment, which are described in more detail in companion papers at this conference

  6. Research on long pulse ECRH system of EAST in support of ITER

    Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang; Xu, Handong; Wu, Dajun; Li, Bo; Wei, Wei; Tang, Yunying; Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Weiye; Hu, Huaichuan; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Yong; Xu, Li; Ma, Wendong; Feng, Jianqiang

    2015-12-01

    Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), as a fully superconducting tokamak in China, aims to achieve high performance plasma under steady-state operation. To fulfill the physical objectives of EAST, a program of 4-MW long pulse electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (EC H&CD) system, which would offer greater flexibility for plasma shape and plasma stabilization has been launched on EAST since 2011. The system, composed of 4 gyrotrons with nominal 1MW output power and 1000s pulse length each, is designed with the feature of steerable power handling capabilities at 140 GHz, using second harmonic of the extraordinary mode(X2). The missions of the ECRH system are to provide plasma heating, current drive, plasma profile tailoring and control of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. Presently, the first two 140-GHz 1-MW gyrotrons, provided by GYCOM and CPI, respectively, have been tested at long pulse operation. The tubes, the associated power supplies, cooling system, cryogenic plant, 2 transmission lines and an equatorial launcher are now installed at EAST. The power generated from each tube will be transmitted by an evacuated corrugated waveguide transmission line and injected into plasma from the low field side (radial port) through a front steering equatorial launcher. Considering the diverse applications of the EC system, the beam's launch angles can be continuously varied with the optimized scanning range of over 30° in poloidal direction and ±25° in toroidal, as well as the polarization could be adjusted during the discharge by the orientations of a pair of polarizers in the transmission line to maintain the highest absorption for different operational scenarios. The commissioning of the first 2MW ECRH plant for EAST is under way. The design, R&D activities and recent progress of the long pulse 140-GHz ECRH system are presented in this paper. As the technological requirements for EAST ECRH have many similarities with ITER

  7. RF calculation and thermal-stress analysis of the ECRH launcher on EAST tokamak

    Highlights: • The new constructing 140 GHz/1 MW/1000 s ECRH system was briefly introduced and the structure of ECRH launcher was detailedly described. • The transmission characteristics of the RF propagation inside the launcher were calculated and the Gaussian beam radius in the resonance layer of plasma was optimized. • Temperature distribution and thermal-stress of mobile mirror were analyzed. • The inner equivalent diameter of water channel in the mobile mirror and the suggested water velocity were analyzed. - Abstract: EAST is a medium sized superconducting tokamak with major radius R = 1.8 m, minor radius a = 0.45 m, plasma current Ip ≤ 1 MA, toroidal field BT ≤ 3.5 T and expected plasma pulse length up to 1000 s. An electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launcher for four-beam injection is being installed on EAST tokamak. Four electron cyclotron wave beams which are generated from four sets of 140 GHz/1 MW/1000 s gyrotrons will be injected into the plasma by the spherical focusing mirrors and plane mobile mirrors. The focusing mirrors are spherical to focus Gaussian beams after reflection. Four plane mobile mirrors independently steer continuously in the poloidal and toroidal direction controlled by motors. With the suitable distance between mirrors and appropriate focal length of focusing mirror, the beam radius in the resonance layer of plasma is 31.145 mm. The heat from plasma radiation and metal losses is loaded on the mobile mirror. In order to decrease the temperature and thermal stress, the inner equivalent diameter of water channels is 8 mm and the suggested water velocity is 4 m/s

  8. The ETA-II linear induction accelerator and IMP wiggler: A high-average-power millimeter-wave free-electron laser for plasma heating

    The authors have constructed a 140-GHz free-electron laser to generate high-average-power microwaves for heating the MTX tokamak plasma. A 5.5-m steady-state wiggler (Intense Microwave, Prototype-IMP) has been installed at the end of the upgraded 60-cell ETA-II accelerator, and is configured as an FEL amplifier for the output of a 140-GHz long-pulse gyrotron. Improvements in the ETA-II accelerator include a multicable-feed power distribution network, better magnetic alignment using a stretched-wire alignment technique (SWAT), and a computerized tuning algorithm that directly minimizes the transverse sweep (corkscrew motion) of the electron beam. The upgrades were first tested on the 20-cell, 3-MeV front end of ETA-II and resulted in greatly improved energy flatness and reduced corkscrew motion. The upgrades were then incorporated into the full 60-cell configuration of ETA-II, along with modifications to allow operation in 50-pulse bursts at pulse repetition frequencies up to 5 kHz. The pulse power modifications were developed and tested on the High Average Power Test Stand (HAPTS), and have significantly reduced the voltage and timing jitter of the MAG 1D magnetic pulse compressors. The 2-3 kA, 6-7 MeV beam from ETA-II is transported to the IMP wiggler, which has been reconfigured as a laced wiggler, with both permanent magnets and electromagnets, for high magnetic field operation. Tapering of the wiggler magnetic field is completely computer controlled and can be optimized based on the output power. The microwaves from the FEL are transmitted to the MTX tokamak by a windowless quasi-optical microwave transmission system. Experiments at MTX are focused on studies of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating (ECRH) of the plasma. The authors summarize here the accelerator and pulse power modifications, and describe the status of ETA-II, IMP, and MTX operations

  9. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE0,2) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE15,2), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE0,1 mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs

  10. High power microwave transmission systems for electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating

    This progress report is for the fourth year of a grant from the US Department of Energy for the design, development, and fabrication of ECRF transmission and mode conversion systems to transport microwave power from a gyrotron to a magnetically confined plasma. The development and testing of new and improved components for such systems and underlying theory, where necessary, is the focus of this project. Devising and improving component testing and diagnostic techniques is also an important part of this effort. During the last year, we developed a preliminary design for a Te15,2--TE15,1 mode converter for the MIT 150 GHz gyrotron and considered its performance as the frequency and mode was step tuned. A preliminary design for a combined uptaper and TE15,2--TE15,1 converter for possible use with the Varian 140 GHz gyrotron was also developed. Work was begun on a combined TE15,n uptaper -- mode converter to produce a mode combination which would reduce microwave radiation into an azimuthal waveguide gap. Simple models for the radiation from TE0n and TM0n Vlasov launcher baffles were developed and compared with measurements which were taken in our radiation pattern measurement facility. Work began on testing possible methods for generating high azimuthal index rotating modes. Work on the further refinement of the method of mode content determination from open-end radiation pattern measurement was carried out. An investigation of the Wiener-Hopf method for obtaining open- end radiation patterns produced improved radiation patterns for the TE0n modes in a circular waveguide. 15 refs., 15 figs

  11. Research on long pulse ECRH system of EAST in support of ITER

    Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), as a fully superconducting tokamak in China, aims to achieve high performance plasma under steady-state operation. To fulfill the physical objectives of EAST, a program of 4-MW long pulse electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (EC H&CD) system, which would offer greater flexibility for plasma shape and plasma stabilization has been launched on EAST since 2011. The system, composed of 4 gyrotrons with nominal 1MW output power and 1000s pulse length each, is designed with the feature of steerable power handling capabilities at 140 GHz, using second harmonic of the extraordinary mode(X2). The missions of the ECRH system are to provide plasma heating, current drive, plasma profile tailoring and control of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. Presently, the first two 140-GHz 1-MW gyrotrons, provided by GYCOM and CPI, respectively, have been tested at long pulse operation. The tubes, the associated power supplies, cooling system, cryogenic plant, 2 transmission lines and an equatorial launcher are now installed at EAST. The power generated from each tube will be transmitted by an evacuated corrugated waveguide transmission line and injected into plasma from the low field side (radial port) through a front steering equatorial launcher. Considering the diverse applications of the EC system, the beam’s launch angles can be continuously varied with the optimized scanning range of over 30° in poloidal direction and ±25° in toroidal, as well as the polarization could be adjusted during the discharge by the orientations of a pair of polarizers in the transmission line to maintain the highest absorption for different operational scenarios. The commissioning of the first 2MW ECRH plant for EAST is under way. The design, R&D activities and recent progress of the long pulse 140-GHz ECRH system are presented in this paper. As the technological requirements for EAST ECRH have many similarities with ITER

  12. Research on long pulse ECRH system of EAST in support of ITER

    Wang, Xiaojie, E-mail: xjiew@ipp.ac.cn; Liu, Fukun; Shan, Jiafang; Xu, Handong; Wu, Dajun; Li, Bo; Tang, Yunying; Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Weiye; Hu, Huaichuan; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Yong; Xu, Li; Ma, Wendong; Feng, Jianqiang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushan lake road 350, 230031, Hefei (China); Wei, Wei [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushan lake road 350, 230031, Hefei (China); Hefei University of Technology, 230009, Hefei (China)

    2015-12-10

    Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), as a fully superconducting tokamak in China, aims to achieve high performance plasma under steady-state operation. To fulfill the physical objectives of EAST, a program of 4-MW long pulse electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (EC H&CD) system, which would offer greater flexibility for plasma shape and plasma stabilization has been launched on EAST since 2011. The system, composed of 4 gyrotrons with nominal 1MW output power and 1000s pulse length each, is designed with the feature of steerable power handling capabilities at 140 GHz, using second harmonic of the extraordinary mode(X2). The missions of the ECRH system are to provide plasma heating, current drive, plasma profile tailoring and control of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. Presently, the first two 140-GHz 1-MW gyrotrons, provided by GYCOM and CPI, respectively, have been tested at long pulse operation. The tubes, the associated power supplies, cooling system, cryogenic plant, 2 transmission lines and an equatorial launcher are now installed at EAST. The power generated from each tube will be transmitted by an evacuated corrugated waveguide transmission line and injected into plasma from the low field side (radial port) through a front steering equatorial launcher. Considering the diverse applications of the EC system, the beam’s launch angles can be continuously varied with the optimized scanning range of over 30° in poloidal direction and ±25° in toroidal, as well as the polarization could be adjusted during the discharge by the orientations of a pair of polarizers in the transmission line to maintain the highest absorption for different operational scenarios. The commissioning of the first 2MW ECRH plant for EAST is under way. The design, R&D activities and recent progress of the long pulse 140-GHz ECRH system are presented in this paper. As the technological requirements for EAST ECRH have many similarities with ITER

  13. Using High-Power Gyrotrons in the T-10 Tokamak

    Kislov, A. Ya.; Lysenko, S. E.; Notkin, G. E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we briefly review the T-10 tokamak experiments on the interaction of microwaves with the plasma in the electron-cyclotron resonance frequency range. The basic results on the electron-cyclotron heating and the noninductive current generation in the plasma at both the first and second cyclotron harmonics are presented along with the typical values of the heating and current-generation efficiencies. The possibility of using the local contribution of the high-frequency power to control the sawtooth-oscillation instability and the amplitudes of the neoclassical tearing modes is demonstrated. Using the injection of the high-frequency waves for the working-gas preionization, allows one to optimize both the breakdown phase in the absence of a rotational electric field and the discharge-current increase stage.

  14. Competition between modes with different axial structures in gyrotrons

    This study was motivated by some experiments in which it was found that during the voltage rise, instead of expected excitation of a high-frequency parasitic mode, the excitation of a lower-frequency parasitic mode takes place in a certain range of voltages. For explaining this fact, the dependence of start currents of possible competing modes on the beam voltage was carried out in the cold-cavity approximation and by using the self-consistent approach. It was found that in the case of cavities, which consist of the combination of a section of constant radius waveguide and a slightly uptapered waveguide, these two approaches yield completely different results. Thus, experimentally observed excitation of the low-frequency parasitic mode can be explained by the self-consistent modification of the axial profile of the excited field, which has strong influence on the diffractive quality factor of competing modes. This modification is especially pronounced in the case of excitation of modes with many axial variations which can be excited in the region of beam interaction with the backward-wave component of such modes

  15. Construction of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrotron

    In this work a description of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrocon is described which is under construction at the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory. Project conceptual aspects are emphasized, specifically high current density thermionic cathodes, high time and spatial resolution intense magnetic fields generation, high-vacuum systems, techniques of ceramic-metal sealing, and high-voltage electrical modulator circuits. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Power measurement system of ECRH on HL-2A

    Wang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH is one of the main auxiliary heating systems for HL-2A tokamak. The ECRH system with total output power 5MW has been equipped on HL-2A which include 6 sets of 0.5MW/1.0s at a frequency of 68GHz and 2 sets of 1MW/3s at a frequency of 140GHz. The power is one of important parameters in ECRH system. In this paper, the method for measuring the power of ECRH system on HL-2A is introduced which include calorimetric techniques and directional coupler. Calorimetric techniques is an existing method, which is used successfully in ECRH commissioning and experiment, and the transmission efficiency of ECRH system is achieved by measuring the absorbed microwave power in the Match Optical Unit (MOU, gyrotron output window and tours window of the EC system use this method. Now base on the theory of electromagnetic coupling through apertures, directional couplers are being designed, which is a new way for us.

  17. Summary on Electron Cyclotron Technology

    In EC 12, held in Aix-en-Provence on 13-15 May 2002, 24 papers addressed ECH technology oriented work. There were five status reports on systems currently in operation, being designed or in construction (JT60 (110 GHz), JET-EP (113 GHz), TS (118 GHz), TEXTOR and W7-X (40 GHz)), eight papers on power gyrotron development, six on subsystems or components development, three on windows, two on remote steering. About the systems still not operative, the cancellation of the JET DEP experiment is regrettable. On the other hand the W7-X ECH is perhaps the Stellarator subsystem in the most advanced state of development, and it can be already considered a future valuable test bench for the ITER EC system. In the area of gyrotron development, the best performance in terms of energy output and pulse length has been obtained by the 140 GHz FZK/EPFL/TED tube developed for W7-X, with pulses in the range of ∼ 0.5 MW for ∼ 200 s. Frequency and pulse performance of this tube are already in the range of ITER relevance. The sources at the nominal ITER frequency (170 GHz) have reached the nominal power level (∼1 MW) only for short pulses. However, the progress toward long pulses was delayed by accidents (loss of vacuum conditions because of overheating of an uncooled component in the Toshiba device and break of a diamond window in the Gycom tube). The reasons for these accidents are known and remedial actions already performed. A substantial progress on long pulse operation should be expected this year. An important progress achieved in gyrotron development is the control of stray radiation in the matching box by the use of radiation windows. Power modulation has become a recognized requirement for gyrotron sources. A further progress is however needed in order to preserve the nominal efficiency also at low power level, also in order to prevent thermal overloading of the collector. The electrical efficiency of the tubes is acceptable (∼ 50%) in short pulse but it generally de

  18. Preparation of Steady State Operation of the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

    Full text: Wendelstein 7-X has been designed to demonstrate the steady state capability of the stellarator concept. At 10 MW of heating power a pulse duration of 30 minutes is envisaged. Short pulses of additional heating power are foreseen to access beta and equilibrium limits and study fast ion confinement and fast ion driven instabilities. The large variety of time scales is strongly affecting the design of plasma diagnostics, heating and fuelling systems, data acquisition and device control. For steady state heating ten 1 MW continuous wave gyrotrons are foreseen, operating at 140 GHz second harmonic heating at 2.5 T. Using a system of mirrors, relaying the micro waves through air to Wendelstein 7-X, a very high transmission efficiency has been achieved. Front steering mirrors, one for each gyrotron, individually change the poloidal and toroidal launch angles, thus controlling the radial deposition and current drive. Recent modifications to the gyrotron design include an improved power handling in the collector using a rotating transverse magnetic field. The main heating scenarios are 2nd harmonic X-mode (X2) heating below the cut-off density of 1.2 x 1020 m-3 and 2nd harmonic O-mode (O2) heating at higher densities. Owing to non-absorbed power, significant levels of stray radiation are expected for O2-heating, during the transition from X2- to O2-heating, and also during plasma start-up with electron cyclotron resonance waves. Therefore all in-vessel components have to be qualified and if necessary protected to withstand up to 50 kW/m2 of continuous micro-wave power flux. Many diagnostic techniques require a specific adaptation or even new developments to cope with steady state operation. Besides the measurement of fast events, also the long times scales have to be covered. As a consequence not only data rates increase, but the total amount of data. This requires special efforts for real time plasma control, and for continuous data acquisition and data

  19. Overview on recent W7-AS results

    During the almost one year shutdown in 1999/2000 the Stellarator W7-AS underwent two major modifications: First, the limiters were replaced by ten divertor modules, and the diagnostic set associated with the plasma boundary and target plate regions was greatly expanded for divertor experiments. Extensive tests of the island divertor concept foreseen for W7-X were started in 2001. Partial plasma detachment is observed for magnetic field configurations with large edge islands and with high neutral beam heating power at core densities of 3x1020 m-3 . At somewhat lower densities stable discharges with good energy confinement and high radiation levels (mainly edge radiation) can be maintained up to pulse lengths of more than 1 s. Secondly, the previously counter tangential neutral beam injector box was shifted to a co-position. Thus, the heating efficiency is increased at low magnetic fields and high densities, where high-β experiments are usually performed, but where counter beam injection suffers from substantial fast ion losses. In first experiments - values up to about 3% were achieved at still only weak MHD-activity. Meanwhile 5 gyrotrons (70 and 140 GHz) are available on W7-AS with a total heating power of up to 2.5 MW. They were used to increase central electron temperatures up to 6.7 keV. The application of electron Bernstein waves was further investigated for plasma heating and as a plasma diagnostic. Heating of a high density divertor discharge and the measurement of electron temperature profiles are demonstrated. Copyright (2002) Australian National University- Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering

  20. Particular features of the transmission of laser radiation with wavelength 0.438 um and intensity (3-7)x10e14 W/cm2 through an undercritical plasma from polymer aerogels

    Borisenko, N.G.; Akunets, A.A.; Khalenkov, A.M.; Klír, D.; Kmetík, Viliam; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, J.; Mašek, Karel; Merkuliev, Yu.A.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Pimenov, V.G.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2007), s. 548-566. ISSN 1071-2836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : shock wave * energy transport in plasma * laser-light scattering in undercritical plasma * bremsstrahlung * laser-light transmission through inhomogeneous plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/p0420607m721/?p=506c19aa489147cfa3f8c8ca19b1a0dd&pi=4

  1. Effect of plasma column on the radial profile of electric field of gyrotron devices

    In the present work the radial behavior of the electric field is investigated. In this analysis we consider the system in the absence of the electron beam in the fast wave mode. The system configuration consist of the cylindrical plasma column loaded inside the cylindrical waveguide. The external magnetic field, B0êz , exists along the axis of the waveguide. By using Maxwell's equations the differential equation for the axial component of the electric field is evaluated. The solution for the electric field considering the boundary conditions in each region of this configuration is determined. As the plots shown the electric field at the plasma edge is greater than at the plasma column center. It is clear that when the distance between the plasma column and the cylinder wall decreases, the electric field oscillates less. It is also shown that the ratio of electric field in cylinder radius to electric field in plasma column radius, outside the plasma becomes small, and the mode becomes similar to the transverse electromagnetic wave that propagates on a coaxial line. (author)

  2. 60 GHz gyrotron development program. Quarterly report No. 4, April-June 1980

    The objective of this program is to develop a microwave oscillator capable of producing 200 kW of CW output power at 60 GHz. The use of cyclotron resonance interaction is being pursued. The design and early procurement and construction phases of this program are discussed

  3. Klystrons, traveling wave tubes, magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, and gyrotrons

    Gilmour, A S

    2011-01-01

    Microwave tubes are vacuum electron devices used for the generation and amplification of radio frequencies in the microwave range. An established technology area, the use of tubes remains essential in the field today for high-power applications. The culmination of the author's 50 years of industry experience, this authoritative resource offers you a thorough understanding of the operations and major classes of microwave tubes.Minimizing the use of advanced mathematics, the book places emphasis on clear qualitative explanations of phenomena. This practical reference serves as an excellent intro

  4. Ellipsoidal diffraction grating as output coupler for quasi-optical gyrotrons

    The use of a diffraction grating arranged in the -1 Littrow mount as an output coupler for a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot resonator at microwave frequencies (100 GHz) was suggested in 1990. A planar grating with curvilinear grooves (in order to match the Littrow condition everywhere on the surface for a given Gaussian beam) gives a power coupling efficiency of 85% which is limited by the depolarization but gave approximately the same global efficiency because of distortion. We report low power tests on an improvement of the second scheme, based on curved grooves on an ellipsoidal surface, which gives a global efficiency of 94%. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs

  5. Absorbing coatings for high power millimeter-wave devices and matched loads

    Bin, W., E-mail: wbin@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Muzzini, V. [Istituto di Biologia Agro-ambientale e Forestale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Area di Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Simonetto, A.; Spinicchia, N. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Angella, G. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Dell’Era, F. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Gantenbein, G.; Leonhardt, W. [Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Nardone, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, EURATOM-ENEA/CNR Association, Milano (Italy); Samartsev, A.; Schmid, M. [Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls-und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► An overview of the activity at IFP-CNR concerning the absorbing coatings is presented. ► The application of the absorbing ceramics to the IFP-CNR matched loads is described. ► B{sub 4}C is presented as a promising material for power absorption in the EC frequency range. ► The most important high power validation tests performed on coatings are described. ► Some results from simulations of the absorption capability of a double layer coating are shown. -- Abstract: In the electron cyclotron frequency range the handling of high power is critical. In some cases an unpredictable amount of stray radiation can reach some components or accumulate in localized regions, with risk of damages caused by thermal overloads, and any uncontrolled reflection represents a danger for the sources. A possibility to mitigate the problem consists in covering some regions exposed to radiation with absorbers. Enhanced absorption of stray radiation lowers requirements on active protection systems in microwave diagnostics. The released heat can be extracted by dedicated cooling systems. The chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), largely tested at IFP-CNR, has been routinely used as internal coating for matched loads. The performances of a variable thickness coating has been tested at high power at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with a 140 GHz gyrotron of the W7-X ECRH system and an averaged power density absorbed at the coating surface higher than 1 MW/m{sup 2} for 3 min. Also boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) has been tested at low power and patented as a millimeter-wave absorber. In the paper, the results of some tests performed on these coatings are given, together with some simulations of the absorption capability based on low power measurements on samples. Finally, some calculations are presented for a coating obtained combining together Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 4}C.

