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Sample records for 14-3-3 protein mediated

  1. 14-3-3 proteins in guard cell signaling

    Valérie eCotelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Guard cells are specialized cells located at the leaf surface delimiting pores which control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. To optimize the CO2 uptake necessary for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss, guard cells integrate environmental signals to adjust stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is regulated by movements of the guard cells driven by variations in their volume and turgor. As guard cells perceive and transduce a wide array of environmental cues, they provide an ideal system to elucidate early events of plant signaling. Reversible protein phosphorylation events are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal movements. However, in some cases, phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to achieve complete protein regulation, but is necessary to mediate the binding of interactors that modulate protein function. Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as multiple isoforms in eukaryotes and have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about 14-3-3 roles in the regulation of their binding partners in guard cells: receptors, ion pumps, channels, protein kinases and some of their substrates. Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal movements in response to abiotic or biotic stresses.

  2. 14-3-3 Proteins in Guard Cell Signaling

    Cotelle, Valérie; Leonhardt, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Guard cells are specialized cells located at the leaf surface delimiting pores which control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. To optimize the CO2 uptake necessary for photosynthesis while minimizing water loss, guard cells integrate environmental signals to adjust stomatal aperture. The size of the stomatal pore is regulated by movements of the guard cells driven by variations in their volume and turgor. As guard cells perceive and transduce a wide array of environmental cues, they provide an ideal system to elucidate early events of plant signaling. Reversible protein phosphorylation events are known to play a crucial role in the regulation of stomatal movements. However, in some cases, phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to achieve complete protein regulation, but is necessary to mediate the binding of interactors that modulate protein function. Among the phosphopeptide-binding proteins, the 14-3-3 proteins are the best characterized in plants. The 14-3-3s are found as multiple isoforms in eukaryotes and have been shown to be involved in the regulation of stomatal movements. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about 14-3-3 roles in the regulation of their binding partners in guard cells: receptors, ion pumps, channels, protein kinases, and some of their substrates. Regulation of these targets by 14-3-3 proteins is discussed and related to their function in guard cells during stomatal movements in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. PMID:26858725

  3. 14-3-3 proteins-an update

    Paulette MHAWECH

    2005-01-01

    14-3-3 is a highly conserved acidic protein family, composed of seven isoforms in mammals. 14-3-3 protein can interact with over 200 target proteins by phosphoserine-dependent and phosphoserine-independent manners. Little is known about the consequences of these interactions, and thus are the subjects of ongoing studies. 14-3-3 controls cell cycle, cell growth, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, migration and spreading. Recent studies have revealed new mechanisms and new functions of 14-3-3, giving us more insights on this fascinating and complex family of proteins.Of all the seven isoforms, 14-3-3σ seems to be directly involved in human cancer. 14-3-3σ itself is subject to regulation by p53 upon DNA damage and by epigenetic deregulation. Gene silencing of 14-3-3σ by CpG methylation has been found in many human cancer types. This suggests that therapy-targeting 14-3-3σ may be beneficial for future cancer treatment.

  4. Characterization of 14-3-3 Proteins from Cryptosporidium parvum

    Brokx, Stephen J.; Wernimont, Amy K.; Aiping Dong; Wasney, Gregory A.; Yu-Hui Lin; Jocelyne Lew; Masoud Vedadi; Wen Hwa Lee; Raymond Hui

    2011-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The parasite Cryptosporidium parvum has three 14-3-3 proteins: Cp14ε, Cp14a and Cp14b, with only Cp14ε similar to human 14-3-3 proteins in sequence, peptide-binding properties and structure. Structurally, Cp14a features the classical 14-3-3 dimer but with a uniquely wide pocket and a disoriented RRY triad potentially incapable of binding phosphopeptides. The Cp14b protein deviates from the norm significantly: (i) In one subunit, the phosphorylated C-terminal tail is bound in the b...

  5. 14-3-3 proteins as potential therapeutic targets

    Zhao, Jing; Meyerkord, Cheryl L; Du, Yuhong; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian

    2011-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-binding proteins dynamically regulates the activity of client proteins in various signaling pathways that control diverse physiological and pathological processes. In response to environmental cues, 14-3-3 proteins orchestrate the highly regulated flow of signals through complex networks of molecular interactions to achieve well-controlled physiological outputs, such as cell proliferation or differentiation. Accumulating evidence now support...

  6. 14-3-3 proteins regulate Tctp–Rheb interaction for organ growth in Drosophila

    Le, Thao Phuong; Vuong, Linh Thuong; Kim, Ah-Ram; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 family proteins regulate multiple signalling pathways. Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. Here we provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate two interacting components of Tor signalling in Drosophila, translationally controlled tumour protein (Tctp) and Rheb GTPase. Single knockdown of 14-3-3ɛ or 14-3-3ζ isoform does not show obvious defects in organ development but causes synergistic genetic interaction with Tctp and Rheb to impair tissue growth. 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with Tctp and Rheb. Knockdown of both 14-3-3 isoforms abolishes the binding between Tctp and Rheb, disrupting organ development. Depletion of 14-3-3s also reduces the level of phosphorylated S6 kinase, phosphorylated Thor/4E-BP and cyclin E (CycE). Growth defects from knockdown of 14-3-3 and Tctp are suppressed by CycE overexpression. This study suggests a novel mechanism of Tor regulation mediated by 14-3-3 interaction with Tctp and Rheb. PMID:27151460

  7. 14-3-3 proteins regulate Tctp-Rheb interaction for organ growth in Drosophila.

    Le, Thao Phuong; Vuong, Linh Thuong; Kim, Ah-Ram; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3 family proteins regulate multiple signalling pathways. Understanding biological functions of 14-3-3 proteins has been limited by the functional redundancy of conserved isotypes. Here we provide evidence that 14-3-3 proteins regulate two interacting components of Tor signalling in Drosophila, translationally controlled tumour protein (Tctp) and Rheb GTPase. Single knockdown of 14-3-3ɛ or 14-3-3ζ isoform does not show obvious defects in organ development but causes synergistic genetic interaction with Tctp and Rheb to impair tissue growth. 14-3-3 proteins physically interact with Tctp and Rheb. Knockdown of both 14-3-3 isoforms abolishes the binding between Tctp and Rheb, disrupting organ development. Depletion of 14-3-3s also reduces the level of phosphorylated S6 kinase, phosphorylated Thor/4E-BP and cyclin E (CycE). Growth defects from knockdown of 14-3-3 and Tctp are suppressed by CycE overexpression. This study suggests a novel mechanism of Tor regulation mediated by 14-3-3 interaction with Tctp and Rheb. PMID:27151460

  8. Role of the EF-hand-like Motif in the 14-3-3 Protein- mediated Activation of Yeast Neutral Trehalase Nth1

    Kopecká, Miroslava; Košek, Dalibor; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Řežábková, Lenka; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Obšil, T.; Obšilová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 20 (2014), s. 13948-13961. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0455 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 644313; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 800413 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : calcium * enzyme mechanisms * mass spectrometry (MS) * protein cross-linking * protein structure * 14-3-3 * Bmh * H/D exchange * neutral trehalase * SAXS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.573, year: 2014

  9. Characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Stephen J Brokx

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The parasite Cryptosporidium parvum has three 14-3-3 proteins: Cp14ε, Cp14a and Cp14b, with only Cp14ε similar to human 14-3-3 proteins in sequence, peptide-binding properties and structure. Structurally, Cp14a features the classical 14-3-3 dimer but with a uniquely wide pocket and a disoriented RRY triad potentially incapable of binding phosphopeptides. The Cp14b protein deviates from the norm significantly: (i In one subunit, the phosphorylated C-terminal tail is bound in the binding groove like a phosphopeptide. This supports our binding study indicating this protein was stabilized by a peptide mimicking its last six residues. (ii The other subunit has eight helices instead of nine, with αA and αB forming a single helix and occluding the peptide-binding cleft. (iii The protein forms a degenerate dimer with the two binding grooves divided and facing opposite directions. These features conspire to block and disrupt the bicameral substrate-binding pocket, suggesting a possible tripartite auto-regulation mechanism that has not been observed previously. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  10. Discovery and structural characterization of a small molecule 14-3-3 protein-protein interaction inhibitor

    Zhao, Jing; Du, Yuhong; Horton, John R.; Upadhyay, Anup K.; Lou, Bin; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe; Zhang, Lixin; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Cheng, Xiaodong; Fu, Haian (Emory-MED); (GSU); (MCW); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2013-02-14

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphoserine/threonine-recognition proteins engage multiple nodes in signaling networks that control diverse physiological and pathophysiological functions and have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for such diseases as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, small molecule modulators of 14-3-3 are much needed agents for chemical biology investigations and therapeutic development. To analyze 14-3-3 function and modulate its activity, we conducted a chemical screen and identified 4-[(2Z)-2-[4-formyl-6-methyl-5-oxo-3-(phosphonatooxymethyl)pyridin-2-ylidene]hydrazinyl]benzoate as a 14-3-3 inhibitor, which we termed FOBISIN (FOurteen-three-three BInding Small molecule INhibitor) 101. FOBISIN101 effectively blocked the binding of 14-3-3 with Raf-1 and proline-rich AKT substrate, 40 kD{sub a} and neutralized the ability of 14-3-3 to activate exoenzyme S ADP-ribosyltransferase. To provide a mechanistic basis for 14-3-3 inhibition, the crystal structure of 14-3-3{zeta} in complex with FOBISIN101 was solved. Unexpectedly, the double bond linking the pyridoxal-phosphate and benzoate moieties was reduced by X-rays to create a covalent linkage of the pyridoxal-phosphate moiety to lysine 120 in the binding groove of 14-3-3, leading to persistent 14-3-3 inactivation. We suggest that FOBISIN101-like molecules could be developed as an entirely unique class of 14-3-3 inhibitors, which may serve as radiation-triggered therapeutic agents for the treatment of 14-3-3-mediated diseases, such as cancer.

  11. 14-3-3 proteins and the p53 family : a study in keratinocytes

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Several associations between 14-3-3 proteins and members of the p53 family have been revealed. However, numerous questions regarding 14-3-3 proteins, p53 family members and the relationships between thetwo families remain. This thesis contributes to answer these questions. Downregulation of 14-3-3ζ

  12. Differential neuroprotective effects of 14-3-3 proteins in models of Parkinson's disease

    Yacoubian, T A; Slone, S R; Harrington, A J; Hamamichi, S; Schieltz, J M; Caldwell, K A; Caldwell, G A; Standaert, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are important negative regulators of cell death pathways. Recent studies have revealed alterations in 14-3-3s in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the ability of 14-3-3s to interact with α-synuclein (α-syn), a protein central to PD pathophysiology. In a transgenic α-syn mouse model, we found reduced expression of 14-3-3θ, -ɛ, and -γ. These same isoforms prevent α-syn inclusion formation in an H4 neuroglioma cell model. Using dopaminergic cell lines stably overexpressing each 14-3-3...

  13. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3’s regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation

  14. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2015-01-01

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation. PMID:26083935

  15. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Wu, Yi-Ju [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan 350, Taiwan (China); Jan, Yee-Jee [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Ko, Bor-Sheng [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang, E-mail: jliou@nhri.org.tw [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan 350, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3’s regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation.

  16. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Yi-Ju Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation.

  17. Insight into Conformational Change for 14-3-3σ Protein by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Guodong Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 14-3-3σ is a member of a highly conserved family of 14-3-3 proteins that has a double-edged sword role in human cancers. Former reports have indicated that the 14-3-3 protein may be in an open or closed state. In this work, we found that the apo-14-3-3σ is in an open state compared with the phosphopeptide bound 14-3-3σ complex which is in a more closed state based on our 80 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The interaction between the two monomers of 14-3-3σ in the open state is the same as that in the closed state. In both open and closed states, helices A to D, which are involved in dimerization, are stable. However, large differences are found in helices E and F. The hydrophobic contacts and hydrogen bonds between helices E and G in apo-14-3-3σ are different from those in the bound 14-3-3σ complex. The restrained and the mutated (Arg56 or Arg129 to alanine MD simulations indicate that the conformation of four residues (Lys49, Arg56, Arg129 and Tyr130 may play an important role to keep the 14-3-3σ protein in an open or closed state. These results would be useful to evaluate the 14-3-3σ protein structure-function relationship.

  18. Arabidopsis 14-3-3 proteins: fascinating and less fascinating aspects

    Nina eJaspert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 dimers are well known to interact with diverse target proteins throughout eukaryotes. Most notably, association of 14-3-3s commonly requires phosphorylation of a serine or threonine residue within a specific sequence motif of the client protein. Studies with a focus on individual target proteins have unequivocally demonstrated 14-3-3s to be the crucial factors modifying the client’s activity state upon phosphorylation and, thus, finishing the job initiated by a kinase. In this respect, a recent in-depth analysis of the rice transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS D1 (OsFD1 revealed 14-3-3s to be essential players in floral induction. However, such fascinating discoveries can often be ascribed to the random identification of 14-3-3 as an interaction partner of the favorite protein. In contrast, our understanding of 14-3-3 function in higher organisms is frustratingly limited, mainly due to an overwhelming spectrum of putative targets in combination with the existence of a multigene 14-3-3 family. In this review we will discuss our current understanding of the function of plant 14-3-3 proteins, taking into account surveys of the Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interactome.

  19. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of interphase and mitotic 14-3-3-binding proteins.

    Meek, Sarah E M; Lane, William S; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2004-07-30

    14-3-3 proteins regulate the cell division cycle and play a pivotal role in blocking cell cycle advancement after activation of the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoints. Here we describe a global proteomics analysis to identify proteins that bind to 14-3-3s during interphase and mitosis. 14-3-3-binding proteins were purified from extracts of interphase and mitotic HeLa cells using specific peptide elution from 14-3-3 zeta affinity columns. Proteins that specifically bound and eluted from the affinity columns were identified by microcapillary high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Several known and novel 14-3-3-interacting proteins were identified in this screen. Identified proteins are involved in cell cycle regulation, signaling, metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid binding, chromatin structure, protein folding, proteolysis, nucleolar function, and nuclear transport as well as several other cellular processes. In some cases 14-3-3 binding was cell cycle-dependent, whereas in other cases the binding was shown to be cell cycle-independent. This study adds to the growing list of human 14-3-3-binding proteins and implicates a role for 14-3-3 proteins in a plethora of essential biological processes. PMID:15161933

  20. Role 14-3-3 Protein in Regulation Some Cellular Processes

    Nagam Khudhair

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to review an overview of the current information on the structure of proteins 14-3-3 and their complexes, in addition to that it provides insights into the mechanisms of their functions. The 14-3-3 proteins are from families maintain regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It was discovered before thirty years, it is attributes of 14-3-3 proteins are able to connect a large number of signalling proteins are functionally diverse, including kinases, phosphatases and transmembrane receptors. 14-3-3 proteins play an important role in a variety of vital regulatory processes, such as protein regulation, apoptotic cell death and cell cycle control. In this review, we discussed the structural basis of 14-3-3 proteins, common structural features of their complexes, Phosphorylation, Cell cycle and Apoptosis.

  1. 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

    14-3-3σ is implicated in promoting tumor development of various malignancies. However, the clinical relevance of 14-3-3σ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor progression and modulation and pathway elucidation remain unclear. We investigated 14-3-3σ expression in 109 HCC tissues by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed by transfection with cDNA or siRNA. Protein expression and cell migration were determined by Western blot and Boyden chamber assay. In this study, we found that 14-3-3σ is abundantly expressed in HCC tumors. Stable or transient overexpression of 14-3-3σ induces the expression of heat shock factor-1α (HSF-1α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in HCC cells. Moreover, expression of 14-3-3σ significantly correlates with HSF-1α/HSP70 in HCC tumors and both 14-3-3σ and HSP70 overexpression are associated with micro-vascular thrombi in HCC patients, suggesting that 14-3-3σ/HSP70 expression is potentially involved in cell migration/invasion. Results of an in vitro migration assay indicate that 14-3-3σ promotes cell migration and that 14-3-3σ-induced cell migration is impaired by siRNA knockdown of HSP70. Finally, 14-3-3σ-induced HSF-1α/HSP70 expression is abolished by the knockdown of β-catenin or activation of GSK-3β. Our findings indicate that 14-3-3σ participates in promoting HCC cell migration and tumor development via β-catenin/HSF-1α/HSP70 pathway regulation. Thus, 14-3-3σ alone or combined with HSP70 are potential prognostic biomarkers for HCC

  2. Differential neuroprotective effects of 14-3-3 proteins in models of Parkinson's disease.

    Yacoubian, T A; Slone, S R; Harrington, A J; Hamamichi, S; Schieltz, J M; Caldwell, K A; Caldwell, G A; Standaert, D G

    2010-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are important negative regulators of cell death pathways. Recent studies have revealed alterations in 14-3-3s in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the ability of 14-3-3s to interact with alpha-synuclein (α-syn), a protein central to PD pathophysiology. In a transgenic α-syn mouse model, we found reduced expression of 14-3-3θ, ε, and γ. These same isoforms prevent α-syn inclusion formation in an H4 neuroglioma cell model. Using dopaminergic cell lines stably overexpressing each 14-3-3 isoform, we found that overexpression of 14-3-3θ, ε, or γ led to resistance to both rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), while other isoforms were not protective against both toxins. Inhibition of a single protective isoform, 14-3-3θ, by shRNA did not increase vulnerability to neurotoxic injury, but toxicity was enhanced by broad-based inhibition of 14-3-3 action with the peptide inhibitor difopein. Using a transgenic C. elegans model of PD, we confirmed the ability of both human 14-3-3θ and a C. elegans 14-3-3 homolog (ftt-2) to protect dopaminergic neurons from α-syn toxicity. Collectively, these data show a strong neuroprotective effect of enhanced 14-3-3 expression - particularly of the 14-3-3θ, ε, and γ isoforms - in multiple cellular and animal models of PD, and point to the potential value of these proteins in the development of neuroprotective therapies for human PD. PMID:21152247

  3. Hyperglycemia decreases expression of 14-3-3 proteins in an animal model of stroke.

    Jeon, Seong-Jun; Sung, Jin-Hee; Koh, Phil-Ok

    2016-07-28

    Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder and a major risk factor for stroke. Stroke severity is worse in patients with diabetes compared to the non-diabetic population. The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved acidic proteins that are ubiquitously expressed in cells and tissues. These proteins are involved in many cellular processes including metabolic pathways, signal transduction, protein trafficking, protein synthesis, and cell cycle control. This study investigated 14-3-3 proteins expression in the cerebral cortex of animals with diabetes, cerebral ischemic injury and a combination of both diabetes and cerebral ischemic injury. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40mg/kg) in adult male rats. After 4 weeks of treatment, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed for the induction of focal cerebral ischemia and cerebral cortex tissue was collected 24h after MCAO. We confirmed that diabetes increases infarct volume following MCAO compared to non-diabetic animals. In diabetic animals with MCAO injury, reduction of 14-3-3 β/α, 14-3-3 ζ/δ, 14-3-3 γ, and 14-3-3 ε isoforms was detected. The expression of these proteins was significantly decreased in diabetic animals with MCAO injury compared to diabetic-only and MCAO-only animals. Moreover, Western blot analysis ascertained the decreased expression of 14-3-3 family proteins in diabetic animals with MCAO injury, including β/α, ζ/δ, γ, ε, τ, and η isoforms. These results show the changes of 14-3-3 proteins expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals with MCAO injury. Thus, these findings suggest that decreases in 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins under the presence of diabetes following MCAO. PMID:27177727

  4. Identification of a redox-modulatory interaction between selenoprotein W and 14-3-3 protein.

    Jeon, Yeong Ha; Ko, Kwan Young; Lee, Jea Hwang; Park, Ki Jun; Jang, Jun Ki; Kim, Ick Young

    2016-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) contains a selenocysteine (Sec, U) in a conserved CXXU motif corresponding to the CXXC redox motif of thioredoxin, suggesting a putative redox function of SelW. We have previously reported that the binding of 14-3-3 protein to its target proteins, including CDC25B, Rictor and TAZ, is inhibited by the interaction of 14-3-3 protein with SelW. However, the binding mechanism is unclear. In this study, we sought to determine the binding site of SelW to understand the regulatory mechanism of the interaction between SelW and 14-3-3 and its biological effects. Phosphorylated Ser(pS) or Thr(pT) residues in RSXpSXP or RXXXp(S/T)XP motifs are well-known common 14-3-3-binding sites, but Thr41, Ser59, and T69 of SelW, which are computationally predicted to serve are phosphorylation sites, were neither phosphorylation sites nor sites involved in the interaction. A mutant SelW in which Sec13 is changed to Ser (U13S) was unable to interact with 14-3-3 protein and thus did not inhibit the interaction of 14-3-3 to other target proteins. However, other Cys mutants of SelW(C10S, C33S and C37S) normally interacted with 14-3-3 protein. The interaction of SelW to 14-3-3 protein was enhanced by diamide or H2O2 and decreased by dithiothreitol (DTT). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the Sec of SelW is involved in its interaction with 14-3-3 protein and that this interaction is increased under oxidative stress conditions. Thus, SelW may have a regulatory function in redox cell signaling by interacting with 14-3-3 protein. PMID:26474786

  5. The crystal structure of the non-liganded 14-3-3σ protein: insights into determinants of isoform specific ligand binding and dimerization

    Anne BENZINGER; Grzegorz M. POPOWICZ; Joma K. JOY; Sudipta MAJUMDAR; Tad A. HOLAK; Heiko HERMEKING

    2005-01-01

    Seven different, but highly conserved 14-3-3 proteins are involved in diverse signaling pathways in human cells. It is unclear how the 14-3-3σ isoform, a transcriptional target of p53, exerts its inhibitory effect on the cell cycle in the presence of other 14-3-3 isoforms, which are constitutively expressed at high levels. In order to identify structural differences between the 14-3-3 isoforms, we solved the crystal structure of the human 14-3-3σ protein at a resolution of 2.8 A and compared it to the known structures of 14-3-3ζ and 14-3-3τ. The global architecture of the 14-3-3σ fold is similar to the previously determined structures of 14-3-3ζ and 14-3-3τ: two 14-3-3σ molecules form a cup-shaped dimer. Significant differences between these 14-3-3 isoforms were detected adjacent to the amphipathic groove, which mediates the binding to phosphorylated consensus motifs in 14-3-3-1igands. Another specificity determining region is localized between amino-acids 203 to 215. These differences presumably select for the interaction with specific ligands,which may explain the different biological functions of the respective 14-3-3 isoforms. Furthermore, the two 14-3-3σ molecules forming a dimer differ by the spatial position of the ninth helix, which is shifted to the inside of the ligand interaction surface, thus indicating adaptability of this part of the molecule. In addition, 5 non-conserved residues are located at the interface between two 14-3-3σ proteins forming a dimer and represent candidate determinants of homoand hetero-dimerization specificity. The structural differences among the 14-3-3 isoforms described here presumably contribute to isoform-specific interactions and functions.

  6. Expression of 14-3-3 protein isoforms in mouse oocytes, eggs and ovarian follicular development

    De Santanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 14-3-3 (YWHA proteins are a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed family of proteins. Seven mammalian isoforms of 14-3-3 are known (β, γ, ε, ζ, η, τ and, σ. These proteins associate with many intracellular proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes including regulation of the cell cycle, metabolism and protein trafficking. We are particularly interested in the role of 14-3-3 in meiosis in mammalian eggs and the role 14-3-3 proteins may play in ovarian function. Therefore, we examined the expression of 14-3-3 proteins in mouse oocyte and egg extracts by Western blotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, viewed fixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence, and examined mouse ovarian cells by immunohistochemical staining to study the expression of the different 14-3-3 isoforms. Results We have determined that all of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms are expressed in mouse eggs and ovarian follicular cells including oocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of isolated oocytes and eggs confirmed the presence of all of the isoforms with characteristic differences in some of their intracellular localizations. For example, some isoforms (β, ε, γ, and ζ are expressed more prominently in peripheral cytoplasm compared to the germinal vesicles in oocytes, but are uniformly dispersed within eggs. On the other hand, 14-3-3η is diffusely dispersed in the oocyte, but attains a uniform punctate distribution in the egg with marked accumulation in the region of the meiotic spindle apparatus. Immunohistochemical staining detected all isoforms within ovarian follicles, with some similarities as well as notable differences in relative amounts, localizations and patterns of expression in multiple cell types at various stages of follicular development. Conclusions We found that mouse oocytes, eggs and follicular cells within the ovary express all seven isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein. Examination of the

  7. Structural Modulation of Phosducin by Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 Protein Binding

    Řežábková, L.; Kacířová, M.; Šulc, Miroslav; Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Štěpánek, M.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2012), s. 1960-1969. ISSN 0006-3495 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : phosducin * 14-3-3 protein * fluorescence Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.668, year: 2012

  8. 14-3-3ζ Mediates Tau Aggregation in Human Neuroblastoma M17 Cells.

    Li, Tong; Paudel, Hemant K

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau is the major component of paired helical filaments (PHFs) associated with the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau in the normal brain binds and stabilizes microtubules. Tau isolated from PHFs is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents it from binding to microtubules. Tau phosphorylation has been suggested to be involved in the development of NFT pathology in the AD brain. Recently, we showed that 14-3-3ζ is bound to tau in the PHFs and when incubated in vitro with 14-3-3ζ, tau formed amorphous aggregates, single-stranded straight filaments, double stranded ribbon-like filaments and PHF-like filaments that displayed close resemblance with corresponding ultrastructures of AD brain. Surprisingly however, phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated tau aggregated in a similar manner, indicating that tau phosphorylation does not affect in vitro tau aggregation (Qureshi et al (2013) Biochemistry 52, 6445-6455). In this study, we have examined the role of tau phosphorylation in tau aggregation in cellular level. We have found that in human M17 neuroblastoma cells, tau phosphorylation by GSK3β or PKA does not cause tau aggregation, but promotes 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation by destabilizing microtubules. Microtubule disrupting drugs also promoted 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation without changing tau phosphorylation in M17 cell. In vitro, when incubated with 14-3-3ζ and microtubules, nonphosphorylated tau bound to microtubules and did not aggregate. Phosphorylated tau on the other hand did not bind to microtubules and aggregated. Our data indicate that microtubule-bound tau is resistant to 14-3-3ζ-induced tau aggregation and suggest that tau phosphorylation promotes tau aggregation in the brain by detaching tau from microtubules and thus making it accessible to 14-3-3ζ. PMID:27548710

  9. 14-3-3-zeta participates in TLR3-mediated TICAM-1 signal-platform formation.

    Funami, Kenji; Matsumoto, Misako; Obuse, Chikashi; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is important in innate immune signaling. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well-characterized PRRs and are pivotal in antiviral and antitumor host defense. TIR domain-containing adaptor molecule 1 (TICAM-1, also called TRIF) is an adapter molecule in TLR3- and TLR4-mediated IRF3 activation, late-phase NF-κB activation and MAPK-mediated AP-1 activation. When a TLR3 ligand is added to TLR3-positive cells, TICAM-1 transiently interacts with TLR3 and forms multimers in the cytosol. However, the precise mechanism of TICAM-1 multimer formation remains unknown. In this study, we identified 14-3-3-zeta as a molecule that functions in TLR3-mediated signaling. Knockdown of 14-3-3-zeta reduced production of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines, nuclear translocation of IRF3 and phosphorylation of IκB via the TLR3-TICAM-1 pathway. Furthermore, TICAM-1 multimerization by ligand stimulation was prohibited by 14-3-3-zeta knockdown. These results suggest that 14-3-3-zeta is involved in the TLR3-TICAM-1 pathway in promoting multimerization of TICAM-1 for the formation of a TICAM-1 signalosome. PMID:27058640

  10. Mechanisms of the 14-3-3 protein function: regulation of protein function through conformational modulation

    Obšilová, Veronika; Kopecká, Miroslava; Košek, Dalibor; Kacířová, M.; Kylarová, Salome; Řežábková, L.; Obšil, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S155-S164. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0455 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS3), * phosducin * neutral trehalase * Bmh1 * conformation * signaling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  11. Neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Yuanjun Zhu

    Full Text Available Stroke is the major cause of death and disability worldwide, and the thrombolytic therapy currently available was unsatisfactory. 14-3-3ε is a well characterized member of 14-3-3 family, and has been reported to protect neurons against apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. However, it cannot transverse blood brain barrier (BBB due to its large size. A protein transduction domain (PTD of HIV TAT protein, is capable of delivering a large variety of proteins into the brain. In this study, we generated a fusion protein TAT-14-3-3ε, and evaluated its potential neuroprotective effect in rat focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R model. Western blot analysis validated the efficient transduction of TAT-14-3-3ε fusion protein into brain via a route of intravenous injection. TAT-14-3-3ε pre-treatment 2 h before ischemia significantly reduced cerebral infarction volume and improved neurologic score, while post-treatment 2 h after ischemia was less effective. Importantly, pre- or post-ischemic treatment with TAT-14-3-3ε significantly increased the number of surviving neurons as determined by Nissl staining, and attenuated I/R-induced neuronal apoptosis as showed by the decrease in apoptotic cell numbers and the inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Moreover, the introduction of 14-3-3ε into brain by TAT-mediated delivering reduced the formation of autophagosome, attenuated LC3B-II upregulation and reversed p62 downregulation induced by ischemic injury. Such inhibition of autophagy was reversed by treatment with an autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP, which also attenuated the neuroprotective effect of TAT-14-3-3ε. Conversely, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA inhibited I/R-induced the increase in autophagic activity, and attenuated I/R-induced brain infarct. These results suggest that TAT-14-3-3ε can be efficiently transduced into brain and exert significantly protective effect against brain ischemic injury through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and autophagic

  12. 14-3-3 Proteins Buffer Intracellular Calcium Sensing Receptors to Constrain Signaling.

    Michael P Grant

    Full Text Available Calcium sensing receptors (CaSR interact with 14-3-3 binding proteins at a carboxyl terminal arginine-rich motif. Mutations identified in patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, pancreatitis or idiopathic epilepsy support the functional importance of this motif. We combined total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and biochemical approaches to determine the mechanism of 14-3-3 protein regulation of CaSR signaling. Loss of 14-3-3 binding caused increased basal CaSR signaling and plasma membrane levels, and a significantly larger signaling-evoked increase in plasma membrane receptors. Block of core glycosylation with tunicamycin demonstrated that changes in plasma membrane CaSR levels were due to differences in exocytic rate. Western blotting to quantify time-dependent changes in maturation of expressed wt CaSR and a 14-3-3 protein binding-defective mutant demonstrated that signaling increases synthesis to maintain constant levels of the immaturely and maturely glycosylated forms. CaSR thus operates by a feed-forward mechanism, whereby signaling not only induces anterograde trafficking of nascent receptors but also increases biosynthesis to maintain steady state levels of net cellular CaSR. Overall, these studies suggest that 14-3-3 binding at the carboxyl terminus provides an important buffering mechanism to increase the intracellular pool of CaSR available for signaling-evoked trafficking, but attenuates trafficking to control the dynamic range of responses to extracellular calcium.

  13. Phosphorylation-Dependent Protein Interaction with Trypanosoma brucei 14-3-3 Proteins that Display Atypical Target Recognition

    Inoue, Masahiro; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uemura, Haruki; Yasaka, Natsumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Sei, Yoshitatsu; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Fukuma, Toshihide

    2010-01-01

    Background The 14-3-3 proteins are structurally conserved throughout eukaryotes and participate in protein kinase signaling. All 14-3-3 proteins are known to bind to evolutionally conserved phosphoserine-containing motifs (modes 1 and/or 2) with high affinity. In Trypanosoma brucei, 14-3-3I and II play pivotal roles in motility, cytokinesis and the cell cycle. However, none of the T. brucei 14-3-3 binding proteins have previously been documented. Methodology/Principal Findings Initially we sh...

  14. Structural Characterization of Phosducin and Its Complex with the 14-3-3 Protein

    Kacířová, Miroslava; Košek, Dalibor; Kádek, Alan; Man, Petr; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 26 (2015), s. 16246-16260. ISSN 0021-9258 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Phosducin * 14-3-3 protein * fluorescence spectroscopy * SAXS * hydrogen-deuterium exchange Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.573, year: 2014

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Structural Analysis of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Cau, Ylenia; Fiorillo, Annarita; Mori, Mattia; Ilari, Andrea; Botta, Maurizo; Lalle, Marco

    2015-12-28

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal diarrheal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis, which affects annually over 200 million people worldwide. The limited antigiardial drug arsenal and the emergence of clinical cases refractory to standard treatments dictate the need for new chemotherapeutics. The 14-3-3 family of regulatory proteins, extensively involved in protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with pSer/pThr clients, represents a highly promising target. Despite homology with human counterparts, the single 14-3-3 of G. duodenalis (g14-3-3) is characterized by a constitutive phosphorylation in a region critical for target binding, thus affecting the function and the conformation of g14-3-3/clients interaction. However, to approach the design of specific small molecule modulators of g14-3-3 PPIs, structural elucidations are required. Here, we present a detailed computational and crystallographic study exploring the implications of g14-3-3 phosphorylation on protein structure and target binding. Self-Guided Langevin Dynamics and classical molecular dynamics simulations show that phosphorylation affects locally and globally g14-3-3 conformation, inducing a structural rearrangement more suitable for target binding. Profitable features for g14-3-3/clients interaction were highlighted using a hydrophobicity-based descriptor to characterize g14-3-3 client peptides. Finally, the X-ray structure of g14-3-3 in complex with a mode-1 prototype phosphopeptide was solved and combined with structure-based simulations to identify molecular features relevant for clients binding to g14-3-3. The data presented herein provide a further and structural understanding of g14-3-3 features and set the basis for drug design studies. PMID:26551337

  16. Regulation of starch accumulation by granule-associated plant 14-3-3 proteins

    Sehnke, Paul C.; Chung, Hwa-Jee; Wu, Ke; Ferl, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    In higher plants the production of starch is orchestrated by chloroplast-localized biosynthetic enzymes, namely starch synthases, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and starch branching and debranching enzymes. Diurnal regulation of these enzymes, as well as starch-degrading enzymes, influences both the levels and composition of starch, and is dependent in some instances upon phosphorylation-linked regulation. The phosphoserine/threonine-binding 14-3-3 proteins partici...

  17. 14-3-3σ regulates β-catenin-mediated mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation by sequestering GSK-3β.

    Tzu-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are considered to be an unlimited cell source for tissue regeneration and cell-based therapy. Investigating the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of embryonic stem cell expansion is thus important. 14-3-3 proteins are implicated in controlling cell division, signaling transduction and survival by interacting with various regulatory proteins. However, the function of 14-3-3 in embryonic stem cell proliferation remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in mouse embryonic stem cells. Retinoid acid suppressed selectively the expression of 14-3-3σ isoform. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ with siRNA reduced embryonic stem cell proliferation, while only 14-3-3σ transfection increased cell growth and partially rescued retinoid acid-induced growth arrest. Since the growth-enhancing action of 14-3-3σ was abrogated by β-catenin knockdown, we investigated the influence of 14-3-3σ overexpression on β-catenin/GSK-3β. 14-3-3σ bound GSK-3β and increased GSK-3β phosphorylation in a PI-3K/Akt-dependent manner. It disrupted β-catenin binding by the multiprotein destruction complex. 14-3-3σ overexpression attenuated β-catenin phosphorylation and rescued the decline of β-catenin induced by retinoid acid. Furthermore, 14-3-3σ enhanced Wnt3a-induced β-catenin level and GSK-3β phosphorylation. DKK, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, abolished Wnt3a-induced effect but did not interfere GSK-3β/14-3-3σ binding. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show for the first time that 14-3-3σ plays an important role in regulating mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation by binding and sequestering phosphorylated GSK-3β and enhancing Wnt-signaled GSK-3β inactivation. 14-3-3σ is a novel target for embryonic stem cell expansion.

  18. Does 14-3-3 protein affect conformation FoxO4 DNA-binding domain?

    Šilhán, Jan; Bouřa, Evžen; Vácha, Pavel; Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Obšil, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 102, Suppl.1 (2007), s. 276-276. ISSN 0022-3042. [Biennial meeting of the International Society for Neurochemistry /21./ and Annual meeting of the American Society for Neurochemistry /38./. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Cancun] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0565; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500110601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * FoxO4 DNA-Binding-Domain * 14-3-3 protein * molecular anvil Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Differential interaction and aggregation of 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau isoforms with 14-3-3ζ protein

    Tau isoforms, 3-repeat (3R) and 4-repeat tau (4R), are differentially involved in neuronal development and in several tauopathies. 14-3-3 protein binds to tau and 14-3-3/tau association has been found both in the development and in tauopathies. To understand the role of 14-3-3 in the differential regulation of tau isoforms, we have performed studies on the interaction and aggregation of 3R-tau and 4R-tau, either phosphorylated or unphosphorylated, with 14-3-3ζ. We show by surface plasmon resonance studies that the interaction between unphosphorylated 3R-tau and 14-3-3ζ is ∼3-folds higher than that between unphosphorylated 4R-tau and 14-3-3ζ. Phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase A (PKA) increases the affinity of both 3R- and 4R-tau for 14-3-3ζ to a similar level. An in vitro aggregation assay employing both transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the aggregation of unphosphorylated 4R-tau to be significantly higher than that of unphosphorylated 3R-tau following the induction of 14-3-3ζ. The filaments formed from 3R- and 4R-tau were almost similar in morphology. In contrast, the aggregation of both 3R- and 4R-tau was reduced to a similar low level after phosphorylation with PKA. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ζ exhibits a similar role for tau isoforms after PKA-phosphorylation, but a differential role for unphosphorylated tau. The significant aggregation of 4R-tau by 14-3-3ζ suggests that 14-3-3 may act as an inducer in the generation of 4R-tau-predominant neurofibrillary tangles in tauopathies.

  20. Site-specific regulatory interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase and 14-3-3 proteins

    Toroser, D.; Athwal, G. S.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We report an Mg2+-dependent interaction between spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) and endogenous 14-3-3 proteins, as evidenced by co-elution during gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation. The content of 14-3-3s associated with an SPS immunoprecipitate was inversely related to activity, and was specifically reduced when tissue was pretreated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside, suggesting metabolite control in vivo. A synthetic phosphopeptide based on Ser-229 was shown by surface plasmon resonance to bind a recombinant plant 14-3-3, and addition of the phosphorylated SPS-229 peptide was found to stimulate the SPS activity of an SPS:14-3-3 complex. Taken together, the results suggest a regulatory interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with Ser-229 of SPS.

  1. Using SANS to monitor the interaction of misfolding alcohol dehydrogenase with the molecular chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ

    14-3-3 is a family of acidic, dimeric proteins which are highly conserved across many species. Each monomer is approximately 30kDa in mass and contains 9 α-helices. Dimer formation is initiated at the N-terminal region of the protein as a result of the interaction between several buried polar and hydrophobic residues in this region. 14-3-3 proteins interact with a wide range of proteins to regulate many cellular processes, e.g. apoptosis and mitosis, as well as protein misfolding associated with conformational diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. A potential role of 14-3-3 in these diseases was discovered with the observation that 14-3-3ζ can act as a molecular chaperone, whereby it stabilises intermediately folded proteins to prevent their aggregation. The binding site and mechanism of the chaperone action of 14-3-3ζ are not known, despite being narrowed down in our NMR study. We produced deuterated 14-3-3ζ and used it in SANS experiments with a model misfolding protein, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Contrast variation allowed us to monitor changes in each component separately after the initiation of ADH misfolding. The Rg and Dmax values of ADH under stress show an increase in size with time, consistent with unfolding and aggregation. In the presence of 14-3-3ζ, the unfolding of ADH is reduced and the protein maintains a globular expanded conformation consistent with an adoption of an intermediately folded (molten globule) state. 14-3-3ζ whilst chaperoning showed a reduction in size, possibly due to dissociation. Ab initio models were also obtained. This is the first instance where conformational changes during chaperoning of either a partly folded target protein, or 14-3-3ζ, have been observed.

  2. Small-Molecule Stabilization of the 14-3-3/Gab2 Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) Interface.

    Bier, David; Bartel, Maria; Sies, Katharina; Halbach, Sebastian; Higuchi, Yusuke; Haranosono, Yu; Brummer, Tilman; Kato, Nobuo; Ottmann, Christian

    2016-04-19

    Small-molecule modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is one of the most promising new areas in drug discovery. In the vast majority of cases only inhibition or disruption of PPIs is realized, whereas the complementary strategy of targeted stabilization of PPIs is clearly under-represented. Here, we report the example of a semi-synthetic natural product derivative--ISIR-005--that stabilizes the cancer-relevant interaction of the adaptor protein 14-3-3 and Gab2. The crystal structure of ISIR-005 in complex with 14-3-3 and the binding motif of Gab2 comprising two phosphorylation sites (Gab2pS210pT391) showed how the stabilizing molecule binds to the rim-of-the-interface of the protein complex. Only in the direct vicinity of 14-3-3/Gab2pT391 site is a pre-formed pocket occupied by ISIR-005; binding of the Gab2pS210 motif to 14-3-3 does not create an interface pocket suitable for the molecule. Accordingly, ISIR-005 only stabilizes the binding of the Gab2pT391 but not the Gab2pS210 site. This study represents structural and biochemical proof of the druggability of the 14-3-3/Gab2 PPI interface with important implications for the development of PPI stabilizers. PMID:26644359

  3. Evolution of signal multiplexing by 14-3-3-binding 2R-ohnologue protein families in the vertebrates

    Tinti, Michele; Johnson, Catherine; Toth, Rachel; Ferrier, David Ellard Keith; MacKintosh, Carol

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate cellular responses to stimuli by docking onto pairs of phosphorylated residues on target proteins. The present study shows that the human 14-3-3-binding phosphoproteome is highly enriched in 2R-ohnologues, which are proteins in families of two to four members that were generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication at the origin of the vertebrates. We identify 2R-ohnologue families whose members share a ‘lynchpin’, defined as a 14-3-3-binding phosphosite that is ...

  4. Suppression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-induced cell death by 14-3-3 proteins

    Zhang, Lixin; Chen, Jing; Fu, Haian

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a pivotal component of a signaling pathway induced by many death stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor α, Fas, and the anticancer drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel. Here we report that ASK1 proapoptotic activity is antagonized by association with 14-3-3 proteins. We found that ASK1 specifically bound 14-3-3 proteins via a site involving Ser-967 of ASK1. Interestingly, overexpression of 14-3-3 in HeLa cells blocked ASK1-induced apoptosis whereas d...

  5. 14-3-3sigma is a cruciform DNA binding protein and associates in vivo with origins of DNA replication.

    Alvarez, David; Novac, Olivia; Callejo, Mario; Ruiz, Marcia T; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A human cruciform binding protein (CBP) was previously shown to bind to cruciform DNA in a structure-specific manner and be a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. CBP had been found to contain the 14-3-3 isoforms beta, gamma, epsilon, and zeta. Here, we show by Western blot analysis that the CBP-cruciform DNA complex eluted from band-shift polyacrylamide gels also contains the 14-3-3sigma isoform, which is present in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. An antibody specific for the 14-3-3sigma isoform was able to interfere with the formation of the CBP-cruciform DNA complex. The effect of the same anti-14-3-3sigma antibody in the in vitro replication of p186, a plasmid containing the minimal replication origin of the monkey origin ors8, was also analyzed. Pre-incubation of total HeLa cell extracts with this antibody decreased p186 in vitro replication to approximately 30% of control levels, while non-specific antibodies had no effect. 14-3-3sigma was found to associate in vivo with the monkey origins of DNA replication ors8 and ors12 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, as assayed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay that involved formaldehyde cross-linking, followed by immunoprecipitation with anti-14-3-3sigma antibody and quantitative PCR. The association of 14-3-3sigma with the replication origins was maximal at the G(1)/S phase. The results indicate that 14-3-3sigma is an origin binding protein involved in the regulation of DNA replication via cruciform DNA binding. PMID:12244572

  6. Altered expression of 14-3-3ζ protein in spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

    Li-na Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have confirmed that excessive apoptosis is one of the reasons for deficient neuronal function in neural tube defects (NTDs. A previous study from our laboratory used 2-D gel electrophoresis to demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ expression was low in the spinal cords of rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta at embryonic day (E 17. As a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3ζ plays a crucial role in the determination of cell fate and anti-apoptotic activity. However, neither the expression of 14-3-3ζ in defective spinal cords, nor the correlation between 14-3-3ζ and excessive apoptosis in NTDs has been fully confirmed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to quantify the expression of 14-3-3ζ and double immunofluorescence to visualize 14-3-3ζ and apoptosis. We found that, compared with controls, 14-3-3ζ was down-regulated in spina bifida between E12 and E15. Excessive apoptotic cells and low expression of 14-3-3ζ were observed in the dorsal region of spinal cords with spina bifida during the same time period. To initially explore the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in NTDs, we investigated the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7, microRNA-375 (miR-375 and microRNA-451 (miR-451, which are known to down-regulate 14-3-3ζ in several different cell types. We also investigated the expression of p53, a molecule that is downstream of 14-3-3ζ and can be down-regulated by it. We discovered that, in contrast to the reduction of 14-3-3ζ expression, the expression of miR-451, miR-375 and p53 increased in spina bifida rat fetuses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the reduced expression of 14-3-3ζ plays a role in the excessive apoptosis that occurs in spina bifida and may be partly regulated by the over-expression of miR-451 and miR-375, and the consequent up-regulation of p53 might further promote apoptosis in spina bifida.

  7. Analysis of the cruciform binding activity of recombinant 14-3-3zeta-MBP fusion protein, its heterodimerization profile with endogenous 14-3-3 isoforms, and effect on mammalian DNA replication in vitro.

    Alvarez, David; Callejo, Mario; Shoucri, Rami; Boyer, Lee; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2003-06-17

    The human cruciform binding protein (CBP), a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, has been recently identified as an origin of DNA replication binding protein and involved in DNA replication. Here, pure recombinant 14-3-3zeta tagged with maltose binding protein (r14-3-3zeta-MBP) at its N-terminus was tested for binding to cruciform DNA either in the absence or presence of F(TH), a CBP-enriched fraction, by electromobility shift assay (EMSA), followed by Western blot analysis of the electroeluted CBP-cruciform DNA complex. The r14-3-3zeta-MBP was found to have cruciform binding activity only after preincubation with F(TH). Anti-MBP antibody immunoprecipitation of F(TH) preincubated with r14-3-3zeta-MBP, followed by Western blot analysis with antibodies specific to the beta, gamma, epsilon, zeta, and sigma 14-3-3 isoforms showed that r14-3-3zeta-MBP heterodimerized with the endogenous beta, epsilon, and zeta isoforms present in the F(TH) but not with the gamma or sigma isoforms. Immunoprecipitation of endogenous 14-3-3zeta from nuclear extracts (NE) of HeLa cells that were either serum-starved (s-s) or blocked at the G(1)/S or G(2)/M phases of the cell cycle revealed that at G(1)/S and G(2)/M, the zeta isoform heterodimerized only with the beta and epsilon isoforms, while in s-s extracts, the 14-3-3zeta/epsilon heterodimer was never detected, and the 14-3-3zeta/beta heterodimer was seldom detected. Furthermore, addition of r14-3-3zeta-MBP to HeLa cell extracts used in a mammalian in vitro replication system increased the replication level of p186, a plasmid bearing the minimal 186-bp origin of the monkey origin of DNA replication ors8, by approximately 3.5-fold. The data suggest that specific dimeric combinations of the 14-3-3 isoforms have CBP activity and that upregulation of this activity leads to an increase in DNA replication. PMID:12795617

  8. A Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for High-Throughput Screening of 14-3-3 Protein–Protein Interaction Inhibitors

    Du, Yuhong; Fu, Robert W.; Lou, Bin; Zhao, Jing; Qui, Min; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian

    2013-01-01

    Protein–protein interaction networks mediate diverse biological processes by regulating various signaling hubs and clusters. 14-3-3 proteins, a family of phosphoserine/threonine-binding molecules, serve as major interaction hubs in eukaryotic cells and have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for various human diseases. In order to identify chemical probes for mechanistic studies and for potential therapeutic development, we have developed highly sensitive bioassays to monitor the intera...

  9. SGK and 14-3-3 protein areinvolved in the serine/threonine phosphorylationmechanism for TPO/MPLsignal transduction

    2001-01-01

    Thrombopioetin (TPO), the critical regulator of platelet production, acts by binding to its cell surface receptor, c-Mpl. Yeast two-hybrid screening was performed to isolate the proteins interacting with the cytoplasmic domain of c-Mpl. 48 positive clones were isolated from 5 × 106 independent transformants. The results of sequence analysis demonstrate that they represent 13 different protein encoding sequences. Among them there are a partial coding sequence of serine/threonine protein kinase SGK (serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase ) and 14-3-3 theta protein partial coding sequence. GST-pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation in mammal cells have confirmed the interaction between these two proteins and c-Mpl. By constructing a series of deleted c-Mpl cytoplasmic domain, the interaction region in c-Mpl cytoplasmic tail was localized in amino acids 523-554. At the same time, the directed interaction between SGK and 14-3-3 proteins also has been verified by yeast two-hybrid assay. The present note is the first time to report that two proteins act with c-Mpl at the same time and put forward that SGK and 14-3-3 protein may be involved in the serine/threonine phosphorylation mechanism for signal transduction.``

  10. Proteomic screen in the simple metazoan Hydra identifies 14-3-3 binding proteins implicated in cellular metabolism, cytoskeletal organisation and Ca2+ signalling

    Pauly, Barbara; Lasi, Margherita; MacKintosh, Carol; Morrice, Nick; Imhof, Axel; Regula, Jörg; Rudd, Stephen; David, Charles N; Böttger, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in many signalling mechanisms due to their interaction with Ser/Thr phosphorylated target proteins. They are evolutionarily well conserved in eukaryotic organisms from single celled protozoans and unicellular algae to plants and humans. A diverse array of target proteins has been found in higher plants and in human cell lines including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organisation, secretion and Ca2+ signalling. Results We found that the simple metazoan Hydra has four 14-3-3 isoforms. In order to investigate whether the diversity of 14-3-3 target proteins is also conserved over the whole animal kingdom we isolated 14-3-3 binding proteins from Hydra vulgaris using a 14-3-3-affinity column. We identified 23 proteins that covered most of the above-mentioned groups. We also isolated several novel 14-3-3 binding proteins and the Hydra specific secreted fascin-domain-containing protein PPOD. In addition, we demonstrated that one of the 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3 HyA, interacts with one Hydra-Bcl-2 like protein in vitro. Conclusion Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins have been ubiquitous signalling components since the start of metazoan evolution. We also discuss the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to food supply in Hydra. PMID:17651497

  11. Proteomic screen in the simple metazoan Hydra identifies 14-3-3 binding proteins implicated in cellular metabolism, cytoskeletal organisation and Ca2+ signalling

    Imhof Axel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in many signalling mechanisms due to their interaction with Ser/Thr phosphorylated target proteins. They are evolutionarily well conserved in eukaryotic organisms from single celled protozoans and unicellular algae to plants and humans. A diverse array of target proteins has been found in higher plants and in human cell lines including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organisation, secretion and Ca2+ signalling. Results We found that the simple metazoan Hydra has four 14-3-3 isoforms. In order to investigate whether the diversity of 14-3-3 target proteins is also conserved over the whole animal kingdom we isolated 14-3-3 binding proteins from Hydra vulgaris using a 14-3-3-affinity column. We identified 23 proteins that covered most of the above-mentioned groups. We also isolated several novel 14-3-3 binding proteins and the Hydra specific secreted fascin-domain-containing protein PPOD. In addition, we demonstrated that one of the 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3 HyA, interacts with one Hydra-Bcl-2 like protein in vitro. Conclusion Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins have been ubiquitous signalling components since the start of metazoan evolution. We also discuss the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to food supply in Hydra.

  12. 14-3-3 protein C-terminal stretch occupies ligand binding groove and is displaced by phosphopeptide binding

    Šilhán, Jan; Obšilová, Veronika; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Teisinger, Jan; Obšil, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 279, č. 47 (2004), s. 49113-49119. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0714; GA AV ČR KJB5011308; GA MŠk LZ1K03020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * FRET * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.355, year: 2004

  13. 14-3-3 Protein C-terminal stretch occupies ligand binding groove and is displaced by phosphopeptide binding

    Šilhan, J.; Obšilová, V.; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Teisinger, J.; Obšil, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 279, č. 47 (2004), s. 49113-49119. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0714; GA ČR GA309/02/1479; GA AV ČR KJB5011308; GA MŠk LZ1K03020 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * c-terminal * phosphopeptide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.355, year: 2004

  14. A novel pathway down-modulating T cell activation involves HPK-1–dependent recruitment of 14-3-3 proteins on SLP-76

    Bartolo, Vincenzo Di; Montagne, Benjamin; Salek, Mogjiborahman; Jungwirth, Britta; Carrette, Florent; Fourtane, Julien; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie; Michel, Frédérique; Schwartz, Olivier; Lehmann, Wolf D.; Acuto, Oreste

    2007-01-01

    The SH2 domain–containing leukocyte protein of 76 kD (SLP-76) is a pivotal element of the signaling machinery controlling T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation. Here, we identify 14-3-3ɛ and ζ proteins as SLP-76 binding partners. This interaction was induced by TCR ligation and required phosphorylation of SLP-76 at serine 376. Ribonucleic acid interference and in vitro phosphorylation experiments showed that serine 376 is the target of the hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK-1). Intere...

  15. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.;

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H...... plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase.......(+)-ATPase isolated from fusicoccin-treated maize shoots was copurified with the 14-3-3 protein (as determined by protein gel blotting), and the H(+)-ATPase was recovered in an activated state. In the absence of fusicoccin treatment, H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein were well separated, and the H(+)-ATPase was...

  16. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein.

