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Sample records for 125i permanent implant

  1. Nursing care for elderly lung cancer patients treated with CT-guided permanent interstitial co-implantation of 125I seeds and slow-released fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the specific measures and effect of the nursing care for elderly lung cancer patients who were receiving the treatment of CT-guided permanent interstitial co-implantation of 125I seeds and slow-released fluorouracil. Methods: Active care, including adequate preoperative preparation, proper support during operation and postoperative nursing,was carried out for fifty-three elderly patients with lung cancer during their treatment course of CT-guided permanent interstitial brachytherapy with co-implantation of 125I seeds and slow-released fluorouracil. Results: In order to ensure accurate puncture and the smooth particle implantation, the possible conditions which might happen after the procedure were informed to the patients before the surgery and useful advice was given to patients to guide their daily activities. All 53 patients showed no obvious fear before surgery and made good cooperation during the procedure, moreover, they well responded to the therapy and recovered pretty soon. Conclusion: CT-guided permanent interstitial co-implantation of 125I seeds and slow-released fluorouracil is a safe, minimally-invasive and newly-developed technique with reliable effect, which is especially suitable for aged patients. Active and adequate nursing care is essential during the whole therapeutic course. (authors)

  2. A Comparison of Acute and Chronic Toxicity for Men With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or 125I Permanent Implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the toxicity and biochemical outcomes of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and 125I transperineal permanent prostate seed implant (125I) for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 374 low-risk patients (prostate-specific antigen 125I patients). Median follow-up was 43 months for IMRT and 48 months for 125I. The IMRT prescription dose ranged from 74-78 Gy, and 125I prescription was 145 Gy. Acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was recorded by using a modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Freedom from biochemical failure was defined by using the Phoenix definition (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2.0 ng/ml). Results: Patients treated by using IMRT were more likely to be older and have a higher baseline American Urological Association symptom index score, history of previous transurethral resection of the prostate, and larger prostate volumes. On multivariate analysis, IMRT was an independent predictor of lower acute and late Grade 2 or higher GU toxicity and late Grade 2 or higher GI toxicity. Three-year actuarial estimates of late Grade 2 or higher toxicity were 2.4% for GI and 3.5% for GU by using IMRT compared with 7.7% for GI and 19.2% for GU for 125I, respectively. Four-year actuarial estimates of freedom from biochemical failure were 99.5% for IMRT and 93.5% for 125I (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The IMRT and 125I produce similar outcomes, although IMRT appears to have less acute and late toxicity

  3. A theoretical investigation into the role of tumour radiosensitivity, clonogen repopulation, tumour shrinkage and radionuclide RBE in permanent brachytherapy implants of 125I and 103Pd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipas, V; Dale, R G; Coles, I P

    2001-10-01

    There is growing clinical interest in the use of 125I (half-life 59.4 days) and 103Pd (half-life 16.97 days) for permanent brachytherapy implants. These radionuclides pose interesting radiobiological challenges because, even with slowly growing tumours, significant tumour cell repopulation may occur during the long period taken to deliver the full radiation dose. This results in a considerable amount of the prescribed dose being wasted. There may also be changes in the tumour volume during treatment (due to oedema and/or shrinkage), thus altering the relative geometry of the implanted seeds and causing additional dose rate variations. This assessment examines the interaction between the above effects and additionally includes allowance for the influence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiations emitted by the two radionuclides. The results are presented in terms of the biologically effective doses (BEDs) and likely tumour control probabilities (TCPs) associated with the various parameter combinations. The overall BED enhancement due to the RBE effect is shown always to be greater than the RBE itself and is greatest in tumours which are radio-resistive and/or fast growing. The biological dose uncertainties are found to be less with 103Pd and the TCPs associated with this radionuclide are expected to be significantly higher in the treatment of some 'difficult' tumours. Using typically prescribed doses 125i appears to be better for treating radiosensitive tumours with long doubling times and which shrink fairly rapidly. However, unless 125I doses are reduced, this advantage may well be offset by the greatly enhanced biological doses delivered to adjacent normal structures. PMID:11686275

  4. A theoretical investigation into the role of tumour radiosensitivity, clonogen repopulation, tumour shrinkage and radionuclide RBE in permanent brachytherapy implants of 125I and 103Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing clinical interest in the use of 125I (half-life 59.4 days) and 103Pd (half-life 16.97 days) for permanent brachytherapy implants. These radionuclides pose interesting radiobiological challenges because, even with slowly growing tumours, significant tumour cell repopulation may occur during the long period taken to deliver the full radiation dose. This results in a considerable amount of the prescribed dose being wasted. There may also be changes in the tumour volume during treatment (due to oedema and/or shrinkage), thus altering the relative geometry of the implanted seeds and causing additional dose rate variations. This assessment examines the interaction between the above effects and additionally includes allowance for the influence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiations emitted by the two radionuclides. The results are presented in terms of the biologically effective doses (BEDs) and likely tumour control probabilities (TCPs) associated with the various parameter combinations. The overall BED enhancement due to the RBE effect is shown always to be greater than the RBE itself and is greatest in tumours which are radio-resistive and/or fast growing. The biological dose uncertainties are found to be less with 103Pd and the TCPs associated with this radionuclide are expected to be significantly higher in the treatment of some 'difficult' tumours. Using typically prescribed doses 125125I appears to be better for treating radiosensitive tumours with long doubling times and which shrink fairly rapidly. However, unless 125I doses are reduced, this advantage may well be offset by the greatly enhanced biological doses delivered to adjacent normal structures. (author)

  5. 125I seed fixity after implantation in parotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the fixity of 125I seed after implantation in parotid region. Methods: Ten patients treated with 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy in parotid were randomly selected. Within one week after the treatment, two plane radiographs were taken by radiotherapy simulator and 125I seed was counted. All plane dosimetry analysis were performed by treatment planning system. The areas surrounded by 50%, 100% and 150% of prescription dose curve and dose equality index were calculated. Two months after the treatment, the same examination were repeated and were compared with t test. Results: The number of seeds was equal in two examination. There were no significant differences in two examinations either for the areas surrounded by 50%, 100% and 150% of prescription dose curve or for the dose equality index. Conclusions: The position of 125I seed after implantation in parotid region is quite fixable, which can ensure the curative effect. (authors)

  6. Sequential Comparison of Seed Loss and Prostate Dosimetry of Stranded Seeds With Loose Seeds in 125I Permanent Implant for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare stranded seeds (SSs) with loose seeds (LSs) in terms of prostate edema, dosimetry, and seed loss after 125I brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of 20 men participated in an institutional review board-approved protocols to study postimplant prostate edema and its effect on dosimetry. The LS cohort underwent brachytherapy between September 2002 and July 2003 and the SS cohort between April 2006 and January 2007. Both cohorts were evaluated sequentially using computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based dosimetry on Days 0, 7, and 30. No hormonal therapy or supplemental beam radiotherapy was used. Results: Prostate edema was less in the SS cohort at all points (p = NS). On Day 0, all the prostate dosimetric factors were greater in the LS group than in the SS group (p = 0.003). However, by Days 7 and 30, the dosimetry was similar between the two cohorts. No seeds migrated to the lung in the SS cohort compared with a total of five seeds in 4 patients in the LS cohort. However, the overall seed loss was greater in the SS cohort (24 seeds in 6 patients; 1.1% of total vs. 0.6% for LSs), with most seeds lost through urine (22 seeds in 5 patients). Conclusion: Despite elimination of venous seed migration, greater seed loss was observed with SSs compared with LSs, with the primary site of loss being the urinary tract. Modification of the technique might be necessary to minimize this. Prostate dosimetry on Dato minimize this. Prostate dosimetry on Days 7 and 30 was similar between the SS and LS cohorts

  7. Ejaculatory Function After Permanent 125I Prostate Brachytherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ejaculatory function is an underreported aspect of male sexuality in men treated for prostate cancer. We conducted the first detailed analysis of ejaculatory function in patients treated with permanent 125I prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Of 270 sexually active men with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent 125I prostate brachytherapy, 241 (89%), with a mean age of 65 years (range, 43-80), responded to a mailed questionnaire derived from the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire regarding ejaculatory function. Five aspects of ejaculatory function were examined: frequency, volume, dry ejaculation, pleasure, and pain. Results: Of the 241 sexually active men, 81.3% had conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy; however, the number of patients with rare/absent ejaculatory function was double the pretreatment number (p < .0001). The latter finding was correlated with age (p < .001) and the preimplant International Index of Erectile Function score (p < .001). However, 84.9% of patients with maintained ejaculatory function after implantation reported a reduced volume of ejaculate compared with 26.9% before (p < .001), with dry ejaculation accounting for 18.7% of these cases. After treatment, 30.3% of the patients experienced painful ejaculation compared with 12.9% before (p = .0001), and this was associated with a greater number of implanted needles (p = .021) and the existenceanted needles (p = .021) and the existence of painful ejaculation before implantation (p < .0001). After implantation, 10% of patients who continued to be sexually active experienced no orgasm compared with only 1% before treatment. in addition, more patients experienced late/difficult or weak orgasms (p = .001). Conclusion: Most men treated with brachytherapy have conserved ejaculatory function after prostate brachytherapy. However, most of these men experience a reduction in volume and a deterioration in orgasm.

  8. Clinical application of transperineal 125I-seed implantation guided by ultrasonography in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish an optimal technological protocol, and to observe the short-term efficacy and morbidity of transperineal 125I-seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography in prostate cancer. Method: Thirty-two patients were treated with transperineal 125I-seed brachytherapy guided by transrectal ultrasound. Among them 6 patients were treated with the seed implantation plus preor post-external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Biochemical failure was defined as consecutive elevations of PSA level for three times during follow-up period and the biochemical progression-free was defined as biochemical control. Results: The pre- and post-implantation median serum PSA values of 14 patients were (52.14 ± 54.61) ng/ml and (4.26 ± 7.11) ng/ml, respectively (t=3.253, P=0.003). The biochemical control rate was 100%. The pre- and post-treatment median PSA values of 12 recurrent prostate cancer patients were (15.14 ± 20.80) ng/ml and (18.94 ± 35.25) ng/ml, respectively (t=-0.307, P=0.764). Their biochemical control rate was 75%. The pre- and post-implantation median PSA values of 5 patients with bone metastases were (120.03 ± 145.96) ng/ml and (75.53 ± 84.84) ng/ml, respectively (t=0.527, P=0.621). In 34.62% patients treated only with 125I-seed implication urinary complications were not experience and the incidences of Grade I, II, III, IV and V urinary side effects were 38.46%, 11.54%, 11.54%, 0 and 3.85%, respectively. The incide and 3.85%, respectively. The incidences of Grade I, II, III and IV urinary morbidity were 16.67%, 0, 0 and 16.67%, respectively for patients treated with seed implantation plus EBRT. Grade 1 rectal toxicity was noted in 3.12% patients. In 3.12% patients, one seed migration occurred. Conclusion: Transperineal permanent brachytherapy is safe, convenient, minimally invasive, with low urinary and rectal side effects. (authors)

  9. 125I Vicryl suture implants as a surgical adjuvant in cancer of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four intraoperative 125I seed implants using absorbable suture (Vicryl) carriers were performed in 53 patients with head and neck cancers at Stanford between 1975 and 1980. In previously untreated patients, local control in the implanted volume or in all head and neck sites was obtained in 79 and 71%, respectively. Of 34 patients with recurrent carcinomas, local control was obtained in the implant volume in 20 (59%), while 38% had no recurrence post-implantation in any head and neck site. The incidence of complications is correlated with 125I radiation doses, total millicuries inserted, seed strength used, and tissue volume implanted for both untreated patients and those with local recurrences. Guidelines for the optimal use of the above 4 parameters are also presented. The authors conclude that 125I seed Vicryl intraoperative suture implants are an effective surgical adjuvant in the treatment of advanced, previously untreated or recurrent head and neck cancers

  10. CT-Guided Radioactive 125I Seed Implantation Therapy of Symptomatic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeThis study explored the clinical efficacy of CT-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation in treating patients with symptomatic retroperitoneal lymph node metastases.MethodsTwenty-five patients with pathologically confirmed malignant tumors received CT-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation to treat metastatic lymph nodes. The diameter of the metastatic lymph nodes ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Treatment planning system (TPS) was used to reconstruct the three-dimensional image of the tumor and then calculate the corresponding quantity and distribution of 125I seeds.ResultsFollow-up period for this group of patients was 2–30 months, and median time was 16 months. Symptoms of refractory pain were significantly resolved postimplantation (P 125I seed implantation, which showed good palliative pain relief with acceptable short-term effects, has proved in our study to be a new, safe, effective, and relatively uncomplicated treatment option for symptomatic retroperitoneal metastatic lymph nodes

  11. The use of anisotropic data in 125I prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report recently published by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 43 (TG43) recommends the use of a two dimensional dose distribution function for the dosimetry associated with 125I, 192Ir and 103Pd sources. For commercial planning systems that cannot be readily adapted to use a two dimensional function, a point source approximation is provided. The dose distribution around an array of 125I seeds has been calculated using the two dimensional model and the point source approximation. Isodose distributions through selected planes and dose volume histograms of selected cubic volumes show that differences between the two models for this array are insignificant, particularly in view of the uncertainties associated with using the data which is provided by TG43 for the two dimensional anisotropy function and that it should be retained for planning prostrate treatments with 125I seeds. It is recommended that each application must be examined separately to establish the extent to which an isotropic dose distribution is applicable

  12. Comparison of 3 different postimplant dosimetry methods following permanent 125I prostate seed brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postimplant dosimetry (PID) after Iodine-125 (125I) implant of the prostate should offer a reliable qualitative assessment. So far, there is no consensus regarding the optimum PID method, though the latest literature is in favor of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aims to simultaneously compare 3 PID techniques: (1) MRI-computed tomography (CT) fusion; (2) ultrasound (US)-CT fusion; and (3) manual target delineation on CT. The study comprised 10 patients with prostate cancer. CT/MR scans with urinary catheters in place for PID were done either on day 0 or day 1 postimplantation. The main parameter evaluated and compared among methods was target D90. The results show that CT-based D90s are lower than US-CT D90s (median difference,?6.85%), whereas MR-CT PID gives higher D90 than US-CT PID (median difference, 4.25%). Manual contouring on CT images tends to overestimate the prostate volume compared with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) (median difference, 23.33%), whereas on US images the target is overestimated compared with MR-based contouring (median difference, 13.25%). Although there are certain differences among the results given by various PID techniques, the differences are statistically insignificant for this small group of patients. Any dosimetric comparison between 2 PID techniques should also account for the limitations of each technique, to allow for an accurate quantification of data. Given that PID after permanent radioactive seed implant is mandatory for quality assurance, any imaging method–based PID (MR-CT, US-CT, and CT) available in a radiotherapy department can be indicative of the quality of the procedure

  13. CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation for the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation in treating malignant adrenal neoplasms. Methods: CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation was performed in 9 cases of malignant adrenal neoplasms with a total of 9 lesions. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment plan system was used to design the distribution of 125I seeds for treatment. Under CT guidance, the 125I seeds of 29.6 MBq were implanted into the malignant adrenal neoplasms with an interval distance of 1.0-1.5 cm. A follow-up of 1-15 months was conducted. The postoperative efficacy was evaluated with enhanced CT scanning. Results: After the treatment, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 5 patients, partial remission (PR) in 3 patients and no change (NC) in 1 patients, with an overall effective rate of 88.9%. The main complication was slight bleeding (n=1). Conclusion: For the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms, CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation carries reliable short-term effectiveness, therefore, it is a safe, effective and minimally-invasive therapy. (authors)

  14. Clinical efficacy of CT-guided 125I seed implantation therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the clinical efficacy of CT-guided radioactive 125I seed implantation treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods: Forty patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this study, including 25 males and 15 females with an median age of 69 years (38-89 years). Treatment planning system (TPS) was used to reconstruct 3-dimensional images of pancreatic tumor and to define the quantity and distribution of 125I seeds. The radioactivity of 125I seeds was 0.5 - 0.8 mCi / seed. The seeds were implanted into pancreatic tumor under CT guidance at intervals of 1 cm and were kept away from vessels, pancreatic duct and other adjacent important organs. The tumor matched peripheral dose (MPD) was 60-140 Gy. The median amount of implanted 125I seeds was 36 (18-68) in number. CT scan was performed immediately after the procedure to check the quality of the seeds. In addition, 10 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with arterial infusion of gemcitabin and 5-fluororacil (5-Fu) for 3 to 4 therapeutic courses. Results: The median diameter of the tumors was 4.9 cm. The follow-up period was 2 to 28 months. After the treatment the refractory pain was significantly relieved (P 125I seed implantation is a safe, effective and minimally-invasive brachytherapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer with reliable short-term efficacy. It has an excellent anti-pain effect. The curative results can be further improved when chemotherapy is employed together. However, its long-term efficacy needs to be observed. (authors)

  15. The clinic application of CT-guided interstitial 125I seeds implantation in curing lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To introduce the procedures and evaluate the clinic value of CT-guided interstitial 125I seeds implantation in treating lung cancer. Methods: Thirty-one cases patients with lung cancer underwent CT-guided interstitial 125I seeds implantation. All patients were scanned on multi-spiral CT (Philips, MX 8000) with optical navigating system (pinpoint), and treatment plan system, needle, and 125I seeds (Chinese Academy of Science) were used. First of all, according to the size of tumor, TPS calculated the optimal quantity of seeds. Then, under the guidance of CT, 125I seeds were percutaneously implanted into the tumors for interstitial radiotherapy. CT follow-up examinations were performed 1, 2, and 6 months after the therapy, respectively. According to the size of tumor, curative effects were graded as 4 grades: grade I: obvious relief (OR) (the size of tumor reduced up to 50%), grade II: relief (PR) (the size of tumor reduced by 25%-50%), grade III: slight relief (SD) (the size of tumor reduced by 1%-25%), and grade IV: no effect (PD) (the size of tumor did not reduce or increase, and clinic symptoms showed no relief). Results: At 1 month, 9 cases were classified as grade I, 6 as grade II, 13 as grade III, and 3 as grade IV, respectively. At 2 months, 17 cases were grade I, 8 grade II, 3 grade III, and 3 grade IV, respectively. At 6 months, 23 cases were grade I, 3 grade II, 2 grade III, and 3 grade IV, respectively. grade III, and 3 grade IV, respectively. Conclusion: CT-guided interstitial 125I seeds implanted was a safe, reliable, and effective curative method for lung cancer. (authors)

  16. Permanent 125I-seed prostate brachytherapy: early prostate specific antigen value as a predictor of PSA bounce occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazeron Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate predictive factors for PSA bounce after 125I permanent seed prostate brachytherapy and identify criteria that distinguish between benign bounces and biochemical relapses. Materials and methods Men treated with exclusive permanent 125I seed brachytherapy from November 1999, with at least a 36 months follow-up were included. Bounce was defined as an increase ? 0.2 ng/ml above the nadir, followed by a spontaneous return to the nadir. Biochemical failure (BF was defined using the criteria of the Phoenix conference: nadir +2 ng/ml. Results 198 men were included. After a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 21 patients experienced a BF, and 35.9% had at least one bounce which occurred after a median period of 17 months after implantation (4-50. Bounce amplitude was 0.6 ng/ml (0.2-5.1, and duration was 13.6 months (4.0-44.9. In 12.5%, bounce magnitude exceeded the threshold defining BF. Age at the time of treatment and high PSA level assessed at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with bounce but not with BF. Bounce patients had a higher BF free survival than the others (100% versus 92%, p = 0,007. In case of PSA increase, PSA doubling time and velocity were not significantly different between bounce and BF patients. Bounces occurred significantly earlier than relapses and than nadir + 0.2 ng/ml in BF patients (17 vs 27.8 months, p Conclusion High PSA value assessed 6 weeks after brachytherapy and young age were significantly associated to a higher risk of bounces but not to BF. Long delays between brachytherapy and PSA increase are more indicative of BF.

  17. 125I seed implant brachytherapy for the treatment of parotid gland cancers in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: There is a lack of optimal treatment strategies for managing salivary gland cancers in children and adolescents. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of 125I seed implantation for the treatment of parotid cancers in children and adolescents. Patients and methods: A total of 12 patients younger than 16 years with parotid gland malignant tumors underwent 125I seed implant brachytherapy between October 2003 and November 2008. All patients were assessed after treatment and at the local tumor control appointments. Facial nerve function, maxillofacial development, and radioactive side-effects were assessed. Results: The follow-up period ranged from 41-104 months. One patient with T4b died of pulmonary metastasis. The other patients were alive during the follow-up period. There were no serious radiation-related complications. The treatment did not affect facial nerve function and dentofacial growth in any of the children. Conclusion: For parotid gland cancers in children, 125I seed implant brachytherapy may be an acceptable treatment without serious complications and with satisfactory short-term effects. (orig.)

  18. Pathological impairments induced by interstitial implantation of 125I Seeds in spinal canal of banna mini-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zuozhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use a banna mini-pig to set up 125I implantation model, and investigate the consequence of radiation-related impairments. Methods In present study, 125I seeds were implanted into spinal canal of T13 level of spine in banna mini-pigs. After operation, the pigs were raised up to 8 months, behavior changes were recorded within this period. After 8 months, spinal cords were collected for pathological analysis. Results In this study, a 125I brachytherapy animal model had been successfully established, in the model group, the banna pigs' Tarlov scale decreased from 5 to 2.57 ± 0.36, significant cellular impairments were noted by pathological analysis. Conclusions Without any protection and operation improvement, 125I implantation can cause serious histological impairments and moving difficulty for banna mini-pigs; this present research provides an alternative tool to study spinal 125I brachytherapy.

  19. Surgery and permanent 125I seed paraspinal brachytherapy for malignant tumors with spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the functional outcome, predictors of response, and toxicity from spinal surgery and 125I brachytherapy in patients with malignant tumors resulting in spinal cord compression. Methods and Materials: Between July 1985 and September 2001, after surgical resection, 30 patients underwent 31 intraoperative paraspinal brachytherapy procedures at Barrow Neurological Institute. Twenty-four (with 25 procedures) had follow-up at our clinic and form the basis for this report. Surgical procedures were based on the location of the impinging lesion: corpectomy or spondylectomy in 13 cases and laminectomy in 12. Permanent 125I seeds in absorbable suture were placed with open exposure after resection. Results: Spinal cord compression was cervical in 4 (16%), thoracic in 14 (56%), and lumbar in 7 (28%) of the 25 cases. One patient underwent two separate procedures at different spinal sites. Of the 25 brachytherapy sites, 22 also received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT): 5, EBRT with a planned brachytherapy boost; 4, brachytherapy and prompt EBRT after recovery; and 13, brachytherapy as salvage for local failure after prior EBRT. Three had no EBRT: 1 had lymphoma treated with chemotherapy, 1 had remote previous EBRT for a childhood tumor, and 1 refused EBRT. The mean follow-up was 19.8 months. The 2- and 3-year actuarial local control rate was 87.4% and 72.9%, respectively. Four sites (16.0%) experienced local failure. The mean time to recurnced local failure. The mean time to recurrence for these 4 patients was 20.3 months. Three of the four had failed prior EBRT, with surgery and brachytherapy used for salvage. The 2- and 3-year actuarial overall survival rates were 24.0% and 16.0%, mean 19.2 months. An ambulatory function score was assigned pre- and postoperatively: I, normal ambulation; II, abnormal not requiring assistance; III, abnormal requiring assistance; and IV, unable to ambulate. All patients with score I, 91% of those with score II, 67% of those with score III, and 67% of those with score IV were ambulatory after the procedure; 84% had either normal or improved ambulation postoperatively. Morbidity was restricted to four postoperative events: one cerebrospinal fluid leak, two wound infections treated in situ without removal of seeds or instrumentation, and one pulmonary embolus. No myelopathies or other neurologic sequelae were encountered. Conclusion: This is the largest series in the literature exploring surgery and 125I brachytherapy in the treatment of malignant spinal cord compression. We found this to be well tolerated and to result in durable local control and ambulatory function. Our results suggest a benefit to aggressive local therapy in selected patients with spinal cord compression

  20. Clinical Investigations on the Spinal Osteoblastic Metastasis Treated by Combination of Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and 125I Seeds Implantation Versus Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zuozhang; Tan, Jing; Zhao, Ruilian; Wang, Jiaping; Sun, Hongpu; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xu, Lei; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jinlei

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of combining digital subtraction angiography-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and 125I seeds implantation for the treatment of spinal osteoplastic metastasis. A combination of PVP and 125I implantation was conducted for 50 patients with spinal osteoplastic metastasis, while the other 50 patients who received regular radiation therapy were used as a comparison. Visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and score of life quality (EORTCQLQ-30) were determined ...

  1. 125I interstitial brachytherapy for primary malignant brain tumors: technical aspects of treatment planning and implantation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of interstitial radiation holds promise in the treatment of primary malignant brain tumors, but optimal technical factors have yet to be determined. We have developed a method of precise CT directed stereotactic placement of radioactive sources in a predetermined target volume. We use low activity (1-2 millicurie/speed) sources of 125I loaded in silastic catheters, which are positioned in a parallel array in the target. Positioning of such multiple sources toward the periphery of the volume enhances achievable dose homogeneity. Seeds of various activities can be differentially loaded into each catheter and the catheters can be positioned at various radii from the central target so that the treated volume corresponds to the identified (often irregular) target volume. Although the implant is designed to be permanent, the sources can be removed easily in a second procedure

  2. CT-guided interstitial 125I seed implantation for intractable pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of CT-guided interstitial 125I seed implantation in treating intractable pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinomas. Methods: During the period from April 2010 to September 2010 CT-guided interstitial 125I seed implantation was carried out in 11 patients with pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma which developed after the patients had received comprehensive treatments such as surgical resection, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical symptoms, the tumor size and the quality of life (QOL) before the treatment and at two and six months after the treatment were recorded, and the complications were observed. The results were compared. All the patients were followed up for six months. Results: At two and six months after the treatment, the improvement rate of the clinical symptoms was 100.0% (11/11) and 90.9% (10/11) respectively, while the effective reduction of the tumor size was 90.9% (10/11) and 81.8% (9/11) respectively. At two and six months after the treatment the QOL score was (56.0±3.66) and (54.4±5.41) respectively, both of which were higher than the QOL score determined before the treatment (42.5±6.93), the difference between them was statistically significant (P125I seed implantation has satisfactory short-term effect. This treatment is also quite safe and effective for patients who are unbearable to external radiation therapy due to the tissue dose restriction. (authors)

  3. Clinical results of early stage prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymphadenectomy and 125I implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty patients with clinically early stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with pelvic lymphadenectomy and interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. A new applicator that permits greater accuracy in spacing the seeds has been developed. Postoperative complications were minimal, with urinary irritability being the most common. Multiple transrectal needle biopsies were performed 12 and 18 months after treatment in 46 patients. The prostatic biopsies were negative for carcinoma in 61 per cent and positive in 39 per cent of the patients. Long-term followup is needed to correlate post-treatment biopsies with survival and to determine if patients with positive biopsies should receive further treatment

  4. The clinical application of TACE together with RFA and 125I seed implantation in treating hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to assess the clinical value of the combined treatment of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and radioactive 125I seed implantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: During the period from March 2008 to Dec. 2010, 15 patients with HCC were admitted to the hospital. A total of 25 hepatic lesions were detected with the size of 1-8 cm. TACE was carried out first, which was followed by CT-guided RFA and radioactive 125I seed implantation. With the help of treat plan system (TPS), the radioactive 125I seed implantation was conducted to make additional management for the same lesion when RFA was finished, or the radioactive 125I seeds were directly implanted into the areas where RFA could not reach. The radioactive dose was 60-100 Gy. All the patients were followed up and were kept under observation for the signs of related complications. The therapeutic results were evaluated. Results: The combined treatment was successfully accomplished in all patients. All patients were followed up for 3-28 months (mean of 10.6 months). The complete necrosis rate of the tumor was 96%. No serious complications occurred except the immigration of 125I seeds in 1 case. Conclusion: The combined treatment of TACE and CT-guided RFA together with 125I seed implantation is a safe, reliable and effective therapy for HCC with excellent short-term result. (authors)

  5. 125I seeds implant combined with internal iliac arterial infusion chemotherapy in the treatment of recurrence pelvic malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of seeds implantation technique under CT guidance, combined with internal iliac arterial infusion chemotherapy in the treatment of recurrence pelvic tumors. Methods: Eight patients with recurrence pelvic tumors have been treated by 125I seeds implant combined with internal iliac arterial infusion chemotherapy. The chemotherapy scheme was based on the primary tumor type. Under CT guidance, 125I seeds were implanted into the pelvic tumors according to TPS or Halarism's experienced function: mCi = Da x 5 (Da means the average of length, width and height of the lesion). mCi is the total activity of 125I. The number of 125I seeds needed equals to that of total activities divided by the activity of single particle. Results: All the patients received PET-CT chest follow up two months later. CR, PR, NC, PD were abtained in 0, 5, 2, 1 cases respectively. Two patients died within one year, other 6 patients are still alive, the longest survival period was more than 15 months, the 1-year survival rates was 75%. Conclusions: 125I seeds implant combined with internal iliac arterial infusion chemotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of pelvic recurrence tumors. (authors)

  6. Nursing care for patients with local recurrent rectal cancer after CT-guided 125I seed implantation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the nursing care strategy for patients with local recurrent rectal cancer who has been treated with CT-guided 125I seed implantation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with local recurrent rectal cancer received a series of nursing interventions, including comfort care and pain care. The clinical results were observed and analyzed. Results: The therapy was smoothly accomplished in all patients. The pain was remarkably relived and the anxiety was alleviated. No displacement of implanted 125I seed occurred. Conclusion: For patients with local recurrent rectal cancer occurred after CT-guided 125I seed implantation therapy, careful nursing can effectively relieve the pain and anxiety feeling,and the living quality can also be markedly improved. (authors)

  7. 125I Monotherapy Using D90 Implant Doses of 180 Gy or Greater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the oncologic results and toxicity profile of patients treated with 125I implants using the dose delivered to 90% of the gland from the dose-volume histogram (D90) of greater than 144 Gy. Methods and Materials: From June 1995 to Feb 2005, a total of 643 patients were treated with 125I monotherapy for T1-T2 prostate cancer with a D90 of 180 Gy or greater (median, 197 Gy; range, 180-267 Gy). Implantations were performed using a real-time ultrasound-guided seed-placement method and intraoperative dosimetry to optimize target coverage and homogeneity by using modified peripheral loading. We analyzed biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) of 435 patients who had a minimum 2-year prostate-specific antigen follow-up (median follow-up, 6.7 years; range, 2.0-11.1 years). Results: Five-year bDFS rates for the entire cohort using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions were 96.9% and 96.5%, respectively. Using the Phoenix definition, 5-year bDFS rates were 97.3% for low-risk patients and 92.8% for intermediate/high-risk patients. The positive biopsy rate was 4.1%. The freedom rate from Grade 2 or higher rectal bleeding at 5 years was 88.5%. Acute urinary retention occurred in 10.7%, more commonly in patients with high pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Scores (p < 0.01). In patients who were potent before treatment, 73.4% remained potent at 5 years eatment, 73.4% remained potent at 5 years after implantation. Conclusions: Patients with a minimum D90 of 180 Gy had outstanding local control based on prostate-specific antigen control and biopsy data. Toxicity profiles, particularly for long-term urinary and sexual function, were excellent and showed that D90 doses of 180 Gy or greater performed using the technique described were feasible and tolerable

  8. Radiation protective nursing intervene of 125I seed implantation in non-small cell lung carcinoma guided by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To research radiation protective nursing intervene and important notice of 125I seeds minimally invasive implantation in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) by CT. Methods: Under the system of therapy planning system (TPS) and posologic validation, 125I seeds were implanted in 89 cases of NSCLC patients. The consistent radiation protective nursing intervene was used in perioperative period management. The operative successful rate, therapeutic effect and complication rate, therapeutic effect and complication rate was observed. Results: The scientific radiation protective nursing intervene can ensure that the radioactive dose distribution of 125I seed implantation brachytherapy is consistent with the principles of effective and minimally invasive. The operative successful rate was 100%. The local control rate and 1 year survival rate respectively was 97.4% and 92.2%. But the early and later incidence rate of radioactive damaging effect was 14.6% and 1.1% respectively. Leakage of radioactive contamination has not occurred. Conclusion: The consistent TPS and posologic validation 125I seeds implantation integrated scientific radiation protective nursing intervene. It is very important to improve the therapeutic effect of NSCLC and reduce the incidence of complications. (authors)

  9. Permanent and removable implants for the brachytherapy of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients harboring primary or metastatic brain tumors were treated with 40 implantations of radioactive sources (192Ir, 198Au, or 125I) using stereotactic neurosurgical techniques. Most tumors had recurred after surgery, whole brain irradiation, and treatment with all feasible chemotherapeutic agents. Sixteen of the 40 implants were pregnant; 24 were mounted in plastic catheters for removal after the desired dose had been delivered. One or more sources were placed in each tumor to deliver 3500-7350 rad to the tumor's periphery for 198Au, 4,000-12,000 rad for 192Ir, and 3,000-20,000 rad for 125I. Three of the six patients treated with 192Ir had objective responses for 2, 4, and 12 months, and two stabilized for 8 and 11 months. Seven of the 11 patients treated with 198Au were evaluable: three responded for 3, 5, and 37 + months, one deteriorating patient with a recurrent tumor stabilized for 6 months, and two deteriorated despite treatment. One patient received an interstitial ''boost'' dose with 198Au after whole brain irradiation and stabilized for 15 months before developing spinal metastases. Six patients received permanent implants with low activity 125I. Three of these patients had blioblastomas or anaplastic astrocytomas; all continued to deteriorate despite the interstitial irradiation, presumably because the dose rat was too low. One patieecause the dose rat was too low. One patient with a low-grade astrocytoma (optic chiasm) responded dramatically to permanent, low activity 125I implants (11 + months). Another (hypothalamic glioma) had a permanent 125I implant, responded, as was stable at 9 months when external irradiation was administered. One patient with a suprasellar ''teratoid'' tumor stabilized for 10 months

  10. Results of biopsy after early stage prostatic cancer treatment by implantation of 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-seven patients have been treated for clinically early stage carcinoma of the prostate, 9 stage A2, 63 stage B and 5 stage C, with direct implantation of 125I seeds into the prostate and pelvic lymphadenectomy. It is estimated that a minimum dose of 15,000 rad but a maximum dose of 35,000 rad is delivered to the prostate over several months. Of the 77 patients, 14 (18%) had metastatic disease in the pelvic lymph nodes. In 22 cases perineal needle biopsy was done 12 to 18 months after treatment and in 3 cases a second biopsy was performed after 2 to 3 years. Persistent tumor was present in 11 biopsies. Cytological changes were observed in 8 of these, primarily cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear pyknosis. There seemed to be no relationship between grade and stage of disease and histological evidence of persistence of tumor after radiation. One patient with persistent tumor in the postoperative biopsy has shown progression of disease after 2 years and another with a negative biopsy has a bony metastasis. The remaining 10 patients with persistent tumor have shown no sign of progression of disease during a 2 to 4-year interval

  11. CT-guided iodine-125 seed permanent implantation for recurrent head and neck cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Chen; Yuan Hui SH; Jiang Ping; Wang Jun J; Meng Na; Jiang Yu L; Qu Ang; Yang Rui J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the feasibility, and safety of 125I seed permanent implantation for recurrent head and neck carcinoma under CT-guidance. Results A retrospective study on 14 patients with recurrent head and neck cancers undergone 125I seed implantation with different seed activities. The post-plan showed that the actuarial D90 of 125I seeds ranged from 90 to 218 Gy (median, 157.5 Gy). The follow-up was 3 to 60 months (median, 13 months). The median local control was 18 month...