  6. Study on statistical breakdown delay time in argon gas using a W-band millimeter-wave gyrotron

    Kim, Dongsung; Kim, Sung Gug; Sawant, Ashwini; Yu, Dongho; Choe, MunSeok; Choi, EunMi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated plasma initiation delay times for argon volume breakdown at the W-band frequency regime. The threshold electric field is defined as the minimum electric field amplitude needed for plasma breakdown at various pressures. The measured statistical delay time showed an excellent agreement with the theoretical Gaussian distribution and the theoretically estimated formative delay time. Also, we demonstrated that the normalized effective electric field as a function of the product of pressure and formative time shows an outstanding agreement to that of 1D particle-in-cell simulation coupled with a Monte Carlo collision model [H. C. Kim and J. P. Verboncoeur, Phys. Plasmas 13, 123506 (2006)].

  7. Millimeter-wave imaging on GAMMA 10 and LHD

    Millimeter-wave imaging system in the frequency range of 70-140 GHz was developed for diagnostics of magnetically confined plasmas. It successfully measures time evolutions of three-dimensional (radial and axial) profiles of line density and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the plug cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. It is also being installed in Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to cover the frequency range of the second harmonic ECE on LHD, a novel detector using monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is designed and fabricated. The optical system consisting of an ellipsoidal and a flat mirrors is constructed and evaluated experimentally at 140 GHz. (author)

  8. The 110 GHz ECRH system on the RTP tokamak

    A 110 GHz 500 kW gyrotron has recently been installed at the RTP tokamak. Some of the technical aspects associated with the gyrotron, the power supplies, and the quasi-optical transmission line are described. (orig.)

  9. Construction of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrotron; Construcao de um girotron de 35 GHz e de 100 kW

    Aso, Y.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Correa, R.A.; Ludwing, G.O.; Montes, A.; Morgado, U.T.F.; Nono, M.C.A.; Rossi, J.O.; Silva, P.R.

    1989-09-01

    In this work a description of a 35 GHz 100 kW gyrocon is described which is under construction at the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory. Project conceptual aspects are emphasized, specifically high current density thermionic cathodes, high time and spatial resolution intense magnetic fields generation, high-vacuum systems, techniques of ceramic-metal sealing, and high-voltage electrical modulator circuits. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Study on High Frequency Gyrotron Microwave Sintering of Nanoceramics%高频回旋管微波烧结纳米陶瓷研究

    范瑛; 韦力凡; 丰杰; 谭云; 鞠炳全; 张卫庄

    2004-01-01

    在高频回旋管微波烧结系统上进行纳米陶瓷烧结研究,制备出氧化锆单元及二元纳米陶瓷样品,对不同烧结工艺制备出的样品做了密度、硬度测试,利用XRD和扫描电镜分析陶瓷样品晶粒特性,以摸索适宜的烧结工艺.探讨了高频回旋管微波烧结纳米陶瓷的可行性.

  11. Millimeter-wave brightness temperatures of military vehicles

    Nemarich, Joseph; Cassidy, Thomas W.; Shiner, R.; Agravante, Hiroshi H.; Dixon, David; Moffa, Philip; Quon, Bill H.; Yujiri, Larry; Dahlstrom, R.

    1999-07-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometers operating at 97 and 140 GHz were used to obtain passive MMW images and brightness temperatures of military vehicles at various altitudes and depression angles. The line-scanning radiometer system used for the measurements is described, and several passive MMW images are presented. The upper-bound MMW brightness temperatures of a number of different types of vehicles in an open area were determined and shown to have similar values at various depression angles.

  12. 100 GHz electrically tunable planar Bragg grating via nematic liquid crystal overlay towards reconfigurable WDM networks

    Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd; Gates, James C.; Major, Huw E.; Gawith, Corin B.E.; Smith, Peter G. R.; Dyadyusha, Andriy; Kaczmarek, Malgosia; Sparrow, Ian J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Novel liquid crystal-based integrated optical devices with >140GHz electrical tuning are presented for application towards reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks. Initial results with Bragg wavelength tuning covering five 25GHz WDM channel spacing have been achieved with 170V (peak-to-peak) sinusoidal voltages applied across electro-patterned ITO-covered glass electrodes placed 60?m apart. These prototype devices were fabricated using direct UV grating writing, with an...

  13. Demonstration of 100 GHz electrically tunable liquid-crystal Bragg gratings for application in dynamic optical networks

    Adikan, F.R.Mahamd; J.C.Gates; Dyadyusha, A.; Major, H.E.; Gawith, C.B.E.; Sparrow, I.J.G.; Emmerson, G.D.; Kaczmarek, M.; P.G.R.Smith

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid crystal-based integrated optical devices with >140GHz electrical tuning for potential applications in dynamic optical networks. Bragg wavelength tuning covering five 25GHz WDM channel spacings has been achieved with 170V (peak-to-peak) sinusoidal voltages applied across electro-patterned ITO-covered glass electrodes placed 60?m apart. This tunability range was limited only by the initial grating strength and supply voltage level. We also observed two distinct threshold b...

  14. Operation of Doublet III electron cyclotron system

    The first phase of operation of the Doublet III 60 GHz ECH system has been completed. In this phase, the power from two gyrotrons which put out a total of 340 kW for pulse lengths to 85 msec was used to launch the ordinary wave from the low field side of the plasma. The gyrotrons were Varian VGE-8060 tubes designed for 100 msec pulses; the gyrotrons which will be used for subsequent experimental phases at total power up to 2 MW are Varian VGE-8006 cw tubes, for pulse lengths up to 5 sec. (Pulse lengths are limited by the power supply.) The high voltage system used to power up to ten gyrotrons is shown. The power source is an 80 kV,.100 A power supply that was designed for neutral beam operation and which was modified for negative polarity as required for gyrotron operation. This power supply provided a single series modulator/regulator for the entire system, with individual gyrotron operation controlled by a low power switch tube (Thompson 5185) and compensated resistive voltage divider. The voltage divider determines the voltage on the gyrotron gun anode, which acts as a control grid for the gyrotron electron gun. The individual gyrotrons are isolated from each other by 100 Ω series resisters. This approach to gyrotron control has proved to be effective in operation of at least two gyrotrons simultaneously; it is also highly cost-effective compared to providing a series modulator/regulator for each gyrotron. Cross-talk between gyrotrons either through the power supply or through the waveguide has not been a problem

  15. Electron trapping mechanisms in magnetron injection guns

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr.; Piosczyk, Bernhard; Zhang, Jianhua; Illy, Stefan; Rzesnicki, Tomasz; Hogge, Jean-Philippe; Avramidis, Konstantinos; Gantenbein, Gerd; Thumm, Manfred; Jelonnek, John

    2016-02-01

    A key parameter for the gyrotron operation and efficiency is the presence of trapped electrons. Two electron trapping mechanisms can take place in gyrotrons: (i) the adiabatic trap and (ii) the magnetic potential well. Their influence on the gyrotron operation is analyzed. Two gun design criteria are then proposed to suppress both mechanisms in order to minimize the risk of possible problems. Experimental results of three high power gyrotrons are presented and their performance is correlated to the presence of populations of trapped electrons. Finally, some very general gun design principles are presented for the limitation of harmful electron trapping.

  16. Design of pill-box output window for high power Q-band gyrotron traveling wave tube%Q波段回旋行波管新型盒型输出窗的设计

    陈辉; 王丽; 罗勇; 唐勇

    2015-01-01

    利用等效电路理论,初步设计了窗片厚度为1.32 mm的回旋行波管盒型输出窗,再加入感性膜片,更改窗片形状,最终设计出了能承受25 kW平均功率、相对带宽达到14%、窗片厚度达到1.7 mm的Q波段新型宽频带回旋行波管盒型输出窗;采用高频软件HFSS与有限元分析软件ANSYS协同仿真的新方法对回旋行波管盒型窗进行热特性研究表明,盒型窗理论上功率容量达到62 kW平均功率,说明输出窗窗片承受25 kW平均功率的可行性,窗片中心与边缘的温差为66℃,没有达到陶瓷窗片的临界温差158℃,验证了新型盒型窗设计的合理性.

  17. Physics of high-power ECH plasmas in T-10 tokamak

    The primary objective of T-10 experimental program is to explore and understand the physics of plasma confinement and stability under conditions of dominant electron heating and physics of plasma-wave interaction at high ECH power level. T-10 is a tokamak with circular cross-section (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.3 m) which is operated with Bt≤3 T, Ip ≤ 0.45 MA. ECH is the sole auxiliary heating method in T-10. ECH system consists of five gyrotrons with total heating power up to 2.5 MW: 1.2 MW at 130 GHz and 1.3 MW at 140 GHz (second EC harmonic, LFS injection, X-mode). ECH system provides highly localized power deposition (the half-width of power absorption profile is up to 3% of the minor radius, power densities up to 25 W/cm3 are achievable) and ECCD with the efficiency close to the linear theory predictions (ηCD = Ipne20R/PECH = 0.013AW-1m-2). Physics that governs plasma confinement of high-density plasma with ECH is under investigation in T-10 experiments. Linear increase of energy confinement time with density that is typical for T-10 saturates at n(bar)e ≅ 0.6 n(bar)Gw. Saturated values of τe exceed L-mode scaling predictions and attain (exceed in best shots) H-mode scaling predictions. Enhanced confinement regimes with the highest te values have been obtained with injection of deuterium pellets. Possible link between the turbulence properties and transport processes in T-10 high density operating modes is under analyses. Densities exceeding Greenwald limit by up to a factor of 1.8 have been achieved in high qa plasmas with ECH. The role of magnetic shear in the physics of ITB formation is studied in T-10 experiments. Profiles of q(r) with a region of low or negative magnetic shear can be obtained in T-10 plasma applying ECH/ECCD during current ramp-up or at the current flat-top. ITB formation has been observed in plasmas with negative magnetic shear obtained by q(r) freezing by ECH during current ramp-up. Transient ITB formation in a low magnetic shear region

  18. Status of the new multi-frequency ECRH system for ASDEX Upgrade

    Wagner, D.; Grünwald, G.; Leuterer, F.;

    2008-01-01

    gyrotron Odissey-1 is currently being equipped with a broadband chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond Brewster output window and will become a step-tunable gyrotron with the additional frequencies 117 and 127 GHz. A tunable double-disc CVD-diamond window will be mounted at the torus. The system includes...

  19. High voltage beam power source for high frequency heating

    Recently, the importance of the plasma heating by high frequency electric power has increased in the research and development of nuclear fusion. There are three methods in the plasma heating by high frequency electric power, that is, electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid resonance frequency heating and ion cyclotron range of frequency heating. In all cases, the vacuum tubes requiring high voltage beam power sources are used as the high frequency electric power generator, and the typical vacuum tubes are a gyrotron in ECH, a Klystron in LHRF and a quadrupole tube in ICRF. The gyrotron is a special millimeter wave vibrating tube, while the other two are amplifying tubes, accordingly, severe specification is imposed on the stability of beam voltage and the protection function against load short circuit of the gyrotron. The typical specifications of beam power sources are shown. The vibrating characteristics of a gyrotron are dependent largely on beam voltage and anode voltage. The beam power source for a gyrotron is the type using commercial power or the output of a flywheel generator on-line, or the type making the constant voltage control of the energy accumulated in a condenser bank and supplying it to a gyrotron. The control of beam voltage and anode voltage in the beam power source for a gyrotron and the protection of a gyrotron are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  20. Maturing ECRF technology for plasma control

    The availability of high power, (∼1 MW) long pulse length (effectively cw), high frequency, (>100 GHz) gyrotrons has opened the opportunity for enhanced scientific results on magnetic confinement devices for fusion research worldwide. This has led to successful experiments on electron cyclotron heating, electron cyclotron current drive, non-inductive tokamak operation, tokamak energy transport, suppression of instabilities and advanced profile control leading to enhanced performance. The key development in the gyrotron community that has led to the realization of high power long pulse gyrotrons is the availability of edge cooled synthetic diamond gyrotron output windows, which have low loss and excellent thermal and mechanical properties. In addition to the emergence of reliable high power gyrotrons, ancillary equipment for efficient microwave transmission over distances of hundreds of meters, polarization control, diagnostics, and flexible launch geometry have all been developed and proven in regular service. (author)

  1. Development of Mode Conversion Waveguides at KIT

    Jin Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mode conversion waveguides (launchers for high power gyrotrons has gone through three stages at KIT. Formerly, harmonically deformed launchers have been used in the series gyrotrons developed for the stellarator W7-X. In 2009, a numerical method for the analysis and synthesis of mirror-line launchers was developed at KIT. Such a launcher with adapted mode-converting mirrors for a 2 MW TE34,19-mode, 170GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron has been designed and tested, and also a mirror-line launcher for the 1MW EU ITER gyrotron has been designed. Recently, based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral theorem, a novel numerical method for the synthesis of hybrid-type gyrotron launchers has been developed. As an example, TE32,9 mode launchers operating at 170GHz that have been designed using the three different methods are being compared.

  2. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications

    This progress report encompasses work on three separate projects, all related to developing sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetic fusion plasmas. The report is therefore divided into three parts as follows: free electron lasers with small period wigglers; theory and modeling of high frequency, high power gyrotron operation; and depressed collectors for energy recovery in gyrotrons. Task A is experimental and eventually aims at developing CW sources for ECRH at frequencies as high as 600 GHz. Task B provides gyrotron theory and modeling in support of the gyrotron development programs at MIT and Varian. Task C was phased out in the current contract year but recent publications are included in this report in order to create a permanent record for the use of future researchers with interest in the topic of increasing gyrotron efficiency through the use of depressed collectors

  3. Free-electron laser experiments in the microwave tokamak experiment

    Microwave pulses have been injected from a free electron-laser (FEL) into the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at up to 0.2 GW at 140 GHz in short pulses (10-ns duration) with O-mode polarization. The power transmitted through the plasma was measured in a first experimental study of high power pulse propagation in the plasma; no nonlinear effects were found at this power level. Calculations indicate that nonlinear effects may be found at the higher power densities expected in future experiments. 9 refs., 2 figs

  4. Density measurement systems at SST Tokamak

    Electromagnetic wave experiences a phase difference while passing through the plasma with respect to the reference arm. This phase information gives line averaged electron plasma density. At SST-1 Tokamak, two microwave interferometer systems - (1) 100 GHz homodyne system and (2) 140 GHz phase locked heterodyne system, have been designed, developed and installed. In this paper developed systems performances as well as measurement descriptions are explained. A comparative study has been done to understand the measurement capabilities of the two independent systems and a good agreement is obtained. The measured density of the recent plasma discharges after first wall installation is in the range of 2 - 5 x 1012/ cm3. (author)

  5. Millimeter-Wave Broadband Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser Ablation of Sub-Wavelength Structures

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 \\mu m and total height of near 800 \\mu m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of $\\Delta \

  6. Recent ECRH results in ASDEX Upgrade

    We report about experiments in ASDEX Upgrade using our ECRH system with f = 140 GHz, P = 4 x 0.5 MW, and T = 2 sec. The following topics are covered: studies of modulated power deposition, studies of the electron heat transport via power balance analysis and heat wave analysis and a comparison with turbulent transport theory, generation of an internal transport barrier for the electron heat flux, impact of ECRH on particle and impurity transport, and studies related to neoclassical tearing modes and to sawteeth. (authors)

  7. Millimeter-Wave Broadband Anti-Reflection Coatings Using Laser Ablation of Sub-Wavelength Structures

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 $\\mu$m and total height of near 800 $\\mu$m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape ...

  8. Broadband notch filter design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics

    Furtula, Vedran; Michelsen, Poul; Leipold, Frank;

    2010-01-01

    Notch filters are integrated in plasma diagnostic systems to protect millimeter-wave receivers from intensive stray radiation. Here we present a design of a notch filter with a center frequency of 140 GHz, a rejection bandwidth of ∼ 900 MHz, and a typical insertion loss below 2 dB in the passband...... in the cylindrical cavities is the fundamental TE11. The performance of the constructed filter is measured using a vector network analyzer monitoring a total bandwidth of 30 GHz. We compare the measurements with numerical simulations. © 2010 EURATOM...

  9. High-field EPR spectroscopy of thermal donors in silicon

    Dirksen, R.; Rasmussen, F.B.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Ammerlaan, C.A.J.

    Thermal donors generated in p-type boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon by a 450 degrees C heat treatment have been studied by high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the experiments conducted at a microwave frequency of 140 GHz and in a magnetic field of approximately 5 T four individual...... thermal donors species could be resolved. These were observed in their singly ionized TD+ charge state. For the first time in the four decades of thermal donor research the g tensor values for specific members of the Si-NL8 family are given. Also the symmetry of the observed species is discussed....

  10. Millimeter-wave broadband antireflection coatings using laser ablation of subwavelength structures

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make sub-millimeter, broad-band, anti-reflection coatings (ARC) based on sub-wavelength structures (SWS) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with pitch of about 320 $\\mu$m and total height of near 800 $\\mu$m. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS ARC with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of $\\Delta \

  11. The Real-Time system for MHD activity control in the FTU tokamak

    Minelli D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Real-Time system for the control of the magnetohydrodynamics instabilities in FTU tokamak is presented. It is based on both a-priori information derived from statistical treatment of a database and Real-Time elaboration of live diagnostics data. The analysis codes are executed in different time threads based on multi-processors machines. The actuator is the 2×0.4MW 140 GHz ECRH system equipped with the new fast quasi-optical steerable launcher.

  12. Electron cyclotron pulse gyroklstron power supply

    The system herein described represents utilization of technology developed at Universal Voltronics Corporation in accordance with General Atomic specifications to provide power for a gyrotron developed by Varian Inc. The current designs are derived from experience gained in design of similar systems and the requirements imposed by Varian to supply needs of gyrotron. The technical approach was carefully selected to insure high reliability, high performance, low maintenance time, and best cost trade-off. The gyrotron power supply system is designed to furnish all power, cooling, protection, and mechanical mounting for a pulse gyroklystron

  13. Design and operation of the power installation for the TCV ECR additional heating

    Following a brief introduction to the TCV project, this paper concentrates on the Regulated High Voltage Power Supply (RHVPS) system chosen to supply the nine gyrotrons, distributed in three clusters, that will deliver 4.5 MW of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) to TCV plasmas. The configuration of these clusters is described in some detail, including the results of site test both with dummy load (80 kV, 85 A, 2 sec) and the gyrotrons themselves (70 kV, 25 A, 2 sec). Some details are also given of gyrotron auxiliaries, interlock circuitry, control and data acquisition, and integration into TCV control environment. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  14. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Stellarator News, Issue 38, March 1995

    Rome, J A

    1995-01-01

    Stellarator News, an international journal of the stellarator community, is Published by Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, James A. Rome, Editor In the March 1995 issue . . . **** Exerpts from the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assment report on TPX and Alternate Concepts. **** Edge transport and turbulence studies on U-3M The turbulent-driven particle flow is shown to be comparable with the equilibrium flow at the boundary of the configuration under Alfven-heating conditions in the U-3M torsatron. **** Topological aspects of island divertor studies on W7-AS The structure of the edge plasma in W7-AS, observed with probes, television camera, and H-alpha light agrees at low beta with vacuum field calculations: the low-valued resonances at iotabar=5/m are resolved for m = 8 to 11; external perturbations are not significant at the edge, even for iotabar = 5/10. **** 140-GHz second harmonic O-mode electron cyclotron heating at W7-AS First experimental results are presented of 140-GHz secon...

  16. ECH on the MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL is investigating the heating of high density Tokamak plasmas using an intense pulse FEL. Our first experiments, now beginning, will study the absorption and plasma heating of single FEL pulses (20 ns pulse length and peak power up to 2 GW) at a frequency of 140 GHz. A later phase of experiments also at 140 GHz will study FEL heating at 5 kHz rate for a pulse train up to 50 pulses (35 ns pulse length and peak power up to 4 GW). Future operations are planned at 250 GHz with an average power of 2 MW for a pulse train of 0.5 s. The microwave output of the FEL is transported quasi-optically to the tokamak through a window-less, evacuated pipe of 20 in. diameter, using a six mirror system. Computational modelling of the non-linear absorption for the MTX geometry predicts single-pass absorption of 40% at a density and temperature of 1.8 /times/ 1020m/sup /minus/3/ and 1 keV, respectively. To measure plasma microwave absorption and backscatter, diagnostics are available to measure forward and reflected power (parallel wire grid beam-splitter and mirror directional couplers) and power transmitted through the plasma (segmented calorimeter and waveguide detector). Other fast diagnostics include ECE, Thompson scattering, soft x-rays, and fast magnetic probes. 8 refs., 2 figs

  17. ECH on the MTX

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL is investigating the heating of high density Tokamak plasmas using an intense pulse FEL. Our first experiments, now beginning, will study the absorption and plasma heating of single FEL pulses (20 ns pulse length and peak power up to 2 GW) at a frequency of 140 GHz. A later phase of experiments also at 140 GHz (FY 90) will study FEL heating at 5 kHz rate for a pulse train up to 50 pulses (35 ns pulse length and peak power up to 4 GW). Future operations are planned at 250 GHz with an average power of 2 MW for a pulse train of 0.5 s. The microwave output of the FEL is transported quasi-optically to the tokamak through a window-less, evacuated pipe of 20 in diameter, using a six mirror system. Computational modelling of the non-linear absorption for the MTX geometry predicts single-pass absorption of 40% at a density and temperature of 1.8x1020 m-3 and 1 keV, respectively. To measure plasma microwave absorption and backscatter, diagnostics are available to measure forward and reflected power (parallel wire grid beam-splitter and mirror directional couplers) and power transmitted through the plasma (segmented calorimeter and waveguide detector). Other fast diagnostics include ECE, Thompson scattering, soft x-rays, and fast magnetic probes

  18. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs

  19. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 Series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs

  20. Diamantová okna pro tokamak ITER

    Řípa, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), IV-IV. ISSN 0040-1064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * ITER * gyrotron * cyclotron resonance heating Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  1. Some features of ECRH in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Experimental results obtained unde ECRH in the plasmas of open traps OGRA-4 (single superconduction baseball) and OGRA-4K (single superconducting cusp) are discussed. Two gyrotrons with the total power up to 150 kW were used for heating in OGRA-4. The power of the first gyrotron (wavelength 8 mm, the fundamental harmonic) was launched into plasma along the magnetic axis. The power of the second gyrotron (wavelength 5 mm) was launched at the angle of 60o respective the axis at the first and at the second (as a rule) harmonics. In OGRA-4K cusp device 8 mm gyrotron launched mainly along the cusp axis was used. Experimental results given below have no adequate theoretical description at present. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992--1993 report to the President

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT's plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics; rf plasma heating; gyrotron research; treatment of solid waste by arc plasma; divertor experiments; tokamak studies; and plasma and fusion theory

  3. Texas experimental tokamak electron cyclotron resonant heating system

    Electron cyclotron resonant heating of the plasma in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) has been achieved with a single gyrotron system, and is presently being expanded to a three gyrotron system. Each gyrotron can provide up to 200 kilowatts of rf power into the plasma. Future expansion includes a fourth gyrotron capable of delivering an additional 500 kilowatts of rf power into the plasma. A description of the overall system architecture is given in this paper. Also discussed is the overall grounding scheme and the high-voltage power distribution system. The utilization of fiber-optic links in the control system to reduce noise problems associated with high-voltage systems, provide high-voltage isolation, and eliminate ground loops is also discussed. 3 refs., 5 figs

  4. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J. [eds.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  5. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  6. Characterization of high-power RF structures using time-domain field codes

    We have modeled gyrotron windows and gyrotron amplifier sever structures for TE modes in the 100-150 GHz range and have computed the reflection and transmission characteristics from the field data. Good agreement with frequency domain codes and analytic analysis have been obtained for some simple geometries. We present results for realistic structures with lossy coatings and describe implementation of microwave diagnostics. (Author) 5 figs., 7 refs

  7. 300GHz 材料プロセッシング装置の開発

    光藤, 誠太郎; 坂井, 和喜; 小林, 一生; 中野, 智彰; 出原, 敏孝; 斉藤, 輝雄

    2007-01-01

    High power THz-frequency material processing has great potential for the applications. The gyrotron is a microwave tube capable of delivering very high microwave power in the pulse and CW operation at the THz frequencies. The frequency of gyrotron is proportional to the intensity of magnetic field, because the operation results from the mechanism of “cyclotron resonance maser”. Therefore, in order to achieve high frequency operation, we need a high magnetic field which superconducting magne...