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Espiritu, Eugenel B; Rose, Lesilee S

    2016-04-15

    PAR proteins play important roles in establishing cytoplasmic polarity as well as regulating spindle positioning during asymmetric division. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the PAR proteins generate asymmetry in different cell types are still being elucidated. Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that PAR-3 and PAR-1 regulate the asymmetric localization of LET-99, which in turn controls spindle positioning by affecting the distribution of the conserved force generating complex. In wild-type embryos, LET-99 is localized in a lateral cortical band pattern, via inhibition at the anterior by PAR-3 and at the posterior by PAR-1. In this report, we show that the 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 is also required for cortical LET-99 asymmetry. PAR-5 associated with LET-99 in pull-down assays, and two PAR-5 binding sites were identified in LET-99 using the yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of these sites abolished binding in yeast and altered LET-99 localization in vivo: LET-99 was present at the highest levels at the posterior pole of the embryo instead of a band in par-5 embryos. Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. PMID:26921457

  17. Transcription variants of the prostate-specific PrLZ gene and their interaction with 14-3-3 proteins

    We have reported isolation and characterization of the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated PrLZ gene abnormally expressed in prostate cancer. PrLZ is a potential biomarker for prostate cancer and a candidate oncogene promoting cell proliferation and survival in prostate cancer cells. A full delineation of the PrLZ gene and its gene products may provide clues to the mechanisms regulating its expression and function. In this report, we identified three additional exons in the PrLZ gene and recognized five transcript variants from alternative splicing that could be detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Structural comparison demonstrated that the PrLZ proteins are highly conserved among species. PrLZ contains multiple potential sites for interaction with other proteins. We used mammalian two-hybrid assays to demonstrate that PrLZ isoforms interact with 14-3-3 proteins, and multiple sites in the PrLZ may be involved in the interaction. Alternative splicing may contribute to abnormally enhanced PrLZ levels in prostate cancer, and interaction with 14-3-3 proteins may be a mechanism by which PrLZ promotes cell proliferation and survival during prostate cancer development and progression. This information is a valuable addition to the investigation of the oncogenic properties of the PrLZ gene.

  18. Conformational changes of FoxO4-DNA binding domain upon binding to 14-3-3 protein

    Šilhán, Jan; Bouřa, Evžen; Obšil, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 46-46. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics /6./. 29.03.2007-31.03.2007, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0565; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB500110601; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * 14-3-3 protein * PKB phosphorylation of FoxO4 * anisotropy decays Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. The crystal structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the apo form: when protein post-translational modifications make the difference.

    Annarita Fiorillo

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3, unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.

  20. The crystal structure of Giardia duodenalis 14-3-3 in the apo form: when protein post-translational modifications make the difference.

    Fiorillo, Annarita

    2014-03-21

    The 14-3-3s are a family of dimeric evolutionary conserved pSer/pThr binding proteins that play a key role in multiple biological processes by interacting with a plethora of client proteins. Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects millions of people worldwide causing an acute and chronic diarrheal disease. The single giardial 14-3-3 isoform (g14-3-3), unique in the 14-3-3 family, needs the constitutive phosphorylation of Thr214 and the polyglycylation of its C-terminus to be fully functional in vivo. Alteration of the phosphorylation and polyglycylation status affects the parasite differentiation into the cyst stage. To further investigate the role of these post-translational modifications, the crystal structure of the g14-3-3 was solved in the unmodified apo form. Oligomers of g14-3-3 were observed due to domain swapping events at the protein C-terminus. The formation of filaments was supported by TEM. Mutational analysis, in combination with native PAGE and chemical cross-linking, proved that polyglycylation prevents oligomerization. In silico phosphorylation and molecular dynamics simulations supported a structural role for the phosphorylation of Thr214 in promoting target binding. Our findings highlight unique structural features of g14-3-3 opening novel perspectives on the evolutionary history of this protein family and envisaging the possibility to develop anti-giardial drugs targeting g14-3-3.

  1. Ablation of the 14-3-3gamma Protein Results in Neuronal Migration Delay and Morphological Defects in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Wachi, Tomoka; Cornell, Brett; Marshall, Courtney; Zhukarev, Vladimir; Baas, Peter W; Toyo-Oka, Kazuhito

    2016-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously-expressed and multifunctional proteins. There are seven isoforms in mammals with a high level of homology, suggesting potential functional redundancy. We previously found that two of seven isoforms, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3zeta, are important for brain development, in particular, radial migration of pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. In this work, we analyzed the function of another isoform, the protein 14-3-3gamma, with respect to neuronal migration in the developing cortex. We found that in utero 14-3-3gamma-deficiency resulted in delays in neuronal migration as well as morphological defects. Migrating neurons deficient in 14-3-3gamma displayed a thicker leading process stem, and the basal ends of neurons were not able to reach the boundary between the cortical plate and the marginal zone. Consistent with the results obtained from in utero electroporation, time-lapse live imaging of brain slices revealed that the ablation of the 14-3-3gamma proteins in pyramidal neurons slowed down their migration. In addition, the 14-3-3gamma deficient neurons showed morphological abnormalities, including increased multipolar neurons with a thicker leading processes stem during migration. These results indicate that the 14-3-3gamma proteins play an important role in radial migration by regulating the morphology of migrating neurons in the cerebral cortex. The findings underscore the pathological phenotypes of brain development associated with the disruption of different 14-3-3 proteins and will advance the preclinical data regarding disorders caused by neuronal migration defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 600-614, 2016. PMID:26297819

  2. 14-3-3 checkpoint regulatory proteins interact specifically with DNA repair protein human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) via a semi-conserved motif

    Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Keijzers, Guido; Rampakakis, Emmanouil;

    2012-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) acts directly in diverse DNA processing events, including replication, mismatch repair (MMR), and double strand break repair (DSBR), and it was also recently described to function as damage sensor and apoptosis inducer following DNA damage. In contrast, 14-3-3 proteins...

  3. Heterologous expression of Schistosoma japanicum signal protein 14-3-3 in Pichia pastoris and the subsequent immune response in mice

    Meijuan ZHENG; Jilong SHEN; Yuanhong XU; Qingli LUO

    2008-01-01

    Schistosomiasis japonica, a zoonosis caused by Schistosomajaponicum, is endemic to the Philippines and China. Several vaccine candidates have been identified and tested in different animal models, but it is still unclear which will be optimal for testing in the field. Therefore, new antigens and strategies are necessary for vaccine development against schistosomiasis japonica. The Sj14-3-3 gene was amplified and subcloned into the expression vector pPICZα-B and transformed into P. pastoris X-33 by electroporation. Three transformants were induced with methanol. The cultural supernatant was collected and tested by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The pro-tein of rSj14-3-3 was prepared and purified and BALB/c mice were immunized which was followed by a challen-ging infection. The immuno-protection was then evalu-ated. The Sj14-3-3 gene was expressed and secreted into the medium and its molecular weight was about 35000 as determined by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed that the protein had a high specificity against mouse-anti-Sj14-3-3 monoclonal antibody and rSj14-3-3 had a promising immune reactivity. The results of the immuno-protective experiments revealed that the worm reduction was 26.0%, 32.2%, and 36.8%, respectively. The number of eggs in liver tissue was reduced by 36.8%, 43.2%, and 46.1%, respectively. The recombinant Sj14-3-3 of eukaryotic expression in Pichia pastoris was successfully harvested. The molecular vaccine of Sj14-3-3 could partially induce resistance to the infection with S. japonicum in BALB/c mice. The recombinant protein Sj14-3-3 has promising immunological potentials for further approach to the dia-gnosis and development of molecular vaccine.

  4. Amifostine alleviates radiation-induced lethal small bowel damage via promotion of 14-3-3σ-mediated nuclear p53 accumulation.

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Fan; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, I-Hui; Huang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-10-30

    Amifostine (AM) is a radioprotector that scavenges free radicals and is used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. p53 has long been implicated in cell cycle arrest for cellular repair after radiation exposure. We therefore investigated the protective p53-dependent mechanism of AM on small bowel damage after lethal whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI). AM increased both the survival rate of rats and crypt survival following lethal 18 Gy WAI. The p53 inhibitor PFT-α compromised AM-mediated effects when administered prior to AM administration. AM significantly increased clonogenic survival in IEC-6 cells expressing wild type p53 but not in p53 knockdown cells. AM significantly increased p53 nuclear accumulation and p53 tetramer expression before irradiation through the inhibition of p53 degradation. AM inhibited p53 interactions with MDM2 but enhanced p53 interactions with 14-3-3σ. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ also compromised the effect of AM on clonogenic survival and p53 nuclear accumulation in IEC-6 cells. For the first time, our data reveal that AM alleviates lethal small bowel damage through the induction of 14-3-3σ and subsequent accumulation of p53. Enhancement of the p53/14-3-3σ interaction results in p53 tetramerization in the nucleus that rescues lethal small bowel damage. PMID:25230151

  5. 14-3-3 protein interacts with and affects the structure of RGS domain of regulator of G protein signaling 3 (RGS3)

    Řežábková, L.; Bouřa, E.; Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Bouřová, Lenka; Šulc, Miroslav; Svoboda, Petr; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2010), s. 451-461. ISSN 1047-8477 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * time-resolved fluorescence * RGS3 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.497, year: 2010

  6. Studies on Clinical Aspects, Pathological Changes, Immunohistochemistry, 14-3-3 protein, PrP Gene, and Animal Transmission of Creutzldt-Jakob Disease in China

    Lin Shilie; Zhao Jiexu; Jiang Xinmei; Song Xiaonan; Wang Weimin; Fan Yengyeng; Tao Yuiqin; Chen Xiuyun

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical manifestations, pathological changes, expression of PrP gene, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and experimental animal transmission of Creuizfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in China. Methods Clinical aspects of 24 patients with CJD which was confirmed neuropathological were evaluated. Brain sections of 10 cases of them were given immunostaining with antiserum to a synthetic polypeptide of prioni protein (PrP). PrP gene was analyzed in 10 cases, and 14-3-3 protein in CSF was detected in 5 cases. Experimental mouse transmission was carried out using brain suspension from 7 patients with CJD. Results 1) Nineteen cases with sporadic CJD, 3 cases with iatrogenic CJD, 1 case with inherited CJD and 1 case with coexistence of Alzheimer disease(AD) and CJD were found. 2) The percentage of acute and subacute onset was high up to 96%. The illness duration was shorter in a subacute onset and the brain atrophy was not obvious.3) The synaptic type of PrP deposition was shown in paraffin sections in all -cases by immunostaining.4) 14-3-3 protein was detected in 5 eases in cerebrospinal fluid with CJD 5) Spongiform degeneration and PrP deposition could be shown in the brain sections of experimental mouse transmission. Conclusion There are special characteristics in clinical aspects of CJD in China. The detection of 14-3-3 protein can provide objective evidence for early diagnosis of CJD in order to prevent its transmission

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1 and Bmh2 participate in the process of catabolite inactivation of maltose permease

    Mayordomo, I.; Regelmann, J.; Horák, Jaroslav; Sanz, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 544, 1-3 (2003), s. 160-164. ISSN 0014-5793 Grant ostatní: Spanish Ministry of Educaton and Science(ES) PB98-0486 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 14-3-3 proteins * maltose permease * catabolite inactivation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2003

  8. Elevated levels of 14-3-3 proteins, serotonin, gamma enolase and pyruvate kinase identified in clinical samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer

    Dowling, P.; Hughes, D. J.; Larkin, A.M.; Meiller, J.; Henry, M.; Meleady, P.; Lynch, V.; Pardini, B.; Naccarati, A.; Levý, M.; Vodička, Pavel; Neary, P.; Clynes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 441, feb. (2015), s. 133-141. ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomarkers * colorectal cancer * proteomics * mass spectrometry * 14-3-3 proteins * pyruvate kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2014

  9. 14-3-3 protein C-terminal stretch occupies ligand binding groove and is displaced by phosphodipeptide binding

    Šilhán, Jan; Obšilová, Veronika; Večeř, J.; Heřman, P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Teisinger, Jan; Obšil, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2005), s. 41-41. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /4./. 10.03.2005-12.03.2005, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5011308; GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0714; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/02/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LZ1K03020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 14-3-3 * fluorescence * phosphopeptide Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. AIP1 mediates TNF-α–induced ASK1 activation by facilitating dissociation of ASK1 from its inhibitor 14-3-3

    Zhang, Rong; He, Xiangrong; Liu, Weimin; Lu, Meng; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Min, Wang

    2003-01-01

    TNF-α activates ASK1 in part by dissociating 14-3-3 from apoptosis signal–regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). In the present study, we identified a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) as an ASK1-interacting protein (AIP1). AIP1 binds to the C-terminal domain of ASK1 via a lysine-rich cluster within the N-terminal C2 domain. AIP1 exists in a closed form through an intramolecular interaction between the N-terminus and the C-terminus, and TNF-α induces unfolding of AIP1 leading to association ...

  11. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH2-terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking

  12. Proteomics Profiling Reveals Carbohydrate Metabolic Enzymes and 14-3-3 Proteins Play Important Roles for Starch Accumulation during Cassava Root Tuberization.

    Wang, Xuchu; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dongyang; Yin, Qi; Wang, Dan; Jin, Xiang; Yang, Qian; Wang, Liming; Sun, Yong; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Peng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is one of the most important root crops as a reliable source of food and carbohydrates. Carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation in cassava storage root is a cascade process that includes large amounts of proteins and cofactors. Here, comparative proteomics were conducted in cassava root at nine developmental stages. A total of 154 identified proteins were found to be differentially expressed during starch accumulation and root tuberization. Many enzymes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly up-regulated, and functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins demonstrated that the majority were binding-related enzymes. Many proteins were took part in carbohydrate metabolism to produce energy. Among them, three 14-3-3 isoforms were induced to be clearly phosphorylated during storage root enlargement. Overexpression of a cassava 14-3-3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the older leaves of these transgenic plants contained higher sugar and starch contents than the wild-type leaves. The 14-3-3 proteins and their binding enzymes may play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root tuberization. These results not only deepened our understanding of the tuberous root proteome, but also uncovered new insights into carbohydrate metabolism and starch accumulation during cassava root enlargement. PMID:26791570

  13. Accumulation of Carbohydrate and Regulation of 14-3-3 Protein on Sucrose Phosphate Synthase (SPS) Activity in Two Tomato Species

    WANG Li; CUI Na; ZHAO Xiao-cui; FAN Hai-yan; LI Tian-lai

    2014-01-01

    To explore the differences of carbohydrate metabolism in two tomato species and discuss the possible regulation of 14-3-3 proteins on the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, we determined the contents of soluble sugar and starch through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of sugar-metabolizing enzymes were assayed in desalted extract, and the relative expression levels of related genes in sugar metabolism were determined though real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that glucose and fructose were mainly accumulated during the maturation of the fruit because of the high acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) in Micro-Tom (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, while inSolanum chmielewskii fruit, SPS which went along with the change of sucrose content led to the rapid sucrose increase during the fruit ripening. TFT1 and TFT10, belonging to 14-3-3 protein in tomato, were likely to down-regulated SPS activity during young and intumescence period.

  14. Yeast 14-3-3 proteins participate in the regulation of cell cation homeostasis via interaction with Nha1 alkali-metal-cation/proton antiporter

    Zahrádka, Jaromír; Van Heusden, G.P.H.; Sychrová, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1820, č. 7 (2012), s. 849-858. ISSN 0304-4165 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10012; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : yeast * 14-3-3 proteins * ion homeostasis * Nha1 antiporter Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.848, year: 2012

  15. Role of individual phosphorylation sites for the 14-3-3-protein-dependent activation of yeast neutral trehalase Nth1

    Veisová, Dana; Macáková, Eva; Řežábková, Lenka; Šulc, Miroslav; Vácha, Petr; Sychrová, Hana; Obšil, T.; Obšilová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 443, č. 3 (2012), s. 663-670. ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0455; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110801 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 350111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * Bmh * neutral trehalase (Nth1) * enzymatic activity * phosphorylation * Saccharomyces cerevisiae Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.654, year: 2012

  16. Inhibition of blue-light-dependent binding of 14-3-3 proteins to phototropins by hydrogen peroxide

    ZHANG Xiao; SHIMAZAKI Kenichiro

    2005-01-01

    @@ Phototropins, following the discovery of phytochromes[1,2] and cryptochromes[3,4], are the most recently characterized blue-light (BL) receptors in plants. The N- terminal regions of the proteins contain two light oxygen and voltage (LOV)――LOV1 and LOV2, which belong to PAS domain involved in protein-protein interaction and ligand binding, possessing non-covalent binding sites for the chromophore FMN[5]. The C-terminal regions contain Ser/Thr kinase domains[6].

  17. Phospho-specific recognition by 14-3-3 proteins and antibodies monitored by a high throughput label-free optical biosensor.

    Wu, Meng; Coblitz, Brian; Shikano, Sojin; Long, Shunyou; Spieker, Matt; Frutos, Anthony G; Mukhopadhyay, Sunil; Li, Min

    2006-10-16

    Label-free detection of molecular interactions has considerable potential in facilitating assay development. When combined with high throughput capability, it may be applied to small molecule screens for drug candidates. Phosphorylation is a key posttranslational process that confers diverse regulation in biological systems involving specific protein-protein interactions recognizing the phosphorylated motifs. Using a resonant waveguide grating biosensor, the Epic mark System, we have developed a generic assay to quantitatively measure phospho-specific interactions between a trafficking signal-phosphorylated SWTY peptide and 14-3-3 proteins or anti-phosphopeptide antibodies. Compared with a solution-based fluorescence anisotropy assay, our results support that the high throughput resonant waveguide grating biosensor system has favorable technical profiles in detecting protein-protein interactions that recognize phosphorylated motifs. Hence it provides a new generic HTS platform for phospho-detection. PMID:17011553

  18. Proteomic analysis of media from lung cancer cells reveals role of 14-3-3 proteins in cachexia

    Julie B. McLean; Moylan, Jennifer S.; Horrell, Erin M. W.; Andrade, Francisco H.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: At the time of diagnosis, 60% of lung cancer patients present with cachexia, a severe wasting syndrome that increases morbidity and mortality. Tumors secrete multiple factors that contribute to cachectic muscle wasting, and not all of these factors have been identified. We used Orbitrap electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to identify novel cachexia-inducing candidates in media conditioned with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LCM). Results: One-hundred and 58 proteins were confirmed in...

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three homoeologous Ta14S genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Xinguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Ta14S homoeologs and assess their functions in wheat seed development. The genomic and cDNA sequences of three Ta14S homoeologous genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the three homoeologs consisted of five exons and four introns and were very highly conserved in the coding regions and in exon/intron structure, whereas the cDNA sequences were variable in the 5′ and 3′-UTR. The three genes, designated as Ta14S-2A, Ta14S-2B and Ta14S-2D, were located in homoeologous group 2 chromosomes. The polypeptide chains of the three Ta14S genes were highly similar. These genes were most homologous to Hv14A from barley. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the three Ta14S genes were differentially expressed in different organs at different developmental stages and all exhibited greater expression in primary roots of 1-day-old germlings than in other tissues. Comparison of the expression patterns of the three homoeologous genes at different times after pollination also revealed that their expression was developmentally regulated. The transcription of Ta14S-2B was clearly higher during seed germination, whereas expressions of Ta14S-2A and Ta14S-2D were up-regulated at the beginning of seed imbibition (0–12 h, but declined thereafter. The results suggested that the three Ta14S homoeologous genes have regulatory roles in seed development and germination.

  20. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage.

    Nefla, Meriam; Sudre, Laure; Denat, Guillaume; Priam, Sabrina; Andre-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Berenbaum, Francis; Jacques, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N, APN) in the chondrocyte response to 14-3-3ε. After identifying CD13 in chondrocytes, we knocked down CD13 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and blocking antibodies in articular chondrocytes. 14-3-3ε-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 was significantly reduced with CD13 knockdown, which suggests that it has a crucial role in 14-3-3ε signal transduction. Aminopeptidase N activity was identified in chondrocytes, but the activity was unchanged after stimulation with 14-3-3ε. Direct interaction between CD13 and 14-3-3ε was then demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Using labeled 14-3-3ε, we also found that 14-3-3ε binds to the surface of chondrocytes in a manner that is dependent on CD13. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ε might directly bind to CD13, which transmits its signal in chondrocytes to induce a catabolic phenotype similar to that observed in osteoarthritis. The 14-3-3ε-CD13 interaction could be a new therapeutic target in osteoarthritis. PMID:26208633

  1. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage

    Nefla, Meriam; Sudre, Laure; Denat, Guillaume; Priam, Sabrina; Andre-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Berenbaum, Francis; Jacques, Claire

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N, APN) in the chondrocyte response to 14-3-3ε. After identifying CD13 in chondrocytes, we knocked down CD13 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and blocking antibodies in articular chondrocytes. 14-3-3ε-induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 was significantly reduced with CD13 knockdown, which suggests that it has a crucial role in 14-3-3ε signal transduction. Aminopeptidase N activity was identified in chondrocytes, but the activity was unchanged after stimulation with 14-3-3ε. Direct interaction between CD13 and 14-3-3ε was then demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance. Using labeled 14-3-3ε, we also found that 14-3-3ε binds to the surface of chondrocytes in a manner that is dependent on CD13. Taken together, these results suggest that 14-3-3ε might directly bind to CD13, which transmits its signal in chondrocytes to induce a catabolic phenotype similar to that observed in osteoarthritis. The 14-3-3ε–CD13 interaction could be a new therapeutic target in osteoarthritis. PMID:26208633

  2. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis confirms its involvement in fungal pathogenesis.

    Marcos, Caroline Maria; Silva, Julhiany de Fátima ds; Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar de; Assato, Patrícia Akemi; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Lopez, Angela Maria; Tamayo, Diana Patricia; Hernandez-Ruiz, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and host cells is usually mediated by specific binding events between adhesins on the fungal surface and receptors on the host extracellular matrix or cell surface. One molecule implicated in the P. brasiliensis-host interaction is the 14-3-3 protein. The 14-3-3 protein belongs to a family of conserved regulatory molecules that are expressed in all eukaryotic cells and are involved in diverse cellular functions. Here, we investigated the relevance of the 14-3-3 protein to the virulence of P. brasiliensis. Using antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, we generated a 14-3-3-silenced strain (expression reduced by ˜55%). This strain allowed us to investigate the interaction between 14-3-3 and the host and to correlate the functions of P. brasiliensis 14-3-3 with cellular features, such as morphological characteristics and virulence, that are important for pathogenesis. PMID:26646480

  3. Structure-Function Analysis of PPP1R3D, a Protein Phosphatase 1 Targeting Subunit, Reveals a Binding Motif for 14-3-3 Proteins which Regulates its Glycogenic Properties.

    Carla Rubio-Villena

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 is one of the major protein phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. It plays a key role in regulating glycogen synthesis, by dephosphorylating crucial enzymes involved in glycogen homeostasis such as glycogen synthase (GS and glycogen phosphorylase (GP. To play this role, PP1 binds to specific glycogen targeting subunits that, on one hand recognize the substrates to be dephosphorylated and on the other hand recruit PP1 to glycogen particles. In this work we have analyzed the functionality of the different protein binding domains of one of these glycogen targeting subunits, namely PPP1R3D (R6 and studied how binding properties of different domains affect its glycogenic properties. We have found that the PP1 binding domain of R6 comprises a conserved RVXF motif (R102VRF located at the N-terminus of the protein. We have also identified a region located at the C-terminus of R6 (W267DNND that is involved in binding to the PP1 glycogenic substrates. Our results indicate that although binding to PP1 and glycogenic substrates are independent processes, impairment of any of them results in lack of glycogenic activity of R6. In addition, we have characterized a novel site of regulation in R6 that is involved in binding to 14-3-3 proteins (RARS74LP. We present evidence indicating that when binding of R6 to 14-3-3 proteins is prevented, R6 displays hyper-glycogenic activity although is rapidly degraded by the lysosomal pathway. These results define binding to 14-3-3 proteins as an additional pathway in the control of the glycogenic properties of R6.

  4. Arabidopsis protein kinase PKS5 inhibits the plasma membrane H+ -ATPase by preventing interaction with 14-3-3 protein

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Guo, Yan; Cuin, Tracey A.;

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of the trans-plasma membrane pH gradient is an important part of plant responses to several hormonal and environmental cues, including auxin, blue light, and fungal elicitors. However, little is known about the signaling components that mediate this regulation. Here, we report that an ......Regulation of the trans-plasma membrane pH gradient is an important part of plant responses to several hormonal and environmental cues, including auxin, blue light, and fungal elicitors. However, little is known about the signaling components that mediate this regulation. Here, we report...

  5. Structure of a 14-3-3σ–YAP phosphopeptide complex at 1.15 Å resolution

    The first structure of a 14-3-3 protein–phosphopeptide complex is reported at 1.15 Å resolution. The YAP 14-3-3-binding motif is revealed for the first time using crystallographic tools. The 14-3-3 proteins are a class of eukaryotic acidic adapter proteins, with seven isoforms in humans. 14-3-3 proteins mediate their biological function by binding to target proteins and influencing their activity. They are involved in pivotal pathways in the cell such as signal transduction, gene expression, enzyme activation, cell division and apoptosis. The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a WW-domain protein that exists in two transcript variants of 48 and 54 kDa in humans. By transducing signals from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, YAP is important for transcriptional regulation. In both variants, interaction with 14-3-3 proteins after phosphorylation of Ser127 is important for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, via which the localization of YAP is controlled. In this study, 14-3-3σ has been cloned, purified and crystallized in complex with a phosphopeptide from the YAP 14-3-3-binding domain, which led to a crystal that diffracted to 1.15 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.3, b = 112.1, c = 62.9 Å

  6. Aberrant overexpression of an epithelial marker, 14-3-3σ, in a subset of hematological malignancies

    14-3-3σ is a p53-mediated cell-cycle inhibitor in epithelial cells. The expression of 14-3-3σ is frequently altered in cancers of epithelial origin associated with altered DNA methylation. Since its involvement in a non-epithelial tumor is unknown, we examined 14-3-3σ expression in patients with haematological malignancies. We analyzed 41 hematopoietic cell lines and 129 patients with a variety of hematological malignancies for 14-3-3σ expression with real-time RT-PCR. We also examined protein levels by Western blot analysis and DNA methylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene by methylation-specific PCR analysis of bisulfite-treated DNA. In addition, mutations of p53 gene were identified by RT-PCR-SSCP analysis and the expression levels of 14-3-3σ were compared with those of other cell-cycle inhibitor genes, CDKN2A and ARF. The expression levels of 14-3-3σ mRNA in almost all cell lines were low and comparable to those in normal hematopoietic cells except for 2 B-cell lines. On the contrary, 14-3-3σ mRNA was aberrantly overexpressed frequently in mature lymphoid malignancies (30 of 93, 32.3%) and rarely in acute leukemia (3 of 35, 8.6%). 14-3-3σ protein was readily detectable and roughly reflected the mRNA level. In contrast to epithelial tumors, methylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene was not associated with expression in hematological malignancies. Mutations of p53 were identified in 12 patients and associated with lower expression of 14-3-3σ. The expression levels of 14-3-3σ, CDKN2A and ARF were not correlated with but rather reciprocal to one another, suggesting that simultaneous overexpression of any two of them is incompatible with tumor growth. 14-3-3σ, an epithelial cell marker, was overexpressed significantly in a subset of mature lymphoid malignancies. This is the first report of aberrant 14-3-3σ expression in non-epithelial tumors in vivo. Since the significance of 14-3-3σ overexpression is unknown even in epithelial tumors such as pancreatic

  7. The C-Terminal Segment of Yeast BMH Proteins Exhibits Different Structure Compared to Other 14-3-3 Protein Isoforms

    Veisová, Dana; Řežábková, L.; Štěpánek, M.; Novotná, P.; Herman, P.; Večeř, J.; Obšil, T.; Obšilová, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 18 (2010), s. 3853-3861. ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA501110801; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : yeast BMH proteins * sedimentation equilibrium and velocity measurements * dynamic light scattering Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2010

  8. The interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3β

    ZHU; Pengcheng(朱鹏程); SANG; Yingying(桑瑛颖); XU; Rener(徐人尔); ZHAO; Jing(赵璟); LI; Changben(李昌本); ZHAO; Shouyuan(赵寿元)

    2002-01-01

    ADAM family consists of a number of transmembrane proteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. ADAMs are involved in a highly diverse set of biological processes, including fertilization, neurogenesis, myogenesis and inflammatory response. The ADAM proteins have both cell adhesion and protease activities. Adam22 is highly expressed in human brain. The adam22-/- mice presented severe ataxia and died before weaning, but the function of ADAM22 is still unknown. 14-3-3β interacting with ADAM22 was detected by using yeast two-hybrid assay. The specificity of interaction between ADAM22 and 14-3-3β was proved by in vitro binding assay and immunoprecipitation. The major 14-3-3β binding site was located in the last 28 amino acid residues of ADAM22 cytoplasmic tail. Protein 14-3-3β is abundant and plays an important role in mediating cell diffusion, migration and cell cycle control. The interaction of ADAM22 and 14-3-3β suggests that the ADAM22 may play a crucial role in neural function and development.

  9. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 14-3-3ε is a ligand of CD13 in cartilage

    Nefla, Meriam; Sudre, Laure; Denat, Guillaume; Priam, Sabrina; André-Leroux, Gwenaelle; Jacques, Claire

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage involving abnormal communication between subchondral bone and cartilage. Our team previously identified 14-3-3ε protein as a subchondral bone soluble mediator altering cartilage homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of CD13 (also known as aminopeptidase N, APN) in the chondrocyte response to 14-3-3ε. After identifying CD13 in chondrocytes, we kno...

  10. Differential Effects of Ethanol on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase, 14-3-3 Proteins, and Bax in Postnatal Day 4 and Postnatal Day 7 Rat Cerebellum

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Paiva, Michael; Kubovic, Stacey; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Swanson, Eric; Madorsky, Vladimir; Posados, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    These studies investigated ethanol effects on upstream cellular elements and interactions which contribute to Bax-related apoptosis in neonatal rat cerebellum at ages of peak ethanol sensitivity (postnatal day 4 [P4]), compared to later ages of relative resistance (P7). Analyses were made of basal levels of the pro-apoptotic c-jun N-termimal kinase (JNK), Bax, and the 14-3-3 anchoring proteins, as well as the responsiveness of these substances to ethanol at P4 versus P7. Dimerization of Bax w...

  11. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of the Golgi Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Pik1 Is Regulated by 14-3-3 Proteins and Coordinates Golgi Function with Cell Growth

    Demmel, Lars; Beck, Mike; Klose, Christian; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Gloor, Yvonne; Hsu, Peggy P.; Havlis, Jan; Shevchenko, Andrej; Krause, Eberhard; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Walch-Solimena, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The yeast phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1p is essential for proliferation, and it controls Golgi homeostasis and transport of newly synthesized proteins from this compartment. At the Golgi, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate recruits multiple cytosolic effectors involved in formation of post-Golgi transport vesicles. A second pool of catalytically active Pik1p localizes to the nucleus. The physiological significance and regulation of this dual localization of the lipid kinase remains unknown...

  12. 14-3-3 family members act coordinately to regulate mitotic progression.

    Dalal, Sorab N; Yaffe, Michael B; DeCaprio, James A

    2004-05-01

    The mitosis promoting phosphatase, cdc25C, is a target of both the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways. These pathways regulate cdc25C function, in part, by promoting the association of cdc25C with 14-3-3 proteins, which results in the retention of cdc25C in the cytoplasm. To determine which 14-3-3 proteins were required to regulate cdc25C function, we tested the ability of various 14-3-3 family members to form a complex with and negatively regulate cdc25C in human cells. Two 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3gamma specifically formed a complex with cdc25C but not with the 14-3-3 binding defective cdc25C mutant, S216A. In addition, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3gamma inhibited the ability of cdc25C, but not the S216A mutant, to induce premature chromatin condensation (PCC) in U-2OS cells. These results suggested that the reduction in PCC by 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3gamma was due to inhibition of cdc25C function. In contrast, 14-3-3sigma was unable to form a complex with cdc25C, but was able to inhibit the ability of both wild type cdc25C and S216A to induce PCC. This suggests that 14-3-3sigma regulates entry into mitosis independently of cdc25C and 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3gamma. Thus, specific members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins may act coordinately to maintain the DNA replication checkpoint by regulating the activity of different cell cycle proteins. PMID:15107609

  13. The role of 14-3-3{beta} in transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor {alpha} and its involvement in proliferation of breast cancer cells

    Kim, Yoonseo; Kim, Hyungjin; Jang, Sung-Wuk [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jesang, E-mail: jesangko@korea.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} 14-3-3{beta} interacts with ER{alpha} and the interaction is Akt-dependent. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} regulates the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha} in a ligand-dependent manner. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases expressions of ER{alpha} target genes. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The estrogen receptor (ER) functions as a transcription factor that mediates the effects of estrogen. ER{alpha}, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of breast cancer, is activated by estrogen binding, leading to receptor phosphorylation, dimerization, and recruitment of co-activators and chaperons to the estrogen-bound receptor complex. The 14-3-3 proteins bind to target proteins via phosphorylation and influence many cellular events by altering their subcellular localization or acting as a chaperone. However, regulation of ER{alpha} expression and transactivation by the 14-3-3 proteins has not been reported. We demonstrate that 14-3-3{beta} functions as a positive regulator of ER{alpha} through a direct protein-protein interaction in an estrogen-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of 14-3-3{beta} stimulated ER{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Enhanced ER{alpha} transcriptional activity due to 14-3-3{beta} increased the expressions of the endogenous ER{alpha} target genes, leading to proliferation of breast cancer cells. We suggest that 14-3-3{beta} has oncogenic potential in breast cancer via binding to ER{alpha} and activation of the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha}.

  14. 14-3-3 theta binding to cell cycle regulatory factors is enhanced by HIV-1 Vpr

    Sakai Keiko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continuing advances in our understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, the mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion in HIV-1-infected individuals remains unclear. The HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein causes cell death, likely through a mechanism related to its ability to arrest cells in the G2,M phase. Recent evidence implicated the scaffold protein, 14-3-3, in Vpr cell cycle blockade. Results We found that in human T cells, 14-3-3 plays an active role in mediating Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest and reveal a dramatic increase in the amount of Cdk1, Cdc25C, and CyclinB1 bound to 14-3-3 θ during Vprv-induced G2,M arrest. By contrast, a cell-cycle-arrest-dead Vpr mutant failed to augment 14-3-3 θ association with Cdk1 and CyclinB1. Moreover, G2,M arrest caused by HIV-1 infection strongly correlated with a disruption in 14-3-3 θ binding to centrosomal proteins, Plk1 and centrin. Finally, Vpr caused elevated levels of CyclinB1, Plk1, and Cdk1 in a complex with the nuclear transport and spindle assembly protein, importin β. Conclusion Thus, our data reveal a new facet of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest involving previously unrecognized abnormal rearrangements of multiprotein assemblies containing key cell cycle regulatory proteins. Reviewers This article was reviewed by David Kaplan, Nathaniel R. Landau and Yan Zhou.

  15. 14-3-3 transits to the nucleus and participates in dynamic nucleocytoplasmic transport

    Brunet, Anne; Kanai, Fumihiko; Stehn, Justine; Xu, Jian; Sarbassova, Dilara; Frangioni, John V.; Dalal, Sorab N.; DeCaprio, James A.; Greenberg, Michael E.; Yaffe, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins regulate the cell cycle and prevent apoptosis by controlling the nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of signaling molecules with which they interact. Although the majority of 14-3-3 molecules are present in the cytoplasm, we show here that in the absence of bound ligands 14-3-3 homes to the nucleus. We demonstrate that phosphorylation of one important 14-3-3 binding molecule, the transcription factor FKHRL1, at the 14-3-3 binding site occurs within the nucleus immediately bef...

  16. The 14-3-3σ gene promoter is methylated in both human melanocytes and melanoma

    Recent evidence demonstrates that 14-3-3σ acts as a tumor suppressor gene inactivated by methylation of its 5' CpG islands in epithelial tumor cells, while remaining un-methylated in normal human epithelia. The methylation analysis of 14-3-3σ has been largely overlooked in melanoma. The methylation status of 14-3-3σ CpG island in melanocytes and melanoma cells was analyzed by methylation-specific sequencing (MSS) and quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP). 14-3-3σ mRNA and protein expression in cell lines was detected by real-time RT-PCR and western blot. Melanoma cells were also treated by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), a demethylating agent, and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), to evaluate their effects on 14-3-3σ gene expression. 14-3-3σ is hypermethylated in both human melanocytes and most melanoma cells in a lineage-specific manner, resulting in the silencing of 14-3-3σ gene expression and the active induction of 14-3-3σ mRNA and protein expression following treatment with DAC. We also observed a synergistic effect upon gene expression when DAC was combined with TSA. The promoter methylation status of 14-3-3σ was analyzed utilizing Q-MSP in 20 melanoma tissue samples and 10 cell lines derived from these samples, showing that the majority of melanoma samples maintain their hypermethylation status of the 14-3-3σ gene. 14-3-3σ is hypermethylated in human melanoma in a cell-linage specific manner. Spontaneous demethylation and re-expression of 14-3-3σ is a rare event in melanoma, indicating 14-3-3σ might have a tentative role in the pathogenesis of melanoma

  17. The role of epigenetic inactivation of 14-3-3σin human cancer

    Dmitri LODYGIN; Heiko HERMEKING

    2005-01-01

    Cancer cells show characteristic alterations in DNA methylation patterns. Aberrant CpG methylation of specific promoters results in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and therefore plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The p53-regulated gene 14-3-3σ undergoes frequent epigenetic silencing in several types of cancer, including carcinoma of the breast, prostate, and skin, suggesting that the loss of 14-3-3σ expression may be causally involved in tumor progression.Functional studies demonstrated that 14-3-3σ is involved in cell-cycle control and prevents the accumulation of chromosomal damage. The recent identification of novel 14-3-3σ-associated proteins by a targeted proteomics approach implies that 14-3-3σ regulates diverse cellular processes, which may become deregulated after silencing of 14-3-3σ expression in cancer cells.

  18. P53 suppresses expression of the 14-3-3gamma oncogene

    Qi Wenqing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that some of these proteins have oncogenic activity and that they may promote tumorigenesis. We previously showed that one of the 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3gamma, is over expressed in human lung cancers and that it can induce transformation of rodent cells in vitro. Methods qRTPCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine 14-3-3gamma expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. Gene copy number was analyzed by qPCR. P53 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and also by western blot. CHIP and yeast one hybrid assays were used to detect p53 binding to 14-3-3gamma promoter. Results Quantitative rtPCR results showed that the expression level of 14-3-3gamma was elevated in the majority of NSCLC that we examined which was also consistent with protein expression. Further analysis of the expression pattern of 14-3-3gamma in lung tumors showed a correlation with p53 mutations suggesting that p53 might suppress 14-3-3 gamma expression. Analysis of the gamma promoter sequence revealed the presence of a p53 consensus binding motif and in vitro assays demonstrated that wild-type p53 bound to this motif when activated by ionizing radiation. Deletion of the p53 binding motif eliminated p53's ability to suppress 14-3-3gamma expression. Conclusion Increased expression of 14-3-3gamma in lung cancer coincides with loss of functional p53. Hence, we propose that 14-3-3gamma's oncogenic activities cooperate with loss of p53 to promote lung tumorigenesis.

  19. P53 suppresses expression of the 14-3-3gamma oncogene

    14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that some of these proteins have oncogenic activity and that they may promote tumorigenesis. We previously showed that one of the 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3gamma, is over expressed in human lung cancers and that it can induce transformation of rodent cells in vitro. qRTPCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine 14-3-3gamma expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Gene copy number was analyzed by qPCR. P53 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and also by western blot. CHIP and yeast one hybrid assays were used to detect p53 binding to 14-3-3gamma promoter. Quantitative rtPCR results showed that the expression level of 14-3-3gamma was elevated in the majority of NSCLC that we examined which was also consistent with protein expression. Further analysis of the expression pattern of 14-3-3gamma in lung tumors showed a correlation with p53 mutations suggesting that p53 might suppress 14-3-3 gamma expression. Analysis of the gamma promoter sequence revealed the presence of a p53 consensus binding motif and in vitro assays demonstrated that wild-type p53 bound to this motif when activated by ionizing radiation. Deletion of the p53 binding motif eliminated p53's ability to suppress 14-3-3gamma expression. Increased expression of 14-3-3gamma in lung cancer coincides with loss of functional p53. Hence, we propose that 14-3-3gamma's oncogenic activities cooperate with loss of p53 to promote lung tumorigenesis

  20. Nuclear export regulation of COP1 by 14-3-3σ in response to DNA damage

    Chen Jian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammalian constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1 is a p53 E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in regulating p53 protein level. In plants, the dynamic cytoplasm/nucleus distribution of COP1 is important for its function in terms of catalyzing the degradation of target proteins. In mammalian cells, the biological consequence of cytoplasmic distribution of COP1 is not well characterized. Here, we show that DNA damage leads to the redistribution of COP1 to the cytoplasm and that 14-3-3σ, a p53 target gene product, controls COP1 subcellular localization. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggests that COP1 S387 phosphorylation is required for COP1 to bind 14-3-3σ. Significantly, upon DNA damage, 14-3-3σ binds to phosphorylated COP1 at S387, resulting in COP1's accumulation in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic COP1 localization leads to its enhanced ubiquitination. We also show that N-terminal 14-3-3σ interacts with COP1 and promotes COP1 nuclear export through its NES sequence. Further, we show that COP1 is important in causing p53 nuclear exclusion. Finally, we demonstrate that 14-3-3σ targets COP1 for nuclear export, thereby preventing COP1-mediated p53 nuclear export. Together, these results define a novel, detailed mechanism for the subcellular localization and regulation of COP1 after DNA damage and provide a mechanistic explanation for the notion that 14-3-3σ's impact on the inhibition of p53 E3 ligases is an important step for p53 stabilization after DNA damage.

  1. 14-3-3 Sigma And p53 Expression in Gastric Cancer and Its Clinical Applications

    Gilbert Mühlmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 sigma (σ induces G2 arrest enabling the repair of damaged DNA. The function of 14-3-3 σ is frequently lost in tumor cells, indicating a potential tumor suppressor function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of 14-3-3 σ expression in human gastric cancer. 14-3-3 σ expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 157 tumor samples of patients, who underwent resection for gastric cancer. Since 14-3-3 σ is involved in the p53 network, p53 expression was detected in parallel and correlated with 14-3-3 σ. 14-3-3 σ was found to be overexpressed in 75 (47.8% of 157 cases, the overexpression rate of p53 protein was 27.4%. 14-3-3 σ overexpression was statistically significantly associated with pT-stage (p=0.041 pN-stage (p=0.015 and UICC-stage (p=0.019 and showed a borderline significance with Lauren classification (p=0.057. Univariate survival calculations revealed a coexistent 14-3-3 σ and p53 overexpression as a significant predictor of disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis did not unfold 14-3-3 as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival and overall survival. Concomitant 14-3-3 σ and p53 overexpression in tumor cells of patients with gastric cancer identifies a population of patients with relatively unfavorable prognosis.

  2. Over-expression of 14-3-3zeta is an early event in oral cancer

    The functional and clinical significance of 14-3-3 proteins in human cancers remain largely undetermined. Earlier, we have reported differential expression of 14-3-3ζ mRNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by differential display. The clinical relevance of 14-3-3ζ protein in oral tumorigenesis was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin embedded sections of oral pre-malignant lesions (OPLs), OSCCs and histologically normal oral tissues and corroborated by Western Blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were carried out to determine its association with NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2. Intense immunostaining of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed in 61/89 (69%) OPLs and 95/120 (79%) OSCCs. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein from normal mucosa to OPLs to OSCCs (ptrend < 0.001). Significant increase in expression of 14-3-3ζ protein was observed as early as in hyperplasia (p = 0.009), with further elevation in moderate and severe dysplasia, that was sustained in OSCCs. These findings were validated by Western blotting. Using Co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ protein binds to NFκB, β-catenin and Bcl-2, suggesting its involvement in cellular signaling, leading to proliferation of oral cancer cells. Our findings suggest that over-expression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event in oral tumorigenesis and may have an important role in its development and progression. Thus, 14-3-3ζ may serve as an important molecular target for designing novel therapy for oral cancer

  3. Clinical implication of 14-3-3 epsilon expression in gastric cancer

    Mariana Ferreira Leal; Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; S(a)mia Demachki; Paulo Pimentel Assump(c)(a)o; Roger Chammas; Rommel Rodríguez Burbano; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate for the first time the protein and mRNA expression of 14-3-3ε in gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS:14-3-3ε protein expression was determined by western blotting,and mRNA expression was examined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in gastric tumors and their matched non-neoplastic gastric tissue samples.RESULTS:Authors observed a significant reduction of 14-3-3ε protein expression in gastric cancer (GC) samples compared to their matched non-neoplastic tissue.Reduced levels of 14-3-3ε were also associated with diffuse-type GC and early-onset of this pathology.Our data suggest that reduced 14-3-3ε may have a role in gastric carcinogenesis process.CONCLUSION:Our results reveal that the reduced 14-3-3ε expression in GC and investigation of 14-3-3ε interaction partners may help to elucidate the carcinogenesis process.

  4. 14-3-3ζ Overexpression Defines High Risk for Breast Cancer Recurrence and Promotes Cancer Cell Survival

    Neal, Christopher L.; Yao, Jun; Yang, Wentao; ZHOU, XIAOYAN; Nguyen, Nina T.; LU, JING; Danes, Christopher G.; Guo, Hua; Lan, Keng-Hsueh; Ensor, Joe; Hittelman, Walter; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yu, Dihua

    2009-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 proteins are involved in numerous important cellular functions. The loss of 14-3-3σ is a common event in breast cancer; however, the role of other 14-3-3s in breast cancer is unclear. Recently, we found that 14-3-3ζ overexpression occurs in early stage breast diseases and contributes to transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. Here, we show that 14-3-3ζ overexpression also persisted in invasive ductal carcinoma and contributed to the further progress...

  5. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  6. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    Cao, Lei; Lei, Hui; Chang, Ming-Ze; Liu, Zhi-Qin [Department of Neurological Disease, Xi' an Central Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710000 (China); Bie, Xiao-Hua, E-mail: biexiaohua_xjtu@126.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xi' an Red Cross Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710054 (China)

    2015-07-10

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation.

  7. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β exerts anti-cancer effects through inducing ER stress in human glioma U87 cells: Involvement of CHOP–Wnt pathway

    We previously identified 14-3-3β as a tumor-specific isoform of 14-3-3 protein in astrocytoma, but its functional role in glioma cells and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 14-3-3β inhibition in human glioma U87 cells using specific targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results showed that 14-3-3β is highly expressed in U87 cells but not in normal astrocyte SVGp12 cells. Knockdown of 14-3-3β by Si-14-3-3β transfection significantly decreased the cell viability but increased the LDH release in a time-dependent fashion in U87 cells, and these effects were accompanied with G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, 14-3-3β knockdown induced ER stress in U87 cells, as evidenced by ER calcium release, increased expression of XBP1S mRNA and induction of ER related pro-apoptotic factors. Down-regulation of 14-3-3β significantly decreased the nuclear localization of β-catenin and inhibited Topflash activity, which was shown to be reversely correlated with CHOP. Furthermore, Si-CHOP and sFRP were used to inhibit CHOP and Wnt, respectively. The results showed that the anti-cancer effects of 14-3-3β knockdown in U87 cells were mediated by increased expression of CHOP and followed inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In summary, the remarkable efficiency of 14-3-3β knockdown to induce apoptotic cell death in U87 cells may find therapeutic application for the treatment of glioma patients. - Highlights: • Knockdown of 14-3-3β leads to cytotoxicity in human glioma U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β results in ER stress in U87 cells. • Knockdown of 14-3-3β inhibits Wnt/β-catenin pathway via CHOP activation

  8. Aberrant upregulation of 14-3-3ơ expression serves as an inferior prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer

    Li Hai-gang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3ơ is an intracellular, phosphoserine binding protein and proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis. However, the expression dynamics of 14-3-3ơ and its clinicopathological/prognostic significance in human tumors are still controversial. Methods The method of immunohistochemistry (IHC and Western blot were utilized to examine the protein expression of 14-3-3ơ in gastric cancer and paired normal adjacent gastric mucosal tissues. Receive operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was employed to determine a cutoff score for 14-3-3ơ expression in a training set (n = 66. For validation, the ROC-derived cutoff score was subjected to analysis of the association of 14-3-3ơ expression with patient outcome and clinical characteristics in a testing set (n = 86 and overall patients (n = 152. Results The expression frequency and expression levels of 14-3-3ơ were significantly higher in gastric cancer than in normal gastric mucosal tissues. Correlation analysis demonstrated that high expression of 14-3-3ơ in gastric cancer was significantly correlated with clinical stage and tumor invasion. Furthermore, in the testing set and overall patients, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that elevated 14-3-3ơ expression predicted poorer overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Importantly, high 14-3-3ơ expression was also associated with shortened survival time in stage III and stage IV gastric cancer patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that 14-3-3ơ expression was an independent prognostic parameter in gastric cancer. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that high expression of 14-3-3ơ may be important in the tumor progression and servers as an independent molecular marker for poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Thus, overexpression of 14-3-3ơ identifies patients at high risk and is a novel therapeutic molecular target for this tumor.

  9. Dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and bax during TNF-α-induced apoptosis in living cells

    Gao, Xuejuan; Xing, Da; Chen, Tongsheng

    2006-09-01

    Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, localizes largely in the cytoplasm but redistributes to mitochondria and undergoes oligomerization to induce the release of apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c in response to apoptotic stimuli. Cytoplasmic protein 14-3-3zeta binds to Bax and, upon apoptotic stimulation, releases Bax by a caspase-independent mechanism. However, the direct interaction of the cytoplasmic 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells has not been observed. In present study, to monitor the dynamic interaction between 14-3-3zeta and Bax in living cells in real time during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), DsRed-14-3-3zeta plasmid is constructed. By cotransfecting DsRed- 14-3-3zeta and GFP-Bax plasmids into human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1), we observe the dynamic interaction between Bax and 14-3-3zeta using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique on laser scanning confocal microscope. The results show that 14-3-3zeta remains in the cytoplasm but GFP-Bax translocates to mitochondria completely after TNF-α stimulation. These results reveal that 14-3-3zeta binds directly to Bax in healthy cells, and that 14-3-3zeta negatively regulates Bax translocation to mitochondria during TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

  10. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling

    Haiyan Shi; Yuxing Zhang

    2014-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to -like group of 14-3-3 super-families. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear.

  11. Interaction of hookworm 14-3-3 with the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16 requires intact Akt phosphorylation sites

    Hawdon John M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Third-stage infective larvae (L3 of hookworms are in an obligatory state of developmental arrest that ends upon entering the definitive host, where they receive a signal that re-activates development. Recovery from the developmentally arrested dauer stage of Caenorhabditis elegans is analogous to the resumption of development during hookworm infection. Insulin-like signaling (ILS mediates recovery from arrest in C. elegans and activation of hookworm dauer L3. In C. elegans, phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16 in response to ILS creates binding cites for the 14-3-3 protein Ce-FTT-2, which translocates DAF-16 out of the nucleus, resulting in resumption of reproductive development. Results To determine if hookworm 14-3-3 proteins play a similar role in L3 activation, hookworm FTT-2 was identified and tested for its ability to interact with A. caninum DAF-16 in vitro. The Ac-FTT-2 amino acid sequence was 91% identical to the Ce-FTT-2, and was most closely related to FTT-2 from other nematodes. Ac-FTT-2 was expressed in HEK 293T cells, and was recognized by an antibody against human 14-3-3β isoform. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations using anti-epitope tag antibodies indicated that Ac-FTT-2 interacts with Ac-DAF-16 when co-expressed in serum-stimulated HEK 293T cells. This interaction requires intact Akt consensus phosphorylation sites at serine107 and threonine312, but not serine381. Ac-FTT-2 was undetectable by Western blot in excretory/secretory products from serum-stimulated (activated L3 or adult A. caninum. Conclusion The results indicate that Ac-FTT-2 interacts with DAF-16 in a phosphorylation-site dependent manner, and suggests that Ac-FTT-2 mediates activation of L3 by binding Ac-DAF-16 during hookworm infection.

  12. Class-specific evolution and transcriptional differentiation of 14-3-3 family members in mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    Ruby eChandna; Rehna eAugustine; Praveena eKanchupati; Roshan eKumar; Pawan eKumar; Arya, Gulab C.; Naveen Chandra Bisht

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa cont...

  13. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C.; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa cont...

  14. 14-3-3/HIP-55 complex increases the stability of HIP-55%14-3-3/HIP-55复合体增强HIP-55蛋白稳定性

    田爱炬; 李子健

    2015-01-01

    目的:用双分子荧光互补及免疫共沉淀技术验证HIP-55与14-3-3在HEK293细胞中存在相互作用,并进一步研究其生物学意义. 方法:利用GATEWAY系统构建PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55WT(野生型),PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55AA(突变体S269A/T291A),PDEST-GST-HIP-55WT及PDEST-C-Venus-14-3-3τ重组质粒,利用双分子荧光互补及免疫共沉淀技术检测两者的相互作用,同时应用14-3-3蛋白相互作用抑制肽R18和HIP-55蛋白突变体( HIP-55AA突变体S269A/T291A不能与14-3-3相互作用)作为工具研究两者结合后对嘌呤霉素诱导的HIP-55蛋白表达的影响. 结果:外源转入的Venus-HIP-55WT、Venus-HIP-55AA及Venus-14-3-3蛋白能够在HEK293细胞中表达;双分子荧光互补实验结果表明HIP-55与14-3-3存在相互作用,HIP-55蛋白的S269/T291位点介导HIP-55与14-3-3的相互作用;免疫共沉淀技术表明内源性HIP-55与14-3-3存在相互作用;进一步研究发现HIP-55与14-3-3复合体增强HIP-55蛋白的稳定性,保护HIP-55不被降解. 结论:14-3-3与HIP-55存在相互作用,14-3-3/HIP-55复合体可以促进HIP-55蛋白的稳定性.%Objective:To further demonstrate the interaction of a new 14-3-3 interaction protein hema-topoietic progenitor kinase 1 [ HPK1 ]-interacting protein ( HIP-55 ) and 14-3-3 proteins and its potential biological function in HEK293 cells. Methods:PDEST-N-Venus-HIP-55WT (wild type),PDEST-N-Ve-nus-HIP-55AA (mutants, S269A/T291A, abolishing the binding of HIP-55 to 14-3-3),PDEST-GST-HIP-55WT and PDEST-C-Venus-14-3-3τplasmids were constructed by gateway system. Their expressions were demonstrated by Western blotting method. Then we used Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation ( BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation ( co-IP) methods to demonstrate the interaction of HIP-55 and 14-3-3 in HEK293 cells. Moreover, the 14-3-3 antagonist peptide, R18 and HIP-55 protein mutant plasmid HIP-55 AA were used to detect the protein synthesis of HIP-55 at different time points

  15. 14-3-3σ is an independent prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer and is associated with apoptosis and proliferation in gastric cancer.