  12. Comparison of methods for calculating rectal dose after 125I prostate brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare several different methods of calculating the rectal dose and examine how accurately they represent rectal dose surface area measurements and, also, their practicality for routine use. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 55 patients, randomly selected from 295 prostate brachytherapy patients implanted at the Vancouver Cancer Center between 1998 and 2000. All implants used a nonuniform loading of 0.33 mCi (NIST-99) 125I seeds and a prescribed dose of 144 Gy. Pelvic CT scans were obtained for each patient ?30 days after implantation. For the purposes of calculating the rectal dose, several structures were contoured on the CT images: (1) a 1-mm-thick anterior rectal wall, (2) the anterior half rectum, and (3) the whole rectum. Point doses were also obtained along the anterior rectal surface. The thin wall contour provided a surrogate for a dose-surface histogram (DSH) and was our reference standard rectal dose measurement. Alternate rectal dose measurements (volume, surface area, and length of rectum receiving a dose of interest [DOI] of ?144 Gy and 216 Gy, as well as point dose measures) were calculated using several methods (VariSeed software) and compared with the surrogate DSH measure (SADOI). Results: The best correlation with SA144Gy was the dose volumes (whole or anterior half rectum) (R = 0.949). The length of rectum receiving ?144 Gy also correlated well with SA144Gy (R ?0.898). Point144Gy (R ?0.898). Point dose measures, such as the average and maximal anterior dose, correlated poorly with SA144Gy (R ?0.649). The 216-Gy measurements supported these results. In addition, dose-volume measurements were the most practical (?6 min/patient), with our surrogate DSH the least practical (?20 min/patient). Conclusion: Dose-volume measurements for the whole or anterior half rectum, because they were the most practical measures and best represented the DSH measurements, should be considered a standard method of reporting the rectal dose when calculating the DSH is not practical. Average or maximal anterior rectal doses are not reliable indicators of surface area dosimetry

  13. Tissue composition and density impact on the clinical parameters for (125)I prostate implants dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Susana Maria; Teixeira, Nuno José; Fernandes, Lisete; Teles, Pedro; Vieira, Guy; Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The MCNPX code was used to calculate the TG-43U1 recommended parameters in water and prostate tissue in order to quantify the dosimetric impact in 30 patients treated with (125)I prostate implants when replacing the TG-43U1 formalism parameters calculated in water by a prostate-like medium in the planning system (PS) and to evaluate the uncertainties associated with Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. The prostate density was obtained from the CT of 100 patients with prostate cancer. The deviations between our results for water and the TG-43U1 consensus dataset values were -2.6% for prostate V100, -13.0% for V150, and -5.8% for D90; -2.0% for rectum V100, and -5.1% for D0.1; -5.0% for urethra D10, and -5.1% for D30. The same differences between our water and prostate results were all under 0.3%. Uncertainties estimations were up to 2.9% for the gL(r) function, 13.4% for the F(r,?) function and 7.0% for ?, mainly due to seed geometry uncertainties. Uncertainties in extracting the TG-43U1 parameters in the MC simulations as well as in the literature comparison are of the same order of magnitude as the differences between dose distributions computed for water and prostate-like medium. The selection of the parameters for the PS should be done carefully, as it may considerably affect the dose distributions. The seeds internal geometry uncertainties are a major limiting factor in the MC parameters deduction. PMID:25239870

  14. The effect of interstitial 125I seeds implantation on intestinal wall: a pathological observation in experimental dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the radiation injury of the bowel wall due to the implantation of interstitial 125I seeds in experimental dogs. Methods: A total of 12 healthy male dogs were randomly and equally divided into 3 experimental groups and 1 control group, with 3 dogs in each group.In the experimental groups, two 125I seeds with the active radiation dose of 0.8mCi were symmetrically implanted under the serous membrane of the dog's small intestinal wall. The dogs were fed for 14 days (group A), for one month (group B) and for two months (group C) respectively when the animals were scheduled to be sacrificed. The dogs' general condition was observed till they were sacrificed. The seed-implanting intestinal segments were then removed and dyed with HE staining method for electronic microscopic exam. The histopathologic findings were recorded and the results were compared between four groups. Results: No obvious histopathological changes were found in the dog's bowel wall 14 days after the implantation. One month after the procedure cellular injury was observed under electronic microscope, and two months after the operation partial fibrosis of the intestinal wall appeared but no ulceration or perforation occurred. Conclusion: The implantation of 125I seeds can cause reversible cellular injuries of the intestinal wall in experimental dogs, the degree of the damage reaches its peak at one month after the implant when the partial fibrosis of bthe implant when the partial fibrosis of bowel wall becomes evident. However, the seeds do not cause any serious complications, such as ulceration or perforation. (authors)

  15. Status and prospects of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with (125)I seed implantation for the treatment of spinal metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lin; Chen, Yanjin; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Zuozhang; Zhang, Zhaoxin; Shen, Lida; Yuan, Zhongqin; Ren, Mingyan

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic spinal tumours are the most common type of bone metastasis. Various methods have been used to treat metastatic spinal lesions, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, isotope therapy, bisphosphonate therapy, analgesics, and surgery. Conservative treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not appropriate and usually are ineffective in patients with vertebral fractures and/or spinal instability. Minimally invasive surgical treatments using non-vascular interventional technology, such as percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), have been successfully performed in the clinical setting. PVP is a non-invasive procedure that creates small wounds and is usually associated with only minor complications. In the present study, we will review the clinical status and prospects for the use PVP combined with (125)I seed implantation (PVPI) to treat spinal metastases. The scientific evidence for this treatment, including safety, efficacy, and outcome measures, as well as comparisons with other therapies, was analysed in detail. PVPI effectively alleviates pain in metastatic spinal tumour patients, and the use of interstitial (125)I seed implants can enhance the clinical outcomes. In conclusion, PVPI is a safe, reliable, effective, and minimally invasive treatment. The techniques of PVP and (125)I seed implantation complement each other and strengthen the treatment's effect, presenting a new alternative treatment for spinal metastases with potentially wide application. PMID:25886442

  16. Radioimmunoassay of tumor markers for monitoring the effect of TPS directed implantation of radioactive seeds 125I into tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the therapeutic effect of TPS directed implantation of radioseeds 125I into tumor tissue with Radioimmunoassay of tumor markers. Methods: Radio-active seeds 125I was implanted intra-operatively into 78 patients with malignancy (brain 8, lung 15, liver 12, prostate 7, rectum 10, pancreas 8, bileduct 6, breast 10 and malignant teratoma 2). The organ absorption dose was 90-120 Gy and radio activity was 370-925 MBq. Patients were followed up for 6-12 months and Radioimmunoassays of virions tumor markers serum levels (CYFRA21-1, AFP, CEA, PSA, CA119, CA153) were performed as suitable for the specific disease entity. Results: Reduction of tumor mass was very remarkable (9.0% complete regression, 41.0% regression>1/2 and 50% regression>1/3). Correspondingly, the tested serum tumor marker levels were all significantly lowered. Conclusion: For assessing the therapeutic effect of radioactive seeds 125I implantation, determination of tumor marker levels could be a very sensitive and reliable means

  17. Treatment of Metastatic Spinal Tumors by Percutaneous Vertebroplasty versus Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Combined with Interstitial Implantation of 125I Seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuozhang Yang; Lin Xie; Yunchao Huang; Hongpu Sun; Pengjie Liu; Zhongxiong Wu (Dept. of Orthopedics, Tumor Hospital of Yunnan Province, Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan (China)). e-mail. yangzuozhang@163.com; Dakuan Yang (Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College, Kunming Yunnan (China)); Yuqing Sun (Dept. of Orthopedic Oncology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China))

    2009-12-15

    Background: As the most frequent bone metastasis, spinal metastases cause severe pain and damage to vertebral bodies such as spinal osteolytic destruction and compression fractures. To avoid the trauma and complications of open surgery, a minimally invasive procedure, percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), has recently been developed to treat metastatic spinal tumors. Purpose: To analyze the treatment outcomes of metastatic spinal tumors by percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) alone or PVP combined with interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. Material and Methods: 80 patients with metastatic spinal tumors were randomized to receive PVP alone (40 cases) or PVP combined with 125I seed implantation (40 cases). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-guided vertebroplasty was performed under local anesthesia, and acrylic bone cement was injected into the vertebra through a bone trocar to the center of the lesion, with or without simultaneous interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. Results: At 6-month follow-up, PVP combined with 125I seed implantation resulted in zero cases with complete relief (CR), 36 with partial relief (PR), four with no changes (NC), and zero with progression of disease (PD), while PVP alone without seed implantation resulted in 0 CR, 31 PR, 7 NC, and 2 PD. While the combined-treatment group and the single-PVP group showed overall clinical benefit rates without significant difference (100% and 95.0%, respectively), their visual analogue pain scales (VAS; 2.26+-1.05 and 5.41+-0.94, respectively) and Karnofsky performance scores (KPS; 92.5+-7.1 and 87.7+-7.3, respectively) were significantly different after treatment (P = 0.028 and P = 0.009, respectively). Patients in both groups had 1-year follow-up, and the mean time to tumor progression (TTP) was 9.0 and 8.9 months, respectively (not significant). Conclusion: PVP is a minimally invasive procedure with small wounds and minor complications. It is effective in the alleviation of pain in metastatic spinal tumor patients, and its clinical outcomes can be enhanced by the combination of interstitial implantation of 125I seeds

  18. Comparison between preoperative and real-time intraoperative planning 125I permanent prostate brachytherapy: long-term clinical biochemical outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study is to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome through biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) rates among men with low to intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with two different brachytherapy implant techniques: preoperative planning (PP) and real-time planning (IoP). Methods From June 1998 to July 2011, 1176 men with median age of 67 years and median follow-up of 47 months underwent transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate 125I-brachytherapy using either PP (132) or IoP (1044) for clinical T1c-T2b prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason Phoenix definition. Results The 5- and 7-year actuarial bNED rate was 95% and 90% respectively. The 7-year actuarial bNED was 67% for the PP group and 95% for the IoP group (P?implant technique or BED, ADT and PSA as independent prognostic factors for biochemical failure. Conclusions Following our previous published results addressing the limited and disappointing outcomes of PP method when compared to IoP based on CT dosimetry and PSA kinetics, we now confirm the long-term clinical, bNED rates clear cut superiority of IoP implant methodology. PMID:24341548

  19. Implantation of the linear 125I seed strand into portal venous trunk: an experimental study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of implanting 125I seed strand into portal vein in experimental rabbits. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were equally and randomly divided into experimental group (group T) and control group (group C), and all the rabbits were numbered. Three linear 125I seeds were sealed in a transparent catheter to form a seed strand. The seed strand was inserted into portal vein and rigidly suspended on the inner wall of portal vein in rabbits of group T, while only laparotomy with purse-string suture of portal vein was performed in rabbits of group C. Routine blood exam, liver function, CT scanning and direct portography were carried out at the 14th, 28th, 60th and 120th day after the treatment. Every two rabbits from both groups were sacrificed each time at the 14th, 28th and 60th day after the treatment, and the remaining rabbits were sacrificed at the 120th day after the treatment. Portal venous trunk, both neighboring and distant liver tissues and the duodenum were harvested for pathologic examination. Results: No irradiation related diarrhea, vomiting, body weight loss or death were observed in group T. Both MDCT and DSA showed that the blood flow in the portal vein was unobstructed. Macroscopically, no perforation, stricture or mural thrombus were found in the portal vein, and no adhesion of the implanted 125I seed strand to the inner wall of portal vein was observed. Microscopically, necrosis and e observed. Microscopically, necrosis and exfoliation of endothelial cells were seen, although no obvious pathological changes of tunicae media and adventitia were detected. Market necrosis of the liver tissue adjacent to 125I seed was well seen, while the liver tissue in the inferior area of the right hepatic lobe showed normal. No significant difference in the routine blood count and liver function existed between two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intraluminal implantation of linear 125I seed strand into portal venous trunk is safe and practicable. (authors)

  20. Implantation of 125I seeds for recurrence cervical node of head and neck tumor after external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To summarize the efficacy and the feasibility of 125I seed implantation for recurrence cervical lymph node of head and neck tumor after radiotherapy or radiotherapy plus neck dissection. Methods: Thirty-six patients with the recurrence cervical lymphnode of head and neck tumor after radiotherapy (17 patients) or radiotherapy plus neck dissection (19 patients) were treated with 125I seed implantation guided by ultrasound or CT under local anesthesia. The median number of seeds was 27( range from 3 to 78). Postoperative quality evaluation were routinely obtained for all patients. The actuarial D90 ranged from 90-160 Gy (median, 130 Gy). Results: The follow-up rate was 100%. The number of the patients who were followed up over 1-and 2-year were 11 and 3. The overall response rate was 81%. The 1-and 2-year over local control rates, over survival rates were 69% and 35%, 50% and 22%, respectively. The 1-and 2-year local control rates in patients with recurrence node after radiotherapy plus neck dissection were 72% and 54%, while those were 67% and 50% in patients with recurrence node after radiotherapy,respectively (?2=00, P=0.965). The 1-and 2-year survival rates in two groups were 48%, 13% , and 51%, 39%, respectively (?2=0.17, P=0.676). Conclusions: 125I seed implantation is a safe,minimal invasive with low morbidity and high efficacy salvage treatment method for cervical lymph node recurrence of head and neck tumor after radiotherapy with or without neck dissection. (authors)

  1. Anti-tumor effects of 125I radioactive particles implantation on transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor effects of 125I radioactive particles implantation on transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells in nude mice and clarify their anti-tumor mechanisms. Methods 120 nude mice transplantated with human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=40): 125I radioactive particles implanted group, non-radioactive particles implanted group and non-particles implanted group. The articles were implanted into mice according to Pairs system principle. The expressions of Fas mRNA and protein and the activaties of caspase-3 and caspase-8 enzyme were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The changes of cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with non-radioactive particles implanted group and non-particles implanted group, the size of cancer tissues in 125I radioactive particles implanted group was reduced significantly (P0/G1 phase was significantly increased (P125I radioactive particles into transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells can kill tumor cells, inhibit the growlls can kill tumor cells, inhibit the growth cycle of tumor cells and induce the apoptosis of tumor cells in nude mice. (authors)

  2. 125I interstitial implants in the RIF-1 murine flank tumor: an animal model for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a model for interstitial brachytherapy that uses high-activity, removable 125I sources in the RIF-1 murine flank tumor is reported. Experimental end points are clonogenic cell and tumor regrowth delay assays. For the clonogenic cell assay, interestitial radiation is delivered at total doses of 500-10,000 rad at dose rates of 0.9-2.7 rad/min to cells in annuli of tissue in the tumor. Dose-survival curves are characterized by an initial shoulder followed by a straight (exponential) portion, with D0 similar to that of the curve obtained by external irradiation of the RIF-1 tumor in a self-contained cesium irradiator at similar dose rates. Tumor regrowth curves have been obtained for minimum tumor doses of 500-5000 rad; marked tumor regression has been observed with minimum tumor doses as low as 2000 rad, but results are not as reproducible as the results obtained with the clonogenic cell assay

  3. Is there a preferred strength for regularly spaced 125I seeds in inverse-planned prostate implants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether a preferred seed strength exists for 125I prostate implants preplanned using a fixed intraneedle seed spacing of 1 cm and an objective needle placement strategy within the planning target volume (PTV), and incorporating explicit dose-volume constraints for the PTV and tissues at risk. Methods and Materials: Prostate, urethra, and rectum contours for 10 patients were obtained from transrectal ultrasound studies. The PTV was defined in accordance with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0019 protocol. Inverse planning software was used to optimally arrange seeds of strength 0.3-0.8 U to cover the PTV to DRx = 145 Gy, and limit urethra and rectum doses to 150% and 100% of DRx, respectively. Isodose distributions and dosimetric indices were calculated: V200, V150, V100, V90, D100, D90 for PTV; V150 for urethra; and V100 for rectum. For seeds of strength 0.414 and 0.6 U and three prostate sizes, the sensitivity of V90 and D90 to elementary perturbations of the optimal seed arrangement were examined. Results: For our planning scenario, 125I seeds of strength 0.5-0.6 U provided the best possible PTV coverage while maintaining V200 at ?25%. The source arrangement for 0.6-U seeds was only modestly more sensitive to perturbations than that for 0.414-U seeds. These findings may notor 0.414-U seeds. These findings may not be applicable to implants planned manually or that involve needle placement outside the PTV. Conclusion: Given a particular source arrangement, inverse planning aimed at maximizing dosimetric coverage of the prostate while limiting doses to the urethra and rectum can be used to search for a preferred seed strength. For regularly spaced sources within the PTV, higher strength seeds can provide better dose coverage and better urethral protection than lower strength seeds

  4. Multi-species prostate implant treatment plans incorporating 192Ir and 125I using a Greedy Heuristic based 3D optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of interstitial implant brachytherapy include delivery of the target dose in a uniform manner while sparing sensitive structures, and minimizing the number of needles and sources. We investigated the use of a multi-species source arrangement (192Ir with 125I) for treatment in interstitial prostate brachytherapy. The algorithm utilizes an 'adjoint ratio', which provides a means of ranking source positions and is the criterion for the Greedy Heuristic optimization. Three cases were compared, each using 0.4 mCi 125I seeds: case I is the base case using 125I alone, case II uses 0.12 mCi 192Ir seeds mixed with 125I, and case III uses 0.25 mCi 192Ir mixed with 125I. Both multi-species cases result in lower exposure of the urethra and central prostate region. Compared with the base case, the exposure to the rectum and normal tissue increases by a significant amount for case III as compared with the increase in case II, signifying the effect of slower dose falloff rate of higher energy gammas of 192Ir in the tissue. The number of seeds and needles decreases in both multi-species cases, with case III requiring fewer seeds and needles than case II. Further, the effect of 192Ir on uniformity was investigated using the 0.12 mCi 192Ir seeds in multi-species implants. An increase in uniformity was observed with an increase in the number of 0.12 mCi 192Ir seeds implanted. The effects of prostate size on the evaluation parameters for multi-species implants were investigated using 0.12 mCi 192Ir and 0.4 mCi 125I, and an acceptable treatment plan with increased uniformity was obtained

  5. 125I implantation for carcinoma of prostate. Further follow-up of first 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the first 100 patients at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with Stage B or C prostatic cancer treated by pelvic lymph node dissection and Iodine-125 implantation and endocrine therapy when specifically indicated revealed five-year survival rates of 87 and 77 per cent, respectively. Tumor stage, tumor grade, and lymph node metastasis each correlated with survival, but the latter was the most significant factor. Although routine follow-up biopsies were not performed, local tumor control as judged by serial digital rectal examination defined a prognostically favored group of patients. In the absence of controls, however, whether the latter response indicates a salutary effect of the treatment which produces an improved survival or merely identifies a group of patients who were predetermined to have a more favorable survival is undetermined

  6. Intra-operative dosimetry of trans-rectal ultrasound guided 125I prostate implants using C-arm fluoroscopic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindran Paul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent implantation of radioactive seeds is a viable and effective therapeutic option widely used today for early-stage prostate cancer. The implant technique has improved considerably during the recent years due to the use of image guidance; however, real-time dose distributions would allow potential cold spots to be assessed and additional seeds added. In this study, we investigate the use of a conventional C-arm fluoroscopy unit for image acquisition and evaluation of dose distribution immediately after the implant. The phantom study indicates that it is possible to obtain seed positions within ±2 mm. A pilot study carried out with three patients indicated that it is possible to obtain seed positions and calculate the dose distribution with C-arm fluoroscopy and about 95% of the seeds were reconstructed within ±2 mm. The results could be further improved with better digital imaging.

  7. 125I implants as an adjuvant to surgery and external beam radiotherapy in the management of locally advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I seeds either individually placed or inserted into absorbable Vicryl suture carriers were utilized in conjunction with surgery and external beam radiotherapy in an attempt to increase local control rates in patients with advanced oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal cancers (T3-T4, N2-N3), massive cervical lymphadenopathy (N3) and an unknown primary site and locally recurrent head and neck cancers. Forty-eight patients were treated with 55 implants. The carotid artery was implanted in 15 patients, while seven patients had seeds inserted into the base of the skull region, and another three patients had implants near cranial nerves. Eighteen of the 48 patients were treated for cure. The actuarial survival at five years in this subgroup was 50%. The overall local control in the head and neck area was 58%. In this group no patients to date have had a local failure in the implanted volume. Seventeen patients with comparable stage of disease treated prior to 1974 with curative intent without 125I implants were analyzed retrospectively for comparison with the implanted patients. The actuarial survival of these patients was 18% and the overall head and neck control was 21%. These differences are statistically significant at a P value of 0.01 and 0.007, respectively. Seventeen patients received implants for local recurrence. The local control in the head and neck area was 50%; however, the 2.5 year actuarial survival was only 17%. The complication ratervival was only 17%. The complication rate was 11% (six of 55 implants). The improved survival, the high local control, and the minimal complication rates in this series makes the intraoperative implantation of 125I seeds and effective adjunctive treatment to surgery and external beam irradiation

  8. Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers levels after implantation of 125I radioactive seeds as treatment for several malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the dynamic changes of serum levels of several tumor markers after implantation of 125I seeds as treatment for breast, prostate and lung malignancies. Methods: Serum CA15-3 (in 48 cases of breast cancer), PSA (in 59 cases of prostate cancer) and CYFRA21-1 (in 59 cases of lung cancer) levels were measured with RIA both before and after implantation of 125I seeds as treatment. Furthermore, dynamic observation on the serum markers levels was carried out every 3 months in ten patients in each category. Results: After treatment, levels of these markers dropped significantly. Dynamic observation revealed that in the 10 cases of breast cancer, the levels of CA15-3 dropped continually. However, in the 10 cases of prostatic cancer, the disease got worse and the PSA levels kept increasing. In the lung cancer group, the CYFRA21-1 levels rose markedly and all patients expired before 9 months. Conclusion: Dynamic observation on changes of serum tumor markers (CA15-3, PSA, CYFRA21-1) levels after 125I seed implantation treatment was of definite prognostic value. (authors)

  9. Sequential Changes of Serum Tumor Markers Before and After the Radioactive 125I-seed Implantation in the Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang DAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The brachytherapy with iodine seeds is characterized by radioactive 125I very close to or in contact with the target organ. This study is to evaluate the clinical value of implanted radioactive 125I-seed in the treatment of lung cancer patients. Methods Sixty-three cases of lung cancer were enrolled in this study, and in every case, 125I-seeds were planted into tumor mass guided by CT. Serum CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 weredetected by radioimmunoassay in lung cancer patients before and after planting. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by WHO standards. The relation between the therapeutic effect and the tumor markers levels was observed. Results Just one month after planting, the levels of serum CEA, CA125, NSE and CYFRA21-1 were induced significantly in all cases. There was no significant difference among 1 month, 3 month and 6 month in the levels of tumor markers after therapy. Conclusion 125I-seed could effectively decrease the level of tumor markers in the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  10. CT-guided 125I seeds implantation combined with NP chemotherapy for the treatment of intractable central airway stenosis caused by NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of radioactive 125I seeds implantation combined with NP in treating intractable central airway stenosis caused by non-small cell cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A prospective cohort study of 80 patients, who were admitted to Beichen hospital (Tianjin, China) during the period from January 2004 to March 2010, were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into study group (n=42) and control group (n=38). Percutaneous CT-guided intratumoral implantation of 125I seeds was carried out in the patients of the study group. Treatment plan system (TPS) was used to design the distribution and the number of 125I seeds with PD=80-100 CY, and the source intensity was 0.8 mCi. Three days after operation the NP chemotherapy started and it was performed for 2 cycles. Only two cycles of NP chemotherapy was used for the patients in the control group. After the treatment, the cross area of the airway at its narrowest level was measured and the dyspnea index was evaluated. Results: All the patients were followed up for two months. The preoperative and postoperative stenosis rate of the airway in study group was 47.82%±17.55% and 15.76%±4.65%, respectively. The trachea was unobstructed and the dyspnea was markedly improved. The postoperative cross area of the airway at its narrowest level was significantly bigger than the preoperative one (P0.05). Conclusion: Radioactive 125I seeds implantation combined with NP chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for NSCLC. (authors)

  11. Inverse automated treatment planning with and without individual optimization in interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy with high- and low-activity 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether dose distribution achieved with treatment plans using high- and low-activity 125I implants differs. Patients and Methods: Based on intraoperative transrectal ultrasound scans of 71 patients, inverse automated treatment plans (IATP) were performed with 15.5-kBq (0.42-mCi) and 25.2-kBq (0.68-mCi) 125I implants using a commercial 3-D planning system (Variseed trademark). A prescription dose of 145 Gy in 98% of the prostate volume (V100), a maximum dose to the urethra of 250 Gy (D1), and a maximum dose to 10% of the anterior rectal wall of 145 Gy (D10) were required. The plans were manually corrected, if necessary. Results: In the IATP, a better dose coverage of the prostate was found for high-activity seeds (V100 of 98% vs 84%). The prostate dose values increased with the prostate volume. After manual optimization, the differences were only marginal with a prostate V100 of 99% for both activities, a urethra D1 of 247 Gy and 239 Gy, and a rectum D10 of 135 Gy and 124 Gy for high- and low-activity seeds. Low-activity seeds required more sources (66 vs 47) and needles (24 vs 17; all numbers are median values). Conclusions: Concerning the prostate dose coverage, high-activity seeds are superior in the IATP. After manual adjustment, the dose values for the prostate and the organs at risk are similar. Considering a supposedly decreased toxicity and a shorter implantation time for a lower number of seeds, we recommend high-actwer number of seeds, we recommend high-activity seeds for experienced teams. (orig.)

  12. Bioevaluation of 125I Ocu-Prosta seeds for application in prostate cancer brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Archana; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Saxena, Sanjay; Kumar, Yogendra; Chaudhari, Pradip; Goda, Jayant Sastri; Adurkar, Pranjal; Dash, Ashutosh; Samuel, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: In recent years, brachytherapy involving permanent radioactive seed implantation has emerged as an effective modality for the management of cancer of prostate. 125I-Ocu-Prosta seeds were indigenously developed and studies were carried out to assess the safety of the indigenously developed 125I-Ocu-Prosta seeds for treatment of prostate cancer. Methods: Animal experiments were performed to assess the likelihood of in vivo release of 125I from radioactive seeds and migration of seeds implanted in the prostate gland of the rabbit. In vivo release of 125I activity was monitored by serial blood sampling from the auricular vein and subsequent measurement of 125I activity. Serial computed tomography (CT) scans were done at regular intervals till 6 months post implant to assess the physical migration of the seeds. Results: The laser welded seeds maintained their hermeticity and prevented the in vivo release of 125I activity into the blood as no radioactivity was detected during follow up blood measurements. Our study showed that the miniature 125I seeds were clearly resolved in CT images. Seeds remained within the prostate gland during the entire study period. Moreover, the seed displacement was minimal even within the prostate gland. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings have demonstrated that indigenously developed 125I-Ocu-Prosta seeds may be suitable for application in treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:24927341

  13. Preparation and deployment of indigenous 125I- seeds for the treatment of prostate cancer: dawn of prostate brachytherapy in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Permanent seed implantation' using 125I- seeds represents an effective treatment modality for prostate cancer. An innovative strategy to prepare and deploy 125I- seeds for treatment of prostate cancer has been evolved. Seeds prepared by chemisorptions of 125I on palladium coated silver wires were characterized and encased in titanium tubes by ND:YAG laser. Several batches of critically evaluated seeds exhibiting release of 125I were supplied to P.D. Hinduja Hospital, Mumbai for treatment of prostate cancer patients. Successful deployment of indigenous seeds in prostate brachytherapy has opened a new window for making prostate brachytherapy affordable to needy cancer patients. (author)

  14. American brachytherapy society recommends no change for prostate permanent implant dose prescriptions using iodine-125 or palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose - In 2004, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) issued a report outlining recommended 125I and 103Pd datasets for consistency in calculating brachytherapy dose distributions. In 2005, to aid evaluating the clinical impact of implementing these datasets, the AAPM assessed the historical dependence of how prescribed doses differed from administered doses for 125I and 103Pd for permanent implantation of the prostate. Consequently, the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) considered the nature of these changes towards issuing recommended dose prescriptions for 125I and 103Pd interstitial brachytherapy implants for mono-therapy and standard boosts. Methods and materials - An investigation was performed of the 2005 AAPM analysis to determine changes in administered dose while affixing prescribed dose using 2004 AAPM 125I and 103Pd brachytherapy dosimetry datasets for prostate implants. For 125I and 103Pd, administered dose would change by +1.4% and +4.2%, respectively. The biological and societal impact of changing prescribed dose was considered. Results - Based on the need for clinical constancy and in recognition of overall uncertainties, the ABS recommends immediate implementation of the 2004 AAPM consensus brachytherapy dosimetry datasets and no changes to 125I and 103Pd dose prescriptions at this time. Conclusi dose prescriptions at this time. Conclusions - Radiation oncologists should continue to prescribe mono-therapy doses of 145 Gy and 125 Gy for 125I and 105Pd, respectively, and standard boost doses of 100-110 Gy and 90-100 Gy for 125I and 103Pd, respectively. (authors)

  15. Influence of 125I seeds para-tracheal implantation on serum level of inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of 125I seeds para-tracheal implant on serum level of inflammatory cytokines in rabbits. Methods: 30 rabbits were randomized to 5 groups, 4 study groups and control group. The activities of seeds in study groups ranged from 11.1 MBq (0.3 mCi) to 33.3 MBq (0.9 mCi), and D90 were 21.1 to 139.0 Gy. The false seeds were used in control group. Four seeds with equal activity were implanted between trachea and esophagus in each rabbit under general anesthesia. The seeds were arranged according to the Paris principle. Serum samples were collected prior to, 30, 60 and 90 days after implantation. IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? levels were measured by ELISA. Results: All rabbits were healthy and had weight gaining during study period except 5 died. Serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? at the end of the first, second and third month were all slightly higher than those of pretreatment. However, there was no statistical significance among them except for group 2. Conclusions: Interstitial brachytherapy with 125I seeds might not significantly produce systematic inflammatory reaction on rabbits. (authors)

  16. Monte Carlo calculated doses to treatment volumes and organs at risk for permanent implant lung brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-125 (125I) and Caesium-131 (131Cs) brachytherapy have been used with sublobar resection to treat stage I non-small cell lung cancer and other radionuclides, 169Yb and 103Pd, are considered for these treatments. This work investigates the dosimetry of permanent implant lung brachytherapy for a range of source energies and various implant sites in the lung. Monte Carlo calculated doses are calculated in a patient CT-derived computational phantom using the EGsnrc user-code BrachyDose. Calculations are performed for 103Pd, 125I, 131Cs seeds and 50 and 100 keV point sources for 17 implant positions. Doses to treatment volumes, ipsilateral lung, aorta, and heart are determined and compared to those determined using the TG-43 approach. Considerable variation with source energy and differences between model-based and TG-43 doses are found for both treatment volumes and organs. Doses to the heart and aorta generally increase with increasing source energy. TG-43 underestimates the dose to the heart and aorta for all implants except those nearest to these organs where the dose is overestimated. Results suggest that model-based dose calculations are crucial for selecting prescription doses, comparing clinical endpoints, and studying radiobiological effects for permanent implant lung brachytherapy. (paper)

  17. Permanent prostate implants: radiobiology & dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gellekom, Maria Petronella Regina

    2005-01-01

    Localised prostate tumours can be treated with low dose rate brachytherapy. Radioactive sources (Iodine-125) are brought into the prostate. Postimplant dose calculations frequently show that the dose delivered to the prostate is lower than the prescribed dose. This problem is investigated by evaluation of the dose distribution of 130 patients four weeks after the implantation of the Iodine seeds (chapter 6). The research was focussed on two implantation techniques and two techniques for imag...