  8. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: Analytical, numerical, and experimental study

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared

  9. The microwave system for ECRH experiments on TJ-1U torsatron

    For ECRH experiments on the TJ-1U torsatron a microwave system based on a Russian gyrotron was designed. This system delivers to plasma microwave power pulses of a maximum of 350 KW during 43 msecs at 28 GHz with 0.02% duty cycle. The main parts of this system are as follows: a high-voltage power supply, a gyrotron module and a quasi-optical transmission line. The power supply configuration is based on a high voltage power tetrode EBV 50/100 that provides the following functions: regulation, overcurrent limitation and fast switching. Pulses of a maximum of 50 A at 70 KV with a 0.1% accuracy of stabilized voltage during pulse can be obtained. The maximum time to switch the power supply off, in case of breakdown, is less than 20 microsecs. The gyrotron module is comprised of superconductive coils for resonant magnetic field generation and a Russian gyrotron. This kind of gyrotrons has a high flexibility in power control since it is possible to change the output power from 100 KW to 350 KW without deep cuts in regime. The gyrotron forms a Gaussian-like beam with linear polarization and a purity of 90% permitting to handle the output power in a quasi-optical transmission form. The quasi-optical line carrying microwave power from the gyrotron into the TJ-1U consists of four cylindrical copper-covered mirrors and features a transmission coefficient of more then 0.9. Radiative losses occur mainly at the gyrotron output and into the side lobes of the radiation pattern whereas ohmic losses into the copper mirrors are negligible. A Gaussian beam diameter of 4.3 cm (-10 dB power level) results at the TJ-1U window. (orig.)

  10. Trip electrical circuit of the gyrotion

    The electron cyclotron resonance heating system of INPE/LAP is shown and the trip electrical circuit of the gyrotron is described, together with its fundamental aspects. The trip electrical circuit consists basically of a series regulator circuit which regulates the output voltage level and controls the pulse width time. Besides that, a protection circuit for both tubes, regulator and gyrotron, against faults in the system. (author)

  11. Progress of microwave collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    Microwave collective Thomson scattering (CTS) by using a 77 GHz gyrotron is routinely working in LHD and the improvements of the system is now underway. The targets of this diagnostic are measurements of energetic fast ion distribution and ion ratio. In the present system, 800kW 77 GHz gyrotron is injected horizontally and scattered radiation is received changing scattering angle. The system works with existence of electron cyclotron resonance layer. Thus, most of the power is absorbed at the layer like beam damping and stray radiation dramatically decreases. Gyrotron is modulated at 40 Hz, then, background ECE, which is signal in gyrotron off phase, is subtracted from scattered signal in gyrotron on phase. The perturbation of electron temperature due to the gyrotron injection is almost negligible. Temporal evolution of CTS spectrum is obtained by 32ch filter bank receiver through discharge and fine spectrum is obtained by 10 GHz sampling fast digitizer for 80 ms. Change of the width and asymmetry of CTS spectrum is observed after turning off of tangentially injected neutral beam (NB). This is qualitatively consistent with reduction of fast ion density. Preliminary data of ion ratio between hydrogen and helium are also obtained

  12. ECH Technology Development

    Temkin, Richard [MIT

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  13. Large power electron tubes for high frequency heating

    Okamoto, Tadashi; Sato, Hisaaki.

    1988-07-01

    On the large power electron tubes used for electron cyclotron heating, lower hybrid resonance frequency heating, and ion cyclotron range of frequency heating, namely gyrotron, klystron and quadrupole tube, the features, the present status of development, the construction, the principle and so on are explained. The research and development of gyrotrons are most advanced in USSR, the inventor. The course of the development of gyrotrons in foreign countries and in Japan is described. There are many variants of gyrotrons, for example whispering gallery mode, klystron type, backward wave oscillator type, gyro-peniotron and others. The principle of gyrotrons is explained, and about the examples of the developed gyrotrons, the design parameters are shown. For the purpose of using for the LHRF heating in JT-60, a superlarge power klystron of 1 MW output at 2 GHz frequency, which is the largest class in the world, has been developed. Its total length is 2.7 m, and weight is 1.5 t. It features, construction, function and performance are reported. The trend of large power quadrupole tubes is toward stable action with large power in VHF zone, and the typical products in USA and Europe are shown. (Kako, I.).

  14. Progress of microwave collective Thomson scattering in LHD

    Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Saito, T.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave collective Thomson scattering (CTS) by using a 77 GHz gyrotron is routinely working in LHD and the improvements of the system is now underway. The targets of this diagnostic are measurements of energetic fast ion distribution and ion ratio. In the present system, 800kW 77 GHz gyrotron is injected horizontally and scattered radiation is received changing scattering angle. The system works with existence of electron cyclotron resonance layer. Thus, most of the power is absorbed at the layer like beam damping and stray radiation dramatically decreases. Gyrotron is modulated at 40 Hz, then, background ECE, which is signal in gyrotron off phase, is subtracted from scattered signal in gyrotron on phase. The perturbation of electron temperature due to the gyrotron injection is almost negligible. Temporal evolution of CTS spectrum is obtained by 32ch filter bank receiver through discharge and fine spectrum is obtained by 10 GHz sampling fast digitizer for 80 ms. Change of the width and asymmetry of CTS spectrum is observed after turning off of tangentially injected neutral beam (NB). This is qualitatively consistent with reduction of fast ion density. Preliminary data of ion ratio between hydrogen and helium are also obtained.

  15. The ECRH system for JET-EP

    An ECW (electron cyclotron wave) system is being designed for JET. The system will consist of 6 gyrotrons, 1 MW each, in order to deliver 5 MW into the plasma. An extension of 2 more gyrotrons is recently being considered. The system will especially be designed to enable the control of neo-classical tearing modes (NTM). Furthermore, heating and current drive is foreseen in a large number of different target plasma configurations and the control of the ratio of the electron and ion temperatures. The frequency, 113.3 GHz, is selected to enable a wide range of operating toroidal magnetic fields from 3 to 4 T and at second harmonic at lower fields and also to allow for a future upgrade to 170 GHz using the same systems, including the double-disk diamond windows. The main elements of the ECW system are: gyrotrons with a depressed collector, 1 MW each, 10 s pulse duration with a diamond window, with Gaussian output mode; main power supplies, up to 60 kV, with a solid-state crowbar to feed two gyrotrons. A series IGBT switch will enable independent control of each gyrotron; evacuated waveguides or quasi-optical mirror lines will be each capable of transmitting 1 MW, having a double-disk diamond window located near the torus as an additional tritium barrier. The total length is in the order of 80 to 100m; a plug-in launcher, steerable in both toroidal and poloidal angle. A trade-off will be made between a single launching mirror per transmission line or two beams per launching mirror in order to have the highest flexibility, but also the narrowest beam size in the plasma. The gyrotron power supplies. The configuration of the collector power supply is based on the connection of two gyrotrons to one existing (former lower hybrid) 60 kV power supply. To limit the energy deposit into an internal arc, IGBT switches are connected in series with the gyrotrons, to disconnect the gyrotron from the power supply within 2 μs. An LR snubber is connected in series with the gyrotrons to

  16. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2016-05-01

    A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation in the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest.

  17. Evaluation of cross-connected waveguides as transfer standards of transmission at high millimetre-wave frequencies

    Ridler, Nick; Clarke, Roland; Huang, Hui; Zinal, Sherko

    2016-08-01

    At the present time, transfer and verification standards of transmission coefficient (or, equivalently, transmission loss) are not readily available at high millimetre-wave frequencies (i.e. at frequencies ranging typically from 100 GHz to 300 GHz). In recent years, cross-connected waveguide devices have been proposed to provide calculable standards of transmission loss at these frequencies. This paper investigates the viability of these cross-connected waveguides as transfer standards of transmission for inter-laboratory measurement comparison exercises. This relates to their potential use in activities such as international key comparison exercises and measurement audit programmes. A trial inter-laboratory comparison involving four laboratories using two cross-connected waveguides in the WR-05 waveguide size (covering frequencies from 140 GHz to 220 GHz) is described and includes an analysis of the measurement results obtained during the comparison exercise.

  18. Millimeter-wave broadband antireflection coatings using laser ablation of subwavelength structures.

    Matsumura, Tomotake; Young, Karl; Wen, Qi; Hanany, Shaul; Ishino, Hirokazu; Inoue, Yuki; Hazumi, Masashi; Koch, Jürgen; Suttman, Oliver; Schütz, Viktor

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first use of laser ablation to make submillimeter, broadband, antireflection coatings (ARCs) based on subwavelength structures (SWSs) on alumina and sapphire. We used a 515 nm laser to produce pyramid-shaped structures with a pitch of about 320 μm and a total height of near 800 μm. Transmission measurements between 70 and 140 GHz are in agreement with simulations using electromagnetic propagation software. The simulations indicate that SWS-ARCs with the fabricated shape should have a fractional bandwidth response of Δν/νcenter=0.55 centered on 235 GHz for which reflections are below 3%. Extension of the bandwidth to both lower and higher frequencies, between a few tens of gigahertz and a few terahertz, should be straightforward with appropriate adjustment of laser ablation parameters. PMID:27140362

  19. Microwave interferometer using 94-GHz solid-state sources

    A 94-GHz microwave interferometer has been designed for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility to replace the 140-GHz system. The new system is smaller and has modular single-channel units designed for high reliability. It is magnetically shielded and can be mounted close to the machine, which allows the use of lower power solid-state sources. Test results of the 94-GHz prototype indicate that the phase resolution is better than 10, the Impatt FM noise is 5 MHz wide, and the Gunn FM noise is 6 kHz wide. This paper presents the antenna designs along with the test results and discusses the unique problems associated with diagnosing a high electron temperature plasma in the presence of electron cyclotron resonant heating

  20. Effect of temperature on avalanche region width and DC to RF conversion efficiency of the p+nn-n+ 4H-SiC impact avalanche transit time diodes

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Lin'an; Wang, Shulong; Hao, Yue

    2016-06-01

    The effect of temperature on avalanche region width and DC to RF conversion efficiency of the p+nn-n+ impact ionization avalanche transit time diodes based on 4H-SiC material for 140 GHz design frequency has been investigated by means of the MEDICI simulation platform. It is shown that the avalanche region width of the IMPATT diodes working at the same operating current densities first decreases and then increases with the increasing temperature. The DC to RF conversion efficiency of the IMPATT diodes first increases and then decreases with the increasing temperature. The increase in ionization rate of impurities with increasing temperature and the decrease in the carrier impact ionization rate with increasing temperature are responsible for the results. In addition, the expansion of avalanche region and the degradation of DC to RF conversion efficiency at lower temperature are more pronounced in lower p+ region doping concentration diode than that in higher p+ region doping concentration.

  1. Design of plasmonic photodetector with high absorptance and nano-scale active regions.

    Guo, Jingshu; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel plasmonic photodetector with high responsivity, utilizing nano-scale active regions. This design can be applied to diverse materials (group III-V or IV materials) and different operation wavelengths covering the O-U bands. The periodic structure utilizing Surface Plasmon Polariton Bloch Waves (SPP-BWs) has low optical power loss. FDTD simulation shows an absorptance of 74.4% which means a responsivity of about 0.74 A/W at 1550 nm. The low capacitance brings low noise, reduced power consumption, and a high electrical bandwidth which is estimated to be 140 GHz. Among the plasmonic PDs with inherent high speeds but low responsivities, our design makes the obvious progress on improving the absorptance. PMID:27505787

  2. High-frequency resonant tunnelling diode oscillator with high-output power

    Wang, Jue; Alharbi, Khalid; Ofiare, Afesomeh; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, David; Wasige, Edward

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a prototype G-band (140 GHz-220 GHz) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillator is reported. The oscillator employs two In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs RTD devices in the circuit to increase the output power. The measured output power was about 0.34 mW (-4.7 dBm) at 165.7 GHz, which is the highest power reported for RTD oscillator in G-band frequency range. This result demonstrates the validity of the high frequency/high power RTD oscillator design. It indicates that RTD devices, as one of the terahertz (THz) source candidates, have promising future for room-temperature THz applications in such as imaging, wireless communication and spectroscopy analysis, etc. By optimizing RTD oscillator design, it is expected that considerably higher power (>1 mW) at THz frequencies (>300 GHz) will be obtained.

  3. Conceptual design of an electron cyclotron wave system for NET/ITER

    Electron Cyclotron waves (ECWs) provide a scheme for electron heating, which, owing to the strong localization of the resonant interaction with the plasma, allows an efficient tailoring of the power deposition profile. In the proposed ITER reference scenario for current drive and heating, ECWs are considered to assist plasma formation, pre-heating, local current profile control near the q=2 surface and possibly for baking the first wall tiles. For these functions, a total power of 20 MW, CW, at a frequency around 120 GHz is needed. A higher frequency system (140 GHz, 20 MW, CW), is also considered to heat the plasma centre and provide burn control. The same system at increased power could be used for plasma heating to ignition. For NET, due to the higher magnetic field, the frequencies needed for the tasks mentioned above are approximately 140 GHz and 160 GHz, respectively. ECWs are also envisaged for bulk heating of the NET plasma. Here, frequencies of about 160 GHz are necessary. A detailed study for the 120 GHz/20 MW ITER reference system has been performed. Scaling rules as well as additional antenna designs for higher frequency systems have been developed. The design principle was to offer a high degree of flexibility for the wide range of envisaged uses of the ECWs. The ECW system should satisfy the physics requirements, advanced requirements of reliability and availability, and must be compatible with the nuclear environment (which requires radiation resistance as well as remote maintenance of at least the antenna part). Therefore, it has been tried to place the most critical components as far away from the machine as possible. To improve the availability, the installation of 15% spare tubes and transmission systems is proposed. (orig.)

  4. The possibilities of material processing by intense millimeter-wave radiation

    This paper reports on powerful sources of millimeter wavelength (MMW) radiation that are developed for plasma investigation, particularly for thermonuclear plasma heating. Powerful oscillators for plasma heating - gyrotrons - at wavelengths down to 2 mm with output of several hundreds kilowatt at CW operation and over 1 MW at pulsed operation (pulse duration up to 1 s) are created or being created. The existence of CW multi kilowatt gyrotrons allows for new possibilities for material processing. The MMW range is situated at the end of the microwave range close to infrared and naturally allows applications either in the multimode microwave-oven manner or in the form of wave beam energy fluxes similar to laser radiation. Gyrotrons are close to technological lasers from the view-point of high flux densities up to 106W/cm2. By their efficiency (40%), gyrotrons are among the most effective electromagnetic devices and significantly exceed technological lasers in efficiency as well as in CW outputs. So gyrotrons can be used for various material transformation processes requiring great amounts of energy such as plasma chemistry and processing of solid materials

  5. Determination of electromagnetic modes in oversized corrugated waveguides on the electron cyclotron resonance heating installation at the tokamak Tore Supra

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in the Tore Supra tokamak constitutes an important step in the research aimed at obtaining thermonuclear fusion reactions. Electron heating is achieved by transmitting an electromagnetic wave from the oscillators (gyrotrons) to the plasma via the fundamental mode, propagating in oversized corrugated waveguides. Maximizing the proportion of the gyrotron power coupled to the fundamental waveguide mode is essential for the good functioning of the transmission line and for maximizing the effect on the plasma. This thesis gives all necessary tools for finding the proportion of the fundamental mode and all other modes present in passive components and at the output of the gyrotron as installed in the Tore Supra ECRH plant. This characterisation is based on obtaining amplitude and phase diagrams of the electric field on a plane transverse to the propagation axis. The most difficult part of obtaining these diagrams is measuring the phase which, despite the very short wavelength, is measured directly at low power levels. At high power levels the phase is numerically reconstructed from amplitude measurements for gyrotron characterisation. A complete theoretical study of the phase reconstruction code is given including its validation with theoretical diagrams. This study allows the realisation of a modal characterisation unit electromagnetic for measurement of radiated beams and usable in each part of the ECRH installation. At the end, the complete modal characterisation is given at low level for a mode converter and also at high level for the first series gyrotron installed at TORE SUPRA. (author)

  6. Water‐Data Report 411214091070601 LAKE ODESSA AT SCHAFER LANDING NR WAPELLO IOWA 2012

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water levels and water quality parameters recorded on Crane Creek. LOCATION: Lat. 41° 12 '14" W Long. 91° 7' 6" near Wapello, Iowa. Wapello County. Schafer Landing...

  7. Plans for improvements to the ATF ECH system

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellarator experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses electron cyclotron waves for plasma formation and heating. Although the existing systems are quite reliable and produce acceptable plasmas, a few deficiencies should be corrected. Therefore, several possible upgrades to the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) systems have been planned. Some of the desirable changes are (1) improving the launcher to make power deposition in the plasma more centralized,(2) improving the gyrotron power waveform monitoring diagnostics, (3) building a high-field launch system for higher density operation at 53-GHz (4) building a separate transmission line for the 35-GHz gyrotron, and (5) installing a higher frequency, higher power (84- or 110-GHz) gyrotron system for improved plasma density and temperature capability. This paper discusses options for these, improvements and conceptual designs

  8. Detrapping of hot electrons from magnetic well under ECR heating with parallel HF power launching

    The population of hot electrons with the energy of about 100 keV is often generated in magnetic traps under plasma ECRH. The results of an experimental study of this phenomenon at the OGRA-4 facility (baseball-type trap) under a microwave power launch (36 GHz, 200 kW) along the magnetic field are given in this paper. The ECR at the fundamental frequency was used for heating. It has been found out that a hard x-ray radiation gets out mainly of the vacuum chamber wall to which the gyrotron radiation is directed. This confirms the dominant yield of hot electrons towards the microwave propagation. The x-ray radiation was correlated with the gyrotron operation, it instantaneously disappeared, when the gyrotron was switched off. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs

  9. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors; Sistema de Control Remoto de los Espejos de las Lineas de Transmision de Microondas del TJ-II

    Lopez Sanchez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Cappa, A.; Gama, J. de la; Olivares, J.; Garcia, R.; Chamorro, M.

    2007-09-27

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Fundamental mode rectangular waveguide system for electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) for tandem mirror experiment-upgrade (TMX-U)

    We present a brief history of TMX-U's electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) progress. We emphasize the 2-year performance of the system, which is composed of four 200-kW pulsed gyrotrons operated at 28 GHz. This system uses WR42 waveguide inside the vacuum vessel, and includes barrier windows, twists, elbows, and antennas, as well as custom-formed waveguides. Outside the TMX-U vessel are directional couplers, detectors, elbows, and waveguide bends in WR42 rectangular waveguide. An arc detector, mode filter, eight-arm mode converter, and water load in the 2.5-in. circular waveguide are attached directly to the gyrotron. Other specific areas discussed include the operational performance of the TMX-U pulsed gyrotrons, windows and component arcing, alignment, mode generation, and extreme temperature variations. Solutions for a number of these problems are described

  11. The Compact Ignition Tokamak and electron cyclotron heating: Description of need; assessment of prospects

    The CIT will benefit from auxiliary heating of 10 to 40 MW. The schedules of both the CIT construction project and the operating plan contain adequate time to develop and implement ECH systems based on the gyrotron and the induction free electron laser (IFEL). Each approach has advantages and is the object of R and D at the level of many millions of dollars per year. While the gyrotron is further advanced in terms of power and pulse length achieved, rapid progress is scheduled for the IFEL, including experiments on tokamaks. Plans of CIT, gyrotron, and IFEL make 1992 an appropriate time frame to commit to one or both systems. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs

  13. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    Shim, Eun-yong; Ahn, Il-kun; Seo, Tae-won; Lee, Seung-kyo; Bae, Young-soon; Joung, Jin-Hyun; Joung, Mi

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A) Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS), Anode Power Supply(APS) and Body Power Supply(BPS). The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz modulation operation. The BPS is combined the commercial power supply and special high voltage switches. It is very simple topology but 5kHz modulation was accomplished easily. Theses power supply system were installed and commissioned successfully in 2011. This paper presents the topology of the each power supply and test result for 170 GHz gyrotron in KSTAR.