    Li, Yi-Liang; Liu, Lihua; Xiao, Yang; Zeng, Tao; Zeng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins participate in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and malignant transformation. 14-3-3σ, a member of the 14-3-3 protein family, is important in several types of cancer; however, little is known about the clinical significance and biological roles of 14-3-3σ in gastric cancer. The present study analyzed the expression pattern of 14-3-3σ in gastric cancer and investigated its correlation with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Furthermore, the association of 14-3-3σ with Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bax was evaluated. 14-3-3σ was expressed at higher level in gastric cancer tissue compared with healthy gastric tissue, and 14-3-3σ expression was significantly correlated with tumor size and tumor node metastasis stage (Pknowledge, the present study data are the first to suggest that 14-3-3σ expression has been significantly associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Additionally, 14-3-3σ overexpression was positively correlated with Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression levels. Thus, 14-3-3σ is a potential prognostic marker for gastric cancer patients, and may be involved in regulating the apoptosis and proliferation of gastric cancer cells. PMID:25435977

  16. 14-3-3epsilon contributes to tumour suppression in laryngeal carcinoma by affecting apoptosis and invasion

    14-3-3epsilon regulates a wide range of biological processes, including cell cycle control, proliferation, and apoptosis, and plays a significant role in neurogenesis and the formation of malignant tumours. However, the exact function and regulatory mechanism of 14-3-3epsilon in carcinogenesis have not been elucidated. The expression of 14-3-3epsilon was assessed by RT-PCR and western blotting. The invasiveness and viability of Hep-2 cells were determined by the transwell migration assay and MTT assay, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis of Hep-2 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of 14-3-3epsilon in larynx squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) tissues were significantly lower than those in clear surgical margin tissues. Statistical analysis showed that the 14-3-3epsilon protein level in metastatic lymph nodes was lower than that in paired tumour tissues. In addition, the protein level of 14-3-3epsilon in stage III or IV tumours was significantly lower than that in stage I or II tumours. Compared with control Hep-2 cells, the percentages of viable cells in the 14-3-3epsilon-GFP and negative control GFP groups were 36.68 ± 14.09% and 71.68 ± 12.10%, respectively. The proportions of S phase were 22.47 ± 3.36%, 28.17 ± 3.97% and 46.15 ± 6.82%, and the apoptotic sub-G1 populations were 1.23 ± 1.02%, 2.92 ± 1.59% and 13.72 ± 3.89% in the control, negative control GFP and 14-3-3epsilon-GFP groups, respectively. The percentages of the apoptotic cells were 0.84 ± 0.25%, 1.08 ± 0.24% and 2.93 ± 0.13% in the control, negative control GFP and 14-3-3epsilon-GFP groups, respectively. The numbers of cells that penetrated the filter membrane in the control, negative control GFP and 14-3-3epsilon-GFP groups were 20.65 ± 1.94, 17.63 ± 1.04 and 9.1 ± 0.24, respectively, indicating significant differences among the different groups. Decreased expression of 14-3-3epsilon in LSCC tissues contributes to the initiation and progression of LSCC

  17. Regulation of poly(A) polymerase by 14-3-3ε

    Kim, Hana; Lee, June Hyung; Lee, Younghoon

    2003-01-01

    Poly(A) polymerase (PAP) is a key enzyme responsible for the addition of the poly(A) at the 3′ end of pre-mRNA. The C-terminal region of mammalian PAP carries target sites for protein–protein interaction with the 25 kDa subunit of cleavage factor I and with splicing factors U1A and U2AF65. We used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify 14-3-3ε as an additional protein binding to the C-terminal region of PAP. Interaction between PAP and 14-3-3ε was confirmed by both in vitro and in vivo binding...

  18. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnostic accuracy is improved by a new CSF ELISA 14-3-3γ assay.

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-05-13

    Protein 14-3-3 is a reliable marker of rapid neuronal damage, specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Its detection is usually performed by Western Blot (WB), prone to methodological issues. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a recently developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay for 14-3-3γ, in comparison with WB and other neurodegeneration markers. CSF samples from 145 patients with suspicion of prion disease, later classified as definite sCJD (n=72) or Non-prion diseases (Non-CJD; n=73) comprised our population. 14-3-3 protein was determined by WB and ELISA. Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were also evaluated. Apolipoprotein E gene (ApoE) and prionic protein gene (PRNP) genotyping was assessed. ELISA 14-3-3γ levels were significantly increased in sCJD compared to Non-CJD patients (pratio - 88%). From WB inconclusive results (n=44), ELISA 14-3-3γ correctly classified 41 patients. Additionally, logistic regression analysis selected ELISA 14-3-3γ as the best single predictive marker for sCJD (overall accuracy=93%). ApoE and PRNP genotypes did not influence ELISA 14-3-3γ levels. Despite specificity for 14-3-3γ isoform, ELISA results not only match WB evaluation but also help discrimination of inconclusive results. Our results therefore reinforce this assay as a single screening test, allowing higher sample throughput and unequivocal results. PMID:26940479

  19. The Silencing of a 14-3-3ɛ Homolog in Tenebrio molitor Leads to Increased Antimicrobial Activity in Hemocyte and Reduces Larval Survivability.

    Seo, Gi Won; Jo, Yong Hun; Seong, Jeong Hwan; Park, Ki Beom; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Tindwa, Hamisi; Kim, Sun-Am; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Yu Jung; Han, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of phosphorylated serine-binding proteins acts as signaling molecules in biological processes such as metabolism, division, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Herein, we report the requirement of 14-3-3ɛ isoform from Tenebrio molitor (Tm14-3-3ɛ) in the hemocyte antimicrobial activity. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript is 771 nucleotides in length and encodes a polypeptide of 256 amino acid residues. The protein has the typical 14-3-3 domain, the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence, and the peptide binding residues. The Tm14-3-3ɛ transcript shows a significant three-fold expression in the hemocyte of T. molitor larvae when infected with Escherichia coli Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced larvae show significantly lower survival rates when infected with E. coli. Under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition, a strong antimicrobial activity is elicited in the hemocyte of the host inoculated with E. coli. This suggests impaired secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) into the hemolymph. Furthermore, a reduction in AMP secretion under Tm14-3-3ɛ silenced condition would be responsible for loss in the capacity to kill bacteria and might explain the reduced survivability of the larvae upon E. coli challenge. This shows that Tm14-3-3ɛ is required to maintain innate immunity in T. molitor by enabling antimicrobial secretion into the hemolymph and explains the functional specialization of the isoform. PMID:27556493

  20. Cloning, expression and identification of the 14-3-3 gene of Trichomonas vaginalis%阴道毛滴虫14-3-3基因的克隆、表达及鉴定

    刘畅; 张西臣; 丁鹤; 刘鑫; 宫鹏涛; 李建华; 李淑红; 李赫; 张国才; 杨举

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆阴道毛滴虫14-3-3基因并进行原核表达.方法 根据阴道毛滴虫14-3-3基因序列设计特异性引物,以阴道毛滴虫cDNA为模板通过PCR扩增获得目的片段,与pMD-18-T连接,构建克隆载体pMD-Tv-14-3-3,经双酶切后回收目的片段,进行测序鉴定,然后与表达载体pGEX-T连接,构建原核表达载体pGEX-T-Tv-14-3-3,用异丙基-β-D硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导表达,通过SDS-PAGE及Western blot鉴定表达产物.结果 成功构建了阴道毛滴虫14-3-3基因原核表达载体pGEX-T-Tv-14-3-3;SDS-PAGE电泳检测显示,在IPTG诱导下,阳性菌高效表达分子质量单位为27 ku的蛋白质;Western blot显示表达产物可被抗阴道毛滴虫多克隆血清识别.结论 成功构建了阴道毛滴虫14-3-3基因原核表达载体,并在大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)中高效表达.%Objective To clone and express 14-3-3 gene of Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Special primers were designed on the basis of the reported T. vaginalis 14-3-3 gene. The 14-3-3 gene was amplified by PCR from the total DNA of T. vaginalis and was cloned into pMD-18-T to construct pMD-14-3-3. The plasmid pMD-14-3-3 was then digested with restriction ribozymes and subcloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEXT to construct pGEX-T-Tv-14-3-3. It was then expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) induced with IPTG. The fusion product was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results A prokaryotic expression vector of the 14-3-3 gene was constructed and expressed in Esche-richia. coli. Induced with IPTG, the expressed recombinant protein was detected as a band of 27 ku by SDS-PAGE. A special reaction band to anti-14-3-3 sera was observed in Western blot. Conclusion The fusion protein of the 14-3-3 gene was successfully expressed in prokaryotic cells.

  1. 14-3-3σ controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    14-3-3σ (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3σ mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3σ activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3σ led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3σ mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3σ is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  2. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    Xin, Ying [Stem Cell Institute, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lu, Qingxian [Tumor Immunobiology Group, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Li, Qiutang, E-mail: q.li@louisville.edu [Stem Cell Institute, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  3. The peripheral binding of 14-3-3γ to membranes involves isoform-specific histidine residues.

    Helene J Bustad

    Full Text Available Mammalian 14-3-3 protein scaffolds include seven conserved isoforms that bind numerous phosphorylated protein partners and regulate many cellular processes. Some 14-3-3-isoforms, notably γ, have elevated affinity for membranes, which might contribute to modulate the subcellular localization of the partners and substantiate the importance of investigating molecular mechanisms of membrane interaction. By applying surface plasmon resonance we here show that the binding to phospholipid bilayers is stimulated when 14-3-3γ is complexed with its partner, a peptide corresponding to the Ser19-phosphorylated N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase. Moreover, membrane interaction is dependent on salts of kosmotropic ions, which also stabilize 14-3-3γ. Electrostatic analysis of available crystal structures of γ and of the non-membrane-binding ζ-isoform, complemented with molecular dynamics simulations, indicate that the electrostatic potential distribution of phosphopeptide-bound 14-3-3γ is optimal for interaction with the membrane through amphipathic helices at the N-terminal dimerization region. In addition, His158, and especially His195, both specific to 14-3-3γ and located at the convex lateral side, appeared to be pivotal for the ligand induced membrane interaction, as corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis. The participation of these histidine residues might be associated to their increased protonation upon membrane binding. Overall, these results reveal membrane-targeting motifs and give insights on mechanisms that furnish the 14-3-3γ scaffold with the capacity for tuned shuffling from soluble to membrane-bound states.

  4. A quantitative 14-3-3 interaction screen connects the nuclear exosome targeting complex to the DNA damage response

    Blasius, Melanie; Wagner, Sebastian A; Choudhary, Chuna Ram;

    2014-01-01

    RNA metabolism is altered following DNA damage, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Through a 14-3-3 interaction screen for DNA damage-induced protein interactions in human cells, we identified protein complexes connected to RNA biology. These include the nuclear exosome...

  5. Class-specific evolution and transcriptional differentiation of 14-3-3 family members in mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    Ruby eChandna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks0.48, suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1-5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14s indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses.

  6. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C; Bisht, Naveen C

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa contains both ε (epsilon) and non-ε 14-3-3 isoforms, having distinct intron-exon structural organization patterns. The non-ε isoforms showed lower divergence rate (Ks 0.48), suggesting class-specific divergence pattern. Synteny analysis revealed that mesohexaploid B. rapa genome has retained 1-5 orthologs of each Arabidopsis 14-3-3 gene, interspersed across its three fragmented sub-genomes. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 14 of the 21 BraA.GRF14 were expressed, wherein a higher abundance of non-ε transcripts was observed compared to the ε genes, indicating class-specific transcriptional bias. The BraA.GRF14 genes showed distinct expression pattern during plant developmental stages and in response to abiotic stress, phytohormone treatments, and nutrient deprivation conditions. Together, the distinct expression pattern and differential regulation of BraA.GRF14 genes indicated the occurrence of functional divergence of B. rapa 14-3-3 proteins during plant development and stress responses. PMID:26858736

  7. Role of AKT/ PKB and 14-3-3 in the regulation of B cell receptor signaling and signalosome assembly

    Mohammad, Dara

    2015-01-01

    AKT/PKB is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase regulated via the PI3K pathways. 14-3-3s represent a large group of adaptor proteins that are known to interact with a plethora of signaling proteins and regulate diverse signal transduction pathways. The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) activation and signalosome assembly are dynamic processes controlled by protein phosphorylation. The signaling events share their functions in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and/or apoptosis. ...

  8. Progression of 14-3-3σ in nasopharyngeal carcinoma%14-3-3σ及其在鼻咽癌中的研究进展

    王堃; 易斌

    2011-01-01

    14-3-3σ,an vital tumor suppressor which is regulated by p53,plays a key role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, migration and proliferation, affecting tumor formation, invasion and metastasis. The methylation inactivation of 14-3-3σ is widely recognized as one of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis,and be associated with the metastasis of NPC.%14-3-3σ是p53调控的重要肿瘤抑制因子,在细胞周期调控、凋亡、迁移和扩散等过程中起关键作用,影响肿瘤的形成、浸润和转移.14-3-3σ甲基化失活是目前公认的肿瘤发生的重要机制之一,且与鼻咽癌的浸润转移等有关.

  9. Dysregulated 14-3-3 Family in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Ying Qing; Liya Sun; Chao Yang; Jie Jiang; Xuhan Yang; Xiaowen Hu; Donghong Cui; Yifeng Xu; Lin He; Dongmei Han; Chunling Wan

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family, which is composed of seven distinct members in humans, plays important roles in the cell cycle, apoptosis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation and migration. Previous genetic and post-mortem gene expression studies have linked this family to schizophrenia. However, the direction of gene expression changes in these studies has been inconsistent, and reports of 14-3-3 gene expression in living schizophrenic patients are still lacking. Here, we assessed 14-3-3 gen...

  10. Characterization and subcellular localization of two 14-3-3 genes and their response to abiotic stress in wheat.

    Meng, Xiaodan; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yaying; Xiao, Ruixia; Liu, Hailun; Wang, Xinguo; Ren, Jiangping; Li, Yongchun; Niu, Hongbin; Wang, Xiang; Yin, Jun

    2014-02-01

    In order to investigate biological functions of the 14-3-3 genes and their response to abiotic stress, two cDNAs (designated as Ta14R1 and Ta14R2) encoding putative 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from wheat by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) technique. The cDNA of Ta14R1 is 999bp and encodes a protein of 262 amino acids, while the cDNA of Ta14R2 is 897bp in length and encodes a protein of 261 amino acids. Transient expression assays using Ta14R1/Ta14R2-GFP fusion constructs indicated that Ta14R1 and Ta14R2 were located in cytoplasm and cell membrane but not in chloroplasts. Real-time quantitative (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ta14R1 and Ta14R2 were differentially expressed in wheat tissues and significantly up-regulated in roots and shoots 1d after germination, indicating they may play a role in process of seed germination. The expression of the two genes in roots and leaves were significantly induced by plant hormone ABA, as well as heat, cold and drought treatments, suggesting that the two 14-3-3 genes in wheat may be involved in ABA dependent stress-responding pathway and response to heat, cold and drought stress. PMID:24941745

  11. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hkonishi@pu-hiroshima.ac.jp

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  12. 14-3-3 zeta is a molecular target in guggulsterone induced apoptosis in Head and Neck cancer cells

    The five-year survival rates for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are less than 50%, and the prognosis has not improved, despite advancements in standard multi-modality therapies. Hence major emphasis is being laid on identification of novel molecular targets and development of multi-targeted therapies. 14-3-3 zeta, a multifunctional phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding protein, is emerging as an effector of pro-survival signaling by binding to several proteins involved in apoptosis (Bad, FKHRL1 and ASK1) and may serve as an appropriate target for head and neck cancer therapy. Herein, we determined effect of guggulsterone (GS), a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, on 14-3-3 zeta associated molecular pathways for abrogation of apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. Head and neck cancer cells were treated with guggulsterone (GS). Effect of GS-treatment was evaluated using cell viability (MTT) assay and apoptosis was verified by annexin V, DNA fragmentation and M30 CytoDeath antibody assay. Mechanism of GS-induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and co-IP assays using specific antibodies. Using in vitro models of head and neck cancer, we showed 14-3-3 zeta as a key player regulating apoptosis in GS treated SCC4 cells. Treatment with GS releases BAD from the inhibitory action of 14-3-3 zeta in proliferating HNSCC cells by activating protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). These events initiate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, as revealed by increased levels of cytochrome c in cytoplasmic extracts of GS-treated SCC4 cells. In addition, GS treatment significantly reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2, xIAP, Mcl1, survivin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, thus committing cells to apoptosis. These events were followed by activation of caspase 9, caspase 8 and caspase 3 leading to cleavage of its downstream target, poly-ADP-ribose phosphate (PARP). GS targets 14-3-3 zeta associated cellular pathways for reducing

  13. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  14. Detection of PinX1 and 14-3-3 in the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and study on gene expressions during viral infection and environmental stresses

    Potchanapond Graidist

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two genes, PinX1 and 14-3-3, have been isolated and investigated for their expression in shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei when infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and subjected to environmental stresses. A putative PinX1protein of 180 amino acids showed a 65% similarity to the zebra fish PinX1 protein (Danio rerio and had a G-patch domainsimilar to human PinX1. The sequence of a full length cDNA of 14-3-3 has a very high similarity (96% to other shrimp 14-3-3-like protein (Feneropenaeus merguiensis and Penaeus monodon. Transcripts of PinX1 and 14-3-3 were up regulated in thehemolymph of viral infected shrimp with the highest expression level at 24 hrs p.i. Shrimp showing mortality characteristicshad very low expression of these two genes. In animals subjected to a combined low temperature (19-20°C and low oxygen(DO 1-1.5 mg/L for 24 hrs, an interesting result was that the transcript of PinX1 was drastically increased. In contrast, 14-3-3did not show any significant differences between the six treatments. The results of this work indicated that the PinX1 proteinmight play an important role in the shrimp response to viral infection and repose to certain stresses. In contrast the 14-3-3protein might play a particularly important role in the immune defended mechanisms of viral infections of shrimps.

  15. Effects of physical exercise on the P38MAPK/REDD1/14-3-3 pathways in the myocardium of diet-induced obesity rats.

    Pieri, B L S; Souza, D R; Luciano, T F; Marques, S O; Pauli, J R; Silva, A S R; Ropelle, E R; Pinho, R A; Lira, F S; De Souza, C T

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is associated with myocardial insulin resistance and impairment of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The activation of the mTOR cascade by exercise has been largely shown in skeletal muscle, but insufficiently analyzed in myocardial tissue. In addition, little is known regarding the mTOR upstream molecules in the hearts of obese animals and even less about the role of exercise in this process. Thus, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (P38MAPK) phosphorylation and the REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1) and 14-3-3 protein levels in the myocardium of diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats. After achievement of DIO and insulin resistance, Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups: sedentary obese rats and obese rats performed treadmill running (50-min/day, 5 days per week velocity of 1.0 km/h for 2 months). Forty-eight hours after the final physical exercise, the rats were killed, and the myocardial tissue was removed for Western blot analysis. DIO increased the REDD1 protein levels and reduced the 14-3-3 protein levels and P38MAPK, mTOR, P70S6k (p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase), and 4EBP1 (4E-binding protein-1) phosphorylation. Interestingly, physical exercise reduced the REDD1 protein levels and increased the 14-3-3 protein levels and P38MAPK, mTOR, P70S6k, and 4EBP1 phosphorylation. Moreover, exercise increased the REDD1/14-3-3 association in the heart. Our results indicate that the phospho-P38MAPK, REDD1, and 14-3-3 protein levels were reduced in the myocardium of obese rats and that physical exercise increased the protein levels of these molecules. PMID:24691733

  16. 14-3-3 regulates the nuclear import of class IIa histone deacetylases

    Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) form complexes with a class of transcriptional repressors in the nucleus. While screening for compounds that could block the association of HDAC4 with the BTB domain-containing transcriptional repressor Bach2, we discovered that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced the cytoplasmic retention of HDAC4 mutants lacking a nuclear export signal (NES). Although PMA treatment and PKD overexpression has been proposed to facilitate the nuclear export of class IIa HDACs by creating 14-3-3 binding sites containing phosphoserines, our experiments using HDAC mutants demonstrated that PMA greatly reduces nuclear import. PMA treatment repressed the NLS activity in a manner dependent on 14-3-3 binding. These results suggest that nuclear HDAC4 is not tethered in the nucleus, but instead shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation-induced 14-3-3 binding biases the balance of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling toward the cytoplasm by inhibiting nuclear import.

  17. A role of TGFß1 dependent 14-3-3σ phosphorylation at Ser69 and Ser74 in the regulation of gene transcription, stemness and radioresistance.

    Olena Zakharchenko

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ is a potent regulator of tumorigenesis, although mechanisms defining its tumor suppressing and tumor promoting activities are not understood. Here we describe phosphoproteome profiling of TGFβ signaling in mammary epithelial cells, and show that 60 identified TGFβ-regulated phosphoproteins form a network with scale-free characteristics. The network highlighted interactions, which may distribute signaling inputs to regulation of cell proliferation, metabolism, differentiation and cell organization. In this report, we identified two novel and TGFβ-dependent phosphorylation sites of 14-3-3σ, i.e. Ser69 and Ser74. We observed that 14-3-3σ phosphorylation is a feed-forward mechanism in TGFβ/Smad3-dependent transcription. TGFβ-dependent 14-3-3σ phosphorylation may provide a scaffold for the formation of the protein complexes which include Smad3 and p53 at the Smad3-specific CAGA element. Furthermore, breast tumor xenograft studies in mice and radiobiological assays showed that phosphorylation of 14-3-3σ at Ser69 and Ser74 is involved in regulation of cancer progenitor population and radioresistance in breast cancer MCF7 cells. Our data suggest that TGFβ-dependent phosphorylation of 14-3-3σ orchestrates a functional interaction of TGFβ/Smad3 with p53, plays a role in the maintenance of cancer stem cells and could provide a new potential target for intervention in breast cancer.

  18. Constitutive Photomorphogensis Protein1 (COP1 mediated p53 pathway and its oncogenic role

    Md. Golam Rabbani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the COP1 mediated tumor suppressor protein p53 pathway and its oncogenic role. COP1 is a negative regulator of p53 and acts as a pivotal controller of p53-Akt death-live switch (Protein kinase B. In presence of p53, COP1 is overexpressed in breast, ovarian, gastric cancers, even without MDM2 (Mouse double minute-2 amplification. Following DNA damage, COP1 is phosphorylated instantly by ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and degraded by 14-3-3 and #963; following nuclear export and enhancing ubiquitination. In ATM lacking cell, other kinases, i.e. ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein, Jun kinases and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase cause COP1 and CSN3 (COP9 signalosome complex subunit-3 phosphorylation and initiate COP1's down regulation. Although, it has been previously found that co-knockout of MDM2 and COP1 enhance p53's half life by eight fold, the reason is still unknown. Additionally, while interacting with p53, COP1 upregulate MDM2's E3 ubiquitin ligase, Akt, CSN6 (COP9 signalosome 6 activity and inhibit 14-3-3 and #963;'s negative regulation on MDM2 and COP1 itself. Conclusively, there persists an amplification loop among COP1, MDM2, Akt and 14-3-3 and #963; to regulate p53's stability and activity. However, the role of another tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue is yet to be discovered. This study provides insight on the molecular genetic pathways related to cancer and might be helpful for therapeutic inventions. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(5.000: 142-151

  19. Silencing neuroglobin enhances neuronal vulnerability to oxidative injury by down-regulating 14-3-3Y

    Shi-qiao YE; Xin-yu ZHOU; Xiao-jing LAI; Li ZHENG; Xiao-qian CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To explore the protective role and mechanism of endogenous neuroglobin (Ngb) in neuronal cells under oxidative stress.Methods:A stable N2a neuroblastoma cell line expressing the Ngb-siRNA plasmid (N2a/Ngb-siRNA) was established by neomycin screening.Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect Ngb gene and protein levels.Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative stress in N2a cells.Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and WST-8 assays.Apoptotic cells were detected by Hoechst staining.Results:Cotransfection of Ngb-siRNA with Ngb-GFP plasmids suppressed the expression of Ngb-GFP in N2a cells.RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of endogenous Ngb was successfully knocked down to about 20% in N2a/Ngb-siRNA cells compared with control cells.A WST-8 assay demonstrated that viability was significantly decreased in N2a/Ngb-siRNA cells and N2a cells transiently transfected with Ngb-siRNA plasmids compared with controls following hydrogen peroxide treatment.An LDH assay demonstrated a time-dependent increase in the death of Ngb-siRNA-transfected N2a cells following hydrogen peroxide treatment.Hoechst staining demonstrated that the quantity of apoptotic cells among N2a/Ngb-siRNA cells following hydrogen peroxide treatment significantly increased compared with controls.In N2a/Ngb-siRNA cells,the expression level of activated caspase-3 significantly increased,whereas the expression of 14-3-3Y decreased compared with that of N2a/vec cells.Transfection of 14-3-3Y plasmids significantly enhanced the viability of N2a/Ngb-siRNA cells following hydrogen peroxide treatment compared with vector controls.Conclusion:Ngb contributes to neuronal defensive machinery against oxidative injuries by regulating 14-3-3Y expression.

  20. 14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling

    Lixin Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1, serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

  1. Superhelical DNA as a preferential binding target of 14-3-3 gamma protein

    Brázda, Václav; Čechová, J.; Coufal, Jan; Rumpel, S.; Jagelská, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2012), s. 371-378. ISSN 0739-1102 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) 301/10/1211; GA MŠk(CZ) LC 06035; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200040904 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR P53 * ASSOCIATES IN-VIVO * SUPERCOILED DNA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.986, year: 2010

  2. Rôle des protéines 14-3-3 dans la régulation de la longévité par la voie DAF-2/Insuline/IGF-1 chez Caenorhabditis elegans

    Araiz, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous proteins highly conserved among eukaryotes. They are involved in the regulation of several cellular processes by modifying the function and the localization of many targeted proteins. FTT-1 and FTT-2 are the two 14-3-3 orthologs identified in C. elegans. We showed that FTT proteins are involved in the main longevity pathway of C. elegans : the AF-2/Insulin/IGF-1-like pathway which also regulates stress resistance and metabolism through the activity of its final ...

  3. Histone deacetylase turnover and recovery in sulforaphane-treated colon cancer cells: competing actions of 14-3-3 and Pin1 in HDAC3/SMRT corepressor complex dissociation/reassembly

    Williams David E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical evaluation as anti-cancer agents. Dietary constituents share certain properties of HDAC inhibitor drugs, including the ability to induce global histone acetylation, turn-on epigenetically-silenced genes, and trigger cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or differentiation in cancer cells. One such example is sulforaphane (SFN, an isothiocyanate derived from the glucosinolate precursor glucoraphanin, which is abundant in broccoli. Here, we examined the time-course and reversibility of SFN-induced HDAC changes in human colon cancer cells. Results Cells underwent progressive G2/M arrest over the period 6-72 h after SFN treatment, during which time HDAC activity increased in the vehicle-treated controls but not in SFN-treated cells. There was a time-dependent loss of class I and selected class II HDAC proteins, with HDAC3 depletion detected ahead of other HDACs. Mechanism studies revealed no apparent effect of calpain, proteasome, protease or caspase inhibitors, but HDAC3 was rescued by cycloheximide or actinomycin D treatment. Among the protein partners implicated in the HDAC3 turnover mechanism, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT was phosphorylated in the nucleus within 6 h of SFN treatment, as was HDAC3 itself. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed SFN-induced dissociation of HDAC3/SMRT complexes coinciding with increased binding of HDAC3 to 14-3-3 and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase 1 (Pin1. Pin1 knockdown blocked the SFN-induced loss of HDAC3. Finally, SFN treatment for 6 or 24 h followed by SFN removal from the culture media led to complete recovery of HDAC activity and HDAC protein expression, during which time cells were released from G2/M arrest. Conclusion The current investigation supports a model in which protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates SMRT and HDAC3 in the nucleus, resulting in dissociation of the corepressor

  4. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50–60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  5. Effect of 14-3-3σ on Transcriptional Activity of p73 Gene%14-3-3σ对p73基因转录活性的影响

    桑梅香; 耿翠芝; 单保恩

    2007-01-01

    背景与目的:p53基因是14-3-3σ的主要调节基因,活化的p53可以诱导14-3-3σ的表达,反过来14-3-3σ又可以稳定p53的表达并且增加其转录活性.p53基因家族中的其它成员p63和p73也存存着一些与p53基因相似的功能.本研究目的在于探讨14-3-3σ对p73基因转录活性的影响.方法:采用荧光素酶报告剂分析、反转录聚合酶链反应(reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)及Western blot研究在p53缺失型人类肺癌细胞系H1299中14-3-3σ对p73基因转录活性的调节作用;用集落形成实验研究在p53突变型人类乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-436中14-3-3σ对p73基因转录活性的调节作用.结果:荧光素酶报告剂分析结果显示,在H1299细胞系中,转染p73可以使bax和p21WAF1启动子介导的荧光素酶表达增加;共转染p73和14-3-3σ后,bax和p21WAFI启动子介导的荧光素酶表达均比单独转染p73时的表达高,并且荧光素酶的表达和14-3-3σ的转染剂量之间存在着浓度依赖性(P<0.01).RT-PCR和Western blot结果也显示,转染p73可以使bax和p21WAF1的表达增加;共转染p73和14-3-3σ后,bax和p21WAF1的表达均比单独转染p73时的表达高(P<0.01).集落形成实验结果显示,在MDA-MB-436细胞系中,转染p73可以使细胞的克隆数减少;共转染p73和14-3-3σ后,细胞克隆数比单独转染p73时少(P<0.01).结论:14-3-3σ可以增加p73基因的转录活性,并且14-3-3σ对p73基因转录活性的调节存在剂量依赖性.

  6. Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor Interactions with 14-3-3 Modulate Differentiation of Committed Myeloid Precursors

    Bronisz, Agnieszka; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Hu, Rong; Godlewski, Jakub; Tzivion, Guri; Mansky, Kim C.; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for terminal osteoclast differentiation and is a target for signaling pathways engaged by colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1 and receptor-activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Work presented here demonstrates that MITF can shuttle from cytoplasm to nucleus dependent upon RANKL/CSF-1 action. 14-3-3 was identified as a binding partner of MITF in osteoclast precursors, and overexpression of 14-3-3 in a transgenic model...

  7. Pim kinases phosphorylate multiple sites on Bad and promote 14-3-3 binding and dissociation from Bcl-XL

    Hastie C James

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pim-1, 2 and 3 are a group of enzymes related to the calcium calmodulin family of protein kinases. Over-expression of Pim-1 and Pim-2 in mice promotes the development of lymphomas, and up-regulation of Pim expression has been observed in several human cancers. Results Here we show that the pim kinases are constitutively active when expressed in HEK-293 cells and are able to phosphorylate the Bcl-2 family member Bad on three residues, Ser112, Ser136 and Ser155 in vitro and in cells. In vitro mapping showed that Pim-2 predominantly phosphorylated Ser112, while Pim-1 phosphorylated Ser112, but also Ser136 and Ser155 at a reduced rate compared to Ser112. Pim-3 was found to be the least specific for Ser112, and the most effective at phosphorylating Ser136 and Ser155. Pim-3 was also able to phosphorylate other sites in Bad in vitro, including Ser170, another potential in vivo site. Mutation of Ser136 to alanine prevented the phosphorylation of Ser112 and Ser155 by Pim kinases in HEK-293 cells, suggesting that this site must be phosphorylated first in order to make the other sites accessible. Pim phosphorylation of Bad was also found to promote the 14-3-3 binding of Bad and block its association with Bcl-XL. Conclusion All three Pim kinase family members predominantly phosphorylate Bad on Ser112 and in addition are capable of phosphorylating Bad on multiple sites associated with the inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of Bad in HEK-293 cells. This would be consistent with the proposed function of Pim kinases in promoting cell proliferation and preventing cell death.

  8. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    expression or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma....

  9. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  10. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells.

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including "p38 MAPK Signaling", "p53 Signaling", "14-3-3-mediated Signaling", "p70S6K Signaling" and "Protein Ubiquitination Pathway". This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells. PMID:27514819

  11. Multiscale Simulation of Protein Mediated Membrane Remodeling

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins interacting with membranes can result in substantial membrane deformations and curvatures. This effect is known in its broadest terms as membrane remodeling. This review article will survey current multiscale simulation methodologies that have been employed to examine protein-mediated membrane remodeling.

  12. Orders induced by segments in floorplan partitions and (2-14-3,3-41-2)-avoiding permutations

    Asinowski, Andrei; Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille; Mansour, Toufik; Pinter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Floorplan partitions are certain tilings of a rectangle by other rectangles. There are natural ways to order their elements (rectangles and segments). In particular, Ackerman, Barequet, and Pinter studied a pair of orders induced by neighborhood relations between rectangles of a floorplan partition, and obtained a natural bijection between these pairs and (2-41-3, 3-14-2)-avoiding permutations (also known as Baxter permutations). In the present paper, we study a pair of orders induced by neighborhood relations between segments of a floorplan partition. We obtain a natural bijection between these pairs and another family of permutations, namely (2-14-3,3-41-2)-avoiding permutations. We also enumerate these permutations, investigate relations between the two kinds of pairs of orders --- and correspondingly, between (2-14-3,3-41-2)-avoiding permutations and Baxter permutations --- and study the special case of "guillotine" partitions.

  13. Decreased expression of 14-3-3σ is predictive of poor prognosis for patients with human uterine papillary serous carcinoma.

    Suzuki, Fumihiko; Nagase, Satoru; Suzuki, Kichiya; Oba, Etsuko; Hiroki, Eri; Matsuda, Yukika; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugiyama, Takashi; Otsuki, Takeo; Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Takano, Tadao; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Sasano, Hironobu; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) morphologically resembles ovarian serous carcinoma and is categorized as a type II endometrial cancer. UPSC comprises about 10% of all types of endometrial cancer and has an aggressive clinical course and a poor prognosis. The 14-3-3σ gene was originally discovered as a p53-inducible gene; its expression is induced by DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner, which leads to G2 arrest and repair of damaged DNA. Moreover, it has been reported that expression of 14-3-3σ is frequently lost in various types of human cancer, including ovarian cancer. We therefore examined the association between 14-3-3σ expression determined by immunohistochemistry and clinical outcomes of 51 patients with UPSC. UPSC was considered positive for 14-3-3σ when > 30% of tumor cells were stained with a specific antibody. Of these patients, 29 (58.7%) showed positive immunoreactivity for 14-3-3σ and 22 (41.3%) had decreased 14-3-3σ staining. Decreased immunoreactivity for 14-3-3σ was associated with stage (P = 0.001) and lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.005). Moreover, decreased 14-3-3σ expression was an independent risk factor for reduced overall survival (P = 0.0416) in multivariate analysis. Direct bisulfite sequencing was performed to evaluate the methylation status of the 27 CpG islands in the promoter region and first exon of the 14-3-3σ gene. These CpG islands were hypermethylated in 30% of 14-3-3σ-positive UPSC and 80% of 14-3-3σ-negative UPSC, although the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that decreased expression of immunoreactive 14-3-3σ may be a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with UPSC. PMID:24201220

  14. Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 Protein Test of the Spinal Fluid

    ... personality changes • Loss of muscle coordination • Vision problems • Insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep) • Depression • Unusual sensations As the disease progresses, the person usually develops dementia. This leads to thinking problems that are severe enough to ...

  15. Protein-mediated surface structuring in biomembranes

    Maggio B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipids and proteins of biomembranes exhibit highly dissimilar conformations, geometrical shapes, amphipathicity, and thermodynamic properties which constrain their two-dimensional molecular packing, electrostatics, and interaction preferences. This causes inevitable development of large local tensions that frequently relax into phase or compositional immiscibility along lateral and transverse planes of the membrane. On the other hand, these effects constitute the very codes that mediate molecular and structural changes determining and controlling the possibilities for enzymatic activity, apposition and recombination in biomembranes. The presence of proteins constitutes a major perturbing factor for the membrane sculpturing both in terms of its surface topography and dynamics. We will focus on some results from our group within this context and summarize some recent evidence for the active involvement of extrinsic (myelin basic protein, integral (Folch-Lees proteolipid protein and amphitropic (c-Fos and c-Jun proteins, as well as a membrane-active amphitropic phosphohydrolytic enzyme (neutral sphingomyelinase, in the process of lateral segregation and dynamics of phase domains, sculpturing of the surface topography, and the bi-directional modulation of the membrane biochemical reactivity.

  16. Crystal structure of the 14-3-3zeta:serotonin N-acetyltransferase complex. A role for scaffolding in enzyme regulation

    Obšil, Tomáš; Ghirlando, R.; Klein, D. C.; Ganguly, S.; Dyda, F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 2 (2001), s. 257-267. ISSN 0092-8674 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : 14-3-3 * AANAT * crystal structure Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 29.210, year: 2001

  17. p38- and MK2-dependent signalling promotes stress-induced centriolar satellite remodelling via 14-3-3-dependent sequestration of CEP131/AZI1

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Villumsen, Bine H; Blasius, Melanie; Nielsen, Julie C; Wagner, Sebastian A; Bartek, Jiri; Beli, Petra; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites (CS) are small granular structures that cluster in the vicinity of centrosomes. CS are highly susceptible to stress stimuli, triggering abrupt displacement of key CS factors. Here we discover a linear p38-MK2-14-3-3 signalling pathway that specifically targets CEP131 to...

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Protein Quality Control in Arabidopsis

    Jianming eLi; Yidan eLiu

    2014-01-01

    A correct three-dimensional structure is crucial for the physiological functions of a protein, yet the folding of proteins to acquire native conformation is a fundamentally error-prone process. Eukaryotic organisms have evolved a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-mediated protein quality control (ERQC) mechanism to monitor folding processes of secretory and membrane proteins, allowing export of only correctly folded proteins to their physiological destinations, retaining incompletely/mis...

  19. RIN4-like proteins mediate resistance protein-derived soybean defense against Pseudomonas syringae

    Selote, Devarshi; Kachroo, Aardra

    2010-01-01

    Resistance (R) protein mediated recognition of pathogen avirulence effectors triggers signaling that induces a very robust form of species-specific immunity in plants. The soybean Rpg1-b protein mediates this form of resistance against the bacterial blight pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae expressing AvrBPgyrace4. Likewise, the Arabidopsis RPM1 protein also mediates species-specific resistance against AvrB expressing bacteria. RPM1 and Rpg1-b are non-orthologous and differ in their requirements ...

  20. Cyclic nucleotide dependent dephosphorylation of regulator of G-protein signaling 18 in human platelets.

    Gegenbauer, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein that turns off Gq signaling in platelets. RGS18 is regulated by binding to the adaptor protein 14-3-3 via phosphorylated serine residues S49 and S218 on RGS18. In this study we confirm that thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulate the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by increasing the phosphorylation of S49. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent kinases (PKA, PKG) inhibit the interaction of RGS18 and 14-3-3 by phosphorylating S216. To understand the effect of S216 phosphorylation we studied the phosphorylation kinetics of S49, S216, and S218 using Phos-tag gels and phosphorylation site-specific antibodies in transfected cells and in platelets. Cyclic nucleotide-induced detachment of 14-3-3 from RGS18 coincides initially with double phosphorylation of S216 and S218. This is followed by dephosphorylation of S49 and S218. Dephosphorylation of S49 and S218 might be mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) which is linked to RGS18 by the regulatory subunit PPP1R9B (spinophilin). We conclude that PKA and PKG induced S216 phosphorylation triggers the dephosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding sites of RGS18 in platelets.

  1. Phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding of Arabidopsis trehalose-phosphate synthase 5 in response to 2-deoxyglucose

    Harthill, Jean E; Meek, Sarah E M; Morrice, Nick;

    2006-01-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate is a 'sugar signal' that regulates plant metabolism and development. The Arabidopsis genome encodes trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and trehalose-6-phosphatase (TPP) enzymes. It also encodes class II proteins (TPS isoforms 5-11) that contain both TPS-like and TPP...

  2. Factorial combinations of protein interactions generate a multiplicity of florigen activation complexes in wheat and barley.

    Li, Chengxia; Lin, Huiqiong; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is a central component of a mobile flowering signal (florigen) that is transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Two FT monomers and two DNA-binding bZIP transcription factors interact with a dimeric 14-3-3 protein bridge to form a hexameric protein complex. This complex, designated as the 'florigen activation complex' (FAC), plays a critical role in flowering. The wheat homologue of FT, designated FT1 (= VRN3), activates expression of VRN1 in the leaves and the SAM, promoting flowering under inductive long days. In this study, we show that FT1, other FT-like proteins, and different FD-like proteins, can interact with multiple wheat and barley 14-3-3 proteins. We also identify the critical amino acid residues in FT1 and FD-like proteins required for their interactions, and demonstrate that 14-3-3 proteins are necessary bridges to mediate the FT1-TaFDL2 interaction. Using in vivo bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) assays, we demonstrate that the interaction between FT1 and 14-3-3 occurs in the cytoplasm, and that this complex is then translocated to the nucleus, where it interacts with TaFDL2 to form a FAC. We also demonstrate that a FAC including FT1, TaFDL2 and Ta14-3-3C can bind to the VRN1 promoter in vitro. Finally, we show that relative transcript levels of FD-like and 14-3-3 genes vary among tissues and developmental stages. Since FD-like proteins determine the DNA specificity of the FACs, variation in FD-like gene expression can result in spatial and temporal modulation of the effects of mobile FT-like signals. PMID:26252567

  3. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D.; Klug, William S.; Haselwandter, Christoph A.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  4. Cell cycle checkpoints in Caenorhabditis elegans: the 14-3-3 gene par-5 is required for germline development and DNA damage response / Checkpoints del ciclo celular en Caenorhabditis elegans: el gen 14-3-3, par-5, es necesario para el desarrollo y respuesta al daño genómico de la línea germinal

    Aristizábal Corrales, David

    2012-01-01

    [spa] Las proteínas 14-3-3 han sido ampliamente estudiadas desde levadura hasta mamíferos y han sido asociadas con múltiples roles en procesos como ciclo celular, apoptosis y la respuesta al estrés. Así mismo estas proteínas se han visto involucradas en enfermedades neurodegenerativas y cáncer. De hecho, las proteínas 14-3-3 han sido propuestas como posibles agentes terapéuticos en el tratamiento contra el cáncer. En mamíferos existen 7 genes que codifican para proteínas 14-3-3, mientras en C...

  5. Water-mediated ionic interactions in protein structures

    R Sabarinathan; K Aishwarya; R Sarani; M Kirti Vaishnavi; K Sekar

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that water molecules play an indispensable role in the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The water-mediated ionic interactions between the charged residues provide stability and plasticity and in turn address the function of the protein structures. Thus, this study specifically addresses the number of possible water-mediated ionic interactions, their occurrence, distribution and nature found in 90% non-redundant protein chains. Further, it provides a statistical report of different charged residue pairs that are mediated by surface or buried water molecules to form the interactions. Also, it discusses its contributions in stabilizing various secondary structural elements of the protein. Thus, the present study shows the ubiquitous nature of the interactions that imparts plasticity and flexibility to a protein molecule.

  6. Intracellular targeting of peroxiredoxin 6 to lysosomal organelles requires MAPK activity and binding to 14-3-3ε

    Sorokina, Elena M.; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Zhou, Suiping; Fisher, Aron B.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), a bifunctional protein with GSH peroxidase and lysosomal-type phospholipase A2 activities, has been localized to both cytosolic and acidic compartments (lamellar bodies and lysosomes) in lung alveolar epithelium. We postulate that Prdx6 subcellular localization affects the balance between the two activities. Immunostaining localized Prdx6 to lysosome-related organelles in the MLE12 and A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines. Inhibition of trafficking by brefeldin A indic...

  7. Statistical thermodynamics of membrane bending mediated protein-protein attraction

    Chou, Tom; Kim, Ken S.; Oster, George

    1999-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins deform the surrounding bilayer creating long-ranged forces that influence distant proteins. These forces can be attractive or repulsive, depending on the proteins' shape, height, contact angle with the bilayer, as well as the local membrane curvature. Although interaction energies are not pairwise additive, for sufficiently low protein density, thermodynamic properties depend only upon pair interactions. Here, we compute pair interaction potentials and entropic cont...

  8. Synthesis of an Intein-mediated Artificial Protein Hydrogel

    Ramirez, Miguel A.; Chen, Zhilei

    2014-01-01

    We present the synthesis of a highly stable protein hydrogel mediated by a split-intein-catalyzed protein trans-splicing reaction. The building blocks of this hydrogel are two protein block-copolymers each containing a subunit of a trimeric protein that serves as a crosslinker and one half of a split intein. A highly hydrophilic random coil is inserted into one of the block-copolymers for water retention. Mixing of the two protein block copolymers triggers an intein trans-splicing reaction, y...

  9. Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation

    Wright, Adam; Bubb, William A; Hawkins, Clare L;

    2002-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is generated by a number of enzymes as well as by UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer and has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including cataract, sunburn, and skin cancers. Proteins, and Cys, Met, Trp, Tyr and His side chains in pa...

  10. Tollip is a mediator of protein sumoylation.

    Alessia Ciarrocchi

    Full Text Available Tollip is an interactor of the interleukin-1 receptor involved in its activation. The endosomal turnover of ubiquitylated IL-1RI is also controlled by Tollip. Furthermore, together with Tom1, Tollip has a general role in endosomal protein traffic. This work shows that Tollip is involved in the sumoylation process. Using the yeast two-hybrid technique, we have isolated new Tollip partners including two sumoylation enzymes, SUMO-1 and the transcriptional repressor Daxx. The interactions were confirmed by GST-pull down experiments and immunoprecipitation of the co-expressed recombinants. More specifically, we show that the TIR domain of the cytoplasmic region of IL-1RI is a sumoylation target of Tollip. The sumoylated and unsumoylated RanGAP-1 protein also interacts with Tollip, suggesting a possible role in RanGAP-1 modification and nuclear-cytoplasmic protein translocation. In fact, Tollip is found in the nuclear bodies of SAOS-2/IL-1RI cells where it colocalizes with SUMO-1 and the Daxx repressor. We conclude that Tollip is involved in the control of both nuclear and cytoplasmic protein traffic, through two different and often contrasting processes: ubiquitylation and sumoylation.

  11. The usefulness of S100P, mesothelin, fascin, prostate stem cell antigen, and 14-3-3 sigma in diagnosing pancreatic adenocarcinoma in cytological specimens obtained by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration.

    Dim, Daniel C; Jiang, Feng; Qiu, Qi; Li, Ting; Darwin, Peter; Rodgers, William H; Peng, Hong Qi

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the pancreas is an efficient and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Because of some limitations of EUS-FNA in diagnosis of well-differentiated or early stage cancers, the purpose of this study is to assess the added benefit of immunohistochemistry. We studied five proteins overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, namely, prostate stem cell antigen, fascin, 14-3-3 sigma, mesothelin and S100P utilizing immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections from cellblocks obtained by EUS-FNA. Sixty-two cases of EUS-FNA of the pancreas that had follow-up histological and/or clinical diagnosis and sufficient material in cell blocks were included. Using histological diagnosis and/or clinical outcome as the reference standard, EUS-FNA shows the highest sensitivity (95%) and specificity (91%) and is superior to any marker in this study. Among five antibodies, S100P reveals the best diagnostic characters showing 90% of sensitivity and 67% of specificity. Fascin shows high specificity (92%) but low sensitivity (38%). Mesothelin has a moderate sensitivity (74%) and low specificity (33%), PSCA and 14-3-3 show high sensitivity but zero specificity. S100P and mesothelin were useful in nine indeterminate cases. S100P correctly predicted six of seven cancers and one of one without cancer and mesothelin correctly diagnosed five of seven cancers and one of two noncancers in this group. EUS-FNA cytomorphology is superior to any of the immunohistochemical markers used in this study. Use of S100P and mesothelin in cytologically borderline cases can increase the diagnostic accuracy in this group. PMID:21538952

  12. Motif mediated protein-protein interactions as drug targets.

    Corbi-Verge, Carles; Kim, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) are involved in virtually every cellular process and thus represent an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. A significant number of protein interactions are frequently formed between globular domains and short linear peptide motifs (DMI). Targeting these DMIs has proven challenging and classical approaches to inhibiting such interactions with small molecules have had limited success. However, recent new approaches have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors, some of them, such as Obatoclax, ABT-199, AEG-40826 and SAH-p53-8 are likely to become approved drugs. These novel inhibitors belong to a wide range of different molecule classes, ranging from small molecules to peptidomimetics and biologicals. This article reviews the main reasons for limited success in targeting PPIs, discusses how successful approaches overcome these obstacles to discovery promising inhibitors for human protein double minute 2 (HDM2), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and provides a summary of the promising approaches currently in development that indicate the future potential of PPI inhibitors in drug discovery. PMID:26936767

  13. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is...

  14. p53突变型乳腺癌细胞系中14-3-3σ对p73基因稳定性的影响%Effect of 14-3-3σ on p73 stability in p53-mutant breast cancer cell line

    桑梅香; 杨瑞玲; 周军; 周岩; 耿翠芝; 单保恩

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨在p53突变的乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-231中,14-3-3σ对p73基因稳定性的影响.方法 采用基因转染、反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)、蛋白质印迹检测(Western blot)和放线菌酮(CHX)蛋白抑制分析的方法研究14-3-3σ对p73基因稳定性的影响.结果 RT-PCR显示,单独转染1μg p73后,p73与GAPDH的灰度值比为0.635;转染1μg p73+1 μg 14-3-3σ和1 μg p73+2 μg 14-3-3σ后,p73与GAPDH的灰度值比分别为0.643和0.631.Western-blot显示,单独转染1μg p73后,p73与actin的灰度值比为0.333;转染1μg p73+1μg 14-3-3σ和1μg p73+2μg 14-3-3σ之后,p73与actin的灰度值比分别为0.797和0.826.放线菌酮蛋白抑制分析显示:单独转染p73的对照组,放线菌酮处理0、1、2、4、6 h后,p73与actin灰度比值分别为0.075、0.166、0.124、0.100和0.092;而共转染p73和14-3-3σ的实验组结果分别为0.963、0.244、0.244、0.234和0.185.结论 在转录水平上,14-3-3σ不影响p73基因的稳定性;而在蛋白表达水平上,14-3-3σ可以增加p73基因的稳定性.

  15. Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D–mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein

    Fugmann, Tim; Hausser, Angelika; Schöffler, Patrik; Schmid, Simone; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Olayioye, Monilola A.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a crucial regulator of secretory transport at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Recruitment and activation of PKD at the TGN is mediated by the lipid diacylglycerol, a pool of which is generated by sphingomyelin synthase from ceramide and phosphatidylcholine. The nonvesicular transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex is mediated by the lipid transfer protein CERT (ceramide transport). In this study, we identify CERT as ...

  16. 核酸疫苗Sj14-3-3联合CpG和mIL-12免疫小鼠抗日本血吸虫攻击感染的研究%Immune protection of Sj14-3-3 nucleic acid vaccination with mIL-12 and CpG as adjuvants against Schistosoma japonicum in mice

    徐元宏; 胡元生; 沈继龙

    2006-01-01

    目的在证明核酸疫苗pcDNA3.1(+)-Sj14-3-3具有部分抗血吸虫感染的基础上,联合使用CpG和pcDNA3.1(+)-mIL-12,观察此二种佐剂在攻击感染小鼠的免疫效果及其抗血吸虫感染的保护机制.方法分别用pcDNA3.1(+)-Sj14-3-3+pcDNA3.1(+)-mIL-12、pcDNA3.1(+)-Sj14-3-3+CpG、pcDNA3.1(+)-mIL-12和CpG免疫小鼠.攻击感染后6 w计数成虫负荷和肝虫卵数;检测免疫后0 w、6 w和12 w小鼠血清总IgG、IgG1和IgG2a水平;检测小鼠脾细胞培养上清中IFN-γ和IL-4;流式细胞术检测免疫鼠脾细胞中CD4+和CD8+T细胞的比率.结果pcDNA3.1(+)-Sj14-3-3+pcDNA3.1(+)-mIL-12和pcDNA3.1(+)-Sj14-3-3+CpG免疫小鼠的减虫率分别为41.2%和28.7%;减卵率分别为52.6%和41.2%.单独使用pcDNA3.1(+)-mIL-12和CpG也有一定的免疫保护作用.保护性免疫主要通过诱导宿主产生CTL、TH1型和体液免疫应答.结论pcDNA3.1(+)-mIL-12和CpG具有较强的增强核酸疫苗pcDNA3.1(+)-Sj14-3-3抗血吸虫攻击感染作用.

  17. Membrane tension and peripheral protein density mediate membrane shape transitions

    Shi, Zheng; Baumgart, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis is a ubiquitous eukaryotic membrane budding, vesiculation and internalization process fulfilling numerous roles including compensation of membrane area increase after bursts of exocytosis. The mechanism of the coupling between these two processes to enable homeostasis is not well understood. Recently, an ultrafast endocytosis (UFE) pathway was revealed with a speed significantly exceeding classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Membrane tension reduction is a potential mechanism by which endocytosis can be rapidly activated at remote sites. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a mechanism whereby membrane tension reduction initiates membrane budding and tubulation mediated by endocytic proteins, such as endophilin A1. We find that shape instabilities occur at well-defined membrane tensions and surface densities of endophilin. From our data, we obtain a membrane shape stability diagram that shows remarkable consistency with a quantitative model. This model applies to all laterally diffusive curvature-coupling proteins and therefore a wide range of endocytic proteins.

  18. Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Proteins comprise approximately 68% of the dry weight of cells and tissues and are therefore potentially major targets for oxidative damage. Two major types of processes can occur during the exposure of proteins to UV or visible light. The first of these involves direct photo-oxidation arising from...... the absorption of UV radiation by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen...... leukocytes, as well as radical termination reactions. This paper reviews the data available on singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation and concentrates primarily on the mechanisms by which this excited state species brings about changes to both the side-chains and backbone of amino acids, peptides, and...

  19. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action.