  18. Permanent transvenous pacemaker implantation in forty dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permanent transvenous cardiac pacemakers were implanted in 40 dogs. Electrocardiographic diagnoses included persistent atrial standstill (3 dogs), sick sinus syndrome (8 dogs), and high-grade second-degree or third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (29 dogs). Thirteen dogs were alive and well 4 to 42 months after pacemaker implantation (mean, 16.9 months). The mean and median survival times of the 26 dogs that died or were euthanatized during the study were 17.9 months and 13 months, respectively. Most of these dogs succumbed to problems unrelated to the arrhythmia and pacemaker implant. One dog was lost to follow-up. Complications associated with permanent transvenous pacemaker implantation included lead dislodgement, infection, hematoma formation, skeletal muscle stimulation, ventricular arrhythmia, migration of the pulse generator, and skin erosion. Lead dislodgement was the most common complication, occurring in 7 of 9 dogs paced using untined electrode leads and in 6 of 30 dogs paced using tined leads. Lead dislodgement did not occur in the only dog paced using an actively fixed endocardial lead. It was concluded that permanent transvenous cardiac pacing is a feasible, less traumatic alternative to epimyocardial pacing in dogs, but that successful use of this technique requires careful implantation technique and anticipation of the potential complications

  19. Combination chemotherapy of gemcitabine and cisplatin by double way plus implantation of radioactive seed 125I in treating stage ? non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the therapeutic effect of combination chemotherapy of gemcitabine and cisplatin by double way plus implantation of radioactive seed 125I implantation in treating stage ? non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Sixty cases with stage ? non-small cell lung cancer were randomly divided into two groups with random number table. In group A (in interventional treatment group, n=30), the gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 and one third of the cisplatin 100 mg/m2 was given using Seldinger technique for transcatheter bronchial arterial infusion chemotherapy on day 1. Two-thirds of the cisplatin 100 mg/m2 was infused in veins on day 2 and 3. The gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 was infused in veins on day 8, 21 days for a period. In group B (interventional - 125I groups), the method of combination chemotherapy of gemcitabine and cisplatin was the same as in Group A. After ten days of arterial perfusion, 125I seeds were implanted, 21 days for a period. All patients received at least 2 cycles. The imaging evaluation of patients after treatment standards included complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), stable (SD), progressive disease (PD), effective rate (CR + PR)/30 and clinical benefit rate (CR + PR + SD)/30. Non-parametric rank sum test was used to compare short-term effect of the two groups treatment of two cycles. ?2 test was used to compare year survival, Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate median survival, log-rank test method was used to difference between the groups. Results: In group A, there were 17 PR, 9SD and 4 PD. The overall response rate was 56.7% (17/30) and clinical beneficial rate was 86.7% (26/ 30). In Group B, there were 2 CR, 21 PR, 7 SD. The overall response rate was 76.7% (23/30) and clinical beneficial rate was 100% (30/30). There was significant difference between the two groups (P= 0.036). In group A, the 1 year survival rate was 46.7% (14/30) and the 2 year survival rate was 36.7% (11/30), median survival time (MST) was 10 months. In group B, the 1 year survival rate was 76.7% (23/30) and the 2 year survival rate was 63.3% (19/30), median survival time (MST) was 27 months. There was a significant difference between two group in 1 year survival rate (P=0.017), 2 year survival rate (P=0.039) and median survival time (P=0.006). Conclusion: The treatment effects of ? stage non-small cell lung cancer by gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy with double way plus radioactive seed 125I implantation was better than gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy with double way. (authors)

  20. Preparation and deployment of indigenous 125I-seeds for the treatment of prostate cancer. Dawn of prostate brachytherapy in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Permanent seed implantation' using 125I- seeds has emerged as an effective treatment modality for management of prostate cancer. An indigenous technology for the production of 125I brachytherapy sources ('BARC 125I Ocu-Prosta seed') has been developed. In this current work, we describe an overview of our experience on large scale production of 125I brachytherapy sources, their quality assessment, in vivo bio-evaluation and initial experience on their journey from bench to bed-side for the treatment of prostate cancer. (author)

  1. Quality of life after permanent prostate implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on the quality of life in patients who have received a permanent transperineal ultrasound guide prostate implant. There is increasing recognition that prostate cancer therapy impacts significantly on the patients ability to pursue relational, occupational and social interests. With the substantially expanded patient role in directing treatment for prostate cancer, the importance of examining quality of life outcomes in addition to survival has been underscored. Materials and Methods: 51 sequential patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent permanent prostate implantation from September 1995 to October 1996 were evaluated. All patients were clinically staged as T1c or T2a and received implant with Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 as definitive treatment. Data was collected using the EORTC genitourinary group questionnaire and supplemental questions during an interview. Results: Urinary symptoms such as nocturia, frequency and dysuria were the most pronounced in the first two months after implant and then decreased in the majority of patients. The EORTC questionnaire was administered at 6 months and examined urinary quality, sexual quality and perception of symptoms. With regard to urinary quality, 17% had mild dysuria at 6 months and 40% noted that they urinated more frequently than pre implant. No patient had hematuria and 0 % were incontinent. 3% stated that they had occasional loss of minimal urine with severe urgency. Only 2% reqmal urine with severe urgency. Only 2% required intermittent self catheterization after implant secondary to obstructive symptoms. Over 90% were on an alpha blocker post implant for a minimum of 6 weeks. 0% reported psychological distress and 3% noted a disruption in social or family life. 15% experienced some fatigue and 10% noted a decreased functional status but only 1% a decreased role function. Additional questions addressed lifestyle and work issues. 100% would have an implant again as definitive treatment and 98% would recommend the procedure to a friend. Of the patients who had full time employment (38), 96% returned to work after the implant and the majority returned within 5 days. Sexual quality was high in this short follow up after seed implant. 89% of potent patients retained sexual function after implant. 3% noted some discomfort with ejaculation. 12% noticed some decrease in sexual desire. Interestingly, 14% experienced an increase in sexual desire. 79% reported an excellent overall quality of life. Conclusions: While survival is clearly a central goal of treatment for prostate cancer, the nature of this malignancy compels clinical attention to the qualitative content of the patients life after treatment. Permanent prostate implant has a high degree of patient tolerance and patient acceptance. Sexual quality and function are maintained in the majority of patients and they have minimal interruption in their social and economic function. The low morbidity and high quality of life associated with implantation make it a viable treatment option

  2. Long-term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months. Distant metastases have developed in 18 patients, of whom 11 have died from prostatic cancer. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35%. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after 1-4 years, revealing still malignant histology in 10 (40%), of whom 8 have developed distant metastases or died from prostatic cancer. Fourteen patients suffered from late complications of which surgical intervention was indicated in five cases. Nine patients are presently free of progression and prostate specific antigen is less than 0.5 ng/ml in 8 of these. The future role of ultrasonically guided implantation in the management of prostatic cancer is discussed.

  3. Methodology of quality control for brachytherapy {sup 125}I seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: esmoura@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology of quality control of {sup 125}I seeds used for brachytherapy. The {sup 125}I seeds are millimeter titanium capsules widely used in permanent implants of prostate cancer, allowing a high dose within the tumour and a low dose on the surrounding tissues, with very low harm to the other tissues. Besides, with this procedure, the patients have a low impotence rate and a small incidence of urinary incontinence. To meet the medical standards, an efficient quality control is necessary, showing values with the minimum uncertainness possible, concerning the seeds dimensions and their respective activities. The medical needles are used to insert the seeds inside the prostate. The needles used in brachytherapy have an internal diameter of 1.0 mm, so it is necessary {sup 125}I seeds with an external maximum diameter of 0.85 mm. For the seeds and the spacer positioning on the planning sheet, the seeds must have a length between 4.5 and 5.0 mm. The activities must not vary more than 5% in each batch of {sup 125}I seeds. For this methodology, we used two ionization chamber detectors and one caliper. In this paper, the methodology using one control batch with 75 seeds manufactured by GE Health care Ltd is presented. (author)

  4. Disease-related effects of perioperative blood transfusions associated with 125I seed implantation for prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some retrospective studies perioperative transfusions during oncologic surgery have been shown to decrease the time interval between surgery and local and/or distant recurrence of cancer. This study examines the disease-related effect, if any, of perioperative blood transfusions among 108 patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate treated by radioactive iodine-125 seed implantation of the prostate and lymphadenectomy. When all subjects were analyzed, there was no statistical difference of local and distant failure between the transfused and nontransfused groups. Patients with well-differentiated tumors had statistically fewer local recurrences (0% vs 22%, p = 0.036) if they were transfused perioperatively. However, the difference in distant metastases (0% vs 11%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). In contrast, patients with moderately and poorly differentiated disease receiving transfusions had more local recurrences and metastases, though this was not statistically significant. Our data suggest that there is no obvious evidence that perioperative blood transfusions have an adverse effect on local recurrence or distant metastases for iodine-125 seed implantation of carcinoma of the prostate

  5. The effect of local control on metastatic dissemination in carcinoma of the prostate: Long-term results in patients treated with 125I implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study evaluates the effect of the locally recurring tumor on the incidence of metastatic disease in early stage carcinoma of the prostate. The probability of distant metastases was studied in 679 patients with Stage B-C/N0 carcinoma of the prostate treated at MSKCC between 1970 and 1985 (median follow-up of 97 months). Patients were staged with pelvic lymph node dissection and treated with retropubic 125I implantation. The actuarial distant metastases free survival (DMFS) for patients at risk at 15 years after initial therapy was 37%. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis of covariates affecting the metastatic outcome showed that local failure, used in the model as a time dependent variable, was the most significant covariate, although stage, grade, and implant volume were also found to be independent variables. The relative risk of metastatic spread subsequent to local failure was 4-fold increased compared to the risk without evidence of local relapse. The 15-year actuarial DMFS in 351 patients with local control was 77% compared to 24% in 328 patients who developed local relapses (p less than 0.00001). The relation of distant spread to the local outcome was observed regardless of stage, grade, or implant dose. Even stage B1/N0-Grade I patient with local control showed a 15-year actuarial DMFS of 82%, compared to 22% in patients with local relapse (p less than 0.00001). The median local relapse-free survival (LRFS) in the 268 patients with local recurrencesin the 268 patients with local recurrences who did not receive hormonal therapy before distant metastases were detected was 51 months, compared to a median of 71 months for DMFS in the same patients (p less than 0.001), consistent with the possibility that distant dissemination may develop secondary to local failure

  6. Radiation protection procedures and dose to the staff in brachytherapy with permanent implant of the sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosi, G.; Cattani, F.

    2002-07-01

    The treatment of intra capsular prostate cancers with the permanent implantation of low energy sealed radioactive sources (''103 Pd-''125I) offers the same probability of curing the tumours as surgery and external-beam radiotherapy with a minimum incidence of unwanted side-effects. The first attempts of using sealed sources for treating prostate cancers go back to 1917, when Barringer reported the results obtained with the implant of ''236Ra needles. Beginning from that period the interest for prostate brachytherapy has shown a fluctuating trend, due especially to the technological possibilities and to the status of the alternative treatment modalities (surgery, external radiotherapy). The main reason of the substantial failure of brachytherapy as compared to the two other treatment modalities had two main causes: the energy, too high ( E{approx_equal} 840 keV), of {gamma}-radiation emitted by ''226 Ra in equilibrium with its decay products and the lack of imaging techniques able to visualize with sufficient accuracy both the prostate and the arrangement, inside it, of the radioactive sources. The employ of low energy {gamma}-emitting radionuclides began in 1974, when Whitmore et al. working at the Sloan Kettering Memorial Cancer Hospital of New York suggested the use of ''125 I sealed sources for the realisation of interstitial permanent implants. Also this attempt, though reducing the side effects typical of the surgical intervention (incontinence, impotence), did non give the expected results in terms of local control of the disease and, as a consequence, of the survival's length. This partial failure was attributed to the fact that, in most cases the dose distribution inside the target volume was not homogeneous, due to the inadequacy of the available imaging techniques used for checking the real position of the sources, during their manual insertion in the tissues. In the last ten years,however, great progresses have been made in the US{sub i}maging techniques, in the manufacture of suitable sealed sources of ''103 Pd and ''125 I, in the development of computer programs able both to acquire US-images and to calculate and display in real time the dose distribution. In selected cases, the permanent implant of such sources has demonstrated of being alternative to the surgical intervention and even to external conformal radiotherapy. (Author)

  7. Permanent Breast Seed Implant Dosimetry Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant is a novel method of accelerated partial breast irradiation for women with early-stage breast cancer. This article presents pre- and post-implant dosimetric data, relates these data to clinical outcomes, and makes recommendations for those interested in starting a program. Methods and Materials: A total of 95 consecutive patients were accrued into one of three clinical trials after breast-conserving surgery: a Phase I/II trial (67 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); a Phase II registry trial (25 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma); or a multi-center Phase II trial for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (3 patients). Contouring of the planning target volume (PTV) was done on a Pinnacle workstation and dosimetry calculations, including dose–volume histograms, were done using a Variseed planning computer. Results: The mean pre-implant PTV coverage for the V90, V100, V150, and V200 were as follows: 98.8% ± 1.2% (range, 94.5–100%); 97.3% ± 2.1% (range, 90.3–99.9%), 68.8% ± 14.3% (range, 32.7–91.5%); and 27.8% ± 8.6% (range, 15.1–62.3%). The effect of seed motion was characterized by post-implant dosimetry performed immediately after the implantation (same day) and at 2 months after the implantation. The mean V100 changed from 85.6% to 88.4% (p = 0.004) and the mean V200 changed from 36.2% to 48.3% (p 90 of approximately 100%, a V100 between 95% and 100%, and a V200 between 20% and 30%, as these numbers are associated with no local recurrences to date and good patient tolerance. In general, the target volume coverage improved over the duration of the seed therapy. The maximum skin dose, defined as the average dose over the hottest 1 × 1-cm2 surface area, should be limited to 90% of the prescription dose to minimize delayed skin toxicity.

  8. Iodine-125 Seed Implantation (Permanent Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saika,Takeshi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available From January 2004 to March 2007, 308 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated using iodine-125 (125I seed implantation (permanent brachytherapy at Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences. We evaluated the treatment’s effi cacy and morbidity in 300 prostate cancer patients who were followed up for more than 1 month after brachytherapy. Based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN guidelines, patients with a prostate volume of less than 40 ml in transrectal ultrasound imaging were classifi ed as low or intermediate risk. The median patient age was 67 years (range 50 to 79 years, the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA value before biopsy was 6.95 ng/ml (range 1.13 to 24.7 ng/ml, and the median prostate volume was 24.33 ml (range 9.3 to 41.76 ml. The median follow-up was 18 months (range 1 to 36 months and the PSA levels decreased in almost all patients after brachytherapy. Although 194 of 300 patients (64.7% complained of diffi culty in urination, pollakisuria/urgency, miction pain, and/or urinary incontinence, all of which might be associated with radiation prostatitis during the fi rst month after brachytherapy, these symptoms gradually improved. 125I seed implantation brachytherapy is safe and eff ective for localized prostate cancer within short-term follow up.

  9. An analysis of brachytherapy with computed tomography-guided permanent implantation of Iodine-125 seeds for recurrent nonkeratin nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen X

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinying Shen,1,2 Yong Li,2 Yanfang Zhang,2 Jian Kong,2 Yanhao Li1 1Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Background: 125I seed implantation is a new method in treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, and it is worthwhile to evaluate its feasibility. In this study, we performed brachytherapy with computed tomography (CT-guided permanent implantation of 125I seeds in the treatment of patients with the recurrence of NPC.Methods: A total 30 patients (20 male and ten female at the median age of 55 (range 25–80 years were diagnosed with recurrent nonkeratin NPC, with a total 38 lesions and a short disease-free interval (median ~11 months after primary radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. Patients received CT scan, starting from 2 months after the treatment. Follow-up was conducted for ~2–38 months to observe the local control rate and overall survival rate. We also analyzed the possible correlation between survival periods and the status of recurrent tumors.Results: The local control rates at 6, 12, 24, 30, and 36 months after the procedure of 125I seed implantation were 86.8%, 73.7%, 26.3%, 15.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 80.0% (24/30, 30.0% (9/30, and 6.7% (2/30, respectively, with a median survival period of 18 months (17.6±8.6 months. Interestingly, the survival periods of the patients who had primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were 15.8±7.9 and 24.3±7.9 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that ?2 (log rank was 7.555, with very significant difference (P<0.01. The survival periods of patients in tumor stages I, II, III, and IV were 25.4±8.7, 19.8±9.4, 16.1±4.5, and 12.8±7.8 months, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05.Conclusion: Our data suggest that the survival period of recurrent NPC patients after 125I seed implantation is inversely related to the tumor stages of the recurrence but not to chemotherapy after the primary radiotherapy. Therefore, CT-guided 125I seed implantation can be set for treatment of recurrent NPC, for better survival rate with minimal damage. Keywords: CT-guided 125I seed, radiochemotherapy, NPC 

  10. Permanent implants in treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR - BT) is one of the radiation methods that is known for several years in treatment of localized prostate cancer. The main idea of this method is to implant small radioactive seeds as a source of radiation, directly into the prostate gland. LDR brachytherapy is applied as a monotherapy and also used along with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a boost. In most cases it is used as a sole radical treatment modality, however not as a palliative treatment. The application of permanent seeds implants is a curative treatment alternative in patients with organ-confined cancer, without extracapsular extension of the tumour. Nowadays three kinds of radionuclide (I-125, Pd-103, Cs-131) are in use worldwide. This technique is particular favorite in United States, in Europe however, high-dose rate brachytherapy method (HDR BT) is more popular in early staged prostate cancer treatment ( as a boost). HDR-BT monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer is still an investigational treatment. As monotherapy LDR-BT seems to be a reliable choice for early stage prostate cancer, according to low morbidity rate good results and short hospitalization. It is curative alternative of radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation (i.e. 3D CRT, IMRT) with comparable long-term survival and biochemical control and most favorable toxicity. The aim of this publication is to describe methods, indications, complications and selected results of prostate cancerns and selected results of prostate cancer LDR brachytherapy. (author)

  11. Experimental determination of dosimetry parameters for Sinko 125I seed source using a modified polystyrene phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful treatment for permanent implant brachytherapy is based on accurate measurement of dosimetry parameters for the seed sources. Literature describes the application of various types of phantom to determine the AAPM TG-43 dosimetry parameters for permanent implant seeds. Previously we created a new type of phantom used to measure the dosimetry parameters of a high dose-rate 192Ir source. In this study, we modified the phantom to suit to a common type of 125I seed source (Sinko BT-125-1). The dose-rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function of this source were measured in detail and compared with the published values of other similar in-design 125I seed sources. The experimental results exhibit fairly small measurement uncertainties and good self-consistency. The modified phantom is demonstrated on the measurement of dosimetry parameters for the Sinko BT-125-1 125I seed, however, it could easily be used for similar measurements of other permanent implantation seed sources.

  12. An analysis of brachytherapy with computed tomography-guided permanent implantation of Iodine-125 seeds for recurrent nonkeratin nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinying; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yanfang; Kong, Jian; Li, Yanhao

    2015-01-01

    Background 125I seed implantation is a new method in treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and it is worthwhile to evaluate its feasibility. In this study, we performed brachytherapy with computed tomography (CT)-guided permanent implantation of 125I seeds in the treatment of patients with the recurrence of NPC. Methods A total 30 patients (20 male and ten female) at the median age of 55 (range 25–80) years were diagnosed with recurrent nonkeratin NPC, with a total 38 lesions and a short disease-free interval (mediañ11 months) after primary radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. Patients received CT scan, starting from 2 months after the treatment. Follow-up was conducted for ~2–38 months to observe the local control rate and overall survival rate. We also analyzed the possible correlation between survival periods and the status of recurrent tumors. Results The local control rates at 6, 12, 24, 30, and 36 months after the procedure of 125I seed implantation were 86.8%, 73.7%, 26.3%, 15.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 80.0% (24/30), 30.0% (9/30), and 6.7% (2/30), respectively, with a median survival period of 18 months (17.6±8.6 months). Interestingly, the survival periods of the patients who had primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy were 15.8±7.9 and 24.3±7.9 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis demonstrated that ?2 (log rank) was 7.555, with very significant difference (P<0.01). The survival periods of patients in tumor stages I, II, III, and IV were 25.4±8.7, 19.8±9.4, 16.1±4.5, and 12.8±7.8 months, respectively, with significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion Our data suggest that the survival period of recurrent NPC patients after 125I seed implantation is inversely related to the tumor stages of the recurrence but not to chemotherapy after the primary radiotherapy. Therefore, CT-guided 125I seed implantation can be set for treatment of recurrent NPC, for better survival rate with minimal damage. PMID:25999732

  13. Image fusion techniques in permanent seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Polo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years major software and hardware developments in brachytherapy treatment planning, intraoperative navigation and dose delivery have been made. Image-guided brachytherapy has emerged as the ultimate conformal radiation therapy, allowing precise dose deposition on small volumes under direct image visualization. In thisprocess imaging plays a central role and novel imaging techniques are being developed (PET, MRI-MRS and power Doppler US imaging are among them, creating a new paradigm (dose-guided brachytherapy, where imaging is used to map the exact coordinates of the tumour cells, and to guide applicator insertion to the correct position. Each of these modalities has limitations providing all of the physical and geometric information required for the brachytherapy workflow.Therefore, image fusion can be used as a solution in order to take full advantage of the information from each modality in treatment planning, intraoperative navigation, dose delivery, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation.Image fusion, understood as the visualization of any morphological volume (i.e. US, CT, MRI together with an additional second morpholo gical volume (i.e. CT, MRI or functional dataset (functional MRI, SPECT, PET, is a well known method for treatment planning, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation. The term image fusion is used when multiple patient image datasets are registered and overlaid or merged to provide additional information. Fused images may be created from multiple images from the same imaging modality taken at different moments (multi-temporalapproach, or by combining information from multiple modalities. Quality means that the fused images should provide additional information to the brachythe rapy process (diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, intraoperative imaging, treatment delivery and follow-up that cannot be obtained in other ways. In this review I will focus on the role of image fusion for permanent seed implantation.

  14. Permanent and temporary pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacal Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To determine the indication for and incidence and evolution of temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. METHODS: A retrospective review of 114 patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation InCor (Heart Institute USP BR between March 1985 and May 1993. We studied the incidence of and indication for temporary pacing, the relationship between pacing and rejection, the need for pemanent pacing and the clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Fourteen of 114 (12%heart transplant recipients required temporary pacing and 4 of 114 (3.5% patients required permanent pacing. The indication for temporary pacing was sinus node dysfunction in 11 patients (78.5% and atrioventricular (AV block in 3 patients (21.4%. The indication for permanent pacemaker implantation was sinus node dysfunction in 3 patients (75% and atrioventricular (AV block in 1 patient (25%. We observed rejection in 3 patients (21.4% who required temporary pacing and in 2 patients (50% who required permanent pacing. The previous use of amiodarone was observed in 10 patients (71.4% with temporary pacing. Seven of the 14 patients (50% died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sinus node dysfunction was the principal indication for temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. The need for pacing was related to worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation.

  15. Adsorption of iodide on silver rods for {sup 125}I seed preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Park, U. J.; Yu, K. H. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S.; Choi, K. H.; Nam, S. S.; Seo, J. S.; Choi, S. J.; Son, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, the rate of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly in Korea. Brachytherapy using {sup 125}I seeds has drawn attention as one of the treatment options of this type of cancer. {sup 125}I is a radionuclide, which emits 27 keV and 31 keV X-rays and 35 keV {gamma}-ray with a half-life of 59.4 days. This radioisotope is produced by the bombardment of neutrons on the {sup 124}Xe target and decays via electron capture to {sup 125}Te. The brachytherapy sources are fabricated as seeds and implanted permanently to the prostate. The seed consists of a titanium capsule as a shell with a dimension of 0.8 mm in external diameter, 0.05 mm in wall thickness and 4.5 mm in length. A silver (Ag) rod with a dimension of 3 mm in length and 0.5 mm in diameter is used as the radioactive core after adsorption of {sup 125}I and is placed in the shell. The silver rod also acts as an X-ray marker to visualize by X-ray imaging and determine the location of seeds in the prostate. Currently, the supply of {sup 125}I seeds depends only on imports. Hence, national research and development are needed for local production. This research work is carried out to find the optimum conditions in the preparation of the radioactive core, more specifically in the adsorption of iodide on the silver rods

  16. 192Ir or 125I prostate brachytherapy as a boost to external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced prostatic cancer: A dosimetric point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This work aims at comparing the dosimetric possibilities of 125I or 192Ir prostate brachytherapy (Bt) as a boost to external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced adenocarcinoma. Methods and materials: From 1/1997 to 12/2002, 260 patients were treated. Until 12/2001 a low dose rate (LDR) treatment with 192Ir wires was used, later replaced by a high dose rate (HDR) delivered with an 192Ir stepping source technology. For the present work, we selected 40 patients including the last 20 treated, respectively, by LDR and HDR. The planning CT Scans of all these 40 patients were transferred into the 3D ProwessR system for 125I permanent implants design according to the Seattle method. The reference data for dosimetric comparisons were the V100 and the prescribed dose for 192Ir as well as the dose delivered with 125I techniques to the 192Ir V100. We compared V100-150 data as well as doses to the organs at risks (OR) and cold spots (CS). Results: The V100 is 85.3±8% for 192Ir LDR and 96±2% for HDR techniques (P125I, the 192Ir LDR mode induces higher hyperdosage volumes inside the CTV but also more CS, while maximal doses to urethra and rectum are, respectively, 17 and 39% less with 125I (P192Ir HDR mode, 125I Bt induces higher mode, 125I Bt induces higher hyperdosage volumes and slightly more CS deliberately planned around the bladder neck. If delivered doses to urethra are identical, those to the 20% anterior part of the rectum are 33% less with 125I (P125I Bt technique was only possible in 24 out of the 40 patients studied due to pelvic bone arch interference. Conclusions: At the present time, there is no evident dosimetric superiority of one Bt method when all the criteria are taken into account. However, improving Bt techniques to implant any prostatic size could found the superiority of the 125I or permanent implants. 125I indeed allows large hyperdosage volumes inside the CTV in comparison with 192Ir HDR techniques while lowering doses to OR and minimizing CS

  17. Effects of permanent I-125 interstitial implantation on cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1973 to 1980, 1427 cancer patients were treated by the Brachytherapy Service, Radiation Oncology Department of Memoral Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) with I-125 permanent interstitial implantation. Concern has been expressed with regard to the possible toxic effects of the low average photon energy 28 keV) of I-125 on bone, secondary to its increased absorption in these tissues because of the photoelectric effect. In an attempt to address this concern with respect to cortical bone, the authors reviewed pertinent data on those patients whose site of implant was at close proximity to osseous tissue in the pelvic, chest wall and head and neck regions. The review included 74 sites in 58 patients having no prior history or clinical evidence of any pathologic or metabolic bony disorder. Local control rate for the 74 implanted sites was 93%. The implanted activity ranged from 1.6 to 48.8 mCi and the implanted volume from 0.5 to 152 cm3. At this follow-up range, there appears to be no excessive osseous toxicity either clinically or radiologically with I-125 permanent implantation

  18. Placement of 125I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy 125I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available

  19. The effect of the radial function on I-125 seeds used for permanent prostate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integrity of eight commercially-available low-activity Iodine-125 (125I) seeds for their radial function g(r) and its effect on the dose delivered to the adjacent critical structures when used in permanent prostate implants (PPI). Ten previously treated patients were retrospectively used in this comparison. The Amersham Health Oncura seed was used to peripherally design an isodose distribution with urethral and anterior rectal wall sparing. Plan criteria included minimum coverage of 144 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV), ? 70% dose to 150% of the PTV volume (V150-PTV), and the quantity of needles ? 70% of the size of the PTV, in cc. Upon completion of the Oncura plan, the seed type was changed and the activity was adjusted until the V100-PTV for each of the other 7 seed types matched the V100-PTV defined by the Oncura seed. Computed tomography (CT)-based postimplant dosimetry was used to determine the dose to 40% (D40) of the bulb of the penis (in Gy). Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were used to evaluate the differences to V100 (in %) and D40 (in Gy) of the anterior rectal wall and bulb of the penis, and V100 (in %) of the urethra. The data was tabulated. Radioactive 125I sources included in this study were 125I Source 2301 (Best); I-Plant (MedTech), IoGold (Mentor), Oncura (Amersham Health), ProstaSeed (UroCor), SelectSeed (Nucletron), SourceTech (Bard), and Symmetra (UroMed). The sh (Bard), and Symmetra (UroMed). The sizes of the PTV for the 10 patients ranged from 18.82 cc to 48.99 cc. The Oncura seed was used as the reference seed and all other seed types were normalized to it for data comparison. It was determined that the dose rate constant (xwedge) and anisotropy factor (phi) contribute to the activity needed to achieve comparable V100-PTV doses, but a strong dependence on the radial function g(r) was found to effect the doses to the critical structures studied. Values of g(r) at 4 cm were calculated and the IoGold and SourceTech seeds were determined to have the highest g(r) values, with ProstaSeed and SelectSeed having the lowest values. 125I Source 2301 and IoGold required less activity per seed to achieve the same dose to the V100-PTV due to the higher dose rate and anisotrophy constants (xwedge.phi). The seed types with silver were less penetrating and resulted in the production of characteristic x-rays that modified the energy spectrum and influenced the radial function. The seeds requiring the lowest activity showed the highest dose to the anterior rectal wall, a posterior adjacent structure; the urethra, an interior structure; and the bulb, an inferior structure. This study was designed to investigate the integrity of eight different commercially-available seed types, and their dependence on the g(r) in seed choice. It was determined that the dose rate constant and anisotropy factor determine the activity needed for implantation but a strong dependence on the radial function was found to effect the doses to the adjacent structures

  20. The initial experience of 125I seeds brachytherapy for patients with oral carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of 125I radioactive seeds implantation and 125I plaque brachytherapy for oral carcinoma. Methods: Eighteen patients with oral carcinoma confirmed by cytology or histopathology were included in this study, Twelve patients with tongue cancer and six patients with gingival carcinoma, there were 20 ulcerative lesions and 10 metastatic cervical lymph nodes. The mean diameter is (2.3±0.7) cm and (2.8±1.7) cm respectively. The patients were treated with both interstitial implantation of 125I seeds and 125I plaque brachytherapy or with 125I plaque brachytherapy only according to patient's individual conditions. The metastatic cervical lymph nodes were treated with CT-guided interstitial implantation of 125I seeds. The sizes of ulcerative lesions and lymph nodes were observed at 1,3,6 months following treatment, and statistical analysis of the sizes of ulcerative lesions were evaluated by paired t-test. Results: After 1,3,6 months follow-up, The mean diameters of ulcerative lesions were (2.1 ± 0.6 )cm (t=3.559, P125I implantalapsed alter 125I implantation again. Patients were followed for 7 to 28 months, all patients were still alive. Conclusion: Interstitial 125I radioactive seeds implantation and 125I plaque brachytherapy provide an effective, sale treatment for oral cancer. (authors)

  1. Comparison of I-125 sources used for permanent interstitial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of manufacturers of 125I sources used in prostate brachytherapy has generated many questions in the radiation oncology community. In this investigation, the physical and dosimetric characteristics were evaluated for the following sources listed by marketing company and source model: Nycomed-Amersham 6711 (OncoSeed), Nycomed-Amersham 6702, Mentor IoGold, UroMed Symmetra, Imagyn IsoSTAR, UroCor, (PSA, Mallincrkrodt) ProstaSeed, Syncor PharmaSeed, SourceTech Medical, (BARD) 125Implant (BrachySource), Med-Tec I-Plant, Best Medical Model 2301, DraxImage BrachySeed, and International Brachytherapy, Inc. (IBT) InterSource125. The investigation examined the differences in design, construction, and the dosimetric characteristics created from each source. The dosimetric characteristics of the new sources were compared to that of the Amersham 6711 source. Parameter studies have led to the development of a simple equation that can be used to clinically convert the standard 6711 source strength to an equivalent strength of a new source