  14. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    Joung Jin-Hyun; Bae Young-soon; Lee Seung-kyo; Seo Tae-won; Ahn Il-kun; Shim Eun-yong; Joung Mi

    2012-01-01

    A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A) Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS), Anode Power Supply(APS) and Body Power Supply(BPS). The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz ...

  15. Recent progresses in the 110 GHz ECRF system on JT-60U tokamak

    The 110 GHz ECRF system on the JT-60U started its operation with a 1 MW gyrotron in 1999. Two additional units were completed in 2000. The forth unit was available to generate the total power of 4 MW in 2001. The 1 MW gyrotron is featured by a collector potential depression structure and a diamond output window. The system has four evacuated waveguide lines in 50-60 m length with nine miter bends, each of which has a diamond window near the antenna. One of the recent progresses in this system is to up-grade the gyrotron, whose previous performance was limited to less than 1 MW x 2 sec by a parasitic oscillation in it. Three of four gyrotrons were improved for suppression of the parasitic oscillation by installing a RF absorber in the beam tunnel. The second progress is to reduce the fluctuation in the acceleration voltage for the high power gyrotron operation. The main DC voltage power supply for the gyrotron is not regulated in the system. Before this progress, a large fluctuation in the DC voltage disturbed the stable gyrotron oscillation when four gyrotrons were simultaneously in operation. The third progress is to improve the transmission efficiency from 60-75% to 70-80% by re-adjusting the alignment of the waveguide lines. By these progresses, a generated power on the best unit has reached up to ∼ 1.2 MW x 4.1 s (∼ 1 MW x 5 s) corresponding to ∼ 1 MW (∼ 0.8 MW) for the injected power into plasmas. The total injected power has been 3 MW x 2 sec (∼ 2.8 MW x 3.6 s) using four units. A local profile control has been performed using two steerable antennas at this power level during a plasma discharge. The test of the feedback control of the steerable antenna linked with the perturbation of electron temperature has been successfully done for stabilization the MHD instability such as NTM. (authors)

  16. 300 GHz ジャイロトロンを用いた材料処理装置の開発

    佐古, 勝英; 谷, 晋仁; 橋本, 秀一; 尾関, 隆則; 光藤, 誠太郎; 立松, 芳典; 斉藤, 輝雄; 出原, 敏孝; SAKO, Katsuhide; TANI, Shinji; HASHIMOTO, Syuiti; Ozeki, Takanori; MITSUDO, Seitaro; TATEMATSU, Yoshinori; SAITO, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The effective characteristics of high frequency and strong electric field processing wereobserved. One of the interesting effects is the so-called non-thermal effect or microwave effect. In order to widely study the non-thermal effect of ceramics sintering and application of material processing, we developed a material processing system by using the 300 GHz gyrotron FU CW I. This system consists of a 300GHz, 2.3 kW, CW gyrotron with a cryogen free 12 T superconducting magnet, a corrugated cir...

  17. Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: analytical, numerical, and experimental study.

    Burt, G; Samsonov, S V; Ronald, K; Denisov, G G; Young, A R; Bratman, V L; Phelps, A D R; Cross, A W; Konoplev, I V; He, W; Thomson, J; Whyte, C G

    2004-10-01

    Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared. PMID:15600525

  18. Development program for a 200 kW, CW, 28 GHz gyroklystron. Final report, April 1976-September 1980

    The objective of this program was to develop a microwave amplifier or oscillator capable of producing 200 kW, CW power output at 28 GHz. The use of the gyrotron or cyclotron resonance interaction was pursued. A room temperature hollow core solenoid magnet with an iron case was designed to produce the magnetic field required for electron cyclotron resonance. Three pulsed gyroklystron amplifiers were built providing increasing stable output powers of 6, 65 and 76 kW. A back-up pulsed gyrotron oscillator produced 248 kW. A ceramic cone broadband water load was developed. Tests are described for the various tubes that were developed

  19. High power test of a wideband diplexer with short-slotted metal half mirrors for electron cyclotron current drive system

    The wideband high power diplexer has been developed for combining and fast switching of high power millimeter waves generated by a dual frequency gyrotron. The actual diplexer was tested at the frequency band of 170 GHz in low power. After adjusting a resonant frequency of diplexer for the gyrotron frequency, the evacuated wideband diplexer with short-slotted metal half mirrors was tested at an incident power of about 150 kW, a pulse duration of 30 ms and a frequency band of 170.2–170.3 GHz. Any discharge damage was not observed in the diplexer

  20. Fusion development and technology

    This report discusses the following topics: superconducting magnet technology high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies -- Aries; ITER physics; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  1. Fast ion millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics on TEXTOR and ASDEX upgrades

    Michelsen, S.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, H.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, Poul; Tsakadze, E.L.; Egedal, J.; Woskov, P.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Leuterer, F.; Westerhof, E.

    2004-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic systems for measuring fast ions in TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade are described in this article. Both systems use millimeter waves generated by gyrotrons as probing radiation and the scattered radiation is detected with heterodyne receivers having 40...

  2. Investigation of first mirror heating for the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic in ITER

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has the capabilities to measure phase space densities of fast ion populations in ITER resolved in configuration space, in velocity space, and in time. In the CTS system proposed for ITER, probing radiation at 60 GHz generated by two 1 MW gyrotrons is scattered ...

  3. EC power sources: European technological developments towards ITER

    The activities in Europe towards the development of the EC power sources for ITER are centered on the development of a 170 GHz, 2 MW, CW coaxial cavity gyrotron of collector potential depressed (CPD) type. A gyrotron with a higher unit power than the ITER reference (1 MW) would yield a reduction of the installation costs, a more compact launcher design and, if required, an increase of the power delivered through one port. Tests proving the principle were successfully performed on a short-pulse experimental gyrotron delivering up to 2.2 MW in single mode. Following this success, a coordinated and fully consistent programme of development has been launched. The first industrial 2 MW prototype is now at an advanced stage of construction. The associated superconductive magnet producing 6.86 T on the cavity axis is also being procured. Dummy loads suitable for short and CW operation are also part of the development effort. Finally, a new EC test facility, with the features necessary for the testing of the gyrotron up to full power in CW, has been established and includes a fully solid-state power supply system

  4. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 6

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the Technical Committee Meeting of the Working Group on Gyrotrons and Windows, held at the Garching Joint Work Site from 16-18 May 1994, and on the Technical Committee Meeting on the ITER Power Supply held at the Naka Joint Work Site from May 10-13, 1994. 1 tab

  5. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume IV. Microwave system. Preliminary design report

    The EBT-P Microwave System provides microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) to both stabilize and heat the EBT-P plasma. A 28 gigahertz (GHz) system is required to form the hot electron annulus plasma that provides MHD stabilization to the core plasma. A 60 GHz system is required to heat the core plasma and will provide some second harmonic heating of the hot electron annulus. The principal microwave system elements and their design characteristics are summarized. The microwave system includes 200 kilowatt (kW) gyrotrons at 60 GHz for core heating and 200 kW gyrotrons at 28 GHz for annulus heating. The basic operating complement will be six (6) 60 GHz tubes and two (2) 28 GHz tubes. PACE (Plant and Capital Equipment) procurement will include four (4) 60 GHz gyrotrons with two (2) GHz tubes procured under operations and the two (2) 28 GHz tubes will be provided, with mounts, from the EBT-S program. Each tube is rigidly mounted on an oil filled tank assembly which provides electrical isolation and cooling. All tubes and mounts will be located in the lower level of the torus enclosure. An extensive demineralized water flow system is required to provide gyrotron cooling

  6. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.

    2005-07-19

    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  7. Methods of generation and amplification of micro- and millimeter waves in vacuum tubes

    Steyskal, H.

    1981-01-01

    The principles underlying electron tubes, such as gyrotrons, peniotrons, free electron lasers, orotrons, and gyrocons are described. These generators for very high frequency and very high power generators are considerably different from conventional microwave tubes. They are at present in the research and development stage but may soon become important for fusion and radar technology.

  8. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Bindslev, Henrik; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Porte, L.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Meo, Fernando; Michelsen, Poul; Michelsen, Susanne; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Tsakadze, Erekle; Westerhof, E.; Woskov, P.

    The dynamics of fast ion populations in the TEXTOR tokamak are measured by collective Thomson scattering of millimetre wave radiation generated by a gyrotron operated at 110 GHz and 100-150 kW. Temporal evolution of the energetic ion velocity distribution at switch on of neutral beam injection (NBI...

  9. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Meo, F.; Michelsen, Poul; Michelsen, S.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Westerhof, E.; Woskov, P.

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection...

  10. 1990's annual report of INPE's Plasma Associated Laboratory

    This is the 1990's annual report of INPE's Plasma Associated Laboratory it contains information on current research developed at the laboratory including quiescent plasma, magnetized plasma, plasma centrifuge, plasma and radiation (gyrotron), ionic propulsion, and toroidal plasma. (A.C.A.S.)

  11. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Plasma Fusion Center 1992--1993 report to the President

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at MIT`s plasma fusion center. Some of the areas covered are: plasma diagnostics; rf plasma heating; gyrotron research; treatment of solid waste by arc plasma; divertor experiments; tokamak studies; and plasma and fusion theory.

  12. Progress in EC heating and current drive physics and technology at RTP

    Recent achievements in both the technical development program and the experimental physics program related to electron cyclotron waves are described: - first lasing of the Free Electron Maser; - feedback control of the gyrotron output;- second harmonic current drive experiments; - control of the current decay in disruptions; -cross- polarisation scattering experiments. (author)

  13. Progress in EC heating and current drive physics and technology at RTP

    Recent achievements in both the technical development program and the experimental physics program related to electron cyclotron waves are described: first lasing of the Free Electron Maser; feedback control of the gyrotron output; second harmonic current drive experiments; control of the current decay in disruptions; cross-polarisation scattering experiments. (author)

  14. Development of high power microwave source

    To achieve thermonuclear fusion it is inevitable to develop high power microwave and millimeter wave sources for plasma heating. In 1990, working group was organized as a collaboration study in National Institute for Fusion Science to review the present status of development on high microwave source. We report the review of development on high power klystron and gyrotron, FEL and microwave power source by REB. Development of high power klystron is almost finished except for cooling of the window, cavity and collector. As for the gyrotron oscillating with the whispering gallery mode one must overcome the same problem for CW operation. In the quasi-optical gyrotron, these is no special progress for increasing the frequency and efficiency. Though the experimental evidence on autoresonance in the development of peniotron is performed, output power and frequency is much smaller than that of the gyrotron. It is difficult to increase in the pluse width of FEL having giant of GW level with several ten ns and the utilization for plasma heating is limited. In addition, we summarize microwave and millimeter wave oscillators with high power which are running in the laboratories and the institutes. (author)

  15. EU Developments of the ITER ECRH System

    The electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H (and) CD) system of ITER will deliver 20 MW/CW in the plasma at 170 GHz for H (and) CD in addition to 2.5 MW/3 s at 120 GHz for plasma start-up. The EC system is composed of power supplies (PS), up to 24 H (and) CD gyrotrons (1 to 2 MW tubes), 3 start-up gyrotrons (1 MW tubes), 24 transmission lines and two sets of launching antennas: equatorial (EL) and upper (UL) launchers. Under the present ITER procurement package the EU is responsible for one third of the H (and) CD 170 GHz gyrotrons, all PSs associated with the H (and) CD system, and the whole set (4) of upper launchers. In all areas of participation, the EU EC partnership (coordinated by the European Fusion Development Association - EFDA) aims toward advancing the technology of each of these subsystems. For example, procurement of Pulse Step Modulator (PSM) HVPS is under consideration, which might have equivalent costs to the present ITER design (thyristor HVPS and HV series switch), but with an increased flexibility in operation and variation in the EC power waveform. The EU is at the forefront in gyrotron research and is developing a 2 MW CW 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron offering an increase in output power while maintaining moderate power densities in the gyrotron cavity and collector. THALESR in collaboration with its EFDA partners (FZK, CRPP, TEKES) is manufacturing a series of prototype tubes in three phases of typically 1 s, 100 s and then CW pulse capacity (∼ 2010). A 2 MW, CW gyrotron test facility is being built at CRPP that will be used to develop the 2 MW coaxial tube, in addition to testing various components required by the EC system. EFDA has undertaken a parallel development of two launcher options: front (FS) and remote (RS) steering, with the aim of providing an optimum launcher for ITER weighing EC physics aspects and operation reliability. The FS launcher (ITER reference design) offers a significant enhancement in physics

  16. A Multifrequency Notch Filter for Millimeter Wave Plasma Diagnostics based on Photonic Bandgaps in Corrugated Circular Waveguides

    Wagner D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive millimeter wave diagnostics need often to be protected against unwanted radiation like, for example, stray radiation from high power Electron Cyclotron Heating applied in nuclear fusion plasmas. A notch filter based on a waveguide Bragg reflector (photonic band-gap may provide several stop bands of defined width within up to two standard waveguide frequency bands. A Bragg reflector that reflects an incident fundamental TE11 into a TM1n mode close to cutoff is combined with two waveguide tapers to fundamental waveguide diameter. Here the fundamental TE11 mode is the only propagating mode at both ends of the reflector. The incident TE11 mode couples through the taper and is converted to the high order TM1n mode by the Bragg structure at the specific Bragg resonances. The TM1n mode is trapped in the oversized waveguide section by the tapers. Once reflected at the input taper it will be converted back into the TE11 mode which then can pass through the taper. Therefore at higher order Bragg resonances, the filter acts as a reflector for the incoming TE11 mode. Outside of the Bragg resonances the TE11 mode can propagate through the oversized waveguide structure with only very small Ohmic attenuation compared to propagating in a fundamental waveguide. Coupling to other modes is negligible in the non-resonant case due to the small corrugation amplitude (typically 0.05·λ0, where λ0 is the free space wavelength. A Bragg reflector for 105 and 140 GHz was optimized by mode matching (scattering matrix simulations and manufactured by SWISSto12 SA, where the required mechanical accuracy of ± 5 μm could be achieved by stacking stainless steel rings, manufactured by micro-machining, in a high precision guiding pipe. The two smooth-wall tapers were fabricated by electroforming. Several measurements were performed using vector network analyzers from Agilent (E8362B, ABmm (MVNA 8-350 and Rohde&Schwarz (ZVA24 together with frequency multipliers. The

  17. Integrated Operating Scenario to Achieve 100-Second, High Electron Temperature Discharge on EAST

    QIAN Jinping; GONG Xianzu; WAN Baonian; LIU Fukun; WANG Mao; XU Handong; HU Chundong

    2016-01-01

    Stationary long pulse plasma of high electron temperature was produced on EAST for the first time through an integrated control of plasma shape,divertor heat flux,particle exhaust,wall conditioning,impurity management,and the coupling of multiple heating and current drive power.A discharge with a lower single null divertor configuration was maintained for 103 s at a plasma current of 0.4 MA,q95 ≈7.0,a peak electron temperature of >4.5 keV,and a central density ne(0)~ 2.5×1019 m-3.The plasma current was nearly non-inductive (Vloop <0.05 V,poloidal beta ~ 0.9) driven by a combination of 0.6 MW lower hybrid wave at 2.45 GHz,1.4 MW lower hybrid wave at 4.6 GHz,0.5 MW electron cyclotron heating at 140 GHz,and 0.4 MW modulated neutral deuterium beam injected at 60 kV.This progress demonstrated strong synergy of electron cyclotron and lower hybrid electron heating,current drive,and energy confinement of stationary plasma on EAST.It further introduced an example of integrated “hybrid” operating scenario of interest to ITER and CFETR.

  18. The steady-state ECRH-system at Wendelstein7-X

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) is the main heating system for the Wendelstein7-X (W7-X) stellarator and the only one for CW-operation in the first stage. The mission of W7-X, which is presently under construction at IPP-Greifswald, is to demonstrate the inherent steady state capability of stellarators at reactor relevant plasma parameters. A modular 10 MW ECRH plant at 140 GHz with 1 MW CW-capability power for each module is under construction to meet the scientific objectives. Simulations of different ECRH scenarios, which are foreseen for W7-X operation and base on ray- tracing calculations and confinement studies, will be presented. A steady state ECRH has specific requirements on the stellarator machine itself, on the ECRH-sources, transmissions elements and on the experimental environment. In particular all elements have to be sufficiently cooled, screened and armoured against microwaves. The commissioning of the ECRH plant is well under way, the strategy and status of the project will be reported. First full power, CW integral tests of one ECRH module have been performed. A large microwave stray radiation chamber for integrated in-vessel component tests had been brought into operation. A bi-axially movable, motor driven ECRH antenna mock-up was build and is tested for reliability now. A strategy for the commissioning and the first experimental campaign at W7-X has been developed. (author)

  19. Detection of the tSZ effect with the NIKA camera

    Comis, B.; Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Catalano, A.; Coiffard, G.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2013-11-01

    We present the first detection of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect from a cluster of galaxies performed with a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument. The tSZ effect is a distortion of the black body CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) spectrum produced by the inverse Compton interaction of CMB photons with the hot electrons of the ionized intra-cluster medium. The massive, intermediate redshift cluster RX J1347.5-1145 has been observed using {NIKA} (New IRAM KIDs arrays), a dual-band (140 and 240 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera, which exploits two arrays of hundreds of KIDs: the resonant frequencies of the superconducting resonators are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. This tSZ cluster observation demonstrates the potential of the next generation {NIKA2} instrument, being developed for the 30m telescope of IRAM, at Pico Veleta (Spain). {NIKA2} will have 1000 detectors at 140GHz and 2x2000 detectors at 240GHz, providing in that band also a measurement of the linear polarization. {NIKA2} will be commissioned in 2015.

  20. Detection of the tSZ effect with the NIKA camera

    Comis, B; Macías-Pérez, J F; Adane, A; Ade, P; André, P; Beelen, A; Belier, B; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Boudou, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; D'Addabbo, A; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Leclercq, S; Martino, J; Mauskopf, P; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pointecouteau, E; Ponthieu, N; Revéret, V; Rodriguez, L; Savini, G; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the first detection of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect from a cluster of galaxies performed with a KIDs (Kinetic Inductance Detectors) based instrument. The tSZ effect is a distortion of the black body CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) spectrum produced by the inverse Compton interaction of CMB photons with the hot electrons of the ionized intra-cluster medium. The massive, intermediate redshift cluster RX J1347.5-1145 has been observed using NIKA (New IRAM KIDs arrays), a dual-band (140 and 240 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera, which exploits two arrays of hundreds of KIDs: the resonant frequencies of the superconducting resonators are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. This tSZ cluster observation demonstrates the potential of the next generation NIKA2 instrument, being developed for the 30m telescope of IRAM, at Pico Veleta (Spain). NIKA2 will have 1000 detectors at 140GHz and 2x2000 detectors at 240GHz, providing in that band also a measurement of the linear polarization. NIKA2 will ...

  1. Physics studies with the ECH system on FTU tokamak

    A millimeter-wave system at 140 GHz, designed for delivering up to 4 x 0.4 MW to the antennae, is operating on the compact, high field FTU tokamak for launching Electron Cyclotron waves from the low magnetic field side at the fundamental ωc,e resonance. For greater flexibility, absorption radius can be moved from inner (high field side) to outer (low field side) edges, and oblique launch can be performed for EC Current Drive, both in the co and counter direction with respect to induction current. Experiments are performed with the main aim of studying MHD dynamics and energy transport physics in a wide density range, both in the current flattop and during the ramp-up phase. In particular, electron transport and temperature profile stiffness features with localized ECRH in FTU tokamak are described. The experiments carried out on electron transport with ECRH, steady state and transient, both at flat top and during current ramp up, support the description of plasma having a good confinement core, separated from a region of enhanced transport. With strong ECRH the absorption layer is a transition point, but at moderate PECRH/POH ratios a transition appears at the radius where the gradient length LT approaches a critical threshold LT,c. Regions of enhanced transport are also characterized by temperature profile stiffness. The critical gradient length LT,c is related to the current density profile, consistently with predictions from ETG turbulence theory. (authors)

  2. A G-band terahertz monolithic integrated amplifier in 0.5-μm InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology

    Ou-Peng, Li; Yong, Zhang; Rui-Min, Xu; Wei, Cheng; Yuan, Wang; Bing, Niu; Hai-Yan, Lu

    2016-05-01

    Design and characterization of a G-band (140–220 GHz) terahertz monolithic integrated circuit (TMIC) amplifier in eight-stage common-emitter topology are performed based on the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). An inverted microstrip line is implemented to avoid a parasitic mode between the ground plane and the InP substrate. The on-wafer measurement results show that peak gains are 20 dB at 140 GHz and more than 15-dB gain at 140–190 GHz respectively. The saturation output powers are ‑2.688 dBm at 210 GHz and ‑2.88 dBm at 220 GHz, respectively. It is the first report on an amplifier operating at the G-band based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT technology. Compared with the hybrid integrated circuit of vacuum electronic devices, the monolithic integrated circuit has the advantage of reliability and consistency. This TMIC demonstrates the feasibility of the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP DHBT amplifier in G-band frequencies applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501091) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. ZYGX2014J003 and ZYGX2013J020).

  3. The ETA-II induction linac as a high-average-power FEL driver

    Nexsen, W. E.; Atkinson, D. P.; Barrett, D. M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Clark, J. C.; Griffith, L. V.; Kirbie, H. C.; Newton, M. A.; Paul, A. C.; Sampayan, S.; Throop, A. L.; Turner, W. C.

    1990-10-01

    The Experimental Test Accelerator II (ETA-II) is the first induction linac designed specifically to FEL requirements. It is primarily intended to demonstrate induction accelerator technology for high-average-power, high-brightness electron beams, and will be used to drive a 140 and 250 GHz microwave FEL for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at LLNL. Its features include high-vacuum design which allows the use of an intrinsically bright dispenser cathode, induction cells designed to minimize BBU growth rate, and careful attention to magnetic alignment to minimize radial sweep due to beam corkscrew. The use of magnetic switches allows high-average-power operation. At present ETA-II is being used to drive 140 GHz plasma heating experiments. These experiments require nominal beam parameters of 6 MeV energy, 2 kA current, 20 ns pulse width and a brightness of 1 × 108 A/(m rad)2 at the wiggler with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) of 0.5 Hz. Future 250 GHz experiments require beam parameters of 10 MeV energy, 3 kA current, 50 ns pulse width and a brightness of 1 × 108 A/(m rad)2 with a 5 kHz prf for 0.5 s. In this paper we discuss the present status of ETA-II parameters and the phased development program necessary to satisfy these future requirements.