    Kethidi, Damu R; Li, Yiping; Palli, Subba R

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in insects. Although the biological actions of JH are well documented, the molecular mechanisms underlying JH action are poorly understood. We studied the molecular basis of JH action using a JH response element (JHRE) identified in the promoter region of JH esterase gene cloned from Choristoneura fumiferana, which is responsive to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene. Nuclear proteins isolated from L57 cells bound to the JHRE and exposure of these proteins to ATP resulted in a reduction in their DNA binding. Either JH III or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was able to restore the binding of nuclear proteins to the DNA. In addition, protein kinase C inhibitors increased and protein kinase C activators reduced the binding of nuclear proteins to the JHRE. In transactivation assays, protein kinase C inhibitors induced the luciferase gene placed under the control of a minimal promoter and the JHRE. These data suggest that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation prevents binding of nuclear proteins to juvenile hormone responsive promoters resulting in suppression of JH action. PMID:16448742

  20. Yarrowia lipolytica vesicle-mediated protein transport pathways

    Beckerich Jean-Marie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein secretion is a universal cellular process involving vesicles which bud and fuse between organelles to bring proteins to their final destination. Vesicle budding is mediated by protein coats; vesicle targeting and fusion depend on Rab GTPase, tethering factors and SNARE complexes. The Génolevures II sequencing project made available entire genome sequences of four hemiascomycetous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida glabrata. Y. lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast and has good capacities to secrete proteins. The translocation of nascent protein through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane was well studied in Y. lipolytica and is largely co-translational as in the mammalian protein secretion pathway. Results We identified S. cerevisiae proteins involved in vesicular secretion and these protein sequences were used for the BLAST searches against Génolevures protein database (Y. lipolytica, C. glabrata, K. lactis and D. hansenii. These proteins are well conserved between these yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We note several specificities of Y. lipolytica which may be related to its good protein secretion capacities and to its dimorphic aspect. An expansion of the Y. lipolytica Rab protein family was observed with autoBLAST and the Rab2- and Rab4-related members were identified with BLAST against NCBI protein database. An expansion of this family is also found in filamentous fungi and may reflect the greater complexity of the Y. lipolytica secretion pathway. The Rab4p-related protein may play a role in membrane recycling as rab4 deleted strain shows a modification of colony morphology, dimorphic transition and permeability. Similarly, we find three copies of the gene (SSO encoding the plasma membrane SNARE protein. Quantification of the percentages of proteins with the greatest homology between S. cerevisiae, Y. lipolytica and animal homologues involved in vesicular

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Protein Quality Control in Arabidopsis

    Jianming eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A correct three-dimensional structure is crucial for the physiological functions of a protein, yet the folding of proteins to acquire native conformation is a fundamentally error-prone process. Eukaryotic organisms have evolved a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-mediated protein quality control (ERQC mechanism to monitor folding processes of secretory and membrane proteins, allowing export of only correctly folded proteins to their physiological destinations, retaining incompletely/mis-folded ones in the ER for additional folding attempts, marking and removing terminally-misfolded ones via a unique multiple-step degradation process known as ER-associate degradation (ERAD. Most of our current knowledge on ERQC and ERAD came from genetic and biochemical investigations in yeast and mammalian cells. Recent studies in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana uncovered homologous components and similar mechanisms in plants for monitoring protein folding and for retaining, repairing, and removing misfolded proteins. These studies also revealed critical roles of the plant ERQC/ERAD systems in regulating important biochemical/physiological processes, such as abiotic stress tolerance and plant defense. In this review, we discuss our current understanding about the molecular components and biochemical mechanisms of the plant ERQC/ERAD system in comparison to yeast and mammalian systems.

  2. Tat-mediated protein delivery in living Caenorhabditis elegans

    The Tat protein from HIV-1 fused with heterologous proteins traverses biological membranes in a transcellular process called: protein transduction. This has already been successfully exploited in various biological models, but never in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. TAT-eGFP or GST-eGFP proteins were fed to C. elegans worms, which resulted in the specific localization of Tat-eGFP to epithelial intestinal cells. This system represents an efficient tool for transcellular transduction in C. elegans intestinal cells. Indeed, this approach avoids the use of tedious purification steps to purify the TAT fusion proteins and allows for rapid analyses of the transduced proteins. In addition, it may represent an efficient tool to functionally analyze the mechanisms of protein transduction as well as to complement RNAi/KO in the epithelial intestinal system. To sum up, the advantage of this technology is to combine the potential of bacterial expression system and the Tat-mediated transduction technique in living worm

  3. Dividing roles of prion protein in staurosporine-mediated apoptosis.

    Zhang, Ying; Qin, Kefeng; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao; Zhao, Richard Y

    2006-10-20

    Prion protein (PrPC) is a normal cellular glycoprotein that is expressed in almost all tissues including the central nervous system. Much attention has been focused on this protein because conversion of the normal PrPC to the diseased form (PrPSc) plays an essential role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In spite of the extensive effort, the normal physiological function of PrPC remains elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that PrPC plays a protective role against cellular stresses including apoptosis induced by various pro-apoptotic agents such as Bax and staurosporine (STS), however, other reports showed overexpression of PrPC enhances STS-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we took a different approach by depleting endogenous PrPC using specific interfering RNA technique and compared the depleting and overproducing effects of PrPC on STS-induced apoptosis in neuro-2a (N2a) cells. We demonstrate here that down-regulation of PrPC sensitizes N2a cells to STS-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The enhanced apoptosis induced by STS was shown by increased DNA fragmentation, immunoreactivity of Bax, and caspase-3 cleavage. We also showed that overproduction of PrPC had little or no effect on STS-mediated DNA fragmentation in N2a cells but it augments STS-mediated apoptosis in HEK293 cells, suggesting a cell line-specific effect. In addition, the inhibitory effect of PrPC on STS-mediated cellular stress appears to be modulated in part through induction of cell cycle G2 accumulation. Together, our data suggest that physiological level of endogenous PrPC plays a protective role against STS-mediated cellular stress. Loss of this protection could render cells more prone to cellular insults such as STS. PMID:16950206

  4. Identification of the amino acids 300-600 of IRS-2 as 14-3-3 binding region with the importance of IGF-1/insulin-regulated phosphorylation of Ser-573.

    Sabine S Neukamm

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-2 on tyrosine residues is a key event in IGF-1/insulin signaling and leads to activation of the PI 3-kinase and the Ras/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, phosphorylated serine/threonine residues on IRS-2 can induce 14-3-3 binding. In this study we searched IRS-2 for novel phosphorylation sites and investigated the interaction between IRS-2 and 14-3-3. Mass spectrometry identified a total of 24 serine/threonine residues on IRS-2 with 12 sites unique for IRS-2 while the other residues are conserved in IRS-1 and IRS-2. IGF-1 stimulation led to increased binding of 14-3-3 to IRS-2 in transfected HEK293 cells and this binding was prevented by inhibition of the PI 3-kinase pathway and an Akt/PKB inhibitor. Insulin-stimulated interaction between endogenous IRS-2 and 14-3-3 was observed in rat hepatoma cells and in mice liver after an acute insulin stimulus and refeeding. Using different IRS-2 fragments enabled localization of the IGF-1-dependent 14-3-3 binding region spanning amino acids 300-600. The 24 identified residues on IRS-2 included several 14-3-3 binding candidates in the region 300-600. Single alanine mutants of these candidates led to the identification of serine 573 as 14-3-3 binding site. A phospho-site specific antibody was generated to further characterize serine 573. IGF-1-dependent phosphorylation of serine 573 was reduced by inhibition of PI 3-kinase and Akt/PKB. A negative role of this phosphorylation site was implicated by the alanine mutant of serine 573 which led to enhanced phosphorylation of Akt/PKB in an IGF-1 time course experiment. To conclude, our data suggest a physiologically relevant role for IGF-1/insulin-dependent 14-3-3 binding to IRS-2 involving serine 573.

  5. Contextual specificity in peptide-mediated protein interactions.

    Amelie Stein

    Full Text Available Most biological processes are regulated through complex networks of transient protein interactions where a globular domain in one protein recognizes a linear peptide from another, creating a relatively small contact interface. Although sufficient to ensure binding, these linear motifs alone are usually too short to achieve the high specificity observed, and additional contacts are often encoded in the residues surrounding the motif (i.e. the context. Here, we systematically identified all instances of peptide-mediated protein interactions of known three-dimensional structure and used them to investigate the individual contribution of motif and context to the global binding energy. We found that, on average, the context is responsible for roughly 20% of the binding and plays a crucial role in determining interaction specificity, by either improving the affinity with the native partner or impeding non-native interactions. We also studied and quantified the topological and energetic variability of interaction interfaces, finding a much higher heterogeneity in the context residues than in the consensus binding motifs. Our analysis partially reveals the molecular mechanisms responsible for the dynamic nature of peptide-mediated interactions, and suggests a global evolutionary mechanism to maximise the binding specificity. Finally, we investigated the viability of non-native interactions and highlight cases of potential cross-reaction that might compensate for individual protein failure and establish backup circuits to increase the robustness of cell networks.

  6. 多房棘球绦虫重组质粒pGEX-EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3在大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)表达效率的研究%Study of expression efficiency of the recombinant plasmid pGEX-Em Ⅱ/3-Em14-3-3 of Echinococcus multilocularis in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)

    杨梅; 李文桂; 朱佑明

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究多房棘球绦虫(Em)重组质粒pGEX-EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3在大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)中的表达效率.方法 通过PCR扩增EmⅡ/3和Em14-3-3抗原编码基因,然后采用基因拼接法(gene SOEing)剪接EmⅡ/3和Em14-3-3,得到EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3融合基因;将该融合基因定向克隆于含有谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶(GST)基因的高效原核表达载体pGEX-1λT,经酶切鉴定后以IPTG诱导表达EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3/GST融合蛋白;SDS-PAGE及Western blot对表达产物进行鉴定.结果 PCR成功扩增出2 554 bp的EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3融合基因;双酶切证实EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3融合基因插入pGEX-1λT中,成功构建了pGEX-EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3重组质粒;SDS-PAGE及Western blot分析显示重组质粒转化宿主菌在IPTG诱导下高效表达了能被活动性泡球蚴病鼠血清识别的EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3/GST融合蛋白,分子质量单位119 ku.结论 多房棘球绦虫EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3融合基因在大肠埃希菌中获得了高效融合表达,表达出的EmⅡ/3-Em14-3-3重组蛋白具有特异的抗原性.

  7. A conserved patch of hydrophobic amino acids modulates Myb activity by mediating protein-protein interactions.

    Dukare, Sandeep; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb plays a key role in the control of proliferation and differentiation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and certain non-hematopoietic tumors. c-Myb activity is highly dependent on the interaction with the coactivator p300 which is mediated by the transactivation domain of c-Myb and the KIX domain of p300. We have previously observed that conservative valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions in a conserved stretch of hydrophobic amino acids have a profound effect on Myb activity. Here, we have explored the function of the hydrophobic region as a mediator of protein-protein interactions. We show that the hydrophobic region facilitates Myb self-interaction and binding of the histone acetyl transferase Tip60, a previously identified Myb interacting protein. We show that these interactions are affected by the valine-to-isoleucine amino acid substitutions and suppress Myb activity by interfering with the interaction of Myb and the KIX domain of p300. Taken together, our work identifies the hydrophobic region in the Myb transactivation domain as a binding site for homo- and heteromeric protein interactions and leads to a picture of the c-Myb transactivation domain as a composite protein binding region that facilitates interdependent protein-protein interactions of Myb with regulatory proteins. PMID:27080133

  8. Nitrosative stress and nitrated proteins in trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to trichloroethene (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases (ADs including SLE, scleroderma and hepatitis. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ADs are largely unknown. Earlier studies from our laboratory in MRL+/+ mice suggested the contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in TCE-induced autoimmunity, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC supplementation provided protection by attenuating oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to further evaluate the contribution of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmunity and to identify proteins susceptible to nitrosative stress. Groups of female MRL +/+ mice were given TCE, NAC or TCE + NAC for 6 weeks (TCE, 10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4th day; NAC, ∼ 250 mg/kg/day via drinking water. TCE exposure led to significant increases in serum anti-nuclear and anti-histone antibodies together with significant induction of iNOS and increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT in sera and livers. Proteomic analysis identified 14 additional nitrated proteins in the livers of TCE-treated mice. Furthermore, TCE exposure led to decreased GSH levels and increased activation of NF-κB. Remarkably, NAC supplementation not only ameliorated TCE-induced nitrosative stress as evident from decreased iNOS, NT, nitrated proteins, NF-κB p65 activation and increased GSH levels, but also the markers of autoimmunity, as evident from decreased levels of autoantibodies in the sera. These findings provide support to the role of nitrosative stress in TCE-mediated autoimmune response and identify specific nitrated proteins which could have autoimmune potential. Attenuation of TCE-induced autoimmunity in mice by NAC provides an approach for designing therapeutic strategies.

  9. Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D–mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein

    Fugmann, Tim; Hausser, Angelika; Schöffler, Patrik; Schmid, Simone; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Olayioye, Monilola A.

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a crucial regulator of secretory transport at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Recruitment and activation of PKD at the TGN is mediated by the lipid diacylglycerol, a pool of which is generated by sphingomyelin synthase from ceramide and phosphatidylcholine. The nonvesicular transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex is mediated by the lipid transfer protein CERT (ceramide transport). In this study, we identify CERT as a novel in vivo PKD substrate. Phosphorylation on serine 132 by PKD decreases the affinity of CERT toward its lipid target phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate at Golgi membranes and reduces ceramide transfer activity, identifying PKD as a regulator of lipid homeostasis. We also show that CERT, in turn, is critical for PKD activation and PKD-dependent protein cargo transport to the plasma membrane. Thus, the interdependence of PKD and CERT is key to the maintenance of Golgi membrane integrity and secretory transport. PMID:17591919

  10. Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein.

    Fugmann, Tim; Hausser, Angelika; Schöffler, Patrik; Schmid, Simone; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Olayioye, Monilola A

    2007-07-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) has been identified as a crucial regulator of secretory transport at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Recruitment and activation of PKD at the TGN is mediated by the lipid diacylglycerol, a pool of which is generated by sphingomyelin synthase from ceramide and phosphatidylcholine. The nonvesicular transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex is mediated by the lipid transfer protein CERT (ceramide transport). In this study, we identify CERT as a novel in vivo PKD substrate. Phosphorylation on serine 132 by PKD decreases the affinity of CERT toward its lipid target phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate at Golgi membranes and reduces ceramide transfer activity, identifying PKD as a regulator of lipid homeostasis. We also show that CERT, in turn, is critical for PKD activation and PKD-dependent protein cargo transport to the plasma membrane. Thus, the interdependence of PKD and CERT is key to the maintenance of Golgi membrane integrity and secretory transport. PMID:17591919

  11. The polymorphism of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, and brain morphology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Mikio Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: YWHAE is a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that encodes 14-3-3epsilon, a Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1-interacting molecule, but the effect of variation in its genotype on brain morphology remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study, we conducted whole-brain analyses regarding the effects of YWHAE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs28365859, rs11655548, and rs9393 and DISC1 SNP (rs821616 on gray matter volume in a Japanese sample of 72 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls. On the basis of a previous animal study, we also examined the effect of rs28365859 genotype specifically on hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Whole-brain analyses showed no significant genotype effect of these SNPs on gray matter volume in all subjects, but we found significant genotype-by-diagnosis interaction for rs28365859 in the left insula and right putamen. The protective C allele carriers of rs28365859 had a significantly larger left insula than the G homozygotes only for schizophrenia patients, while the controls with G allele homozygosity had a significantly larger right putamen than the C allele carriers. The C allele carriers had a larger right hippocampus than the G allele homozygotes in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. No significant interaction was found between rs28365859 and DISC1 SNP on gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: These different effects of the YWHAE (rs28365859 genotype on brain morphology in schizophrenia and healthy controls suggest that variation in its genotype might be, at least partly, related to the abnormal neurodevelopment, including in the limbic regions, reported in schizophrenia. Our results also suggest its specific role among YWHAE SNPs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. 14-3-3ζ Cooperates with ErbB2 to Promote Progression of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer by Inducing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    LU, JING; Guo, Hua; Treekitkarnmongkol, Warapen; Ping LI; Zhang, Jian; Shi, Bin; Ling, Chen; ZHOU, XIAOYAN; Chen, Tongzhen; Chiao, Paul J.; Feng, XinHua; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Muller, William J; Sahin, Aysegul; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2009-01-01

    ErbB2, a metastasis-promoting oncoprotein, is overexpressed in ~25% of invasive/metastatic breast cancers, but in 50–60% of non-invasive ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). It has been puzzling how a subset of ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS develops into invasive breast cancer (IBC). We found that co-overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in ErbB2-overexpressing DCIS conferred a higher risk of progression to IBC. ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ overexpression, respectively, increased cell migration and decreased cell adhesion...

  13. Identification of the Amino Acids 300–600 of IRS-2 as 14-3-3 Binding Region with the Importance of IGF-1/Insulin-Regulated Phosphorylation of Ser-573

    Neukamm, S.S.; Toth, R.; Morrice, N.; Campbell, D. G.; Mackintosh, C; Lehmann, R.; Haering, H; Schleicher, E. D.; Weigert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 on tyrosine residues is a key event in IGF-1/insulin signaling and leads to activation of the PI 3-kinase and the Ras/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, phosphorylated serine/threonine residues on IRS-2 can induce 14-3-3 binding. In this study we searched IRS-2 for novel phosphorylation sites and investigated the interaction between IRS-2 and 14-3-3. Mass spectrometry identified a total of 24 serine/threonine residues on IRS-2 with 12 sites unique...

  14. Combinatorial H3K9acS10ph Histone Modification in IgH Locus S Regions Targets 14-3-3 Adaptors and AID to Specify Antibody Class-Switch DNA Recombination

    Guideng Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR is central to the antibody response, in that it changes the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH constant region, thereby diversifying biological effector functions of antibodies. The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-centered CSR machinery excises and rejoins DNA between an upstream (donor and a downstream (acceptor S region, which precede the respective constant region DNA. AID is stabilized on S regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. These adaptors display a high affinity for 5′-AGCT-3′ repeats, which recur in all S regions. However, how 14-3-3, AID, and the CSR machinery target exclusively the donor and acceptor S regions is poorly understood. Here, we show that histone methyltransferases and acetyltransferases are induced by CD40 or Toll-like receptor signaling and catalyze H3K4me3 and H3K9ac/K14ac histone modifications, which are enriched in S regions but do not specify the S region targets of CSR. By contrast, the combinatorial H3K9acS10ph modification specifically marks the S regions set to recombine and directly recruits 14-3-3 adaptors for AID stabilization there. Inhibition of the enzymatic activity of GCN5 and PCAF histone acetyltransferases reduces H3K9acS10ph in S regions, 14-3-3 and AID stabilization, and CSR. Thus, H3K9acS10ph is a histone code that is “written” specifically in S regions and is “read” by 14-3-3 adaptors to target AID for CSR as an important biological outcome.

  15. A Negative Regulatory Mechanism Involving 14-3-3ζ Limits Signaling Downstream of ROCK to Regulate Tissue Stiffness in Epidermal Homeostasis

    Kular, Jasreen; Scheer, Kaitlin G; Pyne, Natasha T;

    2015-01-01

    ROCK signaling causes epidermal hyper-proliferation by increasing ECM production, elevating dermal stiffness, and enhancing Fak-mediated mechano-transduction signaling. Elevated dermal stiffness in turn causes ROCK activation, establishing mechano-reciprocity, a positive feedback loop that can pr...

  16. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  17. Aptamer-mediated indirect quantum dot labeling and fluorescent imaging of target proteins in living cells

    Protein labeling for dynamic living cell imaging plays a significant role in basic biological research, as well as in clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. We have developed a novel strategy in which the dynamic visualization of proteins within living cells is achieved by using aptamers as mediators for indirect protein labeling of quantum dots (QDs). With this strategy, the target protein angiogenin was successfully labeled with fluorescent QDs in a minor intactness model, which was mediated by the aptamer AL6-B. Subsequent living cell imaging analyses indicated that the QDs nanoprobes were selectively bound to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, gradually internalized into the cytoplasm, and mostly localized in the lysosome organelle, indicating that the labeled protein retained high activity. Compared with traditional direct protein labeling methods, the proposed aptamer-mediated strategy is simple, inexpensive, and provides a highly selective, stable, and intact labeling platform that has shown great promise for future biomedical labeling and intracellular protein dynamic analyses. (paper)

  18. Translocator protein mediates the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of midazolam.

    Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Li, Ming-Sheng; He, Jia-Li; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Guan-Hua; Lai, Sha; Ma, Jian-Chun; Zeng, Jia; Li, Yan; Wu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Yong; Shen, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) plays an important role in stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), caused by neurosteroids (e.g. allopregnanolone). The present study sought to evaluate the significance of TSPO in anxiolytic and antidepressant effects induced by midazolam. The animals were administrated midazolam (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and subjected to behavioral tests, including Vogel-type conflict test, elevated plus-maze test, forced swimming test. Midazolam produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects Vogel-type conflict test (1 mg/kg, i.p.), elevated plus-maze test (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), and forced swimming test (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.). These effects of Midazolam were totally blocked by the TSPO antagonist PK11195 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). To evaluate the role of allopregnanolone in the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of midazolam, the animals were decapitated at the end of the behavioral tests. The allopregnanolone levels of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The allopregnanolone level of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was increased by midazolam (0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and the increase was reversed by PK11195 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Overall, the results indicated that the anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of midazolam were mediated by TSPO, via stimulation of allopregnanolone biosynthesis. PMID:26455280

  19. DNA-Mediated Detection and Profiling of Protein Complexes

    Hammond, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Proteins are the effector molecules of life. They are encoded in DNA that is inherited from generation to generation, but most cellular functions are executed by proteins. Proteins rarely act on their own – most actions are carried out through an interplay of tens of proteins and other biomolecules. Here I describe how synthetic DNA can be used to study proteins and protein complexes. Variants of proximity ligation assays (PLA) are used to generate DNA reporter molecules upon proximal binding...

  20. Light-regulated stapled peptides to inhibit protein-protein interactions involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Nevola, Laura; Martín-Quirós, Andrés; Eckelt, Kay; Camarero, Núria; Tosi, Sébastien; Llobet, Artur; Giralt, Ernest; Gorostiza, Pau

    2013-07-22

    Control of membrane traffic: Photoswitchable inhibitors of protein-protein interactions were applied to photoregulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in living cells. Traffic light (TL) peptides acting as "stop" and "go" signals for membrane traffic can be used to dissect the role of CME in receptor internalization and in cell growth, division, and differentiation. PMID:23775788

  1. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  2. Negative regulation of RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling by TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein

    Lee, Na-Rae; Shin, Han-Bo; Kim, Hye-In; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo, E-mail: innks@khu.ac.kr

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •TRK-fused gene product (TFG) interacts with TRIM25 upon viral infection. •TFG negatively regulates RIG-I mediated antiviral signaling. •TFG depletion leads to enhanced viral replication. •TFG act downstream of MAVS. -- Abstract: RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I)-mediated antiviral signaling serves as the first line of defense against viral infection. Upon detection of viral RNA, RIG-I undergoes TRIM25 (tripartite motif protein 25)-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we demonstrate that TRK-fused gene (TFG) protein, previously identified as a TRIM25-interacting protein, binds TRIM25 upon virus infection and negatively regulates RIG-I-mediated type-I IFN signaling. RIG-I-mediated IFN production and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were upregulated by the suppression of TFG expression. Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication was significantly inhibited by small inhibitory hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of TFG, supporting the suppressive role of TFG in RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling. Interestingly, suppression of TFG expression increased not only RIG-I-mediated signaling but also MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein)-induced signaling, suggesting that TFG plays a pivotal role in negative regulation of RNA-sensing, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family signaling pathways.

  3. Photoactivatable protein labeling by singlet oxygen mediated reactions.

    To, Tsz-Leung; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Burlingame, Alma L; DeGrado, William F; Jo, Hyunil; Shu, Xiaokun

    2016-07-15

    Protein-protein interactions regulate many biological processes. Identification of interacting proteins is thus an important step toward molecular understanding of cell signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of photo-generated singlet oxygen and a small molecule for proximity labeling of interacting proteins in cellular environment. The protein of interest (POI) was fused with a small singlet oxygen photosensitizer (miniSOG), which generates singlet oxygen ((1)O2) upon irradiation. The locally generated singlet oxygen then activated a biotin-conjugated thiol molecule to form a covalent bond with the proteins nearby. The labeled proteins can then be separated and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the applicability of this labeling technology, we fused the miniSOG to Skp2, an F-box protein of the SCF ubiquitin ligase, and expressed the fusion protein in mammalian cells and identified that the surface cysteine of its interacting partner Skp1 was labeled by the biotin-thiol molecule. This photoactivatable protein labeling method may find important applications including identification of weak and transient protein-protein interactions in the native cellular context, as well as spatial and temporal control of protein labeling. PMID:27220724

  4. Macrolide Resistance Mediated by a Bifidobacterium breve Membrane Protein

    Margolles, Abelardo; Moreno, José Antonio; van Sinderen, Douwe; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.

    2005-01-01

    A gene coding for a hypothetical membrane protein from Bifidobacterium breve was expressed in Lactococcus lactis. Immunoblotting demonstrated that this protein is located in the membrane. Phenotypical changes in sensitivity towards 21 antibiotics were determined. The membrane protein-expressing cells showed higher levels of resistance to several macrolides.

  5. Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription

    Morey, Lluís; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work as transcri...

  6. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R;

    1997-01-01

    categories of reactive species, and a range of stable products whose chemistry is currently being elucidated. Among the reactive products, protein hydroperoxides can generate further radical fluxes on reaction with transition-metal ions; protein-bound reductants (notably dopa) can reduce transition......-metal ions and thereby facilitate their reaction with hydroperoxides; and aldehydes may participate in Schiff-base formation and other reactions. Cells can detoxify some of the reactive species, e.g. by reducing protein hydroperoxides to unreactive hydroxides. Oxidized proteins are often functionally......, this may contribute to the observed accumulation and damaging actions of oxidized proteins during aging and in pathologies such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. Protein oxidation may also sometimes play controlling roles in cellular remodelling and cell growth. Proteins are also...

  7. Nucleation of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Mediated by Mms6 Protein in Situ

    Kashyap, Sanjay [Ames Laboratory; Woehl, Taylor J [Ames Laboratory; Liu, Xunpei [Iowa State University; Mallapragada, Surya K [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Tanya [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-23

    Biomineralization proteins are widely used as templating agents in biomimetic synthesis of a variety of organic–inorganic nanostructures. However, the role of the protein in controlling the nucleation and growth of biomimetic particles is not well understood, because the mechanism of the bioinspired reaction is often deduced from ex situ analysis of the resultant nanoscale mineral phase. Here we report the direct visualization of biomimetic iron oxide nanoparticle nucleation mediated by an acidic bacterial recombinant protein, Mms6, during an in situ reaction induced by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide to solution-phase Mms6 protein micelles incubated with ferric chloride. Using in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy we observe the liquid iron prenucleation phase and nascent amorphous nanoparticles forming preferentially on the surface of protein micelles. Our results provide insight into the early steps of protein-mediated biomimetic nucleation of iron oxide and point to the importance of an extended protein surface during nanoparticle formation.

  8. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated diso...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated diso...l inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. Authors Aksoy E, Goldman M, Willems F. Publication Int J Bioche

  9. THE REGULATORY EFFECT OF NUCLEOSIDE DIPHOSPHATE KINASE ON G-PROTEIN AND G-PROTEIN MEDIATED PHOSPHOLIPASE C

    张德昌; 张宽仁

    1995-01-01

    The effect of nueleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) on the activity of guanine nueleotide regulatory protein (G-protein) mediated phospholipase C (PLC) and on the [35S ] GTPTτS binding of G-protein was investigated in this work in order to demonstrate the mechanism behind the regulation of G-protein and its effector PLC by NDPK. The stimulation of PLC in turkey erythrocyte membrane by both GTP and GTPτS indicated that the PLC stimulation was msdiated by G-protein, NDPK alone stimulated PLC activity, as well as the stimulation in the presence of GTP and GDP, in a dose-dependent manner. However, NDPK inhibited GTPτS-stimulated PLC, Furthermore, NDPK inhibited [35S] GTPτS binding of purified Gi-protein in a non-competitive manner. A hypothesis implying an important role of direct interaction of G-protein and NDPK in the regulation of their functions is suggested and discussed.

  10. On the ion-mediated interaction between protein and DNA

    Barbi, Maria; PAILLUSSON, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism allowing a protein to search of a target sequence on DNA is currently described as an intermittent process composed of 3D diffusion in bulk and 1D diffusion along the DNA molecule. Due to the relevant charge of protein and DNA, electrostatic interaction should play a crucial role during this search. In this paper, we explicitly derive the mean field theory allowing for a description of the protein-DNA electrostatics in solution. This approach leads to a unified model of the sear...

  11. On the ion-mediated interaction between protein and DNA

    Barbi, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism allowing a protein to search of a target sequence on DNA is currently described as an intermittent process composed of 3D diffusion in bulk and 1D diffusion along the DNA molecule. Due to the relevant charge of protein and DNA, electrostatic interaction should play a crucial role during this search. In this paper, we explicitly derive the mean field theory allowing for a description of the protein-DNA electrostatics in solution. This approach leads to a unified model of the search process, where 1D and 3D diffusion appear as a natural consequence of the diffusion on an extended interaction energy profile.

  12. Rapid assessment of RNAi-mediated protein depletion by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry

    Glukhova, Veronika A.; Tomazela, Daniela M.; Findlay, Geoffrey D.; Monnat, Raymond J.; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of a targeted proteomics approach, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry, to detect and assess RNAi-mediated depletion or ‘knockdown’ of specific proteins from human cells and from Drosophila flies. This label-free approach does not require any specific reagents to confirm the depletion of RNAi target protein(s) in unfractionated cell or whole organism extracts. The protocol described here is general, can be developed rapidly and can be multiplexed to detect...

  13. Multiple GTP-binding proteins participate in clathrin-coated vesicle- mediated endocytosis

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the effects of various agonists and antagonists of GTP- binding proteins on receptor-mediated endocytosis in vitro. Stage- specific assays which distinguish coated pit assembly, invagination, and coat vesicle budding have been used to demonstrate requirements for GTP-binding protein(s) in each of these events. Coated pit invagination and coated vesicle budding are both stimulated by addition of GTP and inhibited by GDP beta S. Although coated pit invagination is resistant to ...

  14. Protein-mediated Loops and Phase Transition in Nonthermal Denaturation of DNA

    Petrosyan, K. G.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2009-01-01

    We use a statistical mechanical model to study nonthermal denaturation of DNA in the presence of protein-mediated loops. We find that looping proteins which randomly link DNA bases located at a distance along the chain could cause a first-order phase transition. We estimate the denaturation transition time near the phase transition, which can be compared with experimental data. The model describes the formation of multiple loops via dynamical (fluctuational) linking between looping proteins, ...

  15. Membrane tension and peripheral protein density mediate membrane shape transitions

    Shi, Zheng; Baumgart, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis is a ubiquitous eukaryotic membrane budding, vesiculation, and internalization process fulfilling numerous roles including compensation of membrane area increase after bursts of exocytosis. The mechanism of the coupling between these two processes to enable homeostasis is not well understood. Recently, an ultrafast endocytosis (UFE) pathway was revealed with a speed significantly exceeding classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Membrane tension reduction is a potential mec...

  16. Protein kinase Cbeta mediates hepatic induction of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c by insulin

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Inoue, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Ishigaki, Naomi; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yahagi, Naoya; Gotoda, Takanari; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a transcription factor that controls lipogenesis in the liver. Hepatic SREBP-1c is nutritionally regulated, and its sustained activation causes hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Although regulation of SREBP-1c is known to occur at the transcriptional level, the precise mechanism by which insulin signaling activates SREBP-1c promoter remains to be elucidated. Here we show that protein kinase C beta (PKCbeta) is a key mediator o...

  17. The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein SIT Inhibits TCR-Mediated Signaling

    Arndt, Börge; Krieger, Tina; Kalinski, Thomas; Thielitz, Anja; Reinhold, Dirk; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) organize signaling complexes at the plasma membrane, and thus function as critical linkers and integrators of signaling cascades downstream of antigen receptors. We have previously shown that the transmembrane adaptor protein SIT regulates the threshold for thymocyte selection. Moreover, T cells from SIT-deficient mice are hyperresponsive to CD3 stimulation and undergo enhanced lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation, thus indicating that SIT inhib...

  18. Systematic discovery of new recognition peptides mediating protein interaction networks.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many aspects of cell signalling, trafficking, and targeting are governed by interactions between globular protein domains and short peptide segments. These domains often bind multiple peptides that share a common sequence pattern, or "linear motif" (e.g., SH3 binding to PxxP. Many domains are known, though comparatively few linear motifs have been discovered. Their short length (three to eight residues, and the fact that they often reside in disordered regions in proteins makes them difficult to detect through sequence comparison or experiment. Nevertheless, each new motif provides critical molecular details of how interaction networks are constructed, and can explain how one protein is able to bind to very different partners. Here we show that binding motifs can be detected using data from genome-scale interaction studies, and thus avoid the normally slow discovery process. Our approach based on motif over-representation in non-homologous sequences, rediscovers known motifs and predicts dozens of others. Direct binding experiments reveal that two predicted motifs are indeed protein-binding modules: a DxxDxxxD protein phosphatase 1 binding motif with a KD of 22 microM and a VxxxRxYS motif that binds Translin with a KD of 43 microM. We estimate that there are dozens or even hundreds of linear motifs yet to be discovered that will give molecular insight into protein networks and greatly illuminate cellular processes.

  19. Compartmentalization Role of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs in Mediating Protein Kinase A (PKA Signaling and Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    Abeer Rababa'h

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs stimulation enhances contractility through protein kinase-A (PKA substrate phosphorylation. This PKA signaling is conferred in part by PKA binding to A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs. AKAPs coordinate multi-protein signaling networks that are targeted to specific intracellular locations, resulting in the localization of enzyme activity and transmitting intracellular actions of neurotransmitters and hormones to its target substrates. In particular, mAKAP (muscle-selective AKAP has been shown to be present on the nuclear envelope of cardiomyocytes with various proteins including: PKA-regulatory subunit (RIIα, phosphodiesterase-4D3, protein phosphatase-2A, and ryanodine receptor (RyR2. Therefore, through the coordination of spatial-temporal signaling of proteins and enzymes, mAKAP controls cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels very tightly and functions as a regulator of PKA-mediated substrate phosphorylation leading to changes in calcium availability and myofilament calcium sensitivity. The goal of this review is to elucidate the critical compartmentalization role of mAKAP in mediating PKA signaling and regulating cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by acting as a scaffolding protein. Based on our literature search and studying the structure–function relationship between AKAP scaffolding protein and its binding partners, we propose possible explanations for the mechanism by which mAKAP promotes cardiac hypertrophy.

  20. Protein-mediated autoreduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles

    Basu, Nivedita; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)], E-mail: Mukherjee.Priyabrata@mayo.edu

    2008-09-01

    Here we report for the first time that proteins can function as unique reducing agents to produce gold nanoparticles from gold salts. We demonstrate that three different proteins, namely, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Rituximab (RIT-an anti-CD20 antibody) and Cetuximab (C225-anti-EGFR antibody), reduce gold salts to gold nanoparticles (GNP). Interestingly, among all the three proteins tested, only BSA can reduce gold salts to gold nanotriangles (GNT). BSA-induced formation of GNT can be controlled by carefully selecting the reaction condition. Heating or using excess of ascorbic acid (AA) as additional reducing agent shifts the reaction towards the formation of GNP with flower-like morphology, whereas slowing down the reaction either by cooling or by adding small amount of AA directs the synthesis towards GNT formation. GNT is formed only at pH 3; higher pHs (pH 7 and pH 10) did not produce any nanoparticles, suggesting the involvement of specific protein conformation in GNT formation. The nanomaterials formed by this method were characterized using UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is an important finding that will have uses in various nanotechnological applications, particularly in the green synthesis of novel nanomaterials based on protein structure.

  1. Cdon, a cell surface protein, mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    Wang, Li-Chun; Almazan, Guillermina

    2016-06-01

    During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) establish multiple branched processes and axonal contacts to initiate myelination. A complete understanding of the molecular signals implicated in cell surface interaction to initiate myelination/remyelination is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to assess whether Cdon, a cell surface protein that was shown to participate in muscle and neuron cell development, is involved in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Cdon protein is expressed in OLPs, increasing in the early differentiation stages and decreasing in mature OLGs. Immunocytochemistry of endogenous Cdon showed localization on both OLG cell membranes and cellular processes exhibiting puncta- or varicosity-like structures. Cdon knockdown with siRNA decreased protein levels by 62% as well as two myelin-specific proteins, MBP and MAG. Conversely, overexpression of full-length rat Cdon increased myelin proteins in OLGs. The complexity of OLGs branching and contact point numbers with axons were also increased in Cdon overexpressing cells growing alone or in coculture with dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Furthermore, myelination of DRGNs was decreased when OLPs were transfected with Cdon siRNA. Altogether, our results suggest that Cdon participates in OLG differentiation and myelination, most likely in the initial stages of development. GLIA 2016;64:1021-1033. PMID:26988125

  2. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  3. Systematic discovery of new recognition peptides mediating protein interaction networks

    Neduva, Victor; Linding, Rune; Su-Angrand, Isabelle;

    2005-01-01

    Many aspects of cell signalling, trafficking, and targeting are governed by interactions between globular protein domains and short peptide segments. These domains often bind multiple peptides that share a common sequence pattern, or "linear motif" (e.g., SH3 binding to PxxP). Many domains are...... that binds Translin with a KD of 43 microM. We estimate that there are dozens or even hundreds of linear motifs yet to be discovered that will give molecular insight into protein networks and greatly illuminate cellular processes.Many aspects of cell signalling, trafficking, and targeting are governed...... known, though comparatively few linear motifs have been discovered. Their short length (three to eight residues), and the fact that they often reside in disordered regions in proteins makes them difficult to detect through sequence comparison or experiment. Nevertheless, each new motif provides critical...

  4. Bacillus anthracis secretes proteins that mediate heme acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Anthony W Maresso

    Full Text Available Acquisition of iron is necessary for the replication of nearly all bacterial pathogens; however, iron of vertebrate hosts is mostly sequestered by heme and bound to hemoglobin within red blood cells. In Bacillus anthracis, the spore-forming agent of anthrax, the mechanisms of iron scavenging from hemoglobin are unknown. We report here that B. anthracis secretes IsdX1 and IsdX2, two NEAT domain proteins, to remove heme from hemoglobin, thereby retrieving iron for bacterial growth. Unlike other Gram-positive bacteria, which rely on cell wall anchored Isd proteins for heme scavenging, B. anthracis seems to have also evolved NEAT domain proteins in the extracellular milieu and in the bacterial envelope to provide for the passage of heme.

  5. Molecular Principles of Gene Fusion Mediated Rewiring of Protein Interaction Networks in Cancer.

    Latysheva, Natasha S; Oates, Matt E; Maddox, Louis; Flock, Tilman; Gough, Julian; Buljan, Marija; Weatheritt, Robert J; Babu, M Madan

    2016-08-18

    Gene fusions are common cancer-causing mutations, but the molecular principles by which fusion protein products affect interaction networks and cause disease are not well understood. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of the structural, interactomic, and regulatory properties of thousands of putative fusion proteins. We demonstrate that genes that form fusions (i.e., parent genes) tend to be highly connected hub genes, whose protein products are enriched in structured and disordered interaction-mediating features. Fusion often results in the loss of these parental features and the depletion of regulatory sites such as post-translational modifications. Fusion products disproportionately connect proteins that did not previously interact in the protein interaction network. In this manner, fusion products can escape cellular regulation and constitutively rewire protein interaction networks. We suggest that the deregulation of central, interaction-prone proteins may represent a widespread mechanism by which fusion proteins alter the topology of cellular signaling pathways and promote cancer. PMID:27540857

  6. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P; Thomsen, Allan R

    2003-01-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus...... control or virus-induced T-cell-dependent inflammation. Thus, MIP-1alpha is not mandatory for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity....

  7. The involvement of XPC protein in the cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response

    Gan WANG; Alan DOMBKOWSKI; Lynn CHUANG; Xiao Xin S XU

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of DNA damage is a critical step for DNA damage-mediated cellular response. XPC is an important DNA damage recognition protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have studied the XPC protein in cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response. Comparison of the microarray data from both normal and XPCdefective human fibroblasts identified 861 XPC-responsive genes in the cisplatin treatment (with minimum fold change≥1.5).The cell cycle and cell proliferation-related genes are the most affected genes by the XPC defect in the treatment. Many other cellular function genes, especially the DNA repair and signal transduction-related genes, were also affected by the XPC defect in the treatment. To validate the microarray data, the transcription levels of some microarray-identified genes were also determined by an RT-PCR based real time PCR assay. The real time PCR results are consistent with the microarray data for most of the tested genes, indicating the reliability of the microarray data. To further validate the microarray data, the cisplatin treatment-mediated caspase-3 activation was also determined. The Western blot hybridization results indicate that the XPC defect greatly attenuates the cisplatin treatment-mediated Caspase-3 activation. We elucidated the role of p53 protein in the XPC protein DNA damage recognition-mediated signaling process. The XPC defect reduces the cisplatin treatment-mediated p53 response. These results suggest that the XPC protein plays an important role in the cisplatin treatment-mediated cellular response. It may also suggest a possible mechanism of cancer cell drug resistance.

  8. C-reactive protein is a mediator of cardiovascular disease

    R.J. Bisoendial; S.M. Boekholdt; M. Vergeer; E.S.G. Stroes; J.J.P. Kastelein

    2010-01-01

    C-reactive protein is postulated to embody an index that can reflect cardiovascular risk and can be used to independently predict major cardiovascular events and mortality. On the other hand, credible experimental data have become available that demonstrate the abundant presence of C-reactive protei

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Mediates Human Embryonic Germ Cell Derivation

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; John D Gearhart; Kerr, Candace L.

    2010-01-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recom...

  10. Protein kinase GCN2 mediates responses to glyphosate in Arabidopsis

    Faus, I.; ZABALZA OSTOS, ANA Mª; Santiago, J.; González Nebauer, Sergio; Royuela, M.; Serrano, R; J Gadea

    2015-01-01

    Background The increased selection pressure of the herbicide glyphosate has played a role in the evolution of glyphosate-resistance in weedy species, an issue that is becoming a threat to global agriculture. The molecular components involved in the cellular toxicity response to this herbicide at the expression level are still unidentified. Results In this study, we identify the protein kinase GCN2 as a cellular component that fosters the action of glyphosate in the model plant Arabidopsis tha...

  11. Protein A-Mediated Multicellular Behavior in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Merino, Nekane; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Valle, Jaione; Solano, Cristina; Calvo, Enrique; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Foster, Timothy J.; Penadés, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo

    2008-01-01

    The capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to form biofilms on host tissues and implanted medical devices is one of the major virulence traits underlying persistent and chronic infections. The matrix in which S. aureus cells are encased in a biofilm often consists of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) or poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG). However, surface proteins capable of promoting biofilm development in the absence of PIA/PNAG exopolysaccharide have been described. Here, we used two...

  12. The role of GW182 proteins in miRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    Braun, Joerg E; Huntzinger, Eric; Izaurralde, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    GW182 family proteins are essential for microRNA-mediated gene silencing in animal cells. They are recruited to miRNA targets through direct interactions with Argonaute proteins and promote target silencing. They do so by repressing translation and enhancing mRNA turnover. Although the precise mechanism of action of GW182 proteins is not fully understood, these proteins have been shown to interact with the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and with the PAN2-PAN3 and CCR4-NOT deadenylase complexes. These findings suggest that GW182 proteins function as scaffold proteins for the assembly of the multiprotein complex that silences miRNA targets. PMID:23224969

  13. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  14. A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Mediates TRPV1 Thermal Hyperalgesia through PKA Phosphorylation of TRPV1

    Jeske, Nathaniel A.; Diogenes, Anibal; Ruparel, Nikita B.; Fehrenbacher, Jill C.; Henry, Michael; Akopian, Armen N.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    Certain phosphorylation events are tightly controlled by scaffolding proteins such as A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP). On nociceptive terminals, phosphorylation of transient receptor potential channel type 1 (TRPV1) results in the sensitization to many different stimuli, contributing to the development of hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the functional involvement of AKAP150 in mediating sensitization of TRPV1, and found that AKAP150 is co-expressed in trigeminal ganglia (TG) ne...

  15. Phospholipase D1 Mediates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling for Glucose Uptake

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Ji-Man; Yea, Kyungmoo; Kim, Hyun Wook; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of gluc...

  16. Requirement of nucleotide exchange factor for Ypt1 GTPase mediated protein transport

    1995-01-01

    Small GTPases of the rab family are involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. It is believed that cycling between the GTP- and GDP-bound forms, and accessory factors regulating this cycling are crucial for rab function. However, an essential role for rab nucleotide exchange factors has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we show the requirement of nucleotide exchange factor activity for Ypt1 GTPase mediated protein transport. The Ypt1 protein, a member of the rab family, plays ...

  17. Cell surface molecules and fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion: effect of proteolytic digestion of membrane proteins

    1982-01-01

    Proteases have been used as a tool to investigate the role of surface molecules in fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Proteolytic digestion of membrane-proteins by pronase (1 mg/ml for 20 min at 37 degrees C) completely inhibited adhesion of baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts on fibronectin-coated plastic dishes. Various degrees of inhibition were also obtained after treatment with proteinase K, chymotrypsin, papain, subtilopeptidase A, and thermolysin. Protein synthesis was required to r...

  18. Distinct Mechanisms Regulate ATGL-Mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis by Lipid Droplet Coat Proteins

    Yang, Xingyuan; Heckmann, Bradlee L; Zhang, Xiaodong; Smas, Cynthia M.; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key triacylglycerol hydrolase in adipocytes. The precise mechanisms by which ATGL action is regulated by lipid droplet (LD) coat proteins and responds to hormonal stimulation are incompletely defined. By combining usage of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we sought to determine the respective roles of perilipin 1 and fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) in the control of ATGL-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Knockdown of endogenous perilipin 1 expre...

  19. Phospholipase D1 Mediates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling for Glucose Uptake

    Jong Hyun Kim; Ji-Man Park; Kyungmoo Yea; Hyun Wook Kim; Pann-Ghill Suh; Sung Ho Ryu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glu...

  20. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  1. Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-Mediated Trafficking of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Plant Cells

    Hyangju Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding how proteins are specifically delivered to the vacuole. One of the most crucial steps in this process is specific sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins. Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs, which are type I membrane proteins, are involved in the sorting and packaging of soluble vacuolar proteins into transport vesicles with the help of various accessory proteins. To date, large amounts of data have led to the development of two different models describing VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking that are radically different in multiple ways, particularly regarding the location of cargo binding to, and release from, the VSR and the types of carriers utilized. In this review, we summarize current literature aimed at elucidating VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and compare the two models with respect to the sorting signals of vacuolar proteins, as well as the molecular machinery involved in VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and its action mechanisms.

  2. The protein oxidation product 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) mediates oxidative DNA damage

    Morin, B; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    of the present work was to investigate whether DOPA, and especially PB-DOPA, can mediate oxidative damage to DNA. We chose to generate PB-DOPA using mushroom tyrosinase, which catalyses the hydroxylation of tyrosine residues in protein. This permitted us to study the reactions of PB-DOPA in the virtual absence...

  3. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  4. Electron-mediating Cu(A) centers in proteins

    Epel, Boris; Slutter, Claire S; Neese, Frank;

    2002-01-01

    -D structures and compared with the experimental spectra. It was found that the width of the powder patterns of the weakly coupled protons recorded at g(perpendicular) is mainly determined by the histidine H(epsilon)(1) protons. Furthermore, the splitting in the outer wings of these powder patterns...... subunit II of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c oxidase (COX) ba(3) (M160T9), its M160QT0 mutant, where the weak axial methionine ligand has been replaced by a glutamine, and the engineered "purple" azurin (purpAz). The three-dimensional (3-D) structures of these proteins, apart from the mutant, are known...... copper hyperfine interaction. Comparison of the best-fit anisotropic hyperfine parameters with those calculated from dipolar interactions extracted from the available 3-D structures sets limit to the sulfur spin densities. Similarly, the small coupling spectral region was simulated on the basis of the 3...

  5. Blast resistance of CC-NB-LRR protein Pb1 is mediated by WRKY45 through protein–protein interaction

    Inoue, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Nagao; Matsushita, Akane; Xinqiong, Liu; Nakayama, Akira; Sugano, Shoji; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Panicle blast 1 (Pb1) is a panicle blast resistance gene derived from the indica rice cultivar “Modan.” Pb1 encodes a coiled-coil–nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein and confers durable, broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae races. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying Pb1-mediated blast resistance. The Pb1 protein interacted with WRKY45, a transcription factor involved in induced resistance via the salicylic acid signaling pathway tha...

  6. Statistical thermodynamics of membrane bending-mediated protein-protein attractions.

    Chou, T; Kim, K. S.; Oster, G

    2001-01-01

    Highly wedge-shaped integral membrane proteins, or membrane-adsorbed proteins can induce long-ranged deformations. The strain in the surrounding bilayer creates relatively long-ranged forces that contribute to interactions with nearby proteins. In contrast, to direct short-ranged interactions such as van der Waal's, hydrophobic, or electrostatic interactions, both local membrane Gaussian curvature and protein ellipticity can induce forces acting at distances of up to a few times their typical...

  7. Ras protein participated in histone acetylation-mediated cell cycle control in Physarum polycephalum

    LI Xiaoxue; LU Jun; ZHAO Yanmei; WANG Xiuli; HUANG Baiqu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that in Physarum polycephalum, a naturally synchronized slime mold, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), arrestes the cell cycle at the checkpoints of S/G2, G2/M and mitosis exit, and influences the transcription of two ras genes Ppras1 and Pprap1, as well as the Ras protein level. Antibody neutralization experiment using anti-Ras antibody treatment showed that Ras protein played an important role in cell cycle checkpoint control through regulation of the level of Cyclin B1, suggesting that Ras protein might be a key factor for histone acetylation-mediated cell cycle regulation in P. polycephalum.

  8. Protein-mediated loops and phase transition in nonthermal denaturation of DNA

    We use a statistical mechanical model to study nonthermal denaturation of DNA in the presence of protein-mediated loops. We find that looping proteins which randomly link DNA bases located at a distance along the chain could cause a first-order phase transition. We estimate the denaturation transition time near the phase transition, which can be compared with experimental data. The model describes the formation of multiple loops via dynamical (fluctuational) linking between looping proteins, which is essential in many cellular biological processes

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates human embryonic germ cell derivation.

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; Gearhart, John D; Kerr, Candace L

    2011-02-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency. PMID:20486775

  10. Assembly of nuclear pore complexes mediated by major vault protein.

    Vollmar, Friederike; Hacker, Christian; Zahedi, René-Peiman; Sickmann, Albert; Ewald, Andrea; Scheer, Ulrich; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine

    2009-03-15

    During interphase growth of eukaryotic cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are continuously incorporated into the intact nuclear envelope (NE) by mechanisms that are largely unknown. De novo formation of NPCs involves local fusion events between the inner and outer nuclear membrane, formation of a transcisternal membranous channel of defined diameter and the coordinated assembly of hundreds of nucleoporins into the characteristic NPC structure. Here we have used a cell-free system based on Xenopus egg extract, which allows the experimental separation of nuclear-membrane assembly and NPC formation. Nuclei surrounded by a closed double nuclear membrane, but devoid of NPCs, were first reconstituted from chromatin and a specific membrane fraction. Insertion of NPCs into the preformed pore-free nuclei required cytosol containing soluble nucleoporins or nucleoporin subcomplexes and, quite unexpectedly, major vault protein (MVP). MVP is the main component of vaults, which are ubiquitous barrel-shaped particles of enigmatic function. Our results implicate MVP, and thus also vaults, in NPC biogenesis and provide a functional explanation for the association of a fraction of vaults with the NE and specifically with NPCs in intact cells. PMID:19240118

  11. Phytochemical-mediated Protein Expression Profiling and the Potential Applications in Therapeutic Drug Target Identifications.

    Wong, Fai-Chu; Tan, Siok-Thing; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2016-07-29

    Many phytochemicals derived from edible medicinal plants have been investigated intensively for their various bioactivities. However, the detailed mechanism and their corresponding molecular targets frequently remain elusive. In this review, we present a summary of the research works done on phytochemical-mediated molecular targets, identified via proteomic approach. Concurrently, we also highlighted some pharmaceutical drugs which could be traced back to their origins in phytochemicals. For ease of presentation, these identified protein targets were categorized into two important healthcare-related fields, namely anti-bacterial and anti-cancer research. Through this review, we hope to highlight the usefulness of comparative proteomic as a powerful tool in phytochemical-mediated protein target identifications. Likewise, we wish to inspire further investigations on some of these protein targets identified over the last few years. With contributions from all researchers, the accumulative efforts could eventually lead to the discovery of some target-specific, low-toxicity therapeutic agents. PMID:26193174

  12. Computational Model for DNA Organization Mediated by Protein Interaction in Prokaryotes

    Garimella, Karthik; Kharel, Savan

    2016-03-01

    In Escherichia Coli, there are several mechanisms that drive chromosomal organization. We know through experiments that the E. Coli chromosome is condensed into highly structured regions known as macrodomains (MDs). One of the regions known as the Terminus undergoes DNA-bridging condensation that form loops between distant DNA sites and it is known to be mediated by a Terminus specific protein, which binds to specific markers within the Terminus region. In the absence of Terminus specific protein, however, the Terminus region is known to not condense nearly as much, which will likely impede several biological processes including DNA replication. In order to understand the molecular basis of protein mediation in vivo several models of Terminus specific segregation have been constructed in silico which model DNA as polymer chains.

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytes

    Natarajan Palaniappan; S Anbalagan; Sujatha Narayanan

    2012-03-01

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are involved in M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in monocytic cells are currently unknown. Exposure of THP-1 human monocytes to M. tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra induced distinct, time-dependent, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinases. The strains also differed in their usage of CD14 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced lower CD44 surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, whereas H37Ra the reverse. Using highly specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun N-terminal kinase, we report that inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinases increases, but that inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase decreases M. tuberculosis–induced CD44 surface expression in THP-1 human monocytes.

  14. Abrogation of TNF-mediated cytotoxicity by space flight involves protein kinase C

    Woods, K. M.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Experiments conducted on STS-50 indicated that space flight significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated killing of LM929 cells compared to ground controls. In ground-based studies, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also inhibited TNF-mediated killing of LM929 cells. Therefore, we used PKC inhibitors to determine if the inhibitory effects of spaceflight on TNF-mediated cytotoxicity involved the activation of PKC. In experiments conducted onboard space shuttle mission STS-54, we saw that in the presence of the protein kinase C inhibitors H7 and H8, TNF-mediated cytotoxicity was restored to levels of those observed in the ground controls. Subsequent experiments done during the STS-57 mission tested the dose response of two protein kinase inhibitors, H7 and HA1004. We again saw that killing was restored in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibitor concentrations known to inhibit PKC being most effective. These data suggest that space flight ameliorates the action of TNF by affecting PKC in target cells.

