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Sample records for 13c nmr study

  1. 13C NMR studies of the molecular flexibility of antidepressants

    The solution dynamics of a series of clinically potent antidepressants have been investigated by measuring 13C NMR relaxation parameters. Correlation times and internal motional rates were calculated from spin-lattice relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser effects for the protonated carbons in mianserin, imipramine-like antidepressants, and amitriptyline-like antidepressants. These data were interpreted in terms of overall molecular tumbling, internal rotations, and inherent flexibility of these structures. Of particular interest was the conformational variability of the tricyclic nucleus of the tricyclic antidepressants, where the data indicated a fivefold difference in mobility of the dimethylene bridge of imipramine-like antidepressants relative to amitriptyline-like compounds. The implications of such a difference in internal motions is discussed in relation to previous NMR studies and to the reported differences in pharmacological activity of these antidepressants

  2. 13C CPMAS NMR Studies of Anthocyanidins and their Glucosides

    Anthocyanins are responsible for red, purple or blue colours of flower petals and can be found in red or black fruits and berries. Many foods, especially red grapes and wines, aronia or blueberries contain large amounts of anthocyanins. Their health beneficial effects are related to antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. Structural analysis of anthocyanins by NMR are few, owing to the difficulty in obtaining analysable spectra for unstable, interconverting compounds, available in small amounts. Compounds studied by us were isolated from fruits and berries. 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker DSX-400 spectrometer for solid chlorides of: cyanidin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, pelargonidin and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside. Dipolar dephased and short contact pulse sequences were used as an aid in the assignment of resonances in CPMAS spectra of solids. Inspection of the spectra indicates that anthocyanidins are in the form of flavylium (cationic) and not in form of the chalcone.: the resonance of C2 appears at ca. 160 ppm and C3 at ca. 135 ppm, whereas C ring opening produces C2 = O, for which chemical shift of ca. 180 ppm can be expected. A comparison of experimental (CPMAS) and predicted (GIAO DFT) shielding constants for cyanidin provided information about the orientation of OH groups, twist angle of aromatic ring B and the localization of the chloride anion.(author)

  3. Utilization of lysine {sup 13}C-methylation NMR for protein-protein interaction studies

    Hattori, Yoshikazu; Furuita, Kyoko [Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research (Japan); Ohki, Izuru, E-mail: i-ooki@bs.naist.jp [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan); Ikegami, Takahisa [Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research (Japan); Fukada, Harumi [Osaka Prefecture University, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences (Japan); Shirakawa, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Kojima, Chojiro, E-mail: kojima@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Chemical modification is an easy way for stable isotope labeling of non-labeled proteins. The reductive {sup 13}C-methylation of the amino group of the lysine side-chain by {sup 13}C-formaldehyde is a post-modification and is applicable to most proteins since this chemical modification specifically and quickly proceeds under mild conditions such as 4 Degree-Sign C, pH 6.8, overnight. {sup 13}C-methylation has been used for NMR to study the interactions between the methylated proteins and various molecules, such as small ligands, nucleic acids and peptides. Here we applied lysine {sup 13}C-methylation NMR to monitor protein-protein interactions. The affinity and the intermolecular interaction sites of methylated ubiquitin with three ubiquitin-interacting proteins were successfully determined using chemical-shift perturbation experiments via the {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC spectra of the {sup 13}C-methylated-lysine methyl groups. The lysine {sup 13}C-methylation NMR results also emphasized the importance of the usage of side-chain signals to monitor the intermolecular interaction sites, and was applicable to studying samples with concentrations in the low sub-micromolar range.

  4. Utilization of lysine 13C-methylation NMR for protein–protein interaction studies

    Chemical modification is an easy way for stable isotope labeling of non-labeled proteins. The reductive 13C-methylation of the amino group of the lysine side-chain by 13C-formaldehyde is a post-modification and is applicable to most proteins since this chemical modification specifically and quickly proceeds under mild conditions such as 4 °C, pH 6.8, overnight. 13C-methylation has been used for NMR to study the interactions between the methylated proteins and various molecules, such as small ligands, nucleic acids and peptides. Here we applied lysine 13C-methylation NMR to monitor protein–protein interactions. The affinity and the intermolecular interaction sites of methylated ubiquitin with three ubiquitin-interacting proteins were successfully determined using chemical-shift perturbation experiments via the 1H–13C HSQC spectra of the 13C-methylated-lysine methyl groups. The lysine 13C-methylation NMR results also emphasized the importance of the usage of side-chain signals to monitor the intermolecular interaction sites, and was applicable to studying samples with concentrations in the low sub-micromolar range.

  5. 13C-NMR studies of membrane lipid-protein interactions upon protein heat denaturation

    Spinach chloroplast membranes were studied by natural abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy in their normal state and after heat denaturation of membrane proteins. The membrane proteins were denaturated by raising the temperature of the sample to 67degC for 5 minutes. Line-broadening of 13C-NMR resonances arising from the 1st (carbonyl), 7th, 9th and 12th carbon atom of fatty-acyl chains at these locations, obviously caused by changes in interactions between membrane lipids and proteins upon heat denaturation of membrane proteins. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Studies and characterization of in natura and benzylated sisal by using CPMAS 13C NMR

    Delignificated and benzylated sisal fibers were characterized by CPMAS 13 C NMR. In this study were analyzed the structure of the fiber before and after chemical treatments via delignification and benzylation processes. We observed that after delignification of sisal fiber, cellulose chains become more disordered and exposed which increases benzylation reaction efficiency. However, for not delignificated fibers their constituents decreases benzylation reaction efficiency. (author)

  7. 13C NMR Quantitative Study-Part 1: Relationships between the Conformation of Amino Acids, Peptide, Carboxylic Acids and Integration Intensity of 13C NMR

    2001-01-01

    @@ In proton broad band decoupling 13C NMR, carbon atoms have different integration intensity because of NOE effects and their different relaxation time(T1), thus it makes a 13C NMR quantitative analyses very difficult. To acquire a 3C NMR quantitative analyses, a gated decoupling with suppressed NOE technology, i.e., an inversed gated decoupling pulse (IGDP), must be used. In IGDP relay time (tR) between two acquisition cycles must be more than 5T1, the time needed for a acquisition cycles is so long that makes the total 13C NMR quantitative analyses time much longer. For this reason, the 13C NMR quantitative analyses is paid less attention.

  8. 13C NMR Quantitative Study-Part 1: Relationships between the Conformation of Amino Acids, Peptide, Carboxylic Acids and Integration Intensity of 13C NMR

    TIAN; JinPing

    2001-01-01

    In proton broad band decoupling 13C NMR, carbon atoms have different integration intensity because of NOE effects and their different relaxation time(T1), thus it makes a 13C NMR quantitative analyses very difficult. To acquire a 3C NMR quantitative analyses, a gated decoupling with suppressed NOE technology, i.e., an inversed gated decoupling pulse (IGDP), must be used. In IGDP relay time (tR) between two acquisition cycles must be more than 5T1, the time needed for a acquisition cycles is so long that makes the total 13C NMR quantitative analyses time much longer. For this reason, the 13C NMR quantitative analyses is paid less attention.  ……

  9. (13)C NMR Studies, Molecular Order, and Mesophase Properties of Thiophene Mesogens.

    Veeraprakash, B; Lobo, Nitin P; Narasimhaswamy, T

    2015-12-01

    Three-ring mesogens with a core comprising thiophene linked to one phenyl ring directly and to the other via flexible ester are synthesized with terminal alkoxy chains to probe the mesophase properties and find the molecular order. The phenyl thiophene link in the core offers a comparison of the mesophase features with the molecular shape of the mesogen. The synthesized mesogens display enantiotropic polymesomorphism and accordingly nematic, smectic A, smectic C and smectic B mesophases are perceived depending upon the terminal chain length. For some of the homologues, monotropic higher order smectic phases such as smectic F and crystal E are also witnessed. The existence of polymesomorphism are originally observed by HOPM and DSC and further confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction studies. For the C8 homologue, high resolution solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy is employed to find the molecular structure in the liquid crystalline phase and using the 2D SLF technique, the (13)C-(1)H dipolar couplings are extracted to calculate the order parameter. By comparing the ratio of local order of thiophene as well as phenyl rings, we establish the bent-core shape of the mesogen. Importantly, for assigning the carbon chemical shifts of the core unit of aligned C8 mesogen, the (13)C NMR measured in mesophase of the synthetic intermediate is employed. Thus, the proposed approach addresses the key step in the spectral assignment of target mesogens with the use of (13)C NMR data of mesomorphic intermediate. PMID:26551439

  10. Study of xanthates reaction from cellulose and polypeptides by 13 C NMR in the solid state

    This work has aimed to study chemical reactions of p-nitro benzyl cellulose xanthate (CelXNB) and 2,4-dinitrophenyl cellulose xanthate (CelXDNP) with amines, which produced cellulose thio carbamates. These compounds were characterized and identified by 13 C NMR in the solid state. The following reactions were also studied: CelXNB and poly alanine, CelXNB and lysozyme, CelXDNP and poly alanine, and CelXDNP and lysozyme. Then, their NMR spectra have been presented and analysed

  11. Solid state 13C NMR characterisation study on fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalysts.

    Heikkinen, Harri; Liitiä, Tiina; Virkkunen, Ville; Leinonen, Timo; Helaja, Tuulamari; Denifl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors and the active species are interplaying. One of the main goals of this work was to get better insight into the interactions of donor and active species. Based on the anisotropy tensor values (δ(11), δ(22), δ(33)) from low magic-angle spinning (MAS) (13)C NMR spectra in combination with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) calculations (δ(aniso) and η), both the coordinative metal (Mg/Ti) and the symmetry of this interaction between metal and the internal donor in the active catalyst (MgCl(2)/TiCl(4)/electron donor) system could be identified. PMID:22425229

  12. Host-guest interactions in fluorinated polymer electrolytes: A 7Li-13C NMR study

    Mustarelli, P.; Quartarone, E.; Capiglia, C.; Tomasi, C.; Ferloni, P.; Magistris, A.

    1999-08-01

    Gel-type electrolytes based on fluorinated polymers are of interest for electrochemical devices. We present a 7Li-13C solid-state NMR and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) study of gel electrolytes based on a copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF)-hexafluoropropylene (HFP) activated with a nonaqueous solution ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-LiN(CF3SO2)2. We show that the narrowing of the Li lineshape is decoupled from the glass transition. The behavior of the longitudinal relaxation times, T1, confirms that the host polymer matrix simply behaves like a quasiinert cage for the solution. These results are confirmed by 13C NMR at the magic angle (MAS) data, which show that the presence of the polymer does not significantly affect the chemical shift changes induced in the EC/PC carbons by the imide salt.

  13. Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]fructose

    An inborn deficiency in the ability of aldolase B to split fructose 1-phosphate is found in humans with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). A stable isotope procedure to elucidate the mechanism of conversion of fructose to glucose in normal children and in HFI children has been developed. A constant infusion of D-[U-13C]fructose was given nasogastrically to control and to HFI children. Hepatic fructose conversion to glucose was estimated by examination of 13C NMR spectra of plasma glucose. Significantly lower values (∼3-fold) for fructose conversion to glucose were obtained for the HFI patients as compared to the controls. A quantitative determination of the metabolic pathways of fructose conversion to glucose was derived from 13C NMR measurement of plasma [13C]glucose isotopomer populations. The finding of isotopomer populations of three adjacent 13C atoms at glucose C-4 (13C3-13C4-13C5) suggests that there is a direct pathway from fructose, by-passing fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The metabolism of fructose by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity accounts for only ∼50% of the total amount of hepatic fructose conversion to glucose. In view of the marked decline by 67% in synthesis of glucose from fructose in HFI subjects found in this study, the extent of [13C]glucose formation from a trace amount of [U-13C]fructose infused into the patient can be used as a safe and noninvasive diagnostic test for inherent faulty fructose metabolism

  14. Topological Constraints on Chain-Folding Structure of Semicrystalline Polymer as Studied by 13C-13C Double Quantum NMR

    Hong, Youlee; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Chain-folding process is a prominent feature of long polymer chains during crystallization. Over the last half century, much effort has been paid to reveal the chain trajectory. Even though various chain-folding models as well as theories of crystallization at molecule levels have been proposed, they could be not reconciled due to the limited experimental evidences. Recent development of double quantum NMR with selective isotope labeling identified the chain-trajectory of 13C labeled isotactic poly(1-butene). The systematic experiments covered a wide range of parameters, i.e. kinetics, concentration, and molecular weight (Mw) . It was demonstrated that i) adjacent re-entry site was invariant as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc) , concentration, andMw, ii) long-range order of adjacent re-entry sequence is independence of kinetics at a given concentration while it decreased with increasing the polymer concentration at a given Tc due to the increased interruption between the chains, and iii) high Mw chains led to the multilayer folded structures in single crystals, but the melt state induced the identical short adjacent sequences of long and short polymer over a wide range of Tc due to the entanglements. The behaviors indicated that the topological restriction plays significant roles in the chain-folding process rather than the kinetics. The proposed framework to control the chain-folding structure presents a new perspective into the chain organization by either the intra- or inter-chain interaction. National Science Foundation Grants DMR-1105829 and 1408855.

  15. An efficient procedure for studying pectin structure which combines limited depolymerization and {sup 13}C NMR

    Catoire, L.; Herve du Penhoat, C. [Dept. de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France); Goldberg, R.; Pierron, M. [Laboratoire d`enzymologie en Milieu Structure, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris (France); Morvan, C. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rouen, Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)

    1998-04-01

    A protocol for partial thermally-induced depolymerization of differently methoxylated pectin samples is described. The resulting macromolecules have been fully characterized with various complementary techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), potentiometry, viscometry and {sup 13}C NMR. Optimum conditions afford samples at 50-80% yield with weight-average molecular weights in the 4 to 20 kDa range. The major fraction of these polysaccharides adopts the random-coil conformation and such samples are suitable for {sup 13}C NMR structural studies at room temperature. The methoxyl distributions of two apple pectin samples with a degree of esterification (DE) between 54 and 74% and a citrus pectin (DE, 72%) were shown to be random in nature, whereas that of a lightly methoxylated apple pectin (DE 39%) was partially blockwise. The carbon relaxation parameters of the depolymerized pectins attain asymptotic values for M{sub W} > 4 kDa. The M{sub W} values estimated from intrinsic viscosity data with the Mark-Houwink relationship reported for native pectins are in good agreement with those obtained by either end-group analysis (NMR) or SEC. Thus, all the physicochemical data indicate that the secondary structure of the isolated chains of depolymerized pectin is closely related to that of the parent polymers. Finally, pectinmethylesterase activity towards the depolymerized pectins was similar to that of the untreated samples. (orig.) With 6 figs., 4 tabs., 27 refs.

  16. An efficient procedure for studying pectin structure which combines limited depolymerization and 13C NMR

    A protocol for partial thermally-induced depolymerization of differently methoxylated pectin samples is described. The resulting macromolecules have been fully characterized with various complementary techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), potentiometry, viscometry and 13C NMR. Optimum conditions afford samples at 50-80% yield with weight-average molecular weights in the 4 to 20 kDa range. The major fraction of these polysaccharides adopts the random-coil conformation and such samples are suitable for 13C NMR structural studies at room temperature. The methoxyl distributions of two apple pectin samples with a degree of esterification (DE) between 54 and 74% and a citrus pectin (DE, 72%) were shown to be random in nature, whereas that of a lightly methoxylated apple pectin (DE 39%) was partially blockwise. The carbon relaxation parameters of the depolymerized pectins attain asymptotic values for MW > 4 kDa. The MW values estimated from intrinsic viscosity data with the Mark-Houwink relationship reported for native pectins are in good agreement with those obtained by either end-group analysis (NMR) or SEC. Thus, all the physicochemical data indicate that the secondary structure of the isolated chains of depolymerized pectin is closely related to that of the parent polymers. Finally, pectinmethylesterase activity towards the depolymerized pectins was similar to that of the untreated samples. (orig.)

  17. Estimation of glucose carbon recycling in children with glycogen storage disease: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]glucose

    A stable isotope procedure to estimate hepatic glucose carbon recycling and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which glucose is produced in patients lacking glucose 6-phosphatase is described. A total of 10 studies was performed in children with glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) and type III (GSD-III) and control subjects. A primed dose-constant nasogastric infusion of D-[U-13C]glucose or an infusion diluted with nonlabeled glucose solution was administered following different periods of fasting. Hepatic glucose carbon recycling was estimated from 13C NMR spectra. The values obtained for GSD-I patients coincided with the standard [U-13C]glucose dilution curve. These results indicate that the plasma glucose of GSD-I subjects comprises only a mixture of 99% 13C-enriched D-[U-13C]glucose and unlabeled glucose but lacks any recycled glucose. Significantly different glucose carbon recycling values were obtained for two GSD-III patients in comparison to GSD-I patients. The results eliminate a mechanism for glucose production in GSD-I children involving gluconeogenesis. However, glucose release by amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity would result in endogenous glucose production of non-13C-labeled and nonrecycled glucose carbon, as was found in this study. In GSD-III patients gluconeogenesis is suggested as the major route for endogenous glucose synthesis. The contribution of the triose-phosphate pathway in these patients has been determined

  18. A 13C-NMR study of exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium meliloti Su47 strain

    Tavernier, P.; Portais, J.-C.; Besson, I.; Courtois, J.; Courtois, B.; Barbotin, J.-N.

    1998-02-01

    Metabolic pathways implied in the synthesis of succinoglycan produced by the Su47 strain of R. meliloti were evaluated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy after incubation with [1{-}13C] or [2{-}13C] glucose. The biosynthesis of this polymer by R. meliloti from glucose occurred by a direct polymerisation of the introduced glucose and by the pentose phosphate pathway. Les voies métaboliques impliquées dans la synthèse du succinoglycane produit par la souche Su47 de R. meliloti ont été évaluées par la spectroscopie de RMN du carbone 13 après incubation des cellules avec du [1{-}13C] ou [2{-}13C] glucose. La biosynthèse de ce polymère à partir du glucose se produit par polymérisation directe du glucose et par la voie des pentoses phosphate.

  19. Solid state 13 C NMR quantitative study of wood tar pitches

    In this work, solid-state 13 C NMR is used with other techniques to characterize Eucalyptus tar pitches and to follow their polymerization reactions. The pitches are the residues of distillation (about 50% m;m) of the tar generated in Eucalyptus slow pyrolysis for charcoal production in metal industry

  20. Recent advances in the application of 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy to soil organic matter studies

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been applied to many studies in soil science, geochemistry, and environmental science. In recent years, the study of soil organic matter (SOM) using NMR techniques has progressed rapidly. NMR spectroscopy has been used to study chemical changes of SOM during decomposition, and also of soil extract fractions such as humic acid and fulvic acid. NMR spectroscopy of soils has improved rapidly in recent years with the introduction of pre-treatment and particle-size fractionation. In addition to routine liquid- and solid-state 13C NMR applications, 15N NMR spectra of natural abundant samples have been reported, but 15N-enriched material is more convenient to use due to the low natural abundance of 15N. Some newly developed NMR techniques have also been utilised, such as 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and improved 1H NMR techniques. These are reviewed and commented on in this paper. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Publishing

  1. Protolytic properties of polyamine wasp toxin analogues studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Piazzi, Lorna; Olsen, Christian A;

    2006-01-01

    Acid-base properties of the natural polyamine wasp toxin PhTX-433 (1) and seven synthetic analogues [PhTX-343 (2), PhTX-334 (3), PhTX-443 (4), PhTX-434 (5), PhTX-344 (6), PhTX-444 (7), and PhTX-333 (8)], each having four protolytic sites, were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy. Nonlinear, mul...

  2. Biosynthetic studies of the glycopeptide teicoplanin by 1H and 13C NMR

    Heydorn, Arne; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard;

    2000-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin was studied by growing a teicoplanin producing strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus (ATCC 31121) on glucose containing either 34.0% [1-13C]glucose or 9.7% [U- 13C]glucose. The fractional enrichment pattern of teicoplanin produced in the...

  3. Simple, efficient protocol for enzymatic synthesis of uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled DNA for heteronuclear NMR studies.

    Masse, J.E.; Bortmann, P; Dieckmann, T.; Feigon, J

    1998-01-01

    The use of uniformly 13C,15N-labeled RNA has greatly facilitated structural studies of RNA oligonucleotides by NMR. Application of similar methodologies for the study of DNA has been limited, primarily due to the lack of adequate methods for sample preparation. Methods for both chemical and enzymatic synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides uniformly labeled with 13C and/or 15N have been published, but have not yet been widely used. We have developed a modified procedure for preparing uniformly 13C,...

  4. 13C-NMR study of polymer networks obtained by γ-irradiation

    The purpose of this study is the investigation of the γ-induced structural modification in ethylene-propylene (E-P) type rubbers. The studied elastomers have the same content of propylene, but EPDM includes 3.5% EBN, which decreases its radiation stability, so that the easiest cleavage happens on the diene site. The effect of γ-irradiation consists in coupling the free radicals and/or bridge formation between macromolecules. The direct consequences of radical reactions can be observed by gel content, changes in propylene concentration and distribution of (CH2)n units in initial and irradiated materials, the last two parameters being determined by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The dose gel (dose value at which gel starts to be formed) is higher in EPR copolymers than in EPDM, due to the greater stability of the former elastomers. On the other hand, the propylene content and the distribution of various (CH2)n units, with n=1-6, evaluated by 13C-NMR spectra of CDCl3 swollen elastomers can be well correlated with the gel content for irradiated samples. Thus, the copolymer presents higher propylene content than the terpolymer within the same dose range. This behavior can be ascribed to diene effect, which leads to a greater rate of network formation, i.e., to higher crosslink density. The higher the propylene content, the lower the gel amount. The 13C-NMR determinations of the content of various (CH2)n units reveal a rather similar sequential distribution for both nonirradiated materials. The largest difference between (CH2)n distribution for the two materials occurs for medium dose values, because the crosslinking rate exceeds the scission one. However, at higher doses the scission process is prevalent. The free radicals are not able to reform the initial backbones due to higher concentration of molecular hydrogen as radiolysis by-product. Again, a similar distribution of (CH2)n units in both materials is observed. A multivariate statistical analysis of the irradiated

  5. 2H and 13C tracer studies of ethanol metabolism by Fourier transform 13C[2H, 1H] NMR difference spectroscopy

    A novel form of NMR difference spectroscopy has been developed to monitor low levels of deuterium incorporation in steroids resulting from ethanol metabolism. Ethanol specifically labeled with 13C and/or 2H was administered to bile fistula rats, and bile acids were collected, derivatized and separated. Subtracting 13C [1H] spectra from 13C[2H,1H] spectra of such samples, where the brackets imply complete noise decoupling of the indicated nuclei, results in difference spectra. These spectra display 13C resonances only from 13C spins which are J-coupled to 2H spins. Particular sites and extents of 2H incorporation along the steroid skeletons could thus be evaluated and compared with GC-MS analysis. A practical lower limit of approximately 20 nanomoles of 13C--2H couples could be observed using this technique, through use of sample microcells, quadrature detection and long-term signal averaging

  6. 13C-NMR assignment, structure, and dynamics of deoxyoligonucleotides

    The unique spectral properties of 13C-NMR for studying nucleic acids and some of the important features of 13C-NMR in oligonucleotide studies are demostrated. The main difficulty in studying oligonucleotides by 13C-NMR and recent improvements in NMR instrumentation and advances in oligonucleotide synthesis are presented. The high resolution 13C-NMR spectra, T1 relaxation times and NOEs were measured for duplex of the self-complementary oligo-DNAs: d(CG)3 and d(GGTATACC) are studied. The target of this study is to developed a systematic 13C-NMR spectral assignment and to investigate the structure and dynamics of these two sequences by this techniques. (M.J.C.)

  7. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF SBR BY 13C- NMR METHOD Ⅱ . PEAK ASSIGNMENT FOR ALIPHATIC CARBONS SPECTRA

    JIAO Shuke; CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen

    1990-01-01

    The study on 13C-NMR spectra of aliphatic carbon region of emulsion-processed and solution-processed ( by lithium catalyst ) SBR was carried out. The assignments for more than thirty odd peaks observed experimentally were made by using " corresponding analysis " method, combined with the empirical parameters reported in literature. The peak intensities were calculated based on Bernoullian statistic assumption.

  8. 13C and 31P NMR [Nuclear Magnetic Resonance] studies of prostate tumor metabolism

    The current research on prostate cancer by NMR spectroscopy and microscopy will most significantly contribute to tumor diagnosis and characterization only if sound biochemical models of tumor metabolism are established and tested. Prior searches focused on universal markers of malignancy, have to date, revealed no universal markers by any method. It is unlikely that NMRS will succeed where other methods have failed, however, NMR spectroscopy does provide a non-invasive means to analyze multiple compounds simultaneously in vivo. In order to fully evaluate the ability of NMRS to differentiate non-malignant from malignant tissues it is necessary to determine sufficient multiple parameters from specific, well-diagnosed, histological tumor types that, in comparison to normal tissue and non-neoplastic, non-normal pathologies from which the given neoplasm must be differentiated, one has enough degrees of freedom to make a mathematically and statistically significant determination. Confounding factors may consist of tumor heterogeneity arising from regional variations in differentiation, ischemia, necrosis, hemorrhage, inflammation and the presence of intermingled normal tissue. One related aspect of our work is the development of {13C}-1H metabolic imaging of 13C for metabolic characterization, with enhanced spatial localization (46). This should markedly extend the range of potential clinical NMR uses because the spatial variation in prostate metabolism may prove to be just as important in tumor diagnoses as bulk (volume-averaged) properties themselves. It is our hope that NMRS and spectroscopic imaging will reveal a sound correlation between prostate metabolism and tumor properties that will be clinically straightforward and useful for diagnosis

  9. 13C magic angle spinning NMR study of CO adsorption on Ru-exchanged zeolite Y

    Three types of adsorbed carbon monoxide are observed on Ru-Y zeolite by 13C magic angle spinning NMR: linear, bridged, and dicarbonyl CO. Samples exposed to CO at room temperature exhibit only linear and dicarbonyl species. At higher adsorption temperature bridged species are formed and a relative increase in dicarbonyl adsorption is observed. A smaller percentage of linear species is produced at high temperature. The electronic environments of linearly bonded CO are more diverse than those of bridging and dicarbonyl moieties. CO2 is formed over Ru-Y zeolite upon initial exposure of the catalyst to CO at room temperature, apparently through reaction with unreduced metal oxide. 20 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  10. Acetate and bicarbonate assimilation and metabolite formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a 13C-NMR study.

    Himanshu Singh

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolite analyses by (13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly (13C-labelled acetate ((13CH(3-COOH or CH(3-(13COOH supported that both the (13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2(aq. The observed metabolite(s upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2(aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2(aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2(aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii.

  11. Determination of fructose metabolic pathways in normal and fructose-intolerant children: a 13C NMR study using [U-13C]fructose.

    Gopher, A; Vaisman, N; Mandel, H.; Lapidot, A

    1990-01-01

    An inborn deficiency in the ability of aldolase B to split fructose 1-phosphate is found in humans with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI). A stable isotope procedure to elucidate the mechanism of conversion of fructose to glucose in normal children and in HFI children has been developed. A constant infusion of D-[U-13C]fructose was given nasogastrically to control and to HFI children. Hepatic fructose conversion to glucose was estimated by examination of 13C NMR spectra of plasma glucose....