  4. Numerical studies of electron cyclotron wave current drive on HL-2A tokamak

    The electron cyclotron wave (ECW) current drive (CD) for the HL-2A tokamak is investigated numerically with a new ray-tracing and Fokker-Planck code. The code is benchmarked with other well-tested linear and quasilinear codes and is then used to study the electron cyclotron current drive on the HL-2A tokamak. The wave propagation, power deposition, and driven-current profiles are presented. The effect of electron trapping is also assessed. It is found that quasilinear effects are negligible at the present ECW power levels and that when both waves are injected at an angle of 20° on the plasma equatorial plane, the CD efficiency for the HL-2A saturates at ∼0.029 × 1020 A/W/m2 and ∼0.020 × 1020 A/W/m2 for the 0.5 MW/68 GHz first harmonic ordinary (O1) and 1 MW/140 GHz second harmonic extraordinary (X2) modes, respectively. The effects of the plasma density, temperature, and wave-launching position on the driven current are also investigated analytically and numerically

  5. Peculiar Velocity Constraints from Five-Band SZ Effect Measurements Towards RX J1347.5-1145 with MUSIC and Bolocam from the CSO

    Sayers, Jack; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R; Maloney, Philip R; Siegel, Seth R; Wheeler, Jordan; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G; Day, Peter K; Downes, Thomas P; Duan, Ran P; Gao, Jiansong; Hollister, Matthew I; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G; Mazin, Benjamin A; McHugh, Sean G; Miller, David A; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T; Radford, Simon J; Schlaerth, James A; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    We present Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements from wide-field images towards the galaxy cluster RX J1347.5-1145 obtained from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Multiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) at 147, 213, 281, and 337 GHz and with Bolocam at 140 GHz. As part of our analysis, we have used higher frequency data from Herschel-SPIRE and previously published lower frequency radio data to subtract the signal from the brightest dusty star-forming galaxies behind RX J1347.5-1145 and from the AGN in RX J1347.5-1145's BCG. Using these five-band SZ effect images, combined with previously published X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the temperature of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) from Chandra, we constrain the ICM optical depth to be $\\tau_e = 2.73^{+0.38}_{-0.39} \\times 10^{-3}$ and the ICM line of sight peculiar velocity to be $v_{pec} = -1260^{+760}_{-530}$ km s$^{-1}$. The errors for both quantities are limited by measurement noise rather than calibration uncertainties...

  6. Low power tests on the new front steering EC launcher for FTU

    Moro, A., E-mail: moro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Bin, W.; Bruschi, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); D' Antona, G. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Electrical Engineering Division, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Davoudi, M.; Ferrero, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Electrical Engineering Division, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Mantovani, S.; Mellera, V.; Muzzini, V.; Simonetto, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    A new electron cyclotron (EC) antenna for real time control experiments on FTU tokamak has been tested at IFP-CNR laboratory. mm-Wave characterization was performed at the operating frequency of 140 GHz with low power measurements, primarily to test the internal optics of the launcher in terms of focusing properties and beam directivity. The antenna is devoted to the injection of high power EC waves in different working configurations using a front steering setup. The beam direction is controlled with a fast mirror (steerable both toroidally and poloidally) and the available launching angles have been determined to fix the steering mirror working space. Beam dimension can also be controlled, using a sliding structure in the plug-in system, equipped with a focusing mirror that provides zooming capabilities. This paper contains results of low power tests performed on the antenna in order to characterize the launcher in its quasi-optical design. Beams are found to be slightly astigmatic (maximum ratio w{sub y}/w{sub x}=1.1) and with an expected beam radius in the plasma ranging from 18.6 to 26.0 mm due to cited zooming effects. Additional beam patterns and linear scans of the launched mm-wave power for different injection angles have been measured, in some cases in realistic conditions (using a mock-up of the FTU port provided with metallic side-walls) to evaluate diffraction and beam truncation effects.

  7. Normally-off metamorphic AlInAs/AlInAs HEMTs on Si substrates grown by MOCVD

    Huang, Jie; Li, Ming; Lau, Kei-May

    2015-07-01

    A combination of self-aligned fluoride-based plasma treatment and post-gate rapid thermal annealing was developed to fabricate a novel 120-nm T-shaped gate normally-off metamorphic Al0.49In0.51As/Ga0.47In0.53As HEMT device on a Si substrate grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A shift of the threshold voltage, from -0.42 V to 0.11 V was obtained and the shift can be effectively adjusted by the process parameter of CF4 plasma treatment. Furthermore, a side benefit of reducing the leakage current of the device up to two orders of magnitude was also observed. E-mode transistors with 120 nm gate length own fT up to 160 GHz and fmax of 140 GHz. These characteristics imply the potential of the fluoride-based plasma treatment technology for the fabrication of monolithic enhancement/depletion-mode mHEMTs, which also encourage the massive production with this low-cost technology. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 61401373), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central University, China (Grant No. XDJK2013B004 and 2362014XK13), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Southwest University, China (Grant No. SWU111030).

  8. Toward increased concentration sensitivity for continuous wave EPR investigations of spin-labeled biological macromolecules at high fields

    Song, Likai; Liu, Zhanglong; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Hunter, Robert I.; Hill, Stephen; Smith, Graham M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-04-01

    High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at W-(∼94 GHz) and D-band (∼140 GHz) is important for investigating the conformational dynamics of flexible biological macromolecules because this frequency range has increased spectral sensitivity to nitroxide motion over the 100 ps to 2 ns regime. However, low concentration sensitivity remains a roadblock for studying aqueous samples at high magnetic fields. Here, we examine the sensitivity of a non-resonant thin-layer cylindrical sample holder, coupled to a quasi-optical induction-mode W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER), for continuous wave (CW) EPR analyses of: (i) the aqueous nitroxide standard, TEMPO; (ii) the unstructured to α-helical transition of a model IDP protein; and (iii) the base-stacking transition in a kink-turn motif of a large 232 nt RNA. For sample volumes of ∼50 μL, concentration sensitivities of 2-20 μM were achieved, representing a ∼10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE011 resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer. These results therefore highlight the sensitivity of the thin-layer sample holders employed in HiPER for spin-labeling studies of biological macromolecules at high fields, where applications can extend to other systems that are facilitated by the modest sample volumes and ease of sample loading and geometry.

  9. Injection locking of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode

    The phenomenon of hard excitation is natural for many electronic oscillators. In particular, in a gyrotron, a maximal efficiency is often attained in the hard excitation regime. In this paper, we study the injection-locking phenomena using two models of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode. First, bifurcation analysis is performed for the quasilinear model described by ordinary differential equations for the slow amplitude and phase. Two main scenarios of transition to the injection-locked mode are described, which are generalizations of the well-known phase-locking and suppression mechanisms. The results obtained for the quasilinear model are confirmed by numerical simulations of a gyrotron with fixed Gaussian structure of the RF field

  10. Matching of the ECRH transmission line of W7-X

    Michel, Georg, E-mail: michel@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Erckmann, Volker; Hollmann, Frank; Jonitz, Lothar [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kasparek, Walter [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Plasmaforschung, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Laqua, Heinrich [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Lechte, Carsten [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Plasmaforschung, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Marushchenko, Nikolai [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Plaum, Burkhard [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Plasmaforschung, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Turkin, Yuriy [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Weißgerber, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The polarization of the directed ECRH power has to be matched to the plasma boundary with respect to the magnetic field at the density gradient region close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). This is achieved by means of grooved mirrors, which provide the required polarization and which are part of the matching optics unit (MOU) of the gyrotrons. The RF radiation from the gyrotrons has to pass typically 16 mirrors in a complex three-dimensional arrangement in order to reach the plasma. The paper discusses the modeling of the ECRH transmission in order to find the required polarizer adjustment for each possible injection angle and plasma wave type (O- or X-mode). This includes the calculation of the polarization state on the plasma boundary, the back-propagation through the transmission line up to the MOU and finally the calculation of the corresponding angles of both polarizers.

  11. Development of a Propagating Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor in the Oversize Corrugated Waveguide Used in an ECRH System

    Shimozuma, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakuji; Ito, Satoshi; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kubo, Shin; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Nishiura, Masaki; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Okada, Kohta; Mutoh, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In a high-power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system for plasma heating, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system of the millimeter wave is required. A real-time monitor of the millimeter-wave beam position and its intensity profile, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam-position and profile monitor (BPM) consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array, and a heat-sink, which is installed in the reflector-plate of a miterbend. The BPM was tested using both simulated electric heater power and high-power gyrotron output power. The profile obtained from the monitor using the gyrotron output was well agreed with the burn patter on a thermal sensitive paper. Methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated waveguide are proposed.

  12. Electron tube with transverse cyclotron interaction

    Chodorow, M.

    1985-04-23

    An electron-beam tube for generating high microwave power at high frequencies comprises a fast-wave circuit such as a hollow waveguide. The circuit wave has a component of electric field perpendicular to its propagation axis. This field interacts with motions of the electrons transverse to the axis, in particular cyclotron rotation in an axial magnetic field. The above features are common to the well-known ''gyrotrons''. In the inventive tube the fast-wave circuit has means for locking a linearly polarized transverse-electric mode to the orientation of a circuit member such as the ridge in a ridged waveguide. The member (ridge) rotates spirally with distance along the guide. The added periodicity permits interaction with a space harmonic of the circuit wave. The -1 harmonic has a dispersion characteristic which provides beam-wave interaction over a wider frequency range than is possible in prior-art tubes of the gyrotron type.

  13. Electron tube with transverse cyclotron interaction

    An electron-beam tube for generating high microwave power at high frequencies comprises a fast-wave circuit such as a hollow waveguide. The circuit wave has a component of electric field perpendicular to its propagation axis. This field interacts with motions of the electrons transverse to the axis, in particular cyclotron rotation in an axial magnetic field. The above features are common to the well-known ''gyrotrons''. In the inventive tube the fast-wave circuit has means for locking a linearly polarized transverse-electric mode to the orientation of a circuit member such as the ridge in a ridged waveguide. The member (ridge) rotates spirally with distance along the guide. The added periodicity permits interaction with a space harmonic of the circuit wave. The -1 harmonic has a dispersion characteristic which provides beam-wave interaction over a wider frequency range than is possible in prior-art tubes of the gyrotron type

  14. Experimental study on resonance relativistic SHF generators on the base of linear induction electron accelerator

    The results of studies on relativistic SHF-generators - orotron and gyrotron for obtaining data on the quality of a high-current electron beam shaped in the section of a linear induction accelerator are given. Axisymmetric resonators as sections of weak-irregular waveguides were used in both generators. Stable generation of short-wave radiation of 15-20 MW at the efficiency of 5-7% SHF pulse duration of 50 ns was obtained in the orotron at the wave length of 8.5 mm and current of 600 A. Stable generation of 7-10 MW SHF-radiation at the efficiency of 3-5% and pulse duration of 150 ns was observed in the gyrotron at the wave length of 12 mm. Under further acceleration in the following sections of the accelerator the electron beam may be used for obtaining radiation of shorter waves

  15. Initial operation of ECRH heating experiments on the Versator II tokamak

    Luckhardt, S.C.; Chen, K.I.; Kirkwood, R.; Porkolab, M.; Singleton, D.; Squire, J.; Villasenor, J.; Lu, Z.

    1987-09-01

    Operation of a 35GHz electron cyclotron heating experiment has begun on Versator II with gyrotron power of 100kW. The EC antenna is located on the high magnetic field side of the plasma and launches linearly polarized radiation in the HE11 hybrid mode with externally controllable polarization and parallel index of refraction. The transmission system provides mode conversion from the TE01 output mode of the gyrotron to the HE11 mode and polarization control. The mode transformation characteristics of the transmission system were measured by means of a computer controlled two dimensional scanning system, and contour plots of the far field radiation pattern of each transmission system element were made and compared with theory. Overall the transmission system is found to be approximately 95% efficient with mode patterns in generally excellent agreement with theory.

  16. Research and Development of 2-frequency (110/138 GHz FADIS for JT-60SA ECHCD system

    Idei H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A FAst DIrectional Switch (FADIS of 2-frequency (2-ƒ gyrotron system for the JT-60SA project is being developed under collaboration between Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA and Kyushu University. At first, the frequency drift and dip in the gyrotron operation were measured to consider which kind of FADIS is preferred for application in the Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECHCD system for the JT- 60SA. Various types of the FADIS have been considered. A square corrugated waveguide diplexer system with double resonant rings was considered as one of the most attractive FADIS systems for stable high-power and long-pulse operations in the 2-ƒ JT-60SA ECHCD system.

  17. Recent results of plasma research activities at the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais

    Recent results obtained in different experiments at the Institute for Space Research (INPE) are reported. An enrichment of 390% of carbon isotopes has been achieved in the plasma centrifege. The role of ion-acoustic turbulence in the formation of double layers has been experimentaly investigated. The turbulent spectrum has been measured and agrees quite well with the prediction of the modified Kadomtsev's renormalized theory. The characteristics of the gyrotron that is presently being built at INPE and new techniques for gyrotron design are discussed. Thecretical results on the generalized Spitzer-Harm problem, current drive in the start-up phase of Tokamaks, and quasilinear theory of beat-wave current drive are also presented. (author)

  18. Injection locking of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode

    Yakunina, K. A. [Saratov State University, 83 Astrakhanskaya St., 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, A. P.; Ryskin, N. M. [Saratov State University, 83 Astrakhanskaya St., 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Department of Nonlinear Physics, Saratov Branch, V.A. Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, 38 Zelenaya St., 410019 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The phenomenon of hard excitation is natural for many electronic oscillators. In particular, in a gyrotron, a maximal efficiency is often attained in the hard excitation regime. In this paper, we study the injection-locking phenomena using two models of an electronic maser in the hard excitation mode. First, bifurcation analysis is performed for the quasilinear model described by ordinary differential equations for the slow amplitude and phase. Two main scenarios of transition to the injection-locked mode are described, which are generalizations of the well-known phase-locking and suppression mechanisms. The results obtained for the quasilinear model are confirmed by numerical simulations of a gyrotron with fixed Gaussian structure of the RF field.

  19. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    Vernon, Ronald J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  20. Antenna and transmission system for high power electron cyclotron heating in a compact helical system

    An electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system for the compact helical system using two types of high power gyrotron as a power source is designed. In order to utilize fully the advantage of the ECH, the antenna system is designed so as to inject the microwave power as an elliptic gaussian beam, which allows well-defined high power local heating. This antenna and associated transmission system from gyrotron are designed with the quasi-optical concept. This design concept and the results of the cold test for the transmission and antenna system are described. The resultant beam parameter of the cold test for the antenna system shows fairly good agreement with the designed value, which indicates the validity of this design concept. The power transmission efficiency of about 90% was estimated from the measured power at both ends. ((orig.))

  1. Research and development on high-power millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave electron tubes

    Mourier, G.

    Several high-power generators operating in the frequency range above 20 GHz are examined. These are hot-cathode vacuum tubes of the gyrotron type, which operate at voltages under 200 kV and in a magnetic field under 40 kG. A gyrotron research and development program is described, with particular emphasis on its computer-aided design and the use of superconducting magnets. Devices operating in frequency ranges above 200-300 GHz are described, and the concept of using transverse interaction rather than longitudinal interaction is discussed. Although transverse interaction has less energetic efficiency, its uniform magnetic field, high value of deceleration, and the possibility of using a wave with low group velocity make it a viable option. Devices incorporating a small electron accelerator in the same vacuum envelope and operating at relatively low voltage at higher frequencies are presently being investigated.

  2. Final report for the tunable driver for the LLNL FEL experiment

    This section of the report covers the recent operation of the prototype backward-wave oscillator (BWO) gyrotron. The tube was mounted in its fixture on the superconducting magnet, the beam aligned, and microwaves generated. Initial alignment and operation was performed at low wiggler magnet strength (Bw = 9 G) and thus low α = υ perpendicular/υ parallel. The microwaves observed under these conditions were at a frequency just above the electron cyclotron frequency of the interaction region. Identification of these waves is tentatively that of forward waves generated in what is a very long gyrotron cavity. By increasing the wiggler field to ∼ 18 G, the backward wave could then be observed. Voltage tunability of the backward wave was demonstrated and frequencies from 13 GHz to 143 GHz were observed

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13236-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available .3 4 ( AC173720 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1008M14, W... 38 2.4 5 ( AY858561 ) Hermeuptychia hermes...6 2.6 2 ( AY858562 ) Hermeuptychia hermes isolate CTBEH144 cytochrome ... 36 2.7 2 ( CU442744 ) Pig DNA sequ...ence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 40 2.7 2 ( AY858563 ) Hermeuptychia hermes

  4. Nitrogen laser with a pulse repetition rate of 11 kHz and a beam divergence of 0.5 mrad

    A repetitively pulsed high-frequency UV nitrogen laser based on magnetic pulse compression (MPC) circuit is developed. The special characteristics of laser operation at pulse repetition rates up to 11 kHz are studied. Lasing with an average power of 1.4 W for a beam divergence of less than 0.5 mrad is obtained. (lasers)

  5. Efficacy of a topically administered combination of emodepside and praziquantel against mature and immature Ancylostoma tubaeforme in domestic cats

    Altreuther, G.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Buch, J.; Charles, S.D.; Cruthers, L.; Epe, C.; Young, D.R.; Krieger, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the efficacy of emodepside/praziquantel spot¿on (Profender®, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), a novel broadspectrum anthelmintic for dermal application, against L4 larvae and immature adult and adult stages of Ancylostoma tubaeforme in cats. The formulation contains 2.14% (w/w) emo

  6. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice

    We investigated the effects of diet (AIN93G or high-fat), physical activity (sedentary or voluntary running) and protein source (casein or soy protein isolate) and their interactions on bone microstructural changes in distal femurs in male C57BL/6 mice by using micro-computed tomography. After 14 w...

  7. Sphingoid esters from the molecular distillation of squid oil: A preliminary bioactivity determination.

    Saliu, Francesco; Longhin, Eleonora; Salanti, Anika; Degano, Ilaria; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    A mixture of sphingoid esters was isolated (1.4% w/w) from the molecular distillation of crude squid visceral oil. A preliminary investigation on the bioactivity profile and toxic potential of this residue was carried out by in vitro experiments. No cytotoxicity and a moderate lipase inhibition activity were highlighted. PMID:26868543

  8. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  9. Synthesis method for using in the design of an electron gun for gyrotion

    In this work a synthesis method is applied to the design of an electron gun for a 94GHz gyrotron. Using the synthesis method, it is found the shape of the electrodes compatible with the laminar flow which minimizes the action of space change on the electron velocity dispersion. A sistematic procedure is presented to fuid the parameters of the synthesis method which, in turn, are closely related to the characteristics of the aptoclechonic system. (author)

  10. Structure Design and Analysis of High-Voltage Power Supply for ECRH

    WANG Lei; HUANG Yiyun; ZHAO Yanping; ZHANG Jian; YANG Lei; GUO Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a high-voltage power supply (HVPS) with high quality parameters,not only its electrical circuit but also its structure should be studied in detail.In this paper,the structure design of the collector power supply for gyrotron is discussed first.Then the electrical field and potential simulations of its main devices are analyzed.Finally,relevant calculations and conclusions are given.