  2. 125I therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years increasing interest is shown in the use of 125I for the therapy of hyperthyroidism, instead of the traditional 131I, based on the postulate that there is a relative sparing of the reproductive integrity of the thyroid follicular cell and a consequent possibility of smaller incidence of hypothyroidism after therapy. Dosimetric and radiobiological bases of this postulate are first described in this paper and then a brief review of the results of the pilot clinical trials conducted at different centers using 125I for the management of hyperthyroidism is given. (orig./MG)

  3. Comparison of MRI pulse sequences in defining prostate volume after permanent implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the relative value of three MRI pulse sequences in defining the prostate volume after permanent implantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 45 patients who received a permanent 125I implant were studied. Two weeks after implantation, an axial CT scan (2 mm thickness) and T1-weighted, T1-weighted fat saturation, and T2-weighted axial MRI (3-mm) studies were obtained. The prostate volumes were compared with the initial ultrasound planning volumes, and subsequently the CT, T1-weighted, and T1-weighted fat saturation MRI volumes were compared with the T2-weighted volumes. Discrepancies in volume were evaluated by visual inspection of the registered axial images and the registration of axial volumes on the sagittal T2-weighted volumes. In a limited set of patients, pre- and postimplant CT and T2-weighted MRI studies were available for comparison to determine whether prostate volume changes after implant were dependent on the imaging modality. Results: T1-weighted and T1-weighted fat saturation MRI and CT prostate volumes were consistently larger than the T2-weighted MRI prostate volumes, with a volume on average 1.33 (SD 0.24) times the T2-weighted volume. This discrepancy was due to the superiority of T2-weighted MRI for prostate definition at the following critical interfaces: membranous urethring critical interfaces: membranous urethra, apex, and anterior base-bladder and posterior base-seminal vesicle interfaces. The differences in prostate definition in the anterior base region suggest that the commonly reported underdose may be due to overestimation of the prostate in this region by CT. The consistent difference in volumes suggests that the degree of swelling observed after implantation is in part a function of the imaging modality. In patients with pre- and postimplant CT and T2-weighted MRI images, swelling on the T2-weighted images was 1.1 times baseline and on CT was 1.3 times baseline, confirming the imaging modality dependence of prostate swelling. Conclusion: Postimplant T2-weighted MRI images provided superior prostate definition in all critical regions of the prostate compared with CT and the other MRI sequences tested. In addition to defining an optimal technique, these findings call two prior observations into question. Under dosing at the anterior base region may be overestimated because of poor definition of the prostate-bladder muscle interface. The swelling observed after implantation was lower on T2-weighted images as well, suggesting that a fraction of postimplant swelling is a function of the imaging modality. These findings have implications for preimplant planning and postimplant evaluation. As implant planning techniques become more conformal, and registration methods become more efficient, T2-weighted MRI after implantation will improve the accuracy of postimplant dosimetry

  4. Permanent LDR implants in treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) is a radiation method known for several years in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The main idea of this method is to implant small radioactive seeds directly into the prostate gland. LDR brachytherapy is applied as a monotherapy and also used along with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as a boost. In most cases it is used as a sole radical treatment modality, but not as a palliative treatment. The application of permanent seed implants is a curative treatment alternative in patients with organ- confined cancer, without extracapsular extension of the tumour. This technique is particularly popular in the United States. In Europe, however, high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) is more popular in early-stage prostate cancer treatment (as a boost). The aim of this publication is to describe methods, indications, complications and selected results of prostate cancer LDR brachytherapy. (authors)

  5. Temporary and Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filter Combination in a Young Patient: To Implant or Not to Implant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to implant vena cava filters, either temporary or permanent, is difficult in young patients. We present the case of a young man with pulmonary embolism in whom temporary and permanent inferior vena cava filters were implanted. The decision process is discussed in relation to the current literature

  6. Temporary and permanent inferior vena cava filter combination in a young patient: to implant or not to implant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ramazan; Alkan, Alpay; Sigirci, Ahmet; Altinok, Tayfun; Yildirim, Zeki

    2003-01-01

    The decision to implant vena cava filters, either temporary or permanent, is difficult in young patients. We present the case of a young man with pulmonary embolism in whom temporary and permanent inferior vena cava filters were implanted. The decision process is discussed in relation to the current literature. PMID:14753313

  7. Prophylactic urethral stenting with Memokath® 028SW in prostate cancer patients undergoing prostate 125I seed implants: phase I/II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Chao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the feasibility/toxicity of urethral stenting with the Memokath® 028SW stent in patients undergoing prostate implant (PI for prostate adenocarcinoma. Material and methods: An Investigational Device Exemption from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and institutional review board (IRB approval were obtained. Twenty patients enrolled. Baseline American Urological Association (AUA score was obtained prior to PI. Follow-up information was obtained with weekly phone calls for the first 12 weeks and biweekly calls for the next 12 weeks to assess toxicity and AUA score. Removal of the stent was planned at six months after PI, or earlier due to excessive toxicity/patient request. Results: Median age was 66.5 years. The median prostate volume was 39 cc (range: 10-90. The median baseline AUA score was 7.5 (range: 1-21. Three patients required intermittent self-catheterization (ISC within 3 days after PI. No patients required ISC beyond day 3 after PI. The median duration of ISC was 1 day (range: 1-2. AUA scores returned to baseline values 6 weeks after PI. The week 6 AUA score was 10 (range: 4-16. Seven patients (35% underwent early removal because of patient preference. The reasons were: incontinence (n = 3, discomfort (n = 2, hematuria (n = 1, and obstructive symptoms (n = 1. The median time of stent removal in these patients was 13.9 weeks (range: 0.9-21.4. Thirteen patients (65% had ISC and/or urinary catheterization post stent removal. Median time for ISC use was 10 days (range: 1-90. Conclusions: Urethral stenting with Memokath® in patients undergoing PI was feasible, but resulted in relatively high rate of urinary incontinence and discomfort. Given the adverse effects experienced by patients of this study, further studies should focus only on patients with highest risk of urinary obstruction from PI or those with obstruction needing ISC.

  8. MRI-based evaluation of permanent I-125 prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The aim of this study is the evaluation of permanent I-125 prostate implants using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: On MRI, the seeds present as signal voids because of disturbance of the local magnetic field homogeneity around the seeds. The seeds and the prostate are well depicted on T1-weighted spin echo images acquired with minimal read out gradient strength. Gradient echo images aid in depicting the seeds, since the seed-induced local static magnetic field inhomogeneity results in larger areas of signal loss on gradient echo images compared to spin echo images. The patients undergo radiography on the simulator and scanning on a whole body nuclear magnetic resonance system within 3 days after implantation of the I-125 seeds. Isocentric radiographs are used for reconstruction of the seed distribution, after which registration with the magnetic resonance images provides the seed positions in relation to the prostate. The prostate is contoured on the transversal magnetic resonance images. Volume dose histograms are computed to evaluate the implants. Results: In twenty-one actual implants the average peripheral dose (providing 99% target coverage) was found to be 3.5 times smaller than the average matched peripheral dose (MPD) calculated for the ellipsoidal volume approximation of the prostate. The dose levels for which 99% target coverage was achieved ranged from 21 to 70 Gy. Conclusions: The MRI-based m 21 to 70 Gy. Conclusions: The MRI-based evaluation method provides better insight in the irradiation dose to the prostate compared to the MPD approach. The present method can be used to assess the correlation of local control of the prostatic cancer and target coverage and to evaluate different implant techniques and modifications of the techniques

  9. PSA nadir after 125I prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and nadir of PSA failure after permanent 125I prostate brachytherapy. The study included 660 patients with a potential minimum follow-up of 5 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of PSA failure were identified. The PSA decreased gradually to less than 0.2 ng/mL even after 5 years for many patients. The median PSA nadir was 0.09 ng/mL. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy had little effect on PSA nadir. The PSA nadir <=0.2 ng/mL or current nadir <=0.4 ng/mL seemed to be a good marker as a successful treatment. (author)

  10. Adsorption of iodide on silver rods for {sup 125}I seed preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Park, U. J.; Yu, K. H. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S.; Choi, K. H.; Nam, S. S.; Seo, J. S.; Choi, S. J.; Son, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Recently, the rate of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly in Korea. Brachytherapy using {sup 125}I seeds has drawn attention as one of the treatment options for this type of cancer. {sup 125}I is a radionuclide, which emits 27 keV and 31 keV X-rays as well as 35 keV {gamma}-ray with a half-life of 59.4 days. This radioisotope is produced by the bombardment of neutrons on the {sup 124}Xe target, and it decays via electron capture to {sup 125}Te. The brachytherapy sources are fabricated as seeds and implanted permanently to the prostate. The seed consists of a titanium capsule as a shell with the dimension of 0.8 mm in external diameter, 0.05 mm in wall thickness and 4.5 mm in length. A silver (Ag) rod with a dimension of 3 mm in length and 0.5 mm in diameter is used as the radioactive core after adsorption of {sup 125}I. The loaded rod is inserted to the titanium tube which of ends are welded for complete isolation. The silver rod also acts as an X-ray marker to visualize by X-ray imaging and determine the location of seeds in the prostate. Currently, the supply of {sup 125}I seeds depends only on imports. Hence, national research and development are needed for local production. This research work is carried out to find the optimum conditions in the preparation of the radioactive core, more specifically in the adsorption of iodide on the silver rods

  11. Reevaluation of the indications for permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre Thygesen, Julie; Loh, Poay Huan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Conduction abnormalities (CA) requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) are a well-known complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This study aimed to determine the incidence of TAVI-related PPM and reevaluate the indications for PPM after the periprocedural period. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 258 consecutive patients underwent TAVI with the Medtronic CoreValve (MCV), whereas 24 patients were excluded from the study. TAVI-related PPM was defined as PPM implantation ?30 days after the procedure and due to atrioventricular block (AVB). Third-degree AVB, second-degree type-II, or advanced second-degree AVB were considered as absolute indications for PPM. The incidence of TAVI-related PPM implantation was 27.4%. Forty-six patients (19.7%) had an absolute indication for PPM, but CA had resolved in 50% beyond the periprocedural period. Electrocardiographic analysis of the patients who did not have a TAVI-related PPM implantation showed that the PR and QRS intervals increased following TAVI, reaching a peak on days 4-6 and 7-9, respectively, before decreasing to near baseline levels. CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of periprocedural PPM implantation following TAVI was high, most CAs following TAVI tend to resolve after the periprocedural period. This suggests that delaying the decision for PPM implantation after TAVI may reduce the PPM rate.

  12. 125I-urokinase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive 125I-urokinase (UK) radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described. 125I-UK was prepared by the chloramine T method. Its specific radioactivity was 14.8 x 105 Bq/?g. The antiserum against UK was raised by immunizing healthy New Zealand white rabbits with a mixture of UK and Freund's complete adjuvant. A titer of antiserum at 1:2000, and an affinity constant of 1.62 x 1010 L/mol, was specific for UK. The mean recoveries in serum and urine were 99.4 ± 5.0% and 101.1 ± 7.4%, respectively. THe value of coefficient of variation, intraassay and interassay were both less than 10%. The low detection limit for UK antigen was 0.18 ng. The detection range was 0.38 ? 12.16 ng/tube. Serum and urine UK levels in normal controls were 6.37 ± 1.28 ng/ml (n = 74) and 39.30 ± 18.04 ng/ml (n = 49), respectively

  13. Conformal prostate brachytherapy guided by realtime dynamic dose calculations using permanent 125iodine implants: technical description and preliminary experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro J., Prada; German, Juan; José, Fernández; González-Suárez, H; Álvaro, Martínez; José, González; Ana, Alonso.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El tratamiento con braquiterapia de baja tasa de dosis (LDR) con implantes permanentes de 125-I o 103Pb, constituyen en la actualidad una opción terapéutica en los pacientes con cáncer de próstata de bajo riesgo. La variación observada en el posicionamiento espacial de la próstata, así com [...] o en el volumen y contorno prostático entre las imágenes obtenidas durante la planificación y posteriormente durante la intervención, hacen dudar de la exactitud de dosificación, en los pacientes tratados con la técnica de preplanificación. Analizamos la técnica basada en la planificación previa, la planificación intraoperatoria interactiva, así como nuestro proceder actual de planificación intraoperatoria por cálculo dinámico en tiempo real y los motivos que nos llevaron a realizar este cambio de técnica. Métodos: Con el cálculo del volumen prostático preoperatorio por ecografía transrectal, determinamos la posibilidad de realizar el implante en base a las consideraciones anatómicas existentes y decidimos la actividad por semilla y la actividad total del implante. El día de la intervención comprobamos de nuevo la volumetría, obtenemos de nuevo las imágenes ecográficas de base a apex, ayudados por un stepper motorizado que va conectado con el ecógrafo y el planificador. Cada aguja que se coloca en la posición que deseamos y no en una coordenada obligada, se identifica en el planificador en la posición real, una vez colocadas todas las agujas y obtenidas unas primeras isodosis adecuadas, realizamos una cistoscopia flexible y a continuación sembramos, identificando todas y cada una de las semillas en la retirada de la aguja guía ecográficamente, con lo que nos permite obtener una postplanificación intraoperatoria en tiempo real y hacer las correcciones oportunas en el propio acto quirúrgico. Realizamos un implante periférico puro. Resultados: Iniciamos los tratamientos con braquiterapia de baja tasa de dosis en 1.999. Superadas las 700 intervenciones, hemos evaluado a los primeros 63 pacientes tratados con la técnica de cálculo dinámico de dosis en tiempo real por presentar un seguimiento mínimo de 10 meses. El tiempo medio del proceso fue de 90 minutos. La media de seguimiento para los 63 pacientes estudiados fue 20 meses con un rango entre 10 y 36 meses. Un 55% de los pacientes fueron estadiados como T1c, 36% T2a y 9% T2b. En el 81% de los pacientes el Gleason fue Abstract in english Objetive: Low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy (permanent 125I or 103Pd seeds) is an accepted treatment option for low risk prostate cancer patients. However, differences in prostate spatial location, volume and gland deformation between the images obtained during pre-planning and later on dur [...] ing the implant procedure prevent the pre-planned intended dose to be accurately delivered. We are reporting on a new technique based on interactive real-time dynamic intra-operative dose calculation with avoidance of post-implant CT for final dosimetry. The reasons leading us to implementing this new technique are discussed and preliminary results reported. Methods: A pre-planning TRUS for volumetric analysis is performed in all our patients prior to implantation. This TRUS accomplishes two objectives: 1) assessment of implantability of the gland, of organs at risk and anatomical considerations and 2) determination of seed activity and total number of seeds. On the day of the implant, new TRUS images from base to apex are obtained using a motorized stepper connected to the ultrasound and planning system. Each real time needle position placed on the target is identified and capture by the planning system in the true position. Once all real needle positions have been captured, dosimetry is performed intra-operatively and the physician approves the corresponding isodoses on real time. Flexible cystoscopy is then performed followed by seed placement. Each seed implanted is then identified upon withdrawing the needle using TRUS guidance. This allows real-time intra-operative dosi

  14. Quality indicators for permanent I-125 prostate seed implants : seven years post implant dosimetry evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the current work is to assess the progress of prostate implant quality via post implant dosimetry over a 7-year time period. The roles of post implant dosimetry (PID) after permanent 1-125 implant are to: identify suboptimal implants; assess the dosimetric quality indicators and evaluate dose to organs at risk. The 7-years PID learning-curve shows clear changes in dosimetric trend. Beside the expected improvement in technique the following factors were investigated: the replacement of the computed tomography (CT)-delineation based PID with ultrasound (US)-CT fusion based, and the evolution and influence of parameters such as 090 and V I 00. The correlation between dosimetric parameters and clinical outcome was also evaluated. Results A study on 30 patients showed manual target contouring on CT tends to overestimate the prostate volume when compared to ultrasound data (mean difference 38.3%), translating to CT based D90 values being lower than US-CT D90 by an average of 6%. There was 4.7% patient relapse and urinary retention was reported in 2.7% of the patients. CT-based PID was found less reliable than US-CT fusion due to target overestimation. This result shows the biased interpretation of low D90 based on CT targeting and may not relate to patient relapse data. The low urinary retention statistics are in accordance with the PID data for the organ, as only 5.2% of patients had their PID D I 0 >218 Gy, i.e. abovets had their PID D I 0 >218 Gy, i.e. above recommended GEC-ESTRO guidelines. Besides the 'learning' component, the 7-years PID D90 curve is influenced by PID technique.

  15. Absorbed dose determination for interstitial 125I boost therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-125 implants are being used to boost external beam treatments of unresectable pancreas and lung tumors. Calculations of the 125I activity required to achieve a specific average peripheral dose are presented as a function of the average tumor dimension for spherical, ellipsoidal, and cylindrical implants. Both uniform and random seed spacings are investigated. The results indicate that the average peripheral dose is relatively insensitive to the seed distribution as well as to the seed activity. The average tumor dose is typically 20% greater than the average peripheral dose

  16. CT guided 125I seed brachytherapy for recurrent rectum cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the technological feasibility, efficacy and morbidity of CT guided 125I seed implantation for recurrent rectum cancer. Methods: Twenty-three patients with recurrent rectum cancer were treated with CT guided interstitial 125I seed brachytherapy. In 20 patients the procedure was performed under epidural anesthesia and 3 patients under local anesthesia. Treatment planning system was used to calculate the number of seeds, the space distribution and the introduction of the seeding needles. Matched peripheral dose (MPD) of 121I seed implantation ranged from 90-120 Gy for patients who had had external radiotherapy, and 140- 160 Gy for those who had not. The planning target volume(PTV) was clinical target volume(CTV) plus 1 cm margin. The range of radioactivity of the 125I seeds was 18.5-25.9 MBq. All these 23 patients had CT scan at 5 mm intervals after implantation for quality evaluation, together with routine chest, pelvic X-ray films within 24-48 hours after seed implantation. Three patients received three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3DCRT) to a total dose of 45-50 Gy, with 2-3 Gy/f. Follow-up time was from 3 to 28 months. Results: All patients was able to tolerate seed implantation well. Complete pain relief was observed in 12/15, and partial relief in 2/15 and no response in 1/15, with a response rate of 93%. The local control rate was 87%. The 1- and 2-year survival rate was 93% and 50% rand 2-year survival rate was 93% and 50% respectively. Two of four patients have died of dissemination to the lung after 8 and 12 months. One seed has migrated into the pelvis without causing any untoward morbidity. Conclusion: CT guided 125I seed implantation for recurrent rectum cancer is safe, minimally invasive, causing only mild morbidity. It possesses a high efficacy, yet it should be given in combination with extemal beam radiation and chemotherapy, should distant metastasis be observed. (authors)

  17. Procedures for RIA 125I waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I can be effectively removed from coated tubes and plastic beads used as solid-phase separators by a 50% household bleach solution. This technique enables the user to dispose of these separators into common trash

  18. Preparation of 125I FSH hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelling of human FSH of pituitary origin with 125I and its purification are described. Suitable parameters are selected for the use of radioimmunologic technique for FSH dosage in human serum. (author)

  19. [Intraoperative and post-implant dosimetry in patients treated with permanent prostate implant brachytherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein, András; Ágoston, Péter; Szabó, Zoltán; Jorgo, Kliton; Markgruber, Balázs; Pesznyák, Csilla; Polgár, Csaba; Major, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare intraoperative and four-week post-implant dosimetry for loose and stranded seed implants for permanent prostate implant brachytherapy. In our institute low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy is performed with encapsulated I-125 isotopes (seeds) using transrectal ultrasound guidance and metal needles. The SPOT PRO 3.1 (Elekta, Sweden) system is used for treatment planning. In this study the first 79 patients were treated with loose seed (LS) technique, the consecutive patients were treated with stranded seed (SS) technique. During intraoperative planning the dose constraints were the same for both techniques. All LSs were placed inside the prostate capsule, while with SS a 2 mm margin around the prostate was allowed for seed positioning. The prescribed dose for the prostate was 145 Gy. This study investigated prostate dose coverage in 30-30 randomly selected patients with LS and SS. Four weeks after the implantation native CT and MRI were done and CT/MRI image fusion was performed. The target was contoured on MRI and the plan was prepared on CT data. To assess the treatment plan dose-volume histograms were used. For the target coverage V100, V90, D90, D100, for the dose inhomogeneity V150, V200, and the dose-homogeneity index (DHI), for dose conformality the conformal index (COIN) were calculated. Intraoperative and postimplant plans were compared. The mean V100 values decreased at four-week plan for SS (97% vs. 84%) and for LS (96% vs. 80%) technique, as well. Decrease was observed for all parameters except for the DHI value. The DHI increased for SS (0.38 vs. 0.41) and for LS (0.38 vs. 0.47) technique, as well. The COIN decreased for both techniques at four-week plan (SS: 0.63 vs. 0.57; LS: 0.67 vs. 0.50). All differences were significant except for the DHI value at SS technique. The percentage changes were not significant, except the COIN value. The dose coverage of the target decreased significantly at four-week plans for both techniques. The decrease was larger for LS technique, but the difference between techniques was not significant at this patient number. The dose distribution was more homogenous, but the conformality was worse at four-week plans. PMID:26035163

  20. Volatility of 125I in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the rate of 129 I transfer from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems, in support of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, we measured rates of 125 I and 14 C loss from glass flasks. Measured 125 I loss rates were less than 0.5% of the 14 C loss rate, and water-air partition coefficients for 125 I were 7.2 x 104 litre air litre-1 water or greater. Gaseous loss of 125 I was slower from river water than from distilled water, and still slower in the presence of algae, or from sediment slurries under oxic or low-oxic conditions. No 125 I loss was detectable under methanogenic conditions. Sediment slurries in contact with 125 I was used to measure water-sediment partition coefficients (KD under oxic KD = 70-187 litre kg-1 and low-oxic KD = 25-42 litre kg-1) conditions. From this study we conclude that the first-order gaseous evasion rate from fresh water to the atmosphere for 129 I is -3 a-1, and that the water-to-sediment transfer rate is between 1.0 and 3.4 a-1. (author)

  1. Sealed sources in synthetic absorbable suture: a new method for permanent interstitial implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inactive gold grains are embedded at 1-cm intervals along a synthetic, absorbable surgical suture, then subjected to neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor, forming a new material for permanent interstitial implant therapy. Assembling and activating the sealed sources in an absorbable carrier, the physical properties of the irradiated suture, its behavior in tissue, and the methods and results of implantation in the dog are described. (U.S.)

  2. Inhibitory effect of particle 125I on proliferation of intracranial glioma cells in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the possibility and mechanism of 125I in treatment of glioma. Methods: SHG-44 glioma cells were cultivated in vitro, the inhibitory effect of 125I on SHG-44 cell proliferation was determined by MTT method. The stereotactic method was used to establish the rat intracranial glioma model. The MRI was performed at 1st week after implantation and 125I was implanted in the glioma area, the MRI was performed to measure the diameter of tumor 2 weeks after implantation. The rats were killed after 2 weeks, PCNA gene experession was determined with immunohistological method both in control and experiment group. Results: One week after implantation the glioma grew, the results of MTT method showed the growth of the SHG-44 was inhibited, 125I inhibited the expression of PCNA gene and enlonged the rat survival period. Conclusion: 125I can inhibit the growth of glioma, the mechanism may be concerned with its inhibitory effect on PCNA gene expression. (authors)

  3. 125I decay in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides provides the opportunity to study the effects of 125I in DNA with added precision and detail, compared to an earlier study (Martin and Haseltine, Science 214, 296, 1981). The authors have designed a template/primer system which enables incorporation of 125IdC into a defined location in a 31mer. The main advantage of this approach is that relatively large amounts (a few ?Ci) of DNA with both 32P and 125I can be produced quite easily. Consequently, when 125I-induced DNA damage is analyzed on DNA sequencing gels, the distribution of 32P-labeled cleavage products can be determined more accurately, following accumulation of decay events under various conditions (e.g. temperature, buffer components, free radical scavengers). The results of preliminary experiments suggest that the yield of DNA strand breaks per decay approaches one, at least for the 125I labeled strand. Extension of this experimental approach will also enable investigation of the nature of the terminii (e.g. phophoryl-versus phophorylglycollate) at either side of 125I decay-induced DNA strand breaks. The question of energy migration is also being investigated in the oligodeoxynucleotide system, by studying the effects of inclusion of BrUdR nucleotides at various distances from the 125IdC

  4. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy in patients with an implanted permanent pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tl scintigraphic abnormalities have been reported in patients with an implanted permanent pacemaker, but little is known about the MIBG scintigraphic findings in such patients. This study was performed to assess the MIBG scintigraphic findings in patients with an implanted permanent pacemaker, and to test the hypothesis that imaging characteristics of MIBG scintigraphy differ according to its mode. Twelve patients (4 men and 8 women, mean age: 72.4±9.5 years), who had undergone the implantation of a permanent pacemaker for bradyarrhythmias, underwent MIBG scintigraphy. The patients were divided into VVI pacemaker and DDD pacemaker groups. The tomograms were divided into nine segments and the MIBG defect in each segment scored on a scale ranging from 0 (normal uptake) to 3 (no uptake). Total MIBG defect scores were generated by summing the scores for the nine segments in each patient. MIBG scintigraphic abnormalities were found in ten of the twelve patients. The six patients with the VVI pacemaker manifested MIBG scintigraphic abnormalities. These MIBG scintigraphic abnormalities were observed in all segments, particularly in the posterior segments. The mean total defect score of the VVI group was higher than that of the DDD group (14.8±9.8 vs 3.0±3.5, respectively p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude that despite several limitations of the study, MIBG scintigraphic abnormalities occur in patients with implanted permanent pacemakers, and that such abnormalities are more , and that such abnormalities are more prominent with the VVI than DDD pacemaker. (author)

  5. Continuous and low-energy 125I seed irradiation changes DNA methyltransferases expression patterns and inhibits pancreatic cancer tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yan-fang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine 125 (125I seed irradiation is an effective treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers. However, the radiobiological mechanisms underlying brachytherapy remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the influence of continuous and low-energy 125I irradiation on apoptosis, expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs and cell growth in pancreatic cancers. Materials and methods For in vitro 125I seed irradiation, SW-1990 cells were divided into three groups: control (0 Gy, 2 Gy, and 4 Gy. To create an animal model of pancreatic cancer, the SW 1990 cells were surgically implanted into the mouse pancreas. At 10 d post-implantation, the 30 mice with pancreatic cancer underwent 125I seed implantation and were separated into three groups: 0 Gy, 2 Gy, and 4 Gy group. At 48 or 72 h after irradiation, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry; changes in DNMTs mRNA and protein expression were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. At 28 d after 125I seed implantation, in vivo apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL staining, while DNMTs protein expression was detected with immunohistochemical staining. The tumor volume was measured 0 and 28 d after 125I seed implantation. Results 125I seed irradiation induced significant apoptosis, especially at 4 Gy. DNMT1 and DNMT3b mRNA and protein expression were substantially higher in the 2 Gy group than in the control group. Conversely, the 4 Gy cell group exhibited significantly decreased DNMT3b mRNA and protein expression relative to the control group. There were substantially more TUNEL positive in the 125I seed implantation treatment group than in the control group, especially at 4 Gy. The 4 Gy seed implantation group showed weaker staining for DNMT1 and DNMT3b protein relative to the control group. Consequently, 125I seed implantation inhibited cancer growth and reduced cancer volume. Conclusion 125I seed implantation kills pancreatic cancer cells, especially at 4 Gy. 125I-induced apoptosis and changes in DNMT1 and DNMT3b expression suggest potential mechanisms underlying effective brachytherapy.

  6. Dual Functional Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Coatings for Implants: Permanent Microbicidal Base with Controlled Release of Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sze Yinn; Moskowitz, Joshua S.; Veselinovic, Jovana; Rosario, Ryan A.; Timachova, Ksenia; Blaisse, Michael R.; Smith, Renée C.; Klibanov, Alexander M.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a new bifunctional layer-by-layer (LbL) construct made by combining a permanent microbicidal polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) base film with a hydrolytically degradable PEM top film that offers controlled and localized delivery of therapeutics. Two degradable film architectures are presented: 1) bolus release of an antibiotic (gentamicin) to eradicate initial infection at the implant site, or 2) sustained delivery of an anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) to cope with inflammation at the site of implantation due to tissue injury. Each degradable film was built on top of a permanent base film that imparts the implantable device surface with microbicidal functionality that prevents the formation of biofilms. Controlled-delivery of gentamicin was demonstrated over hours and diclofenac over days. Both drugs retained their efficacy upon release. The permanent microbicidal base film was biocompatible with A549 epithelial cancer cells and MC3T3-E1 osteoprogenitor cells, while also preventing bacteria attachment from turbid media for the entire duration of the two weeks studied. The microbicidal base film retains its functionality after the biodegradable films have completely degraded. The versatility of these PEM films and their ability to prevent biofilm formation make them attractive as coatings for implantable devices. PMID:21105659

  7. Evaluation of permanent I-125 prostate implants using radiographs and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Localized prostatic cancer is managed by radical prostatectomy, external beam irradiation or a permanent implant with I-125 seeds. Permanent implants are indicated for small tumours (T1-T2) with a well to moderate histological differentiation. The technique used is a transrectal ultrasound guided transperineal implantation technique, which aims for a seed and dose distribution such that the initial doserate line of 7.8 cGy/h encompasses the prostate resulting in an accumulated dose of 160 Gy. Up till now the seed and dose distribution is evaluated from isocentric radiographs, which do not show the relation with the prostate. Objectives: The aim of this study is the development of a technique to reconstruct and evaluate the seed and dose distribution within the prostate. Methods: Twenty patients underwent radiography on the simulator and scanning on a whole body NMR system within 3 days after implantation of the I-125 seeds. Isocentric radiographs were used for reconstruction of the seed distribution, after which registration with the MR images provided the seed positions in relation to the prostate. Volume dose histograms were used to evaluate the implants. Results: The I-125 seeds and the prostate anatomy were well depicted on T1-weighted spin echo images with minimal read out gradient strength. To date, ten implants were evaluated. According to our method, the prostate volumes receiving the prescribed dose of 160 Gy ranged from 30 to 70% of the total p60 Gy ranged from 30 to 70% of the total prostate volumes. Conclusion: The combination of isocentric radiographs and MRI enables reconstruction of the seed and dose distribution in relation to the prostate and the computation of dose volume histograms, which may be of value in the evaluation of implant quality

  8. Results of a phase II trial of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive implantation of the prostate for definitive management of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-05)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive 125I implantation of the prostate for organ-confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate compared with historical data of prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Patients accrued to this study had histologically confirmed, locally confined, adenocarcinoma of the prostate with clinical Stage T1b, T1c, or T2a, no nodal or metastatic disease, prostate-specific antigen level of ?10 ng/mL, and Gleason score of ?6. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided radioactive 125I permanent seed implantation into the prostate. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate planning target volume. Results: A total of 27 institutions accrued a total of 101 patients to this protocol, with no institution accruing >8 patients. Six patients were ineligible, leaving 95 properly entered as eligible in the study. The median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years). At 5 years, 5 patients had local failure, 1 had evidence of distant failure, and 6 (6%) had biochemical failure. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 96.7%. At last follow-up, no patient had died of prostate cancer or related toxicities. Eight patients had a maximal acute toxicity level of 3, and no patient had Grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity. During follow-up, 2 patients had maximal Grade 3 toxicity, both related to bladder issues, and , both related to bladder issues, and no patient experienced Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Conclusion: The results of this clinical protocol (a multi-institutional trial of brachytherapy for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate) have demonstrated that this type of trial can be successfully completed through Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Biochemical disease-free survival was comparable with other brachytherapy published series and with the results after surgery and external beam radiotherapy

  9. Dosimetric and functional analysis of 227 patients treated by permanents prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brachytherapy of prostate by permanent implants is included in the armamentarium of localized prostate cancers with external radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. The quality evaluation of implantation is essential for the patient and the team managing him. Our retrospective work consisted in analysing the whole of dosimetry data and urinary, digestive and sexual functional results of patients treated in our centers. conclusion: the post-implantation dosimetry analysis is essential to improve the technique and to understand the evolutions. The method of scanning evaluation is difficult but is currently the most used by its accessibility. The low urinary, rectal and sexual morbidity of the brachytherapy makes of this treatment an attractive technique for the patients should be well selected. (N.C.)