  12. 31P and 13C-NMR studies of the phosphorus and carbon metabolites in the halotolerant alga, Dunaliella salina

    The intracellular phosphorus and carbon metabolites in the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina adapted to different salinities were monitored in living cells by 31P- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 13C-NMR studies showed that the composition of the visible intracellular carbon metabolites other than glycerol is not significantly affected by the salinity of the growth medium. The T1 relaxation rates of the 13C-glycerol signals in intact cells were enhanced with increasing salinity of the growth medium, in parallel to the expected increase in the intracellular viscosity due to the increase in intracellular glycerol. The 31P-NMR studies showed that cells adapted to the various salinities contained inorganic phosphate, phosphomonoesters, high energy phosphate compounds, and long chain polyphosphates. In addition, cells grown in media containing up to 1 molar NaCl contained tripolyphosphates. The tripolyphosphate content was also controlled by the availability of inorganic phosphate during cell growth. Phosphate-depleted D. salina contained no detectable tripolyphosphate signal. Excess phosphate, however, did not result in the appearance of tripolyphosphate in 31P-NMR spectra of cells adapted to high (>1.5 molar NaCl) salinities

  13. 1H and 13C NMR studies of palladium(2) and platinium(2) complexes with S-Methyl-L-Cysteine

    Our recent 1H NMR studies on Pd(2)-S-Methyl-L-Cysteine(SMC) complexes have shown that the use of a conformational analysis to establish the complexed species existing in solution may provide clearer results than considering the proton chemical shift only. However, the use of the vicinal coupling constant of ABC spectrum of αCH-βCH2 proton unit to estimate the rotational isomer fractions, may contain some ambiguity, especially on the proton assignment of the methylene group. For this reason 13C NMR method has been applied to study these systems. (author)

  14. Radiation oxidation of polypropylene: A solid-state 13C NMR study using selective isotopic labeling

    Polypropylene samples, in which the three different carbon atoms along the chain were selectively labeled with carbon-13, were subjected to radiation under inert and air atmospheres, and to post-irradiation exposure in air at various temperatures. By using solid-state 13C NMR measurements at room temperature, we have been able to identify and quantify the oxidation products. The isotopic labeling provides insight into chemical reaction mechanisms, since oxidation products can be traced back to their positions of origin on the macromolecule. The major products include peroxides and alcohols, both formed at tertiary carbon sites along the chain. Other products include methyl ketones, acids, esters, peresters, and hemiketals formed from reaction at the tertiary carbon, together with in-chain ketones and esters from reaction at the secondary chain carbon. No evidence is found of products arising from reactions at the methyl side chain. Significant temperature-dependent differences are apparent; for example much higher yields of chain-end methyl ketones, which are the indicator product of chain scission, are generated for both elevated temperature irradiation and for post-irradiation treatment at elevated temperatures. Time-dependent plots of yields of the various oxidation products have been obtained under a wide range of conditions, including the post-irradiation oxidation of a sample at room temperature in air that has been monitored for 2 years. Radiation-oxidation products of polypropylene are contrasted to products measured for 13C-labeled polyethylene in an earlier investigation: the peroxides formed in irradiated polypropylene are remarkably longer lived, the non-peroxidic products are significantly different, and the overall ratios of oxidation products in polypropylene change relatively little as a function of the extent of oxidation

  15. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina. Fungal cultures were grown with [1-13C]glucose or with a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose. Young leaves of R. typhina were kept in an incubation chamber and were supplied with a solution containing a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose via the leaf stem. Isotope distributions in isolated gallic acid and aromatic amino acids were analyzed by one-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the complex isotopomer composition of metabolites was obtained by deconvolution of the 13C13C coupling multiplets using numerical simulation methods. This approach required the accurate analysis of heavy isotope chemical shift effects in a variety of different isotopomers and the analysis of long range 13C13C coupling constants. The resulting isotopomer patterns were interpreted using a retrobiosynthetic approach based on a comparison between the isotopomer patterns of gallic acid and tyrosine. The data show that both in the fungus and in the plant all carbon atoms of gallic acid are biosynthetically equivalent to carbon atoms of shikimate. Notably, the carboxylic group of gallic acid is derived from the carboxylic group of an early intermediate of the shikimate pathway and not from the side chain of phenylalanine or tyrosine. It follows that the committed precursor of gallic acid is an intermediate of the shikimate pathway prior to prephenate or arogenate, most probably 5-dehydroshikimate. A formation of gallic acid via phenylalanine, the lignin precursor, caffeic acid, or 3,4, 5-trihydroxycinnamic acid can be ruled out as major pathways in the fungus and in young leaves of R. typhina. The incorporation of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose followed by quantitative NMR analysis of isotopomer patterns is suggested as a general method for biosynthetic studies. As shown by the plant experiment, this

  16. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. PMID:27343582

  17. NMR studies of bent DNA using {sup 13}C-enriched samples

    Zimmer, D.P.; Crothers, D.M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Bending of the DNA double helix can be brought about by introducing runs of adenines (A-tracts) in phase with the helical repeat of the DNA. The requirements for bending of DNA by A-tracts are that the length of the A-tract be greater than 3 base pairs and that the A-tracts must be in phase with the helical repeat (every 10 or 11 bp). Other factors, such as the number of adenines in the run, flanking sequences, and whether the A-tracts are phased with respect to the 5{prime}A or the 3{prime}A, have effects upon the degree of bending as assayed by electrophoretic mobility on native polyacrylamide gels. There are a number of models for bending A-tract DNA. The junction-bending model postulates that the structure of A-tracts is similar to the fiber diffraction structure of poly A, in which there is a significant degree of base pair tilt with respect to the helix axis. In this model, bending occurs at the junction between the A-tract and the B-form helix to allow favorable stacking interactions to occur. The bend of the helix could arise as a result of some other perturbation of B-form DNA by A-tracts, such as propeller twist; bending also could be due to a combination of factors. Our goal is to find the structural features of A-tracts responsible for bending of the helix by performing NMR on oligonucleotides containing A-tracts to obtain higher resolution structural data. One of the problems encountered in NMR structure determination of nucleic acids and other macromolecules is the assignment of resonances to nuclei. This procedure can be greatly facilitated through the use of {sup 13}C-enriched nucleic acid samples. We are developing a technique for the enzymatic synthesis of labeled DNA for NMR. The technique we are developing is similar to RNA labeling techniques already in use. The technique involves growth of methylotrophic bacteria on {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH.

  18. Spectral density mapping at multiple magnetic fields suitable for 13C NMR relaxation studies

    Kadeřávek, Pavel; Zapletal, Vojtěch; Fiala, Radovan; Srb, Pavel; Padrta, Petr; Přecechtělová, Jana Pavlíková; Šoltésová, Mária; Kowalewski, Jozef; Widmalm, Göran; Chmelík, Josef; Sklenář, Vladimír; Žídek, Lukáš

    2016-05-01

    Standard spectral density mapping protocols, well suited for the analysis of 15N relaxation rates, introduce significant systematic errors when applied to 13C relaxation data, especially if the dynamics is dominated by motions with short correlation times (small molecules, dynamic residues of macromolecules). A possibility to improve the accuracy by employing cross-correlated relaxation rates and on measurements taken at several magnetic fields has been examined. A suite of protocols for analyzing such data has been developed and their performance tested. Applicability of the proposed protocols is documented in two case studies, spectral density mapping of a uniformly labeled RNA hairpin and of a selectively labeled disaccharide exhibiting highly anisotropic tumbling. Combination of auto- and cross-correlated relaxation data acquired at three magnetic fields was applied in the former case in order to separate effects of fast motions and conformational or chemical exchange. An approach using auto-correlated relaxation rates acquired at five magnetic fields, applicable to anisotropically moving molecules, was used in the latter case. The results were compared with a more advanced analysis of data obtained by interpolation of auto-correlated relaxation rates measured at seven magnetic fields, and with the spectral density mapping of cross-correlated relaxation rates. The results showed that sufficiently accurate values of auto- and cross-correlated spectral density functions at zero and 13C frequencies can be obtained from data acquired at three magnetic fields for uniformly 13C -labeled molecules with a moderate anisotropy of the rotational diffusion tensor. Analysis of auto-correlated relaxation rates at five magnetic fields represents an alternative for molecules undergoing highly anisotropic motions.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed acetate - water oxygen exchange studied by 13C-NMR

    The kinetics of the oxygen exchange reaction between [l-13C,18O2]acetate and H216O catalyzed by homogeneous acetyl-cholinesterase from the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, was studied using the 18O-isotope-induced shift on 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for the exchange reactions were determined at pH values from 4.5 to 8. The exchange reaction exhibits a maximum at pH 5.8. The apparent catalytic rate constant for the exchange reaction is 102 to 104 times smaller than that for the deacylation of the acetyl-enzyme intermediate over the pH range tested. Oxygen exchange occurs by a random sequential pathway rather than by multiple (coupled) exchange. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by sodium acetate showed a sigmoidal dependence on pH, with K/sub i/ increasing 2.5 orders of magnitude over the pH range. Protonation of an active site residue having an apparent pKa of 6.8 is associated with an increase in acetate binding. Deacylation also exhibits a sigmoidal dependence on [H+]. The experimental data fits titration curves with inflection points at 5.0 +/- 0.3 and 6.7 +/-0.1. Results support the role of histidine in acetylation of the active site serine, but the conjugate base of another active site residue with a pKa of 5.0 appears necessary for maximal catalytic activity in both the deacylation and exchange reactions

  20. Sup(13)C NMR studies of glucose disposal in normal and non-insulin-dependent diabetic humans

    To examine the extent to which the defect in insulin action in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) can be accounted for by impairment of muscle glycogen synthesis, we performed combined hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies with [13C]glucose in five subjects with NIDDM and in six age- and weight-matched healthy subjects. The rate of incorporation of intravenously infused [1-13C]glucose into muscle glycogen was measured directly in the gastrocnemius muscle by means of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer with a 15.5 min time resolution and a 13C surface coil. The steady-state plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were similar in both study groups. The mean (±SE) rate of glycogen synthesis, as determined by 13C NMR, was 78±28 and 183±39 μmol-glucosyl units (kg muscle tissue (wet mass))-1 min-1 in the diabetic and normal subjects, respectively. The mean glucose uptake was markedly reduced in the diabetic as compared with the normal subjects. The mean rate of non-oxidative glucose metabolism was 22±4 μmol kg-1 min-1 in the diabetic subjects and 42±4 μmol kg-1 min-1 in the normal subjects. When these rates are extrapolated to apply to the whole body, the synthesis of muscle glycogen would account for most of the total-body glucose uptake and all of the non-oxidative glucose metabolism in both normal and diabetic subjects. We conclude that muscle glycogen synthesis is the principal pathway of glucose disposal in both normal and diabetic subjects and that defects in muscle glycogen synthesis have a dominant role in the insulin resistance that occurs in persons with NIDDM. (author)

  1. Tetrapropylammonium Occlusion in Nanoaggregates of Precursor of Silicalite-1 Zeolite Studied by 1H and 13C NMR

    Mohamed Haouas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of tetrapropylammonium (TPA cations in the clear precursor sols for silicalite synthesis has been investigated by 1H diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY, T1, T2, and T1ρ 1H relaxation, as well as 1H→13C cross polarization (CP nuclear magnetic resonance. The DOSY NMR experiments showed the presence of strong solute–solvent interactions in concentrated sols, which are decreasing upon dilution. Similarities in dependence of diffusion coefficients with fractional power of the viscosity constant observed for nanoparticles, TPA cations and water led to the conclusion that they aggregate as anisotropic silicate-TPA particles. Relaxation studies as well as 1H→13C CP experiments provide information on dynamic properties of ethanol, water and TPA cations, which are function of silicate aggregates. The general tendency showed that the presence of silicate as oligomers and particles decreases the relaxation times, in particular T2 and T1ρH, as a consequence of involvement of these latter in ion-pairing interactions with water-solvated TPA molecules slowing down their mobility. Furthermore, from the 1H→13C CP dynamics curve profiles a change in the CP transfer regime was observed from fast (TCH << T1ρH for solutions without silicates to moderate (TCH~T1ρH when silicates are interacting with the TPA cations that may reflect the occlusion of TPA into flexible silicate hydrate aggregates.

  2. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF SBR BY 13C- NMR METHOD Ⅰ. ASSIGNMENT FOR UNSATURATED CARBONS SPECTRA

    JIAO Shuke; CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen

    1990-01-01

    The sequence structures of emulsion- processed SBR and solution- processed ( by lithium catalyst )SBR were investigated by 13C- NMR spectroscopy. Seventeen peaks within unsaturated carbon region were recorded under the adopted experimental conditions. Assignments for these peaks were made by empirical- parameter- evaluation method.

  3. 13C/31P NMR studies on the role of glucose transport/phosphorylation in human glycogen supercompensation.

    Price, T B; Laurent, D; Petersen, K F

    2003-05-01

    This study measured muscle glycogen during a 7-day carbohydrate loading protocol. Twenty healthy subjects (12 male, 8 female) performed 1 hr treadmill/toe-raise exercise immediately before a 3-day low carbohydrate (LoCHO) diet (20 % carbohydrate, 60 % fat, 20 % protein). On day 3 they repeated the exercise and began a 4-day high carbohydrate (HiCHO) diet (90 % carbohydrate, 2 % fat, 8 % protein). The order of administration of the diet was reversed in a subpopulation (n = 3). Interleaved natural abundance 13C/ 31P NMR spectra were obtained before and immediately after exercise, and each day during the controlled diets in order to determine concentrations of glycogen (GLY), glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), and muscle pH. Following exercise, muscle GLY and pH were reduced (p supercompensation. PMID:12784164

  4. Synthesis, GC-EIMS, ~1H NMR, ~(13)C NMR, Mechanistic and Thermal Studies of o-Xylylene-α,α'-bis(triphenylphosphinebromide)

    Muddasir Hanif; LU Ping; XU Hai; TIAN Zhi-cheng; YANG Bing; WANG Zhi-ming; TIAN Lei-lei; XU Yuan-ze; XIE Zeng-qi; MA Yu-guang

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorous compounds containing phosphorus as an integral part have been widely used in industry, organic synthesis and optoelectronics. o-Xylylene-α,α'-bis(triphenylphosphinebromide)(OXBTPPB) is a facile reagent to convert o-quinones(e.g., 9,10-phenanthrenequinone) into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs). Herein lies an improved synthetic route to OXBTPPB. The resultant was carefully characterized with GC-EIMS, ~1H NMR, ~(13)C NMR, spectroscopic techniques. The EIMS shows characteristic peaks at m/z=262.4, 183.3, 108.2, 77.1 attributed to the [C_(18)H_(15)P]~+, [C_(18)H_8P]~+, [C_6H_5P]~+, [C_6H_5]~+ ions, respectively. The 1H and ~(13)C NMR spectrum shows well resolved peaks and all the hydrogens and carbons were well-assigned via a combined study of ~1H-~1H COSY, HMBC, and HMQC experiments. The mechanism for the formation of OXBTPPB was proposed based on literature and obtained experimental data. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of OXBTPPB was evaluated with TGA analysis, and an onset decomposition temperature(T_d) was recorded at 323.6℃.

  5. Structure and dynamics of poly(ethylene- co-1,5-hexadiene) as studied by solid state 13C NMR and quantum chemical calculations

    Kurosu, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Yuuri; Fujikawa, Aki; Kawabata, Emika; Sone, Masato; Naga, Naofumi

    2009-03-01

    Poly(ethylene- co-1,5-hexadiene) with 1,5-hexadiene (HD) contents of 1.8, 8.1, 9.7 and 20.3% was prepared by copolymerization of ethylene and HD involving intermolecular cyclization. Higher-order structures and dynamics of these samples were studied by solid state NMR and quantum chemistry. The 13C solid state NMR spectra and 13C spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1) of the samples were measured. The observed 13C CP/MAS and PST/MAS NMR spectra for all samples were decomposed into six peaks. The cyclopentane units incorporated in the main chain of polyethylene affected not only the crystalline structure but also the noncrystalline structure. This causes a trans-rich conformation in the noncrystalline region. Even in the melt-quenched samples, incorporation of the cyclopentane structure into the polyethylene chain suppresses the increase in the gauche structure in the noncrystalline region. Based on the 13C chemical shift of the methylene carbon, the low cyclopentane content sample assumes an orthorhombic crystal structure, and the high cyclopentane content samples assume a hexagonal-type chain packing. 13C spin-lattice relaxation times show that the crystalline region of the low cyclopentane content sample has two regions with different mobility, although the high cyclopentane content samples have only one region with a high mobility for each peak. Furthermore, quantum chemical calculations for the 13C NMR shieldings were carried out for precise assignment of the peaks.

  6. 13C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of 13C, 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    13C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed 13C MAS or 13C(1H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for 13C in natural abundance. The variation in the 13C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in 13C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining 13C MAS and 13C(1H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends 29Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in 27Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •13C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from 13C MAS NMR. •Narrow 13C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by 13C MAS and 13C(1H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase

  7. Direct 13C NMR Detection in HPLC Hyphenation Mode

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Johansen, Kenneth; Nyberg, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    is indubitable in simplifying structural elucidations. In the current study, we demonstrated direct (13)C NMR detection of triterpenoids from a Ganoderma lucidum extract in hyphenation mode. The combined advantage of a cryogenically cooled probe, miniaturization, and multiple trapping enabled the...

  8. 11B, 13C-NMR study of the complex formation of phenylboronate with catechol and L-dopa

    In the solution of phenylboronic acid and either catechol or L-dopa at various pH, the equilibrium between phenylboronate anion and catechol or L-dopa to form the anionic complex has been demonstrated by the existence of 11B-NMR signals for the complex and either phenylboronate anion or phenylboronic acid. By the pH dependence of the 11B-NMR chemical shift of phenylboronate-phenylboronic acid solution, the ionization constant of phenylboronic acid (pKa) has been estimated as 8.90. By the 11B-NMR spectra at pH below 7, the complex formation constant, log K, has been obtained as 4.5 for catechol, and as 4.6 for L-dopa. The 13C-NMR spectra have also demonstrated the complex formations, but in the pH 8 and 9 solution of phenylboronic acid and L-dopa, the 13C-NMR signal of carbonyl carbon of L-dopa disappeared. (author)

  9. Structure and dynamics of homoleptic beryllocenes: a solid-state 9Be and 13C NMR study.

    Hung, Ivan; Macdonald, Charles L B; Schurko, Robert W

    2004-11-19

    The correlation between anisotropic 9Be NMR (quadrupolar and chemical shielding) interactions and the structure and dynamics in [Cp2Be], [Cp2*Be], and [(C5Me4H)2Be] is examined by solid-state 9Be NMR spectroscopy, as well as by ab initio and hybrid density functional theory calculations. The 9Be quadrupole coupling constants in the three compounds correspond well to the relative degrees of spherical ground-state electronic symmetry of the environment about beryllium. Theoretical computations of NMR interaction tensors are in excellent agreement with experimental values and aid in understanding the origins of NMR interaction tensors and their correlation to molecular symmetry. Variable-temperature (VT) 9Be and 13C NMR experiments reveal a highly fluxional structure in the condensed phase of [Cp2Be]. In particular, the pathway by which the Cp rings of [Cp2Be] 'invert' coordination modes is examined in detail using hybrid density functional theory in order to inspect variations of the 9Be NMR interaction tensors. The activation energy for the 'inversion' process is found to be 36.9 kJ mol(-1) from chemical exchange analysis of 13C VT CP/MAS NMR spectra. The low-temperature (ca. -100 degrees C) X-ray crystal structures of all three compounds have been collected and refined, and are in agreement with previously reported structures. In addition, the structure of the same Cp2Be crystal was determined at 20 degrees C and displays features consistent with increased intramolecular motion, supporting observations by 9Be VT NMR spectroscopy. PMID:15484199

  10. Synthesis of D-[U-{sup 13}C]Glucal, D-[U-{sup 13}C] Galactal, and L-[U-{sup 13}C]Fucose for NMR structure studies of oligosaccharides

    Wu, R.; Unkefer, C.J.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The role of carbohydrates is well recognized in a variety of important biological phenomena such as cell surface recognition. Recent advances in carbohydrate chemistry, including the development of solid phase synthesis methods, have helped to provide significant quantities of material by offering general protocols for synthesis of well-defined, pure material. However, the study of the solution structure of oligosaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques have been hampered by the lack of enriched {sup 13}C material. In an effort to help alleviate this situation, we have been interested in the construction of the title compounds from a single economical carbon source, D-[U-{sup 13}C]glucose. Details of the syntheses will be provided.

  11. Local structure and molecular motions in imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal as studied by 2H and 13C NMR

    The local structure and molecular motion of the imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal were investigated using solid-state 2H and 13C NMR. The imidazolium ion undergoes isotropic rotation, which is correlated with a defect in the crystal, as observed by 2H NMR broadline spectra above 263 K. A 180∘ flip of the imidazolium ion in the regular site was observed from 2H NMR quadrupole Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra. The Grotthuss mechanism was accompanied by a 180∘ flip of the imidazolium ion in regular sites. Moreover, the proton transfer associated with the imidazolium ion of the defective crystal is important for proton conductivity of the imidazolium hydrogen malonate crystal

  12. A hybrid strategy for the preparation of 13C-labeled high-mannose-type oligosaccharides with terminal glucosylation for NMR study

    Stable isotopic labeling dramatically facilitates NMR studies of oligosaccharides. We previously established a method for overexpressing homogeneous high-mannose-type oligosaccharides with metabolic 13C labeling using genetically engineered yeast cells. To extend the applicability of this methodology, we combined it with chemoenzymatic synthesis using a specific glucosyl transferase. Our hybrid approach has enabled the production of a uniformly and selectively 13C-labeled dodecasaccharide with terminal glucosylation, a signal recognized by molecular chaperones, providing useful NMR tools for detailed conformational analyses. (author)

  13. Proton exchange and temperature studies of pyrazole in dimethyl-d6 sulfoxide by 13C NMR

    The 13C NMR shifts of all the carbons in pyrazole have been observed at room temperature. This paper reports the kinetic data available from the temperature-induced collapse of the C-3, C-5 NMR peaks. ΔG2+ similarly ordered 7.0 kcal/mol, and ΔS2+ similarly ordered -25.0 cal/deg for the virtual tautomerism of pyrazole in SO-d6. Temperature-induced 13C DM shofts for the solvent and for pyrazole were also determined to be +1.47 x 10-3 and +2.0 x 10-3 ppM/deg for C-4 and the center of the C-3, C-5 peaks, respectively. The solvent shift for 13C with temperature is +11.59 +- 10-3 ppM/deg for the CD3 in DM SO-d6 and +3.22 x 10-3 ppM/deg for the deuterium in Me2SO-d6. Rapid exchange of pyrazole observed earlier by several workers in the solvent Me2SO-d6 is attributed to acid impurities present in previous samples. 3 tables

  14. 1H MAS, 13C CP/MAS, and 2H NMR spectra studies of piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate

    Anomalous H/D isotope effects were detected in the 1H MAS NMR spectra of piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate (C5H10NH 2+⋅ ClC6H4COO − ) upon deuterium substitution of hydrogen atoms which form two kinds of N-H⋯O H-bonds in the crystal; in contrast to these spectra, only slight chemical shifts were recorded in 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. 2H NMR spectrum of the deuterated sample show quadrupole coupling constants of 148 and 108 kHz, and reveal that there are a few motions contributing to the electric-field modulation of the 2H nucleus. The 1H MAS NMR spectra of piperidinium p-chlrobenzoate-d16 (C5D10ND 2+⋅ ClC6D4COO − ) and -d14 (C5D10NH 2+⋅ ClC6D4COO − ) revealed that the change in the envelope is caused by chemical shifts of each signal upon deuteration. Calculations based on the density-functional-theory showed that the N-H distance along the crystallographic a-axis mainly contributes to the anomalous isotope effects on 1H MAS NMR envelopes.

  15. Morphological study of chitin from Xiphopenaeus kroyeri exoskeletons by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and CPMAS 13 C NMR

    A sample of α chitin was isolated from exoskeletons of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. This sample ws dissolved in phosphoric acid and recovered as a fibrous precipitate. Atomic force microscopy was used in noncontact mode to obtain images of the native chitin sample. Different morphological features were observed, including rigid rod crystals 200-300 nm wide. Solid state 13 C NMR techniques were used to investigate chitin samples, and revealed molecular order in both samples. The differences observed in the proton spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame, TH1p were attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonds in preferential sites in the samples. (author)

  16. Applications of artificial intelligence techniques to organic chemistry. Study on 13C NMR of steroids using computer

    This work describes the utilization of two groups of programs in searching for characteristic signals of NMR 13C steroidal compounds. The first group of programs used data bases with the spectral data and a methodology that enables the choice and the search of substructures. The chemical shifts and multiplicities for each specific substructure are used as rules to identify different types and subtypes of steroidal compounds. The second one was built to apply the rules formulated by the first group of programs and to foresee any skeletal based on a spectral analysis. (author)

  17. Acid-base equilibrium in aqueous solutions of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid as studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Gryff-Keller, A.; Kraska-Dziadecka, A.

    2011-12-01

    13C NMR spectra of 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid in aqueous solutions of various acidities and for various solute concentrations have been recorded and interpreted. The spectra recorded at pH = 2 and below contain the signals of the neutral solute molecule exclusively, while the ones recorded at pH = 7 and above only the signals of the appropriate anion, which has been confirmed by theoretical GIAO-DFT calculations. The signals in the spectra recorded for solutions of pH acid-base equilibrium. The kinetic data determined this way have been used to clarify the mechanisms of these processes. The numerical analysis has shown that under the investigated conditions deprotonation of the neutral solute molecules undergoes not only via a simple transfer of the C-H proton to water molecules but also through a process with participation of the barbiturate anions. Moreover, the importance of tautomerism, or association, or both these phenomena for the kinetics of the acid-base transformations in the investigated system has been shown. Qualitatively similar changes of 13C NMR spectra with the solution pH variation have been observed for the parent barbituric acid.

  18. Morphological study of chitin from Xiphopenaeus kroyeri exoskeletons by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and CPMAS {sup 13} C NMR; Estudo morfologico de quitina da exocuticula de Xiphopenaeus kroyeri por AFM e por CPMAS {sup 13} C NMR

    Silva, K.M.; Tavares, M.I.; Andrade, C.T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Simao, R.A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    1999-07-01

    A sample of {alpha} chitin was isolated from exoskeletons of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. This sample ws dissolved in phosphoric acid and recovered as a fibrous precipitate. Atomic force microscopy was used in noncontact mode to obtain images of the native chitin sample. Different morphological features were observed, including rigid rod crystals 200-300 nm wide. Solid state {sup 13} C NMR techniques were used to investigate chitin samples, and revealed molecular order in both samples. The differences observed in the proton spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame, T{sup H1}{sub p} were attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonds in preferential sites in the samples. (author)

  19. Fatty acid synthesis in Xylella fastidiosa: correlations between genome studies, 13C NMR data, and molecular models

    Xylella fastidiosa was the first plant pathogen to have its complete genome sequence elucidated. Routine database analyses suggested that two enzymes essential for fatty acid synthesis were missing, one of these is the holo-acyl-carrier-protein synthase. However, here we demonstrate, using 13C NMR spectroscopy, that X. fastidiosa is indeed able to synthesize fatty acids from acetate via an apparently conventional metabolic pathway. We further identify a gene product HetI, an alternative phosphopantetheinyl transferase, which we propose to fill the missing link. Homology modeling of HetI shows conservation of the Coenzyme A binding site suggesting it to be an active enzyme and reveals several interesting structural features when compared with the surfactin synthase-activating enzyme, on which the model was built. These include a simplified topology due to N- and C-terminal deletions and the observation of a novel serine ladder

  20. Interactions of D-cellobiose with selected chloride salts: A 13C NMR and FT-IR study

    Amarasekara, Ananda S.; Wiredu, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The interactions of cellulose model compound D-cellobiose with chloride salts of Zn2 +, Ca2 +, Li+, Sn2 +, La3 +, Mg2 +, K+ and NH4+ were evaluated by measuring the 13C NMR chemical shift changes (Δδ) of the disaccharide due to the addition of salts in D2O. The KCl and NH4Cl showed similar Δδ changes due to interactions only with the Cl- anion. Whereas other chloride salts showed interactions with both cation and anion. Among these salts the total interactions are in the order: Zn2 + > Sn2 + > Li+ > Ca2 + ~ La3 + > Mg2 +. The FT-IR spectra of D-cellobiose-chloride salt 1:2 mixtures also indicate that KCl and NH4Cl interacts similarly with D-cellobiose in the solid state.

  1. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid. PMID:10563925

  2. Uses of 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy in studies of phenylenedioxydiacetamides complexation with the cations of calcium and potassium in solution

    The complexation abilities and the coordination sites of 12 derivatives using infrared, 1HNMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy are analyzed. The spectroscopic results indicate that only the 1,2-phenylenedioxydiacetamides are suitable ligands; the 1,3 derivatives did not react. These ionophors 1-8 represent fourdentale chelating ligands where all four oxygen atmos are involved in bonds to the metal. Independent from its charge one cations is coordinate by two ionophors. (M.J.C.)