  15. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    Kang, Yoonsung [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hyang-Min [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Hee [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Peter I. [Department of Dermatology, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, 4301 West Markham, Slot 576, Little Rock, AR 72205 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Ho [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Yong [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Yeoul [Department of Physiology, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); You, Ho Jin, E-mail: hjyou@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, DNA Repair Research Center, Chosun University School of Medicine, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. {yields} Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  16. Protein phosphatase 5 is necessary for ATR-mediated DNA repair

    Research highlights: → Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) has been shown to participate in ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)- and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related)-mediated checkpoint pathways, which plays an important role in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genomic stability. → However, it is not clear exactly how PP5 participates in this process. → Our results indicate that PP5 is more closely related with ATR-mediated pathway than ATM-mediated pathway in DNA damage repair. -- Abstract: Several recent studies have shown that protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) participates in cell cycle arrest after DNA damage, but its roles in DNA repair have not yet been fully characterized. We investigated the roles of PP5 in the repair of ultraviolet (UV)- and neocarzinostatin (NCS)-induced DNA damage. The results of comet assays revealed different repair patterns in UV- and NCS-exposed U2OS-PS cells. PP5 is only essential for Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA repair. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of 53BP1 and BRCA1, important mediators of DNA damage repair, and substrates of ATR and ATM decreased in U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation. In contrast, the cell cycle arrest proteins p53, CHK1, and CHK2 were normally phosphorylated in U2OS and U2OS-PS cells exposed to UV radiation or treated with NCS. In view of these results, we suggest that PP5 plays a crucial role in ATR-mediated repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

  17. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation–Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks

    White, Forest M.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation–mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks.

  18. Methods for the Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation-Mediated Cellular Signaling Networks.

    White, Forest M; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro

    2016-06-12

    Protein phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling networks regulate almost all aspects of cell biology, including the responses to cellular stimulation and environmental alterations. These networks are highly complex and comprise hundreds of proteins and potentially thousands of phosphorylation sites. Multiple analytical methods have been developed over the past several decades to identify proteins and protein phosphorylation sites regulating cellular signaling, and to quantify the dynamic response of these sites to different cellular stimulation. Here we provide an overview of these methods, including the fundamental principles governing each method, their relative strengths and weaknesses, and some examples of how each method has been applied to the analysis of complex signaling networks. When applied correctly, each of these techniques can provide insight into the topology, dynamics, and regulation of protein phosphorylation signaling networks. PMID:27049636

  19. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Stimulates the Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of Viral X Protein

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Kang, Seongman; Kim, Joon; Ahn, Byung-Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) plays an essential role in viral replication and in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. HBx has the ability to transactivate the expression of all HBV proteins, including the viral core protein HBc. Consistent with its regulatory role, HBx is relatively unstable and is present at low levels in the cell. We report here that the level of HBx was significantly reduced by the coexpression of HBc in cultured human hepatoma cells, whereas the level o...

  20. RNA-induced silencing attenuates G protein-mediated calcium signals.

    Philip, Finly; Sahu, Shriya; Golebiewska, Urszula; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) is activated by G protein subunits in response to environmental stimuli to increase intracellular calcium. In cells, a significant portion of PLCβ is cytosolic, where it binds a protein complex required for efficient RNA-induced silencing called C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC). Binding between C3PO and PLCβ raises the possibility that RNA silencing activity can affect the ability of PLCβ to mediate calcium signals. By use of human and rat neuronal cell lines (SK-N-SH and PC12), we show that overexpression of one of the main components of C3PO diminishes Ca(2+) release in response to Gαq/PLCβ stimulation by 30 to 40%. In untransfected SK-N-SH or PC12 cells, the introduction of siRNA(GAPDH) [small interfering RNA(glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)] reduces PLCβ-mediated calcium signals by ∼30%, but addition of siRNA(Hsp90) (heat shock protein 90) had little effect. Fluorescence imaging studies suggest an increase in PLCβ-C3PO association in cells treated with siRNA(GAPDH) but not siRNA(Hsp90). Taken together, our studies raise the possibility that Ca(2+) responses to extracellular stimuli can be modulated by components of the RNA silencing machinery.-Philip, F., Sahu, S., Golebiewska, U., Scarlata, S. RNA-induced silencing attenuates G protein-mediated calcium signals. PMID:26862135

  1. Increasing the sensitivity of reverse phase protein arrays by antibody-mediated signal amplification

    Brase Jan C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA emerged as a useful experimental platform to analyze biological samples in a high-throughput format. Different signal detection methods have been described to generate a quantitative readout on RPPA including the use of fluorescently labeled antibodies. Increasing the sensitivity of RPPA approaches is important since many signaling proteins or posttranslational modifications are present at a low level. Results A new antibody-mediated signal amplification (AMSA strategy relying on sequential incubation steps with fluorescently-labeled secondary antibodies reactive against each other is introduced here. The signal quantification is performed in the near-infrared range. The RPPA-based analysis of 14 endogenous proteins in seven different cell lines demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.89 between AMSA and standard NIR detection. Probing serial dilutions of human cancer cell lines with different primary antibodies demonstrated that the new amplification approach improved the limit of detection especially for low abundant target proteins. Conclusions Antibody-mediated signal amplification is a convenient and cost-effective approach for the robust and specific quantification of low abundant proteins on RPPAs. Contrasting other amplification approaches it allows target protein detection over a large linear range.

  2. Chimeric spider silk proteins mediated by intein result in artificial hybrid silks.

    Lin, Senzhu; Chen, Gefei; Liu, Xiangqin; Meng, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid silks hold a great potential as specific biomaterials due to its controlled mechanical properties. To produce fibers with tunable properties, here we firstly made chimeric proteins in vitro, called W2C4CT and W2C8CT, with ligation of MaSp repetitive modules (C) with AcSp modules (W) by intein trans splicing technology from smaller precursors without final yield reduction. Intein mediated chimeric proteins form fibers at a low concentration of 0.4 mg/mL in 50 mM K3 PO4 pH 7.5 just drawn by hand. Hybrid fibers show smoother surface, and also have stronger chemical resistance as compared with fibers from W2CT (W fibers) and mixture of W2CT/C8CT (MHF8 fibers). Fibers from chimeric protein W2C4CT (HFH4) have improved mechanical properties than W fibers; however, with more C modules W2C8CT fibers (HFH8) properties decreased, indicates the length proportion of various modules is very important and should be optimized for fibers with specific properties. Generally, hybrid silks generated via chimeric proteins, which can be simplified by intein trans splicing, has greater potential to produce fibers with tunable properties. Our research shows that intein mediated directional protein ligation is a novel way to make large chimeric spider silk proteins and hybrid silks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 385-392, 2016. PMID:26948769

  3. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David, E-mail: david.ross@ucdenver.edu

    2014-10-15

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity.

  4. Quinone-induced protein handling changes: Implications for major protein handling systems in quinone-mediated toxicity

    Para-quinones such as 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and menadione (MD) and ortho-quinones including the oxidation products of catecholamines, are derived from xenobiotics as well as endogenous molecules. The effects of quinones on major protein handling systems in cells; the 20/26S proteasome, the ER stress response, autophagy, chaperone proteins and aggresome formation, have not been investigated in a systematic manner. Both BQ and aminochrome (AC) inhibited proteasomal activity and activated the ER stress response and autophagy in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. AC also induced aggresome formation while MD had little effect on any protein handling systems in N27 cells. The effect of NQO1 on quinone induced protein handling changes and toxicity was examined using N27 cells stably transfected with NQO1 to generate an isogenic NQO1-overexpressing line. NQO1 protected against BQ–induced apoptosis but led to a potentiation of AC- and MD-induced apoptosis. Modulation of quinone-induced apoptosis in N27 and NQO1-overexpressing cells correlated only with changes in the ER stress response and not with changes in other protein handling systems. These data suggested that NQO1 modulated the ER stress response to potentiate toxicity of AC and MD, but protected against BQ toxicity. We further demonstrated that NQO1 mediated reduction to unstable hydroquinones and subsequent redox cycling was important for the activation of the ER stress response and toxicity for both AC and MD. In summary, our data demonstrate that quinone-specific changes in protein handling are evident in N27 cells and the induction of the ER stress response is associated with quinone-mediated toxicity. - Highlights: • Unstable hydroquinones contributed to quinone-induced ER stress and toxicity

  5. Redox reactions induced by nitrosative stress mediate protein misfolding and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Gu, Zezong; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A

    2010-06-01

    Overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors accounts, at least in part, for excitotoxic neuronal damage, potentially contributing to a wide range of acute and chronic neurologic diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), manifest deposits of misfolded or aggregated proteins, and result from synaptic injury and neuronal death. Recent studies have suggested that nitrosative stress due to generation of excessive nitric oxide (NO) can mediate excitotoxicity in part by triggering protein misfolding and aggregation, and mitochondrial fragmentation in the absence of genetic predisposition. S-Nitrosylation, or covalent reaction of NO with specific protein thiol groups, represents a convergent signal pathway contributing to NO-induced protein misfolding and aggregation, compromised dynamics of mitochondrial fission-fusion process, thus leading to neurotoxicity. Here, we review the effect of S-nitrosylation on protein function under excitotoxic conditions, and present evidence suggesting that NO contributes to protein misfolding and aggregation via S-nitrosylating protein-disulfide isomerase or the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, and mitochondrial fragmentation through beta-amyloid-related S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein-1. Moreover, we also discuss that inhibition of excessive NMDA receptor activity by memantine, an uncompetitive/fast off-rate (UFO) drug can ameliorate excessive production of NO, protein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial fragmentation, and neurodegeneration. PMID:20333559

  6. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev; Bender, Julia; Bach, Anders; Jacky, Birgitte P S; Strømgaard, Kristian; Deussing, Jan M; Schwartz, Thue W; Martinez, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present a...... colocalization of the full-length proteins in cells and with previous studies, we suggest that the range of relevant interactions might extend to interactions with K i = 450 µM in the in vitro assays. Within this range, we identify novel PSD-95 interactions with the chemokine receptor CXCR2, the neuropeptide Y...... receptor Y2, and four of the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). The interaction with SSTR1 was further investigated in mouse hippocampal neurons, where we found a clear colocalization between the endogenously expressed proteins, indicating a potential for further investigation of the role of this interaction...

  7. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots

    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging

  8. A link between the cytoplasmic engulfment protein Elmo1 and the Mediator complex subunit Med31.

    Mauldin, Joshua P; Lu, Mingjian; Das, Soumita; Park, Daeho; Ernst, Peter B; Ravichandran, Kodi S

    2013-01-21

    The cytoplasmic Elmo1:Dock180 complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac and functions downstream of the phagocytic receptor BAI1 during apoptotic cell clearance, and in the entry of Salmonella and Shigella into cells. We discovered an unexpected binding between Elmo1 and the Mediator complex subunit Med31. The Mediator complex is a regulatory hub for nearly all gene transcription via RNA polymerase II, bridging the general transcription machinery with gene-specific regulatory proteins. Med31 is the smallest and the most evolutionarily conserved Mediator subunit, and knockout of Med31 results in embryonic lethality in mice; however, Med31 function in specific biological contexts is poorly understood. We observed that in primary macrophages, during Salmonella infection, Elmo1 and Med31 specifically affected expression of the cytokine genes Il10 and Il33 among the >25 genes monitored. Although endogenous Med31 is predominantly nuclear localized, Elmo1 increased the cytoplasmic localization of Med31. We identify ubiquitination as a novel posttranslational modification of Med31, with the cytoplasmic monoubiquitinated form of Med31 being enhanced by Elmo1. These data identify Elmo1 as a novel regulator of Med31, revealing a previously unrecognized link between cytoplasmic signaling proteins and the Mediator complex. PMID:23273896

  9. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P. (Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of (3H)leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of (3H)aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons.

  10. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  11. Mechanism of asbestos-mediated DNA damage: role of heme and heme proteins.

    Rahman, Q; Mahmood, N.; Khan, S G; Arif, J M; Athar, M

    1997-01-01

    Several observations, including studies from this laboratory, demonstrate that asbestos generates free radicals in the biological system that may play a role in the manifestation of asbestos-related cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. It has also been demonstrated that iron associated with asbestos plays an important role in the asbestos-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to asbestos leads to degradation of heme proteins such as cytochrome P450-releasing heme in cytosol. O...

  12. Heat-shock proteins in infection-mediated inflammation-induced tumorigenesis

    Li Zihai; Goldstein Mark G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Inflammation is a necessary albeit insufficient component of tumorigenesis in some cancers. Infectious agents directly implicated in tumorigenesis have been shown to induce inflammation. This process involves both the innate and adaptive components of the immune system which contribute to tumor angiogenesis, tumor tolerance and metastatic properties of neoplasms. Recently, heat-shock proteins have been identified as mediators of this inflammatory process and thus may provide a link b...

  13. The Parkinson's disease-linked proteins Fbxo7 and Parkin interact to mediate mitophagy

    Burchell, Victoria S; Nelson, David E.; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Delgado-Camprubi, Marta; Ivatt, Rachael M; Pogson, Joe H.; Randle, Suzanne J.; Wray, Selina; Lewis, Patrick A.; Houlden, Henry; Abramov, Andrey Y; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Laman, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that two autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease genes, PINK1 (PARK6) and Parkin (PARK2), co-operate to mediate the autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Mutations in the F-box domain containing protein Fbxo7 (PARK15) also cause early onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that Fbxo7 participates in mitochondrial maintenance through direct interaction with PINK1 and Parkin and plays a role in Parkin...

  14. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9 for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid, the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs’ interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.

  15. Oxidative stress-mediated protein conformation changes: ESR study of spin-labelled staphylococcal nuclease

    We report on the electron spin resonance (ESR) study of the photo-oxidative stress-mediated protein conformation changes in the spin-labelled protein staphylococcal nuclease (SNase). The photo-oxidative stress was brought on by photosensitization of singlet oxygen (1Δg) in the presence of a novel photosensitizer, water-soluble fullerol C60(OH)19(ONa)17, and resulted in partial protein denaturation. This process was monitored via ESR measurements performed for a spin-labelled SNase Thr-62-Cys mutant, with MTSSL spin label (SL) attached to the cysteine 62 residue (SNase T62C-SL). Prior to ESR measurements of the oxidative stress-induced alterations in protein conformations, the efficiency of C60(OH)19(ONa)17 for 1Δg-generation was confirmed by three different techniques: (i) selective reactive scavenging of 1Δg and ESR detection of the resulting paramagnetic product (ii) 1Δg-mediated photo-oxidative loss of tryptophan and (iii) by measuring the characteristic near-infrared phosphorescence of singlet oxygen at 1270 nm. The observed evolution of the ESR spectra of SNase T62C-SL as a function of exposure to the photo-oxidative stress points to marked changes in protein conformation due to the deleterious action of 1Δg

  16. Protein Kinase C-δ mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (ΔPKC-δ). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the ΔPKC-δ, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that ΔPKC-δ mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-δ inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-δ-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of ΔPKC-δ in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of ΔPKC-δ. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-δ down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  17. BNIP3 and NIX mediate Mieap-induced accumulation of lysosomal proteins within mitochondria.

    Yasuyuki Nakamura

    Full Text Available Mieap, a p53-inducible protein, controls mitochondrial quality by repairing unhealthy mitochondria. During repair, Mieap induces the accumulation of intramitochondrial lysosomal proteins (designated MALM for Mieap-induced accumulation of lysosome-like organelles within mitochondria by interacting with NIX, leading to the elimination of oxidized mitochondrial proteins. Here, we report that an additional mitochondrial outer membrane protein, BNIP3, is also involved in MALM. BNIP3 interacts with Mieap in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner via the BH3 domain of BNIP3 and the coiled-coil domains of Mieap. The knockdown of endogenous BNIP3 expression severely inhibited MALM. Although the overexpression of either BNIP3 or NIX did not cause a remarkable change in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, the co-expression of all three exogenous proteins, Mieap, BNIP3 and NIX, caused a dramatic reduction in MMP, implying that the physical interaction of Mieap, BNIP3 and NIX at the mitochondrial outer membrane may regulate the opening of a pore in the mitochondrial double membrane. This effect was not related to cell death. These results suggest that two mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, BNIP3 and NIX, mediate MALM in order to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The physical interaction of Mieap, BNIP3 and NIX at the mitochondrial outer membrane may play a critical role in the translocation of lysosomal proteins from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix.

  18. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions.

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Rao, Basuthkar J; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2014-01-01

    Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL) for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH) in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52) derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' ( http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html). PMID:25717367

  19. Multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization of PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    Heintz, Udo; Meinhart, Anton; Winkler, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.winkler@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Crystal structures of two truncated variants of the transcription factor PpsR from R. sphaeroides are presented that enabled the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct. Together, these structures reveal the importance of α-helical PAS extensions for multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function. Per–ARNT–Sim (PAS) domains are essential modules of many multi-domain signalling proteins that mediate protein interaction and/or sense environmental stimuli. Frequently, multiple PAS domains are present within single polypeptide chains, where their interplay is required for protein function. Although many isolated PAS domain structures have been reported over the last decades, only a few structures of multi-PAS proteins are known. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of multi-PAS domain-mediated protein oligomerization and function is poorly understood. The transcription factor PpsR from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is such a multi-PAS domain protein that, in addition to its three PAS domains, contains a glutamine-rich linker and a C-terminal helix–turn–helix DNA-binding motif. Here, crystal structures of two N-terminally and C-terminally truncated PpsR variants that comprise a single (PpsR{sub Q-PAS1}) and two (PpsR{sub N-Q-PAS1}) PAS domains, respectively, are presented and the multi-step strategy required for the phasing of a triple PAS domain construct (PpsR{sub ΔHTH}) is illustrated. While parts of the biologically relevant dimerization interface can already be observed in the two shorter constructs, the PpsR{sub ΔHTH} structure reveals how three PAS domains enable the formation of multiple oligomeric states (dimer, tetramer and octamer), highlighting that not only the PAS cores but also their α-helical extensions are essential for protein oligomerization. The results demonstrate that the long helical glutamine-rich linker of PpsR results from a direct fusion of the N-cap of the PAS1 domain with the C-terminal extension of the N-domain that

  20. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  1. Impacts of pH-mediated EPS structure on probiotic bacterial pili-whey proteins interactions.

    Burgain, Jennifer; Scher, Joel; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Corgneau, Magda; Guerin, Justine; Caillet, Céline; Duval, Jérôme F L; Francius, Gregory; Gaiani, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic bacteria are routinely incorporated into dairy foods because of the health benefits they can provide when consumed. In this work, the marked pH-dependence of the pili/EPS organization at the outer surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is characterized in detail by Single Cell Force Microscopy and cell electrophoretic mobility measurements analyzed according to formalisms for nanomechanical contact and soft particle electrokinetics, respectively. At pH 6.8, LGG pili are easily accessible by AFM tips functionalized with whey proteins for specific binding, while at pH 4.8 the collapsed EPS surface layer significantly immobilized the LGG pili. This resulted in their reduced accessibility to the specific whey-coated AFM tip, and to stronger whey protein-pili rupture forces. Thus, pili interactions with whey proteins are screened to an extent that depends on the pH-mediated embedment of the pili within the EPS layer. PMID:26209966

  2. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

    Wang Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1 μm. Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2, in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  3. MAD2B, a Novel TCF4-binding Protein, Modulates TCF4-mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation*

    Hong, Chun-Fu; Chou, Yu-Ting; Lin, Young-Sun; Wu, Cheng-Wen

    2009-01-01

    T cell factor 4 (TCF4) interacts with β-catenin in the WNT signaling pathway and transactivates downstream target genes involved in cancer progression. To identify proteins that regulate TCF4-mediated biological responses, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for a TCF4-binding protein(s) and found that MAD2B interacts with TCF4. We confirmed that MAD2B is a TCF4-binding protein by co-immunoprecipitation. Using the TOPFLASH reporter assay, we found that MAD2B blocks TCF4-mediated ...

  4. The AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 is required for differential auxin responses mediating root growth.

    Alexandre Tromas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In plants, the phytohormone auxin is a crucial regulator sustaining growth and development. At the cellular level, auxin is interpreted differentially in a tissue- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanisms of auxin signalling are partially unknown and the contribution of the AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 (ABP1 as an auxin receptor is still a matter of debate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we took advantage of the present knowledge of the root biological system to demonstrate that ABP1 is required for auxin response. The use of conditional ABP1 defective plants reveals that the protein is essential for maintenance of the root meristem and acts at least on the D-type CYCLIN/RETINOBLASTOMA pathway to control entry into the cell cycle. ABP1 affects PLETHORA gradients and confers auxin sensitivity to root cells thus defining the competence of the cells to be maintained within the meristem or to elongate. ABP1 is also implicated in the regulation of gene expression in response to auxin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data support that ABP1 is a key regulator for root growth and is required for auxin-mediated responses. Differential effects of ABP1 on various auxin responses support a model in which ABP1 is the major regulator for auxin action on the cell cycle and regulates auxin-mediated gene expression and cell elongation in addition to the already well known TIR1-mediated ubiquitination pathway.

  5. Cocaine potentiates astrocyte toxicity mediated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 protein gp120.

    Yanjing Yang

    Full Text Available It is becoming widely accepted that psychoactive drugs, often abused by HIV-I infected individuals, can significantly alter the progression of neuropathological changes observed in HIV-associated neurodegenerative diseases (HAND. The underlying mechanisms mediating these effects however, remain poorly understood. In the current study, we explored whether the psychostimulant drug cocaine could exacerbate toxicity mediated by gp120 in rat primary astrocytes. Exposure to both cocaine and gp120 resulted in increased cell toxicity compared to cells treated with either factor alone. The combinatorial toxicity of cocaine and gp120 was accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation. In addition, increased apoptosis of astrocytes in the presence of both the agents was associated with a concomitant increase in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Signaling pathways including c-jun N-teminal kinase (JNK, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, and nuclear factor (NF-κB were identified to be major players in cocaine and gp120-mediated apoptosis of astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that cocaine-mediated potentiation of gp120 toxicity involved regulation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential and MAPK signaling pathways.

  6. Memory formation for trace fear conditioning requires ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in the prefrontal cortex.

    Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidati...

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-mediation of tumor targeting human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α fusion protein.

    Ren, Hui; Shao, Xin; Zeng, Liang; Wang, Fa; Huang, Di-Nan; Hou, Gan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to use genetic engineering in order to establish an efficient tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α fusion protein with low toxicity, which may be used to target tumors. Four types of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated tumor targeting human recombinant TNF-α (rhTNF-α) fusion protein vectors were constructed. These were subsequently introduced into Escherichia coli. rhTNF-α fusion protein with a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tag was purified using GST resin affinity chromatography, and GST-tags were digested using factor Xa. The cytotoxic effects of the fusion protein on L929 cells were determined using MTT assays. At a concentration of 1 pM, the GST-tagged fusion protein exerted no cytotoxic effects on the cells, compared with the negative control cells (P=0.975>0.05). However, at a concentration of 1000 pM, the deblocking fusion protein exerted greater cytotoxic effects on L929 cells, compared with positive control cells (Peffects on healthy cells. PMID:25891416

  8. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro [Department of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8603 (Japan); Imagawa, Masayoshi, E-mail: imagawa@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8603 (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  9. Expression of RPB5-mediating protein and effects on apoptosis of hepatoma cells

    Objective: to prepare RPB-5-mediating protein (RMP) polyclonal antibody and to investigate the expression and effect of RMP on apoptosis in human hepatoma cells line SMMC-7721 induced by 60Co γ-ray. Methods: RMP mRNA expression in HT-29, A549, Hep-2, SGC-7901, 293T, HeLa, WI-38 and SMMC-7721 cells was detected by RT-PCR. PCR from plasmid for RMP gene was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, the GST-RMP fusion protein was induced, purified with glutathione-sepharose beads, then rabbits were immunized with the purified protein RMP for obtaining the antiserum. Exposing to 60Co γ-ray irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy, flow cytometry was applied to measure the effect of RMP on cell apoptosis in SMMC-7721. Results: RMP was expressed on cells of these cell lines. The SDS-PAGE showed target protein was the interest protein RMP. Preparation of polyclonal antibody binding with RMP protein specifically by Western blot. Exposing to the irradiation of the 60Co γ-ray at a dose of 6 Gy, flow cytometry was different applied to showed RMP reducing the apoptosis of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: RMP expressed on cells lines and reduces the apoptosis of SMMC-7721, which provides a way in liver cancer gene therapy. (authors)

  10. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  11. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Wu, Jinxia; Hu, Zhangli; Wang, Chaogang; Li, Shuangfei; Lei, Anping

    2008-08-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a high efficient expression vector was constructed. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in C. reinhardtii under the control of promoters: RBCS2 and HSP70A-RBCS2. Efficiency of transformation and expression were compared between two transgenic algae: RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-I and HSP70A-RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-II. Results show that HSP70A-RBCS2 could improve greatly the transformation efficiency by approximately eightfold of RBCS2, and the expression efficiency of GFP in Tran-II was at least double of that in Tran-I. In addition, a threefold increase of GFP in Tran-II was induced by heat shock at 40°C. All of the results demonstrated that HSP70A-RBCS2 was more efficient than RBCS2 in expressing exogenous gene in C. reinhardtii.

  12. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    2008-01-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a high efficient expression vector was constructed. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in C. Reinhardtii under the control of promoters: RBCS2 and HSP70A-RBCS2. Efficiency of transformation and expression were compared between two transgenic algae: RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-I and HSP70A-RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-II. Results show that HSP70A-RBCS2 could improve greatly the transformation efficiency by approximately eightfold of RBCS2, and the expression efficiency of GFP in Tran-II was at least double of that in Tran-I. In addition, a threefold increase of GFP in Tran-II was induced by heat shock at 40°C. All of the results demonstrated that HSP70A-RBCS2 was more efficient than RBCS2 in expressing exogenous gene in C. Reinhardtii.

  13. Comparative time-courses of copper-ion-mediated protein and lipid oxidation in low-density lipoprotein

    Knott, Heather M; Baoutina, Anna; Davies, Michael Jonathan;

    2002-01-01

    -courses of lipid and protein oxidation during copper-ion-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. We show that there is an early, lipid-mediated loss of 40-50% of the Trp residues of the apoB100 protein. There is no comparable loss over an identical period during the copper-ion-mediated oxidation of......Free radicals damage both lipids and proteins and evidence has accumulated for the presence of both oxidised lipids and proteins in aged tissue samples as well as those from a variety of pathologies including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Oxidation of the protein and lipid...... moieties of low-density lipoprotein is of particular interest due to its potential role in the unregulated uptake of lipids and cholesterol by macrophages; this may contribute to the initial stage of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. In the study reported here, we examined the comparative time...

  14. Combinations of SPR and MS for characterization of native and recombinant proteins in cell lysates

    Borch, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins in order to test their activity. Specific binding of recombinant and native 14-3-3 proteins in complex mixtures to immobilized phosphopeptides and subsequent elution was also tested by SPR-MS. Ammonium sulfate precipitate fractions from lysates of E. coli expressing 14-3-3 protein and...... of cauliflower were investigated for specific binding to the phosphopeptide ligands immobilized on a sensorchip by SPR. Subsequently, the bound protein was eluted and analyzed by MS for characterization of intact mass and peptide mass mapping....

  15. C-reactive protein enhances murine antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Kapur, Rick; Kim, Michael; Shanmugabhavananthan, Shanjeevan; Liu, Jonathan; Li, Yuan; Semple, John W

    2015-12-17

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a syndrome of respiratory distress triggered by blood transfusions and is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. TRALI has primarily been attributed to passive infusion of HLA and/or human neutrophil antigen antibodies present in transfused blood products, and predisposing factors such as inflammation are known to be important for TRALI initiation. Because the acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is highly upregulated during infections and inflammation and can also enhance antibody-mediated responses such as in vitro phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and in vivo thrombocytopenia, we investigated whether CRP affects murine antibody-mediated TRALI induced by the anti-major histocompatibility complex antibody 34-1-2s. We found that BALB/c mice injected with 34-1-2s or CRP alone were resistant to TRALI, however mice injected with 34-1-2s together with CRP had significantly enhanced lung damage and pulmonary edema. Mechanistically, 34-1-2s injection with CRP resulted in a significant synergistic increase in plasma levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and pulmonary neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, murine MIP-2 is the functional homolog of human interleukin-8, a known risk factor for human TRALI. These results suggest that elevated in vivo CRP levels, like those observed during infections, may significantly predispose recipients to antibody-mediated TRALI reactions and support the notion that modulating CRP levels is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce TRALI severity. PMID:26453659

  16. The Persistence of Hippocampal-Based Memory Requires Protein Synthesis Mediated by the Prion-like Protein CPEB3.

    Fioriti, Luana; Myers, Cory; Huang, Yan-You; Li, Xiang; Stephan, Joseph S; Trifilieff, Pierre; Colnaghi, Luca; Kosmidis, Stylianos; Drisaldi, Bettina; Pavlopoulos, Elias; Kandel, Eric R

    2015-06-17

    Consolidation of long-term memories depends on de novo protein synthesis. Several translational regulators have been identified, and their contribution to the formation of memory has been assessed in the mouse hippocampus. None of them, however, has been implicated in the persistence of memory. Although persistence is a key feature of long-term memory, how this occurs, despite the rapid turnover of its molecular substrates, is poorly understood. Here we find that both memory storage and its underlying synaptic plasticity are mediated by the increase in level and in the aggregation of the prion-like translational regulator CPEB3 (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein). Genetic ablation of CPEB3 impairs the maintenance of both hippocampal long-term potentiation and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. We propose a model whereby persistence of long-term memory results from the assembly of CPEB3 into aggregates. These aggregates serve as functional prions and regulate local protein synthesis necessary for the maintenance of long-term memory. PMID:26074003

  17. IgE-mediated soy protein sensitization in children with cow`s milk allergy

    Agustina Santi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Soy-based formula as an alternative to cow’s milk formula is preferable to extensively hydrolyzed protein formula because of the lower cost and more acceptable taste. However, cow’s milk allergy patients can subsequently develop a sensitivity to soy protein. Objective To compare soy protein sensitization in children with and without an allergy to cow’s milk. Methods This study was conducted in Yogyakarta from September 2007 until March 2008. Subjects were children aged below 4 years with an atopic history. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with a positive skin prick test to cow’s milk and those with a negative skin prick test to cow’s milk (control group. Both groups were given soy formula and tested at 6 weeks for sensitization to soy. Results There were 45 children in each group. Age, sex, and atopic history were similar in both groups. We found no soy protein sensitization (negative skin prick results in all subjects from both groups. Conclusion Risk of immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to soy protein was not proven in children with cow’s milk allergy. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:67-71].

  18. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates interleukin-4-mediated STAT6 signaling

    Woetmann, Anders; Brockdorff, Johannes; Lovato, Paola;

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) plays a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of allergy by promoting Th2 differentiation and B cell isotype switching to IgE. Studies on STAT6-deficient mice have demonstrated the essential role of STAT6 in mediating the biological functions of IL-4. IL-4 induces...... of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) induces serine phosphorylation of STAT6 and severely inhibits DNA binding of STAT6. In contrast, IL-4-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-1 and STAT6 is not affected, suggesting that PP2A acts downstream of Janus kinases in IL-4 signaling. In conclusion, we...

  19. Modulation of breast cancer resistance protein mediated atypical multidrug resistance using RNA interference delivered by adenovirus

    LI Wen-tong; ZHOU Geng-yin; WANG Chun-ling; GUO Cheng-hao; SONG Xian-rang; CHI Wei-ling

    2005-01-01

    @@ Clinical multidrug resistance (MDR) of malignancies to many antineoplastic agents is the major obstacle in the successful treatment of cancer. The emergence of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has necessitated the development of antagonists. To overcome the BCRP-mediated atypical MDR, RNA interference (RNAi) delivered by adenovirus targeting BCRP mRNA was used to inhibit the atypical MDR expression by infecting MCF-7/MX100 cell lines with constructed RNAi adenovirus.

  20. Poly(A)-binding-protein-mediated regulation of hDcp2 decapping in vitro

    Khanna, Richie; Kiledjian, Megerditch

    2004-01-01

    Regulation of mRNA decapping is a critical determinant for gene expression. We demonstrate that the poly(A) tail-mediated regulation of mRNA decapping observed in humans can be recapitulated in vitro by the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein PABP through a direct and specific binding to the 5′ end of capped mRNA. The specific association of PABP with the cap occurred only within the context of the RNA whereby a cap attached to an RNA moiety served as the high-affinity substrate but not the c...

  1. General model for lipid-mediated two-dimensional array formation of membrane proteins: Application to bacteriorhodopsin

    Sabra, Mads Christian; Uitdehaag, J.C.M.; Watts, A

    1998-01-01

    Based on experimental evidence for 2D array formation of bacteriorhodopsin, we propose a general model for lipid-mediated 2D array formation of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. The model includes two different lipid Species; "annular" lipids and "neutral" lipids, and one protein species. The ...

  2. Modification of the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycan by EptC protein-mediated addition of phosphoethanolamine

    Scott, Nichollas E; Nothaft, Harald; Edwards, Alistair V G;

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. C. jejuni possesses an extensive repertoire of carbohydrate structures that decorate both protein and non-protein surface-exposed structures. An N-linked glycosylation system encoded by the pgl gene cluster mediates the...

  3. Transferrin protein nanospheres: a nanoplatform for receptor-mediated cancer cell labeling and gene delivery

    McDonald, Michael A.; Spurlin, Tighe A.; Tona, Alessandro; Elliott, John T.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the use of transferrin protein nanospheres (TfpNS) for targeting cancer cells in vitro. Protein nanospheres represent an easily prepared and modifiable nanoplatform for receptor-specific targeting, molecular imaging and gene delivery. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate conjugated TfpNS (RBITC-TfpNS) show significantly enhanced uptake in vitro in SK-MEL-28 human malignant melanoma cells known to overexpress transferrin receptors compared to controls. RBITCTfpNS labeling of the cancer cells is due to transferrin receptor-mediated uptake, as demonstrated by competitive inhibition with native transferrin. Initial fluorescence microscopy studies indicate GFP plasmid can be transfected into melanoma cells via GFP plasmid encapsulated by TfpNS.

  4. Insulin Receptor Substrate Adaptor Proteins Mediate Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    Becker, Marc A.; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Oh, Annabell S.; Fagan, Dedra H.; Byron, Sara A.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles M.; Yee, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have not been developed with predictive biomarkers to identify tumors with receptor activation. We have previously shown that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) adaptor proteins are necessary for linking IGF1R to downstream signaling pathways and the malignant phenotype in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles downstream of IGF1R and its two adaptor proteins. IRS-null breast cancer cells (T47D-YA) were engineered to express IRS-1 or IRS-2 alone and their ability to mediate IGF ligand-induced proliferation, motility, and gene expression determined. Global gene expression signatures reflecting IRS adaptor specific and primary vs. secondary ligand response were derived (Early IRS-1, Late IRS-1, Early IRS-2 and Late IRS-2) and functional pathway analysis examined. IRS isoforms mediated distinct gene expression profiles, functional pathways, and breast cancer subtype association. For example, IRS-1/2-induced TGFb2 expression and blockade of TGFb2 abrogated IGF-induced cell migration. In addition, the prognostic value of IRS proteins was significant in the luminal B breast tumor subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that IRS adaptor signatures correlated with poor outcome as measured by recurrence-free and overall survival. Thus, IRS adaptor protein expression is required for IGF ligand responses in breast cancer cells. IRS-specific gene signatures represent accurate surrogates of IGF activity and could predict response to anti-IGF therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26991655

  5. Ret finger protein mediates Pax7-induced ubiquitination of MyoD in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Joung, Hosouk; Eom, Gwang Hyeon; Choe, Nakwon; Lee, Hye Mi; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Kwon, Duk-Hwa; Nam, Yoon Seok; Min, Hyunki; Shin, Sera; Kook, Jeewon; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Jeong Chul; Seo, Sang Beom; Baik, Yung Hong; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kook, Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy results from the net loss of muscular proteins and organelles and is caused by pathologic conditions such as nerve injury, immobilization, cancer, and other metabolic diseases. Recently, ubiquitination-mediated degradation of skeletal-muscle-specific transcription factors was shown to be involved in muscle atrophy, although the mechanisms have yet to be defined. Here we report that ret finger protein (RFP), also known as TRIM27, works as an E3 ligase in Pax7-induced degradation of MyoD. Muscle injury induced by sciatic nerve transection up-regulated RFP and RFP physically interacted with both Pax7 and MyoD. RFP and Pax7 synergistically reduced the protein amounts of MyoD but not the mRNA. RFP-induced reduction of MyoD protein was blocked by proteasome inhibitors. The Pax7-induced reduction MyoD was attenuated by RFP siRNA and by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. RFPΔR, an RFP construct that lacks the RING domain, failed to reduce MyoD amounts. RFP ubiquitinated MyoD, but RFPΔR failed to do so. Forced expression of RFP, but not RFPΔR, enhanced Pax7-induced ubiquitination of MyoD, whereas RFP siRNA blocked the ubiquitination. Sciatic nerve injury-induced muscle atrophy as well the reduction in MyoD was attenuated in RFP knockout mice. Taken together, our results show that RFP works as a novel E3 ligase in the Pax7-mediated degradation of MyoD in response to skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25025573

  6. Negative Regulation of STAT3 Protein-mediated Cellular Respiration by SIRT1 Protein

    Bernier, Michel; Paul, Rajib K; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Song, Shaoming; He, Hua-Jun; Armour, Sean M; Hubbard, Basil P; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Wang, Lili; Zong, Yaping; Sinclair, David A; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this ...... appears to be a functional regulator of NF-¿B-dependent STAT3 expression that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. These results have implications for understanding the interplay between STAT3 and SIRT1 in pro-inflammatory conditions.......In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this...... study, Sirt1 gene knock-out murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were used to delineate the role of SIRT1 in the regulation of STAT3 mitochondrial function. Here, we show that STAT3 mRNA and protein levels and the accumulation of serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria were increased...

  7. Tau Protein Mediates APP Intracellular Domain (AICD-Induced Alzheimer's-Like Pathological Features in Mice.

    Kaushik Ghosal

    Full Text Available Amyloid precursor protein (APP is cleaved by gamma-secretase to simultaneously generate amyloid beta (Aβ and APP Intracellular Domain (AICD peptides. Aβ plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis but recent studies suggest that amyloid-independent mechanisms also contribute to the disease. We previously showed that AICD transgenic mice (AICD-Tg exhibit AD-like features such as tau pathology, aberrant neuronal activity, memory deficits and neurodegeneration in an age-dependent manner. Since AD is a tauopathy and tau has been shown to mediate Aβ-induced toxicity, we examined the role of tau in AICD-induced pathological features. We report that ablating endogenous tau protects AICD-Tg mice from deficits in adult neurogenesis, seizure severity, short-term memory deficits and neurodegeneration. Deletion of tau restored abnormal phosphorylation of NMDA receptors, which is likely to underlie hyperexcitability and associated excitotoxicity in AICD-Tg mice. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type human tau aggravated receptor phosphorylation, impaired adult neurogenesis, memory deficits and neurodegeneration. Our findings show that tau is essential for mediating the deleterious effects of AICD. Since tau also mediates Aβ-induced toxic effects, our findings suggest that tau is a common downstream factor in both amyloid-dependent and-independent pathogenic mechanisms and therefore could be a more effective drug target for therapeutic intervention in AD.

  8. β-Agonist-mediated Relaxation of Airway Smooth Muscle Is Protein Kinase A-dependent*

    Morgan, Sarah J.; Deshpande, Deepak A.; Tiegs, Brian C.; Misior, Anna M.; Yan, Huandong; Hershfeld, Alena V.; Rich, Thomas C.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; An, Steven S.; Penn, Raymond B.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled β-agonists are effective at reversing bronchoconstriction in asthma, but the mechanism by which they exert this effect is unclear and controversial. PKA is the historically accepted effector, although this assumption is made on the basis of associative and not direct evidence. Recent studies have asserted that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), not PKA, mediates the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) observed with β-agonist treatment. This study aims to clarify the role of PKA in the prorelaxant effects of β-agonists on ASM. Inhibition of PKA activity via expression of the PKI and RevAB peptides results in increased β-agonist-mediated cAMP release, abolishes the inhibitory effect of isoproterenol on histamine-induced intracellular calcium flux, and significantly attenuates histamine-stimulated MLC-20 phosphorylation. Analyses of ASM cell and tissue contraction demonstrate that PKA inhibition eliminates most, if not all, β-agonist-mediated relaxation of contracted smooth muscle. Conversely, Epac knockdown had no effect on the regulation of contraction or procontractile signaling by isoproterenol. These findings suggest that PKA, not Epac, is the predominant and physiologically relevant effector through which β-agonists exert their relaxant effects. PMID:24973219

  9. β-Agonist-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle is protein kinase A-dependent.

    Morgan, Sarah J; Deshpande, Deepak A; Tiegs, Brian C; Misior, Anna M; Yan, Huandong; Hershfeld, Alena V; Rich, Thomas C; Panettieri, Reynold A; An, Steven S; Penn, Raymond B

    2014-08-15

    Inhaled β-agonists are effective at reversing bronchoconstriction in asthma, but the mechanism by which they exert this effect is unclear and controversial. PKA is the historically accepted effector, although this assumption is made on the basis of associative and not direct evidence. Recent studies have asserted that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), not PKA, mediates the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) observed with β-agonist treatment. This study aims to clarify the role of PKA in the prorelaxant effects of β-agonists on ASM. Inhibition of PKA activity via expression of the PKI and RevAB peptides results in increased β-agonist-mediated cAMP release, abolishes the inhibitory effect of isoproterenol on histamine-induced intracellular calcium flux, and significantly attenuates histamine-stimulated MLC-20 phosphorylation. Analyses of ASM cell and tissue contraction demonstrate that PKA inhibition eliminates most, if not all, β-agonist-mediated relaxation of contracted smooth muscle. Conversely, Epac knockdown had no effect on the regulation of contraction or procontractile signaling by isoproterenol. These findings suggest that PKA, not Epac, is the predominant and physiologically relevant effector through which β-agonists exert their relaxant effects. PMID:24973219

  10. FGF21-Mediated Improvements in Glucose Clearance Require Uncoupling Protein 1

    Michelle M. Kwon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21-mediated weight loss and improvements in glucose metabolism correlate with increased uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 levels in adipose tissues, suggesting that UCP1-dependent thermogenesis may drive FGF21 action. It was reported that FGF21 is equally effective at reducing body weight and improving glucose homeostasis without UCP1. We find while FGF21 can lower body weight in both wild-type and Ucp1 knockout mice, rapid clearance of glucose by FGF21 is defective in the absence of UCP1. Furthermore, in obese wild-type mice there is a fall in brown adipose tissue (BAT temperature during glucose excursion, and FGF21 improves glucose clearance while preventing the fall in BAT temperature. In Ucp1 knockout mice, the fall in BAT temperature during glucose excursion and FGF21-mediated changes in BAT temperature are lost. We conclude FGF21-mediated improvements in clearance of a glucose challenge require UCP1 and evoke UCP1-dependent thermogenesis as a method to increase glucose disposal.

  11. Residue 182 influences the second step of protein-tyrosine phosphatase-mediated catalysis

    Pedersen, A.K.; Guo, X.; Møller, K.B.;

    2004-01-01

    Previous enzyme kinetic and structural studies have revealed a critical role for Asp(181) (PTP1B numbering) in PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-mediated catalysis. In the E-P (phosphoenzyme) formation step, Asp(181) functions as a general acid, while in the E-P hydrolysis step it acts as a gene......Previous enzyme kinetic and structural studies have revealed a critical role for Asp(181) (PTP1B numbering) in PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-mediated catalysis. In the E-P (phosphoenzyme) formation step, Asp(181) functions as a general acid, while in the E-P hydrolysis step it acts...... as a general base. Most of our understanding of the role of Asp(181). is derived from studies with the Yersinia PTP and the mammalian PTP1B, and to some extent also TC (T-cell)-PTP and, the related PTPalpha and PTPepsilon. The neighbouring residue 182 is a phenylalanine in these four mammalian enzymes......, in comparison with Phe(182)-PTPs, have significantly decreased k(cat) values, and to a lesser degree, decreased k(cat)/K-m values. Combined enzyme kinetic, X-ray crystallographic and molecular dynamics studies indicate that the effect of His(182) is due to interactions with Asp(181) and with Gln(262). We...

  12. Heat shock protein 90β: A novel mediator of vitamin D action

    We investigated the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in vitamin D action in Caco-2 cells using geldanamycin (GA) to block Hsp90 function and RNA interference to reduce Hsp90β expression. When cells were exposed to GA, vitamin D-mediated gene expression and transcriptional activity were inhibited by 69% and 54%, respectively. Gel shift analysis indicated that GA reduced vitamin D-mediated DNA binding activity of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We tested the specific role of Hsp90β by knocking down its expression with stably expressed short hairpin RNA. Vitamin D-induced gene expression and transcriptional activity were reduced by 90% and 80%, respectively, in Hsp90β-deficient cells. Nuclear protein for VDR and RXRα, its heterodimer partner, were not reduced in Hsp90β-deficient cells. These findings indicate that Hsp90β is needed for optimal vitamin D responsiveness in the enterocyte and demonstrate a specific role for Hsp90β in VDR signaling

  13. THE SURFACE-MEDIATED UNFOLDING KINETICS OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS IS DEPENDENT ON MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE

    Patananan, A.N.; Goheen, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and unfolding pathways of proteins on rigid surfaces are essential in numerous complex processes associated with biomedical engineering, nanotechnology, and chromatography. It is now well accepted that the kinetics of unfolding are characterized by chemical and physical interactions dependent on protein deformability and structure, as well as environmental pH, temperature, and surface chemistry. Although this fundamental process has broad implications in medicine and industry, little is known about the mechanism because of the atomic lengths and rapid time scales involved. Therefore, the unfolding kinetics of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin were investigated by adsorbing the globular proteins to non-porous cationic polymer beads. The protein fractions were adsorbed at different residence times (0, 9, 10, 20, and 30 min) at near-physiological conditions using a gradient elution system similar to that in high-performance liquid chromatography. The elution profi les and retention times were obtained by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A decrease in recovery was observed with time for almost all proteins and was attributed to irreversible protein unfolding on the non-porous surfaces. These data, and those of previous studies, fi t a positively increasing linear trend between percent unfolding after a fi xed (9 min) residence time (71.8%, 31.1%, and 32.1% of myoglobin, β-glucosidase, and ovalbumin, respectively) and molecular weight. Of all the proteins examined so far, only myoglobin deviated from this trend with higher than predicted unfolding rates. Myoglobin also exhibited an increase in retention time over a wide temperature range (0°C and 55°C, 4.39 min and 5.74 min, respectively) whereas ovalbumin and β-glucosidase did not. Further studies using a larger set of proteins are required to better understand the physiological and physiochemical implications of protein unfolding kinetics. This study confi rms that surface-mediated

  14. PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein mediates the interaction with NifA

    TU Ran; CUI Yanhua; CHEN Sanfeng; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    NifA in Azospirillum brasilense plays a key role in regulating the synthesis of nitrogenase in response to ammonia and oxygen available. Recently,our laboratory has identified four clones, whose gene prodcuts interact with NifA, from A. brasilense Sp7genomic libraries by using the yeast two-hybrid system with NifA as bait. We are interested in clone S35,one of the four clones, because it contains a PAS-domain coding region. The entire open reading frame (ORF) for the PAS domain-containing protein was isolated and designated as org35 here. org35gene is 2211-bp long and encodes a protein of 736aa with a predicted molecular weight of about 78.4 kD.The predicted amino acid sequence of org35 has similarity to some two-component sensor kinase/response regulator hybrids of bacteria. Structural analyses showed that Org35 comprises at least three discrete conserved domains: the N-terminal PAS, the central histidine protein kinase (HPK) and the C-terminal response regulator (RR). The PAS domain of the deduced Org35 protein was found to interact directly with NifA, but the central HPK and the C-terminal RR domains of Org35 were not. These results indicated that interaction between NifA and Org35 was mediated by PAS domain.

  15. Thermodynamics of tryptophan-mediated activation of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein.

    McElroy, Craig A; Manfredo, Amanda; Gollnick, Paul; Foster, Mark P

    2006-06-27

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) functions in many bacilli to control the expression of the tryptophan biosynthesis genes. Transcription of the trp operon is controlled by TRAP through an attenuation mechanism, in which competition between two alternative secondary-structural elements in the 5' leader sequence of the nascent mRNA is influenced by tryptophan-dependent binding of TRAP to the RNA. Previously, NMR studies of the undecamer (11-mer) suggested that tryptophan-dependent control of RNA binding by TRAP is accomplished through ligand-induced changes in protein dynamics. We now present further insights into this ligand-coupled event from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Scanning calorimetry showed tryptophan dissociation to be independent of global protein unfolding, while analysis of the temperature dependence of the binding enthalpy by ITC revealed a negative heat capacity change larger than expected from surface burial, a hallmark of binding-coupled processes. Analysis of this excess heat capacity change using parameters derived from protein folding studies corresponds to the ordering of 17-24 residues per monomer of TRAP upon tryptophan binding. This result is in agreement with qualitative analysis of residue-specific broadening observed in TROSY NMR spectra of the 91 kDa oligomer. Implications for the mechanism of ligand-mediated TRAP activation through a shift in a preexisting conformational equilibrium and an induced-fit conformational change are discussed. PMID:16784236

  16. Protein adsorption, desorption, and aggregation mediated by solid-liquid interfaces.

    Perevozchikova, Tatiana; Nanda, Hirsh; Nesta, Douglas P; Roberts, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    Adsorption of proteins to solid-fluid interfaces is often empirically found to promote formation of soluble aggregates and larger, subvisible, and visible particles, but key stages in this process are often difficult to probe directly. Aggregation mediated by adsorption to water-silicon oxide (SiOx) interfaces, akin to hydrated glass surfaces, was characterized as a function of pH and ionic strength for alpha-chymotrypsinogen (aCgn) and for a monoclonal antibody (IgG1). A flow cell permitted neutron reflectivity for protein layers adsorbed to clean SiOx surfaces, as well as after successive "rinse" steps. Aggregates recovered in solution after gently "rinsing" the surface were characterized by neutron scattering, microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. IgG1 molecules oriented primarily "flat" against the SiOx surface, with the primary protein layer desorbed to a minimal extent, whereas a diffuse overlayer was easily rinsed off. aCgn molecules were resistant to desorption when they appeared to be unfolded at the interface, but were otherwise easily removed. For cases where strong binding occurred, protein that did desorb was a mixture of monomer and small amounts of HMW aggregates (for aCgn) or subvisible particles (for IgG1). Changes in adsorption and/or unfolding with pH indicated that electrostatic interactions were important in all cases. PMID:25846460

  17. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  18. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  19. Glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-6.

    Boden, S D; Hair, G; Titus, L; Racine, M; McCuaig, K; Wozney, J M; Nanes, M S

    1997-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) at physiological concentrations promote osteoblast differentiation from fetal calvarial cells, calvarial organ cultures, and bone marrow stromal cells; however, the cellular pathways involved are not known. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are recognized as important mediators of osteoblast differentiation. Specific roles for individual BMPs during postembryonic membranous bone formation have yet to be determined. We recently reported that GC potentiated the osteoblast differentiation effects of BMP-2 and BMP-4, but not of BMP-6, which, by itself, was the most potent of the three. In the present study, we used fetal rat secondary calvarial cultures to study the role of BMP-6 during early osteoblast differentiation. Treatment with the GC triamcinolone (10(-9) M) resulted in a 5- to 8-fold increase in BMP-6 steady-state messenger RNA levels, peaking at 12 h. In contrast, BMPs -2, -4, -5, -7, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 messenger RNA levels increased by less than 2-fold, after GC treatment, compared with untreated control cultures at 24 h. BMP-6 protein secretion increased 6- to 7-fold by 12 h and 12-fold (from 7.5 to 90 ng/ml) by 24 h, as measured by quantitative Western analysis. Treatment of cells with oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to BMP-6 diminished secretion of BMP-6 protein and significantly inhibited the GC-induced differentiation, as determined by a 10-fold decrease in the number of mineralized bone nodules, compared with controls that were treated with sense oligonucleotides or no oligonucleotides (ANOVA, P < 0.05). The antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of differentiation was rescued by treatment with exogenous recombinant human BMP-6. We conclude that GC-induced differentiation of osteoblasts from the pluripotent precursors is mediated, in part, by BMP-6. These results suggest that BMP-6 has an important and unique role during early osteoblast differentiation. PMID:9202223

  20. Arabidopsis HSP90 protein modulates RPP4-mediated temperature-dependent cell death and defense responses.

    Bao, Fei; Huang, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Chipan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Xin; Yang, Shuhua

    2014-06-01

    Plant defense responses are regulated by temperature. In Arabidopsis, the chilling-sensitive mutant chs2-1 (rpp4-1d) contains a gain-of-function mutation in the TIR-NB-LRR (Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) gene, RPP4 (RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA 4), which leads to constitutive activation of the defense response at low temperatures. Here, we identified and characterized two suppressors of rpp4-1d from a genetic screen, hsp90.2 and hsp90.3, which carry point mutations in the cytosolic heat shock proteins HSP90.2 and HSP90.3, respectively. The hsp90 mutants suppressed the chilling sensitivity of rpp4-1d, including seedling lethality, activation of the defense responses and cell death under chilling stress. The hsp90 mutants exhibited compromised RPM1 (RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS MACULICOLA 1)-, RPS4 (RESISTANCE TO P. SYRINGAE 4)- and RPP4-mediated pathogen resistance. The wild-type RPP4 and the mutated form rpp4 could interact with HSP90 to form a protein complex. Furthermore, RPP4 and rpp4 proteins accumulated in the cytoplasm and nucleus at normal temperatures, whereas the nuclear accumulation of the mutated rpp4 was decreased at low temperatures. Genetic analysis of the intragenic suppressors of rpp4-1d revealed the important functions of the NB-ARC and LRR domains of RPP4 in temperature-dependent defense signaling. In addition, the rpp4-1d-induced chilling sensitivity was largely independent of the WRKY70 or MOS (modifier of snc1) genes. [Correction added after online publication 11 March 2013: the expansions of TIR-NB-LRR and RPS4 were amended] This study reveals that Arabidopsis HSP90 regulates RPP4-mediated temperature-dependent cell death and defense responses. PMID:24611624

  1. Protein kinase Cδ mediates trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity in mice in vivo via inhibition of glutathione defense mechanism.