  11. Initial results of electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) operation and experiments in JT-60U

    The 110 GHz 1 MW electron cyclotron range of frequency (ECRF) system was designed and constructed on JT-60U to locally heat and control the plasmas. The gyrotron has a diamond window to transmit RF power with Gaussian mode, which is easily transformed to HE11 mode for the transmission line of the corrugated waveguide. The second diamond window is installed at the inlet of the antenna for a vacuum seal between the transmission line and the JT-60U tokamak. The total length of the transmission line from the gyrotron to the antenna is about 60 m including nine meter bends, The antenna has a focusing mirror and a flat steerable one to focus and to control the RF beam angle mainly in the poloidal direction. In the initial operation, the power of PEC∼0.75 MW for 2 s was successfully injected into plasma when the gyrotron generated the power up to 1 MW. The total transmission efficiency from the gyrotron to the plasma was about 75%. A controllability of local electron heating with the deposition width of =15 cm was well demonstrated by using the steerable mirror. A large downshift in the deposition position was observed at the high Te plasma. Strong central electron heating was obtained from 2.2 to 6.6 keV for PEC∼0.75 MW, 0.3 s at the optimized polarization. An effective electron heating was also obtained up to ∼10 keV during EC injection for ∼1.6 s in the high βp H-mode plasma produced by NBI

  12. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    Garavaglia, S., E-mail: garavaglia@ifp.cnr.it; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics “P.Caldirola”, National Research Council of Italy, Milan (Italy); Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D. [IAM-AWP, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [IHM, KIT, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tran, Q. M. [CRPP, EPFL, EURATOM Association, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Franke, T. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  13. Fusion development and technology

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R ampersand D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development

  14. Structure Design and Analysis of High-Voltage Power Supply for ECRH

    In order to develop a high-voltage power supply (HVPS) with high quality parameters, not only its electrical circuit but also its structure should be studied in detail. In this paper, the structure design of the collector power supply for gyrotron is discussed first. Then the electrical field and potential simulations of its main devices are analyzed. Finally, relevant calculations and conclusions are given. (fusion engineering)

  15. Theory of relativistic CRM with synchronous adiabatic electromagnetic wave deceleration of electron beam

    An approximation of nonlinear theory of relativistic gyrotrons with variable magnetic fields is formulated. It is assumed that, for a single electron being decelerated by a high-frequency field, the condition of cyclotron resonance is satisfied identically over the entire interaction space. Other electrons captured by the wave, which undergo small oscillations, are decelerated with the resonant electron. Using the method of adiabatic invariants, a longitudinal amplitude distribution is determined for the high-frequency field that prevents escape of any electrons

  16. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report 1984

    The experimental program continued to be centred around work on the research tokamak TORTUS. Projects included the guiding of Alfven waves along helical magnetic field lines, the excitation of Alfven waves by an antenna and antenna designs for Alfven wave heating. Supporting work included studies of surface waves using the linear SUPPER IV machine, development of lasers and laser diagnostics, development of a neutral particle analyser for measuring ion temperatures, and development of a continuously tunable gyrotron

  17. Mode competition in fourth-harmonic magnicon amplifiers

    The magnicon is under development as an efficient high-power microwave amplifier for powering the next generation of electron accelerators for high-energy physics research. In the magnicon RF amplifier, the drive and gain cavities are cylindrical deflection cavities which operate in a rotating TM110-mode and spin up an electron beam to high transverse momentum. As a result of the rotating-mode interaction, the electron beam entry point into the output cavity rotates about the axis at the drive frequency. The gyrotron-like output cavity can be operated at m times the drive frequency by using a mode with an azimuthal index of m, as this mode rotates at m-1 times its RF frequency, thus maintaining synchronism with the electron beam. Previous frequency-multiplying magnicons have used m = 2; in this paper it is shown that magnicons with m = 4 may be practical, provided one also operates the output cavity at the m/2 harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. Operation at higher harmonics lowers the frequency of the deflection cavities allowing lower RF fields, reducing magnet cost and complexity; and a larger electron beam, relaxing beam quality constraints. On the other hand, higher order azimuthal-index magnicon modes interacting at higher order cyclotron interactions are subject to competition with nonsynchronous (gyrotron) modes and are more sensitive to electron beam scanning angle spread. A time-dependent multimode gyrotron code has been modified to examine competition in the output cavity between the phase-synchronous operating mode and other nonsynchronous modes which interact via the conventional gyrotron interaction

  18. Free-space power transmission

    1989-11-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  19. Construction of a 13 kG magnetic coil system

    The construction of magnetic coil system for a 35 GHz gyrotron is reported in great detail. This system is designed to generate a magnetic induction of 13,2 kG over an extension of 13 cm. By using an operating current of about 100 A, it was verified that both the axial magnetic field profile and the spatial non-uniformity are in close agreement with those theoretically predicted. (author)

  20. An analysis of the advantages and limitations of vacuum tubes in terms of performance and reliability; Analyse des avantages specifiques des tubes: performances, limitations, fiabilite

    Payen, F. [Thales Electron Devices, 78 - Velizy (France)

    2001-04-01

    Vacuum tubes have many advantages over semiconductor devices in applications between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. Each family of vacuum tubes (triodes, tetrodes, and their derivatives including magnetrons, klystrons, crossed field amplifiers, travelling wave tubes and gyrotrons) have their own characteristics in terms of operating frequency, instantaneous bandwidth, peak power, mean power, gain (amplifiers), electrical efficiency, linearity, reliability and lifetime. This makes it easier to select the most suitable vacuum tube for a given application. (authors)

  1. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    Garavaglia, S.; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Grossetti, G.; Jelonnek, J.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N.; Strauss, D.; Tran, Q. M.; Franke, T.

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Iterative Phase Retrieval Algorithm for Quasi-Optical Millimeter-Wave RF Beams

    Jawla, S.; Hogge, J.-P.; Alberti, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the iterative phase retrieval approach (TPRA) for determining the phase profile of the output microwave beam of a gyrotron from known intensity patterns emphasizing the field propagation techniques which are used to propagate the RF field of the microwave beam between known intensity planes. The propagation method, based on first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral (RSDI), is solved using fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique and zero pad...

  3. Characteristics of a Teflon rod antenna for millimeter and submillimeter wave irradiation on living bodies

    TATSUKAWA, Toshiaki; Doi, Akitaka; TERANAKA, Masato; Takashima, Hitoshi; Goda, Fuminori; Idehara, Toshitaka; Ogawa, Isamu; KANEMAKI, Tomohiro; NISHIZAWA, Seiji; NAMBA, Tunetoyo

    2003-01-01

    The development of a millimeter and submillimeter wave catheter for irradiation on living bodies using a Teflon rod dielectric antenna is described. The power sources of electromagnetic wave are an Impatt oscillator (90 GHz, 0.3 W) and gyrotron (302 GHz, 30 W). Irradiation tests using various Teflon rod dielectric antennas were performed on beef livers. Irradiation results were considered by microwave theory and ray optics.

  4. テフロンフレキシブル導波管によるジャイロトロンFUCW-Ⅰの出力測定

    寺中, 正人; 土井, 昭孚; 立川, 敏明; 光藤, 誠太郎; 斉藤, 輝雄; 出原, 敏孝; 難波, 経豊

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop the millimeter and sub-millimeter wave catheter irradiation apparatus for the living body, the output power by the catheter transmission using Gyrotron FUCW-Ⅰ(GYCOM, Russia) was measured at 300 GHz.The output power was measured by water loading. That was transferred by some flexible Teflon rod waveguides and that was decreased according to Teflon rod length. And we measured the power using dielectric Anti-Reflecting (AR) antennas too.

  5. Overdense plasma generation by 2.45 GHz heating in WEGA

    Podoba, Y.Y.; Laqua, H.P.; Marsen, S.; Otte, M.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Stange, T.; Urban, Jakub; Zhang, D.

    Greifswald : IPP Greifswald, 2009, s. 3-3. ISBN N. [Joint Russian-German Workshop on ECRH and Gyrotrons (STC-Meeting)/21st./. Greifswald (DE), 11.05.2009-15.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Stellarator * Electron Bernstein wave * EBW * WEGA * ECRH Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Self-consistent modeling of terahertz waveguide and cavity with frequency-dependent conductivity

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Thumm, M. [IHM and IHE, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The surface resistance of metals, and hence the Ohmic dissipation per unit area, scales with the square root of the frequency of an incident electromagnetic wave. As is well recognized, this can lead to excessive wall losses at terahertz (THz) frequencies. On the other hand, high-frequency oscillatory motion of conduction electrons tends to mitigate the collisional damping. As a result, the classical theory predicts that metals behave more like a transparent medium at frequencies above the ultraviolet. Such a behavior difference is inherent in the AC conductivity, a frequency-dependent complex quantity commonly used to treat electromagnetics of metals at optical frequencies. The THz region falls in the gap between microwave and optical frequencies. However, metals are still commonly modeled by the DC conductivity in currently active vacuum electronics research aimed at the development of high-power THz sources (notably the gyrotron), although a small reduction of the DC conductivity due to surface roughness is sometimes included. In this study, we present a self-consistent modeling of the gyrotron interaction structures (a metallic waveguide or cavity) with the AC conductivity. The resulting waveguide attenuation constants and cavity quality factors are compared with those of the DC-conductivity model. The reduction in Ohmic losses under the AC-conductivity model is shown to be increasingly significant as the frequency reaches deeper into the THz region. Such effects are of considerable importance to THz gyrotrons for which the minimization of Ohmic losses constitutes a major design consideration.

  7. 60kV, 10Amp DC power supply multiple input control and monitoring provision for the operation of various high power RF generation systems

    A 60 kV, 10 A DC power supply is used for testing of high power RF and microwave tubes e.g. Klystron, Gyrotron. Two 500 kW, 3.7 GHz klystrons, and one 82.6 GHz Gyrotron are located in SST1 Hall where as 200 kW; 28 GHz Gyrotron is located in Aditya Hall. The same power supply is required to operate, control and monitor various systems at different locations with easy change over from one system to other as per experimental requirements. An off line, control change over system, is designed to accomplish the above requirements, with control panels installed at desired different locations. The input (0 to 11 kV) A.C. voltage to power supply is given from a motorized voltage variation system (VVS). The control panels provide indication of A.C. input voltage to power supply from 11 kV potential transformers of VVS. In addition, the control panel is provided with 11 kV circuit breaker status indication and control i.e. Emergency OFF switch. The control panels are designed and developed indigenously which are successfully installed and are in continuous use for the safe and easy operation of different high power rf systems from the same DC power supply. The paper presents the design of the controls, monitoring and indications. Safety aspects of the system are also highlighted.

  8. Simplified THz Instrumentation for High-Field DNP-NMR Spectroscopy.

    Maly, Thorsten; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R

    2012-07-01

    We present an alternate simplified concept to irradiate a nuclear magnetic resonance sample with terahertz (THz) radiation for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments using the TE(01) circular waveguide mode for transmission of the THz power and the illumination of the DNP sample by either the TE(01) or TE(11) mode. Using finite element method and 3D electromagnetic simulations we demonstrate that the average value of the transverse magnetic field induced by the THz radiation and responsible for the DNP effect using the TE(11) or the TE(01) mode are comparable to that generated by the HE(11) mode and a corrugated waveguide. The choice of the TE(11)/TE(01) mode allows the use of a smooth-walled, oversized waveguide that is easier to fabricate and less expensive than a corrugated waveguide required for transmission of the HE(11) mode. Also, the choice of the TE(01) mode can lead to a simplification of gyrotron oscillators that operate in the TE(0n) mode, by employing an on-axis rippled-wall mode converter to convert the TE(0n) mode into the TE(01) mode either inside or outside of the gyrotron tube. These novel concepts will lead to a significant simplification of the gyrotron, the transmission line and the THz coupler, which are the three main components of a DNP system. PMID:22977293

  9. Extension of high T{sub e} regime with upgraded electron cyclotron resonance heating system in the Large Helical Device

    Takahashi, H., E-mail: takahashi.hiromi@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Yamada, I.; Nakano, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); and others

    2014-06-15

    Enhancement of the output power per gyrotron has been planned in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Three 77-GHz gyrotrons with an output power of more than 1 MW have been operated. In addition, a high power gyrotron with the frequency of 154 GHz (1 MW/5 s, 0.5 MW/CW) was newly installed in 2012, and the total injection power of Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) reached 4.6 MW. The operational regime of ECRH plasma on the LHD has been extended due to the upgraded ECRH system such as the central electron temperature of 13.5 keV with the line-averaged electron density n{sub e-fir} = 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. The electron thermal confinement clearly improved inside the electron internal transport barrier, and the electron thermal diffusivity reached neoclassical level. The global energy confinement time increased with increase of n{sub e-fir}. The plasma stored energy of 530 kJ with n{sub e-fir} = 3.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, which is 1.7 times larger than the previous record in the ECRH plasma in the LHD, has been successfully achieved.

  10. Millimeter wave study program. Final report

    The purpose of this program was to study the various approaches to building an amplifier to produce 100 kW or more cw power at 120 GHz to decide on an optimum approach, and to perform design calculations. The study has led to the conclusion that a cyclotron resonance amplifier (gyrotron) is the optimum approach for 100 kW and that this type of interaction offers the best possibilities for going to still higher power levels. This report includes discussion in depth of all the topics and approaches considered in the study. Sections 2 and 3 deal with output waveguide and window designs. The fourth section discusses linear-beam amplifiers. The fifth section considers periodic-beam (other than cyclotron resonance) devices. Cyclotron resonance devices are considered in detail. Arguments are given leading to the choice of the gyrotron as the optimum approach in section 7. Design calculations for a 100 kW gyrotron amplifier are given based on the background and theory presented in section 6

  11. 60kV, 10Amp DC power supply multiple input control and monitoring provision for the operation of various high power RF generation systems

    Parmar, Kirit M.; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    A 60 kV, 10 A DC power supply is used for testing of high power RF and microwave tubes e.g. Klystron, Gyrotron. Two 500 kW, 3.7 GHz klystrons, and one 82.6 GHz Gyrotron are located in SST1 Hall where as 200 kW; 28 GHz Gyrotron is located in Aditya Hall. The same power supply is required to operate, control and monitor various systems at different locations with easy change over from one system to other as per experimental requirements. An off line, control change over system, is designed to accomplish the above requirements, with control panels installed at desired different locations. The input (0 to 11 kV) A.C. voltage to power supply is given from a motorized voltage variation system (VVS). The control panels provide indication of A.C. input voltage to power supply from 11 kV potential transformers of VVS. In addition, the control panel is provided with 11 kV circuit breaker status indication and control i.e. Emergency OFF switch. The control panels are designed and developed indigenously which are successfully installed and are in continuous use for the safe and easy operation of different high power rf systems from the same DC power supply. The paper presents the design of the controls, monitoring and indications. Safety aspects of the system are also highlighted.

  12. Millimetre waves and plasma physics

    Full text: This talk is a review of the plasma-related presentations at the 23rd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves held at the University of Essex, Colchester, UK 7-11 September 1998. Of most relevance to fusion is the development of high-power sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. The requirements for ITER are a total of 50 MW at 170 GHz. The state of the art is illustrated by (a) high-power gyrotrons that deliver 1 MW for 1 s at 170 GHz, and (b) a free-electron maser that has generated millimetre waves for the first time, 730 kW at 200 GHz. A number of papers describe new technologies that allow high powers to be achieved; internal mode converters to convert the whispering-gallery mode generated in the gyrotron cavity into a gaussian beam, depressed collectors to raise the efficiency from 1/3 to better than 1/2, CVD diamond output windows and coaxial gyrotrons with improved mode purity. Other papers describe transmission lines and steerable mirrors. Several papers deal with millimetre-wave plasma diagnostics for fusion such as electron cyclotron emission measurements and reflectometry. (author)

  13. ECH system and its application to long pulse discharge in large helical device

    We have developed and constructed an ECH system for the large helical device (LHD). The ECH system consists of 0.5 MW, 84 GHz range and 168 GHz gyrotrons, high voltage power supplies, long distance transmission lines, and in-vessel quasi-optical antennas. It has been improved step by step. At the third campaign of LHD experiments, three 84 GHz range (two 82.6 GHz and one 84 GHz) and three 168 GHz gyrotrons are operated and ECH power can be injected from four antennas vertically and two horizontally. This complicated system is remotely controlled and monitored by fully GUI (Graphical User Interface) control panels realized on PC via TCP (transmission control protocol) communication. Over 10000 shots of gyrotron power have been injected steadily into the LHD during the experimental campaigns on this system. One line of the system (84 GHz line) is specially prepared for the experiments of steady state plasma production. Using this line, plasma sustainment for 2 min was successfully achieved by only ECH power. Injected ECH power was 50 kW with 95% duty factor. The electron density and temperature of the sustained plasma are measured to be 0.3-0.5x1018 m-3 and ∼650 eV. Ion temperature measured by Doppler broadening of the impurity radiation line was kept constant at ∼300 eV during RF injection

  14. ECRH experiments and developments for long pulses in Tore Supra

    The ECRH system presently under construction at CEA/Cadarache for the Tore Supra tokamak is described. The system will be equipped by 6 gyrotrons (118 GHz, 400 kW, cw), manufactured by Thomson Tubes Electroniques. The results of the tests of the prototype and of the first series gyrotron are reported and discussed. The best performance obtained was a pulse of 102 s at 310 kW average power on dummy load, which corresponds to the new record energy of 32 MJ. Results of first ECRH experiments on Tore Supra with the prototype gyrotron are also reported. 350 kW have been coupled in O-mode both to Ohmic and to LHCD plasmas in continuous or modulated pulses lasting up to 2 s. During non-inductive discharges, fully sustained by LHCD, a significant response of the hard X-ray signals to the ECRH power has been observed, despite the low power ratio between the two waves (0.35 MW EC/4.5 MW LH waves). (author)

  15. Control system for the Texas Experimental Tokamak ECRH system

    The electron-cyclotron-resonance heating (ECRH) system for the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) is currently being expanded to include three 200-kilowatt gyrotrons. A fourth, half-megawatt gyrotron is to be added in the future. A personal computer is used to control the gyrotrons and their power supplies. A second computer provides additional display-screen space. Aside from a single emergency-off pushbutton, the operator controls the entire system with a mouse. Hardware logic is the interface to the computer reacts to events too fast for the computer to handle, such as tube arcs, and backs up the software in areas of equipment and personnel safety, such as the door-interlock system. Timers on boards plugged into the computer are used to generate signals that must be fast or precisely timed. Signals from the tokamak's control system provide synchronization of the ECRH pulses with the tokamak cycle. All analog and digital signals between the control system and the rest of the equipment are light links, and optical coupling is used extensively within the control system. The computer monitors and displays approximately two hundred digital and twenty-five analog inputs and generates about fifty digital and two analog outputs. A third computer provides data-logging capability, and a fourth computer provides the operator with on-line access to all system documentation. 2 refs., 3 figs

  16. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    Joung Jin-Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS, Anode Power Supply(APS and Body Power Supply(BPS. The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz modulation operation. The BPS is combined the commercial power supply and special high voltage switches. It is very simple topology but 5kHz modulation was accomplished easily. Theses power supply system were installed and commissioned successfully in 2011. This paper presents the topology of the each power supply and test result for 170 GHz gyrotron in KSTAR.

  17. EC power sources: European technological developments towards ITER

    The paper deals with the activities in Europe towards the development of the EC power sources for ITER. The agreed European procurement sharing for ITER includes in fact one third (8 MW) of the EC RF power sources and the complete power supply feeding the total 24 MW EC system. The European effort for the EC power sources is centered on the development of a 170 GHz, 2 MW, CW coaxial cavity gyrotron of Collector Potential Depressed (CPD) type. A gyrotron with higher unit power compared to the ITER baseline (1 MW) would yield a reduction of the installation costs and a more compact upper port launcher design (or, conversely, an increase of the power delivered from one port). Coaxial cavity gyrotrons have the potential to allow high unit power to be achieved and 2.2 MW in single mode were demonstrated in short pulse operation on a so-called pre-prototype gyrotron. A stable TE34,19 mode at 170 GHz has been excited in single-mode operation over a wide parameter range. The development work on the industrial prototype tube is performed in cooperation between European Associations and Industry. The results from the pre-prototype have been fed into the specification and design of the first 2 MW prototype, which aims at reaching 1 s operation, now under advanced stage of construction while experimental support continues to be provided by tests on the pre-prototype. The associated superconductive (NbTi) magnet producing 6.86 T on the cavity axis is also being procured. This specified field profile must be achieved with an accuracy in the range of 0.1% (cavity) to 0.5 %. The superconducting magnet is also provided with a set of dipole coils to perform the alignment of the coaxial insert. Two 2 MW dummy loads are also being procured. The first one is targeted for the initial short-pulse operation and is presently under power testing in Greisfwald. The second load is intended for the later tests in CW. A new EC test facility, with the features necessary for the testing of the

  18. A BEAMING-INDEPENDENT ESTIMATE OF THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: INITIAL RESULTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    We present single-epoch radio afterglow observations of 24 long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) on a timescale of ∼> 100 days after the burst. These observations trace the afterglow evolution when the blast wave has decelerated to mildly or non-relativistic velocities and has roughly isotropized. We infer beaming-independent kinetic energies using the Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution, and find a median value for the sample of detected bursts of about 7 x 1051 erg, with a 90% confidence range of 1.1 x 1050-3.3 x 1053 erg. Both the median and 90% confidence range are somewhat larger than the results of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch afterglow modeling (including large beaming corrections), and the distribution of beaming-corrected γ-ray energies. This is due to bursts in our sample with only a single-frequency observation for which we can only determine an upper bound on the peak of the synchrotron spectrum. This limitation leads to a wider range of allowed energies than for bursts with a well-measured spectral peak. Our study indicates that single-epoch centimeter-band observations covering the spectral peak on a timescale of δt ∼ 1 yr can provide a robust estimate of the total kinetic energy distribution with a small investment of telescope time. The substantial increase in bandwidth of the Expanded Very Large Array (up to 8 GHz simultaneously with full coverage at 1-40 GHz) will provide the opportunity to estimate the kinetic energy distribution of GRBs with only a few hours of data per burst.

  19. Peculiar Velocity Constraints from Five-band SZ Effect Measurements toward RX J1347.5-1145 with MUSIC and Bolocam from the CSO

    Sayers, Jack; Zemcov, Michael; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Maloney, Philip R.; Siegel, Seth R.; Wheeler, Jordan; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Radford, Simon J. E.; Schlaerth, James A.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    We present Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect measurements from wide-field images toward the galaxy cluster RX J1347.5-1145 obtained from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Multiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera at 147, 213, 281, and 337 GHz and with Bolocam at 140 GHz. As part of our analysis, we have used higher frequency data from Herschel-SPIRE and previously published lower frequency radio data to subtract the signal from the brightest dusty star-forming galaxies behind RX J1347.5-1145 and from the AGN in RX J1347.5-1145’s BCG. Using these five-band SZ effect images, combined with X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the temperature of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) from Chandra, we constrain the ICM optical depth to be {τ }{{e}}={7.33}-0.97+0.96× {10}-3 and the ICM line of sight peculiar velocity to be {v}{pec}=-{1040}-840+870 km s-1. The errors for both quantities are limited by measurement noise rather than calibration uncertainties or astrophysical contamination, and significant improvements are possible with deeper observations. Our best-fit velocity is in good agreement with one previously published SZ effect analysis and in mild tension with the other, although some or all of that tension may be because that measurement samples a much smaller cluster volume. Furthermore, our best-fit optical depth implies a gas mass slightly larger than the Chandra-derived value, implying the cluster is elongated along the line of sight.

  20. Intense microwave generation using free-electron lasers

    Orzechowski, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    In this paper, I will describe a free-electron laser amplifier which operated in the microwave regime. This device, called the Electron Laser Facility (ELF), used an electron beam generated by a Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA). ELF operated as a single pass amplifier at 35 and 140 GHz. Because the device had no cavity, we could study the FEL physics independent of cavity considerations. With a sufficiently large input signal, growth of the signal from noise on the beam did not influence the performance. This device demonstrated significant gain and allowed us to investigate such FEL phenomenon as saturation and synchrotron oscillation of the electrons trapped in the ponderomotive well. We were also able to study the phase shift of the radiation due to the real part of complex gain of the FEL. Because the interaction takes place in a waveguide, the FEL can couple to several spatial modes at a given frequency. The bunched electrons can radiate at harmonics of the fundamental and in this experiment we studied the evolution of the third harmonic. In this paper, I will describe the Electron Laser Facility. I will discuss the FEL performance with regard to gain, saturation, phase evolution, mode coupling and harmonic generation, I will briefly discuss a switching technique which allows the LIA to run at high average power. When driven by such a device, and FEL can produce high average power radiation. We will present the design for such a device which can be used to heat a tokamak plasma. This device is designed to operate at 250 GHz and produce an average power of 2 MW.