  3. 13C-NMR of diterpenes with pimarane skeleton

    The effect of substituent groups on the chemical shift of carbons using nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of carbon 13 (13C-NMR) is discussed. Diterpenes having pimarane skeleton, isolated from plants of Velloziaceae family are analysed. (ARHC)

  4. Study of the fusion reaction 13C+13C

    The fusion reaction 13C+13C has been studied, it must allow, by comparisons with the system 12C+13C already studied to determine how the presence of a supplementary nucleon in the interaction nuclei of the entrance channel affects the energy dependence of the reaction cross section. The reaction 13C+13C has been studied for incident energies E(CM)=3.05 - 6.88 MeV and no resonant structure seems to appear in the coulombian energies. The reaction products are identified by the energy of their gamma transition using a germanium detector situated at zero degree with respect to the incident beam at approximately 1 cm from the target

  5. 1H and 13C NMR and electrical conductivity studies on new ionic plastic crystals of tetraalkylammonium tetraethylborate

    Eight plastic crystals of the types NEtxMe(4-x)BEt4 and NEtyPr(4-y)BEt4 (x = 0-4, y = 1-3) were found in a new region of ionic plastic crystals. In this area, globular cations and anions are assembled by weak interactions. Based on the results of solid-state 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, it was revealed that the ions performed isotropic reorientations in the NEtxMe(4-x)BEt4 crystals (x = 0-4). Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) of these compounds was able to identify the CsCl-type cubic structure. In contrast, the XRD reflections of NEtyPr(4-y)BEt4 (y = 1-3) could be successfully fitted by distorted cubic lattices (trigonal symmetry). The NMR line shapes observed in these compounds were explained by overall molecular motions with large amplitudes (pseudo-isotropic reorientations). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) spectra of NEtyPr(4-y)BEt4 (y = 1-3) showed a low entropy change (ΔSmp) of 6-8 J K-1 mol-1 at the melting point. Ionic diffusion was identified by electrical conductivity measurements of NEtxMe(4-x)BEt4 and NEtyPr(4-y)BEt4 (x = 0-4, y = 1-3). In the case of NPr4BEt4 crystals, ionic diffusion was also detected, although complex powder patterns and large ΔSmp values were observed by XRD and DSC measurements, respectively.

  6. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectral and X-ray structural studies of 2-arylsulfonylamino-5-chlorobenzophenones

    Six 2-(4-R-phenylsulfonylamino)-5-chlorobenzophenones were prepared and their 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectra recorded and assigned. The dependence between the chemical shift of the amide proton and Hammett σ substituent constants is of the V type. Substituent effect on the chemical shift of the amide nitrogen atom was found insignificant. X-ray analysis shows that the terminal benzene rings in 2-(4-nitro-phenylsulfonylamino)-5-chlorobenzophenones are located close to each other. They are not, however, parallel, dihedral angle between them being equal to 10.86 deg (MP2/6-31G**//HF/6-31G** ab initio calculations show this to be 20.44 deg). This shows that the mutual orientation of two benzene rings in the molecule of this compound is caused by the π-π stacking. It is additionally reinforced by the intramolecular NH...O=C hydrogen bond. Except the dihedral angle between the benzene rings, X-ray determined structure of 2-(4-nitro-phenylsulfonylamino)-5-chlorobenzophenones is very similar to this optimized by the ab initio calculations. (author)

  7. An in Vivo 13C NMR Analysis of the Anaerobic Yeast Metabolism of 1-13C-Glucose

    Giles, Brent J.; Matsche, Zenziwe; Egeland, Ryan D.; Reed, Ryan A.; Morioka, Scott S.; Taber, Richard L.

    1999-11-01

    A biochemistry laboratory experiment that studies the dynamics of the anaerobic yeast metabolism of 1-13C-D-glucose via NMR is described. Fleischmann's Active Dry yeast, under anaerobic conditions, produces primarily 2-13C-ethanol and some 1-13C-glycerol as end products. An experiment is described in which the yeast is subjected to osmotic shock from an increasing sodium chloride concentration. Under these conditions, the yeast increases the ratio of glycerol to ethanol. The experiment can be accomplished in a single laboratory period.

  8. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    Abou-Hamad, E.

    2011-10-10

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range from 0.7 to 100 nm and with number of walls from 1 to 90. We provide models on how diameter and the number of nanotube walls influence NMR linewidth and line position. Both models are supported by theoretical calculations. Increasing the diameter D, from the smallest investigated nanotube, which in our study corresponds to the inner nanotube of a double-walled tube to the largest studied diameter, corresponding to large multiwalled nanotubes, leads to a 23.5 ppm diamagnetic shift of the isotropic NMR line position δ. We show that the isotropic line follows the relation δ = 18.3/D + 102.5 ppm, where D is the diameter of the tube and NMR line position δ is relative to tetramethylsilane. The relation asymptotically tends to approach the line position expected in graphene. A characteristic broadening of the line shape is observed with the increasing number of walls. This feature can be rationalized by an isotropic shift distribution originating from different diamagnetic shielding of the encapsulated nanotubes together with a heterogeneity of the samples. Based on our results, NMR is shown to be a nondestructive spectroscopic method that can be used as a complementary method to, for example, transmission electron microscopy to obtain structural information for carbon nanotubes, especially bulk samples.

  9. A 1 H and 13 C NMR study of 2-methyl-4-N-phenyl amino quinazoline precursors

    2-substituted-4-phenyl amino quinazolines, synthetic intermediates of anti malarial, pesticides, herbicides and also inhibitors of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase, are potentially useful as chemotherapeutic agents or the treatment of cancer. A few recent papers have described the synthesis and the corresponding biological activity studies of some derivates, and it has also been shown that their biological potency depends upon the substituent electronic properties in the 4-position of the quinazoline ring. Thus, it is expected that the biological activity can also be correlated with their Hydrogen-1 or Carbon-13 NMR chemical shift. This work reports the steps for both hydrogen-1 and carbon-13 NMR chemical shifts assignments for these compounds. Results are presented

  10. Multidimensional solid-state NMR studies of the structure and dynamics of pectic polysaccharides in uniformly 13C-labeled Arabidopsis primary cell walls

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Wang, Tuo; Salazar, Andre; Zabotina, Olga A.; Hong, Mei

    2012-07-08

    Plant cell wall (CW) polysaccharides are responsible for the mechanical strength and growth of plant cells; however, the high-resolution structure and dynamics of the CW polysaccharides are still poorly understood because of the insoluble nature of these molecules. Here, we use 2D and 3D magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to investigate the structural role of pectins in the plant CW. Intact and partially depectinated primary CWs of Arabidopsis thaliana were uniformly labeled with 13C and their NMR spectra were compared. Recent 13C resonance assignment of the major polysaccharides in Arabidopsis thaliana CWs allowed us to determine the effects of depectination on the intermolecular packing and dynamics of the remaining wall polysaccharides. 2D and 3D correlation spectra show the suppression of pectin signals, confirming partial pectin removal by chelating agents and sodium carbonate. Importantly, higher cross peaks are observed in 2D and 3D 13C spectra of the depectinated CW, suggesting higher rigidity and denser packing of the remaining wall polysaccharides compared with the intact CW. 13C spin–lattice relaxation times and 1H rotating-frame spin–lattice relaxation times indicate that the polysaccharides are more rigid on both the nanosecond and microsecond timescales in the depectinated CW. Taken together, these results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are highly dynamic and endow the polysaccharide network of the primary CW with mobility and flexibility, which may be important for pectin functions. This study demonstrates the capability of multidimensional SSNMR to determine the intermolecular interactions and dynamic structures of complex plant materials under near-native conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assay of ascorbic acid in plants tissues, I: 1H and 13C NMR study of the complex between Cu(I) and 2,2'-biquinoline

    The Shieh's method, originally devised for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in pharmaceutical preparations and based on the reaction of this acid with Cu(I) and 2,2'-biquinoline, was adapted to determine AsA in biological samples and particularly in plant tissues. The proposed assay is compared with some current methods for AsA determination. Moreover the system Cu(I)-biquinoline is studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and a coordination model for the complex is proposed. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Theoretical study on the influence of different para-substituents on 13C NMR of the single carbonyl curcumin analogues

    Jia, Fei-yun; Ran, Ming; Zhang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    The structure of eight kinds of different para-substituents curcumin analogues has been optimized at the level of B3LYP/6-31G( d, p), under which the stability has been verified by means of vibration analysis. Moreover, NMR spectra of curcumin analogues compounds have been studied at the level of B3LYP/6-311G( d, p) by GIAO method. The results show that the structure of eight compounds, a larger conjugated system, has good planarity. The effect of ortho-substituents on bond lengths and bond angles is greater than para and meta. Different substituents and different positions of substituents all have different influence on NMR of the single carbonyl curcumin analogues. In general, after the hydrogen atom on the benzene ring is substituted by other groups, the δ value of α-C changes significantly, the δ value of ortho-carbon atom may also have great change, but the δ value change of meta-carbon atoms is not too obvious. The effect of substituent electronegativity on α-C atoms presents obvious regularity, while the influence of conjugate effect on carbon atoms of benzene ring is more complex. Finally, the bigger substituted alkyl is, the more the δ value of α-C increases.

  13. 13C-NMR chemical shift databases as a quick tool to evaluate structural models of humic substances

    Nyrop Albers, Christian; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    Models for humic and fulvic acids are discussed based on 13C liquid state NMR spectra combined with results from elemental analysis and titration studies. The analysis of NMR spectra is based on a full reconstruction of the NMR spectrum done with help of 13C-NMR data bases by adding up chemical s...

  14. Dynamics of the carbohydrate chains attached to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G as studied by NMR spectroscopy assisted by selective 13C labeling of the glycans

    A systematic method for 13C labeling of the glycan of immunoglobulin G for NMR study has been developed. A mouse immunoglobulin of subclass IgG2b has been used for the experiment. On the basis of chemical shift and linewidth data, it has been concluded that (1) the mobility of the carbohydrate chain in IgG2b is comparable to that of the backbone polypeptide chain with the exception of the galactose residue at the nonreducing end of the Manα1-3 branch, which is extremely mobile and (2) agalactosylation does not induce any significant change in the mobility. The results obtained indicate that even in the agalactosyl form the glycans are buried in the protein. Biological significance of the NMR results obtained is also briefly discussed

  15. /sup 13/C-NMR of diterpenes with rosane skeleton

    da Cunha Pinto, A.; Garcez, W.S.; Ficara, M.L.G.; Vasconcelos, T.C.; Pereira, A.L.; Gomes, L.N.L.F.; Frechiani, M.doC.; Patitucci, M.L. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais)

    1982-03-01

    /sup 13/C-NMR data of three diterpenoids with rosane skeleton isolated from Vellozia candida Mikan, and of their oxidated and acetylated derivatives are presented. The main effects caused by small structural differences are discussed and used in the assignment of the chemical shifts of all carbons.

  16. 13C NMR of diterpenes with isopimarane structure

    Several effects of the Δ sup(8(9)) double bond on the 13C NMR data of isopimarane diterpenoids are discussed, including chemical shifts and acetilation of the C-7 Hydroxyl radical on the above mentioned double bond. (C.L.B.)

  17. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    13C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of Δ8(17) and Δ12(13) unsaturations, were obtained by 13C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  18. Solid State NMR Study of Polystyrene Nanolatex Particles(I) 13C Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time

    2001-01-01

    13C spin-lattice relaxtion times for polystyrene nanolatex particles have been investigated. It was found that the dramatic increase at 80℃ annealing temperature is well below the Tg temperature of bulk polystyrene, the increase of relaxation time of aromatic carbons is larger than that of for aliphatic carbons at transition annealing temperature.

  19. Structure of UC{sub 2} and U{sub 2}C{sub 3}:XRD, {sup 13}C NMR and EXAFS study

    Carvajal Nuñez, U. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eloirdi, R., E-mail: rachel.eloirdi@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Prieur, D.; Martel, L. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); López Honorato, E. [Centro de Investigatión y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900 (Mexico); Farnan, I. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN (United Kingdom); Vitova, T. [Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), P.O. Box 3640, D- 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A structural investigation of UC{sub 2} and U{sub 2}C{sub 3} phases was made with XRD, NMR and EXAFS. • Heat treatment of a pulverised UC{sub 2} ingot, repressed into a pellet yields a U{sub 2}C{sub 3} phase coexisting with UC{sub 2−z}. • Heat treatment of UC{sub 2} as cast ingots results in a partial decomposition to UC. • EXAFS data confirmed the CaC{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}C{sub 3} type structure for UC{sub 2} and U{sub 2}C{sub 3} respectively. • {sup 13}C MAS NMR identified a contribution of a well and less ordered phases in UC{sub 2}. -- Abstract: In this study, uranium dicarbide (UC{sub 2}) has been prepared by arc melting and heat treated under vacuum to form uranium sequicarbide (U{sub 2}C{sub 3}) in the presence of a second phase UC{sub 2−z}. Both samples, as cast and heat treated, have been characterised by chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 13}C magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The composition, the purity, the various environments of both U and C atoms as well as the bonds length with the coordination number have been determined. By combining a long-range order method (XRD) and short-range order spectroscopy techniques (EXAFS and NMR), a unique view on the microstructure of UC{sub 2}, before and after heat treatment, and of U{sub 2}C{sub 3} phase has been achieved.

  20. XRD, FTIR and 13C CP/ MAS NMR Studies of Composite Comprising Poly(vinyl acetate)- silylated Si-MCM-41

    A composite structure based on silylated MCM-41 and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) was synthesized via solution intercalation. Poly(vinyl acetate)-silylated Si- MCM-41 composite were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy and 13C CP/ MAS NMR in order to determine the compatibility between PVAc and the silicate host. XRD study reveals that the framework of silylated Si-MCM-41 was not altered upon incorporation of PVAc. FTIR study showed that characteristic peak assigned to carbonyl group in PVAc was observed around 1741.6 cm-1 for all the composites indicating the presence of PVAc in the silylated Si-MCM-41. 13C CP/ MAS NMR showed the increase of line width of the peak assigned to C=O carbonyl group indicating the increase in randomness of polymer chains in confined space. The shifting of the C=O carbonyl groups is a sign of the change in chemical environment of the carbonyl owing to the interaction of PVAc with the silica matrix of silylated Si-MCM-41. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabolism. Applications of proton and sup 13 C NMR to the study of glutamate metabolism in cultured glial cells and human brain in vivo

    Portais, J.C.; Pianet, I.; Merle, M.; Raffard, G.; Biran, M.; Labouesse, J.; Canioni, P. (Bordeaux-2 Univ., 33 (FR)); Allard, M.; Kien, P.; Caille, J.M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 33 Bordeaux (FR))

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the metabolism of cells from the central nervous system both in vitro on perchloric acid extracts obtained either from cultured tumoral cells (C6 rat glioma) or rat astrocytes in primary culture, and in vivo within the human brain. Analysis of carbon 13 NMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts prepared from cultured cells in the presence of NMR (1-{sup 13}C) glucose as substrate allowed determination of the glutamate and glutamine enrichments in both normal and tumoral cells. Preliminary results indicated large changes in the metabolism of these amino acids (and also of aspartate and alanine) in the C6 cell as compared to its normal counterpart. Localized proton NMR spectra of the human brain in vivo were obtained at 1.5 T, in order to evaluate the content of various metabolites, including glutamate, in peritumoral edema from a selected volume of 2 x 2 x 2 cm{sup 3}. N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate, phosphocreatine, creatine, choline and inositol derivative resonances were observed in 15 min spectra. N-acetyl-aspartate was found to be at a lower level in contrast to glutamate which was detected at a higher level in the injured area as compared to the controlateral unaffected side.

  2. (13)C NMR assignments of regenerated cellulose from solid-state 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    Idström, Alexander; Schantz, Staffan; Sundberg, Johan; Chmelka, Bradley F; Gatenholm, Paul; Nordstierna, Lars

    2016-10-20

    From the assignment of the solid-state (13)C NMR signals in the C4 region, distinct types of crystalline cellulose, cellulose at crystalline surfaces, and disordered cellulose can be identified and quantified. For regenerated cellulose, complete (13)C assignments of the other carbon regions have not previously been attainable, due to signal overlap. In this study, two-dimensional (2D) NMR correlation methods were used to resolve and assign (13)C signals for all carbon atoms in regenerated cellulose. (13)C-enriched bacterial nanocellulose was biosynthesized, dissolved, and coagulated as highly crystalline cellulose II. Specifically, four distinct (13)C signals were observed corresponding to conformationally different anhydroglucose units: two signals assigned to crystalline moieties and two signals assigned to non-crystalline species. The C1, C4 and C6 regions for cellulose II were fully examined by global spectral deconvolution, which yielded qualitative trends of the relative populations of the different cellulose moieties, as a function of wetting and drying treatments. PMID:27474592

  3. Structural characteristics of marine sedimentary humic acids by CP/MAS sup(13)C NMR spectroscopy

    Sardessai, S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Humic acids from sediments of different depositional environments have been studied by solid-state sup(13)C NMR and the results compared with the traditional wet chemical analysis. Results obtained are well in agreement with the previous literature...

  4. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive, 13C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study

    Urbanová, Martina; Šturcová, Adriana; Brus, Jiří; Beneš, Hynek; Skořepová, E.; Kratochvíl, B.; Čejka, J.; Šeděnková, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Policianová, Olivia; Šturc, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 4 (2013), s. 1235-1248. ISSN 0022-3549 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP106/11/P426 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : trospium chloride * solid state NMR * factor analysis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2013

  5. A study of the molecular conformations and the vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the anticancer drug tamoxifen and triphenylethylene

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Khan, Ibrahim

    2016-08-01

    The structural stability and the vibrational spectra of the anticancer drug tamoxifen and triphenylethylene were investigated by the DFT B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) calculations. Tamoxifen and triphenylethylene were predicted to exist predominantly as non-planar structures. The vibrational frequencies and the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the low energy structures of tamoxifen and triphenylethylene were computed at the DFT B3LYP level of theory. Complete vibrational assignments were provided by combined theoretical and experimental data of tamoxifen and triphenylethylene. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of both molecules were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the two molecules. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for tamoxifen is 0.29 and 4.72 ppm, whereas for triphenylethylene, it is 0.16 and 2.70 ppm, respectively.

  6. NMR studies of (U- sup 13 C)cyclosporin A bound to cyclophilin: Bound conformation and protions of cyclosporin involved in binding

    Fesik, S.W.; Gampe, R.T. Jr.; Eaton, H.L.; Gemmecker, G.; Olejniczak, E.T.; Neri, P.; Holzman, T.F.; Egan, D.A.; Edalji, R.; Simmer, R.; Helfrich, R.; Hochlowski, J.; Jackson, M. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

    1991-07-02

    Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressant, is known to bind with high specificity to cyclophilin (CyP), a 17.7 kDa protein with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. In order to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the CsA/CyP complex, the authors have applied a variety of multidimensional NMR methods in the study of uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled CsA bound to cyclophilin. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR signals of cyclosporin A in the bound state have been assigned, and, from a quantitative interpretation of the 3D NOE data, the bound conformation of CsA has been determined. Three-dimensional structures of CsA calculated from the NOE data by using a distance geometry/simulated annealing protocol were found to be very different form previously determined crystalline and solution conformations of uncomplexed CsA. In addition, from CsA/CyP NOEs, the portions of CsA that interact with cyclophilin were identified. For the most part, those CsA residues with NOEs to cyclophilin were the same residues important for cyclophilin binding and immunosuppressive activity as determined from sturcture/activity relationships. The structural information derived in this study together with the known structure/activity relationships for CsA analogues may prove useful in the design of improved immunosuppressants. Moreover, the approach that is described for obtaining the structural information is widely applicable to the study of small molecule/large molecule interactions.

  7. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively 13C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved.

  8. Monitoring electrochemical reactions in situ using steady-state free precession 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Highlights: • Analysis of electrochemical reaction in situ by 13C NMR spectroscopy was demonstrated. • 13C NMR signals are obtained in few minutes, using steady-state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence. • The analysis is performed in standard NMR spectrometer. • KBDM can be an alternative to Fourier Transform to process SSFP signal. - Abstract: All attempts to use in situ13C NMR in spectroelectrochemical studies, using static cells and unlabeled substrates, have failed due to the very long average time (several hours). In this paper, we demonstrated that steady-state free precession (SSFP) pulse sequence can enhance signal to noise ratio and reduces the average time of 13C NMR signals by more than one order of magnitude. The results showed that each 13C NMR spectrum during the electrochemical reduction of 9-chloroanthracene, in a static cell, can be acquired in eleven minutes. This short averaging time allowed the analysis of the reaction every 30 min during 3 h. The phase and truncation anomalies present in SSFP spectra were minimized using Traff apodization function and Krylov basis diagonalization method (KBDM)

  9. Carbonation of C–S–H and C–A–S–H samples studied by {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Skibsted, Jørgen, E-mail: jskib@chem.au.dk

    2015-05-15

    Synthesized calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) samples with Ca/Si ratios of 0.66, 1.0, and 1.5 have been exposed to atmospheric CO{sub 2} at room temperature and high relative humidity and studied after one to 12 weeks. {sup 29}Si NMR reveals that the decomposition of C–S–H caused by carbonation involves two steps and that the decomposition rate decreases with increasing Ca/Si ratio. The first step is a gradual decalcification of the C–S–H where calcium is removed from the interlayer and defect sites in the silicate chains until Ca/Si = 0.67 is reached, ideally corresponding to infinite silicate chains. In the seconds step, calcium from the principal layers is consumed, resulting in the final decomposition of the C–S–H and the formation of an amorphous silica phase composed of Q{sup 3} and Q{sup 4} silicate tetrahedra. The amount of solid carbonates and of carbonate ions in a hydrous environment increases with increasing Ca/Si ratio for the C–S–H, as shown by {sup 13}C NMR. For C–A–S–H samples with Ca/Si = 1.0 and 1.5, {sup 27}Al NMR demonstrates that all aluminium sites associated with the C–S–H are consumed during the carbonation reactions and incorporated mainly as tetrahedral Al(–OSi){sub 4} units in the amorphous silica phase. A small amount of penta-coordinated Al sites has also been identified in the silica phase.

  10. Carbonation of C–S–H and C–A–S–H samples studied by 13C, 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Synthesized calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) samples with Ca/Si ratios of 0.66, 1.0, and 1.5 have been exposed to atmospheric CO2 at room temperature and high relative humidity and studied after one to 12 weeks. 29Si NMR reveals that the decomposition of C–S–H caused by carbonation involves two steps and that the decomposition rate decreases with increasing Ca/Si ratio. The first step is a gradual decalcification of the C–S–H where calcium is removed from the interlayer and defect sites in the silicate chains until Ca/Si = 0.67 is reached, ideally corresponding to infinite silicate chains. In the seconds step, calcium from the principal layers is consumed, resulting in the final decomposition of the C–S–H and the formation of an amorphous silica phase composed of Q3 and Q4 silicate tetrahedra. The amount of solid carbonates and of carbonate ions in a hydrous environment increases with increasing Ca/Si ratio for the C–S–H, as shown by 13C NMR. For C–A–S–H samples with Ca/Si = 1.0 and 1.5, 27Al NMR demonstrates that all aluminium sites associated with the C–S–H are consumed during the carbonation reactions and incorporated mainly as tetrahedral Al(–OSi)4 units in the amorphous silica phase. A small amount of penta-coordinated Al sites has also been identified in the silica phase

  11. Accurate quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy: repeatability over time of site-specific 13C isotope ratio determination.

    Caytan, Elsa; Botosoa, Eliot P; Silvestre, Virginie; Robins, Richard J; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S

    2007-11-01

    The stability over time (repeatability) for the determination of site-specific 13C/12C ratios at natural abundance by quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy has been tested on three probes: enriched bilabeled [1,2-13C2]ethanol; ethanol at natural abundance; and vanillin at natural abundance. It is shown in all three cases that the standard deviation for a series of measurements taken every 2-3 months over periods between 9 and 13 months is equal to or smaller than the standard deviation calculated from 5-10 replicate measurements made on a single sample. The precision which can be achieved using the present analytical 13C NMR protocol is higher than the prerequisite value of 1-2 per thousand for the determination of site-specific 13C/12C ratios at natural abundance (13C-SNIF-NMR). Hence, this technique permits the discrimination of very small variations in 13C/12C ratios between carbon positions, as found in biogenic natural products. This observed stability over time in 13C NMR spectroscopy indicates that further improvements in precision will depend primarily on improved signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:17900175

  12. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring δ13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (δ13C and δ18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring δ18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and fruit juices: the

  13. 2H NMR and 13C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, 18O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: international collaborative study report.

    Thomas, Freddy; Jamin, Eric

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the 13C/12C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the 18O/16O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta13C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per thousand, and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per thousand. As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the 2H/1H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources (delta13C and delta18O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring delta18O were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for other methods applied to wine and

  14. Solid state 13C NMR and carbon isotope studies of the coupling of primary and secondary productivity in a Florida estuary

    The mechanisms by which primary producers fuel the growth of secondary consumers (e.g. fish and shell fish) in estuaries is poorly understood at this time. The authors have attempted to quantify the relative importance of detrital vs. planktonic food webs which support mariculture in the Ochlocknee River and Bay in Northwest Florida using stable carbon isotopes and solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Due to isotopic fractionation caused by different enzymatic pathways of carbon dioxide uptake, primary producers are imprinted with distinctive 13C/12C isotopic ratios. Stable isotopic ratios are imprints, or signatures, which are passed on to the next higher trophic level (you are what you eat). They have been combining isotopic tracing of food webs in estuaries with characterization of complex macromolecular particulates by cross polarization - magic angle spinning 13C NMR. In this talk they will demonstrate how the combination of these techniques can differentiate the relative importance of terrestrial input of organic matter vs. in situ estuarine production as a food source for estuarine consumers

  15. A study of the experimental and theoretical infrared, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the biochemicals valeric and valproic acids

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2014-10-01

    The structural stability, vibrational, 1H and 13C NMR spectra of valeric and valproic acids were investigated by the B3LYP calculations with the 6-311G** basis set. Valeric acid is predicted to exist predominantly in the planar cis form (80% abundance). Valproic acid is predicted to have an equilibrium mixture of 68% gauche-1 and 32% gauche-2 structures at 298.15 K. The spectral feature of the Osbnd H stretching mode in the infrared spectra of both acids suggests the presence of strong H-bonding in the condensed phase of valeric acid and weak H-bonding in the case of valproic acid. The harmonic and anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers were computed at the B3LYP level of theory and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of combined theoretical and experimental infrared and Raman data of the molecules. Not all of the calculated anharmonic wavenumbers showed a consistent trend with the observed wavenumbers. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of both acids were interpreted by experimental and DFT calculated chemical shifts of the two acids. The RMSD between experimental and theoretical 1H and 13C chemical shifts for valeric acid is 1.8 and 3.8 ppm, whereas for valproic acid, it is 1.4 and 4.5 ppm, respectively.

  16. Functional Groups Determine Biochar Properties (pH and EC as Studied by Two-Dimensional (13C NMR Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Xiaoming Li

    Full Text Available While the properties of biochar are closely related to its functional groups, it is unclear under what conditions biochar develops its properties. In this study, two-dimensional (2D (13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR correlation spectroscopy was for the first time applied to investigate the development of functional groups and establish their relationship with biochar properties. The results showed that the agricultural biomass carbonized to biochars was a dehydroxylation/dehydrogenation and aromatization process, mainly involving the cleavage of O-alkylated carbons and anomeric O-C-O carbons in addition to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures and aromatic C-O groups. With increasing charring temperature, the mass cleavage of O-alkylated groups and anomeric O-C-O carbons occurred prior to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures. The regression analysis between functional groups and biochar properties (pH and electrical conductivity further demonstrated that the pH and electrical conductivity of rice straw derived biochars were mainly determined by fused-ring aromatic structures and anomeric O-C-O carbons, but the pH of rice bran derived biochars was determined by both fused-ring aromatic structures and aliphatic O-alkylated (HCOH carbons. In summary, this work suggests a novel tool for characterising the development of functional groups in biochars.

  17. Effects of post-reactor functionalization on the phase behaviour of an ethylene-1-octene copolymer studied using solid-state high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Calucci, Lucia; Cicogna, Francesca; Forte, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The effects of post-reactor functionalization with naphthoate-TEMPO on the structure and morphology of an ethylene-1-octene copolymer were investigated by means of solid-state NMR techniques and DSC measurements. Selective (13)C MAS experiments allowed the orthorhombic and the monoclinic crystalline phases and two amorphous phases with different degree of mobility to be detected and quantified. (13)C and (1)H relaxation time measurements and spin diffusion experiments gave insight into the polymer dynamics within the different phases, the crystalline domain dimensions, and the rate of chain diffusion between amorphous and crystalline phases. Comparison of the results obtained for the pristine copolymer and the functionalized samples clearly indicated that the functionalization procedure causes redistribution within the crystalline and the amorphous phases with no relevant change in the degree of crystallinity or in the crystalline domain average size, and slows down chain diffusion. PMID:23942957

  18. 13C NMR spectra of trimethylene oxide and sulphide

    The 13C NMR spectra of trimethylene oxide and trimethylene sulphide have been recorded and analysed as second-order spectra. The values of all the C-H coupling constants with their signs are reported. The signs of the C-H coupling constants in trimethylene oxide were determined by selective irradiation experiments and theoretical calculations, while in trimethylene sulphide the signs were obtained directly from the analysis. The one-bond C-H coupling constants are approximately 3 Hz greater in trimethylene oxide than in trimethylene sulphide, while the absolute values of the two-bond and three-bond coupling constants, 2Jsub(cβH) and 3Jsub(CαH), are bout 1 Hz greater in the latter molecule. (orig.)