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Nam, Yunsung; Tu, Thu-Hien Thi; Lim, Yong Kwang; Wie, Myung-Bok; Kim, Dae-Joong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity. TMT treatment (2.8 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased PKCδ expression out of PKC isozymes (i.e., α, βI, βII, δ, and ς) in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) mice. Consistently, treatment with TMT resulted in significant increases in cleaved PKCδ expression. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition (PKCδ knockout or rottlerin) was less susceptible to TMT-induced seizures than WT mice. TMT treatment increased glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and levels of reactive oxygen species. These effects were more pronounced in the WT mice than in PKCδ knockout mice. In addition, the ability of TMT to induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2, Nrf2 DNA-binding activity, and upregulation of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase was significantly increased in the PKCδ knockout mice and rottlerin (10 or 20 mg/kg, p.o. × 6)-treated WT mice. Furthermore, neuronal degeneration (as shown by nuclear chromatin clumping and TUNEL staining) in WT mice was most pronounced 2 days after TMT. At the same time, TMT-induced inhibition of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was evident, thereby decreasing phospho-Bad, expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and the interaction between phospho-Bad and 14-3-3 protein, and increasing Bax expression and caspase-3 cleavage were observed. Rottlerin or PKCδ knockout significantly protected these changes in anti- and pro-apoptotic factors. Importantly, treatment of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (0.8 or 1.6 µg, i.c.v.) 4 h before TMT counteracted protective effects (i.e., Nrf-2-dependent glutathione induction and pro-survival phenomenon) of rottlerin. Therefore, our results suggest that down-regulation of PKCδ and up-regulations of Nrf2-dependent glutathione defense mechanism and PI3K/Akt signaling are critical for attenuating TMT neurotoxicity. PMID:25895139

  2. Phospholipase D1 mediates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling for glucose uptake.

    Jong Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glucose uptake have yet to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we found that AMPK-induced phospholipase D1 (PLD1 activation is required for (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells under glucose deprivation conditions. PLD1 activity rather than PLD2 activity is significantly enhanced by glucose deprivation. AMPK-wild type (WT stimulates PLD activity, while AMPK-dominant negative (DN inhibits it. AMPK regulates PLD1 activity through phosphorylation of the Ser-505 and this phosphorylation is increased by the presence of AMP. Furthermore, PLD1-S505Q, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant, shows no changes in activity in response to glucose deprivation and does not show a significant increase in (14C-glucose uptake when compared to PLD1-WT. Taken together, these results suggest that phosphorylation of PLD1 is important for the regulation of (14C-glucose uptake. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK is stimulated by AMPK-induced PLD1 activation through the formation of phosphatidic acid (PA, which is a product of PLD. An ERK pharmacological inhibitor, PD98059, and the PLD inhibitor, 1-BtOH, both attenuate (14C-glucose uptake in muscle cells. Finally, the extracellular stresses caused by glucose deprivation or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; AMPK activator regulate (14C-glucose uptake and cell surface glucose transport (GLUT 4 through ERK stimulation by AMPK-mediated PLD1 activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results

  3. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  4. Screening and identification of proteins mediating senna induced gastrointestinal motility enhancement in mouse colon

    Xin Wang; Bo-Rong Pan; Dai-Min Fan; Yue-Xia Zhong; Mei Lan; Zong-You Zhang; Yong-Quan Shi; Ju Lu; Jie Ding; Kai-Cun Wu; Jian-Ping Jin

    2002-01-01

    .CONCLUSION: SE causes diarrhea and enhancesgastrointestinal motility through digestive tractadministration. Long-term gastric administration of SEinduces inflammatory changes and cell damage in the wholegastrointestinal tract. The differential proteins screened fromthe colonic tissues of the model mice might mediate theenhancing effect of SE on gastrointestinal motility.

  5. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D0 = 4.13 ± 1.0 Gy; α/β = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D0 = 4.91 ± 1.0 Gy; α/β = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  6. Proteomic analysis of ERK1/2-mediated human sickle red blood cell membrane protein phosphorylation

    Soderblom Erik J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sickle cell disease (SCD, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK ERK1/2 is constitutively active and can be inducible by agonist-stimulation only in sickle but not in normal human red blood cells (RBCs. ERK1/2 is involved in activation of ICAM-4-mediated sickle RBC adhesion to the endothelium. However, other effects of the ERK1/2 activation in sickle RBCs leading to the complex SCD pathophysiology, such as alteration of RBC hemorheology are unknown. Results To further characterize global ERK1/2-induced changes in membrane protein phosphorylation within human RBCs, a label-free quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was applied to sickle and normal RBC membrane ghosts pre-treated with U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, the upstream kinase of ERK1/2, in the presence or absence of recombinant active ERK2. Across eight unique treatment groups, 375 phosphopeptides from 155 phosphoproteins were quantified with an average technical coefficient of variation in peak intensity of 19.8%. Sickle RBC treatment with U0126 decreased thirty-six phosphopeptides from twenty-one phosphoproteins involved in regulation of not only RBC shape, flexibility, cell morphology maintenance and adhesion, but also glucose and glutamate transport, cAMP production, degradation of misfolded proteins and receptor ubiquitination. Glycophorin A was the most affected protein in sickle RBCs by this ERK1/2 pathway, which contained 12 unique phosphorylated peptides, suggesting that in addition to its effect on sickle RBC adhesion, increased glycophorin A phosphorylation via the ERK1/2 pathway may also affect glycophorin A interactions with band 3, which could result in decreases in both anion transport by band 3 and band 3 trafficking. The abundance of twelve of the thirty-six phosphopeptides were subsequently increased in normal RBCs co-incubated with recombinant ERK2 and therefore represent specific MEK1/2 phospho-inhibitory targets mediated via ERK2

  7. Ganglioside inhibition of glutamate-mediated protein kinase C translocation in primary cultures of cerebellar neurons

    In primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and activation can be triggered by the stimulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors. Glutamate evokes a dose-related translocation of 4-β-[3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate /[3H]-P(BtO)2/ binding sites from the cytosol to the neuronal membrane and stimulates the incorporation of 32P into a number of membrane proteins, particularly protein bands in the range of 80, 50, and 40 kDa. The glutamate-evoked PKC translocation is Mg2+ sensitive, is prevented by 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and phencyclidine, is not inhibited by nitrendipine (a voltage-dependent Ca2+-channel-blocker) but is abolished by the removal of Ca2+ from the incubation medium, suggesting that glutamate-mediated Ca2+ influx is operative in the redistribution of PKC. Exposure of granule cells to the gangliosides trisialosylgangliotetraglycosylceramide (GT1b) of monosialosylgangliotetraglycosylceramide (GM1) inhibits the translocation and activation of PKC evoked by glutamate. These glycosphingolipids fail to interfere with glutamate binding to its high-affinity recognition site of with the [3H]P(BtO)2 binding, nor do they affect the Ca2+ influx. These gangliosides may prevent PKC translocation by interfering with the PKC binding to the neuronal membrane phosphatidylserine

  8. Metal-Mediated Affinity and Orientation Specificity in a Computationally Designed Protein Homodimer

    Der, Bryan S.; Machius, Mischa; Miley, Michael J.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian (UNC); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Computationally designing protein-protein interactions with high affinity and desired orientation is a challenging task. Incorporating metal-binding sites at the target interface may be one approach for increasing affinity and specifying the binding mode, thereby improving robustness of designed interactions for use as tools in basic research as well as in applications from biotechnology to medicine. Here we describe a Rosetta-based approach for the rational design of a protein monomer to form a zinc-mediated, symmetric homodimer. Our metal interface design, named MID1 (NESG target ID OR37), forms a tight dimer in the presence of zinc (MID1-zinc) with a dissociation constant <30 nM. Without zinc the dissociation constant is 4 {micro}M. The crystal structure of MID1-zinc shows good overall agreement with the computational model, but only three out of four designed histidines coordinate zinc. However, a histidine-to-glutamate point mutation resulted in four-coordination of zinc, and the resulting metal binding site and dimer orientation closely matches the computational model (C{alpha} rmsd = 1.4 {angstrom}).

  9. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP controls KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion

    Satoshi Asano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP-knockout mice exhibited hyperinsulinemia. Here, we investigated the role of PRIP in insulin granule exocytosis using Prip-knockdown mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells. Insulin release from Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells was higher than that from control cells, and Prip knockdown facilitated movement of GFP-phogrin-labeled insulin secretory vesicles. Double-immunofluorescent staining and density step-gradient analyses showed that the KIF5B motor protein co-localized with insulin vesicles in Prip-knockdown MIN6 cells. Knockdown of GABAA-receptor-associated protein (GABARAP, a microtubule-associated PRIP-binding partner, by Gabarap silencing in MIN6 cells reduced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with KIF5B and the movement of vesicles, resulting in decreased insulin secretion. However, the co-localization of KIF5B with microtubules was not altered in Prip- and Gabarap-knockdown cells. The presence of unbound GABARAP, freed either by an interference peptide or by Prip silencing, in MIN6 cells enhanced the co-localization of insulin vesicles with microtubules and promoted vesicle mobility. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PRIP and GABARAP function in a complex to regulate KIF5B-mediated insulin secretion, providing new insights into insulin exocytic mechanisms.

  10. Activation of pheromone-sensitive neurons is mediated by conformational activation of pheromone-binding protein.

    Laughlin, John D; Ha, Tal Soo; Jones, David N M; Smith, Dean P

    2008-06-27

    Detection of volatile odorants by olfactory neurons is thought to result from direct activation of seven-transmembrane odorant receptors by odor molecules. Here, we show that detection of the Drosophila pheromone, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA), is instead mediated by pheromone-induced conformational shifts in the extracellular pheromone-binding protein, LUSH. We show that LUSH undergoes a pheromone-specific conformational change that triggers the firing of pheromone-sensitive neurons. Amino acid substitutions in LUSH that are predicted to reduce or enhance the conformational shift alter sensitivity to cVA as predicted in vivo. One substitution, LUSH(D118A), produces a dominant-active LUSH protein that stimulates T1 neurons through the neuronal receptor components Or67d and SNMP in the complete absence of pheromone. Structural analysis of LUSH(D118A) reveals that it closely resembles cVA-bound LUSH. Therefore, the pheromone-binding protein is an inactive, extracellular ligand converted by pheromone molecules into an activator of pheromone-sensitive neurons and reveals a distinct paradigm for detection of odorants. PMID:18585358

  11. Analysis of transient phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions in living mammalian cells using split-TEV

    Botvinnik Anna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulated protein-protein interactions (PPIs are pivotal molecular switches that are important for the regulation of signaling processes within eukaryotic cells. Cellular signaling is altered in various disease conditions and offers interesting options for pharmacological interventions. Constitutive PPIs are usually mediated by large interaction domains. In contrast, stimulus-regulated PPIs often depend on small post-translational modifications and are thus better suited targets for drug development. However, the detection of modification-dependent PPIs with biochemical methods still remains a labour- and material-intensive task, and many pivotal PPIs that are potentially suited for pharmacological intervention most likely remain to be identified. The availability of methods to easily identify and quantify stimulus-dependent, potentially also transient interaction events, is therefore essential. The assays should be applicable to intact mammalian cells, optimally also to primary cells in culture. Results In this study, we adapted the split-TEV system to quantify phosphorylation-dependent and transient PPIs that occur at the membrane and in the cytosol of living mammalian cells. Split-TEV is based on a PPI-induced functional complementation of two inactive TEV protease fragments fused to interaction partners of choice. Genetically encoded transcription-coupled and proteolysis-only TEV reporter systems were used to convert the TEV activity into an easily quantifiable readout. We measured the phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the pro-apoptotic protein Bad and the adapter proteins 14-3-3ε and ζ in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and in primary cultured neurons. Using split-TEV assays, we show that Bad specifically interacts with 14-3-3 isoforms when phosphorylated by protein kinase Akt-1/PKB at Ser136. We also measured the phosphorylation-dependent Bad/14-3-3 interactions mediated by endogenous and transient Akt-1 activity. We

  12. Coat protein-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IB in Nicotiana benthamiana

    A Srivastava; S K Raj

    2008-06-01

    Coat protein (CP)-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were tested for resistance against CMV by challenge inoculations. The transgenic lines exhibiting complete resistance remained symptomless throughout life and showed reduced or no virus accumulation in their systemic leaves after virus challenge. These lines also showed virus resistance against two closely related strains of CMV. This is the first report of CP-mediated transgenic resistance against a CMV subgroup IB member isolated from India.

  13. The role of heat shock protein 70 in mediating age-dependent mortality in sepsis.

    McConnell, Kevin W; Fox, Amy C; Clark, Andrew T; Chang, Nai-Yuan Nicholas; Dominguez, Jessica A; Farris, Alton B; Buchman, Timothy G; Hunt, Clayton R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-03-15

    Sepsis is primarily a disease of the aged, with increased incidence and mortality occurring in aged hosts. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 plays an important role in both healthy aging and the stress response to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of HSP70 in mediating mortality and the host inflammatory response in aged septic hosts. Sepsis was induced in both young (6- to 12-wk-old) and aged (16- to 17-mo-old) HSP70(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine whether HSP70 modulated outcome in an age-dependent fashion. Young HSP70(-/-) and WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia had no differences in mortality, suggesting HSP70 does not mediate survival in young septic hosts. In contrast, mortality was higher in aged HSP70(-/-) mice than aged WT mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (p = 0.01), suggesting HSP70 mediates mortality in sepsis in an age-dependent fashion. Compared with WT mice, aged septic HSP70(-/-) mice had increased gut epithelial apoptosis and pulmonary inflammation. In addition, HSP70(-/-) mice had increased systemic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β compared with WT mice. These data demonstrate that HSP70 is a key determinant of mortality in aged, but not young hosts in sepsis. HSP70 may play a protective role in an age-dependent response to sepsis by preventing excessive gut apoptosis and both pulmonary and systemic inflammation. PMID:21296977

  14. Gene expression profiles of human liver cells mediated by hepatitis B virus X protein

    Wei-ying ZHANG; Fu-qing XU; Chang-liang SHAN; Rong XIANG; Li-hong YE; Xiao-dong ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the gene expression profiles mediated by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), we characterized the molecular features of pathogenesis associated with HBx in a human liver cell model.Methods: We examined gene expression profiles in L-O2-X cells, an engineered L-O2 cell line that constitutively expresses HBx, relative to L-O2 cells using an Agilent 22 K human 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing more than 21,329 unique, well-characterized Homo sapiens genes, Western blot analysis and RNA interference (RNAi) targeting HBx mRNA validated the overexpression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2 in L-O2-X cells. Meanwhile, the BrdU incorporation assay was used to test cell proliferation mediated by upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).Results: The microarray showed that the expression levels of 152 genes were remarkably altered; 82 of the genes were upregulated and 70 genes were downregulated in L-O2-X cells. The altered genes were associated with signal transduction pathways, cell cycle, metastasis, transcriptional regulation, immune response, metabolism, and other processes. PCNA and Bcl-2 were upregulated in L-O2-X cells. Furthermore, we found that COX-2 upregulation in L-O2-X cells enhanced proliferation using the BrdU incorporation assay, whereas indomethacin (an inhibitor of COX-2) abolished the promotion.Conclusion: Our findings provide new evidence that HBx is able to regulate many genes that may be involved in the car-cinogenesis. These regulated genes mediated by HBx may serve as molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  16. Estrogen receptor-associated proteins: possible mediators of hormone-induced transcription.

    Halachmi, S; Marden, E; Martin, G; MacKay, H; Abbondanza, C; Brown, M

    1994-06-01

    The estrogen receptor is a transcription factor which, when bound to estradiol, binds DNA and regulates expression of estrogen-responsive genes. A 160-kilodalton estrogen receptor-associated protein, ERAP160, was identified that exhibits estradiol-dependent binding to the receptor. Mutational analysis of the receptor shows that its ability to activate transcription parallels its ability to bind ERAP160. Antiestrogens are unable to promote ERAP160 binding and can block the estrogen-dependent interaction of the receptor and ERAP160 in a dose-dependent manner. This evidence suggests that ERAP160 may mediate estradiol-dependent transcriptional activation by the estrogen receptor. Furthermore, the ability of antiestrogens to block estrogen receptor-ERAP160 complex formation could account for their therapeutic effects in breast cancer. PMID:8197458

  17. Protein Kinase D1 Signaling in Angiogenic Gene Expression and VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis.

    Ren, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1) is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation, and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:27200349

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress

    Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L.; Losón, Oliver C.; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P.; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  19. Mediator proteins orchestrate enzyme-ssDNA assembly during T4 recombination-dependent DNA replication and repair

    Bleuit, Jill S.; Xu, Hang; Ma, Yujie; Wang, Tongsheng; Liu, Jie; Morrical, Scott W.

    2001-01-01

    Studies of recombination-dependent replication (RDR) in the T4 system have revealed the critical roles played by mediator proteins in the timely and productive loading of specific enzymes onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during phage RDR processes. The T4 recombination mediator protein, uvsY, is necessary for the proper assembly of the T4 presynaptic filament (uvsX recombinase cooperatively bound to ssDNA), leading to the recombination-primed initiation of leading strand DNA synthesis. In the...

  20. A collapsin response mediator protein 2 isoform controls myosin II-mediated cell migration and matrix assembly by trapping ROCK II

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Wait, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) is known as a regulator of neuronal polarity and differentiation through microtubule assembly and trafficking. Here, we show that CRMP-2 is ubiquitously expressed and a splice variant (CRMP-2L), which is expressed mainly in epithelial cells among...... binding domains but also trapped and inhibited the kinase. CRMP-2L protein levels profoundly affected haptotactic migration and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton of carcinoma cells as well as nontransformed epithelial cell migration in a ROCK activity-dependent manner. Moreover, the ectopic expression of CRMP...

  1. Reduced expression of ribosomal proteins relieves microRNA-mediated repression.

    Janas, Maja M; Wang, Eric; Love, Tara; Harris, Abigail S; Stevenson, Kristen; Semmelmann, Karlheinz; Shaffer, Jonathan M; Chen, Po-Hao; Doench, John G; Yerramilli, Subrahmanyam V B K; Neuberg, Donna S; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Housman, David E; Burge, Christopher B; Novina, Carl D

    2012-04-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate physiological and pathological processes by inducing posttranscriptional repression of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) via incompletely understood mechanisms. To discover factors required for human miRNA activity, we performed an RNAi screen using a reporter cell line of miRNA-mediated repression of translation initiation. We report that reduced expression of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) dissociated miRNA complexes from target mRNAs, leading to increased polysome association, translation, and stability of miRNA-targeted mRNAs relative to untargeted mRNAs. RNA sequencing of polysomes indicated substantial overlap in sets of genes exhibiting increased or decreased polysomal association after Argonaute or RPG knockdowns, suggesting similarity in affected pathways. miRNA profiling of monosomes and polysomes demonstrated that miRNAs cosediment with ribosomes. RPG knockdowns decreased miRNAs in monosomes and increased their target mRNAs in polysomes. Our data show that most miRNAs repress translation and that the levels of RPGs modulate miRNA-mediated repression of translation initiation. PMID:22541556

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 mediates resistance to Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Human hepatobiliary Cancer cells

    Nguyen Ho-Bouldoires, Thang Huong; Clapéron, Audrey; Mergey, Martine; Wendum, Dominique; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle; Tahraoui, Sylvana; Fartoux, Laetitia; Chettouh, Hamza; Merabtene, Fatiha; Scatton, Olivier; Gaestel, Matthias; Praz, Françoise; Housset, Chantal; Fouassier, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The development and progression of liver cancer are characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS-induced oxidative stress impairs cell proliferation and ultimately leads to cell death. Although liver cancer cells are especially resistant to oxidative stress, mechanisms of such resistance remain understudied. We identified the MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2)/Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) signaling pathway mediating defenses against oxidative stress. Besides to ...

  3. OSBP-Related Protein Family: Mediators of Lipid Transport and Signaling at Membrane Contact Sites.

    Kentala, Henriikka; Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and its related protein homologs, ORPs, constitute a conserved family of lipid-binding/transfer proteins (LTPs) expressed ubiquitously in eukaryotes. The ligand-binding domain of ORPs accommodates cholesterol and oxysterols, but also glycerophospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P). ORPs have been implicated as intracellular lipid sensors or transporters. Most ORPs carry targeting determinants for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and non-ER organelle membrane. ORPs are located and function at membrane contact sites (MCSs), at which ER is closely apposed with other organelle limiting membranes. Such sites have roles in lipid transport and metabolism, control of Ca(2+) fluxes, and signaling events. ORPs are postulated either to transport lipids over MCSs to maintain the distinct lipid compositions of organelle membranes, or to control the activity of enzymes/protein complexes with functions in signaling and lipid metabolism. ORPs may transfer PI4P and another lipid class bidirectionally. Transport of PI4P followed by its hydrolysis would in this model provide the energy for transfer of the other lipid against its concentration gradient. Control of organelle lipid compositions by OSBP/ORPs is important for the life cycles of several pathogenic viruses. Targeting ORPs with small-molecular antagonists is proposed as a new strategy to combat viral infections. Several ORPs are reported to modulate vesicle transport along the secretory or endocytic pathways. Moreover, antagonists of certain ORPs inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Thus, ORPs are LTPs, which mediate interorganelle lipid transport and coordinate lipid signals with a variety of cellular regimes. PMID:26811291

  4. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  5. A hormone-responsive C1-domain-containing protein At5g17960 mediates stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Ravindran Vijay Bhaskar

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play a critical role in mediating plant stress response. They employ a variety of proteins for coordinating such processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, some members of a Cys-rich protein family known as C1-clan proteins were involved in stress response, but the actual function of the protein family is largely unknown. We studied At5g17960, a C1-clan protein member that possesses three unique C1 signature domains viz. C1_2, C1_3 and ZZ/PHD type. Additionally, we identified 72 other proteins in A. thaliana that contain all three unique signature domains. Subsequently, the 73 proteins were phylogenetically classified into IX subgroups. Promoter motif analysis of the 73 genes identified the presence of hormone-responsive and stress-responsive putative cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, we observed that transcript levels of At5g17960 were induced in response to different hormones and stress treatments. At1g35610 and At3g13760, two other members of subgroup IV, also showed upregulation upon GA3, biotic and abiotic stress treatments. Moreover, seedlings of independent transgenic A. thaliana lines ectopically expressing or suppressing At5g17960 also showed differential regulation of several abiotic stress-responsive marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that C1-domain-containing proteins have a role to play in plant hormone-mediated stress responses, thereby assigning a putative function for the C1-clan protein family.

  6. Integrin-mediated targeting of protein polymer nanoparticles carrying a cytostatic macrolide

    Shi, Pu

    Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and offtarget side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or nonpolymeric. This chapter summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins. This chapter explores an alternative encapsulation strategy based on high-specificity avidity between a small molecule drug and its cognate protein target fused to the corona of protein polymer nanoparticles. With the new strategy, the drug associates tightly to the carrier and releases slowly, which may decrease toxicity and promote tumor accumulation via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. To test this hypothesis, the drug Rapamycin (Rapa) was selected for its potent anti-proliferative properties, which give it immunosuppressant and anti-tumor activity. Despite its potency, Rapa has low solubility, low oral bioavailability, and rapid systemic clearance, which make it an excellent candidate for

  7. The protective effects of pomelo extract (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation

    Caengprasath, Natarin; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces non-enzymatic protein glycation, which plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications. Immense efforts have been made to determine effective antiglycation compounds from natural products. Pomelo has shown beneficial effects for human health. The objective of this study was to determine the antiglycation effect of pomelo extract against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation. Our results showed that the pomelo extract (0.25 - 2.00 ...

  8. Protein-mediated protection as the predominant mechanism for defining processed mRNA termini in land plant chloroplasts

    Zhelyazkova, P.; Hammani, K.; M. Rojas; Voelker, R.; Vargas-Suarez, M.; Boerner, T.; Barkan, A

    2011-01-01

    Most chloroplast mRNAs are processed from larger precursors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to mediate these processing events, including site-specific cleavage and the stalling of exonucleases by RNA structures. A protein barrier mechanism was proposed based on analysis of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein PPR10: PPR10 binds two intercistronic regions and impedes 5'- and 3'-exonucleases, resulting in processed RNAs with PPR10 bound at the 5'- or 3'-end. In this study, we prov...

  9. Surface Proteins and Pneumolysin of Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Mediate Virulence in a Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media

    Keller, Lance E.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Pipkins, Haley; McDaniel, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surface protein...

  10. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrPc), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrPc with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr Pc and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrPc:hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr Pc143-153 beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrPc. Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr Pc143-153 beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr Pc, and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr Pc:hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr Pc scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  11. Celecoxib Inhibits Prion Protein 90-231-Mediated Pro-inflammatory Responses in Microglial Cells.

    Villa, Valentina; Thellung, Stefano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Gatta, Elena; Tonelli, Michele; Florio, Tullio

    2016-01-01

    Activation of microglia is a central event in the atypical inflammatory response occurring during prion encephalopathies. We report that the prion protein fragment encompassing amino acids 90-231 (PrP90-231), a model of the neurotoxic activity of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc)), causes activation of both primary microglia cultures and N9 microglial cells in vitro. This effect was characterized by cell proliferation arrest and induction of a secretory phenotype, releasing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO). Conditioned medium from PrP90-231-treated microglia induced in vitro cytotoxicity of A1 mesencephalic neurons, supporting the notion that soluble mediators released by activated microglia contributes to the neurodegeneration during prion diseases. The neuroinflammatory role of COX activity, and its potential targeting for anti-prion therapies, was tested measuring the effects of ketoprofen and celecoxib (preferential inhibitors of COX1 and COX2, respectively) on PrP90-231-induced microglial activation. Celecoxib, but not ketoprofen significantly reverted the growth arrest as well as NO and PGE2 secretion induced by PrP90-231, indicating that PrP90-231 pro-inflammatory response in microglia is mainly dependent on COX2 activation. Taken together, these data outline the importance of microglia in the neurotoxicity occurring during prion diseases and highlight the potentiality of COX2-selective inhibitors to revert microglia as adjunctive pharmacological approach to contrast the neuroinflammation-dependent neurotoxicity. PMID:25404089

  12. Differentiation of Th subsets inhibited by nonstructural proteins of respiratory syncytial virus is mediated by ubiquitination.

    Ling Qin

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, a major cause of severe respiratory diseases, constitutes an important risk factor for the development of subsequent asthma. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced asthma is poorly understood. Viral non-structural proteins NS1 and NS2 are critically required for RSV virulence; they strongly suppress IFN-mediated innate immunity of the host cells. In order to understand the effects of NS1 and NS2 on differentiation of Th subsets, we constructed lentiviral vectors of NS1 or NS2 to infect 16 HBE and analyzed the expression of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 and differentiation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 by Flow Cytometric Analysis and real-time PCR. The results showed that NS1 inhibited expression of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 and differentiation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 lymphocytes, which could be reversed by deleting elongin C binding domain. NS2 inhibited the differentiation of Th2 and Th17, which was reversed by proteasome inhibitors of PS-341. Our results indicated that NS1 inhibited the differentiation of T lymphocytes through its mono-ubiquitination to interacted proteins, while NS2 inhibited differentiation of Th2 and Th17 through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which may be related with the susceptibility to asthma after RSV infection.

  13. TURAN and EVAN mediate pollen tube reception in Arabidopsis Synergids through protein glycosylation.

    Heike Lindner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tube (PT reception in flowering plants describes the crosstalk between the male and female gametophytes upon PT arrival at the synergid cells of the ovule. It leads to PT growth arrest, rupture, and sperm cell release, and is thus essential to ensure double fertilization. Here, we describe TURAN (TUN and EVAN (EVN, two novel members of the PT reception pathway that is mediated by the FERONIA (FER receptor-like kinase (RLK. Like fer, mutations in these two genes lead to PT overgrowth inside the female gametophyte (FG without PT rupture. Mapping by next-generation sequencing, cytological analysis of reporter genes, and biochemical assays of glycoproteins in RNAi knockdown mutants revealed both genes to be involved in protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. TUN encodes a uridine diphosphate (UDP-glycosyltransferase superfamily protein and EVN a dolichol kinase. In addition to their common role during PT reception in the synergids, both genes have distinct functions in the pollen: whereas EVN is essential for pollen development, TUN is required for PT growth and integrity by affecting the stability of the pollen-specific FER homologs ANXUR1 (ANX1 and ANX2. ANX1- and ANX2-YFP reporters are not expressed in tun pollen grains, but ANX1-YFP is degraded via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway, likely underlying the anx1/2-like premature PT rupture phenotype of tun mutants. Thus, as in animal sperm-egg interactions, protein glycosylation is essential for the interaction between the female and male gametophytes during PT reception to ensure fertilization and successful reproduction.

  14. Vascular endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction requires phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins

    Luo, Guogang; Jamali, Roya; Cao, Yong-Xiao;

    2006-01-01

    In cardiovascular diseases, endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells are upregulated. The present study revealed that organ culture of rat mesenteric artery segments enhanced endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction paralleled with increase in the receptor mRNA and...... protein expressions. The endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction was associated with increase in phosphorylation of extracellular regulation kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) proteins and elevated levels of intracellular calcium. The elevation curve of intracellular calcium consisted of two phases: one rapid...... and one sustained. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by SB386023 or blockage of calcium channels by nifedipine significantly reduced the endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction (P<0.05) and decreased the sustained phase of intracellular calcium level, but not the rapid phase. Thus...

  15. Influence of ulinastatin on pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator in patients with severe pneumonia

    Li Wang; Rui Kang; Jia-Li Xie; Ya-Ni Xue

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence of ulinastatin on pulmonary surfactant protein and anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediator in patients with severe pneumonia. Methods:A total of 54 patients with severe pneumonia treated in our hospital from April 2014 to May 2015 were selected as the study object, and they were randomly divided into control group (conventional treatment of severe pneumonia group) and observation group (conventional treatment and ulinastatin group), with 27 cases in each group. Then the serum levels of pulmonary surfactant protein,anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in two groups before and after treatment at 1 day, 3 day and 5 day were compared. Results:The serum level of pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in two groups before treatment had no significant differences, all P>0.05, and those serum indexes in observation group after treatment at 1 day, 3 day and 5 day were all significantly better than those of the control group, all P<0.05. Conclusions:The ulinastatin can effectively improve the pulmonary surfactant protein, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory mediators in patients with severe pneumonia, and its improvement role for various of severe pneumonia are obvious.

  16. Assembly of spikes into coronavirus particles is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of the spike protein

    Godeke, G J; de Haan, C A; Rossen, J W; Vennema, H; Rottier, P J

    2000-01-01

    The type I glycoprotein S of coronavirus, trimers of which constitute the typical viral spikes, is assembled into virions through noncovalent interactions with the M protein. Here we demonstrate that incorporation is mediated by the short carboxy-terminal segment comprising the transmembrane and end

  17. Combined 3C-ChIP-Cloning (6C) Assay: A Tool to Unravel Protein-Mediated Genome Architecture

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Vijay K. Tiwari and Stephen B. Baylin Corresponding authors ([](); []()) ### INTRODUCTION Progress in technologies to address long-range chromosomal interactions in vivo has extensively revised concepts about different aspects of transcriptional regulation. These methods allow probing physical proximities between chromatin elements without specifically identifying the protein components that mediate ...

  18. The syntaxin protein (MoSyn8) mediates intracellular trafficking to regulate conidiogenesis and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus.

    Qi, Zhongqiang; Liu, Muxing; Dong, Yanhan; Zhu, Qian; Li, Lianwei; Li, Bing; Yang, Jie; Li, Ying; Ru, Yanyan; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-03-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate cellular membrane fusion and intracellular vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells, and are critical in the growth and development of pathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe oryzae which causes rice blast. Rice blast is thought to involve distinct SNARE-mediated transport and secretion of fungal effector proteins into the host to modulate rice immunity. We have previously characterized two SNARE proteins, secretory protein (MoSec22) and vesicle-associated membrane protein (MoVam7), as being important in cellular transport and pathogenicity. Here, we show that syntaxin 8 (MoSyn8), a Qc-SNARE protein homolog, also plays important roles in growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity. The MoSYN8 deletion mutant (∆Mosyn8) mutant exhibits defects in endocytosis and F-actin organization, appressorium turgor pressure generation, and host penetration. In addition, the ∆Mosyn8 mutant cannot elaborate biotrophic invasion of the susceptible rice host, or secrete avirulence factors Avr-Pia (corresponding to the rice resistance gene Pia) and Avrpiz-t (the cognate Avr gene for the resistance gene Piz-t) proteins. Our study of MoSyn8 advances our understanding of SNARE proteins in effector secretion which underlies the normal physiology and pathogenicity of M. oryzae, and it sheds new light on the mechanism of the blight disease caused by M. oryzae. PMID:26522477

  19. Memory formation for trace fear conditioning requires ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation in the prefrontal cortex.

    David S Reis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cellular mechanisms supporting plasticity during memory consolidation have been a subject of considerable interest. De novo protein and mRNA synthesis in several brain areas are critical, and more recently protein degradation, mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS, has been shown to be important. Previous work clearly establishes a relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in the amygdala, but it is unclear whether cortical mechanisms of memory consolidation are similar to those in the amygdala. Recent work demonstrating a critical role for prefrontal cortex (PFC in the acquisition and consolidation of fear memory allows us to address this question. Here we use a PFC-dependent fear conditioning protocol to determine whether UPS mediated protein degradation is necessary for memory consolidation in PFC. Groups of rats were trained with auditory delay or trace fear conditioning and sacrificed 60 min after training. PFC tissue was then analyzed to quantify the amount of polyubiquinated protein. Other animals were trained with similar procedures but were infused with either a proteasome inhibitor (clasto-lactacystin β-lactone or a translation inhibitor (anisomycin in the PFC immediately after training. Our results show increased UPS-mediated protein degradation in the PFC following trace but not delay fear conditioning. Additionally, post-training proteasome or translation inhibition significantly impaired trace but not delay fear memory when tested the next day. Our results further support the idea that the PFC is critical for trace but not delay fear conditioning highlight the role of UPS-mediated degradation as critical for synaptic plasticity.

  20. ncRNA-mediated bistability in the synthesis of hundreds of distinct mRNAs and proteins

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2010-02-01

    The kinetics of gene expression can be bistable due to the feedback between the mRNA and protein formation. In eukaryotic cells, the interplay between mRNAs and proteins can be influenced by non-coding RNAs. Some of these RNAs, e.g., microRNAs, may target hundreds of distinct mRNAs. The model presented here shows how a non-coding RNA can be used as a mediator in order to involve numerous mRNAs and proteins into a bistable network.

  1. Identification of a novel protein-protein interaction motif mediating interaction of GPCR-associated sorting proteins with G protein-coupled receptors

    Bornert, Olivier; Møller, Thor Christian; Boeuf, Julien;

    2013-01-01

    degradation pathway. This protein belongs to the recently identified GPCR-associated sorting proteins (GASPs) family that comprises ten members for which structural and functional details are poorly documented. We present here a detailed structure-function relationship analysis of the molecular interaction...... GPCRs and highlight the presence within GASPs of a novel protein-protein interaction motif that might represent a new target to investigate the involvement of GASPs in the modulation of the activity of GPCRs.......GPCR desensitization and down-regulation are considered key molecular events underlying the development of tolerance in vivo. Among the many regulatory proteins that are involved in these complex processes, GASP-1 have been shown to participate to the sorting of several receptors toward the...

  2. A novel role for ATM in regulating proteasome-mediated protein degradation through suppression of the ISG15 conjugation pathway.

    Laurence M Wood

    Full Text Available Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder wherein mutation of the ATM kinase is responsible for the A-T pathogenesis. Although the precise role of ATM in A-T pathogenesis is still unclear, its function in responding to DNA damage has been well established. Here we demonstrate that in addition to its role in DNA repair, ATM also regulates proteasome-mediated protein turnover through suppression of the ISG15 pathway. This conclusion is based on three major pieces of evidence: First, we demonstrate that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is impaired in A-T cells. Second, we show that the reduced protein turnover is causally linked to the elevated expression of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 in A-T cells. Third, we show that expression of the ISG15 is elevated in A-T cells derived from various A-T patients, as well as in brain tissues derived from the ATM knockout mice and A-T patients, suggesting that ATM negatively regulates the ISG15 pathway. Our current findings suggest for the first time that proteasome-mediated protein degradation is impaired in A-T cells due to elevated expression of the ISG15 conjugation pathway, which could contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in A-T patients.

  3. Signal regulatory protein alpha negatively regulates beta2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and phagocytosis.

    Dan-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Signal regulate protein alpha (SIRPalpha is involved in many functional aspects of monocytes. Here we investigate the role of SIRPalpha in regulating beta(2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration (TEM and phagocytosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THP-1 monocytes/macropahges treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs resulted in a decrease of SIRPalpha expression but an increase of beta(2 integrin cell surface expression and beta(2 integrin-mediated adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha-stimulated human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1 monolayers. In contrast, SIRPalpha overexpression in THP-1 cells showed a significant less monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1-triggered cell surface expression of beta(2 integrins, in particular CD11b/CD18. SIRPalpha overexpression reduced beta(2 integrin-mediated firm adhesion of THP-1 cells to either TNFalpha-stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers or to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. SIRPalpha overexpression also reduced MCP-1-initiated migration of THP-1 cells across TNFalpha-stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers. Furthermore, beta(2 integrin-mediated THP-1 cell spreading and actin polymerization in response to MCP-1, and phagocytosis of bacteria were both inhibited by SIRPalpha overexpression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SIRPalpha negatively regulates beta(2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and phagocytosis, thus may serve as a critical molecule in preventing excessive activation and accumulation of monocytes in the arterial wall during early stage of atherosclerosis.

  4. Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain

    Utilizing 125I-BSA administered intravenously, a simple, reliable, and sensitive method was established for the detection of plasma protein extravasation in the dura of rats and guinea pigs following chemical, electrical, or immunological stimulation. Extravasated 125I-BSA or Evans blue was noted in the dura and conjunctiva but not in the temporalis muscle of saline-perfused rats following intravenous capsaicin, 1 mumol/kg. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was mediated by unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers since leakage did not develop in adult animals in whom these fibers were destroyed by capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg/kg) as neonates. An ipsilateral increase in Evans blue and 125I-BSA was found in the dura, eyelids, lips and gingival mucosa, and snout following electrical stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion. This increase was also C-fiber dependent. Among those peptides contained in perivascular afferent fibers and administered intravenously, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, caused a dose-dependent extravasation in the dura and conjunctiva of rats. Neonatal capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate SP- nor NKA-induced effects in the dura and actually increased extravasation in the conjunctiva. Intravenous administration of 5-HT or bradykinin to normal adult rats or adult rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin increased levels of 125I-BSA in both the dura and the conjunctiva. Histamine and prostaglandin E2, on the other hand, caused protein leakage in the conjunctiva but not in the dura of rats; however, histamine did induce extravasation in the dura of guinea pigs

  5. Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain

    Markowitz, S.; Saito, K.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    Utilizing /sup 125/I-BSA administered intravenously, a simple, reliable, and sensitive method was established for the detection of plasma protein extravasation in the dura of rats and guinea pigs following chemical, electrical, or immunological stimulation. Extravasated /sup 125/I-BSA or Evans blue was noted in the dura and conjunctiva but not in the temporalis muscle of saline-perfused rats following intravenous capsaicin, 1 mumol/kg. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was mediated by unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers since leakage did not develop in adult animals in whom these fibers were destroyed by capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg/kg) as neonates. An ipsilateral increase in Evans blue and /sup 125/I-BSA was found in the dura, eyelids, lips and gingival mucosa, and snout following electrical stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion. This increase was also C-fiber dependent. Among those peptides contained in perivascular afferent fibers and administered intravenously, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, caused a dose-dependent extravasation in the dura and conjunctiva of rats. Neonatal capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate SP- nor NKA-induced effects in the dura and actually increased extravasation in the conjunctiva. Intravenous administration of 5-HT or bradykinin to normal adult rats or adult rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin increased levels of /sup 125/I-BSA in both the dura and the conjunctiva. Histamine and prostaglandin E2, on the other hand, caused protein leakage in the conjunctiva but not in the dura of rats; however, histamine did induce extravasation in the dura of guinea pigs.

  6. S-layer protein mediates the stimulatory effect of Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 on innate immunity.

    Taverniti, Valentina; Stuknyte, Milda; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; De Noni, Ivano; Scabiosi, Christian; Cordova, Zuzet Martinez; Junttila, Ilkka; Hämäläinen, Sanna; Turpeinen, Hannu; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Pesu, Marko; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2013-02-01

    The ability to positively affect host health through the modulation of the immune response is a feature of increasing importance in measuring the probiotic potential of a bacterial strain. However, the identities of the bacterial cell components involved in cross talk with immune cells remain elusive. In this study, we characterized the dairy strain Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and its surface-layer protein (SlpA) using in vitro and ex vivo analyses. We found that MIMLh5 and SlpA exert anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the activation of NF-κB on the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. On the contrary, MIMLh5 and SlpA act as stimulators of the innate immune system by triggering the expression of proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor alpha and COX-2 in the human macrophage cell line U937 via recognition through Toll-like receptor 2. In the same experiments, SlpA protein did not affect the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. A similar response was observed following stimulation of macrophages isolated from mouse bone marrow or the peritoneal cavity. These results suggest that SlpA plays a major role in mediating bacterial immune-stimulating activity, which could help to induce the host's defenses against and responses toward infections. This study supports the concept that the viability of bacterial cells is not always essential to exert immunomodulatory effects, thus permitting the development of safer therapies for the treatment of specific diseases according to a paraprobiotic intervention. PMID:23220964

  7. Uncovering molecular structural mechanisms of signaling mediated by the prion protein

    Romano, Sebastian A.; Linden, Rafael [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBCCF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Cordeiro, Yraima; Rocha e Lima, Luis M.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FF/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Lopes, Marilene H. [Instituto Ludwig de Pesquisa de Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IBqM/UFRl), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Bioquimica Medica

    2009-07-01

    The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchored prion protein (PrP{sup c}), usually associated with neurodegenerative diseases, modulates various cellular responses and may scaffold multiprotein cell surface signaling complexes. Engagement of PrP{sup c} with the secretable cochaperone hop/STI 1 induces neurotrophic transmembrane signals through unknown molecular mechanisms. We addressed whether interaction of Pr P{sup c} and hop STI 1 entails structural rearrangements relevant for signaling. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that PrP{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction triggers loss of PrP helical structures, involving at least a perturbation of the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix. Novel SAXS models revealed a significant C-terminal compaction of hop/STI 1 when bound to PrP{sup c}. Differing from a recent dimeric model of human hop/STI 1, both size exclusion chromatography and SAXS data support a monomeric form of free murine hop/STI 1. Changes in the Pr P{sup c}{sub 143-153} beta-helix may engage the transmembrane signaling protein laminin receptor precursor and neural cell adhesion molecule, both of which bind that domain of Pr P{sup c}, and further ligands may be engaged by the tertiary structural changes of hop/STI 1. These reciprocal structural modifications indicate a versatile mechanism for signaling mediated by Pr P{sup c}:hop/STI 1 interaction, consistent with the hypothesis that Pr P{sup c} scaffolds multiprotein signaling complexes at the cell surface. (author)

  8. Brd4-mediated nuclear retention of the papillomavirus E2 protein contributes to its stabilization in host cells.

    Li, Jing; Li, Qing; Diaz, Jason; You, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Papillomavirus E2 is a multifunctional viral protein that regulates many aspects of the viral life cycle including viral episome maintenance, transcriptional activation, and repression. E2 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has been implicated in the stabilization of the E2 protein. E2 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that E2 ubiquitylation mostly occurs in the cytoplasm. We also find that the interaction with Brd4 promotes nuclear retention of papillomavirus E2 proteins and contributes to their stabilization in the nucleus. Compared to wild type E2 proteins, nuclear-localization-defective mutants are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; however, co-expression of Brd4 redirects these mutants into the nucleus and significantly increases their stability. We further demonstrate that tethering E2 proteins to chromatin as either double-bromodomain fusion proteins or histone 2B (H2B) fusion proteins significantly stabilizes the E2 proteins. Our studies suggest that chromatin recruitment of the E2 protein via interaction with Brd4 prevents E2 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation in the cytoplasm, leading to its stabilization in the nucleus. These studies bring new insights for understanding Brd4-mediated E2 stabilization, and provide an additional mechanism by which the chromatin-associated Brd4 regulates E2 functions. PMID:24448221

  9. Brd4-Mediated Nuclear Retention of the Papillomavirus E2 Protein Contributes to Its Stabilization in Host Cells

    Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillomavirus E2 is a multifunctional viral protein that regulates many aspects of the viral life cycle including viral episome maintenance, transcriptional activation, and repression. E2 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has been implicated in the stabilization of the E2 protein. E2 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that E2 ubiquitylation mostly occurs in the cytoplasm. We also find that the interaction with Brd4 promotes nuclear retention of papillomavirus E2 proteins and contributes to their stabilization in the nucleus. Compared to wild type E2 proteins, nuclear-localization-defective mutants are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; however, co-expression of Brd4 redirects these mutants into the nucleus and significantly increases their stability. We further demonstrate that tethering E2 proteins to chromatin as either double-bromodomain fusion proteins or histone 2B (H2B fusion proteins significantly stabilizes the E2 proteins. Our studies suggest that chromatin recruitment of the E2 protein via interaction with Brd4 prevents E2 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation in the cytoplasm, leading to its stabilization in the nucleus. These studies bring new insights for understanding Brd4-mediated E2 stabilization, and provide an additional mechanism by which the chromatin-associated Brd4 regulates E2 functions.

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of N-Myc(and STAT) interactor

    Weijia; Cheng; Shiyou; Chen; Ruiling; Li; Yu; Chen; Min; Wang; Deyin; Guo

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-Co V) encodes eight accessory proteins, the functions of which are not yet fully understood. SARS-Co V protein 6(P6) is one of the previously studied accessory proteins that have been documented to enhance viral replication and suppress host interferon(IFN) signaling pathways. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified eight potential cellular P6-interacting proteins from a human spleen c DNA library. For further investigation, we targeted the IFN signaling pathway-mediating protein, N-Myc(and STAT) interactor(Nmi). Its interaction with P6 was confirmed within cells. The results showed that P6 can promote the ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation of Nmi. This study revealed a new mechanism of SARS-Co V P6 in limiting the IFN signaling to promote SARS-Co V survival in host cells.

  11. A Rab-GAP TBC Domain Protein Binds Hepatitis C Virus NS5A and Mediates Viral Replication▿

    Sklan, Ella H.; Staschke, Kirk; Oakes, Tina M.; Elazar, Menashe; Winters, Mark; Aroeti, Benjamin; Danieli, Tsafi; Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of liver disease worldwide. Current therapies are inadequate for most patients. Using a two-hybrid screen, we isolated a novel cellular binding partner interacting with the N terminus of HCV nonstructural protein NS5A. This partner contains a TBC Rab-GAP (GTPase-activating protein) homology domain found in all known Rab-activating proteins. As the first described interaction between such a Rab-GAP and a viral protein, this finding suggests a new mechanism whereby viruses may subvert host cell machinery for mediating the endocytosis, trafficking, and sorting of their own proteins. Moreover, depleting the expression of this partner severely impairs HCV RNA replication with no obvious effect on cell viability. These results suggest that pharmacologic disruption of this NS5A-interacting partner can be contemplated as a potential new antiviral strategy against a pathogen affecting nearly 3% of the world's population. PMID:17686842

  12. Gold Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Mediated Protein and DNA Codelivery to Plant Cells Via the Biolistic Method

    Martin-Ortigosa, Susana; Valenstein, Justin S.; Lin, Victor S.-Y.; Trewyn, Brian G.; Wang, Kan

    2012-09-11

    The synthesis and characterization of a gold nanoparticle functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Au-MSN) platform for codelivery of proteins and plasmid DNA to plant tissues using a biolistic particle delivery system is reported. The in vitro uptake and release profiles of fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) are investigated. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, Au-MSN with large average pore diameters (10 nm) are shown to deliver and subsequently release proteins and plasmid DNA to the same cell after passing through the plant cell wall upon bombardment. Release of fluorescent eGFP indicates the delivery of active, non-denatured proteins to plant cells. This advance represents the first example of biolistic-mediated codelivery of proteins and plasmid DNA to plant cells via gold-functionalized MSN and provides a powerful tool for both fundamental and applied research of plant sciences.

  13. DNA sequence-dependent mechanics and protein-assisted bending in repressor-mediated loop formation

    As the chief informational molecule of life, DNA is subject to extensive physical manipulations. The energy required to deform double-helical DNA depends on sequence, and this mechanical code of DNA influences gene regulation, such as through nucleosome positioning. Here we examine the sequence-dependent flexibility of DNA in bacterial transcription factor-mediated looping, a context for which the role of sequence remains poorly understood. Using a suite of synthetic constructs repressed by the Lac repressor and two well-known sequences that show large flexibility differences in vitro, we make precise statistical mechanical predictions as to how DNA sequence influences loop formation and test these predictions using in vivo transcription and in vitro single-molecule assays. Surprisingly, sequence-dependent flexibility does not affect in vivo gene regulation. By theoretically and experimentally quantifying the relative contributions of sequence and the DNA-bending protein HU to DNA mechanical properties, we reveal that bending by HU dominates DNA mechanics and masks intrinsic sequence-dependent flexibility. Such a quantitative understanding of how mechanical regulatory information is encoded in the genome will be a key step towards a predictive understanding of gene regulation at single-base pair resolution. (paper)

  14. Long form collapsin response mediator protein-1 promotes the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells

    HOU, HUIGE; CHEN, LIN; ZHA, ZHENGANG; CAI, SHAOHUI; TAN, MINGHUI; GUO, GUOQING; LIU, NING; SHE, GUORONG; XUN, SONGWEI

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that long form collapsin response mediator protein-1 (LCRMP-1) promotes the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer. Osteosarcoma (OS) is a human cancer with a high potential for metastasis. The present study aimed to investigate the role of LCRMP-1 in OS metastasis. The expression of LCRMP-1 in OS specimens and cell lines was evaluated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. Furthermore, the migration and invasion of OS cells with LCRMP-1-knockdown was investigated to examine the role of LCRMP-1 in OS metastasis. In addition, the expression of N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are involved in cell migration, was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Increased expression of LCRMP-1 was observed in the OS tissues and cell lines, accompanied by the enhanced migration and invasion of the OS cells. LCRMP-1-knockdown resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of N-cadherin and MMPs, as well as inhibition of the migration and invasion of the OS cells. Overexpression of LCRMP-1 promoted OS metastasis. Therefore, LCRMP-1 may be a promising target for the effective treatment of OS.

  15. Protein Kinases Possibly Mediate Hypergravity-Induced Changes in F-Actin Expression by Endothelial Cells

    Love, Felisha D.; Melhado, Caroline D.; Bosah, Francis N.; Harris-Hooker, Sandra A.; Sanford, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    Basic cellular functions such as electrolyte concentration, cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation, and exocytosis are modified in microgravity. These studies indicate that microgravity affects a number of physiological systems and included in this are cell signaling mechanisms. Rijken and coworkers performed growth factor studies that showed PKC signaling and actin microfilament organization appears to be sensitive to microgravity, suggesting that the inhibition of signal transduction by microgravity may be related to alterations in actin microfilament organization. However, similar studies have not been done for vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cells play critical roles in providing nutrients to organ and tissues and in wound repair. The major deterrent to ground-based microgravity studies is that it is impossible to achieved true microgravity for longer than a few minutes on earth. Hence, it has not been possible to conduct prolonged microgravity studies except for two models that simulate certain aspects of microgravity. However, hypergravity is quite easily achieved. Several researchers have shown that hypergravity will increase the proliferation of several different cell lines while decreasing cell motility and slowing liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy, These studies indicate the hypergravity also alters the behavior of most cells. Several investigators have shown that hypergravity affects the activation of several protein kinases (PKs) in cells. In this study, we investigated whether hypergravity alters the expression of f-actin by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and the role of PK's (calmodulin 11 dependent, PKA and PKC) as mediators of these effects.

  16. Membrane Tension Inhibits Deformation by Coat Proteins in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Hassinger, Julian; Drubin, David; Oster, George; Rangamani, Padmini

    2016-02-01

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), clathrin and various adaptor proteins coat a patch of the plasma membrane, which is reshaped to form a budded vesicle. Experimental studies have demonstrated that elevated membrane tension can inhibit bud formation by a clathrin coat. In this study, we investigate the impact of membrane tension on the mechanics of membrane budding by simulating clathrin coats that either grow in area or progressively induce greater curvature. At low membrane tension, progressively increasing the area of a curvature-generating coat causes the membrane to smoothly evolve from a flat to budded morphology, whereas the membrane remains essentially flat at high membrane tensions. Interestingly, at physiologically relevant, intermediate membrane tensions, the shape evolution of the membrane undergoes a snapthrough instability in which increasing coat area causes the membrane to "snap" from an open, U-shaped bud to a closed, $\\Omega$-shaped bud. This instability is accompanied by a large energy barrier, which could cause a developing endocytic pit to stall if the binding energy of additional coat is insufficient to overcome this barrier. Similar results were found for a coat of constant area in which the spontaneous curvature progressively increases. Additionally, a pulling force on the bud, simulating a force from actin polymerization, is sufficient to drive a transition from an open to closed bud, overcoming the energy barrier opposing this transition.

  17. Alpha-latrotoxin modulates the secretory machinery via receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase C.