  1. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE RADIO EVOLUTION OF SN 2011dh

    We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the Type IIb supernova 2011dh, performed over the first 100 days of its evolution and spanning 1-40 GHz in frequency. The radio emission is well described by the self-similar propagation of a spherical shockwave, generated as the supernova ejecta interact with the local circumstellar environment. Modeling this emission with a standard synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) model gives an average expansion velocity of v ≈ 0.1c, supporting the classification of the progenitor as a compact star (R* ≈ 1011 cm). We find that the circumstellar density is consistent with a ρ∝r–2 profile. We determine that the progenitor shed mass at a constant rate of ≈3 × 10–5 M☉ yr–1, assuming a wind velocity of 1000 km s–1 (values appropriate for a Wolf-Rayet star), or ≈7 × 10–7 M☉ yr–1 assuming 20 km s–1 (appropriate for a yellow supergiant [YSG] star). Both values of the mass-loss rate assume a converted fraction of kinetic to magnetic energy density of εB = 0.1. Although optical imaging shows the presence of a YSG, the rapid optical evolution and fast expansion argue that the progenitor is a more compact star—perhaps a companion to the YSG. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the radio properties of SN 2011dh with the SSA model implies that any YSG companion is likely in a wide, non-interacting orbit.

  2. Paramagnet induced signal quenching in MAS-DNP experiments in frozen homogeneous solutions

    Corzilius, Björn; Andreas, Loren B.; Smith, Albert A.; Ni, Qing Zhe; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of nuclear signal quenching induced by the presence of a paramagnetic polarizing agent are documented for conditions used in magic angle spinning (MAS)-dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments on homogeneous solutions. In particular, we present a detailed analysis of three time constants: (1) the longitudinal build-up time constant TB for 1H; (2) the rotating frame relaxation time constant T1ρ for 1H and 13C and (3) T2 of 13C, the transverse relaxation time constant in the laboratory frame. These relaxation times were measured during microwave irradiation at a magnetic field of 5 T (140 GHz) as a function of the concentration of four polarizing agents: TOTAPOL, 4-amino-TEMPO, trityl (OX063), and Gd-DOTA and are compared to those obtained for a sample lacking paramagnetic doping. We also report the EPR relaxation time constants T1S and T2S, the DNP enhancements, ε, and the parameter E, defined below, which measures the sensitivity enhancement for the four polarizing agents as a function of the electron concentration. We observe substantial intensity losses (paramagnetic quenching) with all of the polarizing agents due to broadening mechanisms and cross relaxation during MAS. In particular, the monoradical trityl and biradical TOTAPOL induce ∼40% and 50% loss of signal intensity. In contrast there is little suppression of signal intensity in static samples containing these paramagnetic species. Despite the losses due to quenching, we find that all of the polarizing agents provide substantial gains in signal intensity with DNP, and in particular that the net enhancement is optimal for biradicals that operate with the cross effect. We discuss the possibility that much of this polarization loss can be regained with the development of instrumentation and methods to perform electron decoupling.

  3. Microwave emission from high Arctic Sea ice during freeze-up

    Hollinger, J. P.; Troy, B. E.; Ramseier, R. O.; Asmus, K. W.; Hartman, M. F.; Luther, C. A.

    1984-09-01

    A cooperative sea ice remote sensing experiment was conducted in the eastern Beaufort Sea and Mould Bay area during the freeze-up period in October 1981. Airborne millimeter-wave imagery at 90, 140, and 220 GHz, and nadir microwave radiometric measurements at 19, 22, and 31 GHz, were made from a U. S. Naval Research Laboratory aircraft, while the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service conducted an extensive concurrent surface measurement program. This study demonstrates for the first time the high-resolution capability of 90 GHz to investigate detailed ice morphology and to define ice types. The 140 and 220 GHz imagery is the first ever made of sea ice at these high frequencies. Emissivities are determined for young ice, second-year ice (SY), multiyear ice (MY), new ice, old shorefast ice, and open water. The young ice exhibits the emissivity typical of first-year (FY) ice types, i.e., near unity and independent of frequency. The emissivities of new ice and open water increase with frequency, and that of MY ice decreases with frequency. Those of SY ice and old shorefast ice, measured here for the first time, also decrease with frequency but are larger in value than the MY emissivity. Ice type discrimination is optimum at 90 GHz, i.e., the spread in microwave signature between FY ice and old ice (SY and MY) is greatest at 90 GHz. The MY emissivity is lower than that of open water at both 90 and 140 GHz. The measurements presented here provide a basis for development of algorithms to exploit the potential of the Mission Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) to be launched on a Defense Meteorological Satellite in 1985 and, in particular, the 85.5-GHz SSM/I channels for ice type, concentration, and edge determination.

  4. Experimental characterization of plasma start-up using ECRH in preparation of W7-X operation

    Preynas M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The upcoming operation of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X will be supported by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH system working at 140 GHz in second harmonic at the nominal magnetic field of 2.5T. Because the optimization of the plasma breakdown is crucial to ensure a successful plasma build-up, dedicated plasma start-up experiments were performed on three stellarator/heliotron devices: Heliotron J, LHD and WEGA. Start-up behavior and dependencies on ECRH injected power, neutral gas pressure and rotational transform were obtained in X2 heating. Plasma start-up delay time decreases with the increase in ECRH input power. However, this behavior saturates when low pre-fill neutral gas pressure conditions are met. Both the delay time and the electron density are an increasing function of the gas pressure. On Heliotron J and WEGA devices, the higher the rotational transform is, the faster the start-up and the higher the plasma density are. Analysis of the temporal evolution of the plasma start-up shows that plasma start-up on stellarators is a two-step process. In addition, off-axis heating experiments are characterized by a longer plasma start-up duration compared to on-axis heating discharges. Third harmonic in X-mode has been attempted on LHD for different neutral gas puffing settings but no plasma breakdown was achieved. This multi-machine study was useful to define ECRH start-up scenarios for W7-X.

  5. Characterization of core and edge turbulence in L- and enhanced Dα H-mode Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    The recently upgraded phase-contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic is used to characterize the transition from the low (L) to the enhanced Dα (EDA) high (H) confinement mode in Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson, R. Boivin, F. Bombarda et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] plasmas. PCI yields information on line integrated density fluctuations along vertical chords. The number of channels has been increased from 12 to 32 and the sampling rate from 1 MHz to 10 MHz. This expansion of diagnostic capabilities is used to study broadband turbulence in L and EDA H mode and to analyze the quasicoherent (QC) mode associated with EDA H mode. Changes in broadband turbulence at the transition from L to EDA H mode can be interpreted as an effect of the Doppler rotation of the bulk plasma. Additional fluctuation measurements of Dα light and the poloidal magnetic field show features correlated with PCI in two different frequency ranges at the transition. The backtransition from EDA H to L mode, the so-called enhanced neutron (EN) mode, is investigated by new high frequency (132 and 140 GHz) reflectometer channels operating in the ordinary (O) mode. This additional hardware has been installed in an effort to study localized turbulence associated with internal transport barriers (ITBs). The EN mode is a suitable candidate for this study, since an ITB exists transiently as the outer density decreases much faster than the core density in this mode. The fact that the density decays from the outside inward allows us to study fluctuations progressing towards the plasma core. Our results mark the first localized observation of the QC mode at medium density: 2.2x1020 m-3 (132 GHz). Correlating the reflectometry measurements with other fluctuating quantities provides some insight regarding the causality of the EN-mode development

  6. Intense microwave generation using free-electron lasers

    In this paper, I will describe a free-electron laser amplifier which operated in the microwave regime. This device, called the Electron Laser Facility (ELF), used an electron beam generated by a Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA). ELF operated as a single pass amplifier at 35 and 140 GHz. Because the device had no cavity, we could study the FEL physics independent of cavity considerations. With a sufficiently large input signal, growth of the signal from noise on the beam did not influence the performance. This device demonstrated significant gain and allowed us to investigate such FEL phenomenon as saturation and synchrotron oscillation of the electrons trapped in the ponderomotive well. We were also able to study the phase shift of the radiation due to the real part of complex gain of the FEL. Because the interaction takes place in a waveguide, the FEL can couple to several spatial modes at a given frequency. The bunched electrons can radiate at harmonics of the fundamental and in this experiment we studied the evolution of the third harmonic. In this paper, I will describe the Electron Laser Facility. I will discuss the FEL performance with regard to gain, saturation, phase evolution, mode coupling and harmonic generation, I will briefly discuss a switching technique which allows the LIA to run at high average power. When driven by such a device, and FEL can produce high average power radiation. We will present the design for such a device which can be used to heat a tokamak plasma. This device is designed to operate at 250 GHz and produce an average power of 2 MW

  7. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    Flamm J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing. These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  8. Recent Advances from the DoD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Consortium on Innovative Vacuum Electronics

    The MURI Innovative Vacuum Electronics Program is administered by Dr. Robert Barker of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and consists of a collaboration between six premier universities actively engaged in all aspects of multidisciplinary basic research and graduate instruction in innovative microwave vacuum electronics (MIT, Stanford, University of California, Davis, University of Maryland -- College Park, University of Michigan, and University of Wisconsin). The dual goals are to address basic research issues of critical importance to the DoD as well as to train the next generation. A wide range of fast wave amplifier concepts is under investigation at frequencies ranging from 15 GHz to 1 THz. Two representative examples are a TE01 100 kW W-Band gyro-TWT under investigation at UC Davis and a 140 GHz confocal waveguide based gyro-TWT concept developed at MIT. Novel, lightweight 100 kW, W-Band klystrinos suitable for configuration in arrays are under investigation at Stanford using advanced microfabrication techniques. Extensive analytic and numerical analyses are underway at Wisconsin augmented by experimental measurements using a custom-modified well diagnosed test TWT are aimed at an understanding of the complicated physics of multi-toned ultra-wideband traveling wave tubes including details of the beam-wave interaction and the nonlinear time and space evolution of the carrier(s) and inter-modulation products. A significant emphasis of the Maryland activity is on theoretical and experimental studies of various frequency-multiplying gyroamplifier concepts which are both of fundamental interest as well as practical importance because of the relaxation on driver requirements. Finally, the Michigan team is devoting much of its attention to fundamental theoretical and experimental issues associated with crossed-field devices. The latest results from these as well as other activities will be presented

  9. Saturation of the two-plasmon decay instability in long-scale-length plasmas relevant to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion.

    Froula, D H; Yaakobi, B; Hu, S X; Chang, P-Y; Craxton, R S; Edgell, D H; Follett, R; Michel, D T; Myatt, J F; Seka, W; Short, R W; Solodov, A; Stoeckl, C

    2012-04-20

    Measurements of the hot-electron generation by the two-plasmon-decay instability are made in plasmas relevant to direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Density-scale lengths of 400 μm at n(cr)/4 in planar CH targets allowed the two-plasmon-decay instability to be driven to saturation for vacuum intensities above ~3.5×10(14) W cm(-2). In the saturated regime, ~1% of the laser energy is converted to hot electrons. The hot-electron temperature is measured to increase rapidly from 25 to 90 keV as the laser beam intensity is increased from 2 to 7×10(14) W cm(-2). This increase in the hot-electron temperature is compared with predictions from nonlinear Zakharov models. PMID:22680726

  10. Absolute measurement of the ultrafast nonlinear electronic and rovibrational response in H$_2$ and D$_2$

    Wahlstrand, J K; Cheng, Y -H; Palastro, J P; Milchberg, H M

    2015-01-01

    The electronic, rotational, and vibrational components of the ultrafast optical nonlinearity in H$_2$ and D$_2$ are measured directly and absolutely at intensities up to the ionization threshold of $\\sim$10$^{14}$ W/cm$^2$. As the most basic nonlinear interactions of the simplest molecules exposed to high fields, these results constitute a benchmark for high field laser-matter theory and simulation.

  11. Posidonia residues can be used as organic mulch and soil amendment for lettuce and tomato production

    Grassi, Francesco; Mastrorilli, Marcello; Mininni, Carlo; Parente, Angelo; Santino, Angelo; Scarcella, Marcello; Santamaria, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for sustainable fertilizers because common mineral fertilizers are increasingly costly and often induce water and air pollution. For instance, seagrass compost could be used as fertilizer in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean, thus also solving the issue of beached residues. Here, we studied organic fertilization by application of seagrass-based compost in a tomato and lettuce crop succession. Composts were made of posidonia and yard wastes at 1/4 w/w fresh weight ratio. C...

  12. Preparation and characterization of ethosomes for topical delivery of aceclofenac

    Barupal A; Gupta Vandana; Ramteke Suman

    2010-01-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare and characterized ethosomes of aceclofenac which may deliver the drug to targeted site more efficiently than marketed gel preparation and also overcome the problems related with oral administration of drug. The formulations were prepared with varying the quantity of ethanol 10-50% (v/v), lecithin 1-4% (w/v), propylene glycol 5-20% (v/v) and evaluated for their vesicle size, shape and surface morphology, entrapment efficiency and in ...

  13. Low Noise and Power Metamorphic HEMT Devices and Circuits with X=30% to 60% InxGaAs Channels on GaAs Substrates

    Whelan, C.S.; Marsh, P.F.; Lardizabal, S.M.; Hoke, W.E.; McTaggart, R A; Kazior, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    Metamorphic HEMTs (MHEMTs) are becoming the device of choice for low cost millimeter-wave applications, where a high indium content channel is necessary for high performance. This paper will review the material properties, the processing, and the device and amplifier performance of metamorphic HEMTs with 30% to 60% indium channel content, with a focus on work done at Raytheon RF Components. 1.4W of output power at 44 GHz have been realized.

  14. Ionization and fragmentation of C-60 via multiphoton-multiplasmon excitation

    Hunsche, S; Starczewski, Tomas; L'Huillier, Anne; Persson, Anders; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; vandenHeuvell, B. V. L; Svanberg, Sune

    1996-01-01

    We study the intensity dependence of ionization and fragmentation of buckminsterfullerene (C-60) in strong laser fields. Our data provide strong evidence that at intensities less than or similar to 10(14) W/cm(2) these processes occur predominantly via multiphoton excitation of the 20 eV plasmon resonance of C-60 At least two plasmons have to be created to initiate fragmentation or multiple ionization.

  15. Shear-wave velocity structure at Mt. Etna from inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion patterns (2 s < T < 20 s)

    Roberto Scarpa; Matthias Ohrnberger; Gilberto Saccorotti; Simona Petrosino; Luigia Cristiano

    2010-01-01

  1. Extension of high T{sub e} regime with upgraded ECRH system in the LHD

    Takahashi, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Yamada, I.; Nakano, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, 509-5292 (Japan); and others

    2014-02-12

    Enhancement of the output power per gyrotron has been planned in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Three 77-GHz gyrotrons with an output power of more than 1 MW have been operated. In addition, a high power gyrotron with the frequency of 154 GHz (1 MW/5 s, 0.5 MW/CW) was newly installed in 2012 and the total injection power of ECRH reached 4.6 MW. The operational regime of ECRH plasma on the LHD has been extended due to the upgraded ECRH system such as the central electron temperature T{sub e0} = 13.5 keV with n{sub e} = 1×10{sup 19}m{sup −3}. In the LHD, an electron-internal-transport barrier (e-ITB) related to the production of high T{sub e} plasmas has been realized by strongly centre-focused ECRH. The electron thermal confinement clearly improved inside the e-ITB. The radial electric field was measured using the heavy ion beam probe. The formation of the positive E{sub r} was observed in the core region, which well agreed with the prediction of the neoclassical transport theory. The energy confinement characteristics have been investigated in the ECRH plasmas. It was found that higher plasma stored energy and lower radiation power was realized in the outward configuration. The plasma stored energy of 530 kJ with n{sub e} = 3.2×10{sup 19}m{sup −3}, which is the 1.7 times larger than the previous record in the ECRH plasma in the LHD, has been successfully achieved.

  2. Current status of the development of the problem-oriented software package GYREOSS

    A great number of problem-oriented software packages (e.g., DAPHNE, ESRAY, GYROSIM, just to name a few) are used for computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of high-power gyrotrons for fusion research (most notably for ECRH and ECCD). In them, adequate self-consistent physical models formulated in a two-dimensional space (2D) are implemented. Most of the problems encountered in recent years in the development of megawatt-class gyrotrons, however, can be attributed to physical factors and phenomena that are both non-stationary (for instance various electron beam instabilities, dynamics of the trapped particles) and inherently three-dimensional by nature (e.g., non-uniformity of the emission, misalignment of the electrodes and magnetic coils, etc.). In order to address these problems and to take into account most of the physical factors that have so far been neglected, a work on the development of a novel problem-oriented software package called GYREOSS (which stands for Gyrotron Electron-Optical System Simulation) was initiated recently. Since then, GYREOSS has evolved into a test bed for experimenting with different numerical methods, algorithms, and programming techniques for ray tracing (trajectory analysis) and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In this paper, we outline the current status of GYREOSS and present both its physical model formulated in 2D and 3D and its program realization. We illustrate the capabilities of the latest version of the code, which includes a novel 3D field solver and an efficient relativistic particle pusher. Finally, we present an outlook for a further development of GYREOSS.

  3. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  4. Spectral and variational principles of electromagnetic field excitation in wave guides

    Yahalom, Asher [College of Judea and Samaria, Ariel 44284 (Israel)]. E-mail: asya@yosh.ac.il; Pinhasi, Yosef [College of Judea and Samaria, Ariel 44284 (Israel); Lurie, Yuri [College of Judea and Samaria, Ariel 44284 (Israel)

    2005-08-29

    Possible variational principles for excitation of an electromagnetic field in a wave guide are discussed. Our emphasis is not on the calculation of the modal shapes, which is common in previous art, but rather on the calculation of modal amplitude evolution, which are important in electron devices such as free electron lasers and gyrotrons. Variational principles have considerable importance in theoretical physics and are used among other things to derive numerical solution schemes, conservation laws via the Noether theorem and correct boundary conditions for the derived equations including the important effects of the backward waves amplitudes.

  5. RF power generation

    Carter, R G

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the main types of r.f. power amplifiers which are, or may be, used for particle accelerators. It covers solid-state devices, tetrodes, inductive output tubes, klystrons, magnetrons, and gyrotrons with power outputs greater than 10 kW c.w. or 100 kW pulsed at frequencies from 50 MHz to 30 GHz. Factors affecting the satisfactory operation of amplifiers include cooling, matching and protection circuits are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the state of the art for the different technologies.

  6. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume V. Vacuum-pumping system. Preliminary design report

    This report summarizes Title I Preliminary Design of the EBT-P Vacuum Pumping System. The Vacuum Pumping System has been designed by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. - St. Louis (MDAC). It includes the necessary vacuum pumps and vacuum valves to evacuate the torus, the Mirror Coil Dewars (MC Dewars), and the Gyrotron Magnet Dewars. The pumping ducts, manifolds, and microwave protection system are also included. A summary of the function of each subsystem and a description of its principle components is provided below. The analyses performed during the system design are also identified

  7. Classic and novel electromagnetic source. The High Power Electron Tube

    Electron tubes which generate and amplify radio waves relying on the motion of electrons in vacuum are developing in fields where large electric-power and microwave are necessary. Fundamental structures and major purposes of use of practically available electron tubes including transmitting tube, magnetron, travelling-wave tube, and gyrotron are presented. As for microwave tubes, the process where electrons are bunched by the effect of the microwave and fall into the decelerating phase of the microwave are shown for each tube. Also introduced are used materials, outline of fabrication process, the cathode technology which strongly affects the reliability and the lifetime of electron tubes. (author)

  8. High Current Proton and Deuteron Beams for Accelerators and Neutron Generators

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Sidorov, A.; Golubev, S.; Maslennikova, A.; Volovecky, A.; Koivisto, Hannu; Tarvainen, Olli; Kalvas, Taneli

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of high current proton and deuteron beam production at SMIS 37 facility at the Institute of Applied Physics (IAP RAS). In this experimental setup the plasma is created and the electrons are heated by 37.5 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW in a simple mirror trap fulfilling the ECR condition. High microwave power and frequency allow sustaining higher density hydrogen plasma (ne up to 2·1013 cm-3) in comparison to conve...

  9. Quasilinear electron cyclotron absorption in a slab model for TBR-2

    The electron cyclotron radiation generated by a gyrotron of operating frequency f = 35 GHz and power of 60 kW is used for heating and current drive experiments in the tokamak TBR-2 a project currently under study. A quasilinear code, that contains a self-consistent diffusion coefficient for electron cyclotron waves, averaged over tokamak magnetic surfaces, and includes collisions by means of a linearized Fokker-Planck collison term was developed. This code is applied to a slab model for TBR-2, supposed with an initial current presenting features of lower hybrid generated currents. A numerical analysis of two situations with good absorption is done. (author)

  10. Lasers, microwave tubes, and accelerators: a unified point of view

    Many practical devices of technical interest rely for their operation on the coherent interaction between harmonic electromagnetic fields and ensembles of charged particles, constrained to move in orbits or trajectories by electric or magnetic fields. These have in many cases been studied by different communities of physicists and engineers, and different points of view have emerged. Some relatively recent developments, such as the gyrotron and free electron laser have features in common with lasers, microwave tubes, and particle accelerators. Some of these devices will be examined in an informal way from several different view points, with emphasis on a physical rather than mathematical description. (author)

  11. Supplementary report: millimeter wave study program

    This report describes work done during the months of December 1975 and January 1976, following the writing of the final report on the millimeter wave study program for generation of 100 kW or more power at 120 GHz. The work has been directed to three areas for application to gyrotron devices, small signal analysis, electron beam simulation, and microwave measurements on cavity coupling. A small signal analysis is presented, which allows determination of beam loading in cavities. The results are similar to previous published work, but contain a higher order relativistic correction. The electron beam simulations include two magnetron type guns and one based on electrostatic lenses

  12. Destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade with electron cyclotron current drive

    Igochine, V.; Chapman, I.T.; Bobkov, V.; Günter, S.; Maraschek, M.; Moseev, Dmitry; Pereversev, G.; Reich, M.; Stober, J.