  19. 13 C and 31 P NMR use in phosphinite synthesis and rhodium cationic catalysts accompaniment

    Several studies on rigid cyclic frameworks have been developed recently. This work shows the use of 13 C and 31 P NMR analysis for identifying and characterizing the molecular structures of phosphinites, thiophosphinites and rhodium catalysts. The phosphinites were synthesized and rhodium complexes prepared from them, aiming the catalysts synthesis for hydrogenation processes. Synthesizing phosphinites and thiophosphinites, alcohols on their racemic form were used, therefore, the catalysts were obtained as diasteroisomers. 13 C and 31 P NMR data are discussed in details and chemical shifts are also analysed

  20. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER BY 13C-NMR METHOD Ⅲ. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEQUENCE STRUCTURE

    CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen; JIAO Shuke

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative description of the sequence structure of emulsion-processed SBR and solution-processed SBR (by lithium catalyst)was carried out based on their spectral data of 13C-NMR.The calculating formulae which could be used to obtain diad concentration from the peak intensities of carbon spectra, average block length, average number of block, and the microstructure composition of the molecular chain were derived. The quantitative result showed that on the molecular chain styrene unit had the tendency to attach to trans-1,4 butadiene unit. The calculated result of the microstructure was in good agreement with that obtained through IR measurement.

  1. The study of a monocotyledon abscission zone using microscopic, chemical, enzymatic and solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses.

    Henderson, J; Davies, H A; Heyes, S J; Osborne, D J

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated distinguishing features in cells of the abscission zone of a monocotyledon fruit, the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. The cell walls of the abscission zone and the subtending mesocarp and pedicel have been analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy, by chemical methods and by solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. Results show that these abscission zone cells have specific characteristics which include high levels of unmethylated pectin in the walls and an inducible (x35) polygalacturonase enzyme expression. Together these findings help to explain the localised precision of cell separation events. PMID:11219806

  2. 13C-Labeled Heparan Sulfate Analogue as a Tool To Study Protein/Heparan Sulfate Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy: Application to the CXCL12α Chemokine

    Heparan sulfate (HS), a polysaccharide of the glycosaminoglycan family characterized by a unique level of complexity, has emerged as a key regulator of many fundamental biological processes. Although it has become clear that this class of molecules exert their functions by interacting with proteins, the exact modes of interaction still remain largely unknown. Here we report the engineering of a 13C-labeled HS-like oligosaccharide with a defined oligo-saccharidic sequence that was used to investigate the structural determinants involved in protein/HS recognition by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Using the chemokine CXCL12α as a model system, we obtained experimental NMR data on both the oligosaccharide and the chemokine that was used to obtain a structural model of a protein/HS complex. This new approach provides a foundation for further investigations of protein/HS interactions and should find wide application. (authors)

  3. DMS AND 13C NMR STUDIES ON THE COMPATIBILITY AND DYNAMICS OF LATEX BIDIRECTIONAL IPNS AND LATEX IPN OF PVA c/PBA

    YAN Xin; XU Xiaolong; ZHANG Baozhen; YAO Shuren; QIAN Baogong

    1993-01-01

    The compatibility and dynamics of latex bidirectional interpenetrating polymer networks (LBIPNs) and latex IPN(LIPN) of poly(vinyl acetate)(PVAc) and poly (butyl acrylate )(PBA) are investigated by means of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The results of DMS show that the compatibility of the LBIPNs is much better than that of the corresponding LIPN and depends to a large extent on the distribution of PVAc both in the core and in the shell. The results of NMR measurements indicate that the rotational correlation times of the side- groups of PBA in the LBIPN are longer than those in the LIPN. The relation between the 13C linewidths of PBA and temperature is also discussed.

  4. Accurate measurements of 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Application of sets of 13C-13C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl (13C′) and aliphatic (13Caliphatic) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly 13C,15N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of 13C′-13Caliphatic distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform 13C,15N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment

  5. Comprehensive signal assignment of 13C-labeled lignocellulose using multidimensional solution NMR and 13C chemical shift comparison with solid-state NMR.

    Komatsu, Takanori; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-09-17

    A multidimensional solution NMR method has been developed using various pulse programs including HCCH-COSY and (13)C-HSQC-NOESY for the structural characterization of commercially available (13)C labeled lignocellulose from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and corn (Zea mays). This new method allowed for 119 of the signals in the (13)C-HSQC spectrum of lignocelluloses to be assigned and was successfully used to characterize the structures of lignocellulose samples from three plants in terms of their xylan and xyloglucan structures, which are the major hemicelluloses in angiosperm. Furthermore, this new method provided greater insight into fine structures of lignin by providing a high resolution to the aromatic signals of the β-aryl ether and resinol moieties, as well as the diastereomeric signals of the β-aryl ether. Finally, the (13)C chemical shifts assigned in this study were compared with those from solid-state NMR and indicated the presence of heterogeneous dynamics in the polysaccharides where rigid cellulose and mobile hemicelluloses moieties existed together. PMID:24010724

  6. Biosynthetic uniform 13C,15N-labelling of zervamicin IIB. Complete 13C and 15N NMR assignment.

    Ovchinnikova, Tatyana V; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Yakimenko, Zoya A; Svishcheva, Natalia V; Tagaev, Andrey A; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2003-01-01

    Zervamicin IIB is a member of the alpha-aminoisobutyric acid containing peptaibol antibiotics. A new procedure for the biosynthetic preparation of the uniformly 13C- and 15N-enriched peptaibol is described This compound was isolated from the biomass of the fungus-producer Emericellopsis salmosynnemata strain 336 IMI 58330 obtained upon cultivation in the totally 13C, 15N-labelled complete medium. To prepare such a medium the autolysed biomass and the exopolysaccharides of the obligate methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacillus flagellatus KT were used. This microorganism was grown in totally 13C, 15N-labelled minimal medium containing 13C-methanol and 15N-ammonium chloride as the only carbon and nitrogen sources. Preliminary NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated a high extent of isotope incorporation (> 90%) and led to the complete 13C- and 15N-NMR assignment including the stereospecific assignment of Aib residues methyl groups. The observed pattern of the structurally important secondary chemical shifts of 1H(alpha), 13C=O and 13C(alpha) agrees well with the previously determined structure of zervamicin IIB in methanol solution. PMID:14658801

  7. 1H, 13C and 31P-NMR spectroscopic study of glucose metabolism of muscle larva Trichinella spiralis (U.S.A. strain), and the effects of the end-products on the host (mouse)

    1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to identify and quantitate metabolites excreted by muscle larva Trichinella spiralis maintained aerobically in the presence of D- (13C6) glucose and (1, 1'-13C2) succinate. End-products of glucose metabolism studied by 1H-NMR were lactate, acetate, succinate, proionate, n-valerate and alanine, at the molar ratio of 1:2:1:0.6:0.5:0.6. 13C-NMR measurement proved that all the products originated from the glucose in the medium via the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-succinate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In vivo 31P-NMR spectra were also taken by the surface coil method from the leg muscle of mice which had been infected with T. spiralis. Intracelluar pH and relative amount of ATP in the leg muscle of the infected mice were found to decrease significantly as compared with that of control mice. (author)

  8. Hypermetabolic state in the 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and the effect of lipoic acid: a 13C-NMR study.

    Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Kanamori, Keiko; Díaz Brinton, Roberta; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Ai-Ling; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by age-dependent biochemical, metabolic, and physiologic changes. These age-dependent changes ultimately converge to impair cognitive functions. This study was carried out to examine the metabolic changes by probing glucose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in a 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). The effect of lipoic acid, an insulin-mimetic agent, was also investigated to examine its ability in modulating age-dependent metabolic changes. Seven-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were given intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose followed by an ex vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the concentrations of (13)C-labeled isotopomers of glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma aminobutyric acid, and N-acetylaspartate. An intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose+[1,2-(13)C]acetate was given for different periods of time to distinguish neuronal and astrocytic metabolism. Enrichments of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate were calculated after quantifying the total ((12)C+(13)C) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. A hypermetabolic state was clearly evident in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice in contrast to the hypometabolic state reported earlier in 13-month-old mice. Hypermetabolism was evidenced by prominent increase of (13)C labeling and enrichment in the 3xTg-AD mice. Lipoic acid feeding to the hypermetabolic 3xTg-AD mice brought the metabolic parameters to the levels of nonTg mice. PMID:25099753

  9. Structural modifications of vitrinite and alginite concentrates during pyrolytic maturation at different heating rates. A combined infrared, sup 13 C NMR and microscopical study

    Schenk, H.J.; Witte, E.G.; Littke, R.; Schwochau, K. (Nuclear Research Centre (KFA) Juelich, Juelich (Germany, F.R.). Inst. of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry (ICH-5))

    1990-01-01

    Immature vitrinite samples from a Miocene brown coal seam of western Germany (H/C 1.14, O/C 0.41) and alginite concentrates from a Tasmanite deposit of Australia (H/C 1.60, O/C 0.10) were pyrolyzed in a stream of argon at heating rates of 0.1 and 2.0{degree}C/min up to temperatures varying from 200 to 670{degree}C. The solid maceral residues were subjected to elemental and microscopical analysis and studied by IR and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy with respect to structural modifications. The maximum pyrolytic weight loss amounts to 60% of the initial organic matter in the case of vitrinite and to 85% for alginite, the onset of degradation reactions being shifted to higher temperatures with increasing rate of heating. Both infrared and NMR spectra of the vitrinite samples indicate a rapid decomposition of the cellulose component upon heating whereas lignin related structures such as aromatic ether linkages remain remarkably stable. The main hydrocarbon release from vitrinite occurs at very early evolution stages (T{sub max} 296{degree}C, R{sub m} 0.20% at 0.1{degree}C/min; T{sub max} 337{degree}C, R{sub m} 0.23% at 2.0{degree}C/min). Hydrocarbon generation from alginite requires higher temperatures (T{sub max} 388 and 438{degree}C) and is completed within a distinctly narrower temperature range. The pronounced increase of vitrinite reflectance between 350 and 670{degree}C seems to be associated with a rather time-consuming reorganization of the residual organic material. The concomitant growth of polyaromatic units is illustrated by the increasing intensity ratio of the aromatic ring stretching vibration bands at 1600 and 1500 cm{sup -1}. These reactions are moreover marked by increasing loss of phenolic oxygen and by increasing conversion of aliphatic carbon into fixed aromatic carbon. 50 refs, 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 13C NMR investigation of local motions involved in secondary relaxation of polymers

    Monnerie, Lucien

    The 13C NMR methods which can be used to study the local dynamics of solid samples through the cross-polarization and magic angle spinning technique are briefly reviewed. We present results obtained on solid polycycloalkyl methacrylates, polybutylene terephtalate, polystyrene and substituted polystyrenes and compare them with mechanical relaxation measurements.

  11. Phenyl galactopyranosides – {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR and conformational analysis using genetic algorithm

    Wałejko, Piotr, E-mail: pwalejko@uwb.edu.pl [University of Bialystok, Institute of Chemistry, Pilsudskiego 11/4, 15-443 Bialystok (Poland); Paradowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.paradowska@wum.edu.pl [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Physical Chemistry, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Bukowicki, Jarosław [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Physical Chemistry, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Witkowski, Stanisław [University of Bialystok, Institute of Chemistry, Pilsudskiego 11/4, 15-443 Bialystok (Poland); Wawer, Iwona [Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Physical Chemistry, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-08-18

    Highlights: • The structures of phenyl galactosides were studied by {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR. • The GAAGS method was used in conformational analysis of phenyl galactosides. • The rotation of the aglycone was investigated. • {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR supported by GIAO DFT calculations was used as a verification method. - Abstract: Structural analyses of four compounds (phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), phenyl β-D-galactopyranoside (2), phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranoside (3) and phenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (4)) have been performed using solid-state {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Conformational analysis involved grid search and genetic algorithm (GAAGS). Low-energy conformers found by GAAGS were further optimized by DFT and chemical shifts were calculated using GIAO/DFT approach. {sup 13}C CPMAS NMR chemical shift of carbon C2 is indicative of the glycoside torsional angle. Separated or merged resonances of C2 and C6 suggest free rotation of phenyl ring in the solid phase.

  12. Phenyl galactopyranosides – 13C CPMAS NMR and conformational analysis using genetic algorithm

    Highlights: • The structures of phenyl galactosides were studied by 13C CPMAS NMR. • The GAAGS method was used in conformational analysis of phenyl galactosides. • The rotation of the aglycone was investigated. • 13C CPMAS NMR supported by GIAO DFT calculations was used as a verification method. - Abstract: Structural analyses of four compounds (phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), phenyl β-D-galactopyranoside (2), phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranoside (3) and phenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (4)) have been performed using solid-state 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Conformational analysis involved grid search and genetic algorithm (GAAGS). Low-energy conformers found by GAAGS were further optimized by DFT and chemical shifts were calculated using GIAO/DFT approach. 13C CPMAS NMR chemical shift of carbon C2 is indicative of the glycoside torsional angle. Separated or merged resonances of C2 and C6 suggest free rotation of phenyl ring in the solid phase

  13. Crystal structure and theoretical study of IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectra of cordatin, a natural product with antiulcerogenic activity

    Brasil, Davi S. B.; Alves, Cláudio N.; Guilhon, Giselle M. S. P.; Muller, Adolfo H.; Secco, Ricardo De S.; Peris, Gabriel; Llusar, Rosa

    Cordatin is a furan diterpenoid with a clerodane skeleton isolated from Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). This natural product shows significant antiulcerogenic activity, similar to cimetidine (Tagamet®), a compound used for the treatment of peptic ulcers. The crystal structure of cordatin was obtained by X-ray diffraction and its geometrical parameters were compared with theoretical calculations at the B3LYP theory level. The IR and NMR (1H and 13C chemical shifts and coupling constants) spectra were obtained and compared with the theoretical calculations. The B3LYP theory level, with the 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis set, provided IR absorption values close to the experimental data. Moreover, theoretical NMR parameters obtained in both gas phase and chloroform solvent at the B3PW91/DGDZVP, B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p), and B3PW91/6-311+G(2d,p) levels showed good correlations with the experimental results.

  14. The use of /sup 13/C-glucose and NMR to study cerebral carbohydrate metabolism in vivo in the rat and the rhesus monkey

    This report describes some preliminary work in the development of a method for the determination of the cerebral intermediary glucose metabolism in humans in vivo. The procedure makes use of specifically labeled [/sup 13/C]glucose and NMR and incorporates some of the theoretical considerations, equations and algorithms of a method the authors proposed in a recent publication for the determination of cerebral metabolism in humans in vivo using specifically labeled /sup 11/C-glucose and positron emission transverse tomography (PETT). Both the method for PETT and NMR make use of the enrichment of carbon atoms of glutamate in the brain with the label from intravenously administered isotopic glucose. Previously, the authors proposed a scheme for human cerebral metabolism of glucose in vivo which included in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) a small metabolically active pool of glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate and succinic semialdehyde. The small pool of glutamate in the TCA cycle was considered to be in slow equilibrium with a large metabolically inactive glutamate pool in the brain

  15. Oligomeric complexes of some heteroaromatic ligands and aromatic diamines with rhodium and molybdenum tetracarboxylates: 13C and 15N CPMAS NMR and density functional theory studies.

    Leniak, Arkadiusz; Kamieński, Bohdan; Jaźwiński, Jarosław

    2015-05-01

    Seven new oligomeric complexes of 4,4'-bipyridine; 3,3'-bipyridine; benzene-1,4-diamine; benzene-1,3-diamine; benzene-1,2-diamine; and benzidine with rhodium tetraacetate, as well as 4,4'-bipyridine with molybdenum tetraacetate, have been obtained and investigated by elemental analysis and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (13)C and (15)N CPMAS NMR. The known complexes of pyrazine with rhodium tetrabenzoate, benzoquinone with rhodium tetrapivalate, 4,4'-bipyridine with molybdenum tetrakistrifluoroacetate and the 1 : 1 complex of 2,2'-bipyridine with rhodium tetraacetate exhibiting axial-equatorial ligation mode have been obtained as well for comparison purposes. Elemental analysis revealed 1 : 1 complex stoichiometry of all complexes. The (15)N CPMAS NMR spectra of all new complexes consist of one narrow signal, indicating regular uniform structures. Benzidine forms a heterogeneous material, probably containing linear oligomers and products of further reactions. The complexes were characterized by the parameter complexation shift Δδ (Δδ = δcomplex  - δligand). This parameter ranged from around -40 to -90 ppm in the case of heteroaromatic ligands, from around -12 to -22 ppm for diamines and from -16 to -31 ppm for the complexes of molybdenum tetracarboxylates with 4,4'-bipyridine. The experimental results have been supported by a density functional theory computation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts and complexation shifts at the non-relativistic Becke, three-parameter, Perdew-Wang 91/[6-311++G(2d,p), Stuttgart] and GGA-PBE/QZ4P levels of theory and at the relativistic scalar and spin-orbit zeroth order regular approximation/GGA-PBE/QZ4P level of theory. Nucleus-independent chemical shifts have been calculated for the selected compounds. PMID:25614975

  16. 13C and 17O NMR binding constant studies of uranyl carbonate complexes in near-neutral aqueous solution. Yucca Mountain Project Milestone Report 3351

    Valuable structural information, much of it unavailable by other methods, can be obtained about complexes in solution through NMR spectroscopy. From chemical shift and intensity measurements of complexed species, NMR can serve as a species-specific structural probe for molecules in solution and can be used to validate thermodynamic constants used in geochemical modeling. Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to study the speciation of uranium(VI) ions in aqueous carbonate solutions as a function of pH, ionic strength, carbonate concentration, uranium concentration, and temperature. Carbon-13 and oxygen-17 NMR spectroscopy were used to monitor the fractions, and hence thermodynamic binding constants of two different uranyl species U02(CO3)34- and (UO2)3(CO3)66- in aqueous solution. Synthetic buffer solutions were prepared under the ionic strength conditions used in the NMR studies in order to obtain an accurate measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, and a discussion of pH = -log(aH+) versus p[H] = -log[H+] is provided. It is shown that for quantitative studies, the quantity p[H] needs to be used. Fourteen uranium(VI) binding constants recommended by the OECD NEA literature review were corrected to the ionic strengths employed in the NMR study using specific ion interaction theory (SIT), and the predicted species distributions were compared with the actual species observed by multinuclear NMR. Agreement between observed and predicted stability fields is excellent. This establishes the utility of multinuclear NMR as a species-specific tool for the study of the actinide carbonate complexation constants, and serves as a means for validating the recommendations provided by the OECD NEA

  17. Hyperpolarized 13C NMR lifetimes in the liquid-state: relating structures and T1 relaxation times

    Parish, Christopher; Niedbalski, Peter; Hashami, Zohreh; Fidelino, Leila; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Among the various attempts to solve the insensitivity problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the physics-based technique dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is probably the most successful method of hyperpolarization or amplifying NMR signals. Using this technique, liquid-state NMR signal enhancements of several thousand-fold are expected for low-gamma nuclei such as carbon-13. The lifetimes of these hyperpolarized 13C NMR signals are directly related to their 13C spin-lattice relaxation times T1. Depending upon the 13C isotopic location, the lifetimes of hyperpolarized 13C compounds can range from a few seconds to minutes. In this study, we have investigated the hyperpolarized 13C NMR lifetimes of several 13C compounds with various chemical structures from glucose, acetate, citric acid, naphthalene to tetramethylallene and their deuterated analogs at 9.4 T and 25 deg C. Our results show that the 13C T1s of these compounds can range from a few seconds to more than 60 s at this field. Correlations between the chemical structures and T1 relaxation times will be discussed and corresponding implications of these results on 13C DNP experiments will be revealed. US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  18. 13C-NMR Data of Diterpenes Isolated from Aristolochia Species

    Antônio Flávio de Carvalho Alcântara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aristolochia,an important source of physiologically active compounds that belong to different chemical classes, is the subject of research in numerous pharmacological and chemical studies. This genus contains a large number of terpenoid compounds, particularly diterpenes. This work presents a compilation of the 13C-NMR data of 57 diterpenoids described between 1981 and 2007 which were isolated from Aristolochia species. The compounds are arranged skeletonwise in each section, according to their structures, i.e., clerodane, labdane, and kaurane derivatives. A brief discussion on the 13C chemical shifts of these diterpenes is also included.

  19. Performance evaluation of quantitative adiabatic (13)C NMR pulse sequences for site-specific isotopic measurements.

    Thibaudeau, Christophe; Remaud, Gérald; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge

    2010-07-01

    (2)H/(1)H and (13)C/(12)C site-specific isotope ratios determined by NMR spectroscopy may be used to discriminate pharmaceutically active ingredients based on the synthetic process used in production. Extending the Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation NMR (SNIF-NMR) method to (13)C is highly beneficial for complex organic molecules when measurements of (2)H/(1)H ratios lead to poorly defined molecular fingerprints. The current NMR methodology to determine (13)C/(12)C site-specific isotope ratios suffers from poor sensitivity and long experimental times. In this work, several NMR pulse sequences based on polarization transfer were evaluated and optimized to measure precise quantitative (13)C NMR spectra within a short time. Adiabatic 180 degrees (1)H and (13)C pulses were incorporated into distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT) and refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) to minimize the influence of 180 degrees pulse imperfections and of off-resonance effects on the precision of the measured (13)C peak areas. The adiabatic DEPT sequence was applied to draw up a precise site-specific (13)C isotope profile of ibuprofen. A modified heteronuclear cross-polarization (HCP) experiment featuring (1)H and (13)C spin-locks with adiabatic 180 degrees pulses is also introduced. This sequence enables efficient magnetization transfer across a wide (13)C frequency range although not enough for an application in quantitative (13)C isotopic analysis. PMID:20527737

  20. Evaluation of natural rubber from IAC series clones by solid state 13C NMR

    Agronomic Institute (IAC) and EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA) have been studied Hevea species in order to increase the production of the natural rubber and to develop new clones more appropriated to Brazil's soil and climate. Structural characterization of natural rubber [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. - Arg.] from new clones of the IAC series (IAC 300, 301, 302, 303, 35, 40, and 56) and from RRIM 600 clone has been studied by high-resolution solid-state 13C NMR and by single pulse technique. The results have shown that the application of solid-state 13C NMR using the single pulse technique is a powerful tool to study natural rubber. The spectra obtained through this technique confirmed that natural rubber from all clones studied are cis-1,4-polyisoprene (author) form.(author)

  1. Early estrogen-induced metabolic changes and their inhibition by actinomycin D and cycloheximide in human breast cancer cells: 31P and 13C NMR studies

    Metabolic changes following estrogen stimulation and the inhibition of these changes in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide were monitored continuously in perfused human breast cancer T47D clone 11 cells with 31P and 13C NMR techniques. The experiments were performed by estrogen rescue of tamoxifen-treated cells. Immediately after perfusion with estrogen-containing medium, a continuous enhancement in the rates of glucose consumption, lactate production by glycolysis, and glutamate synthesis by the Krebs cycle occurred with a persistent 2-fold increase at 4 hr. Pretreatment with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide, at concentrations known to inhibit mRNA and protein synthesis, respectively, and simultaneous treatment with estrogen and each inhibitor prevented the estrogen-induced changes in glucose metabolism. This suggested that the observed estrogen stimulation required synthesis of mRNA and protein. These inhibitors also modulated several metabolic activities that were not related to estrogen stimulation. The observed changes in the in vivo kinetics of glucose metabolism may provide a means for the early detection of the response of human breast cancer cells to estrogen versus tamoxifen treatment

  2. MEASUREMENT OF NUMBER AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF STYRENE OLIGOMER BY 13C-NMR METHOD

    Song Wang; Xiao-hu Yan; Rong-shi Cheng

    1999-01-01

    13C-NMR 1H-decoupled spectra of styrene polymers were assigned by comparison with model compounds, then used in measurements of number average molecular weights. The higher limit of an exact determination of the end group signal is less than a molecular weight of 104. For polymer samples with Mn<103, the results obtained from 13C-NMR spectra of saturated carbon region are in excellent agreement with the values determined by 1H-NMR, SEC, and VPO methods, while the results from 13C-NMR spectra of phenyl C-1 carbon region are somewhat higher than the values determined by other methods.

  3. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

    2010-05-01

    Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (γ), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low γ values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched

  4. Quantifying the chemical composition of soil organic carbon with solid-state 13C NMR

    Baldock, J. A.; Sanderman, J.

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) to biological decomposition and mineralisation to CO2 is defined at least partially by its chemical composition. Highly aromatic charcoal-like SOC components are more stable to biological decomposition than other forms of carbon including cellulose. Solid-state 13C NMR has gained wide acceptance as a method capable of defining SOC chemical composition and mathematical fitting processes have been developed to estimate biochemical composition. Obtaining accurate estimates depends on an ability to quantitatively detect all carbon present in a sample. Often little attention has been paid to defining the proportion of organic carbon present in a soil that is observable in solid-state 13C NMR analyses of soil samples. However, if such data is to be used to inform carbon cycling studies, it is critical that quantitative assessments of SOC observability be undertaken. For example, it is now well established that a significant discrimination exists against the detection of the low proton content polyaromatic structures typical of charcoal using cross polarisation 13C NMR analyses. Such discrimination does not exist where direct polarisation analyses are completed. In this study, the chemical composition of SOC as defined by cross polarisation and direct polarisation13C NMR analyses will be compared for Australian soils collected from under a diverse range of agricultural managements and climatic conditions. Results indicate that where significant charcoal C contents exist, it is highly under-represented in the acquired CP spectra. For some soils, a discrimination against alkyl carbon was also evident. The ability to derive correction factors to compensate for such discriminations will be assessed and presented.

  5. 13C NMR and EPR spectroscopic evaluation of oil shale mined soil recuperation

    In this work, native forest soil (NFS) organic matter (SOM) sample and SOM samples from a neighboring forest soil area of an oil shale mine which is being rehabilitated for thirty years (RFS) were analyzed. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to evaluate the soil reclamation of the Brazilian oil shale mining process. Two-dimensional heterospectral correlation studies of the results obtained from EPRand 13C NMR were used to obtain information about SOM structures and their interactions with residual paramagnetic metal ion. The signal of the residual metallic oxycation, VO2+ correlated positively with uronic acid-type hydrophilic organic structures, determined from the 13C NMR spectra, and correlated negatively with the organic free radical (OFR) signal associated with oxygen atoms (g = 2.0042). The hydrophobic aromatic structures correlate positively with the EPR OFR signal associated with carbon atoms (g = 2.0022). The data from the two spectroscopic magnetic techniques show that the used recuperation process is effective. (author)

  6. {sup 13}C NMR and EPR spectroscopic evaluation of oil shale mined soil recuperation

    Santos, J.V. dos, E-mail: mangrich@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mangrich, A.S. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia: Energia e Ambiente, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pereira, B.F. [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Pillon, C.N. [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Estacao Experimental Cascata; Novotny, E.H. [EMBRAPA Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bonagamba, T.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Abbt-Braun, G.; Frimmel, F.H. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, TH (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, native forest soil (NFS) organic matter (SOM) sample and SOM samples from a neighboring forest soil area of an oil shale mine which is being rehabilitated for thirty years (RFS) were analyzed. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to evaluate the soil reclamation of the Brazilian oil shale mining process. Two-dimensional heterospectral correlation studies of the results obtained from EPRand {sup 13}C NMR were used to obtain information about SOM structures and their interactions with residual paramagnetic metal ion. The signal of the residual metallic oxycation, VO{sup 2+} correlated positively with uronic acid-type hydrophilic organic structures, determined from the {sup 13}C NMR spectra, and correlated negatively with the organic free radical (OFR) signal associated with oxygen atoms (g = 2.0042). The hydrophobic aromatic structures correlate positively with the EPR OFR signal associated with carbon atoms (g = 2.0022). The data from the two spectroscopic magnetic techniques show that the used recuperation process is effective. (author)

  7. sup(1)H, sup(13)C and sup(17)O NMR studies of cumene hydroperoxide coordination to Cr(AA)sub(3)

    The mechanism of the catalytic decomposition of hydroperoxides by tris-chelates of transition metals was studied by means of NMR. It was established that the outer sphere coordination of cumene hydroperoxide to tris-acetylacetonate of Cr(III) (Cr(AA)sub(3)) is due to both the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl proton and chelate oxygen atoms and the π-π-interactions between the aromatic ring and chelate π-system. (author)

  8. 13C-NMR of forest soil lipids

    Almendros Martín, Gonzalo; Tinoco, Pilar; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Lüdemann, H.-D.; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Velasco de Pedro, F.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular characterization of soil lipids often provides valuable biogeochemical information about the impact of vegetation, microorganisms, and abiotic factors on the soil C sequestration process. The total lipid extracted with petroleum ether from nine soils developed under three types of Mediterranean forest (stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), evergreen oak (Quercus rotundifolia L.), and Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera L)) has been analyzed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ...