  10. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (Fr: with resensitization, Fn: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as ?, ?, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (Fr) and without (Fn) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of Fr/Fn were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of Fr/Fn were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of Fr/Fn were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of Fr was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of Fn was 1.75/1.18. Fr of 1.1 has been applied to gynecological cancer implants with expected acute reactions and outcomes as expected based on extensive experience with permanent implants. The calculation also gave the average Cs-131 dose of 126 Gy converted from the I-125 dose of 144 Gy for prostate implants. Conclusions: Inclusion of an allowance for resensitization led to significant dose corrections for Cs-131 permanent implants, and should be applied to prescription dose calculation. The adjustment of the Cs-131 prescription doses with resensitization correction for gynecological permanent implants was consistent with clinical experience and observations. However, the Cs-131 prescription doses converted from other implant doses can be further adjusted based on new experimental results, clinical observations, and clinical outcomes

  11. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei, E-mail: wei.luo@uky.edu; Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as ?, ?, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F{sub n} was 1.75/1.18. F{sub r} of 1.1 has been applied to gynecological cancer implants with expected acute reactions and outcomes as expected based on extensive experience with permanent implants. The calculation also gave the average Cs-131 dose of 126 Gy converted from the I-125 dose of 144 Gy for prostate implants. Conclusions: Inclusion of an allowance for resensitization led to significant dose corrections for Cs-131 permanent implants, and should be applied to prescription dose calculation. The adjustment of the Cs-131 prescription doses with resensitization correction for gynecological permanent implants was consistent with clinical experience and observations. However, the Cs-131 prescription doses converted from other implant doses can be further adjusted based on new experimental results, clinical observations, and clinical outcomes.

  12. Metallic artifact mitigation and organ-constrained tissue assignment for Monte Carlo calculations of permanent implant lung brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J. G. H.; Miksys, N.; Thomson, R. M., E-mail: rthomson@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Furutani, K. M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate methods of generating accurate patient-specific computational phantoms for the Monte Carlo calculation of lung brachytherapy patient dose distributions. Methods: Four metallic artifact mitigation methods are applied to six lung brachytherapy patient computed tomography (CT) images: simple threshold replacement (STR) identifies high CT values in the vicinity of the seeds and replaces them with estimated true values; fan beam virtual sinogram replaces artifact-affected values in a virtual sinogram and performs a filtered back-projection to generate a corrected image; 3D median filter replaces voxel values that differ from the median value in a region of interest surrounding the voxel and then applies a second filter to reduce noise; and a combination of fan beam virtual sinogram and STR. Computational phantoms are generated from artifact-corrected and uncorrected images using several tissue assignment schemes: both lung-contour constrained and unconstrained global schemes are considered. Voxel mass densities are assigned based on voxel CT number or using the nominal tissue mass densities. Dose distributions are calculated using the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose for{sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds and are compared directly as well as through dose volume histograms and dose metrics for target volumes surrounding surgical sutures. Results: Metallic artifact mitigation techniques vary in ability to reduce artifacts while preserving tissue detail. Notably, images corrected with the fan beam virtual sinogram have reduced artifacts but residual artifacts near sources remain requiring additional use of STR; the 3D median filter removes artifacts but simultaneously removes detail in lung and bone. Doses vary considerably between computational phantoms with the largest differences arising from artifact-affected voxels assigned to bone in the vicinity of the seeds. Consequently, when metallic artifact reduction and constrained tissue assignment within lung contours are employed in generated phantoms, this erroneous assignment is reduced, generally resulting in higher doses. Lung-constrained tissue assignment also results in increased doses in regions of interest due to a reduction in the erroneous assignment of adipose to voxels within lung contours. Differences in dose metrics calculated for different computational phantoms are sensitive to radionuclide photon spectra with the largest differences for{sup 103}Pd seeds and smallest but still considerable differences for {sup 131}Cs seeds. Conclusions: Despite producing differences in CT images, dose metrics calculated using the STR, fan beam + STR, and 3D median filter techniques produce similar dose metrics. Results suggest that the accuracy of dose distributions for permanent implant lung brachytherapy is improved by applying lung-constrained tissue assignment schemes to metallic artifact corrected images.

  13. Metallic artifact mitigation and organ-constrained tissue assignment for Monte Carlo calculations of permanent implant lung brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate methods of generating accurate patient-specific computational phantoms for the Monte Carlo calculation of lung brachytherapy patient dose distributions. Methods: Four metallic artifact mitigation methods are applied to six lung brachytherapy patient computed tomography (CT) images: simple threshold replacement (STR) identifies high CT values in the vicinity of the seeds and replaces them with estimated true values; fan beam virtual sinogram replaces artifact-affected values in a virtual sinogram and performs a filtered back-projection to generate a corrected image; 3D median filter replaces voxel values that differ from the median value in a region of interest surrounding the voxel and then applies a second filter to reduce noise; and a combination of fan beam virtual sinogram and STR. Computational phantoms are generated from artifact-corrected and uncorrected images using several tissue assignment schemes: both lung-contour constrained and unconstrained global schemes are considered. Voxel mass densities are assigned based on voxel CT number or using the nominal tissue mass densities. Dose distributions are calculated using the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose for125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs seeds and are compared directly as well as through dose volume histograms and dose metrics for target volumes surrounding surgical sutures. Results: Metallic artifact mitigation techniques vary in ability to reduce artifacts while preserving tissue detail. Notably, images corrected with the fan beam virtual sinogram have reduced artifacts but residual artifacts near sources remain requiring additional use of STR; the 3D median filter removes artifacts but simultaneously removes detail in lung and bone. Doses vary considerably between computational phantoms with the largest differences arising from artifact-affected voxels assigned to bone in the vicinity of the seeds. Consequently, when metallic artifact reduction and constrained tissue assignment within lung contours are employed in generated phantoms, this erroneous assignment is reduced, generally resulting in higher doses. Lung-constrained tissue assignment also results in increased doses in regions of interest due to a reduction in the erroneous assignment of adipose to voxels within lung contours. Differences in dose metrics calculated for different computational phantoms are sensitive to radionuclide photon spectra with the largest differences for103Pd seeds and smallest but still considerable differences for 131Cs seeds. Conclusions: Despite producing differences in CT images, dose metrics calculated using the STR, fan beam + STR, and 3D median filter techniques produce similar dose metrics. Results suggest that the accuracy of dose distributions for permanent implant lung brachytherapy is improved by applying lung-constrained tissue assignment schemes to metallic artifact corrected images

  14. Dispersion of iodine (125I) and trapping of dispersed 125I by charcoal cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dispersal rates of 125I defined here as a dispersed activity in Bq per hour divided by the total activity contained in a solution, and the collection efficiency of dispersed 125I by charcoal cartridges were measured under the various pH conditions in the solution. The values of dispersal rate observed under working conditions in common biochemical procedures were (3.74±1.19) x 10-4 (h-1), (4.27±1.90) x 10-4 (h-1) and (6.31±2.05) x 10-4 (h-1) for alkaline, neutral and acidic conditions of the solution, respectively. And those values obtained by the evaporation of solution to dryness were elevated more than 100 to 1000 times independent of pH of the solution. Under the case of common biochemical procedures, nearly 90% of the dispersed 125I was trapped on the 1st charcoal cartridge which was inserted between dispersal part and exhaust part. NO 125I was detected in the following 2nd and 3rd charcoal cartridges. (author)

  15. Computational Program of Isodose and TPS of 125I Seed for Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources are widely used in several fields including for medical purposes. One use of radioactive sources in medical field is radiotherapy to cure the cancerous organs. Brachytherapy term is the radiotherapy where the radiation source is placed inside or as close as possible to the cancer needing treatment. In order to support the domestic application of 125I seeds in brachytherapy, a computational program for isodose and TPS (Treatment Planning System) calculation shall be available. The preparation of the such program has been successfully developed using Microsoft Visual Basic for Windows and its supporting tools. This program can display the two-dimensions-isodose contour of 1-20 125I seeds presented in direction of lateral, anterior (AP) and caodal. The dose rate at the distances of 1, 2, 3 and 4 cm from the center point assumed as (0,0) can also be calculated from 1 to 360 days after implantation of the 125I seeds. The entered data as well as the resulting calculation and the contour presentation can be saved and be quickly traced and redisplayed at any time necessarily. This computer program is hopefully able to assist physicians in the implementation of 125I seeds implantation for brachytherapy. (author)

  16. Calculation of the dose equivalent around a patient receiving treatment with 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interstitial brachytherapy with 125I seeds for treatment of prostate cancer is being carried out successfully in Europe and U.S.A. However, its widespread use in Japan has been limited by regulations governing the exposure of individuals. Basic radiation protection data are required to promote the use of 125I seed sources. In preparation for implementing this new modality, we carried out a series of measurements to determine the 1 cm dose equivalent in a caregiver located 1 m from the implanted patient. These measurements were compared with published recommendations of acceptable doses, and may be used to develop guidelines for discharge of the patient. The 1 cm dose equivalent was measured 1 m from the source under clinically relevant conditions by placing 50 125I seeds (437.5 MBq) into the portion of a humanoid phantom that corresponds to the prostate. The 1 cm dose equivalent was 0.0014 ?Sv·m2·MBq-1·h-1 1 m from the surface of the phantom. The calculated dose to a caregiver based on this figure is well below the 5 mSv value recommended by the IAEA as a constraint dose for the caregiver. These measurements and calculations suggest that 125I seed implants of outpatients should be permissible. (author)

  17. Permanent-magnet type electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for heavy ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ECR ion-source has been designed to have a mirror field produced by permanent magnet for heavy ion implanter. A similar plasma-chamber size as normal-conducting ECR ion source was designed. Design aim of magnetic field is to in start a plasma chamber of 50 mm inner diameter and a hexapole magnet of 150 mm length with 12-14 GHz operation. We could to design near magnetic field of design aim for ECR ion source with 12-14 GHz operation. The new ECR ion source was first operated by 12-14 GHz. (author)

  18. Polymer gel dosimetry close to an 125I interstitial brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its advantages, the polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method has not, as yet, been successfully employed in dosimetry of low energy/low dose rate photon-emitting brachytherapy sources such as 125I or 103Pd interstitial seeds. In the present work, two commercially available 125I seed sources, each of approximately 0.5 U, were positioned at two different locations of a polymer gel filled vial. The gel vial was MR scanned with the sources in place 19 and 36 days after seed implantation. Calibration curves were acquired from the coupling of MRI measurements with accurate Monte Carlo dose calculations obtained simulating the exact experimental setup geometry and materials. The obtained gel response data imply that while linearity of response is sustained, sensitivity (calibration curve slope) is significantly increased (approximately 60%) compared to its typical value for the 192Ir (or 60Co and 6 MV LINAC) photon energies. Water equivalence and relative energy response corrections of the gel cannot account for more than 3-4% of this increase, which, therefore, has to be mainly attributed to physicochemical processes related to the low dose rate of the sources and the associated prolonged irradiation time. The calibration data obtained from one 125I source were used to provide absolute dosimetry results for the other 125I source, which were found to agree with corresponding Montere found to agree with corresponding Monte Carlo calculations within experimental uncertainties. It is therefore suggested that, regardless of the underlying factors accounting for the gel dose response to 125I irradiations, polymer gel dosimetry of new 125I or 103Pd sources should be carried out as originally proposed by Heard and Ibbot (2004 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 3 221-3), i.e., by irradiating the same gel sample with the new low dose rate source, as well as with a well-characterized low dose rate source which will provide the dose calibration curve for the same irradiation conditions

  19. Metabolism in the isolated rat heart: comparison of 125I-BMIPP with 125I-IPPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The fatty acid metabolism in myocardium is recently one of the most interesting subjects in nuclear cardiology. The purpose of this study was to clarify the metabolic fate of 125I-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (125I-BMIPP) and 15-(p-[125I] iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (125I-IPPA) by means of isolated rat hearts. Methods: Ten isolated rat hearts were prepared and perfused with 125I-BMIPP (5 rats) or 125I-IPPA (5 rats) for 3 h following a basic perfusion of 30 min. After perfusion, the radioactivity in the recirculated buffer was measured. The metabolites in the buffer were then extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Results: At the beginning (5 rain) of 125I-BMIPP perfusion, the main radioactive peak appeared on HPLC at 37 min, which remained after 3 h perfusion. Several small peaks eluting were found before the parent peak at 30, 26, 21, 16, 12 and 9 min, respectively. At the beginning (5 min) of 125I-IPPA perfusion, the main peak appeared on HPLC at 33 min, which disappeared after 3 h. Conclusions: 125I-BMIPP strongly inhibited beta-oxidation, therefore appeared suitable for myocardial metabolic imaging. 125I-IPPA was metabolized rapidly. (authors)

  20. Case report on extensive left atrial myxoma removal with permanent pacemaker implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokeria L.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To represent a case report of extensive left atrial myxoma removal with permanent pacemaker implantation. Methods: A 56-year old female patient admitted to the Bakulev Center of Cardiovascular Surgery with cardiac evaluation. She noted progressive chest pain associated with dyspnea and fatigue. After physical examination, transthoracic echocardiography and other methods of evolution confirmed the diagnosis: Tumor of the left atrium. Left atrial dilatation. Left ventricle hypertrophy. Arterial hypertension 2 stage of high risk. Circulatory failure 2 stage (by Strazhesko-Vasilenko, functional class II by NYHA. The huge tumor was successfully excised with closure of atrial septal defect by patch. Results: Transthoracic echocardiography in postoperative period showed a normal left and right ventricular function and no residual shunts. The presence of conduction abnormalities in early postoperative period predicted the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Conclusions: It must be noted rare occurrence of a huge tumor (myxoma filling left atrium. Large left atrial tumor is approached by biatrial incision with further excision. It is believed that the case can be beneficial in huge cardiac tumors management. Early detection and surgical treatment of heart tumors can reduce the risk of heart failure, systemic embolization, syncope and sudden cardiac death.

  1. Labelling of ochratoxins with 3H or 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalytic hydrogenation of ochratoxin A by carrier-free tritium was used to prepare 3H-ochratoxin B with a high specific activity. Iodination of ochratoxin B by carrier-free Na 125I using the chloramine method yielded 125I-ochratoxin with a high specific activity. Another 125I-derivative of ochratoxin A was prepared by iodination of an ochratoxin A - L-tyrosine-methylester conjugate. All three radioactive preparations were found to be useful for radioimmunoassay. (author)

  2. Determination of radiochemical purity of 125I-TOC and 125I-F-PGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore whether there is accordance among three determination methods of the radiochemical purity of [Tyr3] octreotide (TOC) and folate-penicillin G amidase conjugate (F-PGA), which are both labeled with 125I by Iodogen method, the RCP of the labelings are determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), paper chromatography and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, in which four different concentrations of proteins are used to investigate the effect of them on the determination of RCP. It is shown that both HPLC and paper chromatography can separate the labelings from free iodine efficiently, though HPLC is the most precise and reliable method to determinate RCP of such labelings. In TCA precipitation, the RCP measured with 0.2%BSA is the lowest, but those with three other concentrations of the BSA are similar (P>0.05). When RCP0.05), whereas higher than that with HPLC (P10%, the RCP of 125I-TOC obtained by TCA precipitation is a bit lower than those by two other methods (P0.05), and there are no significant differences to determinate the RCP of 125I-F-PGA (P>0.05). The three methods are correlated each other (r=0.0996-0.999, P<0.001). (authors)

  3. Implantation port-catheter permanent indwelling of pulmonary artery in treating lung metastasis from HCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the efficacy of a percutaneous implantation port-catheter permanent indwelling pulmonary artery for regional chemotherapy of the metastatic lung cancer from HCC. Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, 62 patients (42 males, 20 females; mean age 46 years) suffering from the metastatic lung cancer from HCC underwent percutaneous implantation of port-catheter permanent indwelling pulmonary artery using the right subclavian vein. In 19 patients with metastatic tumor located on one side of the lung, an indwelling catheter was placed into the ipsilateral side pulmonary artery. With metastasis of both sides, the catheter was inserted into the main trunk of pulmonary artery. The regimens of the chemotherapy were 5-FU + CDDP + MMC(FDM) or 5-FU + CDDP + MMC(FDA). Results: The interventional procedure was successfully completed in all 62 cases (100%). The complications occurred in 8% cases, including infections (3.2%), unhealed wound (1.6%) and pneumothorax (3.2%). The treatment effects of 3-months after the procedure were as follows: the obvious decrease of lung tumor size was 35.5%; stable disease (SD) 32.3% and progressive disease (PD) 32.3%. 6 months follow-up: 12 patients were dead (12/62) and the others are still doing well. The response rates were 22.6%, partial response (PR) 32.3%; stable disease (SD) 25.8% and progressive disease (PD) 32.3%. Conclusions: The percutaneous implantation techniques of pulmonary arterial port-catheter could be a good method inal port-catheter could be a good method in the treatment of metastatic lung cancer from HCC because of it is simple, with few complications and positive effect

  4. Installation of radiochromatography for testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-tyramine-125 I (T-3-CMO-Ty-125 I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a device for radiochromatography of testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-tyramine-125 I (T-3-CMO-Ty-125 I), a reagent used as marker in radioimmunoassays (RIA) of steroid hormones. One of the most adequate technique of analyzing the steroid hormones is RIA (radioimmunoassay) due to its sensitivity and specificity. This technique requires advanced purification of the sample. In the view of developing a sensitive RIA technique for assaying the steroid hormones an installation for radiochromatography of testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-tyramine-125 I (T-3-CMO-Ty-125 I) is necessary. (authors)

  5. Synthesis and binding of [125I2]philanthotoxin-343, [125I2]philanthotoxin-343-lysine, and [125I2]philanthotoxin-343-arginine to rat brain membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I2-iodinated philanthotoxin-343 (PhTX-343), [125I2]PhTX-343-arginine, and [125I2]PhTX-343-lysine were synthesized and evaluated as probes for glutamate receptors in rat brain synaptic membranes. It was found that these probes were not specific for the glutamate receptors but may be useful for investigating the polyamine binding site. Filtration assays with Whatman GF/B fiber glass filters were unsuitable because the iodinated PhTX-343 analogues exhibited high nonspecific binding to the filters, thus hindering detection of specific binding to membranes. When binding was measured by a centrifugal assay, [125I2]PhTX-343-lysine bound with low affinity (KD = 11.4 ± 2 microM) to a large number of sites (37.2 ± 9.1 nmol/mg of protein). The binding of [125I2]PhTX-343-lysine was sensitive only to the polyamines spermine and spermidine, which displaced [125I2]PhTX-343-lysine with Ki values of (3.77 ± 1.4) x 10(-5) M and (7.51 ± 0.77) x 10(-5) M, respectively. The binding was insensitive to glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists. Binding results with [125I2]PhTX-343-arginine were similar to those of [125I2]-PhTX-343-lysine. Considering the high number of toxin binding sites (10000-fold more than glutamate) in these membranes and the insensitivity of the binding to almost all drugs that bind to glutamate receptors, it is evident that most of the binding observed is not to glutamate receptors. On the other hand, PhTX analogues with photoaffinity labels may be useful in photoaffinity labels may be useful in the isolation/purification of various glutamate and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; they could also be useful in structural studies of receptors and their binding sites

  6. Quality asurance of iodinated (125 I) human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceutical iodinated (125 I) human fibrinogen is currently used for the detection of deep vein thrombosis in the legs, a fairly common post-surgical complication. A comprehensive quality assurance programme for (125 I) - human fibrinogen has been determined for routine use at the Australian Radiation Laboratory, with adaptions necessary for hospital quality control testing

  7. Evaluation of permanent I-125 prostate implants using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is the evaluation of permanent I-125 prostate implants using radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients underwent radiography on the simulator and MRI within 3 days after implantation of the I-125 seeds. Isocentric radiographs were used for reconstruction of the seed distribution, after which registration with the seed-induced signal voids on MRI provided the seed positions in relation to the prostate. The prostate was contoured on the transversal magnetic resonance images, and dose-volume histograms were computed to evaluate the implants. The validity of the ellipsoidal prostate volume approximation, as applied in preimplant dose calculation, was assessed by comparison of ellipsoidal volumes given by prostate width, height, and length and prostate volumes obtained by a slice-by-slice contouring method, both on postimplant MRI. Prostate volume changes due to postimplant prostate swelling were assessed from radiographs taken at 3 days and 1 month after the implantation. Results: The seeds were readily identified on T1-weighted spin-echo images and matched with the seed distribution reconstructed from the isocentric radiographs. The matching error, averaged over 21 patients, amounted to 1.8 ± 0.4 mm (mean ± standard deviation). The fractions of the prostate volumes receiving the prescribed matched peripheral dose (MPD) ranged from 32 to 71% (mean ± standard deviation: 60 ± 101% (mean ± standard deviation: 60 ± 10%). Prostate volumes, obtained by the contouring method on postimplant MRI, were a factor 1.5 ± 0.3 larger than the ellipsoidal volumes given by the prostate dimensions on postimplant MRI. Prostate volumes 3 days after the implantation were a factor 1.3 ± 0.2 larger than the prostate volumes 1 month after the implantation. Registration of the reconstructed seed distribution and the MR images showed inaccuracies in seed placement, for example, two or more seeds clustering together or seeds outside the prostate. Conclusions: Registration of the reconstructed seed distribution and the MR images enabled evaluation of target coverage, which amounted to 60 ± 10%. The discrepancy between prescribed dose and realized dose was caused by underestimation of the preimplant prostate volume due to the ellipsoidal approximation, postimplant prostate swelling at the time of evaluation, and inaccuracies in seed placement

  8. Bypassing the learning curve in permanent seed implants using state-of-the-art technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate, based on clinical postplan dose distributions, that technology can be used efficiently to eliminate the learning curve associated with permanent seed implant planning and delivery. Methods and Materials: Dose distributions evaluated 30 days after the implant of the initial 22 consecutive patients treated with permanent seed implants at two institutions were studied. Institution 1 (I1) consisted of a new team, whereas institution 2 (I2) had performed more than 740 preplanned implantations over a 9-year period before the study. Both teams had adopted similar integrated systems based on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasonography, intraoperative dosimetry, and an automated seed delivery and needle retraction system (FIRST, Nucletron). Procedure time and dose volume histogram parameters such as D90, V100, V150, V200, and others were collected in the operating room and at 30 days postplan. Results: The average target coverage from the intraoperative plan (V100) was 99.4% for I1 and 99.9% for I2. D90, V150, and V200 were 191.4 Gy (196.3 Gy), 75.3% (73.0%), and 37.5% (34.1%) for I1 (I2) respectively. None of these parameters shows a significant difference between institutions. The postplan D90 was 151.2 Gy for I1 and 167.3 Gy for I2, well above the 140 Gy from the Stock et al. analysis, taking into account differences at planning, results in a p value of 0.0676. The procedure time required on average 174.4 min for I1 time required on average 174.4 min for I1 and 89 min for I2. The time was found to decrease with the increasing number of patients. Conclusion: State-of-the-art technology enables a new brachytherapy team to obtain excellent postplan dose distributions, similar to those achieved by an experienced team with proven long-term clinical results. The cost for bypassing the usual dosimetry learning curve is time, with increasing team experience resulting in shorter treatment times

  9. Treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma permanent implants with I 125: first experience in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To report on the treatment done, toxicity and development of a group of adenocarcinoma patients with localized prostate brachytherapy implants permanent I125. Material and Methods. 37 patients were treated in the period 2001 to 2004 at the Military Hospital Central by this treatment modality. All of them were performed before implantation planning, which consisted of the volumetric calculation and calculation prostate dosimetry that included transrectal prostate ultrasound 3-5 weeks before the procedure. all patients had pathological confirmation of the lesion showed PSA values less than 11 ng / ml and Gleason score less than 7. 70% of patients received neo-adjuvant hormone therapy. In 5 patients an interactive planning system was performed computerized dosimetry, using sequential ultrasound imaging planes, allowed the dosimetric analysis before terminate the procedure and make necessary adjustments if the dose distribution did not conform. This additional dosimetric study we have not been described by other authors. Prescribed in the first 10 patients was dose 144 Gy and 160 Gy in subsequent. All patients underwent post implant CT waffle grid after 15 days of the procedure. analyzed the dose volume histogram (HDV) and D90 values??. Clinical follow-up was performed and PSA biochemical .. Preliminary Results: 33 patients were in local control without biochemical failure. Currently 4 patients presented biochemical recurrence with PSA values ??between 4 and 6 ng / ml. In neither disease was found at a distance and then raises confirmation tumor biopsy active presence will undergo surgical treatment protocols localized prostate cancer. HDV values ??D90 and are consistent with the informed by the international literature will be presented. No patient required hospitalization prolonged (greater than 24 hours) or use of higher analgesics. 2 patients had acute urinary retention (G II complication) between the tenth and twentieth day, the rest of the patients had minor complications (G I), hematuria spontaneously fell to fourth day of treatment (1), mild perineal hematoma (1). Most patients dysuria presented from the first week I was treated with alpha-blockers.Conclusions: Prostate brachytherapy with permanent implants is a procedure I125 well tolerated, minimally invasive, Given the short follow-up time of regard them as preliminary results in this selected patient population

  10. Erectile function one year after permanent I-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess erectile function after prostate brachytherapy. A total of 217 patients with permanent I-125 seed implantation for prostate cancer had erectile function assessed before and after treatment. Erectile function was assessed using the scoring system of 0; complete inability, 1; insufficient for intercourse, 2; suboptimal and 3; normal erectile function. Ages had a significant impact on pretreatment function. In 127 patients (56%) who were potent with a score 2 or greater before treatment the preservation of potency, with a score 2 or greater, was 74% for patients treated with radiotherapy alone and 67% for patient treated with neoadjuvant hormonal treatment. The potency rate gradually recovered within one year after hormonal treatment. (author)

  11. Permanent implantation of peripheral nerve stimulator for combat injury-related ilioinguinal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Diem Phuc T; Moujan, Pablo M; Haque, Quazi; Han, Tae-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    A peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) can be an alternative for long-term pain relief refractory to conventional therapeutic modalities. We present a case of chronic incapacitating ilioinguinal neuralgia, which was successfully managed with permanent implantation of a peripheral nerve stimulator. A 26-year-old active duty African American man was referred to the University Pain Clinic with left ilioinguinal neuralgia due to shrapnel injury during his military service 6 years prior to his visit. Most of the shrapnel were surgically removed, but the patient subsequently developed left lower abdominal pain. Multiple surgeries, including inguinal herniorrhaphy, varicocelectomy, and orchiectomy, failed to provide satisfactory relief of his neuralgia. Other therapies tried resulting in limited outcomes were multiple ilioinguinal nerve blocks and cryoanalgesia. A trial of PNS was successful and the implantation of permanent leads was carried out. At his 3-month visit, the patient reported to have minimal pain, was tapered off oral analgesics, was able to return to work, and had resumed his normal daily activities. Recent technological advances in programming software and surgical techniques have led to renewed interest in PNS for the treatment of chronic refractory peripheral nerve injury. Despite our limited understanding of its exact mechanism of action, it can be considered as a therapeutic potential for a few carefully selected, intractable cases. Its minimally invasive and reversible features make PNS a favorable option for these patients. The stringent and rigorous screening procedures for suitable candidacy, documentation of previously failed treatments, psychiatric evaluation, and 3-5 days of preplacement trial, improve the success rate. PMID:24284860

  12. Self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125I seeds for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the curative effect and safety of the implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125I seeds for the treatment of advanced esophageal carcinomas. Methods: Implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125I seeds was performed in 32 patients with advanced esophageal canner. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The technical success rate, the operation time, the immediate and mid-term effectiveness, the survival time, the complications, the body weight, the blood picture, the immune indexes, the average hospitalization days and hospitalization expenses were analyzed. Results: The average operation time was (18±5) minutes. Successful stent implantation was achieved in all 32 patients (100%). No 125I seeds fell off during the procedure. The remission rate of dysphagia was 100%. Esophageal restenosis occurred in four patients, and displacement of the stent was seed in one patient. One month after the treatment, 90% of patients had a Karnofsky performance score over 60. The mean survival time was (8.7±6.6) months. The average hospitalization time was (7.8±3.7) days and the mean hospitalization cost was (12±3) thousand Chinese Yuan. Conclusion: For the treatment of esophageal carcinomas, the implantation of self-expandable medical memorial metallic stent with 125I seeds is safe, effective and simple. This treatment can markedly improve the symptom of dysphagia and significantly prolong the patient's survival time. (authors)

  13. Monitoring of 125I in saliva of workers internally contaminated with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of workers who did iodination of protein was performed for 5 months on 10 persons. The activity in saliva was evaluated following the sum peak method by using a NaI(Tl) detector and a 400-channel analyzer. The concentration of 125I in saliva ranged 4.65 +- 2.1cBq (1.26 +- 0.57 pCi)/ml to 135 +- 2.7 cBq (36.45 +- 0.73 pCi)/ml and the average was 20.8 +- 1.9cBq (5.62 +- 0.51pCi)/ml. The ratio of concentration in saliva to used activity ranged (2.2 +- 0.64) x 10-9 to (3.6 +- 0.073) x 10-8 and the average was (8.1 +- 1.1) x 10-9. The thyroidal uptake per iodination ranged 146 Bq (3.94nCi) to 2700 Bq (72.9nCi). The ratio of the uptake to the used activity ranged from 7.3 x 10-5 to 5.4 x 10-6. The thyroidal absorbed dose ranged from 378 ?Gy (37.8 mrad) to 4740 ?Gy (474mrad). Monitoring of 125I in saliva was proved to be a useful method to investigate the internal contamination of workers doing iodination. (author)

  14. Systemic administration of kainic acid induces selective time dependent decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I, [125I]insulin-like growth factor II and [125I]insulin receptor binding sites in adult rat hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of kainic acid evokes acute seizure in hippocampal pathways that results in a complex sequence of functional and structural alterations resembling human temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural alterations induced by kainic acid include selective loss of neurones in CA1-CA3 subfields and the hilar region of the dentate gyrus followed by sprouting and permanent reorganization of the synaptic connections of the mossy fibre pathways. Although the neuronal degeneration and process of reactive synaptogenesis have been extensively studied, at present little is known about means to prevent pathological conditions leading to kainate-induced cell death. In the present study, to address the role of insulin-like growth factors I and II, and insulin in neuronal survival as well as synaptic reorganization following kainate-induced seizure, the time course alterations of the corresponding receptors were evaluated. Additionally, using histological preparations, the temporal profile of neuronal degeneration and hypertrophy of resident astroglial cells were also studied. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor I binding was found to be decreased transiently in almost all regions of the hippocampal formation at 12 h following treatment with kainic acid. The dentate hilar region however, exhibited protracted decreases in [125I]insulin-like growth factor I receptor sites throughout (i.e. 30 days) the study. [125I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptsup>I]Insulin-like growth factor II receptor binding sites in the hippocampal formation were found to be differentially altered following systemic administration of kainic acid. A significant decrease in [125I]insulin-like growth factor II receptor sites was observed in CA1 subfield and the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn at all time points studied whereas the hilar region and the stratum radiatum did not exhibit alteration at any time. A kainate-induced decrease in [125I]insulin receptor binding was noted at all time points in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus whereas binding in CA1-CA3 subfields and discrete layers of the Ammon's horn was found to be affected only after 12 h of treatment. These results, when analysed with reference to the observed histological changes and established neurotrophic/protective roles of insulin-like growth factors and insulin, suggest possible involvement of these growth factors in the cascade of neurotrophic events that is associated with the reorganization of the hippocampal formation observed following kainate-induced seizures. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine regarding the Impact of Implementing the 2004 Task Group 43 Report on Dose Specification for 103Pd and 125I Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2004, the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) on the interstitial brachytherapy dosimetry using 125I and 103Pd were reported in Medical Physics [TG-43 Update: Rivard et al., 31, 633-674 (2004)]. These recommendations include some minor changes in the dose-calculation formalism and a major update of the dosimetry parameters for eight widely used interstitial brachytherapy sources. A full implementation of these recommendations could result in unintended changes in delivered dose without corresponding revisions in the prescribed dose. Because most published clinical experience with permanent brachytherapy is based upon two widely used source models, the 125I Model 6711 and 103Pd Model 200 sources, in this report we present an analysis of the dosimetric impact of the 2004 TG-43 dosimetry parameters on the history of dose delivery for these two source models. Our analysis indicates that the currently recommended prescribed dose of 125 Gy for Model 200 103Pd implants planned using previously recommended dosimetry parameters [AAPM 103Pd dose prescription: Williamson et al., Med. Phys. 27, 634-642 (2000)] results in a delivered dose of 120 Gy according to dose calculations based on the 2004 TG-43 update. Further, delivered doses prior to October 1997 varied from 113 to 119 Gy for a prescribed dose of 115 Gy compared to 124 Gy estimated by the AAPM 2000 report. 124 Gy estimated by the AAPM 2000 report. For 125I implants using Model 6711 seeds, there are no significant changes (less than 2%). Practicing physicians should take these results into account when selecting the clinically appropriate prescribed dose for 103Pd interstitial implant patients following implementation of the 2004 TG-43 update dose-calculation recommendations. The AAPM recommends that the radiation oncology community review this report and consider whether the currently recommended dose level (125 Gy) needs to be revised

  16. Self-shielding effect of 125I brachytherapy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work,the self-shielding effect of 125I seed source was investigated. Adopting the direct and indirect methods,the self-shielding coefficients of 125I seed source core, which were prepared under technical conditions of self-established palladium method, were measured. The results show that with certain surface areas of the adsorbing basal materials, the initial activities of adsorbing solution do not affect adsorbing rates of the basal materials, and the self-shielding coefficients of 125I seed source core are about 64%, and the addition of NaS2O3 makes the self-shielding effect coefficients decline greatly. (authors)

  17. The Anderson nomograms for permanent interstitial prostate implants: a briefing for practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this report is to re-evaluate the role of the Anderson nomograms in treatment planning for permanent prostate implants. The incentive for revisiting this topic concerns three issues: (1) Although nomograms continue to be used in many centers for ordering seeds, few centers use them during treatment planning; (2) Whereas nomograms were designed to deliver a minimum peripheral dose for a uniform distribution of seeds in the gland, many practitioners use peripheral seed loading patterns to reduce urethral toxicity; and (3) As preoperative and intraoperative treatment planning is becoming standard, the apparent role of nomograms is diminished. The nomogram method is reviewed in terms of: (1) total activity predicted, (2) target coverage (as planned in the operating room and as calculated from postimplant computed tomography studies), and (3) reproducibility (i.e., patient-to-patient and planner-to-planner variability). In each case, the computer-optimization system for intraoperative planning currently in use at our institution was taken as the 'gold standard'. Methods and Materials: We compared for the same patient the results of nomogram planning to those yielded by genetic algorithm (GA) optimization in terms of total activity predicted (n=20 cases) and percent target coverage (n=5 cases). Furthermore, we examined retrospectively the dosimetry of 61 prostate implants planned with the GA (n=27) and the current implementation of Anderson nomogracurrent implementation of Anderson nomograms (n=34). Results: Nomogram predictions of the total activity required are in good agreement (within 10%) with the GA-planned activity. However, computer-optimized plans consistently yield superior plans, as reflected in both pre- and postimplant analyses. We find also that user (specifically, treatment planner) implementation of the nomograms may be a major source of variability in nomogram planning - a difficulty to which robust computer optimization is less prone. Conclusions: Nomograms continue to be useful tools for predicting the total required activity for volume implants, and thus for performing an independent check of this quantity. Not unexpectedly, computer optimization remains the preferred planning method. Generally, nomogram-guided implants do not incorporate structures other than the treatment volume into the planning process. Further yet, they deliver a lower dose than that prescribed and result in greater variability among plans than computer-optimized treatments. In summary, nomograms (1) remain an efficient quality assurance tool for computer-generated plans, (2) serve as a good predictor of the number of seeds required for ordering purposes, and (3) provide a simple and dependable backup planning method in case the intraoperative planning system fails

  18. Determination of sifuvirtide concentration by 125I tracer labeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-sifuvirtide is prepared by Iodogen method, the radiochemical purity of 125I-sifuvirtide is over 99.0%, and the specific activity of 125I-sifuvirtide is 3.9 GBq·g-1. The labeled product still maintain some biological activity. The radioactivity in plasma is deter- mined by trichloroacetic acid precipitation method. The pharmacokinetics of 125I-sifuvirtide is successfully modeled using two-compartmental after subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) administration in rhesus monkeys according to the curve of radioactivity of TCA precipitable vs time. The mean half-life (t1/2) value is 95.83 h, the mean time to maximum concentration is 3.35 h, and the mean bioavailability is 85.2% after SC administration. (authors)

  19. Personal monitoring in the radiochemical production of 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate occupational exposure during the radiochemical production of 125I, measurements, of 125I deposited in the thyroids of personnel were carried out, beginning in 1986. Each measurement was designed to control later values, which were based on: the thyroid dose accumulated during the year prior to the measurement and during the monitoring period, the committed annual thyroid dose assessed during 240 days before the measurement, and the dose that would be received after complete decay of the measured activity of 125I in the thyroid. Due to the improvement in safety in the production process, quarterly thyroid doses to personnel decreased approximately three-fold during the first year of monitoring. Data on individual quarterly 125I thyroid content and doses over 1.5 years of control for 20 workers are presented. Average annual thyroid doses of personnel varied from 15 to 30 mSv.y-1 in 1987-1992. (Author)

  20. Scintillation proximity radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labeled ligands.

    OpenAIRE

    Udenfriend, S.; Gerber, L D; Brink, L.; Spector, S.