    Liu, Jie; Wan, Qunfang; Lin, Xianguang; Zhu, Hongliang; Volynski, Kirill; Ushkaryov, Yuri; Xu, Tao

    2005-09-01

    The hypothesis whether alpha-latrotoxin (LTX) could directly regulate the secretory machinery was tested in pancreatic beta cells using combined techniques of membrane capacitance (Cm) measurement and Ca2+ uncaging. Employing ramp increase in [Ca2+]i to stimulate exocytosis, we found that LTX lowers the Ca2+ threshold required for exocytosis without affecting the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). The burst component of exocytosis in response to step-like [Ca2+]i increase generated by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ was also speeded up by LTX treatment. LTX increased the maximum rate of exocytosis compared with control responses with similar postflash [Ca2+]i and shifted the Ca2+ dependence of the exocytotic machinery toward lower Ca2+ concentrations. LTXN4C, a LTX mutant which cannot form membrane pores or penetrate through the plasma membrane but has similar affinity for the receptors as the wild-type LTX, mimicked the effect of LTX. Moreover, the effects of both LTX and LTXN4C) were independent of intracellular or extracellular Ca2+ but required extracellular Mg2+. Our data propose that LTX, by binding to the membrane receptors, sensitizes the fusion machinery to Ca2+ and, hence, may permit release at low [Ca2+]i level. This sensitization is mediated by activation of protein kinase C. PMID:16101679

  18. DNA-Mediated Signaling by Proteins with 4Fe−4S Clusters Is Necessary for Genomic Integrity

    Grodick, Michael A.; Segal, Helen M.; Zwang, Theodore J.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron–sulfur clusters have increasingly been found to be associated with enzymes involved in DNA processing. Here we describe a role for these redox clusters in DNA-mediated charge-transport signaling in E. coli between DNA repair proteins from distinct pathways. DNA-modified electrochemistry shows that the 4Fe–4S cluster of DNA-bound DinG, an ATP-dependent helicase that repairs R-loops, is redox-active at cellular potentials and ATP hydrolysis increases DNA-mediated redox signaling. Atomic fo...

  19. Role of pRb-related proteins in simian virus 40 large-T-antigen-mediated transformation.

    Zalvide, J; DeCaprio, J A

    1995-01-01

    Simian virus 40 large T-antigen (TAg) transformation is thought to be mediated, at least in part, by binding to and modulating the function of certain cellular proteins, including the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product, pRb. TAg can disrupt the inhibitory complexes formed by pRb with the oncogenic transcription factor E2F, and this mechanism has been suggested to be important for TAg-mediated transformation. Residues 102 to 114 of TAg (including the LXCXE motif) are required for bin...

  20. A mechanism of protein-mediated fusion: coupling between refolding of the influenza hemagglutinin and lipid rearrangements.

    Kozlov, M M; Chernomordik, L V

    1998-01-01

    Although membrane fusion mediated by influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the best characterized example of ubiquitous protein-mediated fusion, it is still not known how the low-pH-induced refolding of HA trimers causes fusion. This refolding involves 1) repositioning of the hydrophobic N-terminal sequence of the HA2 subunit of HA ("fusion peptide"), and 2) the recruitment of additional residues to the alpha-helical coiled coil of a rigid central rod of the trimer. We propose here a mechanis...

  1. Environment control to improve recombinant protein yields in plants based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression

    Naomichi eFujiuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: 1 recombinant protein content per unit biomass; and 2 recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on those parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and post-inoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Pre-inoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, post-inoculation environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity and humidity have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the post-inoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain

  2. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of α5β1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed β1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cell surface α5β1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of α5β1, without altering cell surface expression of α2β1 integrin or α3β1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of α5β1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.

  3. Long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein, p48, mediates protein kinase B/Akt-dependent HDM2 stabilization and nuclear localization

    p48 is a long isoform of the ErbB3 binding protein that has oncogenic functions including promotion of carcinogenesis and induction of malignant transformation through negative regulation of tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that high level of p48 protein expression leads to enhance HDM2 phosphorylation by Akt and inhibits the self-ubiquitination of HDM2 by up-regulation of Akt activity, thereby promoting its protein stability. Moreover, p48 expression leads to accumulated nuclear localization of HDM2, whereas p48 depletion disturbs its nuclear localization. Hence, higher expression of p48 in cancer cells reduces p53 levels through modulation of HDM2 nuclear localization and protein stability via regulation of its Akt-mediated phosphorylation.

  4. Single-cell characterization of autotransporter-mediated Escherichia coli surface display of disulfide bond-containing proteins.

    Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Sendra, Victor G; Cirino, Patrick C; Varadarajan, Navin

    2012-11-01

    Autotransporters (ATs) are a family of bacterial proteins containing a C-terminal β-barrel-forming domain that facilitates the translocation of N-terminal passenger domain whose functions range from adhesion to proteolysis. Genetic replacement of the native passenger domain with heterologous proteins is an attractive strategy not only for applications such as biocatalysis, live-cell vaccines, and protein engineering but also for gaining mechanistic insights toward understanding AT translocation. The ability of ATs to efficiently display functional recombinant proteins containing multiple disulfides has remained largely controversial. By employing high-throughput single-cell flow cytometry, we have systematically investigated the ability of the Escherichia coli AT Antigen 43 (Ag43) to display two different recombinant reporter proteins, a single-chain antibody (M18 scFv) that contains two disulfides and chymotrypsin that contains four disulfides, by varying the signal peptide and deleting the different domains of the native protein. Our results indicate that only the C-terminal β-barrel and the threaded α-helix are essential for efficient surface display of functional recombinant proteins containing multiple disulfides. These results imply that there are no inherent constraints for functional translocation and display of disulfide bond-containing proteins mediated by the AT system and should open new avenues for protein display and engineering. PMID:23019324

  5. Labelling of endogenous target protein via N-S acyl transfer-mediated activation of N-sulfanylethylanilide.

    Denda, Masaya; Morisaki, Takuya; Kohiki, Taiki; Yamamoto, Jun; Sato, Kohei; Sagawa, Ikuko; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Sato, Youichi; Yamauchi, Aiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira

    2016-07-14

    The ligand-dependent incorporation of a reporter molecule (e.g., fluorescence dye or biotin) onto a endogenous target protein has emerged as an important strategy for elucidating protein function using various affinity-based labelling reagents consisting of reporter, ligand and reactive units. Conventional labelling reagents generally use a weakly activated reactive unit, which can result in the non-specific labelling of proteins in a ligand-independent manner. In this context, the activation of a labelling reagent through a targeted protein-ligand interaction could potentially overcome the problems associated with conventional affinity-based labelling reagents. We hypothesized that this type of protein-ligand-interaction-mediated activation could be accomplished using N-sulfanylethylanilide (SEAlide) as the reactive unit in the labelling reagent. Electrophilically unreactive amide-type SEAlide can be activated by its conversion to the corresponding active thioester in the presence of a phosphate salt, which can act as an acid-base catalyst. It has been suggested that protein surfaces consisting of hydrophilic residues such as amino, carboxyl and imidazole groups could function as acid-base catalysts. We therefore envisioned that a SEAlide-based labelling reagent (SEAL) bearing SEAlide as a reactive unit could be activated through the binding of the SEAL with a target protein. Several SEALs were readily prepared in this study using standard 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-based solid-phase protocols. These SEAL systems were subsequently applied to the ligand-dependent labelling of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) and cyclooxyganese 1. Although we have not yet obtained any direct evidence for the target protein-mediated activation of the SEAlide unit, our results for the reaction of these SEALs with hCA1 or butylamine indirectly support our hypothesis. The SEALs reported in this study represent valuable new entries to the field of affinity-based labelling reagents

  6. Formation of functional cell membrane domains: the interplay of lipid- and protein-mediated interactions.

    Harder, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Numerous cell membrane associated processes, including signal transduction, membrane sorting, protein processing and virus trafficking take place in membrane subdomains. Protein-protein interactions provide the frameworks necessary to generate biologically functional membrane domains. For example, coat proteins define membrane areas destined for sorting processes, viral proteins self-assemble to generate a budding virus, and adapter molecules organize multimolecular signalling assemblies, whi...

  7. Tau protein

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased...... concentration of tau protein in CSF from patients with relapsing-remitting MS and patients monosymptomatic at onset who progressed to MS, but interestingly no increased tau protein concentration in monosymptomatic ON. The concentration of tau protein was significantly correlated to Expanded Disability Status...

  8. Stoichiometry of Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Protein-Mediated Fusion and Its Neutralization▿

    Ou, Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of retroviruses form trimers that mediate fusion between viral and cellular membranes and are the targets for neutralizing antibodies. Understanding in detail how Env trimers mediate membrane fusion, and how antibodies interfere with this process, is a fundamental problem in biology with practical implications for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines. We investigated the stoichiometry of Env-mediated fusion and its inhibition by antibody by inserting a...

  9. Lentivirus-Mediated Short-Hairpin RNA Targeting Protein Phosphatase 4 Regulatory Subunit 1 Inhibits Growth in Breast Cancer

    Qi, Yuying; Hu, Tinghui; Li, Kai; Ye, Renqing; Ye, Zuodong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 1 (PP4R1), as an interaction partner of the catalytic serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 catalytic subunit has been shown to involve in cellular processes and nuclear factor κB signaling. However, the functions of PP4R1 in human breast cancers remain unclear. This study is designed to explore the effect of PP4R1 knockdown on the biological characteristics of breast cancer cells. Methods A lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was de...

  10. Aggregation of TMV CP plays a role in CP functions and in Coat-Protein Mediated Resistance

    Asurmendi, S.; Berg, R H; Smith, T J; Bendhamane, M.; Beachy, R N

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein (CP) in absence of RNA self-assembles into several different structures depending on pH and ionic strength. Transgenic plants that produce self-assembling CP are resistant to TMV infection, a phenomenon referred to as coat protein mediated resistance (CP-MR). The mutant CP Thr42Trp (CPT42W) produces enhanced CP-MR compared to wild type CP. To establish the relationship between the formation of 20S CP aggregates and CP-MR, virus-like particles (VLPs) pro...

  11. Role of Class A Penicillin-Binding Proteins in PBP5-Mediated β-Lactam Resistance in Enterococcus faecalis

    Arbeloa, Ana; Segal, Heidi; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Josseaume, Nathalie; Dubost, Lionnel; Brouard, Jean-Paul; Gutmann, Laurent; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Arthur, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Peptidoglycan polymerization complexes contain multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) of classes A and B that associate a conserved C-terminal transpeptidase module to an N-terminal glycosyltransferase or morphogenesis module, respectively. In Enterococcus faecalis, class B PBP5 mediates intrinsic resistance to the cephalosporin class of β-lactam antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone. To identify the glycosyltransferase partner(s) of PBP5, combinations of deletions were introduced in all t...

  12. Local Effects of Pregnancy on Connexin Proteins that Mediate Ca2+-Associated Uterine Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Morschauser, Timothy J.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Koch, Jill M.; Yi, Fu Xian; Lopez, Gladys E.; Bird, Ian M.; Magness, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine artery adaptations during gestation facilitate increases in uterine blood flow and fetal growth. Hypothesis: Local expression and distribution of uterine artery connexins play roles in mediating in vivo gestational eNOS activation and Nitric Oxide production. We established an ovine model restricting pregnancy to a single uterine horn and measured uterine blood flow, uterine artery shear stress, connexins 37/43 and P635eNOS protein levels in uterine artery and systemic artery [Omental...

  13. SURFACE PROTEINS AND PNEUMOLYSIN OF ENCAPSULATED AND NONENCAPSULATED STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE MEDIATE VIRULENCE IN A CHINCHILLA MODEL OF OTITIS MEDIA

    Keller, Lance E.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Haley ePipkins; McDaniel, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections result in a range of human diseases and are responsible for almost one million deaths annually. Pneumococcal disease is mediated in part through surface structures and an anti-phagocytic capsule. Recent studies have shown that nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) make up a significant portion of the pneumococcal population and are able to cause disease. NESp lack some common surface proteins expressed by encapsulated pneumococci, but express surf...

  14. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex

    Hiraga, Shin-ichiro; Alvino, Gina M.; Chang, FuJung; Lian, Hui-Yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J.; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M. K.; Donaldson, Anne D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence points to a role for Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor) in DNA replication and genomic stability; however, the mechanism by which Rif1 functions has remained elusive. Hiraga el al. now report that budding yeast Rif1 controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence; ...

  15. Glutaraldehyde mediated conjugation of amino-coated magnetic nanoparticles with albumin protein for nanothermotherapy.

    Zhao, Lingyun; Yang, Bing; Dai, Xiaochen; Wang, Xiaowen; Gao, Fuping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

    2010-11-01

    A novel bioconjugation of amino saline capped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was developed by applying glutaraldehyde as activator. Briefly, Fe3O4 MNs were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. Surface modification of the prepared MNPs was performed by employing amino saline as the coating agent. Glutaraldehyde was further applied as an activation agent through which BSA was conjugated to the amino-coated MNPs. The structure of the BSA-MNs was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Physico-chemical characterizations of the BSA-MNPs, such as surface morphology, surface charge and magnetic properties were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), zeta-Potential and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), etc. Magnetic inductive heating characteristics of the BSA-MNPs were analyzed by exposing the MNPs suspension (magnetic fluid) under alternative magnetic field (AMF). The results demonstrate that BSA was successfully conjugated with amino-coated MNs mediated through glutaraldehyde activation. The nanoparticles were spherical shaped with approximately 10 nm diameter. Possessing ideal magnetic inductive heating characteristics, which can generate very rapid and efficient heating while upon AMF exposure, BSA-MNPs can be applied as a novel candidature for magnetic nanothermotherapy for cancer treatment. In vitro cytotoxicity study on the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG-2) indicates that BSA-MNP is an efficient agent for cancer nanothermotherapy with satisfied biocompatibility, as rare cytotoxicity was observed in the absence of AMF. Moreover, our investigation provides a methodology for fabrication protein conjugated MNPs, for instance monoclonal antibody conjugated MNPs for targeting cancer nanothermotherapy. PMID:21137877

  16. An integrative model for phytochrome B mediated photomorphogenesis: from protein dynamics to physiology.

    Julia Rausenberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants have evolved various sophisticated mechanisms to respond and adapt to changes of abiotic factors in their natural environment. Light is one of the most important abiotic environmental factors and it regulates plant growth and development throughout their entire life cycle. To monitor the intensity and spectral composition of the ambient light environment, plants have evolved multiple photoreceptors, including the red/far-red light-sensing phytochromes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed an integrative mathematical model that describes how phytochrome B (phyB, an essential receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana, controls growth. Our model is based on a multiscale approach and connects the mesoscopic intracellular phyB protein dynamics to the macroscopic growth phenotype. To establish reliable and relevant parameters for the model phyB regulated growth we measured: accumulation and degradation, dark reversion kinetics and the dynamic behavior of different nuclear phyB pools using in vivo spectroscopy, western blotting and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP technique, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The newly developed model predicts that the phyB-containing nuclear bodies (NBs (i serve as storage sites for phyB and (ii control prolonged dark reversion kinetics as well as partial reversibility of phyB Pfr in extended darkness. The predictive power of this mathematical model is further validated by the fact that we are able to formalize a basic photobiological observation, namely that in light-grown seedlings hypocotyl length depends on the total amount of phyB. In addition, we demonstrate that our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with quantitative data concerning phyB levels and the corresponding hypocotyl lengths. Hence, we conclude that the integrative model suggested in this study captures the main features of phyB-mediated photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

  17. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma. PMID:26598443

  18. Spinal activity of interleukin 6 mediates myelin basic protein-induced allodynia.

    Ko, Justin S; Eddinger, Kelly A; Angert, Mila; Chernov, Andrei V; Dolkas, Jennifer; Strongin, Alex Y; Yaksh, Tony L; Shubayev, Veronica I

    2016-08-01

    Mechanosensory fibers are enveloped by myelin, a unique multilamellar membrane permitting saltatory neuronal conduction. Damage to myelin is thought to contribute to severe pain evoked by innocuous tactile stimulation (i.e., mechanical allodynia). Our earlier (Liu et al., 2012) and present data demonstrate that a single injection of a myelin basic protein-derived peptide (MBP84-104) into an intact sciatic nerve produces a robust and long-lasting (>30days) mechanical allodynia in female rats. The MBP84-104 peptide represents the immunodominant epitope and requires T cells to maintain allodynia. Surprisingly, only systemic gabapentin (a ligand of voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ1), but not ketorolac (COX inhibitor), lidocaine (sodium channel blocker) or MK801 (NMDA antagonist) reverse allodynia induced by the intrasciatic MBP84-104. The genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the sciatic nerve followed by the bioinformatics analyses of the expression changes identified interleukin (IL)-6 as the major cytokine induced by MBP84-104 in both the control and athymic T cell-deficient nude rats. The intrasciatic MBP84-104 injection resulted in both unilateral allodynia and unilateral IL-6 increase the segmental spinal cord (neurons and astrocytes). An intrathecal delivery of a function-blocking IL-6 antibody reduced the allodynia in part by the transcriptional effects in large-diameter primary afferents in DRG. Our data suggest that MBP regulates IL-6 expression in the nervous system and that the spinal IL-6 activity mediates nociceptive processing stimulated by the MBP epitopes released after damage or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. PMID:26970355

  19. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex

  20. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Anantha Koteswararao Kanugula

    Full Text Available Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  1. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    Guan, Ying [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650106 (China); Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Li, Qihan, E-mail: imbcams.lq@gmail.com [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China)

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  2. Role of the retinoblastoma protein in cell cycle arrest mediated by a novel cell surface proliferation inhibitor

    Enebo, D. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Moos, P. J.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    A novel cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS-18), purified from the cell surface of bovine cerebral cortex cells has been shown to be a potent and reversible inhibitor of proliferation of a wide array of fibroblasts as well as epithelial-like cells and nontransformed and transformed cells. To investigate the possible mechanisms by which CeReS-18 exerts its inhibitory action, the effect of the inhibitor on the posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB), a tumor suppressor gene, has been examined. It is shown that CeReS-18 mediated cell cycle arrest of both human diploid fibroblasts (HSBP) and mouse fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) results in the maintenance of the RB protein in the hypophosphorylated state, consistent with a late G1 arrest site. Although their normal nontransformed counterparts are sensitive to cell cycle arrest mediated by CeReS-18, cell lines lacking a functional RB protein, through either genetic mutation or DNA tumor virus oncoprotein interaction, are less sensitive. The refractory nature of these cells is shown to be independent of specific surface receptors for the inhibitor, and another tumor suppressor gene (p53) does not appear to be involved in the CeReS-18 inhibition of cell proliferation. The requirement for a functional RB protein product, in order for CeReS-18 to mediate cell cycle arrest, is discussed in light of regulatory events associated with density-dependent growth inhibition.

  3. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  4. Destabilization of Heterologous Proteins Mediated by the GSK3β Phosphorylation Domain of the β-Catenin Protein

    Yuhan Kong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays important roles in development and cellular processes. The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling activation is the stabilization of β-catenin protein in cytoplasm and/or nucleus. The stability of β-catenin is the key to its biological functions and is controlled by the phosphorylation of its amino-terminal degradation domain. Aberrant activation of β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the development of human cancers. It has been recently suggested that GSK3βmay play an essential role in regulating global protein turnover. Here, we investigate if the GSK3β phosphorylation site-containing degradation domain of β-catenin is sufficient to destabilize heterologous proteins. Methods and Results: We engineer chimeric proteins by fusing β-catenin degradation domain at the N- and/or C-termini of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP. In both transient and stable expression experiments, the chimeric GFP proteins exhibit a significantly decreased stability, which can be effectively antagonized by lithium and Wnt1. An activating mutation in the destruction domain significantly stabilizes the fusion protein. Furthermore, GSK3 inhibitor SB-216763 effectively increases the GFP signal of the fusion protein. Conversely, the inhibition of Wnt signaling with tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 results in a decrease in GFP signal of the fusion proteins, while these small molecules have no significant effects on the mutant destruction domain-GFP fusion protein. Conclusion: Our findings strongly suggest that the β-catenin degradation domain may be sufficient to destabilize heterologous proteins in Wnt signaling-dependent manner. It is conceivable that the chimeric GFP proteins may be used as a functional reporter to measure the dynamic status of β-catenin signaling, and to identify potential anticancer drugs that target β-catenin signaling.

  5. Mechanisms of YidC-mediated Insertion and Assembly of Multimeric Membrane Protein Complexes

    Kol, Stefan; Nouwen, Nico; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The YidC protein fulfills a dual and essential role in the assembly of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli. Besides interacting with transmembrane segments of newly synthesized membrane proteins that insert into the membrane via the SecYEG complex, YidC also functions as an independent membrane protein insertase and assists in membrane protein folding. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of YidC substrate recognition and membrane insertion with emphasis on its role in the assembly of mult...

  6. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Highlights: → The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. → Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. → The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. → The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  7. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Kusch, Angelika [Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin D-13353 (Germany); Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany); Dumler, Inna, E-mail: dumler.inna@mh-hannover.de [Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover D-30625 (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  8. Sorting of the Alzheimer's Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediated by the AP-4 Complex

    Burgos, Patricia V.; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Rojas, Adriana L.; daSilva, Luis L.P.; Prabhu, Yogikala; Hurley, James H.; Bonifacino, Juan S. (NIH)

    2010-08-12

    Adaptor protein 4 (AP-4) is the most recently discovered and least well-characterized member of the family of heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes that mediate sorting of transmembrane cargo in post-Golgi compartments. Herein, we report the interaction of an YKFFE sequence from the cytosolic tail of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) with the {micro}4 subunit of AP-4. Biochemical and X-ray crystallographic analyses reveal that the properties of the APP sequence and the location of the binding site on 4 are distinct from those of other signal-adaptor interactions. Disruption of the APP-AP-4 interaction decreases localization of APP to endosomes and enhances {gamma}-secretase-catalyzed cleavage of APP to the pathogenic amyloid-{beta} peptide. These findings demonstrate that APP and AP-4 engage in a distinct type of signal-adaptor interaction that mediates transport of APP from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes, thereby reducing amyloidogenic processing of the protein.

  9. Phloem Proteomics Reveals New Lipid-Binding Proteins with a Putative Role in Lipid-Mediated Signaling.

    Barbaglia, Allison M; Tamot, Banita; Greve, Veronica; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho-) lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012). Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I) a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II) a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III) and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein), a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while all three

  10. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    Allison Marie Barbaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho- lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012. Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein, a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH, which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while

  11. Interleukin-18 alters protein expressions of neurodegenerative diseases-linked proteins in human SH-SY5Y neuron-like cells

    Elina M Sutinen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are present in Alzheimer´s disease (AD brains in addition to neuronal loss, Amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-protein neurofibrillary tangles. Previously we showed that levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-18 (IL-18, are elevated in post-mortem AD brains. IL-18 can modulate the tau kinases, Cdk5 and GSK3β, as well as Aβ-production. IL-18 levels are also increased in AD risk diseases, including type-2 diabetes and obesity. Here, we explored other IL-18 regulated proteins in neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, incubated with IL-18 for 24, 48 or 72h, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. Specific altered protein spots were chosen and identified with mass spectrometry and verified by western immunoblotting. IL-18 had time-dependent effects on the SH-SY5Y proteome, modulating numerous protein levels/modifications. We concentrated on those related to OS (DDAH2, peroxiredoxins 2, 3 and 6, DJ-1, BLVRA, Aβ-degradation (MMP14, TIMP2, Aβ-aggregation (Septin-2 and modifications of axon growth and guidance associated, collapsing response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2. IL-18 significantly increased antioxidative enzymes, indicative of OS, and altered levels of glycolytic α- and γ-enolase and multifunctional 14-3-3γ and -ε, commonly affected in neurodegenerative diseases. MMP14, TIMP2, α-enolase and 14-3-3ε, indirectly involved in Aβ metabolism, as well as Septin-2 showed changes that increase Aβ levels. Increased 14-3-3γ may contribute to GSK3β driven tau hyperphosphorylation and CRMP2 Thr514 and Ser522 phosphorylation with the Thr555-site, a target for Rho kinase, showing time-dependent changes. IL-18 also increased caspase-1 levels and vacuolization of the cells. Although our SH-SY5Y cells were not aged, as neurons in AD, our work suggests that heightened or prolonged IL-18 levels can drive protein changes of known

  12. Identification of DELE, a novel DAP3-binding protein which is crucial for death receptor-mediated apoptosis induction.

    Harada, Tanenobu; Iwai, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2010-10-01

    Death associated protein 3 (DAP3) is known to be a highly conserved protein, and is responsible for regulating apoptosis induced by various stimuli. To understand the molecular mechanism of how DAP3 induces apoptosis, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, and identified a novel DAP3-binding protein termed death ligand signal enhancer (DELE). In this report, we show that DELE actually binds to DAP3 in mammalian cells. We found that the cells stably expressing DELE are susceptible to apoptosis induction by the stimulation of TNF-α and TRAIL. In addition, knockdown of DELE expression rescued the HeLa cells from apoptosis induction by these stimuli. Moreover, activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 induced by stimulation of TNF-α, anti-Fas or TRAIL was significantly inhibited by the knockdown of DELE expression. These results demonstrated the biological significance of DELE for apoptosis signal mediated by death receptors. PMID:20563667

  13. Mechanistic Nanotherapeutic Approach Based on siRNA-Mediated DJ-1 Protein Suppression for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

    Schumann, Canan; Chan, Stephanie; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Khal, Shannon; Moskal, Vitaliya; Shah, Vidhi; Alani, Adam W G; Taratula, Olena; Taratula, Oleh

    2016-06-01

    We report an efficient therapeutic modality for platinum resistant ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of a multifunctional DJ-1 protein that is responsible for the proliferation, growth, invasion, oxidative stress, and overall survival of various cancers. The developed therapeutic strategy can work alone or in concert with a low dose of the first line chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, to elicit a maximal therapeutic response. To achieve an efficient DJ-1 knockdown, we constructed the polypropylenimine dendrimer-based nanoplatform targeted to LHRH receptors overexpressed on ovarian cancer cells. The quantitative PCR and Western immunoblotting analysis revealed that the delivered DJ-1 siRNA downregulated the expression of targeted mRNA and corresponding protein by more than 80% in various ovarian cancer cells. It was further demonstrated that siRNA-mediated DJ-1 suppression dramatically impaired proliferation, viability, and migration of the employed ovarian cancer cells. Finally, the combinatorial approach led to the most pronounced therapeutic response in all the studied cell lines, outperforming both siRNA-mediated DJ-1 knockdown and cisplatin treatment alone. It is noteworthy that the platinum-resistant cancer cells (A2780/CDDP) with the highest basal level of DJ-1 protein are most susceptible to the developed therapy and this susceptibility declines with decreasing basal levels of DJ-1. Finally, we interrogate the molecular underpinnings of the DJ-1 knockdown effects in the treatment of the ovarian cancer cells. By using various experimental techniques, it was revealed that DJ-1 depletion (1) decreases the activity of the Akt pathway, thereby reducing cellular proliferation and migration and increasing the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin on ovarian cancer cells; (2) enhances the activity of p53 tumor suppressor protein therefore restoring cell cycle arrest functionality and upregulating the Bax-caspase pathway, triggering cell death; and (3

  14. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    Mosedale, Merrie [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wu, Hong [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Kurtz, C. Lisa [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Schmidt, Stephen P. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Adkins, Karissa, E-mail: Karissa.Adkins@pfizer.com [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT06340 (United States); Harrill, Alison H. [Hamner-University of North Carolina Institute for Drug Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR72205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  15. Dysregulation of protein degradation pathways may mediate the liver injury and phospholipidosis associated with a cationic amphiphilic antibiotic drug

    A large number of antibiotics are known to cause drug-induced liver injury in the clinic; however, interpreting clinical risk is not straightforward owing to a lack of predictivity of the toxicity by standard preclinical species and a poor understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity. An example is PF-04287881, a novel ketolide antibiotic that caused elevations in liver function tests in Phase I clinical studies. In this study, a mouse diversity panel (MDP), comprised of 34 genetically diverse, inbred mouse strains, was utilized to model the toxicity observed with PF-04287881 treatment and investigate potential mechanisms that may mediate the liver response. Significant elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in PF-04287881-treated animals relative to vehicle-treated controls were observed in the majority (88%) of strains tested following a seven day exposure. The average fold elevation in ALT varied by genetic background and correlated with microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular single cell necrosis, and Kupffer cell vacuolation (confirmed as phospholipidosis) in the liver. Global liver mRNA expression was evaluated in a subset of four strains to identify transcript and pathway differences that distinguish susceptible mice from resistant mice in the context of PF-04287881 treatment. The protein ubiquitination pathway was highly enriched among genes associated with PF-04287881-induced hepatocellular necrosis. Expression changes associated with PF-04287881-induced phospholipidosis included genes involved in drug transport, phospholipid metabolism, and lysosomal function. The findings suggest that perturbations in genes involved in protein degradation leading to accumulation of oxidized proteins may mediate the liver injury induced by this drug. - Highlights: • Identified susceptible and resistant mouse strains to liver injury induced by a CAD • Liver injury characterized by single cell necrosis, and phospholipidosis

  16. A link between the cytoplasmic engulfment protein Elmo1 and the Mediator complex subunit Med31

    Mauldin, Joshua P.; LU, MINGJIAN; Das, Soumita; Park, Daeho; Ernst, Peter B.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2012-01-01

    The cytoplasmic Elmo1:Dock180 complex acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac and functions downstream of the phagocytic receptor BAI1 during apoptotic cell clearance, and in the entry of Salmonella and Shigella into cells [1–7]. We discovered an unexpected binding between Elmo1 and Mediator complex subunit Med31. The Mediator complex is a regulatory hub for nearly all gene transcription via RNA polymerase II (Pol II), bridging the general transcription mac...

  17. Cyanide-induced Death of Dopaminergic Cells is Mediated by Uncoupling Protein-2 Up-regulation and Reduced Bcl-2 Expression

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell l...

  18. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  19. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E; Pelicci, P G; Pouysségur, J; Van Obberghen-Schilling, E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have...... kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors....... recently been elucidated biochemically and genetically. The present study was undertaken to determine whether common signaling components are used by these two distinct classes of receptors. Here we report that the adaptor protein Shc, is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following stimulation of the...

  20. Novel redox-sensing modules : Accessory protein- and nucleic acid-mediated signaling

    Siedenburg, Gabriele; Groves, Matthew R; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío

    2012-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE: Organisms have evolved both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways to prevent oxidative damage to essential macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids. Pathways modulated by different protein-based sensory and regulatory modules ensure a rapid and appropriate response. RECENT AD

  1. Requirement of JIP scaffold proteins for NMDA-mediated signal transduction

    Kennedy, Norman J.; Martin, Gilles; Ehrhardt, Anka G.; Cavanagh-Kyros, Julie; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Rakic, Pasko; Richard A Flavell; Treistman, Steven N.; Davis, Roger J

    2007-01-01

    JIP scaffold proteins are implicated in the regulation of protein kinase signal transduction pathways. To test the physiological role of these scaffold proteins, we examined the phenotype of compound mutant mice that lack expression of JIP proteins. These mice were found to exhibit severe defects in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor function, including decreased NMDA-evoked current amplitude, cytoplasmic Ca++, and gene expression. The decreased NMDA receptor activity in JIP-deficient n...

  2. Water-mediated influence of a crowded environment on internal vibrations of a protein molecule.

    Kuffel, Anna; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The influence of crowding on the protein inner dynamics is examined by putting a single protein molecule close to one or two neighboring protein molecules. The presence of additional molecules influences the amplitudes of protein fluctuations. Also, a weak dynamical coupling of collective velocities of surface atoms of proteins separated by a layer of water is detected. The possible mechanisms of these phenomena are described. The cross-correlation function of the collective velocities of surface atoms of two proteins was decomposed into the Fourier series. The amplitude spectrum displays a peak at low frequencies. Also, the results of principal component analysis suggest that the close presence of an additional protein molecule influences the high-amplitude, low-frequency modes in the most prominent way. This part of the spectrum covers biologically important protein motions. The neighbor-induced changes in the inner dynamics of the protein may be connected with the changes in the velocity power spectrum of interfacial water. The additional protein molecule changes the properties of solvation water and in this way it can influence the dynamics of the second protein. It is suggested that this phenomenon may be described, at first approximation, by a damped oscillator driven by an external random force. This model was successfully applied to conformationally rigid Choristoneura fumiferana antifreeze protein molecules. PMID:26805932

  3. Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Host Cell Entry of Ebolaviruses.

    Wrensch, Florian; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Markus; Lu, Kai; Takada, Ayato; Winkler, Michael; Simmons, Graham; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly pathogenic in humans and nonhuman primates and pose a severe threat to public health. The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins can restrict entry of ebolaviruses, influenza A viruses, and other enveloped viruses. However, the breadth and mechanism of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins are incompletely understood. Here, we employed ebolavirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped vectors and ebolavirus-like particles to address this question. We show that IFITM proteins inhibit the cellular entry of diverse ebolaviruses and demonstrate that type I interferon induces IFITM protein expression in macrophages, major viral targets. Moreover, we show that IFITM proteins block entry of influenza A viruses and ebolaviruses by different mechanisms and provide evidence that antibodies and IFITM proteins can synergistically inhibit cellular entry of ebolaviruses. These results provide insights into the role of IFITM proteins in infection by ebolaviruses and suggest a mechanism by which antibodies, though poorly neutralizing in vitro, might contribute to viral control in vivo. PMID:26034199

  4. The cytoplasmic tails of infectious bronchitis virus E and M proteins mediate their interaction

    Virus-like particle (VLP) formation by the coronavirus E and M proteins suggests that interactions between these proteins play a critical role in coronavirus assembly. We studied interactions between the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) E and M proteins using in vivo crosslinking and VLP assembly assays. We show that IBV E and M can be crosslinked to each other in IBV-infected and transfected cells, indicating that they interact. The cytoplasmic tails of both proteins are important for this interaction. We also examined the ability of the mutant and chimeric E and M proteins to form VLPs. IBV M proteins that are missing portions of their cytoplasmic tails or transmembrane regions were not able to support VLP formation, regardless of their ability to be crosslinked to IBV E. Interactions between the E and M proteins and the membrane bilayer are likely to play an important role in VLP formation and virus budding

  5. A TIR domain protein from E. faecalis attenuates MyD88-mediated signaling and NF-κB activation.

    Jun Zou

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor signaling, mediated by functional Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domains, plays a critical role in activating the innate immune response responsible for controlling and clearing infection. Bacterial protein mimics of components of this signaling pathway have been identified and function through inhibition of interactions between Toll-like receptors (TLRs and their adaptor proteins, mediated by TIR domains. A previously uncharacterized gene, which we have named tcpF (for TIR domain-containing protein in E. faecalis was identified in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis V583, and predicted to encode a protein resembling mammalian and bacterial TIR proteins. We overexpressed and purified TcpF from E. coli and found that the recombinant protein could bind to phosphatidylinositol phosphates in vitro, suggesting a mechanism by which TcpF may be anchored to the plasma membrane in close proximity to TIR domains of TLRs and adaptor proteins. Purified TcpF was also found to interact specifically with the TIR adaptor protein MyD88, and this interaction was dependent on the BB loop domain in the Box 2 region of TcpF. Despite no evidence of TcpF being a secreted protein, recombinant TcpF was effectively able to enter RAW264.7 cells in vitro although the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be determined. Overexpression of TcpF in mammalian cells suppressed the NF-κB activation induced by bacterial lipoteichoic acid. A mutant lacking the tcpF gene was attenuated for survival in macrophages, with increased ability to activate NF-κB compared to the wild type strain. Complementation in trans restored growth, and inhibition of NF-κB, to that of wild type levels. No appreciable difference in bacterial persistence, dissemination or pathogenesis was observed between the wild type and mutant in a mouse peritonitis model however, which suggested either a subtle role for TcpF or functional overlap with other redundant factor(s in this

  6. The impact of RGS and other G-protein regulatory proteins on Gαi-mediated signaling in immunity.

    Kehrl, John H

    2016-08-15

    Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Signaling downstream of these receptors directs the localization, positioning and homeostatic trafficking of leukocytes; as well as their recruitment to, and their retention at, inflammatory sites. Ligand induced changes in the molecular conformation of chemoattractant receptors results in the engagement of heterotrimeric G-proteins, which promotes α subunits to undergo GTP/GDP exchange. This results in the functional release of βγ subunits from the heterotrimers, thereby activating downstream effector molecules, which initiate leukocyte polarization, gradient sensing, and directional migration. Pertussis toxin ADP ribosylates Gαi subunits and prevents chemoattractant receptors from triggering Gαi nucleotide exchange. The use of pertussis toxin revealed the essential importance of Gαi subunit nucleotide exchange for chemoattractant receptor signaling. More recent studies have identified a range of regulatory mechanisms that target these receptors and their associated heterotrimeric G-proteins, thereby helping to control the magnitude, kinetics, and duration of signaling. A failure in these regulatory pathways can lead to impaired receptor signaling and immunopathology. The analysis of mice with targeted deletions of Gαi isoforms as well as some of these G-protein regulatory proteins is providing insights into their roles in chemoattractant receptor signaling. PMID:27071343

  7. Receptor Interacting Protein 3-Mediated Necroptosis Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice.

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available Necrosis amplifies inflammation and plays important roles in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Necroptosis is a newly identified programmed necrosis that is mediated by receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3. However, the potential involvement and impact of necroptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARDS remains unknown. We therefore explored the role and mechanism of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in LPS-induced ARDS. Mice were instilled with increasing doses of LPS intratracheally to induce different degrees of ARDS. Lung tissues were harvested for histological and TUNEL staining and western blot for RIP3, p-RIP3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, total and cleaved caspases-3/8. Then, wild-type and RIP3 knock-out mice were induced ARDS with 30 mg/kg LPS. Pulmonary cellular necrosis was labeled by the propidium Iodide (PI staining. Levels of TNF-a, Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-10 and HMGB1, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, neutrophil counts and total protein concentration were measured. Results showed that in high dose LPS (30mg/kg and 40mg/kg -induced severe ARDS, RIP3 protein was increased significantly, accompanied by increases of p-RIP3 and MLKL, while in low dose LPS (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg -induced mild ARDS, apoptosis was remarkably increased. In LPS-induced severe ARDS, RIP3 knock-out alleviated the hypothermia symptom, increased survival rate and ameliorated the lung tissue injury RIP3 depletion also attenuated LPS-induced increase in IL-1α/β, IL-6 and HMGB1 release, decreased tissue MPO activity, and reduced neutrophil influx and total protein concentration in BALF in severe ARDS. Further, RIP3 depletion reduced the necrotic cells in the lung and decreased the expression of MLKL, but had no impact on cleaved caspase-3 in LPS-induced ARDS. It is concluded that RIP3-mediated necroptosis is a major mechanism of enhanced inflammation and lung tissue injury in

  8. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

    Han Lanlan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  9. A novel heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) molecular network mediating responses to stress- and ethanol-related behaviors.

    Urquhart, Kyle R; Zhao, Yinghong; Baker, Jessica A; Lu, Ye; Yan, Lei; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Hamre, Kristin M; Lu, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic differences mediate individual differences in susceptibility and responses to stress and ethanol, although, the specific molecular pathways that control these responses are not fully understood. Heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) is a molecular chaperone and member of the heat shock protein family that plays an integral role in the stress response and that has been implicated as an ethanol-responsive gene. Therefore, we assessed its role in mediating responses to stress and ethanol across varying genetic backgrounds. The hippocampus is an important mediator of these responses, and thus, was examined in the BXD family of mice in this study. We conducted bioinformatic analyses to dissect genetic factors modulating Hspa8 expression, identify downstream targets of Hspa8, and examined its role. Hspa8 is trans-regulated by a gene or genes on chromosome 14 and is part of a molecular network that regulates stress- and ethanol-related behaviors. To determine additional components of this network, we identified direct or indirect targets of Hspa8 and show that these genes, as predicted, participate in processes such as protein folding and organic substance metabolic processes. Two phenotypes that map to the Hspa8 locus are anxiety-related and numerous other anxiety- and/or ethanol-related behaviors significantly correlate with Hspa8 expression. To more directly assay this relationship, we examined differences in gene expression following exposure to stress or alcohol and showed treatment-related differential expression of Hspa8 and a subset of the members of its network. Our findings suggest that Hspa8 plays a vital role in genetic differences in responses to stress and ethanol and their interactions. PMID:26780340

  10. RPB5-Mediating Protein Suppresses Hepatitis B Virus (HBV Transcription and Replication by Counteracting the Transcriptional Activation of Hepatitis B virus X Protein in HBV Replication Mouse Model

    Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background RPB5-Mediating protein (RMP is associated with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5. This protein functionally counteracts the transcriptional activation of Hepatitis B Virus X protein (HBx by competitively binding to the RPB5; however, the effects of RMP on Hepatitis B virus (HBV transcription and replication remain unknown. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMP on viral transcription and replication in vivo by using the hydrodynamic-based HBV replication mouse model. Materials and Methods Male balb/c mice were transfected with wild type (1.2 wt or the HBx minus HBV plasmids (1.2x (- with or without HBx and RMP, to establish an HBV replication mouse model by hydrodynamic injection through the tail vein. The HBV RNA and HBV DNA replication intermediates (RI were analyzed in the liver. Results RPB5-Mediating protein could inhibit HBV transcription and replication in groups transfected with the 1.2 wt and HBx. The inhibitory effect disappeared in the 1.2x (- groups, yet it reappeared in the groups co-transfected with 1.2x (- and HBx. An inhibitory effect was indicated at a low dose of RMP (0.3 ug, 0.5 ug and 0.7 ug compared to the control group and groups that had received high doses of RMP. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that a low dose of RMP could inhibit HBV transcription and replication, which is dependent on the appearance of HBx in vivo.

  11. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  12. Targeting of p300/CREB Binding Protein Coactivators by Simian Virus 40 Is Mediated through p53

    Borger, Darrell R.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2006-01-01

    The primary transforming functions of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 LT) are conferred primarily through the binding and inactivation of p53 and the retinoblastoma family members. Normal p53 function requires an association with the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 coactivators, and a ternary complex containing SV40 LT, p53, and CBP/p300 has been identified previously. In this report, we have evaluated a secondary function of p53 bound to the SV40 LT complex in mediating the binding of ...

  13. Effect of sterol carrier protein-2 gene ablation on HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Storey, Stephen M.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Kerstin K. Landrock; Martin, Gregory G.; Huang, Huan; Ross Payne, H.; Johnson, Jeffery D.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although HDL-mediated cholesterol transport to the liver is well studied, cholesterol efflux from hepatocytes back to HDL is less well understood. Real-time imaging of efflux of 22-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-amino)-23,24-bisnor-5-cholen-3β-ol (NBD-cholesterol), which is poorly esterified, and [3H]cholesterol, which is extensively esterified, from cultured primary hepatocytes of wild-type and sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) gene-ablated mice showed that 1) NBD-cholesterol efflux w...

  14. Enhancement of protein vaccine potency by in vivo electroporation mediated intramuscular injection

    Kang, Tae Heung; Monie, Archana; Wu, Lee S.-F.; Pang, Xiaowu; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Protein-based vaccines have emerged as a potentially promising approach for the generation of antigen-specific immune responses. However, due to their low immunogenicity, there is a need for innovative approaches to enhance protein-based vaccine potency. One approach to enhance protein-based vaccine potency is the employment of toll-like receptor ligands, such as CpG oligonucleotides, to activate the antigen-specific T cell immune responses. Another approach involves employing a method capabl...

  15. Modulation of intracellular transport by transported proteins: Insight from regulation of COPI-mediated transport

    Aoe, Tomohiko; Lee, Agnes J.; van Donselaar, Elly; Peters, Peter J.; Hsu, Victor W.

    1998-01-01

    Intracellular transport is best understood for how proteins are shuttled among different compartments of the secretory pathway by membrane-bound transport carriers. However, it remains unclear whether regulation of this transport is modulated by the transported (cargo) proteins in the lumen of transport pathways. In the early secretory pathways that connect the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) recruits a cytosolic coat protein...

  16. IgE-mediated soy protein sensitization in children with cow`s milk allergy

    Agustina Santi; Mohammad Juffrie; Sumadiono

    2012-01-01

    Background Soy-based formula as an alternative to cow’s milk formula is preferable to extensively hydrolyzed protein formula because of the lower cost and more acceptable taste. However, cow’s milk allergy patients can subsequently develop a sensitivity to soy protein. Objective To compare soy protein sensitization in children with and without an allergy to cow’s milk. Methods This study was conducted in Yogyakarta from September 2007 until March 2008. Subjects were children aged belo...

  17. Dinitrosopiperazine-Mediated Phosphorylated-Proteins Are Involved in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Metastasis

    Gongjun Tan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine (DNP with organ specificity for nasopharyngeal epithelium, is involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC metastasis, though its mechanism is unclear. To reveal the pathogenesis of DNP-induced metastasis, immunoprecipitation was used to identify DNP-mediated phosphoproteins. DNP-mediated NPC cell line (6-10B motility and invasion was confirmed. Twenty-six phosphoproteins were increased at least 1.5-fold following DNP exposure. Changes in the expression levels of selected phosphoproteins were verified by Western-blotting analysis. DNP treatment altered the phosphorylation of ezrin (threonine 567, vimentin (serine 55, stathmin (serine 25 and STAT3 (serine 727. Furthermore, it was shown that DNP-dependent metastasis is mediated in part through ezrin at threonine 567, as DNP-mediated metastasis was decreased when threonine 567 of ezrin was mutated. Strikingly, NPC metastatic tumors exhibited a higher expression of phosphorylated-ezrin at threonine 567 than the primary tumors. These findings provide novel insight into DNP-induced NPC metastasis and may contribute to a better understanding of the metastatic mechanisms of NPC tumors.

  18. The effect of natural antioxidants on haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod protein.

    Halldorsdottir, Sigrun M; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Sveinsdottir, Holmfridur; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y

    2013-11-15

    Heating and changes in pH often practised during fish protein hydrolysis can cause lipid oxidation. The effect of natural antioxidants towards haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation during enzymatic hydrolysis of cod proteins was investigated. Different variants of a washed cod model system, containing different combinations of haemoglobin and natural antioxidants (l-ascorbic acid and Fuscus vesiculosus extract), were hydrolysed using Protease P "Amano" 6 at pH 8 and 36°C to achieve 20% degree of hydrolysis. Lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analysed periodically during the hydrolysis process. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the final products was investigated. Results indicate that oxidation can develop rapidly during hydrolysis and antioxidant strategies are preferable to produce good quality products. Oxidation products did not have an impact on the in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates. The natural antioxidants inhibited oxidation during hydrolysis and contributed to the antioxidant activity of the final product. PMID:23790867

  19. Novel tethered particle motion analysis of CI protein-mediated DNA looping in the regulation of bacteriophage lambda

    The tethered particle motion (TPM) technique has attracted great interest because of its simplicity and the wealth of information that it can provide on protein-induced conformational changes in nucleic acids. Here we present an approach to TPM methodology and analysis that increases the efficiency of data acquisition and facilitates interpretation of TPM assays. In particular, the statistical analysis that we propose allows fast data processing, minimal data selection and visual display of the distribution of molecular behaviour. The methodology proved useful in verifying CI protein-mediated DNA looping in bacteriophage λ and in differentiating between two different types of loops, stable and dynamic, whose relative occurrence seems to be a function of the distance between the operators as well as their relative angular orientation. Furthermore, the statistical analysis indicates that CI binding per se slightly shortens the DNA

  20. S100A6 protein negatively regulates CacyBP/SIP-mediated inhibition of gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.

    Xiaoxuan Ning

    Full Text Available Calcyclin-binding protein (CacyBP/SIP, identified on the basis of its ability to interact with S100 proteins in a calcium-dependent manner, was previously found to inhibit the proliferation and tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells in our laboratory. Importantly, the effects of S100 proteins on the biological behavior of CacyBP/SIP in gastric cancer remain unclear. Herein, we report the construction of eukaryotic expression vectors for wild-type CacyBP/SIP and a truncated mutant lacking the S100 protein binding domain (CacyBP/SIPΔS100. The expressions of the wild-type and truncated recombinant proteins were demonstrated by transfection of MKN45 gastric cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated interaction between S100A6 and wild-type CacyBP/SIP in MKN45 cells. Removal of the S100 protein binding domain dramatically reduced the affinity of CacyBP/SIP for S100 proteins as indicated by reduced co-immunoprecipitation of S100A6 by CacyBP/SIPΔS100. The MTT assay, FACS assay, clonogenic assay and tumor xenograft experiment were performed to assess the effect of CacyBP/SIP on cell growth and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of CacyBP/SIP inhibited the proliferation and tumorigenesis of MKN45 gastric cancer cells; the proliferation and tumorigenesis rates were even further reduced by the expression of CacyBP/SIPΔS100. We also showed that S100 proteins negatively regulate CacyBP/SIP-mediated inhibition of gastric cancer cell proliferation, through an effect on β-catenin protein expression and transcriptional activation of Tcf/LEF. Although the underlying mechanism of action requires further investigation, this study provides new insight into the interaction between S100 proteins and CacyBP/SIP, which might enrich our knowledge of S100 proteins and be helpful for our understanding of the development of gastric cancer.

  1. Identifying the Proteins that Mediate the Ionizing Radiation Resistance of Deinococcus Radiodurans R1

    Battista, John R

    2010-02-22

    The primary objectives of this proposal was to define the subset of proteins required for the ionizing radiation (IR) resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans R1, characterize the activities of those proteins, and apply what was learned to problems of interest to the Department of Energy.

  2. A Phosphorylation Tag for Uranyl Mediated Protein Purification and Photo Assisted Tag Removal

    Zhang, Qiang; Jørgensen, Thomas. J. D.; Nielsen, Peter E;

    2014-01-01

    Most protein purification procedures include an affinity tag fused to either the N or C-terminal end of the protein of interest as well as a procedure for tag removal. Tag removal is not straightforward and especially tag removal from the C-terminal end is a challenge due to the characteristics o...

  3. The spindle protein CHICA mediates localization of the chromokinesin Kid to the mitotic spindle

    Santamaria, Anna; Nagel, Susanna; Sillje, Herman H W; Nigg, Erich A

    2008-01-01

    Microtubule-based motor proteins provide essential forces for bipolar organization of spindle microtubules and chromosome movement, prerequisites of chromosome segregation during the cell cycle. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a novel spindle protein, termed "CHICA," that was or

  4. Reduced Cytotoxicity of Graphene Nanosheets Mediated by Blood-Protein Coating.

    Chong, Yu; Ge, Cuicui; Yang, Zaixing; Garate, Jose Antonio; Gu, Zonglin; Weber, Jeffrey K; Liu, Jiajia; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-06-23

    The advent and pending wide use of nanoscale materials urges a biosafety assessment and safe design of nanomaterials that demonstrate applicability to human medicine. In biological microenvironment, biomolecules will bind onto nanoparticles forming corona and endow nanoparticles new biological identity. Since blood-circulatory system will most likely be the first interaction organ exposed to these nanomaterials, a deep understanding of the basic interaction mechanisms between serum proteins and foreign nanoparticles may help to better clarify the potential risks of nanomaterials and provide guidance on safe design of nanomaterials. In this study, the adsorption of four high-abundance blood proteins onto the carbon-based nanomaterial graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) were investigated via experimental (AFM, florescence spectroscopy, SPR) and simulation-based (molecular dynamics) approaches. Among the proteins in question, we observe competitive binding to the GO surface that features a mélange of distinct packing modes. Our MD simulations reveal that the protein adsorption is mainly enthalpically driven through strong π-π stacking interactions between GO and aromatic protein residues, in addition to hydrophobic interactions. Overall, these results were in line with previous findings related to adsorption of serum proteins onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), but GO exhibits a dramatic enhancement of adsorption capacity compared to this one-dimensional carbon form. Encouragingly, protein-coated GO resulted in a markedly less cytotoxicity than pristine and protein-coated SWCNTs, suggesting a useful role for this planar nanomaterial in biomedical applications. PMID:26040772

  5. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  6. MicroProtein-mediated recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS trimeric complex represses flowering in Arabidopsis

    Graeff, Moritz; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Tenai E.;

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana microProteins, miP1a and miP1b, physically interact with CONSTANS (CO) a potent regulator of flowering time. The miP1a/b-type microProteins evolved in dicotyledonous plants and have an additional carboxy-terminal PF(V/L)FL motif. This motif enables miP1a/b microProteins to interact with...... TOPLESS/TOPLESS-RELATED (TPL/TPR) proteins. Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions. Both miP1a and miP1b are expressed in vascular tissue, where CO and FT are active. Genetically......MicroProteins are short, single domain proteins that act by sequestering larger, multi-domain proteins into non-functional complexes. MicroProteins have been identified in plants and animals, where they are mostly involved in the regulation of developmental processes. Here we show that two...

  7. Trafficking of Na,K-ATPase fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein is mediated by protein kinase A or C

    Kristensen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Jørgensen, PL

    2003-01-01

    Fusion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) to the C-terminal of rat Na,K-ATPase a1-subunit is introduced as a novel procedure for visualizing trafficking of Na,K-pumps in living COS-1 renal cells in response to PKA or PKC stimulation. Stable, functional expression of the fluorescent...... along the plasma membrane of COS cells. In unstimulated COS cells, Na,K-EGFP was also present in lysosomes and in vesicles en route from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane, but it was almost absent from recycling endosomes labelled with fluorescent transferrin. After activation of protein...... chimera (Na,K-EGFP) was achieved in COS-1 cells using combined puromycin and ouabain selection procedures. Na,K-pump activities were unchanged after fusion with EGFP, both in basal and regulated states. In confocal laser scanning and fluorescence microscopes, the Na,K-EGFP chimera was distributed mainly...

  8. FoxO proteins' nuclear retention and BH3-only protein Bim induction evoke mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells.

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Rizvi, Fatima; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam

    2014-11-01

    Mammalian forkhead-box family members belonging to the 'O' category (FoxO) manipulate a plethora of genes modulating a wide array of cellular functions including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, and energy metabolism. FoxO overexpression and nuclear accumulation have been reported to show correlation with hindered tumor growth in vitro and size in vivo, while FoxO's downregulation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway has been linked with tumor promotion. In this study, we have explored for the first time intervention of berberine, a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid, with FoxO family proteins in hepatoma cells. We observed that berberine significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of both FoxO1 and FoxO3a. Their phosphorylation-mediated cytoplasmic sequestration followed by degradation was prevented by berberine-induced downmodulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway which promoted FoxO nuclear retention. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene and negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt axis, was upregulated while phosphorylation of its Ser380 residue (possible mechanism of PTEN degradation) was significantly decreased in treated HepG2 cells. Exposure to berberine induced a significant increase in transcriptional activity of FoxO, as shown by GFP reporter assay. FoxO transcription factors effectively heightened BH3-only protein Bim expression, which in turn, being a direct activator of proapoptotic protein Bax, altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, culminating into mitochondrial dysfunction, caspases activation, and DNA fragmentation. The pivotal role of Bim in berberine-mediated cytotoxicity was further corroborated by knockdown experiments where Bim-silencing partially restored HepG2 cell viability during berberine exposure. In addition, a correlation between oxidative overload and FoxO's nuclear accumulation via JNK activation was evident as berberine treatment led to a pronounced increase in JNK phosphorylation together with enhanced

  9. Transcriptional induction of the heat shock protein B8 mediates the clearance of misfolded proteins responsible for motor neuron diseases.