    2011-01-01

    It is often observed that large sawteeth trigger the neoclassical tearing mode well below the usual threshold for this instability. At the same time, fast particles in the plasma core stabilize sawteeth and provide these large crashes. The paper presents results of first experiments in ASDEX...... Upgrade for destabilization of fast particle stabilized sawteeth with electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). It is shown that moderate ECCD from a single gyrotron is able to destabilize the fast particle stabilized sawteeth. A reduction in sawtooth period by about 40% was achieved in first experiments...

  13. A Dual-Beam Irradiation Facility for a Novel Hybrid Cancer Therapy

    Sabchevski, Svilen; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Miyoshi, Norio; Tatsukawa, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the main ideas and discuss both the feasibility and the conceptual design of a novel hybrid technique and equipment for an experimental cancer therapy based on the simultaneous and/or sequential application of two beams, namely a beam of neutrons and a CW (continuous wave) or intermittent sub-terahertz wave beam produced by a gyrotron for treatment of cancerous tumors. The main simulation tools for the development of the computer aided design (CAD) of the prospective experimental facility for clinical trials and study of such new medical technology are briefly reviewed. Some tasks for a further continuation of this feasibility analysis are formulated as well.

  14. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    Meo, Fernando; Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Furtula, Vedran; Leuterer, F.; Leipold, Frank; Michelsen, Poul; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.; Woskov, P.

    2008-01-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110...... alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...

  15. Modification of the collective Thomson scattering radiometer in the search for parametric decay on TEXTOR

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bongers, W.;

    2012-01-01

    the electron cyclotron resonance heating transmission line, and so the scattering geometry is variable. The signal is detected with 42 frequency channels ranging from 136 to 142 GHz. We demonstrate that the large signal does not originate from gyrotron spurious radiation. The measured signal agrees...... describe the heterodyne detection system used to characterize the newly discovered signal measured at TEXTOR, and we present spectral shapes in which the signal can appear under different conditions. The radiation is collected by the receiver through a quasi-optical transmission line that is independent of...

  16. Field-proven high-power vacuum tubes for plasma fusion applications

    For applications in plasma heating for fusion experiments, especially for HV power supplies for neutral beam injectors and gyrotrons as well as ion cyclotron frequency generation, fieldproven high power tetrodes are available from Brown Boveri. Two types of tetrodes from Brown Boveri are discussed, the CQK 200-4 and CQK 650-2. Since their introduction, these tubes and their accessories have been further developed according to user requirements, and considerable production, testing and field experience has been accumulated. This paper summarizes the present technical status and the performance data achieved to date

  17. Computer Aided Design of Depressed Collectors for High Power Electron Tubes

    Singh, A.; Valfells, A.; Kolander, M.; Granatstein, V. L.

    2003-12-01

    We present an overview of techniques and computer codes developed by us for systematic design of depressed collectors with special reference to devices that use gyrating electron beams. These techniques facilitate achievement of high power levels in electron tubes. ProfilEM is an aid to controlling the trajectories of primary electrons. BSCAT provides for tracing the trajectories of backscattered electrons. Multiple generations of backscatter can be obtained, while keeping the number of rays to be tracked within manageable limits. We describe examples of applying these codes to the case of two-stage depressed collectors for a 1.5 MW 110 GHz gyrotron.

  18. Emission nonuniformity due to profilimetry variation in thermionic cathodes

    Jensen, Kevin L.; Lau, Y. Y.; Jordan, Nicholas

    2006-04-01

    A model is developed which shows that the micron-scale ridges, introduced by the surface machining of thermionic dispenser cathodes, may lead to significant angular variations in the macroscopic current density on ring-shaped cathodes commonly used in gyrotrons. An account of the local enhancement in the microscopic emission current density on the ridges is considered for a representative physical model, which shows that the angular variation in current may be pronounced and accounted for by variations in ridges as a consequence of large scale profilimetry variations resulting from machining.

  19. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual report, 1989

    An overview of the collaborative researches carried out during the 1989 at the Wills Plasma Physics Department is given. The main activities included the study of hydromagnetic surface waves and RF heating using the Tortus tokamak; the development of diagnostic techniques, particularly those based on submillimetre lasers and tunable gyrotrons; gas discharge studies and investigations of apparent cold nuclear fusion in deuterated palladium. The small research tokamak Tortus was upgraded during the year, thus enabling the machine to be routinely and reliably operated at toroidal currents around 40 kA. A list of papers published or presented at various conferences during the year is included in the Appendix

  20. Infrared and millimeter waves v.14 millimeter components and techniques, pt.V

    Button, Kenneth J

    1985-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 14: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part V is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. In addition to millimeter-wave planar integrated circuits and subsystems, this book covers transducer configurations and integrated-circuit techniques, antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and tunable gyrotrons. Millimeter-wave gallium arsenide (GaAs) IMPATT diodes are also discussed. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a description of millimeter-wave integrated-circuit transducers, focusing on vario

  1. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  2. A scheme for a terahertz traveling-wave amplifier working with the TE11 mode in a circular waveguide

    To enlarge the interaction structure to a feasible dimension and to decrease the required magnetic field to an available strength, the gyrotron devices at THz frequencies must be designed with a high-order-mode interaction, which is weaker in a beam–wave interaction and more susceptible to mode competition. Using the same interaction structure (a circular waveguide) as in the gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWT), but replacing the axial magnetic field of the gyro-TWT with a tapered helical magnetic field, we found that the gyrating electrons are able to perform strong interaction with the TE11 mode in the THz region. Through an example case, we explored the behavior of the particles and wave fields as in a beam–wave interaction under a modified scheme of the gyro-TWT with a numerical simulation code. The equations required for the simulation are presented. The simulation result of the example case indicates that, through the TE11 beam–wave interaction under the presented scheme, more than one quarter of the beam energy can be converted to the wave at 612.7 GHz and to heat, dissipated on the waveguide wall, of radius 2.5 cm

  3. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here

  4. Frequency swept microwaves for hyperfine decoupling and time domain dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Hoff, Daniel E M; Albert, Brice J; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Mardini, Michael; Barnes, Alexander B

    2015-11-01

    Hyperfine decoupling and pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) are promising techniques to improve high field DNP NMR. We explore experimental and theoretical considerations to implement them with magic angle spinning (MAS). Microwave field simulations using the high frequency structural simulator (HFSS) software suite are performed to characterize the inhomogeneous phase independent microwave field throughout a 198GHz MAS DNP probe. Our calculations show that a microwave power input of 17W is required to generate an average EPR nutation frequency of 0.84MHz. We also present a detailed calculation of microwave heating from the HFSS parameters and find that 7.1% of the incident microwave power contributes to dielectric sample heating. Voltage tunable gyrotron oscillators are proposed as a class of frequency agile microwave sources to generate microwave frequency sweeps required for the frequency modulated cross effect, electron spin inversions, and hyperfine decoupling. Electron spin inversions of stable organic radicals are simulated with SPINEVOLUTION using the inhomogeneous microwave fields calculated by HFSS. We calculate an electron spin inversion efficiency of 56% at a spinning frequency of 5kHz. Finally, we demonstrate gyrotron acceleration potentials required to generate swept microwave frequency profiles for the frequency modulated cross effect and electron spin inversions. PMID:26482131

  5. Modeling Results for Proposed Nstx 28 GHZ Ech/ebwh System

    Taylor, G.; Diem, S. J.; Ellis, R. A.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Hosea, J. C.; Bigelow, T. S.; Caughman, J. B.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P.; Wilgen, J. B.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Ram, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron Bernstein wave heating (EBWH) system has been proposed for installation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). A 350 kW gyrotron connected to a fixed horn antenna is proposed for ECH-assisted solenoid-free plasma startup. Modeling predicts strong first pass on-axis EC absorption, even for low electron temperature, Te ~ 20 eV, Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) startup plasmas. ECH will heat the CHI plasma to Te ~ 300 eV, providing a suitable target plasma for 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave heating. A second gyrotron and steered O-X-B mirror launcher is proposed for EBWH experiments. Radiometric measurements of thermal EBW emission detected via B-X-O coupling on NSTX support implementation of the proposed system. 80% B-X-O coupling efficiency was measured in L-mode plasmas and 60% B-X-O coupling efficiency was recently measured in H-mode plasmas conditioned with evaporated lithium. Modeling predicts local on-axis EBW heating and current drive using 28 GHz power in β ~ 20% NSTX plasmas should be possible, with current drive efficiencies ~40 kA/MW.

  6. Initial high-power testing of the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] ECH [electron cyclotron heating] system

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO2 mode absorbers, two 900 miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE02 mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE01, 82.6% TE02, 2.5% TE03, and 1.9% TE04. 4 refs

  7. Two-cavity gyroklystron with self-excited input cavity

    Sokolov, E.V.; Zasypkin, E.V. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A new type of gyro-oscillator-two cavity gyroklystron with self-excited input cavity (or, for simplicity, two-cavity gyrokylstron oscillator) is proposed. In this device, the autooscillations excited in the first cavity modulate electrons by energy, electrons are bunched in the drift space, and then the bunches excite powerful oscillations in the second (output) cavity. Since, as in gyroklystron, the optimal second cavity length L{sub 2} does not exceed 2-2.5 {lambda} ({lambda} is the operating wavelength), its Q-factor Q{sub 2} {approximately} (L{sub 2}/{lambda}){sup 2} should be essentially lower than cavity Q-factor of a traditional gyrotron. It allows to diminish the RF ohmic losses in the second cavity and to enhance the output power without the efficiency reduction. A simplest theory of such oscillator has been developed. Predicted by theory, the output power enhancement (in comparison with that for an ordinary gyrotron) has been demonstrated experimentally.

  8. An overview of control system for the ITER electron cyclotron system

    The ITER electron cyclotron (EC) system having capability of up to 26 MW generated power at 170 GHz is being procured by 5 domestic agencies via 10 procurement arrangements. This implies diverse types of equipment and complex interface management. It also places a challenge on control system architecture to entertain the constraints of procurement slicing and meeting the overall functional requirement. The envisioned architecture is to use the local control units (supplied with each procurement) and a supervisory plant controller (by ITER). This offers a reliable control configuration for such delicate and complex EC plant system. The control system is envisioned to monitor the whole plant and perform automated tasks that are today performed via direct human intervention. For example, the automated gyrotron conditioning and active control of the EC plant to respond to requests from the plasma control system (PCS). This later aspect requires rapid shut down of the gyrotrons and power supplies, deviation of the actuators to direct the power from an equatorial to upper launcher and then restart of the power generation for rapid stabilization of the magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities that occur in high performance plasma operation. The plant controller will be designed for optimized performance with the PCS and the feedback control system used to actively control the power (with modulation capability up to 5 kHz) and launching direction for MHD stabilization.

  9. First experiments with gasdynamic ion source in CW mode

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Vodopyanov, A.; Tarvainen, O.

    2016-02-01

    A new type of ECR ion source—a gasdynamic ECR ion source—has been recently developed at the Institute of Applied Physics. The main advantages of such device are extremely high ion beam current with a current density up to 600-700 emA/cm2 in combination with low emittance, i.e., normalized RMS emittance below 0.1 π mm mrad. Previous investigations were carried out in pulsed operation with 37.5 or 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW at SMIS 37 experimental facility. The present work demonstrates the first experience of operating the gasdynamic ECR ion source in CW mode. A test bench of SMIS 24 facility has been developed at IAP RAS. 24 GHz radiation of CW gyrotron was used for plasma heating in a magnetic trap with simple mirror configuration. Initial studies of plasma parameters were performed. Ion beams with pulsed and CW high voltage were successfully extracted from the CW discharge. Obtained experimental results demonstrate that all advantages of the gasdynamic source can be realized also in CW operation.

  10. Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted CVD Reactor

    A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted CVD technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate CVD. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and processing times than currently available are outlined

  11. EU developments of the ITER ECRH system

    The EU will be providing the largest contribution to the ITER electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H and CD) system (20 MW, CW at 170 GHz). The contribution includes one third of the H and CD gyrotrons, their associated power supplies and four upper port launcher antennas. In all areas of participation, the EU EC partnership (coordinated by the European Fusion Development Agreement) aims toward advancing the technology, while staying within a specified cost envelope. This is portrayed in the co-axial gyrotron development that offers the potential to double the output power per source (2.0 MW), increasing the delivered power for a fixed number of auxiliary systems. The EU partnerships also attempt to increase performance for the entire EC system, in particular the launching antennas. The proposed front steering launcher design offers greater control of MHD activity than the previous remote steering design and opens up the possibility of an enhanced performance UL. The EC physics requirements are repartitioned between the upper and equatorial launchers for a synergetic balance, which increases the EC physics capabilities while relaxing some of the engineering requirements

  12. Advanced instrumentation for DNP-enhanced MAS NMR for higher magnetic fields and lower temperatures

    Matsuki, Yoh; Idehara, Toshitaka; Fukazawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2016-03-01

    Sensitivity enhancement of MAS NMR using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is gaining importance at moderate fields (B0 90 K) with potential applications in chemistry and material sciences. However, considering the ever-increasing size and complexity of the systems to be studied, it is crucial to establish DNP under higher field conditions, where the spectral resolution and the basic NMR sensitivity tend to improve. In this perspective, we overview our recent efforts on hardware developments, specifically targeted on improving DNP MAS NMR at high fields. It includes the development of gyrotrons that enable continuous frequency tuning and rapid frequency modulation for our 395 GHz-600 MHz and 460 GHz-700 MHz DNP NMR spectrometers. The latter 700 MHz system involves two gyrotrons and a quasi-optical transmission system that combines two independent sub-millimeter waves into a single dichromic wave. We also describe two cryogenic MAS NMR probe systems operating, respectively, at T ∼100 K and ∼30 K. The latter system utilizes a novel closed-loop helium recirculation mechanism, achieving cryogenic MAS without consuming any cryogen. These instruments altogether should promote high-field DNP toward more efficient, reliable and affordable technology. Some experimental DNP results obtained with these instruments are presented.

  13. Concrete peeling off device

    The present invention concerns a device for peeling off activated concretes in processing for discarding a reactor of a nuclear reactor facility. The device comprises a gyrotron for generation microwaves, an irradiator for irradiating output microwaves, a reflection mirror for reflecting and converging the microwaves and irradiating them to a material to be irradiated and a first rotating means for rotating the irradiator and the reflection mirror in parallel with the axis of the gyrotron while maintaining the positional relation between the irradiator and the reflection mirror. When the position of the microwaves irradiated on concrete walls are moved in a circumferential direction and the central axes of the rotational axis and the material to be irradiated are aligned, then the intensity of the irradiation of the microwaves at each of the irradiation points can be maintained constant without changing the focal distance of the reflected microwaves thereby enabling to peel off concretes efficiently. If operation conditions are controlled based on information such as temperature at the periphery of the microwave irradiation positions, the shape and the color of the material to be irradiated and the distance to the material to be irradiated, a concrete peeling off device of high reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  14. Advanced Quasioptical Launcher System. Final Report

    This program developed an analytical design tool for designing antenna and mirror systems to convert whispering gallery RF modes to Gaussian or HE11 modes. Whispering gallery modes are generated by gyrotrons used for electron cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas in tokamaks. These modes cannot be easily transmitted and must be converted to free space or waveguide modes compatible with transmission line systems.This program improved the capability of SURF3D/LOT, which was initially developed in a previous SBIR program. This suite of codes revolutionized quasi-optical launcher design, and this code, or equivalent codes, are now used worldwide. This program added functionality to SURF3D/LOT to allow creating of more compact launcher and mirror systems and provide direct coupling to corrugated waveguide within the vacuum envelope of the gyrotron. Analysis was also extended to include full-wave analysis of mirror transmission line systems. The code includes a graphical user interface and is available for advanced design of launcher systems.

  15. A mode-transforming polarization-rotatable launcher for the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] fusion experiment

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) fusion energy experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) requires high-power microwaves for startup and plasma heating. Power from a gyrotron oscillator tube at 53.2 GHz will be used to ionize and heat the plasma by the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. The confining magnetic field of the device is either 0.95 or 1.9T. The gyrotron tube generates 200 kW in the TE02 mode, which is transported in an overmoded 6.35-cm-diam circular waveguide to the ATF vacuum vessel. The launcher consists of a mode-converting Vlasov section, which converts the nonpolarized TE02 wave into a linearly polarized narrow beam. The beam reflects off a tiled spherical reflector grating and is focused at the center of the plasma. The polarization can be rotated to optimize the absorption efficiency by rotating the grating in the spherical reflector. Overall system efficiency is kept high by making the twist reflector large enough to catch the Vlasov converter sidelobe power, which is partially due to mode conversion in the waveguide system. The launcher design and laboratory measurements are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Fast switching, modular high-voltage DC/AC-power supplies for RF-Amplifiers and other applications

    A new kind of high voltage high-power Pulse-Step Modulator (PSM) for broadcast transmitters, accelerator sources, for NBI (Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma Heating), gyrotrons and klystrons has been developed. Since its first introduction in 1984 for broadcast transmitters, more than 100 high-power sound broadcast transmitters had been equipped with the first generation of the PSM modulators, using Gate Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) as switching elements. Recently, due to faster switching elements and making use of the latest DSP technologies (Digital Signal Processing), the performance data and areas of application could be extended further. In 1994, a precision high voltage source for MW gyrotrons was installed at CRPP in Lausanne. Supplementary very low cost solutions for lower powers but high voltages had been developed. Hence, today, a large area of applications can be satisfied with the family of solutions. The paper describes the principle of operation, the related control systems and refers to some particular applications of the PSM amplifiers, especially the newest developments and corresponding field results

  17. Magnetic confinement

    In preparation for the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) 2007 experimental programme, the priorities were changed to some extent to allow more machine time to be allocated to new ideas and to take into account the reduced power availability. In fact a filament failure of two of the six lower hybrid (LH) gyrotrons and an unfortunate accident to one out of the four electron cyclotron gyrotrons during its transportation to the Frascati laboratories made it impossible to reach the high performance foreseen for the advanced-scenario programme. Emphasis was placed on the study of the high-density and peaked-profile regimes obtained in operations with the liquid lithium limiter (LLL) and control of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes and disruptions. High priority was also given to the study of electron fishbone instability, which is theoretically expected in the presence of fast electrons generated by LH and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Some relevance was also allocated to the study of dust dynamics in the scrape-off layer (SOL). Unfortunately, a series of contingencies affecting the spring campaign hampered the continuity of operations and hence strongly reduced the time devoted to scientific activities. Although the reliability of most of the machine subsystems allowed about seven weeks of operations, with 90% efficiency, only two weeks were effectively devoted to the scientific programme. After some problems connected with CO2 contamination of the main vacuum, the autumn campaign was not successful and then definitively cancelled because of a fault on the poloidal system power supply

  18. Electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    As nuclear fusion becomes an increasingly important potential energy source in these times of global oil and energy crises, the development of technologies that can lead to the realization of this virtually inexhaustible source of energy takes on ever greater urgency. Over the past decade electron cyclotron heating has undergone a significant maturation and has emerged as an essential component of the major approaches to achieving controlled nuclear fusion. The gyrotron, first developed in the Soviet Union, has made it possible to employ ECH in large tokamak and stellarator fusion devices by providing megawatts of microwave power at frequencies above 100 GHz. A contemporary VGT-8110 gyrotron, for example, shown here with Kevin Felch and Pat Cahalan of Communications and Power Industries, is capable of delivering 10 second pulses of 1 MW of power at 110 GHz. The present monograph addresses the ECH physics critical to the international fusion reactor experiment, ITER, but also presents the fundamentals of ECH that are essential to its successful implementation in applications that range from active experiments in planetary magnetospheres to commercial plasma sources for the manufacture of computer chips. The book seeks to convey the physics of ECH in an orderly and coherent fashion to a professional audience by presenting the basic theoretical foundations and then using the theory to interpret a number of established experimental results. Exercises are included to aid the reader in making the theory more concrete. (orig.)

  19. Experience in integrated control of the multi-megawatt electron cyclotron heating system on the TCV tokamak: the first decade

    Goodman, T. P.; TCV Team

    2008-05-01

    The ECH system on the TCV tokamak consists of six gyrotrons (82.6 GHz/0.5 MW/2 s) used for X2 and electron Bernstein wave (EBW) ECH/ECCD with individual low-field-side launchers. Three additional gyrotrons (118 GHz/0.5 MW/2 s) are used for X3-ECH in a top-launch configuration to provide central heating of high-density plasmas, at nearly 3 times the cutoff density of X2. The X2 subsystem was installed by the end of 1999 and the X3 subsystem by the end of 2003, making 4.2 MW available for experiments. The installation work provides data related to testing, repair and reliability of a complex ECH system designed to allow the highest possible degree of automation, integration and flexibility in the experimental programme. Its effective integration into the TCV plant is evidenced by the fact that the mean time between shots when operating with ECH increases roughly in proportion to the increase in the resources required to prepare, monitor and record the experimental sessions. Each of the X2 and X3 subsystems is routinely individually operated by one person. This gives confidence that with proper layout, planning and integration, the EC systems of future fusion experiments, such as ITER, can routinely provide reliable actuators, on demand.

  20. Development of High Power Vacuum Tubes for Accelerators and Plasma Heating

    High pulsed power magnetrons and klystrons for medical and industrial accelerators, and high CW power klystrons and gyrotrons for plasma heating in tokamak, are being developed at CEERI. S-band 2.0MW pulsed tunable magnetrons of centre frequency 2856MHz and 2998 MHz were developed, and S-band 2.6MW pulsed tunable magnetron is being developed for medical LINAC, and 3MW pulsed tunable magnetron is being developed for industrial accelerator. S-band (2856MHz), 5MW pulsed klystron was developed for particle accelerator, and S-band 6MW pulsed klystron is under development for 10MeV industrial accelerator. 350MHz, 100kW (CW) klystron is being developed for proton accelerator, and C-band 250kW (CW) klystron is being developed for plasma heating. 42GHz, 200kW (CW/Long pulse) gyrotron is under development for plasma heating. Plasma filled tubes are also being developed for switching. 25kV/1kA and 40kV/3kA thyratrons were developed for high voltage high current switching in pulse modulators for magnetrons and klystrons. 25kV/3kA Pseudospark switch of current rise time of 1kA/|a-sec and pulse repetition rate of 500Hz is being developed. Plasma assisted high power microwave device is also being investigated.