    1985-01-01

    A unique type of radioimmunoassay is described that does not require centrifugation or separation. Microbeads containing a fluorophor are covalently linked to antibody. When an 125I-labeled antigen is added it binds to the beads and, by its proximity, the emitted short-range electrons of the 125I excite the fluorophor in the beads. The light emitted can be measured in a standard scintillation counter. Addition of unlabeled antigen from tissue extracts displaces the labeled ligand and diminish...

  1. Preparation of ?-125I-phenyl pentadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-125I-phenyl pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is an effective radiopharmaceutical for myocardial scintigraphy. The important feature of a I-125 labelled phenyl group in the terminal position of a fatty acid is the release of p-125I-benzoic acid which stems from the final ?-oxidation step of fatty acid catabolism. IPPA has been synthesized and labelled by the exchange of nuclei with fast and simple labelling

  2. Preparative HPLC separation of glycocholic acid-(125I-histamine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preparative HPLC separation method of glycocholic acid-(125I-histamine) is described. The separation was carried out on YWG-CH reverse phase column by using methanol:isopropanol:water (60:5:40,V/V) as mobile phase. THe separation was 30 min. The flow rate was 1ml/min. Using this method, glycocholic acid-(125I-histamine) was purified and satisfactorily used for RIA. The radiochemical purity was 98%. The recovery efficiency was 99.1%

  3. Radiolabeling FAU with 125I and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to label 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-l-?-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FAU) with 125I, and to investigate the characteristics of the labeled compound as well as its bio-distribution in mice. Methods: FAU was radiolabeled with Na125I using the Iodogen method. The Sep-Pak C18 reverse phase column was used to purify the labeled product. The labeling efficiency, radiochemical purity, the in vitro stability and its biodistribution in mice were observed. Results: FAU was successfully labeled with Na125I with the labeling efficiency of (63.12±5.01)%. The radiochemical purity was (98.60 ± 0.52)%. 125I-5-iodo-FAU (FIAU) was stable in PBS and fresh human serum under 37 degree C and the radio-chemical purity remained more than 95.04% after 24 h. Mouse experiment showed that the radiolabeled product was washed out from blood quickly. The uptake expressed as percentage activity of injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) was (4.33±1.00)% ID/g at 0.5 h and (0.71±0.06)% ID/g at 2 h after injection. The 125I-FIAU was mainly excreted through kidney. Conclusions: 125I-FIAU could be obtained by labeling FAU with the Iodogen method with satisfactory labeling efficiency, radiochemical purity and stability. Mouse biodistribution experiment showed it was mainly excreted through kidney. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of radio- and chemotoxic effects of 125I-UdR on tumour growth and host survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (U-UdR) was assayed in male C57 BL/6J mice bearing the syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma EO 771 by injecting different doses of ''cold'' I-UdR or 125-iodine labelled I-UdR. Host survival, tumour growth, DNA-precursor incorporation, whole-body retention and tumour activity loss rates were chosen as biological end points. There was no measurable effect on host survival up to doses of 5 ?g I-UdR or 50 ?Ci 125I-UdR per mouse during a mean life-span of 25 days. Adjusted to a constant amount of 0.55 ?g I-UdR/mouse, radiotoxicity of 125I-UdR on tumour growth (up to 17 days after implantation), tracer incorporation, whole-body and tumour retention (up to 12 days after 125I-UdR injection) could be excluded up to a dosage of 50 ?Ci 125I-UdR/mouse. It is concluded that in situ evaluation of tumour activity loss rates in carcinoma EO 771 is not disturbed by toxic effects of I-UdR or 125I-UdR within the dose limits mentioned. (orig.)

  5. Use of brachytherapy with permanent implants of iodine-125 in localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 15,000 cases of early stage prostate cancer T1 and T2 are diagnosed every year in France by testing for PSA and performing prostatic biopsies. The treatment of these localized forms is based in most cases on radical prostatectomy or nn external beam radiotherapy. Although the ontological results obtained by these two therapeutic methods are satisfactory and equivalent in the long term, the side effects can be important. For a number of years, trans-perineal brachytherapy using permanent implants of iodine -125 or palladium-103 has proved itself as an alternative therapy with equivalent medium to long-term results. The low urinary, digestive and sexual side effects of prostate brachytherapy are important reasons for the enthusiasm among patients and the medical community for this therapy and the growing number of applications and centres which practice it. In September 1998 we started the prostate brachytherapy programmes- in Marseilles with close collaboration between the department of urology of the Hopital Salvator, and the departments of radiotherapy, medical imaging and medical physics of the Institut Paoli-Calmettes. To date, around 250 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have benefited from this alternative therapy in our centre. Preliminary results, with a 3 year-follow-up, are comparable to results published in the literature by pioneer teams. (authors)

  6. PSA bounce after brachytherapy with permanent seed implantation for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounce that may occur as a time PSA rise phenomenon during follow up period after brachytherapy (BT) with permanent seed implantation for prostate cancer. Seven hundred and forty-six patients had undergone BT from November 2003 to April 2007 in a single institute, and of 130 patients who did not receive hormone therapy and had minimal 3-year follow up are analyzed. PSA bounce was defined as a rise of at least 0.4 ng/ml with spontaneous return to pre-bounce level or lower. Among the 130 patients, 40 patients (30.8%) developed PSA bounce, and median time to PSA bounce was 18 months after the BT. With univariate analysis, younger patients (P=0.027) and larger prostate (P=0.030) had statistically significant correlation with PSA bounce. With multivariate analysis, younger patients were identified as only independent factor for predicting PSA bounce. Eight patients out of 130 patients (6.2%) triggered the Phoenix definition (nadir +2 ng/ml) of PSA failure, however, clinical failure was seen only in 3 patients, and other 5 patients were considered as PSA bounce. PSA bounce is likely to occur in younger patients within 3 years after BT. It is clinically important to distinguish PSA bounce from PSA failure during following period after BT. (author)

  7. The experimental study of 125I seed brachytherapy in human hepatocellular carcinoma bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect and influence of tumor growth, cell proliferation and apoptosis related protein of 125I seed brachytherapy in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HHC) bearing nude mice. Methods: Twelve HHC BEL-7402 cells bearing nude mice were equally divided into treated and control group. One 125I seed with 33.3 MBq was implanted into each mouse in treated group. Afterward the dimensions of tumor in both groups were measured every 3-4 d and also the tumor volume inhibition rates were calculated. Twenty-one days later, nude mice sacrificed and routine pathological examination proceeded. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bcl-2 and bax were detected by immunohistochemical methods. Results: The maximum tumor inhibition rate of treated group was 49.2%. Routine pathological examination found degenerative necrosis at the site was nearby the seed but the alive tumor cell still presented faraway from the seed. The expression of PCNA and the ratio of bcl-2/bax in treated group were lower than those in control group. Conclusion: The sustained irradiation of 125I seed brachytherapy can direct kill the HHC cell in nude mice or inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. (authors)

  8. Double Intervention in Single Sitting: Percutaneous Device Closure and Permanent Pacemaker Implantation in a Patient with Atrial Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Cherukupalli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atrial septal defect may rarely be associated with other cardiac diseases such as arrhythmia, and may require additional intervention. Case report: A 16-year-old boy presented with effort dyspnea, tiredness, and fatigue. The electrocardiograph revealed right bundle branch block, atrioventricular block, and left axis deviation. Ostium secundum type of atrial septal defect was detected by transthoracic echocardiography and was confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography. The patient was advised to undergo percutaneous device closure. Permanent pacemaker implantation was also suggested considering the risk of fatal arrhythmias associated with atrioventricular block. Consequently, patient underwent percutaneous atrial septal defect closure and implantation of pacemaker in a single sitting. Both the procedures were successful, after which the patient showed remarkable symptomatic improvement. Conclusion: In atrial septal defect patients with unexplained atrioventricular block, closure of atrial septal defect and implantation of pacemaker in single sitting appear to be an attractive modality.

  9. Dosimetric characterization of the GammaClip™169Yb low dose rate permanent implant brachytherapy source for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer postwedge resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A novel 169Yb low dose rate permanent implant brachytherapy source, the GammaClip™, was developed by Source Production and Equipment Co. (New Orleans, LA) which is designed similar to a surgical staple while delivering therapeutic radiation. In this report, the brachytherapy source was characterized in terms of “Dose calculation for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV: Report of the AAPM and ESTRO” by Perez-Calatayud et al. [Med. Phys. 39, 2904–2929 (2012)] using the updated AAPM Task Group Report No. 43 formalism.Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed using Monte Carlo N-Particle 5, version 1.6 in water and air, the in-air photon spectrum filtered to remove photon energies below 10 keV in accordance with TG-43U1 recommendations and previously reviewed 169Yb energy cutoff levels [D. C. Medich, M. A. Tries, and J. M. Munro, “Monte Carlo characterization of an Ytterbium-169 high dose rate brachytherapy source with analysis of statistical uncertainty,” Med. Phys. 33, 163–172 (2006)]. TG-43U1 dosimetric data, including SK, D-dot (r,?), ?, gL(r), F(r, ?), ?an(r), and ?an were calculated along with their statistical uncertainties. Since the source is not axially symmetric, an additional set of calculations were performed to assess the resulting axial anisotropy.Results: The brachytherapy source's dose rate constant was calculated to be (1.22 ± 0.03) cGy h?1 U?1. The uncertainty in the dose to water calculations, D-dot (r,?), was determined to be 2.5%, dominated by the uncertainties in the cross sections. The anisotropy constant, ?an, was calculated to be 0.960 ± 0.011 and was obtained by integrating the anisotropy factor between 1 and 10 cm using a weighting factor proportional to r?2. The radial dose function was calculated at distances between 0.5 and 12 cm, with a maximum value of 1.20 at 5.15 ± 0.03 cm. Radial dose values were fit to a fifth order polynomial and dual exponential regression. Since the source is not axially symmetric, angular Monte Carlo calculations were performed at 1 cm which determined that the maximum azimuthal anisotropy was less than 8%.Conclusions: With a higher photon energy, shorter half-life and higher initial dose rate 169Yb is an interesting alternative to 125I for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer

  10. Effect of organic matter on 125I diffusion in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through-diffusion method was conducted to investigate the diffusion behavior of 125I in bentonite in present of organic matter, such as polyaminopolycarboxylate EDTA, oxalic acid, hydrazine and humic acid HA. The effective diffusion coefficient De value and rock capacity factor ? were (2.32.6) × 10-11 m2/s and 0.040-0.052, respectively. The small difference showed that iodine was preferentially associated with silicoaluminate mineral as an inorganic form. In present of HA, the Da value of 125I was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of HA and humic substances HS. The De and ? derived from the experiments were used to simulate its diffusion in the designed bentonite obstacle of high-level radioactive waste repository and the results showed that 125I can be transported from 30 to 50 cm thickness of bentonite to the far-field of repository in several years. (author)

  11. An algorithm for efficient metal artifact reductions in permanent seed implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In permanent seed implants, 60 to more than 100 small metal capsules are inserted in the prostate, creating artifacts in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The goal of this work is to develop an automatic method for metal artifact reduction (MAR) from small objects such as brachytherapy seeds for clinical applications. Methods: The approach for MAR is based on the interpolation of missing projections by directly using raw helical CT data (sinogram). First, an initial image is reconstructed from the raw CT data. Then, the metal objects segmented from the reconstructed image are reprojected back into the sinogram space to produce a metal-only sinogram. The Steger method is used to determine precisely the position and edges of the seed traces in the raw CT data. By combining the use of Steger detection and reprojections, the missing projections are detected and replaced by interpolation of non-missing neighboring projections. Results: In both phantom experiments and patient studies, the missing projections have been detected successfully and the artifacts caused by metallic objects have been substantially reduced. The performance of the algorithm has been quantified by comparing the uniformity between the uncorrected and the corrected phantom images. The results of the artifact reduction algorithm are indistinguishable from the true background value. Conclusions: An efficient algorithm for MAR in seed brachytherapy was developed. The test results obtained uwas developed. The test results obtained using raw helical CT data for both phantom and clinical cases have demonstrated that the proposed MAR method is capable of accurately detecting and correcting artifacts caused by a large number of very small metal objects (seeds) in sinogram space. This should enable a more accurate use of advanced brachytherapy dose calculations, such as Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Synthetic heparinoids labelled with 125I and 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of a water-soluble synthetic polyelectrolyte, having anticoagulant activity, has been studied. The polyelectrolyte is derived from cis-1,4-polyisoprene and contains N-sulfate and carboxylate groups. [125I]-Iodination of the polyelectrolyte, using the Chloramine-T method and an electrolytic method, resulted in a [125I]-labelled polyelectrolyte from which release of the label occurred. Resulfation of a partially desulfated polyelectrolyte with a [35S]-sulfur trioxide trimethylamine complex resulted in a [35S]-labelled polyelectrolyte which showed no release of the label. (author)

  13. The preparation of [125I]iododeoxyuridine-labeled oligomers by automated synthesis with an 125I-nucleoside phosphoramidite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DMT-5'-[125I]IdU CEP was prepared by a three step procedure starting with deoxyuridine. The carrier-free 125I-nucleoside phosphoramidite was unstable in a dry state, but was stabilized by the addition of 5'-OMe-T-CEP. The mixture of phosphoramidites was used to introduce the radioactive nucleotide into DNA during automated synthesis of oligomers. The 5'-OMe-T-CEP carrier acted as a chain terminator for non-125I-containing oligomers improving the electrophoretic separation of the radioactive product. The procedure provides a simplified and more versatile method of preparing an oligomer with radioactive bases at preselected sites and with high specific activity. (Author)

  14. Evaluating the Phoenix Definition of Biochemical Failure After 125I Prostate Brachytherapy: Can PSA Kinetics Distinguish PSA Failures From PSA Bounces?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics of PSA failure (PSAf) and PSA bounce (PSAb) after permanent 125I prostate brachytherapy (PB). Methods and Materials: The study included 1,006 consecutive low and 'low tier' intermediate-risk patients treated with 125I PB, with a potential minimum follow-up of 4 years. Patients who met the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure (nadir + 2 ng/mL-1) were identified. If the PSA subsequently fell to ?0.5 ng/mL-1without intervention, this was considered a PSAb. All others were scored as true PSAf. Patient, tumor and dosimetric characteristics were compared between groups using the chi-square test and analysis of variance to evaluate factors associated with PSAf or PSAb. Results: Median follow-up was 54 months. Of the 1,006 men, 57 patients triggered the Phoenix definition of PSA failure, 32 (56%) were true PSAf, and 25 PSAb (44%). The median time to trigger nadir + 2 was 20.6 months (range, 6-36) vs. 49 mo (range, 12-83) for PSAb vs. PSAf groups (p < 0.001). The PSAb patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001), had shorter time to reach the nadir (median 6 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.001) and had a shorter PSA doubling time (p = 0.05). Men younger than age 70 who trigger nadir +2 PSA failure within 38 months of implant have an 80% likelihood of having PSAb and 20% chance of PSAf. Conclusions: With adequate follow-up, 44% of PSA failures by the Phoenix definitioof PSA failures by the Phoenix definition in our cohort were found to be benign PSA bounces. Our study reinforces the need for adequate follow-up when reporting PB PSA outcomes, to ensure accurate estimates of treatment efficacy and to avoid unnecessary secondary interventions.

  15. Preclinical pharmacological study on 125 I-IPPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial uptake of 125I-IPPA in rats showed a peak of 4.4% of injected dose per gram. The half elimination time of myocardium was 3.8 min and the maximal uptake of thyroid is only 0.005%ID/organ at 120 min. The initial half time of 2.7 min in rabbits was obtained from the elimination curve of radioactivity in blood. In vitro binding test for 125I-IPPA to HSA showed rather constant level of activation during tow hours. The second peak of extraction was observed in major organs of rats, in rabbits' elimination of radioactivity and in binding test for 125I-IPPA to albumin in vivo. Toxicity trial was up to standard. The tolerance of a mouse to IPPA was 560 times as high as that of a person to IPPA. It demonstrated that 125I-IPPA could be quickly extracted by myocardium, and its catabolite were excreted in the urine with almost no iodine loss. All the results were found to agree with the expectations based on the principal metabolic path of phenyl fatty acid

  16. 125I-ochratoxin and method of its preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation is patented of a new compound whereby chlorine in position 5 in an ochratoxin molecule is replaced by the 125I radionuclide. Aradioligand is thus obtained of a high molar activity. The compound can be used as a radioligand in ochratoxin RIA in biological materials. (E.J.)

  17. Quality assurance calibration of 125I rapid strand in a sterile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: 125I seeds encased in stiffened absorbable suture material, commercially available from Amersham Healthcare as 125I Rapid Strand, are not readily calibrated because of the necessity of maintaining the sterility and integrity of the Rapid Strand. A method is proposed to verify the activity of 125I seeds in Rapid Strand in a sterile environment and to provide quality assurance of the resultant loading by autoradiographing loaded needles. Methods and Materials: A sterilizable insert for a Standard Imaging HDR 1000 Plus well chamber was designed to accommodate Amersham's plastic spacing jig that holds the strand. The insert has a cylindrical lead sleeve allowing five of the 10 seeds in the jig to be exposed within the well chamber. A grooved tray for holding a batch of 30 needles was designed for autoradiographing the implant set. Results: Position-dependent calibration factors for each of the seed wells in the jig were determined; then these individual factors were combined into a single chamber factor of 21.6 pA/mCi. Starting from the most distal spacing jig slot, relative position factors were 0.99, 1.00, 0.99, 0.93, 0.73, and 0.13 for the six positions which produced a nonnegligible signal. Anisotropy in the chamber factor was determined by rotating the well in 30 deg. increments about the seeds in the jig. The chamber factor showed only a 0.2% variation with rotational angle. Attenuation due to the Vicryl suture cladding mateion due to the Vicryl suture cladding material was 0.2% and was measured by stripping the Vicryl from the strand and remeasuring the chamber factor with the seeds in their original orientation. In the operating room, charge was collected from sterile Rapid Strands for a fixed time between 30 and 50 s and the measured ion chamber current was compared with the value predicted from Amersham's nominal activity. The average deviation between nominal and measured activity of 73 Rapid Strands tested was +0.5% ± 2.2%. For single measurements, the maximum and minimum deviations observed were +4.8% and -3.7%, respectively. Autoradiographs taken of the entire implant set on an aluminum tray milled to hold the needles confirmed the actual seed loadings. Conclusions: The Rapid Strand calibration procedure described maintains the sterility and integrity of 125I Rapid Strands and verifies that the manufacturer's stated activity is accurate to within 5%

  18. Relative biological effectiveness enhancement of a 125I brachytherapy seed with characteristic x rays from its constitutive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopes used for permanent prostate implants, 125I and 103Pd, provide about equivalent tumor control. The purpose of this study is to investigate how characteristic x rays may be used to raise the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of an iodine seed at short distances to increase the differential effect between tumor and healthy tissue. Within the theoretical framework of microdosimetry, the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit has been used to calculate the RBE of experimental seed designs in which shell and core dimensions and composition were varied independently. A new seed model was also simulated based on the best results obtained. The RBE could be enhanced by increasing the shell thickness and for the range considered, optimum results were obtained by using gradually lower atomic number elements. For a practical 50-60 ?m shell, molybdenum is the material of choice. The core diameter has little influence on RBE, but maximum effectiveness is obtained with yttrium or zirconium. These results were put together to design a Mo-shell and Y-core seed for which the RBE enhancement was at least 5-7 % (close to the source), which is higher than palladium. This enhanced RBE combined with the longer half-life of iodine could mean comparable tumor control and better protection to organs at risk than with current seeds. The RBE dependence on distance is an interesting feature that could benefit other applications such as ocular melanoma or copplications such as ocular melanoma or coronary brachytherapy where a highly localized dose distribution is desired

  19. Prostate dose calculations for permanent implants using the MCNPX code and the Voxels phantom MAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the modeling of 80, 88 and 100 of 125I seeds, punctual and volumetric inserted into the phantom spherical volume representing the prostate and prostate phantom voxels MAX. Starting values of minimum and maximum activity, 0.27 mCi and 0.38 mCi, respectively, were simulated in the Monte Carlo code MCNPX in order to determine whether the final dose, according to the integration of the equation of decay at time t = 0 to t = ? corresponds to the default value set by the AAPM 64 which is 144 Gy. The results showed that consider sources results in doses exceeding the percentage discrepancy of the default value of 200%, while volumetric consider sources result in doses close to 144 Gy. (author)

  20. The use of new GAFCHROMIC EBT film for 125I seed dosimetry in Solid Water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochromic film dosimetry has been extensively used for intravascular brachytherapy applications for near field within 1 cm from the sources. With the recent introduction of new model of radiochromic films, GAFCHROMIC EBT, with higher sensitivity than earlier models, it is promising to extend the distances out to 5 cm for low dose rate (LDR) source dosimetry. In this study, the use of new model GAFCHROMIC EBT film for 125I seed dosimetry in Solid Water was evaluated for radial distances from 0.06 cm out to 5 cm. A multiple film technique was employed for four 125I seeds (Implant Sciences model 3500) with NIST traceable air kerma strengths. Each experimental film was positioned in contact with a 125I seed in a Solid Water phantom. The products of the air kerma strength and exposure time ranged from 8 to 3158 U-h, with the initial air kerma strength of 6 U in a series of 25 experiments. A set of 25 calibration films each was sequentially exposed to one 125I seed at about 0.58 cm distance for doses from 0.1 to 33 Gy. A CCD camera based microdensitometer, with interchangeable green (520 nm) and red (665 nm) light boxes, was used to scan all the films with 0.2 mm pixel resolution. The dose to each 125I calibration film center was calculated using the air kerma strength of the seed (incorporating decay), exposure time, distance from seed center to film center, and TG43U1S1 recommended dosimetric parameters. Based on tommended dosimetric parameters. Based on the established calibration curve, dose conversion from net optical density was achieved for each light source. The dose rate constant was determined as 0.991 cGy U-1 h-1 (±6.9%) and 1.014 cGy U-1 h-1 (±6.8%) from films scanned using green and red light sources, respectively. The difference between these two values was within the uncertainty of the measurement. Radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function were also determined. The results obtained using the two light sources corroborated each other. We found good agreement with the TG43U1S1 recommended values of radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function, to within the uncertainty of the measurement. We also verified the dosimetric parameters in the near field calculated by Rivard using Monte Carlo method. The radial dose function values in Solid Water were lower than those in water recommended by TG43U1S1, by about 2%, 3%, 7%, and 14% at 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm, respectively, partially due to the difference in the phantom material composition. Radiochromic film dosimetry using GAFCHROMIC EBT model is feasible in determining 2D dose distributions around low dose rate 125I seed. It is a viable alternative to TLD dosimetry for 125I seed dose characterization

  1. A Radiation Badge Survey for Family Members Living With Patients Treated With a 103Pd Permanent Breast Seed Implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Sixty-seven patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated in a Phase I/II clinical trial using a 103Pd permanent breast seed implant as adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. We report the dose received by family members living with these patients and compare measured doses with theoretical worst-case scenario estimates. Methods and Materials: Exposure-rate measurements were taken at 1 m from the patient by using a calibrated low-energy survey meter. Landauer (Landauer Inc., Glenwood, IL) Luxel badges, with sensitivity of 0.01 mSv, were given to family members to wear after the implantation. Badge readings for 33 spouses and 28 other family members were used to estimate effective doses, and these were compared with theory. Results: Average preimplantation planning target volume from computed tomography was 50.3 ml (range, 18.0-96.7 ml), and average preimplantation distance between the skin and the most anterior planning target volume margin was 0.57 cm. The average maximum exposure rate was measured to be 2.4 ± 1.1 mR/h, and average measured dose to a spouse was 0.99 ± 1.0 mSv. The calculated exposure rates and spousal doses using preimplantation computed tomography scan data overestimated those measured. Average measured family member dose (excluding spouses) was 0.20 ± 0.58 mSv. Conclusions: Based on measured and calculated spousal doses, a permanent breast seed implant using 103Pd is safe for the public. Howe03Pd is safe for the public. However, it is recommended that extra precautions in the way of a breast patch be used when patients with an implant will be in the vicinity of toddlers or pregnant women

  2. Development of procedure using plasma welding process to produce 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer, is a problem of public health in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing 125I radioisotope are implanted in the prostate. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed 125I. The plasma arc welding is one of the viable techniques for the sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes. The main objective of this work was the development and the validation of the welding procedure using plasma welding process and the elaboration of a sealing routine according to Good Manufacturing Practices. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cut and cleaning of the titanium material, determination of the welding parameters, development of a device for holding the titanium tube during the welding process, validation of sealed sources according to ISO 2919 Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, leakage test according to ISO 9978 Sealed Radioactive Sources - Leakage Test Methods and metallographic assays. The developed procedure, to seal 125I seeds using plasma welding process, has shown to be efficient, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work have given the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC number 59 - Good Manufacturing Practices do Medical Products of the ANVISA - Brazilian Nacional Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  3. Study on agroecology contamination from 125I gas and control measures in a simulated ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was made in an air-tight space in which a simulated agricultural ecosystem was contaminated from 125I gas. The contents of the study were summarized as follows: The space and time distribution of 125I gas, contamination of foliage of the plants, accumulation and transfer of 125I fallen on the soil and entered into the plants from the roots of crops and vegetables, the time distribution of 125I in crops in water contaminated from 125I fallout, distribution, accumulation and transfer of 125I in chickens and rabbits which inhaled 125I gas or fed the fodder contaminated from 125I. The control measures of contamination in agroenvironment from 125I were discussed. (7 refs., 20 figs., 29 tabs.)

  4. Preparation and evaluation of 125I-aflatoxin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), present in fungus infested crops is highly carcinogenic and is measured by immunoassays. 125I labeled aflatoxin B1 is a key reagent for development of radioimmunoassay (RIA) which exhibits less interference and better sensitivity than other immunoassays. Since AfB1 lacks suitable functional groups for radiolabeling, an oxime derivative of AfB1 was synthesised and evaluated by UV-spectrophotometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. 125I-histamine was conjugated to AfB1 oxime by mixed anhydride method and purified by solvent extraction followed by TLC. The tracer obtained was immunoreactive, stable as ethanolic solution and could be used in RIA. (author)

  5. Amino acid tolerance test using L-?-phenylalanine-125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amino acid tolerance test is described. L-?-phenylalanine-125I was used as representative of L-amino acids. The change in radioactivity of the blood after giving a test dose of tagged L-?-phenylalanine was also investigated. L-?-phenylalanine-125I tolerance curves were found to be irreproducible when the test dose was given without a carrier. The addition of 2.5 g untagged phenylalanine as a carrier to the test dose allowed a reproducible and precise type of tolerance curves. Metformin in a dose of 0.5 g t.d.s. for three days induced an inhibitory effect on amino acid absorption in normal persons. (author)

  6. Radiation effect of 125I UdR on growth of Sca-BER cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the inhibition effects of 125I UdR in human bladder cancer cell line Sca-BER. Methods: 125I UdR were added to the RPMI1640 culturing medium. The amount of 125I UdR uptaken by Sca-BER cells was evaluated through measuring the radioactivity per cell; the killing effects of 125I UdR on Sca-BER cells were estimated by colony forming method. To determine the co-inhibition effects of MTX, 125I UdR and MTX were added to medium, measuring the radioactivity per cell. Results: The amounts of 125I UdR uptaken by Sca-BER was growing up as function of 125I UdR dose in the medium (r=0.99). The surviving fraction was correlated with the concentration of 125I UdR (r=-0.9). The LD50 of 125I UdR group was (1.17 ± 0.27) kBq/ml and the surviving fraction of 125I UdR group was significantly lower than that of Na125I group (P125I UdR of the same concentration was added to the medium. With time elapsing, the amount of 125I UdR and MTX were added to medium, the amount of 125I UdR uptaken was increased for 10 times. Conclusions: 125I UdR can be incorporated into Sca-BER cells, and the concentration of 125I UdR in Sca-BER cells was influenced by 125I UdR dose in the medium. The inhibitory radiation effects of 125I UdR on Sca-BER cells are obvious. (aup>I UdR on Sca-BER cells are obvious. (authors)

  7. In vitro assay of thrombolysis with 125I-fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactive method for assaying thromobolysis in vitro is described. Artificial thrombi were labelled with 125I-fibrinogen and the percentage lysis occurring in blood samples containing a thrombolytic agent was determined. This method was found to be more sensitive, accurate and convenient than an alternative assay method based on the weighing of fixed thrombi after treatment with a thrombolytic agent. (U.K.)