  9. In vivo 13C MRS studies of carbohydrate metabolism

    The work described in this thesis was performed by the author, except where indicated, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period between October 1999 and October 2002. Although much is known about the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, there is still much to be learnt about the exact mechanisms of many of these pathways. Of particular interest is how these pathways are modified under different physiological conditions and in diseased states. 13C NMR spectroscopy provides a non-invasive means for studying carbohydrate metabolism in vivo, and the work presented within this thesis gives two such examples of this in human subjects. Natural abundance 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to measure glycogen levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The diurnal changes in response to mixed meals were measured in both type 2 diabetic subjects and age and weight matched controls. Metabolic studies were performed to complement the NMR measurements. The data obtained in these studies show the effect of the failure of muscle glucose storage upon post-prandial hyperglycaemia despite a supra-normal increase in plasma insulin in type 2 diabetes. 13C NMR spectroscopy was also used to study cerebral metabolism. Accumulation of 13C label into glutamate and glutamine following infusion of [113C] glucose allows the determination of the rates of the TCA cycle (FTCA) and neurotransmitter cycling (Fcyc). These rates were measured in the visual cortex under control and activated conditions. The increases seen in FTCA upon activation, together with the lack of label accumulation in lactate, suggest that cerebral glucose metabolism is oxidative, even during strong activation. No conclusion can be made as to whether or not a similar increase is seen in Fcyc due to the large associated errors in these values. (author)

  10. Complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR structural assignments for a group of four goyazensolide-type furanoheliangolides

    Soares, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Silva, Aline Nazare; Matos, Priscilla Mendonca; Silva, Eder Henrique da; Heleno, Vladimir Constantino Gomes [Universidade de Franca, Franca, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCFRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Sass, Daiane Cristina, E-mail: vheleno_05@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Four goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones - lychnofolide, centratherin, goyazensolide and goyazensolide acetate - were thoroughly studied by NMR experimental techniques. {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace}, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-res. and NOE experiments were performed to provide the needed structural information. Complete and unequivocal assignment, including the determination of all multiplicities, was obtained for each structure and the data collections are presented in tables (author)

  11. Complete 1H and 13C NMR structural assignments for a group of four goyazensolide-type furanoheliangolides

    Four goyazensolide-type sesquiterpene lactones - lychnofolide, centratherin, goyazensolide and goyazensolide acetate - were thoroughly studied by NMR experimental techniques. 1H NMR, 13C NMR {1H}, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, J-res. and NOE experiments were performed to provide the needed structural information. Complete and unequivocal assignment, including the determination of all multiplicities, was obtained for each structure and the data collections are presented in tables (author)

  12. Heteronuclear NMR studies of cobalamins. 9. Temperature-dependent NMR of organocobalt corrins enriched in 13C in the organic ligand and the thermodynamics of the base-on/base-off reaction

    The synthesis of alkylcobinamides (RCbi) enriched in 13C in the organic axial ligand by standard reductive alkylation procedures from 13C-enriched alkyl halides has been shown to lead essentially exclusively to β-alkylcobamides (i.e., the organic ligand in the upper axial ligand position) by uv-visible and NMR spectroscopy and HPLC coupled with direct synthesis of 13CH3Cbi of known stereochemistry from 13C-enriched methylcobalamin (13CH3Cbl). The ionic strength dependence of the on/off pK/sub a/ of CH3Cbl, CH3CH2Cbl, and α-ribazole has also been investigated. Measurements of the relative 13C resonance frequency of 13CH3Cbl and 13CH3Cbi as a function of temperature at several ionic strengths have been used to investigate the thermodynamics of the base-on/base-off reaction of cobalamins. Additional evidence has thus been obtained for a previously detected species of base-off, but benzimidazole-deprotonated, cobalamin in which the benzimidazole B3 nitrogen atom is hydrogen-bonded to an e side chain N-H, and the thermodynamics of formation of this species have been evaluated. These results have been confirmed by similar measurements on mixtures of -OOC13CH2Cbl and -OOC13CH2Cbi. Although the new species is the predominant form (80-90%) of the base-off but benzimidazole-deprotonated cobalamins in solution at all ionic strengths, its presence has only a minor effect on the primary on/off equilibrium constants previously calculated for RCbl's. 45 references, 4 figures, 8 tables

  13. Dynamic 13C NMR analysis of oxidative metabolism in the in vivo canine myocardium.

    Robitaille, P M; Rath, D P; Abduljalil, A M; O'Donnell, J M; Jiang, Z; Zhang, H; Hamlin, R L

    1993-12-15

    Oxidative metabolism in the in vivo canine myocardium was studied noninvasively using 13C-enriched acetate and non-steady state 13C NMR techniques. Under low workload conditions, the myocardium oxidized the infused [2-13C]acetate and incorporated the labeled carbon into the glutamate pool as expected. This conclusion stems from the rapid enrichment of the C-2, C-3, and C-4 carbons of glutamic acid both under in vivo conditions and in extracts. Surprisingly, [2-13C]acetate uptake was not observed at high workloads as reflected by an absence of glutamate pool enrichment at these rate pressure products. Rather, the myocardium selected its substrate from an endogenous pool. Since free acetate can directly cross the inner mitochondrial membrane and be converted to acetyl-CoA through acetyl-CoA synthetase, these results support workload-dependent regulation of substrate access to the mitochondrial CoASH pool. As such, we advance the hypothesis that the selection of substrate for condensation with CoASH and subsequent oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle is regulated kinetically through the Km values of the appropriate condensation enzymes and through the absolute levels of free CoASH in the mitochondria. PMID:8253751

  14. 13C NMR spectra in the liquid and solid states

    Hrabal, R.; Brus, Jiří; Madronová, L.; Novák, František

    New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 35-46 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - ( Chemistry Research and Applications ) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : solid-state NMR * humic acids * soil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=14700

  15. Coal structure at reactive sites by sup 1 H- sup 13 C- sup 19 F double cross polarization (DCP)/MAS sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    Hagaman, E.W.; Woody, M.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The solid state NMR technique, {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C-{sup 31}P double cross polarization (DCP)/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy, uses the direct dipolar interaction between {sup 13}C-{sup 31}P spin pairs in organophosphorus substances to identify the subset of carbons within a spherical volume element of 0.4 nm radius centered on the {sup 31}P atom. In combination with chemical manipulation of coals designed to introduce phosphorus containing functionality into the organic matrix, the NMR experiment becomes a method to examine selectively the carbon bonding network at the reactive sites in the coal. This approach generates a statistical structure description of the coal at the reaction centers in contrast to bulk carbon characterization using conventional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3 refs.

  16. 13C NMR spectroscopy of methane adsorbed in SAPO-11 molecular sieve

    Koskela, Tuomas; Ylihautala, Mika; Vaara, Juha; Jokisaari, Jukka

    1996-10-01

    Static 13C and 13C-{ 1H} NMR spectra of carbon-13 enriched methane ( 13CH 4) adsorbed into SAPO-11 molecular sieve were recorded at variable temperatures. Moreover, the corresponding MAS NMR spectra were measured. These experiments reveal a temperature-dependent, anisotropic and asymmetric 13C nuclear shielding tensor. Ab initio model calculations of methane in the field of a positive point charge suggest that the deformation of the shielding tensor may be related to the interaction between the methane molecule and the charge-compensating protons. A comparison with existing Xe data is made.

  17. 13C solid-state NMR of gramicidin A in a lipid membrane.

    Quist, P O

    1998-01-01

    The natural-abundance 13C NMR spectrum of gramicidin A in a lipid membrane was acquired under magic-angle spinning conditions. With fast sample spinning (15 kHz) at approximately 65 degrees C the peaks from several of the aliphatic, beta-, alpha-, aromatic, and carbonyl carbons in the peptide could be resolved. The resolution in the 13C spectrum was superior that observed with 1H NMR under similar conditions. The 13C linewidths were in the range 30-100 Hz, except for the alpha- and beta-carbo...

  18. The Influence of Plant Litter on Soil Water Repellency: Insight from 13C NMR Spectroscopy.

    Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR, i.e. reduced affinity for water owing to the presence of organic hydrophobic coatings on soil particles) has relevant hydrological implications because low rates of infiltration enhance water runoff, and untargeted diffusion of fertilizers and pesticides. Previous studies investigated the occurrence of SWR in ecosystems with different vegetation cover but did not clarify its relationships with litter biochemical quality. Here, we investigated the capability of different plant litter types to induce SWR by using fresh and decomposed leaf materials from 12 species, to amend a model sandy soil over a year-long microcosm experiment. Water repellency, measured by the Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet (MED) test, was tested for the effects of litter species and age, and compared with litter quality assessed by 13C-CPMAS NMR in solid state and elemental chemical parameters. All litter types were highly water repellent, with MED values of 18% or higher. In contrast, when litter was incorporated into the soil, only undecomposed materials induced SWR, but with a large variability of onset and peak dynamics among litter types. Surprisingly, SWR induced by litter addition was unrelated to the aliphatic fraction of litter. In contrast, lignin-poor but labile C-rich litter, as defined by O-alkyl C and N-alkyl and methoxyl C of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectral regions, respectively, induced a stronger SWR. This study suggests that biochemical quality of plant litter is a major controlling factor of SWR and, by defining litter quality with 13C-CPMAS NMR, our results provide a significant novel contribution towards a full understanding of the relationships between plant litter biochemistry and SWR. PMID:27022916

  19. The Influence of Plant Litter on Soil Water Repellency: Insight from 13C NMR Spectroscopy

    Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR, i.e. reduced affinity for water owing to the presence of organic hydrophobic coatings on soil particles) has relevant hydrological implications because low rates of infiltration enhance water runoff, and untargeted diffusion of fertilizers and pesticides. Previous studies investigated the occurrence of SWR in ecosystems with different vegetation cover but did not clarify its relationships with litter biochemical quality. Here, we investigated the capability of different plant litter types to induce SWR by using fresh and decomposed leaf materials from 12 species, to amend a model sandy soil over a year-long microcosm experiment. Water repellency, measured by the Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet (MED) test, was tested for the effects of litter species and age, and compared with litter quality assessed by 13C-CPMAS NMR in solid state and elemental chemical parameters. All litter types were highly water repellent, with MED values of 18% or higher. In contrast, when litter was incorporated into the soil, only undecomposed materials induced SWR, but with a large variability of onset and peak dynamics among litter types. Surprisingly, SWR induced by litter addition was unrelated to the aliphatic fraction of litter. In contrast, lignin-poor but labile C-rich litter, as defined by O-alkyl C and N-alkyl and methoxyl C of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectral regions, respectively, induced a stronger SWR. This study suggests that biochemical quality of plant litter is a major controlling factor of SWR and, by defining litter quality with 13C-CPMAS NMR, our results provide a significant novel contribution towards a full understanding of the relationships between plant litter biochemistry and SWR. PMID:27022916

  20. The Influence of Plant Litter on Soil Water Repellency: Insight from 13C NMR Spectroscopy.

    Gaspare Cesarano

    Full Text Available Soil water repellency (SWR, i.e. reduced affinity for water owing to the presence of organic hydrophobic coatings on soil particles has relevant hydrological implications because low rates of infiltration enhance water runoff, and untargeted diffusion of fertilizers and pesticides. Previous studies investigated the occurrence of SWR in ecosystems with different vegetation cover but did not clarify its relationships with litter biochemical quality. Here, we investigated the capability of different plant litter types to induce SWR by using fresh and decomposed leaf materials from 12 species, to amend a model sandy soil over a year-long microcosm experiment. Water repellency, measured by the Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet (MED test, was tested for the effects of litter species and age, and compared with litter quality assessed by 13C-CPMAS NMR in solid state and elemental chemical parameters. All litter types were highly water repellent, with MED values of 18% or higher. In contrast, when litter was incorporated into the soil, only undecomposed materials induced SWR, but with a large variability of onset and peak dynamics among litter types. Surprisingly, SWR induced by litter addition was unrelated to the aliphatic fraction of litter. In contrast, lignin-poor but labile C-rich litter, as defined by O-alkyl C and N-alkyl and methoxyl C of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectral regions, respectively, induced a stronger SWR. This study suggests that biochemical quality of plant litter is a major controlling factor of SWR and, by defining litter quality with 13C-CPMAS NMR, our results provide a significant novel contribution towards a full understanding of the relationships between plant litter biochemistry and SWR.

  1. Aspects of reaction of N-oxide radical with ethers in 13C NMR spectrum

    The stable radical N-oxide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine was dissolved in ethers. The 13C NMR spectra were recorded in the temperature 313K at the frequency 22,625 MHz on the spectrometers with Fourier transformation. The dissolution of the radical in ether caused the contact shifts in NMR spectra. The shifts were measured. (A.S.)

  2. Theoretical predictions of the two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectra: a case study of the 13C-1H correlations in metergoline

    Czernek, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 586, 24 October (2013), s. 56-60. ISSN 0009-2614 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : NMR * shielding * metergoline Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.991, year: 2013

  3. High-field magic-angle spinning 13C NMR spectroscopy of Co4(CO)12

    The high-field (68-MHz) 13C MAS NMR spectra of solid Co4(CO)12 is reported at three different spinning rates. The different spinning rates were required to allow the separation of sidebands from centerbands in the spectrum. This NMR study resulted in the observation of signal(s) due to bridging carbonyls as required by either a dynamic or static Co4(CO)12 structure. The failure to previously observe bridging carbonyl resonances at low field is thought to be most likely due to residual coupling to the quadrupolar cobalt nucleus and/or rapid and selective scalar relaxation of the carbonyl ligand by the cobalt cation. 22 refs., 3 figs

  4. Solid-state /sup 13/C NMR and X-ray diffraction of dermatan sulfate

    Winter, W.T.; Taylor, M.G.; Stevens, E.S.; Morris, E.R.; Rees, D.A.

    1986-05-29

    Dermatan sulfate in the solid state has been studied by /sup 13/C CP/MAS nmr and X-ray diffraction in order to establish the ring conformation of the L-iduronate moiety. The solid state nmr spectrum is similar to the solution spectrum obtained previously, indicating that a ring conformation at least approximating to /sup 1/C/sub 4/ predominates in the solid state. X-ray powder diffraction data from the same sample indicate the presence of the 8-fold helix form previously observed by fiber diffraction, and interpreted in terms of a /sup 4/C/sub 1/ ring form. A likely explanation of the results is that a distorted /sup 1/C/sub 4/ L-iduronate ring conformation, not considered in the initial X-ray analysis, may emerge to provide a satisfactory interpretation of all available physical-chemical data.

  5. Solid-state 13C NMR and X-ray diffraction of dermatan sulfate

    Dermatan sulfate in the solid state has been studied by 13C CP/MAS nmr and X-ray diffraction in order to establish the ring conformation of the L-iduronate moiety. The solid state nmr spectrum is similar to the solution spectrum obtained previously, indicating that a ring conformation at least approximating to 1C4 predominates in the solid state. X-ray powder diffraction data from the same sample indicate the presence of the 8-fold helix form previously observed by fiber diffraction, and interpreted in terms of a 4C1 ring form. A likely explanation of the results is that a distorted 1C4 L-iduronate ring conformation, not considered in the initial X-ray analysis, may emerge to provide a satisfactory interpretation of all available physical-chemical data

  6. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of phenazopyridine derivatives.

    Burgueño-Tapia, Eleuterio; Mora-Pérez, Yolanda; Morales-Ríos, Martha S; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2005-03-01

    Phenazopyridine hydrochloride (1), a drug in clinical use for many decades, and some derivatives were studied by one- and two-dimensional (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR methodology. The assignments, combined with DFT calculations, reveal that the preferred protonation site of the drug is the pyridine ring nitrogen atom. The chemoselective acetylation of phenazopyridine (2) and its influence on the polarization of the azo nitrogen atoms were evidenced by the (15)N NMR spectra. Molecular calculations of the phenazopyridines 2-4 show that the pyridine and phenyl groups are oriented in an antiperiplanar conformation with intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the N-b atom and the C-2 amino group preserving the E-azo stereochemistry. PMID:15625718

  7. 13C NMR spectra of the uranyl tricarbonate-bicarbonate system

    The 13C NMR identification of the uranyl tricarbonate complex (important in solution mining of U from ore and conventional carbonate leaching) is reported. The NMR spectra show the transition from slow to fast carbonate exchange between uranyl ion and bulk water in an accessible temperature range. The taller NMR peak at 162.31 ppM is frm HCO3- and the smaller peak at 168.86 ppM is from the uranyl tricarbonate complex

  8. Quantitative solid-state 13C NMR with signal enhancement by multiple cross polarization

    Johnson, Robert L.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    A simple new method is presented that yields quantitative solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) 13C NMR spectra of organic materials with good signal-to-noise ratios. It achieves long (>10 ms) cross polarization (CP) from 1H without significant magnetization losses due to relaxation and with a moderate duty cycle of the radio-frequency irradiation, by multiple 1-ms CP periods alternating with 1H spin-lattice relaxation periods that repolarize the protons. The new method incorporates previous techniques that yield less distorted CP/MAS spectra, such as a linear variation (“ramp”) of the radio-frequency field strength, and it overcomes their main limitation, which is T1ρ relaxation of the spin-locked 1H magnetization. The ramp of the radio-frequency field strength and the asymptotic limit of cross polarization makes the spectral intensity quite insensitive to the exact field strengths used. The new multiCP pulse sequence is a “drop-in” replacement for previous CP methods and produces no additional data-processing burden. Compared to the only reliable quantitative 13C NMR method for unlabeled solids previously available, namely direct-polarization NMR, the measuring time is reduced by more than a factor of 50, enabling higher-throughput quantitative NMR studies. The new multiCP technique is validated with 14-kHz MAS on amino-acid derivatives, plant matter, a highly aromatic humic acid, and carbon materials made by low-temperature pyrolysis.

  9. Synthesis and multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P, 119Sn) NMR study of trimethyland; triphenyl-tin (IV) with cyclic dithiophosphate ligands

    Patricia García y García; Marcela López Cardoso; María del Carmen Pérez Redondo; Patricia Martínez Salas; Ave María Cotero Villegas; Raymundo Cea Olivares

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se informa la síntesis y caracterización; estructural de seis nuevos ditiofosfatos de trimetil- y trifenil-estaño (IV).; Los compuestos 1-6 fueron caracterizados por IR, EM IE y RMN multinuclear,; (1H, 13C, 19P y 119Sn). Los seis compuestos manifiestan un; comportamiento monomérico, con una penta-coordinación del átomo de; estaño y un comportamiento monometálico biconectivo de los ligantes.; Los compuestos 1-4 presentan en solución una rápida interconversión;...

  10. Preparation of partially 2H/13C-labelled RNA for NMR studies. Stereo-specific deuteration of the H5′′ in nucleotides

    Cromsigt, Jenny; Schleucher, Jürgen; Gustafsson, Tomas; Kihlberg, Jan; Wijmenga, Sybren

    2002-01-01

    An effective in vitro enzymatic synthesis is described for the production of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) which are stereo-specifically deuterated on the H5′′ position with high selectivity (>98%), and which can have a variety of different labels (13C, 15N, 2H) in other positions. The NTPs can subsequently be employed in the enzymatic synthesis of RNAs using T7 polymerase from a DNA template. The stereo-specific deuteration of the H5′′ immediately provides the stereo-specific assignment of...

  11. The use of dynamic nuclear polarization in 1H and 13C solid state NMR

    The Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) effect is used at room temperature in combination with 13C NMR. Due to the low natural abundance of 13C spins (1%) the signal is very weak, but when the DNP effect is used the 13C signal can be enhanced and therefore the number of scans and the measuring time considerably reduced. The theory is presented and the experimental set-up is described. Experiments on polystyrene, artificially doped with free radicals are described and it is examined whether the theory of the DNP effect can be used in a quantitative way. Applications of the use of the DNP effect in 13C NMR are shown. Excellent spectra are presented of artificial and natural diamonds, possibly to be used for diamond characterization purposes. 161 refs.; 61 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. 1 H and 13 C NMR of phenyl barbiturilidene

    The condensation of barbituric acids with aromatic aldehydes gives the phenyl barbiturilidenes, which are studied as intermediary compounds in the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds for pharmaceutical use. One of the most characteristic reactions of these compounds is the Michael type addition reaction, in the exocyclic carbon-carbon double binding. The reaction with 2,4-di nitrophenyl hydrazine reaction is been used as a test of this type of reactivity, which supplies the respective hydrazone and barbituric acid. In this work, preliminary studies have been performed for establishing correlations between the Brown parameter (σ+), the chemical shifts (δ) of the barbiturilidene atoms involved in the reaction, and their reactivities

  13. Benchmarks for the 13C NMR chemical shielding tensors in peptides in the solid state

    Czernek, Jiří; Pawlak, Tomasz; Potrzebowski, Marek J.

    2012-02-01

    The benchmark set is proposed, which comprises 126 principal elements of chemical shielding tensors, and the respective isotropic chemical shielding values, of all 42 13C nuclei in crystalline Tyr-D-Ala-Phe and Tyr-Ala-Phe tripeptides with known, but highly dissimilar structures. These data are obtained by both the NMR measurements and the density functional theory in the pseudopotential plane-wave scheme. Using the CASTEP program, several computational strategies are employed, for which the level of agreement between calculations and experiment is established. This set is mainly intended for the validation of methods capable of predicting the 13C NMR parameters in solid-state systems.

  14. In vivo 13C NMR metabolite profiling: potential for understanding and assessing conifer seed quality.

    Terskikh, Victor V; Feurtado, J Allan; Borchardt, Shane; Giblin, Michael; Abrams, Suzanne R; Kermode, Allison R

    2005-08-01

    High-resolution 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy was used to profile a range of primary and secondary metabolites in vivo in intact whole seeds of eight different conifer species native to North America, including six of the Pinaceae family and two of the Cupressaceae family. In vivo 13C NMR provided information on the total seed oil content and fatty acid composition of the major storage lipids in a non-destructive manner. In addition, a number of monoterpenes were identified in the 13C NMR spectra of conifer seeds containing oleoresin; these compounds showed marked variability in individual seeds of Pacific silver fir within the same seed lot. In imbibed conifer seeds, the 13C NMR spectra showed the presence of considerable amounts of dissolved sucrose presumed to play a protective role in the desiccation-tolerance of seeds. The free amino acids arginine and asparagine, generated as a result of storage protein mobilization, were detected in vivo during seed germination and early seedling growth. The potential for NMR to profile metabolites in a non-destructive manner in single conifer seeds and seed populations is discussed. It is a powerful tool to evaluate seed quality because of its ability to assess reserve accumulation during seed development or at seed maturity; it can also be used to monitor reserve mobilization, which is critical for seedling emergence. PMID:15996983

  15. Site-specific {sup 13}C content by quantitative isotopic {sup 13}C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometry: A pilot inter-laboratory study

    Chaintreau, Alain; Fieber, Wolfgang; Sommer, Horst [Firmenich SA, Corporate R and D Division, P.O. Box 239, 1211 Geneva 8 (Switzerland); Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Pagelot, Alain [Bruker Biospin SAS, 34 rue de l‘Industrie, 67166 Wissembourg Cedex (France); Moskau, Detlef; Moreno, Aitor [Bruker Biospin AG, Industriestrasse 26, 8117 Fällanden (Switzerland); Schleucher, Jürgen [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, S-90187 Umeå (Sweden); Reniero, Fabiano; Holland, Margaret; Guillou, Claude [European Commission, Joint Research Centre – Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, via E. Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Remaud, Gérald S., E-mail: gerald.remaud@univ-nantes.fr [EBSI team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First ring test on isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry. •Evaluation of the intra- and inter-variability of the NMR spectrometers used. •Definition of a protocol for qualification of the performance of the spectrometer. -- Abstract: Isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the {sup 13}C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic {sup 13}C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular {sup 13}C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic {sup 13}C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ{sup 13}C{sub i} profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ{sup 13}C{sub i} in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results.

  16. 13C NMR spectral data and molecular descriptors to predict the antioxidant activity of flavonoids

    Tissue damage due to oxidative stress is directly linked to development of many, if not all, human morbidity factors and chronic diseases. In this context, the search for dietary natural occurring molecules with antioxidant activity, such as flavonoids, has become essential. In this study, we investigated a set of 41 flavonoids (23 flavones and 18 flavonols) analyzing their structures and biological antioxidant activity. The experimental data were submitted to a QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) study. NMR 13C data were used to perform a Kohonen self-organizing map study, analyzing the weight that each carbon has in the activity. Additionally, we performed MLR (multilinear regression) using GA (genetic algorithms) and molecular descriptors to analyze the role that specific carbons and substitutions play in the activity. (author)

  17. {sup 13}C NMR spectral data and molecular descriptors to predict the antioxidant activity of flavonoids

    Fernandes, Mariane Balerine; Muramatsu, Eric [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmauceuticas; Emereciano, Vicente de Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Scotti, Marcus Tullius [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPA), Joao Pessoa, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas e Educacao; Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPA), Joao Pessoa, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2011-04-15

    Tissue damage due to oxidative stress is directly linked to development of many, if not all, human morbidity factors and chronic diseases. In this context, the search for dietary natural occurring molecules with antioxidant activity, such as flavonoids, has become essential. In this study, we investigated a set of 41 flavonoids (23 flavones and 18 flavonols) analyzing their structures and biological antioxidant activity. The experimental data were submitted to a QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) study. NMR {sup 13}C data were used to perform a Kohonen self-organizing map study, analyzing the weight that each carbon has in the activity. Additionally, we performed MLR (multilinear regression) using GA (genetic algorithms) and molecular descriptors to analyze the role that specific carbons and substitutions play in the activity. (author)

  18. Analysis of germination of castor and peanuts seeds by 13C NMR

    Germination of castor and peanut seeds was followed by 13C NMR. Results are comparable to those observed for soybean seeds and reveal that this technique is generally applicable in cases in which a reasonable amount of soluble material is present during germination. Different pathways for oil degradation by castor and peanut seeds may be distinguished. (Author)

  19. Solid state {sup 13}C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Geoquimica Organica Molecular e Ambiental; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de RMN de Solidos; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    {sup 13}C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of {Delta}{sup 8(17)} and {Delta}{sup 12(13)} unsaturations, were obtained by {sup 13}C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  20. Evidencing of collagen polypeptide sequences responsible of hydration by means of 13 C NMR spectra

    The aim of these studies is to prepare biomaterials of high biocompatibility to the human body, provided for a long lifetime. Among these important biomaterials also accounts the collagen, with a large application area in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, etc. Collagen biomaterials of various hydration levels (between 23 - 83%) were prepared by a particular technique, using a matrix of 23% initial humidity. In order to investigate the structural and conformational changes from the collagen macromolecules by denaturation - renaturation, hydration - dehydration, the high-resolution 13 C - NMR solid state and also pore size distribution analysis were carried out. The collagen biomaterials can be made in a large range of shapes and can have structures of mimesis, close to those of the live tissues, when hydrated. (authors)

  1. Occurrence, biological activities and {sup 13}C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae)

    Nascimento, Jeferson C. do; Paula, Vanderlucia F. de [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled {sup 13}C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts. (author)

  2. Occurrence, biological activities and 13C NMR data of amides from Piper (Piperaceae

    Jeferson C. do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes an update review with up to 285 references concerning the occurrence of amides from a variety of species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae. Besides addressing occurrence, this review also describes the biological activities attributed to extracts and pure compounds, a compiled 13C NMR data set, the main correlations between structural and NMR spectroscopic data of these compounds, and employment of hyphened techniques such as LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR for analysis of amides from biological samples and crude Piper extracts.