    Crippa, Valeria; D'Agostino, Vito G; Cristofani, Riccardo; Rusmini, Paola; Cicardi, Maria E; Messi, Elio; Loffredo, Rosa; Pancher, Michael; Piccolella, Margherita; Galbiati, Mariarita; Meroni, Marco; Cereda, Cristina; Carra, Serena; Provenzani, Alessandro; Poletti, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are often associated with the presence of misfolded protein inclusions. The chaperone HSPB8 is upregulated in mice, the human brain and muscle structures affected during NDs progression. HSPB8 exerts a potent pro-degradative activity on several misfolded proteins responsible for familial NDs forms. Here, we demonstrated that HSPB8 also counteracts accumulation of aberrantly localized misfolded forms of TDP-43 and its 25 KDa fragment involved in most sporadic cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (sALS) and of Fronto Lateral Temporal Dementia (FLTD). HSPB8 acts with BAG3 and the HSP70/HSC70-CHIP complex enhancing the autophagic removal of misfolded proteins. We performed a high-through put screening (HTS) to find small molecules capable of inducing HSPB8 in neurons for therapeutic purposes. We identified two compounds, colchicine and doxorubicin, that robustly up-regulated HSPB8 expression. Both colchicine and doxorubicin increased the expression of the master regulator of autophagy TFEB, the autophagy linker p62/SQSTM1 and the autophagosome component LC3. In line, both drugs counteracted the accumulation of TDP-43 and TDP-25 misfolded species responsible for motoneuronal death in sALS. Thus, analogs of colchicine and doxorubicin able to induce HSPB8 and with better safety and tolerability may result beneficial in NDs models. PMID:26961006

  10. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Ruzica Livaja Koshiar

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte

  11. Inhibition of glucose- and fructose-mediated protein glycation by infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices

    Jugjeet Singh Ramkissoon; Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally; Anwar Hussein Subratty; Nessar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory activity of ten culinary herbs and spices namely on glucose-mediated glycation (GMG) and fructose-mediated glycation (FMG) of bovine serum albumin. Methods: Fluorescence was used as an index of albumin glycation using glucose and fructose as substrates in the presence of infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using reducing power, metal ion chelating and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Phytochemicals profile was analysed using 13 standard methods. Results: FMG was found to be significantly higher than GMG (95 and 84 AU, respectively; P 0.05) was found in the percentage glycation inhibitory activity of infusions compared to ethanolic extracts. The mean percentage inhibitory activity of the extracts for GMG (45.9%) and for FMG (45.1%) was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, fla-vonoids, tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids, reducing sugars, proteins, phenols, saponins, phlobatannins, and cardiac glycosides. Conclusions: The higher rate of fluorescence generation by fructation suggests that glycation by fructose deserves much attention as a glycating agent. Data herein showed that the extracts inhibited GMG and FMG. Thus, these edible plants could be a natural source of antioxidants and anti-glycation agent for preventing advanced glycation end-products-mediated complications.

  12. Tau Protein Mediates APP Intracellular Domain (AICD)-Induced Alzheimer’s-Like Pathological Features in Mice

    Dawson, Hana N.; Pimplikar, Sanjay W.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by gamma-secretase to simultaneously generate amyloid beta (Aβ) and APP Intracellular Domain (AICD) peptides. Aβ plays a pivotal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis but recent studies suggest that amyloid-independent mechanisms also contribute to the disease. We previously showed that AICD transgenic mice (AICD-Tg) exhibit AD-like features such as tau pathology, aberrant neuronal activity, memory deficits and neurodegeneration in an age-dependent manner. Since AD is a tauopathy and tau has been shown to mediate Aβ–induced toxicity, we examined the role of tau in AICD-induced pathological features. We report that ablating endogenous tau protects AICD-Tg mice from deficits in adult neurogenesis, seizure severity, short-term memory deficits and neurodegeneration. Deletion of tau restored abnormal phosphorylation of NMDA receptors, which is likely to underlie hyperexcitability and associated excitotoxicity in AICD-Tg mice. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type human tau aggravated receptor phosphorylation, impaired adult neurogenesis, memory deficits and neurodegeneration. Our findings show that tau is essential for mediating the deleterious effects of AICD. Since tau also mediates Aβ-induced toxic effects, our findings suggest that tau is a common downstream factor in both amyloid-dependent and–independent pathogenic mechanisms and therefore could be a more effective drug target for therapeutic intervention in AD. PMID:27459671

  13. Reduced expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 and collapsin response mediator protein 1 promotes death of spinal cord neurons.

    Kurnellas, M P; Li, H; Jain, M R; Giraud, S N; Nicot, A B; Ratnayake, A; Heary, R F; Elkabes, S

    2010-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying neuronal pathology and death in the spinal cord (SC) during inflammation remain elusive. We previously showed the important role of plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) in the survival of SC neurons, in vitro. We also postulated that a decrease in PMCA2 expression could cause neuronal death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. The current studies were undertaken to define the specific contribution of PMCA2 to degeneration of SC neurons, the effectors downstream to PMCA2 mediating neuronal death and the triggers that reduce PMCA2 expression. We report that knockdown of PMCA2 in SC neurons decreases collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) levels. This is followed by cell death. Silencing of CRMP1 expression also leads to neuronal loss. Kainic acid reduces both PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels and induces neuronal death. Administration of an alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist, at onset or peak of EAE, restores the decreased PMCA2 and CRMP1 levels to control values and ameliorates clinical deficits. Thus, our data link the reduction in PMCA2 expression with perturbations in the expression of CRMP1 and the ensuing death of SC neurons. This represents an additional mechanism underlying AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity with relevance to neurodegeneration in EAE. PMID:20489728

  14. Distinct pathways mediate the sorting of tail-anchored proteins to the plastid outer envelope.

    Preetinder K Dhanoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tail-anchored (TA proteins are a distinct class of membrane proteins that are sorted post-translationally to various organelles and function in a number of important cellular processes, including redox reactions, vesicular trafficking and protein translocation. While the molecular targeting signals and pathways responsible for sorting TA proteins to their correct intracellular destinations in yeasts and mammals have begun to be characterized, relatively little is known about TA protein biogenesis in plant cells, especially for those sorted to the plastid outer envelope. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the biogenesis of three plastid TA proteins, including the 33-kDa and 34-kDa GTPases of the translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts (Toc33 and Toc34 and a novel 9-kDa protein of unknown function that we define here as an outer envelope TA protein (OEP9. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that OEP9 utilizes a different sorting pathway than that used by Toc33 and Toc34. For instance, while all three TA proteins interact with the cytosolic OEP chaperone/receptor, AKR2A, the plastid targeting information within OEP9 is distinct from that within Toc33 and Toc34. Toc33 and Toc34 also appear to differ from OEP9 in that their insertion is dependent on themselves and the unique lipid composition of the plastid outer envelope. By contrast, the insertion of OEP9 into the plastid outer envelope occurs in a proteinaceous-dependent, but Toc33/34-independent manner and membrane lipids appear to serve primarily to facilitate normal thermodynamic integration of this TA protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the results provide evidence in support of at least two sorting pathways for plastid TA outer envelope proteins and shed light on not only the complex diversity of pathways involved in the targeting and insertion of proteins into plastids, but also the molecular mechanisms that underlie

  15. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@dent.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Masahiro [Department of Aging and Geriatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tamura, Masato [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  16. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    Highlights: ► Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. ► Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. ► Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent pathway.

  17. Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage

    Marie-Jo Halaby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80 has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

  18. Signals in hepatitis A virus P3 region proteins recognized by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system

    The hepatitis A virus 3C protease and 3D RNA polymerase are present in low concentrations in infected cells. The 3C protease was previously shown to be rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system and we present evidence here that the 3D polymerase is also subject to ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis. Our results show that the sequence 32LGVKDDWLLV41 in the 3C protease serves as a protein destruction signal recognized by the ubiquitin-protein ligase E3α and that the destruction signal for the RNA polymerase does not require the carboxyl-terminal 137 amino acids. Both the viral 3ABCD polyprotein and the 3CD diprotein were also found to be substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Attempts to determine if the 3C protease or the 3D polymerase destruction signals trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of these precursors yielded evidence suggesting, but not unequivocally proving, that the recognition of the 3D polymerase by the ubiquitin system is responsible

  19. Molecular Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Non-Protein Coding RNA-Mediated Monoplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Soo Yean, Cheryl Yeap; Selva Raju, Kishanraj; Xavier, Rathinam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chinni, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    Non-protein coding RNA (npcRNA) is a functional RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein. Bacterial npcRNAs are structurally diversified molecules, typically 50–200 nucleotides in length. They play a crucial physiological role in cellular networking, including stress responses, replication and bacterial virulence. In this study, by using an identified npcRNA gene (Sau-02) in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we identified the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus. A Sau-02-mediated monoplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was designed that displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Fourteen different bacteria and 18 S. aureus strains were tested, and the results showed that the Sau-02 gene is specific to S. aureus. The detection limit was tested against genomic DNA from MRSA and was found to be ~10 genome copies. Further, the detection was extended to whole-cell MRSA detection, and we reached the detection limit with two bacteria. The monoplex PCR assay demonstrated in this study is a novel detection method that can replicate other npcRNA-mediated detection assays. PMID:27367909

  20. FBXL5-mediated degradation of single-stranded DNA-binding protein hSSB1 controls DNA damage response.

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Bin; Tang, Nai-Wang; Xu, Yun-Hua; Ye, Xiang-Yun; Li, Zi-Ming; Niu, Xiao-Min; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Xu, Ling

    2014-10-01

    Human single-strand (ss) DNA binding proteins 1 (hSSB1) has been shown to participate in DNA damage response and maintenance of genome stability by regulating the initiation of ATM-dependent signaling. ATM phosphorylates hSSB1 and prevents hSSB1 from ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. However, the E3 ligase that targets hSSB1 for destruction is still unknown. Here, we report that hSSB1 is the bona fide substrate for an Fbxl5-containing SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F box) E3 ligase. Fbxl5 interacts with and targets hSSB1 for ubiquitination and degradation, which could be prevented by ATM-mediated hSSB1 T117 phosphorylation. Furthermore, cells overexpression of Fbxl5 abrogated the cellular response to DSBs, including activation of ATM and phosphorylation of ATM targets and exhibited increased radiosensitivity, chemosensitivity and defective checkpoint activation after genotoxic stress stimuli. Moreover, the protein levels of hSSB1 and Fbxl5 showed an inverse correlation in lung cancer cells lines and clinical lung cancer samples. Therefore, Fbxl5 may negatively modulate hSSB1 to regulate DNA damage response, implicating Fbxl5 as a novel, promising therapeutic target for lung cancers. PMID:25249620

  1. Cell growth suppression by thanatos-associated protein 11(THAP11) is mediated by transcriptional downregulation of c-Myc.

    Zhu, C-Y; Li, C-Y; Li, Y; Zhan, Y-Q; Li, Y-H; Xu, C-W; Xu, W-X; Sun, H B; Yang, X-M

    2009-03-01

    Thanatos-associated proteins (THAPs) are zinc-dependent, sequence-specific DNA-binding factors involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, chromatin modification and transcriptional regulation. THAP11 is the most recently described member of this human protein family. In this study, we show that THAP11 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and frequently downregulated in several human tumor tissues. Overexpression of THAP11 markedly inhibits growth of a number of different cells, including cancer cells and non-transformed cells. Silencing of THAP11 by RNA interference in HepG2 cells results in loss of cell growth repression. These results suggest that human THAP11 may be an endogenous physiologic regulator of cell proliferation. We also provide evidence that the function of THAP11 is mediated by its ability to repress transcription of c-Myc. Promoter reporter assays indicate a DNA binding-dependent c-Myc transcriptional repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitations and EMSA assay suggest that THAP11 directly binds to the c-Myc promoter. The findings that expression of c-Myc rescues significantly cells from THAP11-mediated cell growth suppression and that THAP11 expression only slightly inhibits c-Myc null fibroblasts cells growth reveal that THAP11 inhibits cell growth through downregulation of c-Myc expression. Taken together, these suggest that THAP11 functions as a cell growth suppressor by negatively regulating the expression of c-Myc. PMID:19008924

  2. Inducible virus-mediated expression of a foreign protein in suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Dohi, K; Nishikiori, M; Tamai, A; Ishikawa, M; Meshi, T; Mori, M

    2006-06-01

    Although suspension-cultured plant cells have many potential merits as sources of useful proteins, the lack of an efficient expression system has prevented using this approach. In this study, we established an inducible tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) infection system in tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells to inducibly and efficiently produce a foreign protein. In this system, a modified ToMV encoding a foreign protein as replacement of the coat protein is expressed from stably transformed cDNA under the control of an estrogen-inducible promoter in transgenic BY-2 cells. Estrogen added to the culture activates an estrogen-inducible transactivator expressed constitutively from the transgene and induces transcription and replication of viral RNA. In our experiments, accumulation of viral RNA and expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) encoded in the virus were observed within 24 h after induction. The amount of GFP reached approximately 10% of total soluble protein 4 d after induction. In contrast, neither viral RNA nor GFP were detected in uninduced cells. The inducible virus infection system established here should be utilized not only for the expression of foreign proteins, but also for investigations into the viral replication process in cultured plant cells. PMID:16421635

  3. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase (RSK-2 as a central effector molecule in RON receptor tyrosine kinase mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by macrophage-stimulating protein

    Zhang Rui-Wen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT occurs during cancer cell invasion and malignant metastasis. Features of EMT include spindle-like cell morphology, loss of epithelial cellular markers and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Activation of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase by macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP has been implicated in cellular EMT program; however, the major signaling determinant(s responsible for MSP-induced EMT is unknown. Results The study presented here demonstrates that RSK2, a downstream signaling protein of the Ras-Erk1/2 pathway, is the principal molecule that links MSP-activated RON signaling to complete EMT. Using MDCK cells expressing RON as a model, a spindle-shape based screen was conducted, which identifies RSK2 among various intracellular proteins as a potential signaling molecule responsible for MSP-induced EMT. MSP stimulation dissociated RSK2 with Erk1/2 and promoted RSK2 nuclear translocation. MSP strongly induced RSK2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These effects relied on RON and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, which is significantly potentiated by transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, an EMT-inducing cytokine. Specific RSK inhibitor SL0101 completely prevented MSP-induced RSK phosphorylation, which results in inhibition of MSP-induced spindle-like morphology and suppression of cell migration associated with EMT. In HT-29 cancer cells that barely express RSK2, forced RSK2 expression results in EMT-like phenotype upon MSP stimulation. Moreover, specific siRNA-mediated silencing of RSK2 but not RSK1 in L3.6pl pancreatic cancer cells significantly inhibited MSP-induced EMT-like phenotype and cell migration. Conclusions MSP-induced RSK2 activation is a critical determinant linking RON signaling to cellular EMT program. Inhibition of RSK2 activity may provide a therapeutic opportunity for blocking RON-mediated cancer cell migration and subsequent invasion.

  4. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates apoptosis in response to bioenergetic stress through activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain-3-only protein BMF.

    Kilbride, Seán M; Farrelly, Angela M; Bonner, Caroline; Ward, Manus W; Nyhan, Kristine C; Concannon, Caoimhín G; Wollheim, Claes B; Byrne, Maria M; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2010-11-12

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) gene result in the pathogenesis of maturity-onset diabetes-of-the-young type 3, (HNF1A-MODY). This disorder is characterized by a primary defect in metabolism-secretion coupling and decreased beta cell mass, attributed to excessive beta cell apoptosis. Here, we investigated the link between energy stress and apoptosis activation following HNF1A inactivation. This study employed single cell fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and gene silencing to study the effects of overexpression of dominant-negative (DN)-HNF1A expression on cellular bioenergetics and apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Induction of DN-HNF1A expression led to reduced ATP levels and diminished the bioenergetic response to glucose. This was coupled with activation of the bioenergetic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which preceded the onset of apoptosis. Pharmacological activation of AMPK using aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) was sufficient to induce apoptosis in naive cells. Conversely, inhibition of AMPK with compound C or AMPKα gene silencing protected against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, AMPK mediated the induction of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain-3-only protein Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor). Bmf expression was also elevated in islets of DN-HNF1A transgenic mice. Furthermore, knockdown of Bmf expression in INS-1 cells using siRNA was sufficient to protect against DN-HNF1A-induced apoptosis. Our study suggests that overexpression of DN-HNF1A induces bioenergetic stress and activation of AMPK. This in turn mediates the transcriptional activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-homology protein BMF, coupling prolonged energy stress to apoptosis activation. PMID:20841353

  5. Integrin-mediated adhesion of human mesenchymal stem cells to extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to polymer surfaces

    In vitro, degradable aliphatic polyesters are widely used as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering, despite their lack of biological cues. Their biological active surface is rather determined by an adsorbed layer of proteins from the surrounding media. Initial cell fate, including adhesion and proliferation, which are key properties for efficient cell carriers, is determined by the adsorbed layer of proteins. Herein we have investigated the ability of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin and vitronectin which are present in plasma and serum. hBMSC expressed integrins for collagens, laminins, fibronectin and vitronectin. Accordingly, hBMSC strongly adhered to these purified ECM proteins by using the corresponding integrins. Although purified fibronectin and vitronectin adsorbed to aliphatic polyesters to a lower extent than to cell culture polystyrene, these low levels were sufficient to mediate adhesion of hBMSC. It was found that plasma- and serum-coated polystyrene adsorbed significant levels of both fibronectin and vitronectin, and fibronectin was identified as the major adhesive component of plasma for hBMSC; however, aliphatic polyesters adsorbed minimal levels of fibronectin under similar conditions resulting in impaired cell adhesion. Altogether, the results suggest that the efficiency of aliphatic polyesters cell carriers could be improved by increasing their ability to adsorb fibronectin. (paper)

  6. MutS and UvrD proteins stimulate exonuclease action: insights into exonuclease-mediated strand repair.

    Noothi, Sunil K; Minda, Renu; Rao, Basuthkar J

    2009-08-25

    MutS and UvrD proteins individually stimulate Escherichia coli exonuclease VII activity on blunt-ended short duplex DNA substrates. Stimulation by both proteins is ATP-dependent but not mismatch-specific and is not accompanied by apparent strand separation. Under similar conditions, MutS and UvrD proteins in fact confer resistance to exonuclease VII action on ssDNA targets, thereby implying that a novel state of a double-stranded DNA intermediate, which we term a "destabilized duplex", is involved in exonuclease-mediated strand degradation. We find that DNA strands in such a destabilized duplex can be displaced by the challenge of a molar excess of homologous single- and double-stranded DNA targets, in trans. Such an action of the UvrD protein is ATP-dependent. We discuss these results in relation to the (i) directional excision repair of E. coli MMR, (ii) downregulation of repeat deletions by exonucleases during replication slippage, and (iii) the fork reversal function of UvrD at stalled replication forks. PMID:19618961

  7. Global Profiling of Huntingtin-associated protein E (HYPE)-Mediated AMPylation through a Chemical Proteomic Approach.

    Broncel, Malgorzata; Serwa, Remigiusz A; Bunney, Tom D; Katan, Matilda; Tate, Edward W

    2016-02-01

    AMPylation of mammalian small GTPases by bacterial virulence factors can be a key step in bacterial infection of host cells, and constitutes a potential drug target. This posttranslational modification also exists in eukaryotes, and AMP transferase activity was recently assigned to HYPE Filamentation induced by cyclic AMP domain containing protein (FICD) protein, which is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. In contrast to bacterial AMP transferases, only a small number of HYPE substrates have been identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry approaches, and the full range of targets is yet to be determined in mammalian cells. We describe here the first example of global chemoproteomic screening and substrate validation for HYPE-mediated AMPylation in mammalian cell lysate. Through quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics coupled with novel chemoproteomic tools providing MS/MS evidence of AMP modification, we identified a total of 25 AMPylated proteins, including the previously validated substrate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP (HSPA5), and also novel substrates involved in pathways of gene expression, ATP biosynthesis, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. This dataset represents the largest library of AMPylated human proteins reported to date and a foundation for substrate-specific investigations that can ultimately decipher the complex biological networks involved in eukaryotic AMPylation. PMID:26604261

  8. Sinorhizobium meliloti Controls Nitric Oxide-Mediated Post-Translational Modification of a Medicago truncatula Nodule Protein.

    Blanquet, Pauline; Silva, Liliana; Catrice, Olivier; Bruand, Claude; Carvalho, Helena; Meilhoc, Eliane

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in various plant-microbe interactions. In the symbiosis between soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and model legume Medicago truncatula, NO is required for an optimal establishment of the interaction but is also a signal for nodule senescence. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for NO effects in the legume-rhizobium interaction. Here, we investigate the contribution of the bacterial NO response to the modulation of a plant protein post-translational modification in nitrogen-fixing nodules. We made use of different bacterial mutants to finely modulate NO levels inside M. truncatula root nodules and to examine the consequence on tyrosine nitration of the plant glutamine synthetase, a protein responsible for assimilation of the ammonia released by nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal that S. meliloti possesses several proteins that limit inactivation of plant enzyme activity via NO-mediated post-translational modifications. This is the first demonstration that rhizobia can impact the course of nitrogen fixation by modulating the activity of a plant protein. PMID:26422404

  9. KRAB-zinc finger proteins and KAP1 can mediate long-range transcriptional repression through heterochromatin spreading.

    Anna C Groner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-associated box domain-zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs are tetrapod-specific transcriptional repressors encoded in the hundreds by the human genome. In order to explore their as yet ill-defined impact on gene expression, we developed an ectopic repressor assay, allowing the study of KRAB-mediated transcriptional regulation at hundreds of different transcriptional units. By targeting a drug-controllable KRAB-containing repressor to gene-trapping lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that KRAB and its corepressor KAP1 can silence promoters located several tens of kilobases (kb away from their DNA binding sites, with an efficiency which is generally higher for promoters located within 15 kb or less. Silenced promoters exhibit a loss of histone H3-acetylation, an increase in H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3, and a drop in RNA Pol II recruitment, consistent with a block of transcriptional initiation following the establishment of silencing marks. Furthermore, we reveal that KRAB-mediated repression is established by the long-range spreading of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1beta between the repressor binding site and the promoter. We confirm the biological relevance of this phenomenon by documenting KAP1-dependent transcriptional repression at an endogenous KRAB-ZFP gene cluster, where KAP1 binds to the 3' end of genes and mediates propagation of H3K9me3 and HP1beta towards their 5' end. Together, our data support a model in which KRAB/KAP1 recruitment induces long-range repression through the spread of heterochromatin. This finding not only suggests auto-regulatory mechanisms in the control of KRAB-ZFP gene clusters, but also provides important cues for interpreting future genome-wide DNA binding data of KRAB-ZFPs and KAP1.

  10. Propofol Ameliorates Calpain-induced Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Proteolysis in Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Yun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2, a multifunctional cytosolic protein highly expressed in the brain, is degraded by calpain following traumatic brain injury (TBI, possibly inhibiting posttraumatic neurite regeneration. Lipid peroxidation (LP is involved in triggering postinjury CRMP2 proteolysis. We examined the hypothesis that propofol could attenuate LP, calpain-induced CRMP2 degradation, and brain injury after TBI. Methods: A unilateral moderate controlled cortical impact injury was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Sham control group, TBI group, TBI + propofol groups (including propofol 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h groups, TBI + U83836E group and TBI + fat emulsion group. The LP inhibitor U83836E was used as a control to identify that antioxidation partially accounts for the potential neuroprotective effects of propofol. The solvent of propofol, fat emulsion, was used as the vehicle control. Ipsilateral cortex tissues were harvested at 24 h post-TBI. Immunofluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling were used to evaluate LP, calpain activity, CRMP2 proteolysis and programmed cell death. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test. Results: Propofol and U83836E significantly ameliorated the CRMP2 proteolysis. In addition, both propofol and U83836E significantly decreased the ratio of 145-kDa αII-spectrin breakdown products to intact 270-kDa spectrin, the 4-hydroxynonenal expression and programmed cell death in the pericontusional cortex at 24 h after TBI. There was no difference between the TBI group and the fat emulsion group. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that propofol postconditioning alleviates calpain-mediated CRMP2 proteolysis and provides neuroprotective effects following moderate TBI potentially by counteracting LP and reducing

  11. A Functional Family-Wide Screening of SP/KLF Proteins Identifies a Subset of Suppressors of KRAS-Mediated Cell Growth

    Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Lomberk, Gwen A.; Tsuji, Shoichiro; DeMars, Cathrine J.; Bardsley, Michael R.; Lin,Yi-Hui; Almada, Luciana L.; Han, Jing-Jing; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Ordog, Tamas; Buttar, Navtej S; Urrutia, Raul

    2011-01-01

    SP/KLF transcription factors comprise an emerging group of proteins that may behave as tumor suppressors. Incidentally, many cancers displaying alterations in certain KLF proteins are also associated with a high incidence of KRAS mutations. Therefore, we here investigate whether SP/KLF proteins suppress KRAS-mediated cell growth, and more importantly, the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. Using a comprehensive, family-wide screening of the 24 SP/KLF members, we discover that SP5,...

  12. Post-cocaine changes in regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins in the dorsal striatum: Relevance for cocaine-seeking and protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation.

    Bilodeau, Jenna; Schwendt, Marek

    2016-10-01

    Persistent cocaine-induced neuroadaptations within the cortico-striatal circuitry might be related to elevated risk of relapse observed in human addicts even after months or years of drug-free abstinence. Identification of these neuroadaptations may lead development of novel, neurobiologically-based treatments of relapse. In the current study, 12 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered cocaine (or received yoked-saline) for two weeks followed by three weeks of home-cage abstinence. At this point, we analyzed expression of proteins involved in regulation of Gαi- and Gαq-protein signaling in the dorsal striatum (dSTR). Animals abstinent from chronic cocaine showed decreased expression of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) and RGS4, as well as upregulation of RGS9. These data, together with the increased ratio of Gαq-to-Gαi proteins indicated, "sensitized" Gαq signaling in the dSTR of abstinent cocaine animals. To evaluate activation of Gαq signaling during relapse, another group of abstinent cocaine animals (and yoked saline controls, 22 rats together) was reintroduced to the cocaine context and PKC-mediated phosphorylation in the dSTR was analyzed. Re-exposure to the cocaine context triggered cocaine seeking and increase in phosphorylation of cellular PKC substrates, including phospho-ERK and phospho-CREB. In conclusion, this study demonstrates persistent dysregulation of RGS proteins in the dSTR of abstinent cocaine animals that may produce an imbalance in local Gαq-to-Gαi signaling. This imbalance might be related to augmented PKC-mediated phosphorylation during relapse to cocaine-seeking. Future studies will address whether selective targeting of RGS proteins in the dSTR can be utilized to suppress PKC-mediated phosphorylation and relapse to cocaine-seeking. PMID:27261631

  13. Endothelin potentiates TRPV1 via ETA receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase C

    Furkert Jens

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 both stimulates nociceptors and sensitizes them to noxious stimuli, an effect probably mediated by the ETA receptor (ETAR expressed in sensory neurons. The cellular mechanisms of this ET-1-mediated effect are only poorly understood. TRPV1, the heat-, pH- and capsaicin-sensitive cation channel already known to be modulated by a number of cellular mediators released in response to noxious stimuli and during inflammation, is a potential target for the action of ET-1. Results We studied the effects of ET-1 on TRPV1 in sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG and in HEK293 cells coexpressing TRPV1 and the ETAR. Specific 125I-ET-1 binding sites (817 ± 92 fmol/mg were detected in membrane preparations of DRG with an ETAR/ETBR ratio of 60:40. In an immunofluorescence analysis, coexpression of TRPV1 and the ETAR was found in a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons. ET-1 strongly potentiated capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents in some neurons, and in HEK293 cells co-expressing TRPV1 and the ETAR. Weaker potentiation was observed in HEK293 cells coexpressing TRPV1 and the ETBR. ETAR activation also increased responses to low pH and heat. In HEK293 cells, strong potentiation of TRPV1 like that induced by ET-1 via the ETAR could be induced by PKC activation, but not with activators of the adenylyl cyclase or the PKA pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC with bisindolylmaleimide X (BIM X or mutation of the PKC phosphorylation site S800 completely prevented ETAR-mediated potentiation. Conclusion We conclude that ET-1 potentiates TRPV1 by a PKC-dependent mechanism and that this could play a major role in the algogenic and hyperalgesic effects of ET-1 described in previous studies.

  14. Claudin 4-targeted protein incorporated into PLGA nanoparticles can mediate M cell targeted delivery

    Rajapaksa, Thejani E.; Stover-Hamer, Mary; Fernandez, Xiomara; Eckelhoefer, Holly A.; Lo, David D.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are in clinical use mainly for their ability to provide controlled release of peptides and compounds, but they are also being explored for their potential to deliver vaccines and drugs as suspensions directly into mucosal sites. It is generally assumed that uptake is mediated by epithelial M cells, but this is often not directly measured. To study the potential for optimizing M cell uptake of polymer microparticles in vivo, we produced sub-micron size PLGA particl...

  15. HIV-1 protein-mediated amyloidogenesis in rat hippocampal cell cultures

    Aksenov, M.Y.; Aksenova, M.V.; Mactutus, C. F.; Booze, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, epidemiological evidence indicates an increasing incidence of Alzheimer's (AD)-like brain pathology in aging HIV patients. Emerging evidence warns of potential convergent mechanisms underlying HIV- and Aβ-mediated neurodegeneration. We found that HIV-1 Tat and gp 120 promote the secretion of Aβ 1–42 in primary rat fetal hippocampal cell cultures. Our results demonstrate that the variant of Tat expressed by the neurot...

  16. Dexamethasone mediates protection against acute pancreatitis via upregulation of pancreatitis-associated proteins

    Kandil, Emad; Lin, Yin-yao; Bluth, Martin H; Zhang, Hong; Levi, Gabriel; Zenilman, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of dexamethasone on pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) gene expression using both in vitro and in vivo models of acute pancreatitis and to study how PAP gene expression correlates with severity of pancreatitis.

  17. Detection of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation products in the extracellular matrix of human atherosclerotic plaques

    Woods, Alan A; Linton, Stuart M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    83-96% of the total oxidized protein side-chain products detected in these plaques. Oxidation of matrix components extracted from healthy artery tissue, and model proteins, with reagent HOCl is shown to give rise to a similar pattern of products to those detected in advanced human lesions. The......Oxidation is believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. Oxidized lipids, sterols and proteins have been detected in early, intermediate and advanced human lesions at elevated levels. The spectrum of oxidized side-chain products detected on proteins from homogenates of advanced human lesions has...... material obtained from advanced human atherosclerotic lesions are shown to contain elevated levels of oxidized amino acids [3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), di-tyrosine, 2-hydroxyphenylalanine ( o-Tyr)] when compared with healthy (human and pig) arterial tissue. These matrix-derived materials account for...

  18. Altered protein expression in gestational diabetes mellitus placentas provides insight into insulin resistance and coagulation/fibrinolysis pathways.

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the placental proteome differences between pregnant women complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. METHODS: We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE to separate and compare placental protein levels from GDM and NGT groups. Differentially expressed proteins between the two groups were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and further confirmed by Western blotting. The mRNA levels of related proteins were measured by realtime RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to examine the cellular location of the proteins expressed in placenta villi. RESULTS: Twenty-one protein spots were differentially expressed between GDM and NGT placenta villi in the tested samples, fifteen of which were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. The molecular functions of these differentially expressed proteins include blood coagulation, signal transduction, anti-apoptosis, ATP binding, phospholipid binding, calcium ion binding, platelet activation, and tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity. Both protein and mRNA levels of Annexin A2, Annexin A5 and 14-3-3 protein ζ/δ were up-regulated, while the expression of the Ras-related protein Rap1A was down-regulated in the GDM placenta group. CONCLUSION: Placenta villi derived from GDM pregnant women exhibit significant proteome differences compared to those of NGT mothers. The identified differentially expressed proteins are mainly associated with the development of insulin resistance, transplacental transportation of glucose, hyperglucose-mediated coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders in the GDM placenta villi.

  19. Protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide

    Caccavo, F. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HGO adhesion molecules. A. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

  20. The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation

    Helfer, Christine M.; Junpeng Yan; Jianxin You

    2014-01-01

    The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription act...

  1. C-Reactive Protein and Complement Are Important Mediators of Tissue Damage in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Griselli, M; Herbert, J.; Hutchinson, W. L.; Taylor, K. M.; Sohail, M; Krausz, T.; Pepys, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    Myocardial infarction in humans provokes an acute phase response, and C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute phase plasma protein, is deposited together with complement within the infarct. The peak plasma CRP value is strongly associated with postinfarct morbidity and mortality. Human CRP binds to damaged cells and activates complement, but rat CRP does not activate complement. Here we show that injection of human CRP into rats after ligation of the coronary artery reproducibly enhance...

  2. Effects of receptor-mediated endocytosis and tubular protein composition on volume retention in experimental glomerulonephritis

    Kastner, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Sendeski, Mauricio;

    2009-01-01

    Human glomerulonephritis (GN) is characterized by sustained proteinuria, sodium retention, hypertension, and edema formation. Increasing quantities of filtered protein enter the renal tubule, where they may alter epithelial transport functions. Exaggerated endocytosis and consequent protein...... overload may affect proximal tubules, but intrinsic malfunction of distal epithelia has also been reported. A straightforward assignment to a particular tubule segment causing salt retention in GN is still controversial. We hypothesized that 1) trafficking and surface expression of major transporters and...

  3. Death-associated Protein Kinase Mediated Cell Death Modulated by Interaction with DANGER

    Kang, Bingnan N.; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Saleem, Sofiyan; Patterson, Randen L.; Hester, Lynda; Doré, Sylvain; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2010-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a key player in multiple cell death signaling pathways. We report that DAPK is regulated by DANGER, a partial MAB-21-domain containing protein. DANGER binds directly to DAPK and inhibits DAPK catalytic activity. DANGER-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts and neurons exhibit greater DAPK activity and increased sensitivity to cell death stimuli than do wild-type control cells. In addition, DANGER-deficient mice manifest more severe brain damage after ...

  4. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-af...

  5. Nuclear translocation and regulation of intranuclear distribution of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein are distinct processes mediated by two Epstein Barr virus proteins.

    Park, Richard; El-Guindy, Ayman; Heston, Lee; Lin, Su-Fang; Yu, Kuan-Ping; Nagy, Mate; Borah, Sumit; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Steitz, Joan; Miller, George

    2014-01-01

    Many viruses target cytoplasmic polyA binding protein (PABPC) to effect widespread inhibition of host gene expression, a process termed viral host-shutoff (vhs). During lytic replication of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) we observed that PABPC was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocated PABPC was diffusely distributed but was excluded from viral replication compartments. Vhs during EBV infection is regulated by the viral alkaline nuclease, BGLF5. Transfection of BGLF5 alone into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells promoted translocation of PAPBC that was distributed in clumps in the nucleus. ZEBRA, a viral bZIP protein, performs essential functions in the lytic program of EBV, including activation or repression of downstream viral genes. ZEBRA is also an essential replication protein that binds to viral oriLyt and interacts with other viral replication proteins. We report that ZEBRA also functions as a regulator of vhs. ZEBRA translocated PABPC to the nucleus, controlled the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused global shutoff of host gene expression. Transfection of ZEBRA alone into 293 cells caused nuclear translocation of PABPC in the majority of cells in which ZEBRA was expressed. Co-transfection of ZEBRA with BGLF5 into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells rescued the diffuse intranuclear pattern of PABPC seen during lytic replication. ZEBRA mutants defective for DNA-binding were capable of regulating the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused PABPC to co-localize with ZEBRA. One ZEBRA mutant, Z(S186E), was deficient in translocation yet was capable of altering the intranuclear distribution of PABPC. Therefore ZEBRA-mediated nuclear translocation of PABPC and regulation of intranuclear PABPC distribution are distinct events. Using a click chemistry-based assay for new protein synthesis, we show that ZEBRA and BGLF5 each function as viral host shutoff factors. PMID:24705134

  6. Characterizing alpha helical properties of Ebola viral proteins as potential targets for inhibition of alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interactions [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/50u

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola, considered till recently as a rare and endemic disease, has dramatically transformed into a potentially global humanitarian crisis. The genome of Ebola, a member of the Filoviridae family, encodes seven proteins. Based on the recently implemented software (PAGAL for analyzing the hydrophobicity and amphipathicity properties of alpha helices (AH in proteins, we characterize the helices in the Ebola proteome. We demonstrate that AHs with characteristically unique features are involved in critical interactions with the host proteins. For example, the Ebola virus membrane fusion subunit, GP2, from the envelope glycoprotein ectodomain has an AH with a large hydrophobic moment. The neutralizing antibody (KZ52 derived from a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit outbreak recognizes a protein epitope on this AH, emphasizing the critical nature of this secondary structure in the virulence of the Ebola virus. Our method ensures a comprehensive list of such `hotspots'. These helices probably are or can be the target of molecules designed to inhibit AH mediated protein-protein interactions. Further, by comparing the AHs in proteins of the related Marburg viruses, we are able to elicit subtle changes in the proteins that might render them ineffective to previously successful drugs. Such differences are difficult to identify by a simple sequence or structural alignment. Thus, analyzing AHs in the small Ebola proteome can aid rational design aimed at countering the `largest Ebola epidemic, affecting multiple countries in West Africa' (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/index.html.

  7. Exploring new biological functions of amyloids: bacteria cell agglutination mediated by host protein aggregation.

    Marc Torrent

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs are important effectors of the innate immune system that play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Recent advances have highlighted the similarity between AMPs and amyloid proteins. Using the Eosinophil Cationic Protein as a model, we have rationalized the structure-activity relationships between amyloid aggregation and antimicrobial activity. Our results show how protein aggregation can induce bacteria agglutination and cell death. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we have tracked the formation in situ of protein amyloid-like aggregates at the bacteria surface and on membrane models. In both cases, fibrillar aggregates able to bind to amyloid diagnostic dyes were detected. Additionally, a single point mutation (Ile13 to Ala can suppress the protein amyloid behavior, abolishing the agglutinating activity and impairing the antimicrobial action. The mutant is also defective in triggering both leakage and lipid vesicle aggregation. We conclude that ECP aggregation at the bacterial surface is essential for its cytotoxicity. Hence, we propose here a new prospective biological function for amyloid-like aggregates with potential biological relevance.

  8. Kinetics of protein adsorption/desorption mediated by pH-responsive polymer layer

    Su, Xiao-Hang; Lei, Qun-Li; Ren, Chun-Lai

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new way of regulating protein adsorption by using a pH-responsive polymer. According to the theoretical results obtained from the molecular theory and kinetic approaches, both thermodynamics and kinetics of protein adsorption are verified to be well controlled by the solution pH. The kinetics and the amount of adsorbed proteins at equilibrium are greatly increased when the solution environment changes from acid to neutral. The reason is that the increased pH promotes the dissociation of the weak polyelectrolyte, resulting in more charged monomers and more stretched chains. Thus the steric repulsion within the polymer layer is weakened, which effectively lowers the barrier felt by the protein during the process of adsorption. Interestingly, we also find that the kinetics of protein desorption is almost unchanged with the variation of pH. It is because although the barrier formed by the polymer layer changes along with the change of pH, the potential at contact with the surface varies equally. Our results may provide useful insights into controllable protein adsorption/desorption in practical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21274062, 11474155, and 91027040).

  9. Common principles and intermediates of viral protein-mediated fusion: the HIV-1 paradigm

    Melikyan Gregory B

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enveloped viruses encode specialized fusion proteins which promote the merger of viral and cell membranes, permitting the cytosolic release of the viral cores. Understanding the molecular details of this process is essential for antiviral strategies. Recent structural studies revealed a stunning diversity of viral fusion proteins in their native state. In spite of this diversity, the post-fusion structures of these proteins share a common trimeric hairpin motif in which the amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domains are positioned at the same end of a rod-shaped molecule. The converging hairpin motif, along with biochemical and functional data, implies that disparate viral proteins promote membrane merger via a universal "cast-and-fold" mechanism. According to this model, fusion proteins first anchor themselves to the target membrane through their hydrophobic segments and then fold back, bringing the viral and cellular membranes together and forcing their merger. However, the pathways of protein refolding and the mechanism by which this refolding is coupled to membrane rearrangements are still not understood. The availability of specific inhibitors targeting distinct steps of HIV-1 entry permitted the identification of key conformational states of its envelope glycoprotein en route to fusion. These studies provided functional evidence for the direct engagement of the target membrane by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein prior to fusion and revealed the role of partially folded pre-hairpin conformations in promoting the pore formation.

  10. Phosphorylation and mRNA splicing of collapsin response mediator protein-2 determine inhibition of rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) II function in carcinoma cell migration and invasion

    Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Couchman, John R; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    The Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK I and II) are central regulators of important cellular processes such as migration and invasion downstream of the GTP-Rho. Recently, we reported collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 as an endogenous ROCK II inhibitor. To reveal how the CRMP-2-ROCK II...

  11. RNA interference-mediated silencing of speckle-type POZ protein promotes apoptosis of renal cell cancer cells

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Guiling; Sun, Xiuju

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) gene on renal cell cancer (RCC) cells and to explore its possible mechanism. The A498 and ACHN RCC cells were transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA)-SPOP by lipofection methods. The silencing efficiency was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The effects of SPOP silencing on cell apoptosis, cell viability, colony formation ability, cell migration ability, and chemosensitivity to Sorafenib were assessed by flow cytometry, an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, a trans-well migration assay, and a CCK-8 assay, respectively. Its effects on the expression of several cytokines were determined by a protein microarray. Relevant signaling pathways were also analyzed. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis rate was significantly higher; the cell viability, the colony formation, and migration ability were significantly decreased in the siRNA-SPOP group. The protein microarray screening showed that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the siRNA group was significantly decreased and that the expression of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05). The relevant signaling pathways were the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions pathway and extracellular matrix organization signal pathway. SPOP gene silencing induced cell apoptosis, decreased cell viability, colony formation, and migration ability, and elevated the drug sensitivity in the RCC cells. A possible mechanism is that silencing SPOP induces the differential expression of E-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, which are related to the integrin-mediated cell surface interactions and extracellular

  12. Kelch-Like Protein 2 Mediates Angiotensin II-With No Lysine 3 Signaling in the Regulation of Vascular Tonus.

    Zeniya, Moko; Morimoto, Nobuhisa; Takahashi, Daiei; Mori, Yutaro; Mori, Takayasu; Ando, Fumiaki; Araki, Yuya; Yoshizaki, Yuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Naohiro; Oi, Katsuyuki; Nishida, Hidenori; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the kelch-like protein 3 (KLHL3)-Cullin3 complex was identified as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for with no lysine (WNK) kinases, and the impaired ubiquitination of WNK4 causes pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a hereditary hypertensive disease. However, the involvement of WNK kinase regulation by ubiquitination in situations other than PHAII has not been identified. Previously, we identified the WNK3-STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase-Na/K/Cl cotransporter isoform 1 phosphorylation cascade in vascular smooth muscle cells and found that it constitutes an important mechanism of vascular constriction by angiotensin II (AngII). In this study, we investigated the involvement of KLHL proteins in AngII-induced WNK3 activation of vascular smooth muscle cells. In the mouse aorta and mouse vascular smooth muscle (MOVAS) cells, KLHL3 was not expressed, but KLHL2, the closest homolog of KLHL3, was expressed. Salt depletion and acute infusion of AngII decreased KLHL2 and increased WNK3 levels in the mouse aorta. Notably, the AngII-induced changes in KLHL2 and WNK3 expression occurred within minutes in MOVAS cells. Results of KLHL2 overexpression and knockdown experiments in MOVAS cells confirmed that KLHL2 is the major regulator of WNK3 protein abundance. The AngII-induced decrease in KLHL2 was not caused by decreased transcription but increased autophagy-mediated degradation. Furthermore, knockdown of sequestosome 1/p62 prevented the decrease in KLHL2, suggesting that the mechanism of KLHL2 autophagy could be selective autophagy mediated by sequestosome 1/p62. Thus, we identified a novel component of signal transduction in AngII-induced vascular contraction that could be a promising drug target. PMID:25556166

  13. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops. PMID:20368413

  14. The role of lactoferrin binding protein B in mediating protection against human lactoferricin.

    Morgenthau, Ari; Livingstone, Margaret; Adamiak, Paul; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts of mammals encounter an iron-deficient environment because of iron sequestration by the host iron-binding proteins transferrin and lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is also present in high concentrations at sites of inflammation where the cationic, antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin is produced by proteolysis of lactoferrin. Several Gram-negative pathogens express a lactoferrin receptor that enables the bacteria to use lactoferrin as an iron source. The receptor is composed of an integral membrane protein, lactoferrin binding protein A (LbpA), and a membrane-bound lipoprotein, lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB). LbpA is essential for growth with lactoferrin as the sole iron source, whereas the role of LbpB in iron acquisition is not yet known. In this study, we demonstrate that LbpB from 2 different species is capable of providing protection against the killing activity of a human lactoferrin-derived peptide. We investigated the prevalence of lactoferrin receptors in bacteria and examined their sequence diversity. We propose that the protection against the cationic antimicrobial human lactoferrin-derived peptide is associated with clusters of negatively charged amino acids in the C-terminal lobe of LbpB that is a common feature of this protein. PMID:22332888

  15. An Impermeant Ganetespib Analog Inhibits Extracellular Hsp90-Mediated Cancer Cell Migration that Involves Lysyl Oxidase 2-like Protein

    McCready, Jessica [Department of Natural Sciences, Assumption College, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wong, Daniel S. [Department of Developmental Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Cell and Molecular Physiology Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Burlison, Joseph A.; Ying, Weiwen [Synta Pharmaceuticals, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Jay, Daniel G., E-mail: daniel.jay@tufts.edu [Department of Developmental Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Cell and Molecular Physiology Program, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) activates a number of client proteins outside of cancer cells required for migration and invasion. Therefore, eHsp90 may serve as a novel target for anti-metastatic drugs as its inhibition using impermeant Hsp90 inhibitors would not affect the numerous vital intracellular Hsp90 functions in normal cells. While some eHsp90 clients are known, it is important to establish other proteins that act outside the cell to validate eHsp90 as a drug target to limit cancer spread. Using mass spectrometry we identified two precursor proteins Galectin 3 binding protein (G3BP) and Lysyl oxidase 2-like protein (LOXL2) that associate with eHsp90 in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell conditioned media and confirmed that LOXL2 binds to eHsp90 in immunoprecipitates. We introduce a novel impermeant Hsp90 inhibitor STA-12-7191 derived from ganetespib and show that it is markedly less toxic to cells and can inhibit cancer cell migration in a dose dependent manner. We used STA-12-7191 to test if LOXL2 and G3BP are potential eHsp90 clients. We showed that while LOXL2 can increase wound healing and compensate for STA-12-7191-mediated inhibition of wound closure, addition of G3BP had no affect on this assay. These findings support of role for LOXL2 in eHsp90 stimulated cancer cell migration and provide preliminary evidence for the use of STA-12-7191 to inhibit eHsp90 to limit cancer invasion.

  16. An Impermeant Ganetespib Analog Inhibits Extracellular Hsp90-Mediated Cancer Cell Migration that Involves Lysyl Oxidase 2-like Protein

    Extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) activates a number of client proteins outside of cancer cells required for migration and invasion. Therefore, eHsp90 may serve as a novel target for anti-metastatic drugs as its inhibition using impermeant Hsp90 inhibitors would not affect the numerous vital intracellular Hsp90 functions in normal cells. While some eHsp90 clients are known, it is important to establish other proteins that act outside the cell to validate eHsp90 as a drug target to limit cancer spread. Using mass spectrometry we identified two precursor proteins Galectin 3 binding protein (G3BP) and Lysyl oxidase 2-like protein (LOXL2) that associate with eHsp90 in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cell conditioned media and confirmed that LOXL2 binds to eHsp90 in immunoprecipitates. We introduce a novel impermeant Hsp90 inhibitor STA-12-7191 derived from ganetespib and show that it is markedly less toxic to cells and can inhibit cancer cell migration in a dose dependent manner. We used STA-12-7191 to test if LOXL2 and G3BP are potential eHsp90 clients. We showed that while LOXL2 can increase wound healing and compensate for STA-12-7191-mediated inhibition of wound closure, addition of G3BP had no affect on this assay. These findings support of role for LOXL2 in eHsp90 stimulated cancer cell migration and provide preliminary evidence for the use of STA-12-7191 to inhibit eHsp90 to limit cancer invasion

  17. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Branch-specific Regulation of the Unfolded Protein Response by Nonsense-mediated mRNA Decay.

    Sieber, Jana; Hauer, Christian; Bhuvanagiri, Madhuri; Leicht, Stefan; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-05-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) has originally been described as a surveillance mechanism to inhibit the expression of mRNAs with truncated open reading frames (ORFs) and to contribute to the fidelity of gene expression. It is now recognized that NMD also controls the expression of physiological genes with "intact" mRNA. Stress can decrease NMD efficiency and thus increase the mRNA levels of physiological NMD targets. As stress can also inhibit translation, the net outcome for shaping the proteome is difficult to predict. We have thus analyzed de novo protein synthesis in response to NMD inhibition or the induction of mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by treatment of cells with the reducing agent dithiotreitol (DTT). For this purpose, we combined pulsed azidohomoalanine (AHA) and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Labeled proteins were purified by click chemistry-based covalent coupling to agarose beads, trypsinized, fractionated, and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). We find that mild ER stress up-regulates the de novo synthesis of components of all three branches of the unfolded protein response (PERK, IRE1 and ATF6) without increasing eIF2α phosphorylation or impairing of protein translation. In contrast, inhibition of NMD induces de novo protein synthesis of downstream targets of the PERK and IRE1 pathways, whereas we could not detect regulation of ATF6-responsive genes. These data thus support a model that implicates a positive feedback loop of ER stress inhibiting NMD efficiency which further promotes the ER stress response in a branch-specific manner. PMID:26896796

  18. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein is an important mediator of alcohol-induced brain inflammation.

    Salil R Rajayer

    Full Text Available Binge drinking has been associated with cerebral dysfunction. Ethanol induced microglial activation initiates an inflammatory process that causes upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines which in turn creates neuronal inflammation and damage. However, the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. We postulate that cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP, a novel proinflammatory molecule, can contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. To test this theory male wild-type (WT mice were exposed to alcohol at concentrations consistent to binge drinking and blood and brain tissues were collected. At 5 h after alcohol, a significant increase of 53% in the brain of CIRP mRNA was observed and its expression remained elevated at 10 h and 15 h. Brain CIRP protein levels were increased by 184% at 10 h and remained high at 15 h. We then exposed male WT and CIRP knockout (CIRP(-/- mice to alcohol, and blood and brain tissues were collected at 15 h post-alcohol infusion. Serum levels of tissue injury markers (AST, ALT and LDH were significantly elevated in alcohol-exposed WT mice while they were less increased in the CIRP(-/- mice. Brain TNF-α mRNA and protein expressions along with IL-1β protein levels were significantly increased in WT mice, which was not seen in the CIRP(-/- mice. In cultured BV2 cells (mouse microglia, ethanol at 100 mM showed an increase of CIRP mRNA by 274% and 408% at 24 h and 48 h respectively. Corresponding increases in TNF-α and IL-1β were also observed. CIRP protein levels were markedly increased in the medium, suggesting that CIRP was secreted by the BV2 cells. From this we conclude that alcohol exposure activates microglia to produce and secrete CIRP and possibly induce pro-inflammatory response and thereby causing neuroinflammation. CIRP could be a novel mediator of alcohol-induced brain inflammation.

  19. Improved intracellular delivery of glucocerebrosidase mediated by the HIV-1 TAT protein transduction domain

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Gaucher disease designed to target glucocerebrosidase (GC) to macrophages via mannose-specific endocytosis is very effective in reversing hepatosplenomegaly, and normalizing hematologic parameters but is less effective in improving bone and lung involvement and ineffective in brain. Recombinant GCs containing an in-frame fusion to the HIV-1 trans-activator protein transduction domain (TAT) were expressed in eukaryotic cells in order to obtain active, normally glycosylated GC fusion proteins for enzyme uptake studies. Despite the absence of mannose-specific endocytic receptors on the plasma membranes of various fibroblasts, the recombinant GCs with C-terminal TAT fusions were readily internalized by these cells. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy demonstrated the recombinant TAT-fusion proteins with a mixed endosomal and lysosomal localization. Thus, TAT-modified GCs represent a novel strategy for a new generation of therapeutic enzymes for ERT for Gaucher disease

  20. The Trichoderma-plant interaction is mediated by avirulence proteins produced by this fungus

    Ruocco M; Kip N; P J G M de Wit; Lorito M; Lanzuise S; Woo S L; Ambrosino P; Marra R; Turrà D; Gigante S; Formisno E; Scala F

    2004-01-01

    @@ The molecular basis of Trichoderma -plant interaction is very complex and still not completely understood. The colonization of the root system by rhizosphere competent strains of Trichoderma results in increased development of root/aerial systems, in improved yields and in plant disease control.Other beneficial effects, such as the induction of plant systemic resistance, have also been described.To understand the mechanisms involved we are using different approaches, including the making of transformants expressing genes that encode for compounds able to affect plant response to pathogens.Trichoderma transformants carrying the avirulence gene Avr4 from Cladosporium fulvum under the control of constitutive and inducible promoters were obtained and tested on tomato plants having the Cf4 resistance gene. Necrosis and suberification zones, similar to the symptoms appearing during Cladosporium-tomato interaction, were found when the roots of the Cf4 plants were treated with Avr4-Trichoderma. This demonstrates that selected Trichoderma strains are able to transfer to the plant molecules that may deeply affect metabolism, disease resistance etc. Therefore, these beneficial fungi can be regarded as biotechnological tools to provide a variety of crops with useful compounds.Moreover, in in vitro competition assays the transformants were found to be more effective as antagonists against Alternaria alternata than the wild type. Trichoderma sends a variety of biochemical signals to the plants including avirulence molecules; therefore the presence of avr-like proteins in the fungus proteome was investigated. Proteome analysis has permitted us to isolate and sequence many proteins potentially having this function. From the extraeellular protein extracts, we have purified and sequenced a protein with structural characteristics similar to Avr4 of C. fulvum.The protein, Hytra1, was found to be a hydrophobin with chitin binding activity, the typical 8cysteine residues, and 4