  8. Preparation of 19-iodocholesterol labelled with 125 I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new method of synthesis of 19-iodo cholesterol labelled with ''125 I, from commercial cholesterol, is described. Its high chemical (96%) and radiochemical (99.9%) purities high yield and short time of preparation permit us to dispose or a more accessible labelled compound, which results appropriates for clinical investigations and in the diagnosis of disturbances of the suprarenal glands. (Author) 9 refs

  9. First report of a permanent breast 103Pd seed implant as adjuvant radiation treatment for early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A new technique of adjuvant partial breast irradiation using 103Pd permanent breast seed implants (PBSI) is presented. The procedure is performed in a single 1-hour session under local anesthesia. Methods and Materials: Patients referred to a single institution for adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy for an infiltrating ductal carcinoma ?3 cm in diameter, surgical margin ?2 mm, no extensive in situ carcinoma, no lymphovascular invasion, and minimal or negative lymph node involvement were offered a PBSI. Results: Between May and December 2004, 31 eligible patients underwent CT scan and ultrasound simulations assessing PBSI feasibility. Fifteen were excluded because of feasibility issues, and 16 received PBSI. A minimal peripheral dose of 90 Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume corresponding to the clinical target volume identified on the CT scan plus a margin of 1 cm. The procedure was well tolerated; 56% of the patients reported no pain during the procedure, and 46% of the patients developed National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 1 acute reaction. None experienced toxicity Grade 2 or 3. Conclusions: Permanent breast seed implantation seems feasible and well tolerated on these preliminary clinical data and represents an ultimate step in the reduction of treatment fraction for partial breast irradiation

  10. Labeling Lanreotide with 125I and 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanreotide is a new somatostatin analogue. It can bind to human somatostatin receptor (hSSTR) subtype 2 through 5 with high affinity and to hSSTR subtype I with low affinity. We investigate labeling condition, quality control and stability in vitro of 125I-Lanreotide and 188Re-lanreotide respectively. (A) Lanreotide is labeled with 125I using Chloramine T. The effect of reaction condition (such as reaction time, pH value, Lanreotide amount, quantity of Chloramine T and reaction volume) on labeling yield is investigated in detail. (B) The labeling yield and radiochemical purity (RP) is measured with paper chromatography (PC) and Sep-Pak C18 Cartridge. (C) The stability of 125I-Lanreotide in vitro is investigated by labeling compound incubating for 48 hours at 37 deg C in the 0.9% sodium chloride solution and RP is tested by PC at specific time intervals. (D) Lanreotide is labeled directly with 188Re via the mixture of citrate and tartate using stannous chloride as reduced agent. The influence of reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, amount of stannous chloride, amount of Lanreotide and reaction time on labeling yield is investigated in detail. At the time, the stability in vitro quality control and animal test are evaluated

  11. Validation of K-edge 125I brachytherapy enhancement with silver compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy with radioactive seeds implanted within the tumour volume has demonstrated good success rates in treating certain cancers. In an effort to improve the curative rates in cancer patients, ongoing research is being conducted to enhance the amount of radiation dose that is absorbed within the tumour volume while minimizing the dose absorbed by the surrounding normal tissue. One method for enhancing tumour dose absorption with 125I brachytherapy seeds is to increase the number of photoelectric atomic interactions within the tumour volume by introducing small quantities of a silver compound, taking advantage of the K-edge effect. Because low-energy electrons and Auger electrons are the primary sources of brachytherapy dose enhancement, acquiring accurate experimental measurements of absorbed dose increases is a major challenge. To circumvent this problem, an x-ray fluorescence excitation spectroscopy dosimetry technique supplemented with clinically accepted dosimetry calculations was developed to estimate relative absorbed dose increases in a water phantom containing up to 7.5 mM of silver. Excellent agreement was observed between theoretically derived Monte Carlo dosimetric predictions and experimental measurements. These results successfully demonstrated that K-edge enhanced 125I brachytherapy is indeed possible with future development of a non-toxic silver chelate. (author)

  12. The value of preoperative tests in the selection of blind patients for a permanent microelectronic implant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Douglas; Lakhanpal, Rohit R.; Weiland, James D.; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Boemel, Gretchen; Fujii, Gildo Y.; Greenberg, Robert; Caffey, Sean; Juan, Eugene; Humayun, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the best candidates (ie, those requiring lowest current levels delivered to the retina to elicit visual perceptions) for long-term implantation of a microelectronic retinal implant through a series of preoperative visual, psychophysical, and electrophysiological tests. METHODS: This study protocol was granted an investigational device exemption by the Food and Drug Administration and was approved by the institutional review board at the University of Southern California....

  13. Synthesis and radioimmunological characterization of testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-tyramine-125 I (T-3-Cmo-Ty-125 I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the synthesis and radioimmunological characterization of testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-tyramine-15 I (T-3-CMO-Ty-125 I), a reagent used as marker in radioimmunoassay (RIA) of steroid hormones. Some of the most adequate techniques of analyzing the steroid hormones are RIA and ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) due to their sensitivity and specificity. These techniques do not require advanced purification of the sample. In the view of developing a sensitive RIA technique for assaying the testosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-tyramine-125 I it is necessary to obtain the reagents as anti-testosterone antibody and radioactive labeled testosterone. The carboxy derivative of the steroid hormone was activated with ethylchloroformiate and tributylamine in dioxan and coupled with tyramine-125 I. Tyramine was labelled by chloramine method. The marker was purified by thin layer chromatography and extracted in methylic alcohol. Radioimmunological characterization of the marker was carried out with the help of the anti testosterone antibody obtained in our laboratory. (authors)

  14. Monte carlo simulation of dosimetric parameters for the model 6711 125I brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ?-radioactive seed brachytherapy source has been widely employed in the implantation therapy for the prostatic carcinoma and the ophthalmic lesions.In this study the dosimetric parameters for characterization of a low-energy interstitial brachytherapy source 125I were calculated according to dose calculation formalism recommended by AAPM TG-43U1. For data processing, a 0.28 cm active length was used for the geometry function. The dosimetry parameter air-Kerma strength, dose rate constant, radial dose function and anisotropy function were estimated by means of the EGS5 Monte Carlo code. The results obtained from this study are in good agreement with the corresponding values recommended by TG-43U1 and with the data reported by Dolan, et al. (authors)

  15. [B1-125I-desaminotyrosine]-insulin - A novel homogeneous insulin tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [B1-125I-desaminotyrosine]-insulin (125I-MII) was prepared with high specific activities (420 Ci/mmole) by exchanging B1-phenylalanine for 125I-p-hydroxyphenyl-propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Bolton-Hunter reagent). Overall radiochemical yields were about 8%. Analytical quality control and purification were performed by means of radio high pressure liquid chromatography. The radiochemical purity of 125I-MII was >99%, and the immunoprecipitability was 97%. (author)

  16. A comparison of MRI and CT based post implant dosimetric assessment of transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: To investigate how a recently developed MRI based post implant dosimetric assessment technique for ultrasound guided transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy (TIPPB) compares with the currently accepted CT based technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was based upon serial MRI and CT scans of 15 patients who had received ultrasound guided TIPPB with either I-125 (n = 8) or Pd-103 (n = 7) sources (mean number of sources 75, range 46 to 95). Each patient was imaged using both modalities within 24 hours of receiving the implant and within 1 hour of each other. Prostate volumes were determined by the same physician for both modalities. Contours and sources were digitized, and calculations performed using an in house treatment planning system with a nearest neighbor seed sorting routine and TG-43 formalism. Reference doses were 144 Gy and 115 Gy for I-125 and Pd-103, respectively. Post implant dosimetric assessment consisted of a comparison of MRI and CT based prostate volumes, dose volume histograms, and conformity and uniformity descriptors. RESULTS: The values reported are the mean ± one standard deviation for each modality. Differences (%) and ranges (%) were calculated as {(VolMRI-VolCT)/(VolCT)}*100. The correlation coefficient is the Pearson product moment correlation. CONCLUSION: MRI based post implant dosimetric assessment for ultrasound guided TIPPB produces results which, while on average for thes results which, while on average for the study population are similar, can be significantly different from those of CT based evaluations as is demonstrated by the weak correlations between the two groups of data. Since any assessment of implant quality is dependent upon the ability to accurately localize both the sources and target volume, differences in implant quality as determined by dosimetric results must be attributable to either source or prostate localization differences from MRI to CT, or both. The high correlation between reference isodose volumes strongly suggests that the predominant cause of the differences are due to variations in target definition. These preliminary results demonstrate that MRI based dosimetric evaluation is possible and sufficiently different from that based on CT to warrant further study. There is clearly a need to investigate whether recognition of these differences will result in improved correlation with clinical outcome

  17. Postimplantation dosimetric analysis of permanent transperineal prostate implantation: improved dose distributions with an intraoperative computer-optimized conformal planning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the target coverage and dose to normal tissues after I-125 transperineal permanent implantation (TPI) of the prostate in 90 patients treated with one of three different transperineal techniques. Methods and Materials: Detailed postimplant dosimetric evaluations of permanent I-125 implantation procedures were performed on 30 consecutive patients treated between 1995-1996 who underwent TPI using a preplanning CT-based technique, on 30 consecutive patients treated in 1997-1998 who underwent an ultrasound-guided approach with intraoperative determination of seed distribution based on an I-125 nomogram, and on 30 consecutive patients in 1998-1999 who underwent TPI with intraoperative computer-based 3-dimensional conformal optimization. For all three techniques, postimplant CT scans were obtained 4-6 hours after TPI. Dosimetric parameters included V100, V90, V150, D100, D90, D80, as well as maximal and average doses to the urethra and rectal wall. These parameter outcomes are reported as a percentage of the prescription dose. Results: The intraoperative 3D-optimized technique (I-3D) provided superior target coverage with the prescription dose for all dosimetric variables evaluated compared to the other treatment techniques. The median V100, V90, and D90 values for the I-3D technique were 96%, 98%, and 116%, respectively. In contrast, the V100, V100, V90, and D90 values for the CT preplan and ultrasound manual optimization approaches were 86%, 89%, and 88%, respectively and 88%, 92%, and 94%, respectively (I-3D versus other techniques: p < 0.001). The superior target coverage with the I-3D technique was also associated with a higher cumulative implant activity required by the optimization program. A multivariate analysis determined that the treatment technique (I-3D versus other approaches) was an independent predictor of improved target coverage for each parameter analyzed (p < 0.001). In addition, higher cumulative implant activities and smaller prostate target volumes were independent predictors of improved target coverage. The maximum and average urethral doses were significantly lower with the I-3D technique compared to the other techniques; a modest increase in the average rectal dose was also observed with this approach. Conclusion: Three-dimensional intraoperative computer optimized TPI consistently provided superior target coverage with the prescription dose and significantly lower urethral doses compared to two other techniques used. These data provide proof-of-principle that improved therapeutic ratios can be achieved with the integration of more sophisticated intraoperative planning for TPI and may potentially have a profound impact on the outcome of patients treated with this modality

  18. Preparation and biological studies of 125I-DOTA-TATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTA-TATE, a somatostatin analog was radiolabeled with 125I in good yields and high radiochemical purity. The product exhibited good stability in vitro. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal Swiss mice showed rapid blood clearance with low thyroid uptake. Biodistribution studies in murine melanoma showed 3.0±1.3% ID/g uptake in tumor at 3 h post injection (p.i.), with negligible reduction at 24 h p.i. Inhibition studies carried out in vivo using cold DOTA-TATE confirmed the tumor specificity of the product

  19. Treatment of hyperthyroidism: use of 131I and 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors related to late hypothyroidism following the use of 131I for treatment of hyperthyroidism are discussed with regard to age of patient, size of dose, previous surgery, immune status, and others. Possible reasons for the post-therapeutic hypothyroidism are discussed with regard to effects of radiation on the reproductive capacity of thyroid cells, effects of radiation on blood vessels, and dose distribution of radioiodine. The following therapeutic strategies are discussed: reduction of initial dose; multiple small doses; high dose radioiodine followed by replacement therapy; the use of external beam irradiation; and the use of 125I

  20. Localization of linked 125I seeds in postimplant TRUS images for prostate brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate that 125I seeds can be localized in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images obtained with a high-resolution probe when the implant is performed with linked seeds and spacers. Adequate seed localization is essential to the implementation of TRUS-based intraoperative dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirteen preplanned peripherally loaded prostate implants were performed using 125I seeds and spacers linked together in linear arrays that prevent seed migration and maintain precise seed spacing. A set of two-dimensional transverse images spaced at 0.50-cm intervals were obtained with a high-resolution TRUS probe at the conclusion of the procedure with the patient still under anesthesia. The image set extended from 1.0 cm superior to the base to 1.0 cm inferior to the apex. The visible echoes along each needle track were first localized and then compared with the known construction of the implanted array. The first step was to define the distal and proximal ends of each array. The visible echoes were then identified as seeds or spacers from the known sequence of the array. The locations of the seeds that did not produce a visible echo were interpolated from their known position in the array. A CT scan was obtained after implantation for comparison with the TRUS images. Results: On average, 93% (range, 86-99%) of the seeds were visible in the TRUS images. However, it was possible to localize 100% of the , it was possible to localize 100% of the seeds in each case, because the locations of the missing seeds could be determined from the known construction of the arrays. Two factors complicated the interpretation of the TRUS images. One was that the spacers also produced echoes. Although weak and diffuse, these echoes could be mistaken for seeds. The other was that the number of echoes along a needle track sometimes exceeded the number of seeds and spacers implanted. This was attributed to the overall length of the array, which was approximately 0.5 cm longer than the center-to-center distance between the first and last seed owing to the finite length of the seeds at the ends of the array. When this occurred, it was necessary to disregard either the most distal or most proximal echo, which produced a 0.5-cm uncertainty in the location of the array in the axial direction. For these reasons, simply localizing the visible echoes in the TRUS images did not guarantee the reliable identification of the seeds. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that a high percentage (>85%) of the implanted 125I seeds can be directly visualized in postimplant TRUS images when the seeds and spacers are linked to preclude seed migration and rotation and when the images are obtained with a high-resolution TRUS probe. Moreover, it is possible to localize 100% of the seeds with the mechanism of linked seeds because the locations of the missing seeds can be determined from the known construction of the arrays

  1. Tolerance and Acceptance Results of a Palladium-103 Permanent Breast Seed Implant Phase I/II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test, in a prospective Phase I/II trial, a partial breast irradiation technique using a 103Pd permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) realized in a single 1-h procedure under sedation and local freezing. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had infiltrating ductal carcinoma ?3 cm in diameter, surgical margin ?2 mm, no extensive intraductal component, no lymphovascular invasion, and negative lymph nodes. Patients received a permanent seed implant, and a minimal peripheral dose of 90 Gy was prescribed to the clinical target volume, with a margin of 1.5 cm. Results: From May 2004 to April 2007, 67 patients received the PBSI treatment. The procedure was well tolerated, with 17% of patients having significant pain after the procedure. Only 1 patient (1.5%) had an acute skin reaction (Grade 3 according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria). The rates of acute moist desquamation, erythema, and indurations were 10.4%, 42%, and 27%, respectively. At 1 year the rate of Grade 1 telangiectasia was 14%. The rate of skin reaction decreased from 65% to 28% when skin received less than the 85% isodose. According to a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group questionnaire, 80-90% of patients were very satisfied with their treatment, and the remainder were satisfied. One patient (1.5%) developed an abscess, which resolved after the use of antibiotics. There was no recurrence after a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 11-49 months). Conclusionnths (range, 11-49 months). Conclusions: The feasibility, safety, and tolerability of PBSI compares favorably with that of external beam and other partial breast irradiation techniques.

  2. Chemical Species and Content Analysis of 125I in Bok-choy and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine has been long known as an indispensable element in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Severe iodine deficiency in diet leads to iodine deficiency disorders in humans. An isotope tracer experiment was carried out to study the chemical species and content analysis of 125I absorbed by the Bok-choy and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk. The results showed that inorganic 125I, organic 125I and residual 125I have been detected in Bok-choy and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk. In Bok-choy,the inorganic 125I content is the most which up to 42.48%, and except for residual 125I the organic 125I content is taken up to 7.91%. But in Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk, the content of 125I ranks as residual 125I > the inorganic 125I > organic 125I followed by 64.97%, 28.36% and 6.66%. The consists of inorganic 125I is I-, IO3-and I2 in both Bok-choy and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk, and I-is the main chemical species. The protein-125I was the main form of organic iodine which respectively amounts to 22.43% and 8.68% of total iodine, the content of amylose-125I was the least which was 0.78% and 0.40% in both Bok-choy and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk, and the content of the nucleic acid-125I is between them. The results showed that Bok-choy and Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk can enriched Iodine in environment. so, they could be cultivated as iodnment. so, they could be cultivated as iodine vegetable. (authors)

  3. Metabolism of (125I)tyramine cellobiose-labeled low density lipoproteins in squirrel monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density lipoproteins labeled with (125I)tyramine cellobiose ((125I)TC-LDL) were removed from the circulation of squirrel monkeys at a similar but slightly slower rate than LDLs labeled with 125I, (125I)hydroxypenyl propionic acid, or (3H)leucine. After the simultaneous injection of ((125I)TC-LDL) and (131I)LDL labeled with 131ICI, the 125I was also removed at a slightly slower rate than 131I. Most of the radioactivity was retained in tissues and not excreted during the 24 h after injection of (125I)TC-LDL. This finding supports the claim of Pittman et al. (18) that (125I)TC-LDL can be used to determine the irreversible uptake of LDL by different tissues. The liver cleared more LDL than any other organ, but the adrenals and ovaries were more active per gram. Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitated more than 80% of the radioactivity in the tissues that had low 125I uptake, but only about 50% of the 125I in more active tissues (liver, adrenals, ovaries and spleen). Only a small percentage of 125I in urine and bile was TCA-precipitable. In the dual label experiment with (125I)TC-LDL and (131I)LDL there was a selective retention of 125I in samples from liver, spleen, adrenals, and perhaps testes, and an almost complete selectivity for 125I in bile and feces. The ar 125I in bile and feces. The aortic intima plus inner media (AIM) cleared much less LDL than other tissues, but the uptake by the entire AIM was proportional to the cholesterol concentration and weight of the total AIM. There was, however, no correlation between either of the latter two measurements and the uptake of LDL per pram of AIM. (author)

  4. Distal movement of upper permanent molars using midpalatal mini-implant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana de Lourdes Sá de, Lira; Sávio, Prado; Mônica Tirre, Araújo; Eduardo Franzotti, Sant' Anna; Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se o mini-implante no palato é eficaz como ancoragem direta para distalização dos molares superiores. MÉTODOS: foi utilizado um modelo em acrílico da arcada superior. Após a confecção da canaleta na região correspondente aos alvéolos dentários, os dentes em acrílico foram fixados [...] com cera #7, montado aparelho ortodôntico com a técnica Edgewise e inserido um mini-implante (SIN, São Paulo) no local correspondente à rafe palatina. Foram colocados arco 0,19" x 0,25" e barra transpalatina, soldados na barra dois ganchos para retenção de dois elásticos em cadeia de dois elos, a uma carga de 150g/f de cada lado (Unitek), que se estenderam dos ganchos até o mini-implante. O modelo da maxila foi mergulhado 40 vezes em banheira e fotografado após cada mergulho para observação da movimentação dentária. Os dados foram analisados pela análise da variânçia (ANOVA) e teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS: os molares deslocaram-se distalmente 3,1mm, em média, com inclinação distal entre 3 e 5mm. CONCLUÕES: a movimentação dos molares ocorreu pela inclinação distal, com leve rotação, mas sem efeito extrusivo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess whether palatal mini-implants are effective as direct anchorage for distal movement of the upper molars. METHODS: It was used an acrylic model of the upper dental arch. After making a groove in the region corresponding to dental alveolus, acrylic teeth were fixed in groove with [...] #7 wax, with the roots being previously immersed in adhesive wax. The orthodontic appliance was placed according to the Edgewise technique and then a mini-implant (SIN, São Paulo, Brazil) was inserted at the site corresponding to the palatal raphe. A 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwire was made and attached to the upper arch with elastics. A transpalatal arch bar (0.019 x 0.025in) was mounted and two hooks were soldered to it in order to retain chain elastics (Unitek, Brazil) to be connected to the mini-implant under a force of 1.5 N on each side. The maxillary model was immersed in water 40 times and photographed after each immersion, for observation of dental movements. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were employed for analyzing the obtained data. RESULTS: Molars displaced distally 3.1 mm, in average, with distal inclination ranging from 3 to 5 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Molar movements occurred due to distal inclination, with a slight rotation and no extrusive effect.

  5. Studies on characteristics of dosimetry for 125I ophthalmic applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isodose curves for 125I ophthalmic application in different geometry and activity can be obtained using the empirical formula based on suitable geometric model. The results of surface dose rate determined with lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD's) chips in water-organic glass phantom and air had no obvious difference and the surface dose rate and its uniformity, (3.46 +- 0.011) and (0.178 +- 0.15) nGy/h·107Bq were obtained. Count measurements and dose determinations for the front and back etc. of the ophthalmic applicator with BaF2 scintillation detector and LiF TLD's had revealed the space distribution of dose for 125I ophthalmic applicator in which dose on the back was less than 0.1% of that on the front. The distribution of the absorbed dose rate along the eye axis had been measured using LiF TLD's in water-organic glass phantom. The measured and calculated dose data indicated that when measuring distances were larger than about 5 mm the experimental results agreed with those from calculation within the range of error, otherwise the measured values were lower, still it could be explained by experimental conditions

  6. Recovery of 125I-thyroxine and ribonuclease solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption losses onto surfaces of complex solutes functioning as analytes or reagents in chemical analysis eventually become a major problem as the amount of solute decreases to lower levels. This problem is one of the most important ones now facing ultratrace (below the ng level) organic and biological analysis. A better understanding and control of adsorption losses of ultratrace solutes onto surfaces is needed. This thesis investigates the recovery of two representative complex solutes from surfaces. The first solute is 125I-thyroxine, which is subjected to a soluble affinity chromatography technique potentially useful for sample cleanup at the ultratrace level. The recovery of 125I-thyroxine at the low pg level as a model analyte is optimized throughout several steps. Ribonuclease is the second ultratrace solute investigated with emphasis on the preparation and characterization of carrier ribonuclease as an inactive analog of the native enzyme. This carrier ribonuclease is successful, allowing an assay for ribonuclease to be extended from the mid to low pg level. The usefulness of this reagent is limited, however, by the presence of residual trace ribonuclease that itself has novel properties and is also characterized

  7. Tissue distribution of 125I-iRNA in liposome after intravenous injection in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liposome containing 125I-iRNA of large unilamellar vesicles were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation method, with the encapsulation efficiency ranging from 32.5% to 38.2%. Through observation of 125I labelled iRNA after i.v. injection, the comparative distribution of iRNA in some of the chief organs in mice, including 125I-iRNA entrapped in liposome or free 125I-iRNA, was determined. The results showed that the spleen and the liver had high liposome uptake. The interaction time of iRNA in mice was increased with liposome containing 125I-iRNA

  8. Use of aileron for 'free grains- bound grains' mixed technique for the prostatic permanent implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We realized a device called aileron which receives the bound grains after cut from a needle of transfer in the classic tip and to align the axis of this last one with the axis of the needle implanted Mick. Guaranteeing besides a better radiation protection, this aileron allowed us to find very low rates of irradiation of our personal dosemeters at least comparable to the rates previously raised in the exclusive free gains technique. (N.C.)

  9. Purification of 125I-vasoactive intestinal peptide by reverse-phase HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIP was labeled with sodium [125I]iodide, and 125I-VIP was purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Optimal separations of 125I-VIP and unlabeled VIP were obtained using two C18- Novapak columns in series and a gradient of acetonitrile in triethylamine phosphate for elution. The specific activity of the 125I-VIP was 1.99 +/- 0.21 Ci/mumole, approaching the maximum specific activity of monoiodinated VIP (2.26 Ci/mumole). Radioimmunoassay and radioreceptorassay for VIP were more sensitive (2.6-fold, and 2.5-fold, respectively) using 125I-VIP purified by HPLC compared to 125I-VIP obtained from an open-end cellulose column. These results demonstrate the advantage of preparing purified 125I-VIP by HPLC for the accurate assay of VIP and VIP-receptors in tissues and biological fluids

  10. Assessment of brain muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors in living mice using a simple probe, [125I]-4-iododexetimide and [125I]-4-iodolevetimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Lever, J R; Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Guilarte, T R; Wagner, H N

    1993-12-01

    This study describes assessment of brain muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors in living mice using a single-crystal radiation detection system, the high-affinity antagonist [125I]-4-iododexetimide, and the inactive enantiomer [125I]-4-iodolevetimide. Kinetics of radioligand binding, as well as perturbation by atropine displacement, can be determined using this simple probe technique. PMID:8152535

  11. Combination of bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, permanent iodine-125 implantation, and percutaneous irradiation of the locally confined prostatic cancer. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of 1981, 32 patients at an age of 52 to 72 years who suffered from a locally confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated by permanent implantation of I-125 seeds. 25 patients were evaluated after a median observation period of 30 months. The first group consisting of 19 patients was submitted to a combined percutaneous and interstitial treatment, the other 6 patients were initially treated only by interstitial therapy because of severe complications observed in the meantime. After bilateral pelvic staging lymphadenectomy, permanent I-125 seeds were implanted into the patients of stage T1, T2, early T3 and pN0-1, in case of microscopic lymph node manifestation without capsular perforation also into patients of stage pN2 and pN4. 8 weeks later the patients received a moving beam irradiation with 10 MV photons at the linear accelerator. The centre of the prostate was faded out by a specially constructed H absorber in such a way that the prescribed target dose of 36 Gy in 4 weeks to the 90%-isodose was only applied to a spherical surface around the implant. 1 patient died perioperatively from an embolism due to phlebothrombosis of the thigh. 22 out of the other 24 patients are in complete remission, 1 patient had a local recurrence in the right seminal vesicle which appeared 28 months after primary therapy, and 1 patient developed skeletal metastases. The objective side effects al metastases. The objective side effects and late complications of our combined treatment are considerable with respect to their incidence as well as their severity: a slight or medium radioproctitis was found after a latent period of 1 to 2 years in 28% (5/18) of cases, after a latent time of about 1 1/2 to 2 years another 28% (5/18) developed subsequently to a proctitis an urethral stricture and an ulcer situated on the anterior rectum wall facing the prostate, and 4 patients presented finally a prostato-rectal fistula. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of [125I]HIPDm and [125I]iodoantipyrine in quantifying regional cerebral blood flow in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [125I]HIPDm [N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e] and [125I]iodoantipyrine autoradiography under control and pathologic conditions (hypercapnia [acidosis], hypocapnia [alkalosis], and disrupted blood-brain barrier) conditions in 35 rats. In control rats, HIPDm rCBF (indicator fractionation method, n = 5) was lower than the corresponding IAP rCBF (diffusible indicator method, n = 4), most notably in the infratentorial regions and subcortical nuclei. In hypercapnia, rCBF increased by 100% and 37% in the HIPDm (n = 5) and IAP (n = 5) groups, respectively. In hypocapnia, IAP rCBF (n = 4) decreased 34% but HIPDm rCBF (n = 4) did not change. Following disruption of the blood-brain barrier by intracarotid infusion of mannitol in eight rats, both radiotracers (HIPDm n = 4, IAP n = 4) showed decreased rCBF to regions of disruption as defined by trypan blue extravasation. Our work indicates that modeling HIPDm uptake to quantify rCBF using the indicator fractionation method will underestimate blood flow and that HIPDm kinetics are influenced by compartmental pH dynamics that will limit the accuracy of this method in quantifying rCBF in pathologic conditions

  13. Expansão rápida da maxila ancorada em implantes: uma nova proposta para expansão ortopédica na dentadura permanente Rapid maxillary expansion anchored by implants: a new proposal to orthopedic expansion in the permanent dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este trabalho apresenta um método para expansão ortopédica da maxila, na dentadura permanente, utilizando implantes como ancoragem. METODOLOGIA: detalharam-se os procedimentos cirúrgicos e laboratoriais da confecção de um expansor com ancoragem dento-óssea em crânio seco humano. Dois implantes de titânio foram colocados na região anterior do palato, e o parafuso Hyrax adaptado de modo que a expansão ancorou-se nos implantes e nos primeiros molares permanentes. RESULTADOS: o experimento laboratorial em crânio seco mostrou que o procedimento apresenta-se anatômica e operacionalmente viável. Os implantes suportaram a força gerada pela ativação do parafuso expansor, redundando na separação transversal das hemimaxilas. CONCLUSÕES: vislumbra-se que a expansão rápida da maxila ancorada em implantes (ERMAI poderá potencializar a eficiência da expansão ortopédica, assim como reduzir o custo periodontal dos procedimentos convencionais de expansão. Futuros estudos clínicos são necessários para testar essas hipóteses.AIM: This study presents a method for maxillary orthopedic expansion, in the permanent dentition, using implants as anchorage. METHODS: Surgical and laboratorial procedures for the construction of a tooth-bone-borne expansor was detailed in a human dry skull. Two titanium implants were placed in the anterior region of the palate and a Hyrax screw was adapted in a way that the expansion was anchored both on the palatal implants and on permanent first molars. RESULTS: The laboratorial experiment in dry skull showed that the procedure is operationally and anatomically possible. The implants supported the force generated by the expansion screw activation and the maxilla halves were transversally split. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion anchored on implants can increase the efficiency of orthopedic expansion and decrease the periodontal sequela caused by conventional RME. Further clinical studies are necessary to verify these hypotheses.

  14. Isotope and Patient Age Predict for PSA Spikes After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing 103Pd and 125I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of ?0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of ?0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike. Results: Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive 125I patients and 57 hormone-naive 103Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for 125I and 103Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes (125I 28.1% and 103Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients 125I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients

  15. A systematic study of imaging uncertainties and their impact on 125I prostate brachytherapy dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calculate the dose distribution delivered by a prostate brachytherapy implant, the seed positions and prostate volume are normally identified on post-implant CT images. We have systematically considered the impact of uncertainties in contouring the prostate, seed localization, and visualization of all the seeds on the calculated dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, and predicted radiobiological outcome. This study was done for a collection of 27 clinical 125I prostate brachytherapy implants, performed at the London Regional Cancer Centre during our early adoption of this technique. For these clinical dose distributions, the median D90 was 76% of the prescription dose, or 110 Gy, and the median V90 was 80%. We calculated the changes in these dosimetric indices (D90 and V90) and radiobiological outcome (SF2 TCP) as a function of contouring uncertainty, seed localization uncertainty, inability to localize all of the seeds, and binary combinations of these three. The results are presented for a range of uncertainties, which allows the possible application of these results to a variety of imaging modalities that have differing spatial resolutions. We found that both contouring uncertainties and seed localization uncertainties had a large impact on the predicted radiobiological outcome, but that seed localization uncertainties of 6 mm had the largest impact on the dosimetric indices. We also found that the variability in both the prefound that the variability in both the predicted radiobiological and dosimetric outcome was largest for contouring uncertainties of 4-8 mm. We conclude that accounting for contouring uncertainties is crucial in accurately deducing the DVHs for post-implant prostate brachytherapy, and hence enabling valid correlation with ultimate clinical outcome

  16. Preparation and biodistribution of 125I radiolabeled glycosylated somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural somatostatin, dextran-10 and tyramine are used to synthesis somatostatin-dextran-tyramine (SMS-Dx10-tyramine, glycosylated somatostatin). The somatostatin receptor competition binding study of glycosylated somatostatin in vitro is carried out using rat brain cortex membranes (expressing somatostatin receptor type 2) and the radioligand of 125I-Tyr3-Octreotide. The radioiodinated glycosylated somatostatin is prepared by Iodogen method. The biodistribution and blood half life are investigated in normal rats. The glycosylated somatostatin posses of high somatostatin type 2 receptor binding affinity, the same IC50 value as the reference ligand Octreotide, and the blood half-life is 6.7 h after post injection. The digestion and excretion is mainly through the hepatobiliary and kidney system. The adrenals gland has higher uptake, which is a somatostatin receptor positive organ. The radioiodinated glycosylated somatostatin shows promising properties and is worthy of further investigation. (authors)

  17. Dose to fingertips of staff preparing stranded iodine-125 seeds for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to measure radiation dose to the fingertips of occupationally exposed workers handling stranded iodine-125 seeds during prostate implants. The doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry at the nail of the index finger of both hands in three hospitals in the Netherlands. In all hospitals, measurements were carried out during the preparation of stranded IBt seeds, type IntersourceR 1251L. The fingertip doses per procedure (mean ± SD) to the fingertip for workers from the three hospitals were estimated to be 0.29 ± 0.15 mSv (n=6), <0.03 ± <0.02 mSv (n=8) and 0.31 ± 0.16 mSv (n=16), respectively. The lower doses found for the hospital 2 workers are presumably related to the heavier shielding and longer utensils used in that hospital. Even in the case of hundreds of implant procedures per year, dose to the fingertips for occupationally exposed workers preparing stranded seeds is expected to be well below the annual limit for extremities of 500 mSv. (authors)

  18. Pharmacokinetics and organ distribution of 125I-aprindine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to label aprindine hydrochloride with I-125 by means of an exchange reaction. Organ distribution was determined in 10 rats where radioactivity was measured in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, transverse muscle tissue and bone sections 5, 10, 30 and 60 min following i.v. injection. The high organ concentration was found in the lung, and also the maximum ratio organ: blood radioactivity was found for this organ. Whole body activity measurements revealed a half-life of nearly 6 hr. Excretion occurred primarily via the faeces. The pharmacokinetic properties of 14C- and 125I-aprindine hydrochloride do not therefore differ significantly. A whole body scintiscanning was carried out on an additional 12 rats and 6 rabbits. This revealed a marked enrichment in the lung compared to other organs in the time period 5 to 10 min. An image of relatively good quality was obtained compared to that of conventional perfusion scintiscanning with 131I-HSA. It is assumed that 125I-aprindine hydrochloride is concentrated in the lung parenchyma and is therefore largely unaffected by the immediate perfusion conditions. This is also confirmed in preliminary studies with 131I-aprindine in the scintiscanning of rabbits where voids of pneumonia activity are shown in the aprindine scintigram whereas with the perfusion method these are not. As expected, the reverse was shown to be true following experimental pulmonary embolism where voids were seen in the perfusion scintigram whilst the 131I-aprindine scintigram revealed hardly any areas of drops in activity. These properties possibly offer an improved diagnostic procedure for differentiating between pneumonia and lung infarct by combination with perfusion scintiscanning. (orig./MG)

  19. 125I iothalamate an ideal marker for glomerular filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The triiodinated angiographic contrast medium, iothalamate (usually labelled 125I), has been used extensively as a marker for glomerular filtration. The authors have studied the renal handling of 125I iothalamate (IOT) in vivo and in vitro in several species. In renal cortical slices from chicken, rabbit, rat, and monkey, the tissue-to-medium ratio of IOT was twice that of 51Cr-EDTA (EDTA) at 37 degrees C; a difference that was abolished at 0 degree C and markedly reduced by added o-iodohippurate or iodipamide. In five chickens the steady-state renal clearance of IOT (CIOT) was twice that of EDTA (CEDTA) or 3H inulin (C1); a difference that was abolished by administration of 100 mg/kg/hr of novobiocin, an organic anion transport inhibitor. CEDTA was similar to C1 before as well as after transport inhibition. Utilizing the Sperber technique the mean apparent tubular excretion fraction (ATEF) of IOT was 8%, while that of EDTA was 1%. After novobiocin coinfusion (new steady-state) ATEFIOT was significantly reduced and not different from that of EDTA (-1%). In the same animals the total urinary recovery of IOT was 84 and 57% before and after novobiocin, respectively, while corresponding values for EDTA was unchanged by the inhibitor. In seven rats the renal extraction of IOT was reduced from 29 to 17% by coinfusion of probenecid (5 mg/kg/hr). Corresponding extractions were 82 to 34% and 22% (unchanged) for PAH and EDTA, respecti22% (unchanged) for PAH and EDTA, respectively

  20. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Benefits of Essure FDA’s Review of Reported Problems ... Essure Additional Information Essure is a permanent birth control method for women that creates a barrier against ...