  3. Determination of the DNA sugar pucker using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy of a series of crystalline nucleosides and nucleotides allows direct measurement of the effect of the deoxyribose ring conformation on the carbon chemical shift. It is found that 3'-endo conformers have 3' and 5' chemical shifts significantly (5-10 ppm) upfield of comparable 3'-exo and 2'-endo conformers. The latter two conformers may be distinguished by smaller but still significant differences in the carbon chemical shifts at the C-2' and C-4' positions. High-resolution solid-state NMR of three modifications of fibrous calf thymus DNA shows that these trends are maintained in high-molecular-weight DNA and confirms that the major ring pucker in A-DNA is 3'-endo, while both B-DNA and C-DNA are largely 2'-endo. The data show that 13C NMR spectroscopy is a straightforward and useful probe of DNA ring pucker in both solution and the solid state

  4. Heteronuclear 2D NMR studies on an engineered insulin monomer: Assignments and characterization of the receptor-binding surface by selective 2H and 13C labeling with application to protein design

    Insulin provides an important model for the application of genetic engineering to rational protein design and has been well characterized in the crystal state. However, self-association of insulin in solution has precluded complementary 2D NMR study under physiological conditions. The authors demonstrate here that such limitations may be circumvented by the use of a monomeric analogue that contains three amino acid substitutions on the protein surface (HisB10 → Asp, ProB28 → Lys, and LysB29 → Pro); this analogue (designated DKP-insulin) retains native receptor-binding potency. Comparative 1H NMR studies of native human insulin and a series of three related analogues-(i) the singly substituted analogue [HisB10→Asp], (ii) the doubly substituted analogue [ProB28→Lys; LysB29→Pro], and (iii) DKP-insulin-demonstrate progressive reduction in concentration-dependent line-broadening in accord with the results of analytical ultracentrifugation. Extensive nonlocal interactions are observed in the NOESY spectrum of DKP-insulin, indicating that this analogue adopts a compact and stably folded structure as a monomer in overall accord with crystal models. Site-specific 2H and 13C isotopic labels are introduced by semisynthesis as probes for the structure and dynamics of the receptor-binding surface. These studies confirm and extend under physiological conditions the results of a previous 2D NMR analysis of native insulin in 20% acetic acid. Implications for the role of protein flexibility in receptor recognition are discussed with application to the design of novel insulin analogues

  5. Hypermetabolic state in the 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and the effect of lipoic acid: a 13C-NMR study

    Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Kanamori, Keiko; Díaz Brinton, Roberta; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Ai-Ling; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by age-dependent biochemical, metabolic, and physiologic changes. These age-dependent changes ultimately converge to impair cognitive functions. This study was carried out to examine the metabolic changes by probing glucose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in a 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). The effect of lipoic acid, an insulin-mimetic agent, was also investigated to examine its ability in modulating age-dependent m...

  6. {sup 2}H NMR and {sup 13}C-IRMS analyses of acetic acid from vinegar, {sup 18}O-IRMS analysis of water in vinegar: International collaborative study report

    Thomas, Freddy [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France); Jamin, Eric, E-mail: ericjamin@eurofins.com [Eurofins Scientific Analytics, BP42301, 44323 Nantes (France)

    2009-09-01

    An international collaborative study of isotopic methods applied to control the authenticity of vinegar was organized in order to support the recognition of these procedures as official methods. The determination of the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site of acetic acid by SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance) and the determination of the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio, by IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) provide complementary information to characterize the botanical origin of acetic acid and to detect adulterations of vinegar using synthetic acetic acid. Both methods use the same initial steps to recover pure acetic acid from vinegar. In the case of wine vinegar, the determination of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of water by IRMS allows to differentiate wine vinegar from vinegars made from dried grapes. The same set of vinegar samples was used to validate these three determinations. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 13}C (carbon isotopic deviation) were found to be similar to the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or sugars extracted from fruit juices: the average repeatability (r) was 0.45 per mille , and the average reproducibility (R) was 0.91 per mille . As expected from previous in-house study of the uncertainties, the precision parameters of the method for measuring the {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ratio of the methyl site were found to be slightly higher than the values previously obtained for similar methods applied to wine ethanol or fermentation ethanol in fruit juices: the average repeatability was 1.34 ppm, and the average reproducibility was 1.62 ppm. This precision is still significantly smaller than the differences between various acetic acid sources ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O) and allows a satisfactory discrimination of vinegar types. The precision parameters of the method for measuring {delta}{sup 18}O were found to be similar

  7. Site-specific 13C content by quantitative isotopic 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometry: A pilot inter-laboratory study

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First ring test on isotopic 13C NMR spectrometry. •Evaluation of the intra- and inter-variability of the NMR spectrometers used. •Definition of a protocol for qualification of the performance of the spectrometer. -- Abstract: Isotopic 13C NMR spectrometry, which is able to measure intra-molecular 13C composition, is of emerging demand because of the new information provided by the 13C site-specific content of a given molecule. A systematic evaluation of instrumental behaviour is of importance to envisage isotopic 13C NMR as a routine tool. This paper describes the first collaborative study of intra-molecular 13C composition by NMR. The main goals of the ring test were to establish intra- and inter-variability of the spectrometer response. Eight instruments with different configuration were retained for the exercise on the basis of a qualification test. Reproducibility at the natural abundance of isotopic 13C NMR was then assessed on vanillin from three different origins associated with specific δ13Ci profiles. The standard deviation was, on average, between 0.9 and 1.2‰ for intra-variability. The highest standard deviation for inter-variability was 2.1‰. This is significantly higher than the internal precision but could be considered good in respect of a first ring test on a new analytical method. The standard deviation of δ13Ci in vanillin was not homogeneous over the eight carbons, with no trend either for the carbon position or for the configuration of the spectrometer. However, since the repeatability for each instrument was satisfactory, correction factors for each carbon in vanillin could be calculated to harmonize the results

  8. Direct detection of solanesol in tobacco by 1H and 13C magic angle spinning NMR

    1H and 13C NMR have been used to detect solanesol directly in tobacco without destroying or modifying the sample. Magic angle sample spinning was employed to remove the resonance line broadening due to variations of magnetic susceptibility within the sample. 13C line widths of ca . 10 Hz were obtained. The 1H MAS spectrum of tobacco allows the solanesol signals to be resolved from the broad signal of exchangeable protons. 13C spin-lattice relaxation times (T3) and nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) of solanesol in chloroform solution, in intact tobacco, and as nest oil indicate that the polyisoprene chain motion in tobacco is restricted relative to the motion in solution but still sufficient to average out the dipolar couplings between protons and carbons. (author)

  9. Aspects of solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy in coals from the Balkan peninsula

    ANDREAS GEORGAKOPOULOS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning NMR (CPMAS-NMR technique was used in this work to assess the carbon distribution in coals of different rank (peat, lignite, xylite, sub-bituminous coal from important deposits in Greece and Bulgaria. The technique is assumed to be only semiquantitative, due to a number of interferences, such as spinning side bands (SSB in the spectra, paramagnetic species in the samples, and low or remote protonation of aromatic carbons. The Bulgarian sub-bituminous coal shows the greatest amounts of aromatic structures. The lignite sample from the Drama basin, Northern Greece, is relatively unaltered and largely unweathered, and shows the greatest amounts of aliphatic groups. The 13C-NMR spectra of Pliocene lignites from endemic areas in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia, taken from published papers, show significantly more intense resonances for methoxyl, phenolic, and polysaccharide moieties compared to the Drama lignite NMR spectrum. Xylite reveals high contents of carbohydrates.

  10. 13C NMR and stereochestry of 1-β-phenylethylcyclohexanol derivatives obtained by synthesis

    1-β-Phenylethylcyclohexanol derivatives substituted in position 2 have been synthesized and analysed by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Their stereochemistry have been considered as cis (hydroxyl in C-1 and substituent in C-2) which is in agreement with the pertinent literature. Derivatives obtained were 2-β-phenylethyl-2-allycyclohexanol, 1-β-phenylethyl-2-methylcyclohexanol, 7a-β-phenylethylperhy-drobenzo (b) furan, and 1-β-phenylethyl-2-β-hydroxyethylcyclohexanol. (author)

  11. Changes in chemical composition of litter during decomposition: a review of published 13C NMR spectra

    Cepáková, Šárka; Frouz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2015), s. 805-815. ISSN 0718-9516 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) GAJU/04-146/2013P; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 13C CPMAS NMR * litter decomposition * litter quality * soil organic matter Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 0.680, year: 2014

  12. Using Neural Networks for 13C NMR Chemical Shift Prediction-Comparison with Traditional Methods

    Meiler, Jens; Maier, Walter; Will, Martin; Meusinger, Reinhard

    2002-08-01

    Interpretation of 13C chemical shifts is essential for structure elucidation of organic molecules by NMR. In this article, we present an improved neural network approach and compare its performance to that of commonly used approaches. Specifically, our recently proposed neural network ( J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2000, 40, 1169-1176) is improved by introducing an extended hybrid numerical description of the carbon atom environment, resulting in a standard deviation (std. dev.) of 2.4 ppm for an independent test data set of ˜42,500 carbons. Thus, this neural network allows fast and accurate 13C NMR chemical shift prediction without the necessity of access to molecule or fragment databases. For an unbiased test dataset containing 100 organic structures the accuracy of the improved neural network was compared to that of a prediction method based on the HOSE code ( hierarchically ordered spherical description of environment) using S PECI NFO. The results show the neural network predictions to be of quality (std. dev.=2.7 ppm) comparable to that of the HOSE code prediction (std. dev.=2.6 ppm). Further we compare the neural network predictions to those of a wide variety of other 13C chemical shift prediction tools including incremental methods (C HEMD RAW, S PECT OOL), quantum chemical calculation (G AUSSIAN, C OSMOS), and HOSE code fragment-based prediction (S PECI NFO, ACD/CNMR, P REDICTI T NMR) for the 47 13C-NMR shifts of Taxol, a natural product including many structural features of organic substances. The smallest standard deviations were achieved here with the neural network (1.3 ppm) and S PECI NFO (1.0 ppm).

  13. Compartmentalised cerebral metabolism of [1,6-13C]glucose determined by in vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T

    João M.N. Duarte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metabolism is compartmentalised between neurons and glia. Although glial glycolysis is thought to largely sustain the energetic requirements of neurotransmission while oxidative metabolism takes place mainly in neurons, this hypothesis is matter of debate. The compartmentalization of cerebral metabolic fluxes can be determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy upon infusion of 13C-enriched compounds, especially glucose. Rats under light α-chloralose anaesthesia were infused with [1,6-13C]glucose and 13C enrichment in the brain metabolites was measured by 13C NMR spectroscopy with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at 14.1 T. This allowed determining 13C enrichment curves of amino acid carbons with high reproducibility and to reliably estimate cerebral metabolic fluxes (mean error of 8%. We further found that TCA cycle intermediates are not required for flux determination in mathematical models of brain metabolism. Neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle rate (VTCA and neurotransmission rate (VNT were 0.45±0.01 and 0.11±0.01 µmol/g/min, respectively. Glial VTCA was found to be for 38±3% of total cerebral oxidative metabolism, accounting for more than half of neuronal oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, glial anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation rate (VPC was 0.069±0.004 µmol/g/min, i.e. 25±1% of the glial TCA cycle rate. These results support a role of glial cells as active partners of neurons during synaptic transmission beyond glycolytic metabolism.

  14. Solid-state 13C NMR study of banana liquid crystals - 3: Alkyl-tail-group packing environments of an acute-angle bent-core molecule in the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases

    Kurosu, Hiromichi; Endo, Yumi; Kimura, Saori; Hashimoto, Tomoko; Harada, Motoi; Lee, Eun-Woo; Sone, Masato; Watanabe, Junji; Kang, Sungmin

    2016-02-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were performed on the hexagonal columnar and cubic phases of an acute-angle banana-shaped molecule, N(1,7)-S30. In the hexagonal columnar phase, three peaks appear at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that the two alkyl tails have different packing structures, and one of the tails has two different conformations within a single molecule. Combined cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning and pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurements show that one of the alkyl chains is located inside and the other is located outside the columnar structure. In the cubic phase, pulse saturation transfer/magic-angle spinning measurement shows that only one peak appears at the NMR chemical shifts assigned to the internal methylene carbons of alkyl tails, indicating that both of the alkyl chains are located outside the cubic structure.

  15. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments and anti fungal activity of two 8-hydroxy flavonoids in mixture

    A mixture of the two new flavonols 8-hydroxy-3, 4', 5, 6, 7-pentamethoxyflavone (1) and 8-hydroxy-3, 3', 4', 5, 6, 7-hexamethoxyflavone (2) was isolated from a commercial sample of Citrus aurantifolia. An array of one- (1H NMR, {1H} -13C NMR, and APT-13C NMR) and two-dimensional NMR techniques (COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC) was used to achieve the structural elucidation and the complete 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments of these natural compounds. In addition, the antifungal activity of these compounds against phytopathogenic and human pathogenic fungi was investigated. (author)

  16. Histidine side-chain dynamics and protonation monitored by {sup 13}C CPMG NMR relaxation dispersion

    Hass, Mathias A. S. [Leiden University, Institute of Chemistry (Netherlands); Yilmaz, Ali [University of Copenhagen, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Denmark); Christensen, Hans E. M. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Chemistry (Denmark); Led, Jens J. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Chemistry (Denmark)], E-mail: led@kiku.dk

    2009-08-15

    The use of {sup 13}C NMR relaxation dispersion experiments to monitor micro-millisecond fluctuations in the protonation states of histidine residues in proteins is investigated. To illustrate the approach, measurements on three specifically {sup 13}C labeled histidine residues in plastocyanin (PCu) from Anabaena variabilis (A.v.) are presented. Significant Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion is observed for {sup 13}C{sup {epsilon}}{sup 1} nuclei in the histidine imidazole rings of A.v. PCu. The chemical shift changes obtained from the CPMG dispersion data are in good agreement with those obtained from the chemical shift titration experiments, and the CPMG derived exchange rates agree with those obtained previously from {sup 15}N backbone relaxation measurements. Compared to measurements of backbone nuclei, {sup 13}C{sup {epsilon}}{sup 1} dispersion provides a more direct method to monitor interchanging protonation states or other kinds of conformational changes of histidine side chains or their environment. Advantages and shortcomings of using the {sup 13}C{sup {epsilon}}{sup 1} dispersion experiments in combination with chemical shift titration experiments to obtain information on exchange dynamics of the histidine side chains are discussed.

  17. Calculation of the 13C NMR shieldings of the C0 2 complexes of aluminosilicates

    Tossell, J. A.

    1995-04-01

    13C NMR shieldings have been calculated using the random-phase-approximation, localized-orbital local-origins version of ab initio coupled Hartree-Fuck perturbation theory for CO 2 and and for several complexes formed by the reaction of CO 2 with molecular models for aluminosilicate glasses, H 3TOT'H3 3-n, T,T' = Si,Al. Two isomeric forms of the CO 2-aluminosilicate complexes have been considered: (1) "CO 2-like" complexes, in which the CO 2 group is bound through carbon to a bridging oxygen and (2) "CO 3-like" complexes, in which two oxygens of a central CO 3 group form bridging bonds to the two TH 3 groups. The CO 2-like isomer of CO 2-H 3SiOSiH 3 is quite weakly bonded and its 13C isotropic NMR shielding is almost identical to that in free CO 2. As Si is progressively replaced by Al in the - H terminated aluminosilicate model, the CO 2-like isomers show increasing distortion from the free CO 2 geometry and their 13C NMR shieldings decrease uniformly. The calculated 13C shielding value for H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 is only about 6 ppm larger than that calculated for point charge stabilized CO 3-2. However, for a geometry of H 3SiO(CO 2) AlH 3-1, in which the bridging oxygen to C bond length has been artificially increased to that found in the - OH terminated cluster (OH) 3SiO(CO 2)Al(OH) 3-1, the calculated 13C shielding is almost identical to that for free CO 2. The CO 3-like isomers of the CO 2-aluminosili-cate complexes show carbonate like geometries and 13C NMR shieldings about 4-9 ppm larger than those of carbonate for all T,T' pairs. For the Si,Si tetrahedral atom pair the CO 2-like isomer is more stable energetically, while for the Si,Al and Al,Al cases the CO 3-like isomer is more stable. Addition of Na + ions to the CO 3-2 or H 3AlO(CO 2)AlH 3-2 complexes reduces the 13C NMR shieldings by about 10 ppm. Complexation with either Na + or CO 2 also reduces the 29Si NMR shieldings of the aluminosilicate models, while the changes in 27Al shielding with Na + or CO 2

  18. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H- and 13C-NMR, Theoretical and Microbiological Study of trans o-Coumaric Acid and Alkali Metal o-Coumarates

    Małgorzata Kowczyk-Sadowy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is a continuation of research on a correlation between the molecular structure and electronic charge distribution of phenolic compounds and their biological activity. The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium cations on the electronic system of trans o-coumaric (2-hydroxy-cinnamic acid was studied. We investigated the relationship between the molecular structure of the tested compounds and their antimicrobial activity. Complementary molecular spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (FT-IR, Raman (FT-Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR were applied. Structures of the molecules were optimized and their structural characteristics were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT using the B3LYP method with 6-311++G** as a basis set. Geometric and magnetic aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. Theoretical parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Correlations between certain vibrational bands and some metal parameters, such as electronegativity, ionization energy, atomic and ionic radius, were found. The microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans.

  19. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H- and 13C-NMR), theoretical and microbiological study of trans o-coumaric acid and alkali metal o-coumarates.

    Kowczyk-Sadowy, Małgorzata; Świsłocka, Renata; Lewandowska, Hanna; Piekut, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    This work is a continuation of research on a correlation between the molecular structure and electronic charge distribution of phenolic compounds and their biological activity. The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium cations on the electronic system of trans o-coumaric (2-hydroxy-cinnamic) acid was studied. We investigated the relationship between the molecular structure of the tested compounds and their antimicrobial activity. Complementary molecular spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (FT-IR), Raman (FT-Raman), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR) were applied. Structures of the molecules were optimized and their structural characteristics were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP method with 6-311++G** as a basis set. Geometric and magnetic aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were also calculated. Theoretical parameters were compared to the experimental characteristics of investigated compounds. Correlations between certain vibrational bands and some metal parameters, such as electronegativity, ionization energy, atomic and ionic radius, were found. The microbial activity of studied compounds was tested against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. PMID:25689641

  20. Synergistic effect of the simultaneous chemometric analysis of 1H NMR spectroscopic and stable isotope (SNIF-NMR, 18O, 13C) data: Application to wine analysis

    Highlights: • 1H NMR profilings of 718 wines were fused with stable isotope analysis data (SNIF-NMR, 18O, 13C). • The best improvement was obtained for prediction of the geographical origin of wine. • Certain enhancement was also obtained for the year of vintage (from 88 to 97% for 1H NMR to 99% for the fused data). • Independent component analysis was used as an alternative chemometric tool for classification. - Abstract: It is known that 1H NMR spectroscopy represents a good tool for predicting the grape variety, the geographical origin, and the year of vintage of wine. In the present study we have shown that classification models can be improved when 1H NMR profiles are fused with stable isotope (SNIF-NMR, 18O, 13C) data. Variable selection based on clustering of latent variables was performed on 1H NMR data. Afterwards, the combined data of 718 wine samples from Germany were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) and independent components analysis (ICA). Moreover, several specialized multiblock methods (common components and specific weights analysis (ComDim), consensus PCA and consensus PLS-DA) were applied to the data. The best improvement in comparison with 1H NMR data was obtained for prediction of the geographical origin (up to 100% for the fused data, whereas stable isotope data resulted only in 60–70% correct prediction and 1H NMR data alone in 82–89% respectively). Certain enhancement was obtained also for the year of vintage (from 88 to 97% for 1H NMR to 99% for the fused data), whereas in case of grape varieties improved models were not obtained. The combination of 1H NMR data with stable isotope data improves efficiency of classification models for geographical origin and vintage of wine and can be potentially used for other food products as well

  1. Microsolvation of methylmercury: structures, energies, bonding and NMR constants ((199)Hg, (13)C and (17)O).

    Flórez, Edison; Maldonado, Alejandro F; Aucar, Gustavo A; David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro

    2016-01-21

    Hartree-Fock (HF) and second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations within the scalar and full relativistic frames were carried out in order to determine the equilibrium geometries and interaction energies between cationic methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)) and up to three water molecules. A total of nine structures were obtained. Bonding properties were analyzed using the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). The analyses of the topology of electron densities reveal that all structures exhibit a partially covalent HgO interaction between methylmercury and one water molecule. Consideration of additional water molecules suggests that they solvate the (CH3HgOH2)(+) unit. Nuclear magnetic shielding constants σ((199)Hg), σ((13)C) and σ((17)O), as well as indirect spin-spin coupling constants J((199)Hg-(13)C), J((199)Hg-(17)O) and J((13)C-(17)O), were calculated for each one of the geometries. Thermodynamic stability and the values of NMR constants correlate with the ability of the system to directly coordinate oxygen atoms of water molecules to the mercury atom in methylmercury and with the formation of hydrogen bonds among solvating water molecules. Relativistic effects account for 11% on σ((13)C) and 14% on σ((17)O), which is due to the presence of Hg (heavy atom on light atom, HALA effect), while the relativistic effects on σ((199)Hg) are close to 50% (heavy atom on heavy atom itself, HAHA effect). J-coupling constants are highly influenced by relativity when mercury is involved as in J((199)Hg-(13)C) and J((199)Hg-(17)O). On the other hand, our results show that the values of NMR constants for carbon and oxygen, atoms which are connected through mercury (C-HgO), are highly correlated and are greatly influenced by the presence of water molecules. Water molecules introduce additional electronic effects to the relativistic effects due to the mercury atom. PMID:26670708

  2. Dynamic 13C NMR analysis of pyruvate and lactate oxidation in the in vivo canine myocardium: evidence of reduced utilization with increased work.

    Rath, D P; Zhu, H; Tong, X; Jiang, Z; Hamlin, R L; Robitaille, P M

    1997-12-01

    In this work, substrate selection was monitored in the left ventricle of the canine myocardium by following pyruvate and lactate oxidation under in vivo conditions at basal and elevated workloads. These studies were conducted in the open chest model using dynamic 13C NMR techniques in the presence and absence of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a well-known activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Following the infusion of (3-(13)C) pyruvate or (3-(13)C) lactate into the left anterior descending artery, highly variable 13C enrichments of glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and citrate were noted under low (RPP 25,500 mmHg/min) rate pressure products (RPP). At low workloads, the myocardium typically oxidized the infused (3-(13)C) pyruvate or (3-(13)C) lactate and incorporated the labeled carbon into the glutamate pool as expected. However, in a few notable instances (n = 3), 13C-enriched pyruvate and lactate were unable to label the glutamate pool under in vivo conditions even at the lowest RPPs, indicating a lack of selection for these substrates by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Nonetheless, the levels of glutamate C4 enrichment observed at low workloads could usually be enhanced by infusion of DCA. Importantly, 13C NMR extract analysis revealed that (3-(13)C) pyruvate or (3-(13)C) lactate labeling of the glutamate pool was reduced (< 20%) at high workloads in spite of increased DCA concentrations. PMID:9402190

  3. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  4. Structural characterization of supramolecular assemblies by {sup 13}C spin dilution and 3D solid-state NMR

    Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam, E-mail: adla@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 13}C spin diluted protein samples can be produced using [1-{sup 13}C] and [2-{sup 13}C]-glucose (Glc) carbon sources in the bacterial growth medium. The {sup 13}C spin dilution results in favorable {sup 13}C spectral resolution and polarization transfer behavior. We recently reported the combined use of [1-{sup 13}C]- and [2-{sup 13}C]-Glc labeling to facilitate the structural analysis of insoluble and non-crystalline biological systems by solid-state NMR (ssNMR), including sequential assignment, detection of long-range contacts and structure determination of macromolecular assemblies. In solution NMR the beneficial properties of sparsely labeled samples using [2-{sup 13}C]-glycerol ({sup 13}C labeled C{alpha} sites on a {sup 12}C diluted background) have recently been exploited to provide a bi-directional assignment method (Takeuchi et al. in J Biomol NMR 49(1):17-26, 2011 ). Inspired by this approach and our own recent results using [2-{sup 13}C]-Glc as carbon sources for the simplification of ssNMR spectra, we present a strategy for a bi-directional sequential assignment of solid-state NMR resonances and additionally the detection of long-range contacts using the combination of {sup 13}C spin dilution and 3D NMR spectroscopy. We illustrate our results with the sequential assignment and the collection of distance restraints on an insoluble and non-crystalline supramolecular assembly, the Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system needle.

  5. 13C solution NMR spectra of poly(ether)urethanes. Technical memorandum

    The 13C solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the 15 poly(ether)urethanes are presented. The poly(urethane)s were prepared using one of two diisocyanates, either methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), one of five poly(ether glycol)s, poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) of molecular weight 650, 1000, or 1400, or poly(ethylene glycol) of molecular weight 600 or 1000, and one of three chain extenders, 1,4-butanediol, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol, or diethylene glycol. These polymers were prepared as part of a modelling study to determine if Group Contribution Theory and Group Interaction Modelling could be used to predict dynamic mechanical properties of poly(ether)urethanes on the basis of the structural fragments in the polymers. The chemical shifts of the unique carbons in each of the poly(urethane)s are assigned. They can be used to unambiguously identify the diisocyanate/diol/poly(ether glycol) used to prepare the various polyurethanes. For some compounds the spectra show resonances for terminal hydroxyl substituted carbons. These could provide a method, under the right experimental conditions, to compare molecular weights of batches of the same polymer. (author)

  6. Experimental (X-ray, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, IR, RS, INS, THz) and Solid-State DFT Study on (1:1) Co-Crystal of Bromanilic Acid and 2,6-Dimethylpyrazine.

    Łuczyńska, Katarzyna; Drużbicki, Kacper; Lyczko, Krzysztof; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz

    2015-06-01

    A combined structural, vibrational spectroscopy, and solid-state DFT study of the hydrogen-bonded complex of bromanilic acid with 2,6-dimethylpyrazine is reported. The crystallographic structure was determined by means of low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which reveals the molecular units in their native protonation states, forming one-dimensional infinite nets of moderate-strength O···H-N hydrogen bonds. The nature of the crystallographic forces, stabilizing the studied structure, has been drawn by employing the noncovalent interactions analysis. It was found that, in addition to the hydrogen bonding, the intermolecular forces are dominated by stacking interactions and C-H···O contacts. The thermal and calorimetric analysis was employed to probe stability of the crystal phase. The structural analysis was further supported by a computationally assisted (13)C CP/MAS NMR study, providing a complete assignment of the recorded resonances. The vibrational dynamics was explored by combining the optical (IR, Raman, TDs-THz) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy techniques with the state-of-the-art solid-state density functional theory (DFT) computations. Despite the quasi-harmonic approximation assumed throughout the study, an excellent agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was achieved over the entire spectral range, allowing for a deep and possibly thorough understanding of the vibrational characteristics of the system. Particularly, the significant influence of the long-range dipole coupling on the IR spectrum has been revealed. On the basis of a wealth of information gathered, the recent implementation of a dispersion-corrected linear-response scheme has been extensively examined. PMID:25961154

  7. Temperature {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N NMR and CP/MAS {sup 15}N NMR spectra of benzotriazole derivatives - prototropic tautomerism; Widma temperaturowe {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N NMR oraz CP/MAS {sup 15}N NMR pochodnych benzotriazolu - tautomeria prototropowa

    Wiench, J.W.; Stefaniak, L. [Inst. Chemii Organicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The prototropic tautomerism in benzotriazole derivatives solutions has been investigated in different temperatures by means of {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR and {sup 15}N CP/MAS NMR spectra. The ratio of different tautomeric forms and kinetics of proton exchange have been measured for the systems studied on the base of observed spectroscopic factors. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  8. Solid-state NMR determination of sugar ring pucker in (13)C-labeled 2'-deoxynucleosides.

    van Dam, Lorens; Ouwerkerk, Niels; Brinkmann, Andreas; Raap, Jan; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2002-01-01

    The H3'-C3'-C4'-H4' torsional angles of two microcrystalline 2'-deoxynucleosides, thymidine and 2'-deoxycytidine.HCl, doubly (13)C-labeled at the C3' and C4' positions of the sugar ring, have been measured by solid-state magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A double-quantum heteronuclear local field experiment with frequency-switched Lee-Goldberg homonuclear decoupling was used. The H3'-C3'-C4'-H4' torsional angles were obtained by comparing the experimental curves with nume...

  9. The binding of metal ions and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor by 13C NMR

    Sakamoto, Yohko; Sakamoto, Yuko; Ishii, Tomoko; Ohmoto, Taichi

    1991-06-01

    Enalaprilat (MK-422, 1- [ N- [1 (S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]- L-alanyl]- L-proline (1)) and Lisinopril (MK521, N- N- [ (s)-l-carboxy-3- phenylpropyl]- L-lysyl- L-proline, (2)) exhibit the capacity to act as a chelate, unidentate or bridge towards metal ions in aqueous solution, as determined by 13C NMR. By adding metal ions, in the series of Zn 2+, Ni 2+, Pb 2+, Pd 2+ and Cd 2+, the active site of the ACE inhibitor was well defined. MK-521 was more influenced by nuclei that were distant from the active site than MK-422.

  10. (13) C-TmDOTA as versatile thermometer compound for solid-state NMR of hydrated lipid bilayer membranes.

    Umegawa, Yuichi; Tanaka, Yuya; Nobuaki, Matsumori; Murata, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, such as magic angle spinning and high-power decoupling, have dramatically increased the sensitivity and resolution of NMR. However, these NMR techniques generate extra heat, causing a temperature difference between the sample in the rotor and the variable temperature gas. This extra heating is a particularly crucial problem for hydrated lipid membrane samples. Thus, to develop an NMR thermometer that is suitable for hydrated lipid samples, thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (TmDOTA) was synthesized and labeled with (13) C (i.e., (13) C-TmDOTA) to increase the NMR sensitivity. The complex was mixed with a hydrated lipid membrane, and the system was subjected to solid-state NMR and differential scanning calorimetric analyses. The physical properties of the lipid bilayer and the quality of the NMR spectra of the membrane were negligibly affected by the presence of (13) C-TmDOTA, and the (13) C chemical shift of the complex exhibited a large-temperature dependence. The results demonstrated that (13) C-TmDOTA could be successfully used as a thermometer to accurately monitor temperature changes induced by (1) H decoupling pulses and/or by magic angle spinning and the temperature distribution of the sample inside the rotor. Thus, (13) C-TmDOTA was shown to be a versatile thermometer for hydrated lipid assemblies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26460094

  11. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to characterize organic chemical components of decomposing coarse woody debris from different climatic regions

    Takuya Hishinuma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to coarse woody debris (CWD in different stages of decomposition and collected from forest floor of a subtropical, a cool temperate, and a subalpine forest in Japan. The purpose was to test its applicability to characterize organic chemical composition of CWD of broad-leaved and coniferous trees from different climatic conditions. O-alkyl-C, mainly representing carbohydrates, was the predominant component of CWD at the three sites, accounting for 43.5-58.1% of the NMR spectra. Generally, the relative area under the signals for aromatic-C and phenolic-C, mainly representing lignin, increased, whereas the relative area for O-alkyl-C decreased, as the decay class advanced. The relative area under NMR chemical shift regions was significantly correlated with the chemical properties examined with proximate analyses. That is, O-alkyl-C and di-O-alkyl-C NMR signal areas were positively correlated with the volumetric density of CWD and the content of total carbohydrates. Methoxyl-C, aromatic-C, phenolic-C, carboxyl-C, and carbonyl-C were positively correlated with the contents of acid-unhydrolyzable residues (lignin, tannins, and cutin and nitrogen. Lignin-C calculated from NMR signals increased, and polysaccharide-C decreased, with the decay class of CWD at the three study sites. A review of previous studies on 13C NMR spectroscopy for decomposing CWD suggested further needs of its application to broad-leaved trees from tropical and subtropical regions.

  12. 13C NMR spectroscopy of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide

    We report the 13C NMR spectrum of amorphous hydrogenated carbon and boron carbide. The amorphous hydrogenated carbon spectra consist primarily of an sp3 line at 40 ppm and an sp2 line at 140 ppm and are in reasonable agreement with the recent theoretical calculations of Mauri, Pfrommer, and Louie, but there are some notable discrepancies. The amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide spectra are very different from those of amorphous hydrogenated carbon, being dominated by one line at 15 ppm. We interpret this line as due to carbon bound in boron carbide icosahedra, because polycrystalline boron carbide with boron carbide icosahedra as the unit cell gives very similar NMR spectra. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. A study of conformational stability of poly(L-alanine), poly(L-valine), and poly(L-alanine)/poly(L-valine) blends in the solid state by (13)C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR.

    Murata, Katsuyoshi; Kuroki, Shigeki; Kimura, Hideaki; Ando, Isao

    2002-06-01

    13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR and (1)H T(1rho) experiments of poly(L-alanine) (PLA), poly(L-valine) (PLV), and PLA/PLV blends have been carried out in order to elucidate the conformational stability of the polypeptides in the solid state. These were prepared by adding a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) solution of the polymer with a 2.0 wt/wt % of sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) to alkaline water. From these experimental results, it is clarified that the conformations of PLA and PLV in their blends are strongly influenced by intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions that cause their miscibility at the molecular level. PMID:11948439

  14. Static and dynamic interaction between π and d electrons in organic superconductor β″-(BEDT-TTF)4[(H3O ) Fe (C2O4)3] .C6H5Br studied by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Ihara, Y.; Futami, Y.; Kawamoto, A.; Matsui, K.; Goto, T.; Sasaki, T.; Benmansour, S.; Gómez-García, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of 13C NMR experiments in an organic superconductor with localized Fe spins β″-(BEDT-TTF) 4[(H3O ) Fe (C2O4)3] .C6H5Br . We reveal the antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe d spins and π spins, which creates an exchange field antiparallel to the external field direction at the π electrons. In addition to the static effects of Fe spins, we show from the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate measurement that the magnetic fluctuations generated by Fe spins are suppressed at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. These conditions are suitable to stabilize the field-induced superconductivity by the field compensation mechanism. After the suppression of Fe-spin dynamics by a magnetic field of 19 T, we observed the underlying π -electron contribution. We discuss a possible anomaly in the π -electron system.

  15. Hydrothermal carbon from biomass: structural differences between hydrothermal and pyrolyzed carbons via 13C solid state NMR.

    Falco, Camillo; Perez Caballero, Fernando; Babonneau, Florence; Gervais, Christel; Laurent, Guillaume; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Baccile, Niki

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to better describe the structure of the hydrothermal carbon (HTC) process and put it in relationship with the more classical pyrolytic carbons. Indeed, despite the low energetic impact and the number of applications described so far for HTC, very little is known about the structure, reaction mechanism, and the way these materials relate to coals. Are HTC and calcination processes equivalent? Are the structures of the processed materials related to each other in any way? Which is the extent of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) inside HTC? In this work, the effect of hydrothermal treatment and pyrolysis are compared on glucose, a good model carbohydrate; a detailed single-quantum double-quantum (SQ-DQ) solid state (13)C NMR study of the HTC and calcined HTC is used to interpret the spectral region corresponding to the signal of furanic and arene groups. These data are compared to the spectroscopic signatures of calcined glucose, starch, and xylose. A semiquantitative analysis of the (13)C NMR spectra provides an estimation of the furanic-to-arene ratio which varies from 1:1 to 4:1 according to the processing conditions and carbohydrate employed. In addition, we formulate some hypothesis, validated by DFT (density functional theory) modeling associated with (13)C NMR chemical shifts calculations, about the possible furan-rich structural intermediates that occur in the coalification process leading to condensed polyaromatic structures. In combination with a broad parallel study on the HTC processing conditions effect on glucose, cellulose, and raw biomass (Falco, C.; Baccile, N.; Titirici, M.-M. Green Chem., 2011, DOI: 10.1039/C1GC15742F), we propose a broad reaction scheme and in which we show that, through HTC, it is possible to tune the furan-to-arene ratio composing the aromatic core of the produced HTC carbons, which is not possible if calcination is used alone, in the temperature range below 350 °C. PMID:22050004

  16. 1H and 13C NMR assignments for the glycans in glycoproteins by using 2H/13C-labeled glucose as a metabolic precursor

    In order to understand the role of the glycans in glycoproteins in solution, structural information obtained by NMR spectroscopy is obviously required. However, the assignment of the NMR signals from the glycans in larger glycoproteins is still difficult, mainly due to the lack of appropriate methods for the assignment of the resonances originating from the glycans. By using [U-13C6,2H7]glucose as a metabolic precursor, we have successfully prepared a glycoprotein whose glycan is uniformly labeled with 13C and partially with D at the sugar residues. The D to H exchange ratios at the C1-C6 positions of the sugar residues have been proven to provide useful information for the spectral assignments of the glycan in the glycoprotein. This is the first report on the residue-specific assignment of the anomeric resonances originating from a glycan attached to a glycoprotein by using the metabolic incorporation of hydrogen from the medium into a glycan labeled with [U-13C6,2H7]glucose

  17. Carbonyl 13C NMR spectrum of basin pancreatic trypsin inhibitor: resonance assignments by selective amide hydrogen isotope labeling and detection of isotope effects on 13C nuclear shielding

    The carbonyl region of the natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor is examined, and 65 of the 66 expected signals are characterized at varying pH and temperature. Assignments are reported for over two-thirds of the signals, including those of all buried backbone amide groups with slow proton exchange and all side-chain carbonyl groups. This is the first extensively assigned carbonyl spectrum for any protein. A method for carbonyl resonance assignments utilizing amide proton exchange and isotope effects on nuclear shielding is described in detail. The assignments are made by establishing kinetic correlation between effects of amide proton exchange observed in the carbonyl 13C region with development of isotope effects and in the amide proton region with disappearance of preassigned resonances. Several aspects of protein structure and dynamics in solution may be investigated by carbonyl 13C NMR spectroscopy. Some effects of side-chain primary amide group hydrolysis are described. The main interest is on information about intramolecular hydrogen-bond energies and changes in the protein due to amino acid replacements by chemical modification or genetic engineering

  18. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and 13C NMR data of diterpenes

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from 13C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  19. 1H and 13C NMR investigation of 20-hydroxyecdysone dioxolane derivatives, a novel group of MDR modulator agents.

    Balázs, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila; Csábi, József; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Martins, Ana; Simon, András; Tóth, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis, structure elucidation and the complete (1)H and (13)C signal assignment of a series of dioxolane derivatives of 20-hydroxyecdysone, synthesized as novel modulators of multidrug resistance, are presented. The structures and NMR signal assignment were established by comprehensive one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy supported by mass spectrometry. PMID:24114927

  20. Solid-, Solution-, and Gas-state NMR Monitoring of 13C-Cellulose Degradation in an Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystem

    Yasuhiro Date

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of biomacromolecules in various microbial ecosystems is influenced by the variations in types, qualities, and quantities of chemical components. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing the degradation of solids to gases in anaerobic digestion processes. Here we describe a characterization strategy using NMR spectroscopy for targeting the input solid insoluble biomass, catabolized soluble metabolites, and produced gases. 13C-labeled cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was added as a substrate to stirred tank reactors and gradually degraded for 120 h. The time-course variations in structural heterogeneity of cellulose catabolism were determined using solid-state NMR, and soluble metabolites produced by cellulose degradation were monitored using solution-state NMR. In particular, cooperative changes between the solid NMR signal and 13C-13C/13C-12C isotopomers in the microbial degradation of 13C-cellulose were revealed by a correlation heat map. The triple phase NMR measurements demonstrated that cellulose was anaerobically degraded, fermented, and converted to methane gas from organic acids such as acetic acid and butyric acid.

  1. Solid state CP/MAS 13C n.m.r. analysis of particle size and density fractions of soil incubated with uniformly labelled 13C-glucose

    A soil incubated for 34 days in the absence (control) and presence (treated) of uniformly labelled 13C-glucose was dispersed using an ultrasonic probe and fractionated by sedimentation in water and a polytungstate solution of density 2.0 Mg m-3. Solid state CP/MAS 13C n.m.r. (cross polarization/magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of the native soil organic carbon and the residual substrate carbon in the fractions of the control and treated soils. To obtain quantitative results it was essential to determine the spin lattice relaxation time in a rotating frame of the individual carbon types in the spectra as the relaxation behaviour of the native organic material in the clay fraction was different from that of the residual substrate carbon. The residual substrate carbon was found to accumulate in predominantly alkyl and O-alkyl structures in both fractions. However, significant amounts of acetal and carboxyl carbon were also observed in the clay fraction. Little if any aromatic or phenolic carbon was synthesized by the soil microorganisms utilizing substrate carbon. Dipolar dephasing CP/MAS 13C n.m.r. experiments were also performed and allowed the proportion of each type of carbon which was protonated and nonprotonated to be estimated. Essentially all of the O-alkyl and acetal carbon, 25-40% of the aromatic carbon and 66-80% of the alkyl carbon was protonated in the fractions isolated from the treated soil. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Glucose transport in human erythrocytes measured using 13C NMR spin transfer

    The authors present the results of a new NMR-based procedure for measuring the fast transmembrane exchange of D-[1-13C]glucose in human erythrocytes. The method relies on different rates of exchange between the α- and β-anomers of glucose inside and outside the cells; the rate outside the cells is greatly increased by the addition of mutarotase to the suspension. Theory is developed to describe nuclear-spin transfer in the present system and is used to analyse the data to yield estimates of transmembrane-exchange rate constants and their statistical uncertainties. For a total glucose concentration of 25.5 mmol/l at 400C the first order efflux rate constants for the α- and β-anomers were 1.20 ± 0.40 s-1 and 0.71 ± 0.30 s-1, respectively. 17 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Histidine side-chain dynamics and protonation monitored by 13C CPMG NMR relaxation dispersion

    The use of 13C NMR relaxation dispersion experiments to monitor micro-millisecond fluctuations in the protonation states of histidine residues in proteins is investigated. To illustrate the approach, measurements on three specifically 13C labeled histidine residues in plastocyanin (PCu) from Anabaena variabilis (A.v.) are presented. Significant Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion is observed for 13Cε1 nuclei in the histidine imidazole rings of A.v. PCu. The chemical shift changes obtained from the CPMG dispersion data are in good agreement with those obtained from the chemical shift titration experiments, and the CPMG derived exchange rates agree with those obtained previously from 15N backbone relaxation measurements. Compared to measurements of backbone nuclei, 13Cε1 dispersion provides a more direct method to monitor interchanging protonation states or other kinds of conformational changes of histidine side chains or their environment. Advantages and shortcomings of using the 13Cε1 dispersion experiments in combination with chemical shift titration experiments to obtain information on exchange dynamics of the histidine side chains are discussed

  4. Evaluation of natural rubber from IAC series clones by solid state {sup 13}C NMR; Avaliacao da borracha natural de clones da serie IAC por {sup 13}C RMN no estado solido

    Martins, Maria A.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Goncalves, Paulo S. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cafe e Plantas Tropicais. Programa Seringueira]. E-mails: paulog@iac.sp.gov.br; mariaalice@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Forato, Lucimara A.; Colnago, Luiz A.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: colnago@cnpdia.embrapa.br; forato@cnpdia.embrapa.br; rogerio@cnpdia.embrapa.br; mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Job, Aldo E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2005-07-01

    Agronomic Institute (IAC) and EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA) have been studied Hevea species in order to increase the production of the natural rubber and to develop new clones more appropriated to Brazil's soil and climate. Structural characterization of natural rubber [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. - Arg.] from new clones of the IAC series (IAC 300, 301, 302, 303, 35, 40, and 56) and from RRIM 600 clone has been studied by high-resolution solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and by single pulse technique. The results have shown that the application of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR using the single pulse technique is a powerful tool to study natural rubber. The spectra obtained through this technique confirmed that natural rubber from all clones studied are cis-1,4-polyisoprene (author) form.(author)

  5. (13)C NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an "oleic-vaccenic acid" oil.

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Chepkwony, Paul Kiprono; Ndalut, Paul K

    2002-02-27

    The composition of acyl chains and their positions in the triacylglycerols of the oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera were studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The unsaturated chains of M. oleifera seed oil were found to comprise only mono-unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, two omega-9 mono-unsaturated acids, (cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids) and one omega-7 mono-unsaturated acid (cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid)). The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were detected as separated resonances in the spectral regions where the carbonyl and olefinic carbons resonate according to the 1,3- and 2-positions on the glycerol backbone. The unambiguous detection of vaccenic acid was also achieved through the resonance of the omega-3 carbon. The (13)C NMR methodology enabled the simultaneous detection of oleate, vaccenate, and eicosenoate chains according to their positions on the glycerol backbone (1,3- and 2-positions) through the carboxyl, olefinic, and methylene envelope carbons of the triacylglycerol acyl chains. PMID:11853466

  6. Characterization of a Mixture of CO2 Adsorption Products in Hyperbranched Aminosilica Adsorbents by (13)C Solid-State NMR.

    Moore, Jeremy K; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Mehta, Anil K; Conradi, Mark S; Jones, Christopher W; Hayes, Sophia E

    2015-11-17

    Hyperbranched amine polymers (HAS) grown from the mesoporous silica SBA-15 (hereafter "SBA-15-HAS") exhibit large capacities for CO2 adsorption. We have used static in situ and magic-angle spinning (MAS) ex situ (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the adsorption of CO2 by SBA-15-HAS. (13)C NMR distinguishes the signal of gas-phase (13)CO2 from that of the chemisorbed species. HAS polymers possess primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, leading to multiple chemisorption reaction outcomes, including carbamate (RnNCOO(-)), carbamic acid (RnNCOOH), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) moieties. Carbamates and bicarbonate fall within a small (13)C chemical shift range (162-166 ppm), and a mixture was observed including carbamic acid and carbamate, the former disappearing upon evacuation of the sample. By examining the (13)C-(14)N dipolar coupling through low-field (B0 = 3 T) (13)C{(1)H} cross-polarization MAS NMR, carbamate is confirmed through splitting of the (13)C resonance. A third species that is either bicarbonate or a second carbamate is evident from bimodal T2 decay times of the ∼163 ppm peak, indicating the presence of two species comprising that single resonance. The mixture of products suggests that (1) the presence of amines and water leads to bicarbonate being present and/or (2) the multiple types of amine sites in HAS permit formation of chemically distinct carbamates. PMID:26477882

  7. Identification of aquatically available carbon from algae through solution-state NMR of whole (13)C-labelled cells.

    Akhter, Mohammad; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Fortier-McGill, Blythe; Soong, Ronald; Liaghati-Mobarhan, Yalda; Simpson, Myrna; Arhonditsis, George; Schmidt, Sebastian; Heumann, Hermann; Simpson, André J

    2016-06-01

    Green algae and cyanobacteria are primary producers with profound impact on food web functioning. Both represent key carbon sources and sinks in the aquatic environment, helping modulate the dissolved organic matter balance and representing a potential biofuel source. Underlying the impact of algae and cyanobacteria on an ecosystem level is their molecular composition. Herein, intact (13)C-labelled whole cell suspensions of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis were studied using a variety of 1D and 2D (1)H/(13)C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments. Solution-state NMR spectroscopy of whole cell suspensions is particularly relevant as it identifies species that are mobile (dissolved or dynamic gels), 'aquatically available' and directly contribute to the aquatic carbon pool upon lysis, death or become a readily available food source on consumption. In this study, a wide range of metabolites and structural components were identified within the whole cell suspensions. In addition, significant differences in the lipid/triacylglyceride (TAG) content of green algae and cyanobacteria were confirmed. Mobile species in algae are quite different from those in abundance in 'classic' dissolved organic matter (DOM) indicating that if algae are major contributors to DOM, considerable selective preservation of minor components (e.g. sterols) or biotransformation would have to occur. Identifying the metabolites and dissolved components within algal cells by NMR permits future studies of carbon transfer between species and through the food chain, whilst providing a foundation to better understand the role of algae in the formation of DOM and the sequestration/transformation of carbon in aquatic environments. PMID:27074782

  8. Formation of 1:1 and 2:1 host-guest inclusion complexes of α-cyclodextrin with cycloalkanols: A 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic study

    Akita, Tomoki; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2014-09-01

    Binding constants (Ka's) for the formation of inclusion complexes of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) with cycloalkanols (c-CnOH; n = 4-8) were determined by means of 1H and 13C NMR titration, under two different conditions: (i) only 1:1 host-guest inclusion complexes are formed when the guest is in excess; (ii) the formation of 2:1 inclusion complexes occurs only after that of 1:1 inclusion complexes, when the host is in excess. The results of this work showed that α-CD can include c-C4OH or c-C5OH only when the molar ratio is 1:1; larger ring-sized cycloalkanols such as c-C6OH, c-C7OH or c-C8OH can be included only when the molar ratio is 2:1. These findings, together with those obtained for the four derivatives of α-CD, per-6-O-methyl-α-CD, per-2-O-methyl-α-CD, per-3-O-methyl-α-CD, and per-2,6-di-O-methyl-α-CD, suggested that α-CD forms 2:1 inclusion complexes with c-C6OH, c-C7OH or c-C8OH in a tail-to-tail manner, in which the secondary hydroxy sides of the two CD molecules face each other. Two-dimensional ROESY measurements confirmed our results.

  9. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR.

    Hiroshi Teramura

    Full Text Available A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16 peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13 peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45-0.59 g/g-dry biomass. Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96 with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = -0.95 to -0.97 with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate.

  10. Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises

    Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

  11. Spectrally edited 2D 13Csbnd 13C NMR spectra without diagonal ridge for characterizing 13C-enriched low-temperature carbon materials

    Johnson, Robert L.; Anderson, Jason M.; Shanks, Brent H.; Fang, Xiaowen; Hong, Mei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Two robust combinations of spectral editing techniques with 2D 13Csbnd 13C NMR have been developed for characterizing the aromatic components of 13C-enriched low-temperature carbon materials. One method (exchange with protonated and nonprotonated spectral editing, EXPANSE) selects cross peaks of protonated and nearby nonprotonated carbons, while the other technique, dipolar-dephased double-quantum/single-quantum (DQ/SQ) NMR, selects signals of bonded nonprotonated carbons. Both spectra are free of a diagonal ridge, which has many advantages: Cross peaks on the diagonal or of small intensity can be detected, and residual spinning sidebands or truncation artifacts associated with the diagonal ridge are avoided. In the DQ/SQ experiment, dipolar dephasing of the double-quantum coherence removes protonated-carbon signals; this approach also eliminates the need for high-power proton decoupling. The initial magnetization is generated with minimal fluctuation by combining direct polarization, cross polarization, and equilibration by 13C spin diffusion. The dipolar dephased DQ/SQ spectrum shows signals from all linkages between aromatic rings, including a distinctive peak from polycondensed aromatics. In EXPANSE NMR, signals of protonated carbons are selected in the first spectral dimension by short cross polarization combined with dipolar dephasing difference. This removes ambiguities of peak assignment to overlapping signals of nonprotonated and protonated aromatic carbons, e.g. near 125 ppm. Spin diffusion is enhanced by dipolar-assisted rotational resonance. Before detection, Csbnd H dipolar dephasing by gated decoupling is applied, which selects signals of nonprotonated carbons. Thus, only cross peaks due to magnetization originating from protonated C and ending on nearby nonprotonated C are retained. Combined with the chemical shifts deduced from the cross-peak position, this double spectral editing defines the bonding environment of aromatic, COO, and Cdbnd O carbons

  12. Metabolic Effects of Hypoxia in Colorectal Cancer by 13C NMR Isotopomer Analysis

    Ana M. Abrantes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13C NMR isotopomer analysis was used to characterize intermediary metabolism in three colorectal cancer cell lines (WiDr, LS1034, and C2BBe1 and determine the “metabolic remodeling” that occurs under hypoxia. Under normoxia, the three colorectal cancer cell lines present high rates of lactate production and can be seen as “Warburg” like cancer cells independently of substrate availability, since such profile was dominant at both high and low glucose media contents. The LS1034 was the less glycolytic of the three cell lines and was the most affected by the event of hypoxia, raising abruptly glucose consumption and lactate production. The other two colorectal cell lines, WiDr and C2BBe1, adapted better to hypoxia and were able to maintain their oxidative fluxes even at the very low levels of oxygen. These differential metabolic behaviors of the three colorectal cell lines show how important an adequate knowledge of the “metabolic remodeling” that follows a given cancer treatment is towards the correct (redesign of therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  13. Solid-state 13C NMR analysis of Lower Cretaceous Baganuur (Mongolia) lignite

    Erdenetsogt, B.; Lee, I.; Lee, S.; Ko, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The transformation of plant matter into peat and coal has two steps, called the biochemical and geochemical stages of coalification. Biochemical coalification begins with the accumulation of dead vegetable matter and ends at the rank of subbituminous coal. The rank of Baganuur lignite ranges from lignite to subbituminous coal. It is transition between biochemical and physico-chemical coalification stages. The changes of chemical structure of coal during the transition between above mentioned two stages were studied by solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR. The most predominant alteration is the disappearance of the resonances from oxygenated aliphatic carbons (63 ppm), protonated aromatic carbons (114 ppm), oxygen-substituted aromatic carbons (144 ppm) and carbonyl carbons (195 ppm). In addition, the intensity of resonances from methoxyl carbons (56 ppm) and oxygenated aliphatic carbons (72 ppm) decreased. While the intensities of resonance from aliphatic (30 ppm), protonated aromatic (125 ppm) and carboxyl carbon (174 ppm) increased or remained almost constant. The relative percent of O-substituted aromatic carbons decreased by ~25% mainly due to the intensity loss of the peak at 144 ppm, indicating removal of O-containing functional groups substituted to aromatic carbons. It is consistent with the decreased relative percent (~75%) of the peak at 114 ppm from protonated aromatic carbons nearby oxygen-substituted aromatic carbons. In addition, the resonance from 125 ppm was shifted to 128 ppm and its relative area increased by ~20%, indicating replacement of O-substituent of aromatic rings by hydrogen or carbon. Protonated aromatic carbons at least two bond away from an oxygen-substituted aromatic carbons give a resonance at 125 ppm and carbon-substituted aromatic carbons give a resonance at 130-132 ppm. With the increase relative percent of C-substituted aromatic carbons, their resonance were overlapped with protonated aromatic carbons and shifted to higher ppm. A decreasing

  14. Brominated compounds from marine sponges of the genus Aplysina and a compilation of their 13C NMR spectral data.

    Lira, Narlize Silva; Montes, Ricardo Carneiro; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; da Cunha, Emidio V L; de Athayde-Filho, Petronio Filgueiras; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; da Silva Dias, Celidarque; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria

    2011-01-01

    Aplysina is the best representative genus of the family Aplysinidae. Halogenated substances are its main class of metabolites. These substances contribute greatly to the chemotaxonomy and characterization of the sponges belonging to this genus. Due to their pharmacological activities, these alkaloids are of special interest. The chemistry of halogenated substances and of the alkaloids has long been extensively studied in terrestrial organisms, while the number of marine organisms studied has just started to increase in the last decades. This review describes 101 halogenated substances from 14 species of Aplysina from different parts of the world. These substances can be divided into the following classes: bromotyramines (A), cavernicolins (B), hydroverongiaquinols (C), bromotyrosineketals (D), bromotyrosine lactone derivatives (E), oxazolidones (F), spiroisoxazolines (G), verongiabenzenoids (H), verongiaquinols (I), and dibromocyclohexadienes (J). A compilation of their (13)C NMR data is also part of the review. For this purpose 138 references were consulted. PMID:22163189

  15. Brominated Compounds from Marine Sponges of the Genus Aplysina and a Compilation of Their 13C NMR Spectral Data

    Jose Maria Barbosa-Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aplysina is the best representative genus of the family Aplysinidae. Halogenated substances are its main class of metabolites. These substances contribute greatly to the chemotaxonomy and characterization of the sponges belonging to this genus. Due to their pharmacological activities, these alkaloids are of special interest. The chemistry of halogenated substances and of the alkaloids has long been extensively studied in terrestrial organisms, while the number of marine organisms studied has just started to increase in the last decades. This review describes 101 halogenated substances from 14 species of Aplysina from different parts of the world. These substances can be divided into the following classes: bromotyramines (A, cavernicolins (B, hydroverongiaquinols (C, bromotyrosineketals (D, bromotyrosine lactone derivatives (E, oxazolidones (F, spiroisoxazolines (G, verongiabenzenoids (H, verongiaquinols (I, and dibromocyclohexadienes (J. A compilation of their 13C NMR data is also part of the review. For this purpose 138 references were consulted.

  16. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Verma, Deepshikha; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2016-04-01

    We report almost complete sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a 150-residue long calmodulin-like calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP6), as a prelude to its structural and functional characterization. PMID:26377206

  17. Land use Effects on Storage, Stability and Structure of Organic Carbon in Soil Density Fractions Revealed by 13C Natural Abundance and CPMAS 13C NMR

    Flessa, H.; Helfrich, M.; John, B.; Yamashita, T.; Ludwig, B.

    2004-12-01

    The type of land use and soil cultivation are important factors controlling organic carbon storage (SOC) in soils and they can also influence the relative importance, the structure, and the stability of different SOC pools. The objectives of our study were: i) to quantify the SOC stocks in different density fractions (mineral-associated soil organic matter > 2 g cm-3 (Mineral-SOM), free particulate organic matter soils under different land use (spruce forest, grassland, maize, wheat), ii) to determine the structure of these SOC fractions by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, and iii) to analyse the stability of these SOC fractions in the maize soil on the basis of the stable isotope composition of SOC. The SOC concentration in the A horizon increased in the order wheat (12.7 g kg-1) soil, the particulate organic matter accounted for 52% of the total SOC content. The chemical structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) was influenced by litter quality, the intensity of litter decomposition and the related production and storage of microbially-derived substances. SOM of the acid forest soil was characterized by large amounts of POM with a high content of spruce litter-derived alkyl C. In the biologically more active grassland and maize soil, litter-derived POM was decomposed more rapidly and SOC stocks were dominated by mineral-associated SOM which contained greater proportions of aryl and carbonyl C. The cultivation of the grassland soil induced enhanced mineralization of POM and in particular of mineral-associated SOM. The faster SOC turnover was associated with a relative accumulation of aromatic and carbonyl C structures in the mineral-bound SOM. In all soils, the free particulate organic matter had a smaller proportion of alkyl C and a larger proportion of O-alkyl C than the particulate organic matter occluded in aggregates. The mean age of the SOM in the density fractions of the maize soil increased with increasing aromaticity in the order free POM (22 yr) humification

  18. Characterization of organic matter in sediment cores of the Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, by elemental analysis and 13C NMR

    Highlights: → The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by EA and 13C NMR. → This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions. → The elemental profiles of cores suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime, corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects. → The results presented illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay. - Abstract: The impact of human activity on the sediments of Todos os Santos Bay in Brazil was evaluated by elemental analysis and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). This article reports a study of six sediment cores collected at different depths and regions of Todos os Santos Bay. The elemental profiles of cores collected on the eastern side of Frades Island suggest an abrupt change in the sedimentation regime. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) analysis corroborates this result. The range of depths of the cores corresponds to about 50 years ago, coinciding with the implantation of major onshore industrial projects in the region. Principal Component Analysis of the 13C NMR spectra clearly differentiates sediment samples closer to the Subae estuary, which have high contents of terrestrial organic matter, from those closer to a local oil refinery. The results presented in this article illustrate several important aspects of environmental impact of human activity on this bay.

  19. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study

    Gin Henri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Results Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB(controls or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 ± 0.021 %·min-1 and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 ± 0.029 %·min-1. In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: fluxglycogen = 72.543(fluxATP + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Conclusion Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i a net glycogen synthesis, (ii the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin

  20. Toward dynamic isotopomer analysis in the rat brain in vivo: automatic quantitation of 13C NMR spectra using LCModel

    Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Oz, Gülin; Provencher, Stephen; Gruetter, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    The LCModel method was adapted to analyze localized in vivo (13)C NMR spectra obtained from the rat brain in vivo at 9.4 T. Prior knowledge of chemical-shifts, J-coupling constants and J-evolution was included in the analysis. Up to 50 different isotopomer signals corresponding to 10 metabolites were quantified simultaneously in 400 microl volumes in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [1,6-(13)C(2)]glucose. The analysis remained accurate even at low signal-to-noise ratio of the order of...

  1. 13C NMR of methane in an AlPO4-11 molecular sieve: Exchange effects and shielding anisotropy

    Koskela, Tuomas; Ylihautala, Mika; Jokisaari, Jukka; Vaara, Juha

    1998-12-01

    13C NMR spectra of 13CH4 in an AlPO4-11 molecular sieve reveal exchange effects between adsorbed and nonadsorbed methane gas. An application of pulsed field gradients is introduced to decrease nonadsorbed and exchanging gas signals in order to extract the chemical shift anisotropy line shape of the adsorbed gas. The resulting 13C shielding anisotropy of methane is compared to existing value for methane in related SAPO-11 material. Less anisotropic shielding is observed in AlPO4-11, most likely due to the lack of charge-compensating cations.

  2. Diazanaphthalenes: A 13C NMR investigation on the site of protonation and pKa values

    Weijer, van de Peter; Thijsse, Hans; Meer, van der Douwe

    1976-01-01

    The pH dependence of the 13C chemical shifts (δ) of the diazanaphthalenes has been recorded. From this dependence the pKa values have been determined using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. The change in 13C chemical shifts under the influence of nitrogen protonation (Δδ) has been predicted using t

  3. Soil organic matter dynamics as characterized with 1H and 13C solid-state NMR techniques

    Jäger, Alex; Schwarz, Jette; Bertmer, Marko; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a complex and heterogeneous matter. Characterization by solid-state NMR methods on 1H and 13C nuclei is therefore demanding. Our goal is to obtain information on the dynamic behaviour of soil samples and to study the influence of external parameters on both structure and dynamics. We regard water molecules to be the pivotal agent of soil dynamics by generating a network between organic matter via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, which leads to cross linking of organic matter and increases its rigidity. Although 1H solid-state NMR on non-rotating samples are not so commonly used for soil characterization, they enable the differentiation of proton mobilities via their linewidths which are resulting from differences in the dipole-dipole coupling strengths. Therefore, even weak molecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding can be differentiated and changes due to heat treatments and the short and long term behaviour followed. Though in principle a simple technique, static 1H measurements are complicated by several means, one of them is the high abundance in almost all matter including probe head material that has to be excluded for analysis. Finally, we selected 1H DEPTH [1] and Hahn-echo sequences to distinguish different mobilities in soil, mainly free moving water and water fixed in the soil matrix. After decomposition using Gaussian and Lorentzian lineshapes, the relative amounts of mobile and rigid water molecules can be obtained. By heating the samples above 100°C in sealed glass tubes, the proposed water network is destroyed and able to rebuild after cooling. This long term behaviour is studied on the course of months. Furthermore, the instant changes before and after heating are shown for a series of soil samples to characterize soils based on this water network model. To combine the information obtained on the 1H mobility with focus on water dynamics, 13C 2D WISE (wideline separation) measurements were done. This method yields 1

  4. In Situ 13C NMR at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures Investigating the Conversion of CO2 to Magnesium and Calcium Carbonate Minerals

    Surface, J. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Skemer, P. A.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed specialized NMR hardware to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies of unmixed heterogeneous mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Specifically, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine efficacy of carbonate formation in various geological reservoirs. Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals. When CO2 reacts with the calcium or magnesium in a mineral or rock sample, the 13C chemical shift, linewidth, lineshape, and relaxation times change dramatically. This change can be monitored in situ and provide instantaneous and continuous characterization that maps the chemistry that is taking place. For example, on the pathway to MgCO3 formation, there are a number of phases of Mg(OH)x(H2O)y(CO3)z that are apparent via NMR spectroscopy. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Results are confirmed via powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy of aquo- hydro- carbonato- magnesium species and calcium carbonate species. We also have monitored the 13C spectroscopy to analyze the phase of CO2 (liquid, supercritical, or gas) and its conversion into other forms, such as bicarbonate and carbonate species, providing a "window" into the in situ pH of the reacting system. Reference: 'In Situ

  5. 13C-detected NMR experiments for automatic resonance assignment of IDPs and multiple-fixing SMFT processing

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have recently attracted much interest, due to their role in many biological processes, including signaling and regulation mechanisms. High-dimensional 13C direct-detected NMR experiments have proven exceptionally useful in case of IDPs, providing spectra with superior peak dispersion. Here, two such novel experiments recorded with non-uniform sampling are introduced, these are 5D HabCabCO(CA)NCO and 5D HNCO(CA)NCO. Together with the 4D (HACA)CON(CA)NCO, an extension of the previously published 3D experiments (Pantoja-Uceda and Santoro in J Biomol NMR 59:43–50, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s10858-014-9827-1 10.1007/s10858-014-9827-1 ), they form a set allowing for complete and reliable resonance assignment of difficult IDPs. The processing is performed with sparse multidimensional Fourier transform based on the concept of restricting (fixing) some of spectral dimensions to a priori known resonance frequencies. In our study, a multiple-fixing method was developed, that allows easy access to spectral data. The experiments were tested on a resolution-demanding alpha-synuclein sample. Due to superior peak dispersion in high-dimensional spectrum and availability of the sequential connectivities between four consecutive residues, the overwhelming majority of resonances could be assigned automatically using the TSAR program

  6. A comparative study of the 13C(p,p')13C and 13C(p,n)13N reactions at Ep = 35 MeV

    Differential cross sections were measured at Ep = 35 MeV for the 13C(p,n) and 13C(p,p') reactions leading to the four low-lying states in the mirror nuclei 13N and 13C. In addition, the analyzing powers were measured for the 13C(p,p') reaction. The data are generally well accounted for by DWBA calculations except for the 13C(p,p')13C(3.09 MeV, 1/2+) reaction, for which the calculations can not even reproduce the qualitative features of the data. A comparison of the (p,n) and the (p,p') results suggests that the isoscalar part of the 13C(g.s., 1/2-) → 13C(3.09 MeV, 1/2+) transition is not correctly described by currently available shell-model wave functions. (author)

  7. Organic matter characterization during the anaerobic digestion of different biomasses by means of CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy

    The aim of this work was to characterize ingestates and their corresponding digestates obtained in two full-scale biogas production plants processing a) mixtures of organic wastes in co-digestion, and b) pig slurry in order to assess the organic matter transformation during anaerobic digestion by means of chemical analysis and 13CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Results proved that digestates obtained by different organic substrates exhibited significant chemical differences related to the different initial composition of substrates. We proposed the use of the aliphaticity index in order to highlight the different chemical nature of ingestates and their corresponding digestates. In order to verify whether the AD process leads to stabilized final products regardless the initial composition of biomass in view of a possible agronomical use of digestate, a comparison of CPMAS 13C NMR data of a number of ingestates and digestates available in literature was carried out. Results indicated that most of the aromatic structures present in the substrate tend to degrade during the process and that anaerobic digestion proceeds through preferential degradation of carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose and, as a consequence, concentration of more chemically recalcitrant aliphatic molecules occurs. -- Highlights: ► We studied anaerobic digestion by means of chemical analysis and 13CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy. ► Significant chemical differences in digestates were highlighted. ► We proposed the use of the aliphaticity index in order to differentiate digestates. ► Most of the aromatic structures tend to degrade. ► Carbohydrates are degraded and recalcitrant aliphatic molecules concentrate

  8. The 'Nuts and Bolts' of 13C NMR Spectroscopy at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures for Monitoring In Situ CO2 Conversion to Metal Carbonates

    Moore, J. K.; Surface, J. A.; Skemer, P. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We will present details of newly-constructed specialized NMR designed to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies on unmixed slurries of minerals in the presence of CO2 or other gases. This static probe is capable of achieving 300 bar, 300C conditions, and it is designed to spectroscopically examine 13C signals in mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Ultimately, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. We will give details of the hardware setup, and we will show a variety of static in situ NMR, as well as ex situ 'magic-angle spinning' NMR to show the analyses that are possible of minerals in pure form and in mixtures. In addition, specific NMR pulse sequences, techniques, and modeling will be described in detail. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine conditions that affect the efficacy of carbonate formation in various targeted geological reservoirs (i.e., peroditite, or others). Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals, including metastable intermediates (such as hydromagnesite, or dypingite in the case of magnesium carbonate species, or vaterite in the case of calcium carbonate species). Such species are distinguishable from a combination of the 13C isotropic chemical shift, the static 13C lineshape, and changes in spin-lattice (T1) relaxation times. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative

  9. Metabolite Characterization in Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Using High-resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR Spectroscopy

    Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite analysis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent may provide information regarding onset and progression of complications associated with prolonged PD therapy. In this context, the NMR detectable small metabolites of PD effluent samples were characterized using high resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. The various spectra were recorded (at 800 MHz proton frequency) on PD effluent samples obtained after 4 hour (intraperitoneal) dwell time from patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF) and continuing normally on PD therapy. Inspite of devastating spectral feature of PD effluent due to the presence of intense resonances from glucose and lactate, we were able to identify about 53 small endogenous metabolites (including many complex coupled spin systems) and more than 90 % of the total CH cross peaks of 1H-13C HSQC spectrum were identified specific to various metabolites of PD effluent. We foresee that the characteristic fingerprints of various metabolites of control PD effluent samples will be us...

  10. Spectroscopic effects in {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of 4,4`-di-substituted 3,3`-diquinolines sulfides; Efekty spektroskopowe w widmach {sup 1}H i {sup 13}C NMR 4,4`-dwupodstawionych sulfidow 3,3` dichinolinylowych

    Pluta, K. [Katedra i Zaklad Chemii Organicznej, Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Sosnowiec (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of 4,4`-disubstituted sulfides of 3,3`-quinolines have been studied in CDCl{sub 3} solutions. The observed spectroscopic effects have been interpreted in terms of molecule structure and configuration. The factors being responsible for the value of spectroscopic effects have been discussed. 11 refs, 3 tabs.

  11. Unified and isomer-specific NMR metabolomics database for the accurate analysis of (13)C-(1)H HSQC spectra.

    Bingol, Kerem; Li, Da-Wei; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Cabrera, Oscar A; Megraw, Timothy; Zhang, Fengli; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-02-20

    A new metabolomics database and query algorithm for the analysis of (13)C-(1)H HSQC spectra is introduced, which unifies NMR spectroscopic information on 555 metabolites from both the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB) and Human Metabolome Database (HMDB). The new database, termed Complex Mixture Analysis by NMR (COLMAR) (13)C-(1)H HSQC database, can be queried via an interactive, easy to use web interface at http://spin.ccic.ohio-state.edu/index.php/hsqc/index . Our new HSQC database separately treats slowly exchanging isomers that belong to the same metabolite, which permits improved query in cases where lowly populated isomers are below the HSQC detection limit. The performance of our new database and query web server compares favorably with the one of existing web servers, especially for spectra of samples of high complexity, including metabolite mixtures from the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Escherichia coli. For such samples, our web server has on average a 37% higher accuracy (true positive rate) and a 82% lower false positive rate, which makes it a useful tool for the rapid and accurate identification of metabolites from (13)C-(1)H HSQC spectra at natural abundance. This information can be combined and validated with NMR data from 2D TOCSY-type spectra that provide connectivity information not present in HSQC spectra. PMID:25333826

  12. Study of diabetes using naturally enriched 13C-glucose

    Following the work undertaken by Duchesne et al. since 1968, results from the use of a new method in the area of glucose metabolism are presented. Because of differences in their photosynthetic pathway, some vegetables, e.g., maize and sugarcane, are a little richer in 13C than most common foodstuffs. This weak, but significant, enrichment allows the use of maize glucose as a natural and nonradioactive tracer. In this procedure the variations of the 13C/12C ratio of exhaled CO2 are measured by mass spectrometry. By this method, we can follow, in man, the complete conversion of an oral glucose load into CO2 during a glucose tolerance test. At the same time, measurements of blood glucose and of respiratory quotient are made. They permit a useful comparison of the level of glucose in blood, the total amount of glucose consumed, and the fraction of exogenous glucose burned in the hours following oral administration. New information was obtained from these studies concerning glucose metabolism. The method was used in normal subjects and in obese and diabetic patients. Some of the diabetics were receiving an oral antidiabetic treatment. Significant differences were obtained in these cases, not only between them but also with the information given by the classical methods

  13. Protein 2D NMR analysis utilizing selective 2H and 13C enrichment

    E. coli thioredoxin has been prepared with specific residue types substituted with fully enriched 2H or 13C labeled amino acids. In 1H COSY and NOESY experiments cross peaks result from pairs of protons interacting via through-bond or through-space coupling respectively. A cross peak is eliminated if either nucleus is substituted with deuterium. Direct residue type assignments of cross peaks have been obtained by comparing data from protein samples with one residue type deuterated and data from a non-enriched sample. Selective deuteration is particularly useful for the interresidue connectivity assignments obtained by NOESY experiments which normally depend on residue type assignment information obtained from independent COSY data. Difficulties in 1H COSY type intraresidue connectivity assignments are the main reason that successful analyses generally have been limited to proteins less than 10 kilodaltons. The authors have collected 13C homonuclear COSY data which compared to the 1H experiment benefit from larger spin couplings as well as from the spectral simplification obtained by enrichment. Resolved cross peaks for the 13C-13C J1 couplings are readily observed with 30 mg of labeled protein. 1H-13C heteronuclear COSY experiments then provide an independent method of intraresidue proton spin connectivity assignments

  14. Very-high-field n.m.r. studies of bovine lung heparan sulphate oligosaccharides produced by nitrous acid deaminative cleavage. 13C-n.m.r. study of methylene resonances: degree and positions of C-6 sulphation.

    Sanderson, P N; Nieduszynski, I A; Huckerby, T N

    1983-01-01

    Oligosaccharides with the general structure UA-(GlcNAc-GlcUA-)m-aManOH (m = 1-5) (where UA represents uronic acid, GlcNAc N-acetylglucosamine, GlcUA glucuronic acid and aManOH anhydromannitol) were prepared from low-sulphated heparan sulphates of bovine lung origin by nitrous acid deaminative cleavage followed by reduction. Analysis of the methylene signals in the 100 MHz 13C-n.m.r. spectrum of the tetrasaccharide (m = 1) shows that, whereas the extent of C-6 O-sulphation in the GlcNAc is approx. 65%, in the aManOH [formerly a GlcNSO3 (N-sulphoglucosamine) residue in the parent heparan sulphate] it is only approx. 10%. In the higher oligosaccharides (m = 2-5) the gross extent of C-6 O-sulphation of GlcNAc residues falls systematically with increasing oligosaccharide size, whereas that in the aManOH residues remains below 10%. There is also evidence that the C-6 O-sulphation of the GlcNAc residues is confined to the GlcNAc residue adjacent to the non-reducing terminal uronic acid residue. It is therefore tentatively proposed that the GlcNAc in the sequence -GlcNSO3-UA-GlcNAc- might be a favoured substrate for the 6-O-sulphotransferase. It is concluded that in the low-sulphated heparan sulphates GlcNSO3 residues that do not occur in (GlcNSO3-UA-)n blocks tend to have a significantly smaller extent of C-6 O-sulphation than do GlcNAc residues that occur in -GlcNSO3-UA-GlcNAc-GlcUA-GlcNSO3-sequences. PMID:6224480

  15. Characterization of pyrogenic organic matter by 2-dimenstional HETeronucleus CORelation solid-state 13C NMR (HETCOR) spectroscopy

    Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    technique was used for monitoring the chemical changes occurring during charring of biomass derived from model compounds, fire-affected and unaffected NOM. The 2D 13C HETCOR NMR spectrum of the fire- unaffected soils revealed that most of the carboxyl C occurs as ester or amide. Aside from cross peaks typically seen in spectra of NOM, the spectrum of the respective fire-affected counterpart shows additional signals assignable to PyOM.

  16. Use of 13C measurements in humus dynamics studies

    The humic substances of the Ol and Ah horizons of a Spodo-Dystric Cambisol were characterized by exclusion chromatography on controlled pore glass followed by determination of the natural 13C/12C ratios by mass spectrometry. A significant correlation of the molecular weight of the humic substances and the δ13C values was observed. Fractions with higher molecular weight have less negative δ13C values. This relationship holds only for the humic and fulvic acids. In both horizons the non-humic substances and the very small humic substances (Kd > 0.80) were isotopically heavier than the humic substances of the second maximum (brown humic and fulvic acids). The low molecular weight organic substances of the Ol horizon showed a higher δ13C value than all other fractions. These results indicate that the non-humic substances are easily attacked by microorganismus and are therefore richer in 13C. (authors)

  17. Recent applications of /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy to biological systems

    Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in conjunction with carbon-13 labelling, is a powerful new analytical technique for the study of metabolic pathways and structural components in intact organelles, cells, and tissues. The technique can provide, rapidly and non-destructively, unique information about: the architecture and dynamics of structural components; the nature of the intracellular environment; and metabolic pathways and relative fluxes of individual carbon atoms. With the aid of results recently obtained by us and those reported by a number of other laboratories, the problems and potentialities of the technique will be reviewed with emphasis on: the viscosities of intracellular fluids; the structure and dynamics of the components of membranes; and the primary and secondary metabolic pathways of carbon in microorganisms, plants, and mammalian cells in culture.

  18. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography, spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H &13C NMR and UV), computational (DFT/B3LYP) and enzymes inhibitory studies of 7-hydroximinocholest-5-en-3-ol acetate

    Ahmad, Faheem; Parveen, Mehtab; Alam, Mahboob; Azaz, Shaista; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Alam, Mohammad Jane; Lee, Dong-Ung; Ahmad, Shabbir

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of 7-Hydroximinocholest-5-en-3-ol acetate (syn. 3β-acetoxycholest-5-en-7-one oxime; in general, steroidal oxime). The identity of steroidal molecule was confirmed by NMR, FT-IR, MS, CHN microanalysis and X-ray crystallography. DFT calculations on the titled molecule have been performed. The molecular structure and spectra interpreted by Gaussian hybrid computational analysis theory (B3LYP) are found to be in good correlation with the experimental data obtained from the various spectrophotometric techniques. The vibrational bands appearing in the FTIR are assigned with great accuracy using harmonic frequencies along with intensities and animated modes. Molecular properties like HOMO-LUMO analysis, chemical reactivity descriptors, MEP mapping, dipole moment and natural atomic charges have been presented at the same level of theory. Moreover, the Hirshfeld analysis was carried out to ascertain the secondary interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots. The percentages of various interactions are pictorialized by fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface. Steroidal oxime exhibited promising inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as compared to the reference drug, tacrine. Molecular docking was performed to introduce steroidal molecules into the X-ray crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase at the active site to find out the probable binding mode. The results of molecular docking admitted that steroidal oxime may exhibit enzyme inhibitor activity.

  19. Differentiation of Histidine Tautomeric States using 15N Selectively Filtered 13C Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    Miao, Yimin; Cross, Timothy A.; Fu, Riqiang

    2014-01-01

    The histidine imidazole ring in proteins usually contains a mixture of three possible tautomeric states (two neutral - τ and π states and a charged state) at physiological pHs. Differentiating the tautomeric states is critical for understanding how the histidine residue participates in many structurally and functionally important proteins. In this work, one dimensional 15N selectively filtered 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy is proposed to differentiate histidine tautomeric states and to identify all 13C resonances of the individual imidazole rings in a mixture of tautomeric states. When 15N selective 180° pulses are applied to the protonated or non-protonated nitrogen region, the 13C sites that are bonded to the non-protonated or protonated nitrogen sites can be identified, respectively. A sample of 13C,15N labeled histidine powder lyophilized from a solution at pH 6.3 has been used to illustrate the usefulness of this scheme by uniquely assigning resonances of the neutral τ and charged states from the mixture. PMID:25026459

  20. Application of unsymmetrical indirect covariance NMR methods to the computation of the (13)C (15)N HSQC-IMPEACH and (13)C (15)N HMBC-IMPEACH correlation spectra.

    Martin, Gary E; Hilton, Bruce D; Irish, Patrick A; Blinov, Kirill A; Williams, Antony J

    2007-10-01

    Utilization of long-range (1)H--(15)N heteronuclear chemical shift correlation has continually grown in importance since the first applications were reported in 1995. More recently, indirect covariance NMR methods have been introduced followed by the development of unsymmetrical indirect covariance processing methods. The latter technique has been shown to allow the calculation of hyphenated 2D NMR data matrices from more readily acquired nonhyphenated 2D NMR spectra. We recently reported the use of unsymmetrical indirect covariance processing to combine (1)H--(13)C GHSQC and (1)H--(15)N GHMBC long-range spectra to yield a (13)C--(15)N HSQC-HMBC chemical shift correlation spectrum that could not be acquired in a reasonable period of time without resorting to (15)N-labeled molecules. We now report the unsymmetrical indirect covariance processing of (1)H--(13)C GHMBC and (1)H--(15)N IMPEACH spectra to afford a (13)C--(15)N HMBC-IMPEACH spectrum that has the potential to span as many as six to eight bonds. Correlations for carbon resonances long-range coupled to a protonated carbon in the (1)H--(13)C HMBC spectrum are transferred via the long-range (1)H--(15)N coupling pathway in the (1)H--(15)N IMPEACH spectrum to afford a much broader range of correlation possibilities in the (13)C--(15)N HMBC-IMPEACH correlation spectrum. The indole alkaloid vincamine is used as a model compound to illustrate the application of the method. PMID:17729230

  1. 1D 13C-NMR Data as Molecular Descriptors in Spectra — Structure Relationship Analysis of Oligosaccharides

    Florbela Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectra-structure relationships were investigated for estimating the anomeric configuration, residues and type of linkages of linear and branched trisaccharides using 13C-NMR chemical shifts. For this study, 119 pyranosyl trisaccharides were used that are trimers of the α or β anomers of D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, L-fucose or L-rhamnose residues bonded through a or b glycosidic linkages of types 1→2, 1→3, 1→4, or 1→6, as well as methoxylated and/or N-acetylated amino trisaccharides. Machine learning experiments were performed for: (1 classification of the anomeric configuration of the first unit, second unit and reducing end; (2 classification of the type of first and second linkages; (3 classification of the three residues: reducing end, middle and first residue; and (4 classification of the chain type. Our previously model for predicting the structure of disaccharides was incorporated in this new model with an improvement of the predictive power. The best results were achieved using Random Forests with 204 di- and trisaccharides for the training set—it could correctly classify 83%, 90%, 88%, 85%, 85%, 75%, 79%, 68% and 94% of the test set (69 compounds for the nine tasks, respectively, on the basis of unassigned chemical shifts.

  2. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the studies of biosynthetic routes of natural products

    During the last five decades, as a result of an interaction between natural product chemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, molecular biology and spectroscopy, scientists reached an extraordinary level of comprehension about the natural processes by which living organisms build up complex molecules. In this context, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, allied with isotopic labeling, played a determinant role. Nowadays, the widespread use of modern NMR techniques allows an even more detailed picture of the biochemical steps by accurate manipulation of the atomic nuclei. This article focuses on the development of such techniques and their impact on biosynthetic studies. (author)

  3. X-ray, 1H/13C 2D and 3D NMR studies of the structures of davallene and adipedatol, two triterpenes isolated from American Adiantum capillus-veneris

    Two triterpenic compounds Davallene 1 and Adipedatol 2 were isolated from the roots of Mexican Adiantum capillus-veneris (Adiantaceae). The structures of both compounds are discussed on the basis of new 2D and 3D NMR spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. (author)

  4. Selective {sup 2}H and {sup 13}C labeling in NMR analysis of solution protein structure and dynamics

    LeMaster, D.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Preparation of samples bearing combined isotope enrichment patterns has played a central role in the recent advances in NMR analysis of proteins in solution. In particular, uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enrichment has made it possible to apply heteronuclear multidimensional correlation experiments for the mainchain assignments of proteins larger than 30 KDa. In contrast, selective labeling approaches can offer advantages in terms of the directedness of the information provided, such as chirality and residue type assignments, as well as through enhancements in resolution and sensitivity that result from editing the spectral complexity, the relaxation pathways and the scalar coupling networks. In addition, the combination of selective {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H enrichment can greatly facilitate the determination of heteronuclear relaxation behavior.

  5. Structure determination of uniformly 13C, 15N labeled protein using qualitative distance restraints from MAS solid-state 13C-NMR observed paramagnetic relaxation enhancement

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful method for structure determination of insoluble biomolecules. However, structure determination by MAS solid-state NMR remains challenging because it is difficult to obtain a sufficient amount of distance restraints owing to spectral complexity. Collection of distance restraints from paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) is a promising approach to alleviate this barrier. However, the precision of distance restraints provided by PRE is limited in solid-state NMR because of incomplete averaged interactions and intermolecular PREs. In this report, the backbone structure of the B1 domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) has been successfully determined by combining the CS-Rosetta protocol and qualitative PRE restraints. The derived structure has a Cα RMSD of 1.49 Å relative to the X-ray structure. It is noteworthy that our protocol can determine the correct structure from only three cysteine-EDTA-Mn2+ mutants because this number of PRE sites is insufficient when using a conventional structure calculation method based on restrained molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. This study shows that qualitative PRE restraints can be employed effectively for protein structure determination from a limited conformational sampling space using a protein fragment library

  6. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Giovanni Chaves Stael

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group.

  7. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13 C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  8. /sup 13/C NMR of diterpenes with isopimarane structure. Part 2: effects involving the double bond. delta. sup(8(9))

    Cunha Pinto, A. da; Lima Pereira, A. de (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais)

    1984-01-01

    Several effects of the ..delta.. sup(8(9)) double bond on the /sup 13/C NMR data of isopimarane diterpenoids are discussed, including chemical shifts and acetylation of the C-7 hydroxyl radical on the above mentioned double bond.

  9. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  10. Benchmarks for the 13C NMR chemical shielding tensors in peptides in the solid state

    Czernek, Jiří; Pawlak, T.; Potrzebowski, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 527, - (2012), s. 31-35. ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : NMR * CST * DFT Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2012