  1. Estado da arte do procedimento percutâneo: paciente octogenário submetido com sucesso, em apenas uma sessão, a valvotomia pulmonar, implante de stent coronário e implante de marcapasso definitivo / State of the art percutaneous procedure: octogenarian patient successfully submitted, in a single session, to a pulmonary valvotomy, coronary stent implant and permanent pacemaker implant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson Albino, Pimentel Filho; Milton de Macedo, Soares Neto; Gil Vicente, Cividanis; Rubens Vaz, Feijó Júnior.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available É relatado caso de paciente de 82 anos, portador de insuficiência renal leve, estenose valvar pulmonar (EVP) severa, estenose severa de artéria descendente anterior e bloqueio atrioventricular total, submetido a angioplastia coronária com implante de stent coronário, valvotomia pulmonar e implante d [...] e marcapasso definitivo no mesmo procedimento, com sucesso. Abstract in english This report describes a case involving an 82 year old patient with mild renal insufficiency, severe pulmonary valve stenosis (PVS), severe anterior descending artery stenosis and complete atrioventricular block, who successfully underwent, in a single session, coronary angioplasty and a stent implan [...] t, pulmonary valvotomy and a permanent pacemaker implant.

  2. Expansão rápida da maxila ancorada em implantes: uma nova proposta para expansão ortopédica na dentadura permanente / Rapid maxillary expansion anchored by implants: a new proposal to orthopedic expansion in the permanent dentition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Gamba, Garib; Ricardo de Lima, Navarro; Carlos Eduardo, Francischone; Paula Vanessa Pedron, Oltramari.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este trabalho apresenta um método para expansão ortopédica da maxila, na dentadura permanente, utilizando implantes como ancoragem. METODOLOGIA: detalharam-se os procedimentos cirúrgicos e laboratoriais da confecção de um expansor com ancoragem dento-óssea em crânio seco humano. Dois impla [...] ntes de titânio foram colocados na região anterior do palato, e o parafuso Hyrax adaptado de modo que a expansão ancorou-se nos implantes e nos primeiros molares permanentes. RESULTADOS: o experimento laboratorial em crânio seco mostrou que o procedimento apresenta-se anatômica e operacionalmente viável. Os implantes suportaram a força gerada pela ativação do parafuso expansor, redundando na separação transversal das hemimaxilas. CONCLUSÕES: vislumbra-se que a expansão rápida da maxila ancorada em implantes (ERMAI) poderá potencializar a eficiência da expansão ortopédica, assim como reduzir o custo periodontal dos procedimentos convencionais de expansão. Futuros estudos clínicos são necessários para testar essas hipóteses. Abstract in english AIM: This study presents a method for maxillary orthopedic expansion, in the permanent dentition, using implants as anchorage. METHODS: Surgical and laboratorial procedures for the construction of a tooth-bone-borne expansor was detailed in a human dry skull. Two titanium implants were placed in the [...] anterior region of the palate and a Hyrax screw was adapted in a way that the expansion was anchored both on the palatal implants and on permanent first molars. RESULTS: The laboratorial experiment in dry skull showed that the procedure is operationally and anatomically possible. The implants supported the force generated by the expansion screw activation and the maxilla halves were transversally split. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid maxillary expansion anchored on implants can increase the efficiency of orthopedic expansion and decrease the periodontal sequela caused by conventional RME. Further clinical studies are necessary to verify these hypotheses.

  3. Use of brachytherapy with permanent implants of iodine-125 in localized prostate cancer; La curietherapie par implants permanents d'I-125 dans le cancer localise de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladou, F.; Serment, G. [Hopital Salvador, Service d' Urologie, 13 - Marseille (France); Salem, N.; Simonian, M. [Hopital Salvador, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 13 - Marseille (France); Rosello, R.; Ternier, F. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Dept. de Radiologie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 15,000 cases of early stage prostate cancer T1 and T2 are diagnosed every year in France by testing for PSA and performing prostatic biopsies. The treatment of these localized forms is based in most cases on radical prostatectomy or nn external beam radiotherapy. Although the ontological results obtained by these two therapeutic methods are satisfactory and equivalent in the long term, the side effects can be important. For a number of years, trans-perineal brachytherapy using permanent implants of iodine -125 or palladium-103 has proved itself as an alternative therapy with equivalent medium to long-term results. The low urinary, digestive and sexual side effects of prostate brachytherapy are important reasons for the enthusiasm among patients and the medical community for this therapy and the growing number of applications and centres which practice it. In September 1998 we started the prostate brachytherapy programmes- in Marseilles with close collaboration between the department of urology of the Hopital Salvator, and the departments of radiotherapy, medical imaging and medical physics of the Institut Paoli-Calmettes. To date, around 250 patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have benefited from this alternative therapy in our centre. Preliminary results, with a 3 year-follow-up, are comparable to results published in the literature by pioneer teams. (authors)

  4. The preparation of 125I - gastrin I and 125 - minigastrin for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrin I G-17 and minigastrin G-13 were iodinated using direct methods with chloramin T and iodogen procedures and by indirect method with Bolton-Hunter reagent. 125I - gastrin and 125I - minigastrin were isolated from the iodination mixtures by gel filtration on Sephadex G-10 and Sephadex G-25 (PD-10 column) and by HPLC system (Lichrospher WP-300-RP-18 column). Radiochemical purity was shown by HPLC also. It was confirmed that iodogen procedure is the best for iodination of these peptides. 125I - gastrin I obtained by this method with specific activity 80 ?Ci/nmol was homogeneous but iodination to higher specific activity (440?Ci/nmol) caused appearance of two subfractions. 125I - minigastrin with high and low specific activity were isolated by HPLC as the two forms (subfractions). It was shown that high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was the best method for isolation and purification of 125I - gastrin I and 125I - minigastrin. (author)

  5. In vivo molecular imaging of [125I]-labeled 3-iodothyronamine: A hibernation-inducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out with the objective of studying in vivo imaging of 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) compound in mice. A simple and efficient synthesis of [125I]–T1AM was established, and a molecular imaging study was performed using micro-SPECT/CT at 1 h post-injection of [125I]–T1AM. Imaging studies revealed the activity in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, indicating that [125I]–T1AM was distributed primarily in the liver, and excreted into the gastrointestinal tract through a bile duct. - Highlights: ? A SPECT/CT imaging of [125I]–T1AM has been performed in a mouse. ? A radiochemical yield of [125I]–T1AM was 40%, and the radiochemical purity was >99%. ? T1AM was also synthesized to compare with [125I]–T1AM

  6. Synthesis of [125I]iodoDPA-713: A new probe for imaging inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [125I]IodoDPA-713 [125I]1, which targets the translocator protein (TSPO, 18 kDa), was synthesized in seven steps from methyl-4-methoxybenzoate as a tool for quantification of inflammation in preclinical models. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo small animal imaging were performed using [125I]1 in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and in a murine model of lung inflammation, respectively. The radiochemical yield of [125I]1 was 44 ± 6% with a specific radioactivity of 51.8 GBq/?mol (1400 mCi/?mol) and >99% radiochemical purity. Preliminary studies showed that [125I]1 demonstrated increased specific binding to TSPO in a neurotoxicant-treated rat and increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in the lungs of an experimental inflammation model of lung inflammation. Compound [125I]1 is a new, convenient probe for preclinical studies of TSPO activity.

  7. 125I-LSD: a high sensitivity ligand for serotonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-labeled receptor ligands offer unique advantages over their 3H-labeled counterparts. Carrier-free 125I-labeled ligands can be synthesized with specific activities of up to 2170 Ci/mmol while (mono) tritium labeled ligands are limited to 29 Ci/mmol. Therefore, 125I-labeled ligands can be approximately 70-fold more sensitive than 3H-labeled ligands in detecting receptor sites. In addition, 125I-labeled ligands emit relatively energetic X-rays and ?-rays which are readily detected by gamma counting equipment. The authors report here the serotonergic binding properties of 125I-LSD the first reported 125I-labeled ligand for serotonin receptors. (Auth.)

  8. Influence of glucose and urea on 125I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the influence of glucose and urea on the 125I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane, the transmembrane potential, the fluxes, and the concentrations of 125I, glucose and urea within the membrane were measured in the Na125I concentration-cell system containing glucose or urea. Glucose and urea increased the membrane/solution distribution of the iodide ion, but scarcely affected the diffusion process of iodide ion within the membrane

  9. Intraperitoneal (125I) insulin absorption during intermittent and continuous peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured intraperitoneal (125I) insulin absorption during intermittent and continuous peritoneal dialysis in order to study the following: insulin regulation of blood glucose when administered continuously via dialysate during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) versus when given intermittently and subcutaneously before CAPD; the degree of (125I) insulin retention in plastic CAPD bags, after complete drainage of the dialysis fluid; absorption of (125I) insulin from the dialysate in the peritoneal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. (Auth.)

  10. Binding and degradation of [125I]human growth hormone in rat adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodinated human growth hormone [( 125I]hGH) binds to both specific and nonspecific sites on the surface of adipocytes isolated from the epididymal fat of normal rats. When adipocytes were incubated at 37 C with 1 nM [125I]hGH, specific binding increased for 30-60 min and thereafter remained approximately constant as long as the hormone was present in the medium. About 90% of the 125I released was soluble in 5% trichloroacetic acid and was in the form of iodotyrosine. The rate of 125I release from specific binding sites decreased by a factor of 4 when the temperature was lowered from 37 to 17 C. Replacement of some of the sodium chloride in the buffer with 25 mM ammonium chloride had little or no effect on the amount on 125I that bound to cells when [125I]hGH was present in the medium, but completely blocked the release of 125I from cells transferred to hormone-free medium. Ammonium chloride also significantly reduced both the release of 125I from nonspecific binding sites and the amount of 125I recovered in trichloroacetic acid-soluble form. Cloroquine, leupeptin, or colchicine nearly doubled the specific binding of [125I]hGH after 180 min and markedly slowed the release of 125I when cells were transferred to hormone-free medium. All of these agents also significantly reduced the rate of release of 125I from nonspecific binding sites. Inc/sup>I from nonspecific binding sites. Incubation of adipose tissue from hypophysectomized rats with ammonium chloride, leupeptin, or colchicine failed to alter the ability of GH to increase glucose oxidation, induce refractoriness, or promote lipolysis in the presence of theophylline

  11. Characterization of two new ETB selective radioligands, [125I]-BQ3020 and [125I]-[Ala1,3,11,15]ET-1 in human heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, P.; Kuc, R. E.; Davenport, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new endothelin receptor radioligands, [125I]-BQ3020 and [125I]-[Ala1,3,11,15]ET-1, were characterized in tissue sections of human right atrium and left ventricle. Both radioligands had high affinity ([125I]-BQ3020 right atrium: KD = 0.145 +/- 0.037 nM, left ventricle: KD = 0.107 +/- 0.004 nM; [125I]-[Ala1,3,11,15]ET-1 right atrium: KD = 0.239 +/- 0.036 nM, left ventricle: KD = 0.199 +/- 0.027 nM). Competition binding experiments were performed in the left ventricle. The selective ETA rece...

  12. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen bounce after I125 permanent seed implant for localised prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To report on the incidence of benign prostate-specific antigen bounce following permanent I125 prostate brachytherapy, to describe the associations in our population and review the relationship of bounce to subsequent biochemical failure. Materials and methods: From February 2000 to May 2005, 374 patients with localised prostate cancer were treated with I125 permanent prostate brachytherapy at a single institution. A prospectively collected database was used to identify cases of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce, defined as a rise of ?0.2 ng/ml above an initial PSA nadir with subsequent decline to or below that nadir without treatment. The patients who received neo-adjuvant or adjuvant hormone manipulation were excluded. Biochemical failure was determined using the both the ASTRO consensus definition and Phoenix (nadir +2 ng/mL) definition. Results: Two hundred and five patients were identified with a median follow-up of 45 months (24-85). PSA bounce was noted in 79 (37%) men, occurring at a median of 14.8 months (1.7-40.6) following implant. The median peak PSA was 1.8 ng/ml (0.4-7.4) with a bounce magnitude of 0.91 ng/ml (0.2-5.8). When pre- and post-implant factors were assessed for association to bounce, only younger age was statistically significant (p = 0.002). The threshold for biochemical failure as defined by the ASTRO consensus definition (1997) was met in 4 (5%) patients after experiencing bounce as opposients after experiencing bounce as opposed to 19 (15%) non-bounce patients (p = 0.01). The threshold for Phoenix (nadir +2 ng/mL) was met in 6 (7.5%) patients following bounce versus 22 (17%) of non-bounce patients (p = 0.003). Both definitions are prone to false positive calls during bounce. Median PSA velocity during the bounce was 0.08 ng/mL/month (0.02-0.98) and was statistically significantly lower than the median velocity prior to the Phoenix biochemical failure at 0.28 ng/mL/month (0.07-2.04) (p = 0.0005). Conclusion: PSA bounce is a common finding in our population and is associated with a lower rate of subsequent biochemical failure. The noted differences in PSA velocity will require verification in a future analysis to reduce the influence of median follow-up on this finding. Patients should be advised of the potential of bounce in PSA follow-up after permanent I125 prostate brachytherapy and physicians involved in follow-up of prostate brachytherapy patients should be aware of this phenomenon, allowing them to commit to appropriate PSA surveillance, avoiding the premature and inappropriate initiation of salvage therapy during PSA bounce

  13. Preparation of 1-phenyl 3-methyl 4-nitro 5-125I-pyrazole (5-125I-MNPP) as a possible cannabinoid receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method for labelling of 1-phenyl 3-methyl 4-nitro 5-chloro pyrazole (5-Cl-MNPP) with radioactive iodide Na125I via 125I-for-Cl exchange has been reported. This method has been done in dry state (without catalyst and in presence of acetamide), in dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a solvent (without catalyst and in presence of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC)). In dry state, a trial to reduce the reaction temperature from 170 to 120 deg C for the reaction between 5-Cl-MNPP and Na125I in presence of acetamide as a molten medium was tested. Using some organic solvents such as ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, and DMF, it was found that DMF gave low radiochemical yield of 5-125I-MNPP (25%) within 30 min. However, the addition of 1 mg of TBAB to DMF increased the radiochemical yield of 5-125I-MNPP from 25 to 95 within 30 minutes. The product 5-125I-MNPP was purified by reverse phase, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with radiochemical purity of greater than 98.0%. The biodistribution of 5-125I-MNPP was demonstrated in normal mice through intravenous injection in the tail vein. High uptake in the target organs equal to 2.5±0.22, 10.5±0.21, 4.3±0.27, 3.2±0.18 and 48.5±0.26 for brain, intestines, heart, kidneys and liver respectively was shown. This indicates that, 5-125I-MNPP can be freely penetrate the blood brain bar freely penetrate the blood brain barrier (B.B.B.) and can be expected its usefulness in the quantitative determination of cannabinoid receptor in the brain. (author)

  14. ¿Es más eficiente el implante de marcapasos permanentes en hospitales de nivel I? Is the permanent pacemaker implant more efficient in level 1 hospital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Moreno-Millán

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si el implante de marcapasos permanentes (MPP y cambio de generador resultan más eficientes en hospitales pequeños. Diseño: Análisis de costeefectividad. Estudio retrospectivo, transversal y observacional de cinco GDR. Ámbito: Los datos son procedentes del conjunto mínimo básico de datos (CMBD nacional del año 2007, facilitado por el Ministerio de Sanidad. Pacientes: Son el total de los pacientes que requirieron asistencia en algún hospital nacional por 5 GRD: 115, complicación bradiarrítmica durante la fase aguda de un síndrome coronario, insuficiencia cardíaca o shock; 116, trastorno de conducción sintomático aislado; 117, revisión pero sin cambio de batería; 118, aplicación de una nueva, y 549, implantación o revisión pero con complicaciones graves. Variables de interés principales: Se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas (número de diagnósticos secundarios (NDS, de procedimientos (NP, mortalidad y de gestión (estancia total y preoperatoria (Epo, forma de acceso y alta, tamaño de hospital, definiendo ineficiente una estancia superior 2 días a la media. Resultados: 23.154 episodios (5,3% en hospitalesObjective: To determine if permanent pacemaker implants (PPM interventions and change of generator are more efficient in small hospitals. Design: A cost-effective analysis and retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study of diagnostic related groups (DRG. Setting: The data was obtained from the national Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS for the year 2007 provided by the Health Ministry. Patients: This includes the total number of patients who required treatment in all national hospitals for 5 DRG: 115 - bradyarrhythmic complication during the acute coronary syndrome, heart failure or shock; 116 -symptomatic isolated conduction defects; 117 -revisions, but without changing the battery, 118- application of a new one, 549 - implementation or revision but with serious complications. Principal variables of interest: demographic, clinical (number of secondary diagnoses (NSD and procedures (NP, mortality and management (total and preoperative length of stay (LOS, access, discharge, hospital size, defining inefficient stays as those exceeding 2 days on the average. Results: 23,154 episodes, 5.3% small hospitals. The comparative bivariate study between small hospitals and the rest, not discriminated by DRG, showed a mean LOS of 7.87±8.78 days vs 11.01±12.95 (p=0.005, 95% CI for mean difference [0.17, 1.65] and also lower than preoperatively (3.62±6.14 vs. 4.22±6.68 days (p=0.015 without greater comorbidity, as measured by proxy through the NSD (5.23±2.88 vs 5.42±3.28 (p=0.055 and NP as proxy of diagnostic and therapeutic effort (3.79±2.50 vs 3.55±2.69 (p=0.002. A total of 24.1% were inefficient, there being an association with preoperative stay, NDS, NP and emergency access. Conclusion: Pacemaker implantation and generator change in small hospitals is more efficient, with internal consistency by subgroups.

  15. ¿Es más eficiente el implante de marcapasos permanentes en hospitales de nivel I? / Is the permanent pacemaker implant more efficient in level 1 hospital?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Moreno-Millán; J.M., García-Torrecillas; J., Villegas-del Ojo; F., Prieto-Valderrey.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si el implante de marcapasos permanentes (MPP) y cambio de generador resultan más eficientes en hospitales pequeños. Diseño: Análisis de costeefectividad. Estudio retrospectivo, transversal y observacional de cinco GDR. Ámbito: Los datos son procedentes del conjunto mínimo básic [...] o de datos (CMBD) nacional del año 2007, facilitado por el Ministerio de Sanidad. Pacientes: Son el total de los pacientes que requirieron asistencia en algún hospital nacional por 5 GRD: 115, complicación bradiarrítmica durante la fase aguda de un síndrome coronario, insuficiencia cardíaca o shock; 116, trastorno de conducción sintomático aislado; 117, revisión pero sin cambio de batería; 118, aplicación de una nueva, y 549, implantación o revisión pero con complicaciones graves. Variables de interés principales: Se analizaron variables demográficas, clínicas (número de diagnósticos secundarios (NDS), de procedimientos (NP), mortalidad) y de gestión (estancia total y preoperatoria (Epo), forma de acceso y alta, tamaño de hospital), definiendo ineficiente una estancia superior 2 días a la media. Resultados: 23.154 episodios (5,3% en hospitales Abstract in english Objective: To determine if permanent pacemaker implants (PPM) interventions and change of generator are more efficient in small hospitals. Design: A cost-effective analysis and retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study of diagnostic related groups (DRG). Setting: The data was obtained f [...] rom the national Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) for the year 2007 provided by the Health Ministry. Patients: This includes the total number of patients who required treatment in all national hospitals for 5 DRG: 115 - bradyarrhythmic complication during the acute coronary syndrome, heart failure or shock; 116 -symptomatic isolated conduction defects; 117 -revisions, but without changing the battery, 118- application of a new one, 549 - implementation or revision but with serious complications. Principal variables of interest: demographic, clinical (number of secondary diagnoses (NSD) and procedures (NP), mortality) and management (total and preoperative length of stay (LOS), access, discharge, hospital size), defining inefficient stays as those exceeding 2 days on the average. Results: 23,154 episodes, 5.3% small hospitals. The comparative bivariate study between small hospitals and the rest, not discriminated by DRG, showed a mean LOS of 7.87±8.78 days vs 11.01±12.95 (p=0.005, 95% CI for mean difference [0.17, 1.65]) and also lower than preoperatively (3.62±6.14 vs. 4.22±6.68 days (p=0.015)) without greater comorbidity, as measured by proxy through the NSD (5.23±2.88 vs 5.42±3.28 (p=0.055)) and NP as proxy of diagnostic and therapeutic effort (3.79±2.50 vs 3.55±2.69 (p=0.002)). A total of 24.1% were inefficient, there being an association with preoperative stay, NDS, NP and emergency access. Conclusion: Pacemaker implantation and generator change in small hospitals is more efficient, with internal consistency by subgroups.

  16. Development of procedure using plasma welding process to produce {sup 125}I seeds; Desenvolvimento de procedimento utilizando processo de soldagem plasma para confeccao de sementes de {sup 125}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Anselmo

    2006-07-01

    The prostate cancer, which is the second cause of death by cancer in men, overcome only by lung cancer, is a problem of public health in Brazil. Brachytherapy is among the possible available treatments for prostate cancer, in which small seeds containing {sup 125}I radioisotope are implanted in the prostate. The seed consists of a titanium sealed capsule with 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, containing a central silver wire with adsorbed {sup 125}I. The plasma arc welding is one of the viable techniques for the sealing process. The equipment used in this technique is less costly than in other processes. The main objective of this work was the development and the validation of the welding procedure using plasma welding process and the elaboration of a sealing routine according to Good Manufacturing Practices. The development of this work has presented the following phases: cut and cleaning of the titanium material, determination of the welding parameters, development of a device for holding the titanium tube during the welding process, validation of sealed sources according to ISO 2919 Sealed Radioactive Sources - General Requirements and Classification, leakage test according to ISO 9978 Sealed Radioactive Sources - Leakage Test Methods and metallographic assays. The developed procedure, to seal {sup 125}I seeds using plasma welding process, has shown to be efficient, satisfying all the established requirements of ISO 2919. The results obtained in this work have given the possibility to establish a routine production process according to the orientations presented in resolution RDC number 59 - Good Manufacturing Practices do Medical Products of the ANVISA - Brazilian Nacional Agency of Sanitary Surveillance. (author)

  17. Transperineal permanent seed implantation of ''low-risk'' prostate cancer. 5-year-experiences in 118 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival of transperineal permanent seed implantation (TPSI) in 118 patients with 'low-risk' prostate cancer, that means stage cT1c-T2a, Gleason Score <7, and initial PSA value <10 ng/ml. Patients and Methods: From 04/1999 to 06/2002, a total of 118 patients underwent a mono-TPSI, using ultrasound-based preplanning and intraoperative verification by both ultrasound and conventional fluoroscopy as well as postoperative CT planning. Patients were monitored during the 1st year in 3-month intervals, and in 6-monthly intervals from then onward. Biochemical failure was defined according to ASTRO criteria with three consecutive PSA rises observed from a posttreatment nadir PSA value. The median follow-up was 48.9 months (range: 37.0-80.2 months). 114 patients were eligible, four patients were lost to follow-up. Results: For the entire group, PSA relapse-free survival at 5 years was 94.7%, with six patients (5.3%) having a PSA relapse between 8 and 20 months after implantation. In the bNED patients (no biochemical evidence of disease), PSA values were <0.2 ng/ml in 82.5% (94/114 patients), <0.5 ng/ml in 13.2% (15/114 patients), <1.0 ng/ml in 2.6% (3/114 patients), and <1.5 ng/ml in 1.7% (2/114 patients). In summary, PSA values <0.2 ng/ml, <0.5 ng/ml and <1.0 ng/ml occurred in 82.5%, 95.7% and 98.3%, respectively. Out of the six patients with recurrent disease, three had a local tumor recurrence only, andree had a local tumor recurrence only, and three developed distant metastases. Conclusion: In low-risk prostate cancer patients, TPSI with intraoperative ultrasound-based treatment planning and fluoroscopy leads to excellent local tumor control and PSA relapse-free survival. (orig.)

  18. Increased 125I-labelled concanavalin a binding to erythrocytes in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percentage binding of 125I-labelled concanavalin A to erythrocytes in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in normal subjects (12.2 +- 2.8 versus 8.1 +- 1.8%, mean +- SD, p 125I-labelled concanavalin A and glycosylated haemoglobin. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis and biodistribution of 125I-labelled benzothiazole derivatives as ?-amyloid imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop 123I labelled probe for SPECT imaging of A ? plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Four 125I labelled benzothiazole derivative are synthesized and their radiochemical purity are more than 95%. The biodistribution results in normal mice indicate that the radiolabelled probes have higher initial brain uptake: 10.28, 3.62, 3.33 and 3.71%/g at 2 min post i.v. injection for 3'-125I-BTA, 3'-125I-CBTA, 3'-125I-BTA-Ac and 3'-125I-CBTA-Ac respectively. Brain uptake ratios at 2 min to 60 min of 3'-125I-BTA, 3'-125I-BTA-Ac and 3'-125I-CBTA-Ac are 7.3, 6.2 and 5.7 respectively. The results reveal that 3'-123I-BTA is a very potential agent for SPECT imaging of A ? plaques in Alzheimer's disease

  20. Impact of target volume coverage with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 98-05 guidelines for transrectal ultrasound guided permanent Iodine-125 prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite the wide use of permanent prostate implants for the treatment of early stage prostate cancer, there is no consensus for optimal pre-implant planning guidelines that results in maximal post-implant target coverage. The purpose of this study was to compare post-implant target volume coverage and dosimetry between patients treated before and after Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 98-05 guidelines were adopted using several dosimetric endpoints. Materials and methods: Ten consecutively treated patients before the adoption of the RTOG 98-05 planning guidelines were compared with ten consecutively treated patients after implementation of the guidelines. Pre-implant planning for patients treated pre-RTOG was based on the clinical target volume (CTV) defined by the pre-implant TRUS definition of the prostate. The CTV was expanded in each dimension according to RTOG 98-05 and defined as the planning target volume. The evaluation target volume was defined as the post-implant computed tomography definition of the prostate based on RTOG 98-05 protocol recommendations. Implant quality indicators included V100, V90, V100, and Coverage Index (CI). Results: The pre-RTOG median V100, V90, D90, and CI values were 82.8, 88.9%, 126.5 Gy, and 17.1, respectively. The median post-RTOG V100, V90, D90, and CI values were 96.0, 97.8%, 169.2 Gy, and 4.0, respectively. These8%, 169.2 Gy, and 4.0, respectively. These differences were all statistically significant. Conclusions: Implementation of the RTOG 98-05 implant planning guidelines has increased coverage of the prostate by the prescription isodose lines compared with our previous technique, as indicated by post-implant dosimetry indices such as V100, V90, D90. The CI was also improved significantly with the protocol guidelines. Our data confirms the validity of the RTOG 98-05 implant guidelines for pre-implant planning as it relates to enlargement of the CTV to ensure adequate margin between the CTV and the prescription isodose lines

  1. Impact of different dose distribution of 125I seeds interstitial brachytherapy on the effects in human gastric carcinoma bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: 125I seeds interstitial brachytherapy has been clinically used for years. How- ever, how the dose distribution affects the therapeutic response remains to be elucidated. The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of different dose distribution on the effects of 125I seeds interstitial brachytherapy. Methods: Thirty-two human gastric carcinoma bearing nude mice were randomly divided in- to three treated groups and one control group with eight mice in each group. 125I seeds were implanted in the treated groups with the same total activity (33.30 MBq). Based on the dose distribution and activity of single seed, the treated groups were classified to high activity group (33.30 MBq x 1), moderate activity group (16.65 MBq x 2) and low activity group (11.10 MBq x 3). The control group was implanted radioactivity-free seeds. The evaluation parameters were obtained after 30 d, which included survival rate, body weight, volume inhibitory rate, histological tumor regression and regional skin reaction. Analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used for data statistical analysis. Results: All mice survived during the observation period. There was no significant difference of the body weight among the groups after 125I seeds implantation (F=2.23, P>0.05). The volume inhibitory rates in high, moderate and low activity groups were 92.47%, 97.15% and 89.01%, respectively. After treatment the average tumorctively. After treatment the average tumor volume was (138.85 ± 16.45) mm3 in high activity group, (52.52 ± 30.54) mm3 in moderate activity group, (202.72 ± 126.97) mm3 in low activity group and (1843.99 ± 447.63) mm3 in control group. In all treated groups, the average tumor volume was significantly smaller than that in control group (t=3.092, 3.376, 3.269, all P125I seed and the dose distribution may exert critical impact on the therapeutic effects and radiation injury in 125I seeds interstitial brachytherapy. (authors)

  2. The leaching and moving of 125I in subtropics soils of south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching and vertical moving of 125I in subtropics soils of south China were studied by soil volume. The results showed that after passing through 20 cm soil volume, the content of 125I in leachate of laterite was 5.26% of labelled amount and 11.05% in leachate of paddy soil. After leaching 88.03% of 125I in laterite volume remained in the layer of 0?10 cm, while 92.21% in paddy soil volume. 27 days after vertical moving in soil volume, 125I distributed in every layer, most of it remained in the topsoil, 91.67% of 125I in laterite and 83.98% in paddy soil remained in the top layer (0?2 cm)

  3. Experimental and clinical treatment of bladder cancer with 125I-iododeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide can cause auger effect through disintegration low-energy electron (125I-iododeoxyuridine (125I-UdR) is an efficient carrier inducting 125I to cell nucleolus, it is incorporated into DNA specificity only in S-phase cells. A series of studies show that 125I can absorb more likely to tumor cells, instead of the normal cell division, thus effectively splitting radiotherapy of malignant lesions. As bladder is a natural lumen, it has a unique easy perfusion and observational. 125I-UdR can kill effiently and selectively the cells of bladder turnout, reducing markedly the ratio of its recurrence of surgical treatment of patients with bladder cancer, so as to improve the survival rate. It can be used as a surgical adjuvant treatment method, is expected to be a safe, efficient and less adverse reaction the new therapies for bladder cancer treatment. (authors)

  4. The uptake of 125I-labelled contrast media in human intracranial neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and subcellular distribution of sodium iothalamate-125I (Conray-125I) and meglumine ioglycamate-125I (Biligram-125I) have been studied in human brain tumours following intravenous injection of the agents. In seven patients given Conray-125I the mean tumour uptake of the compound was 2.8 +- 1.1 (SD)% administered dose per kilogram of fresh tissue, and the plasma to tumour concentration ratio was 2.0 +- 0.6 (SD). Subcellular fractionation studies showed that 82 +- 6 (SD)% of the total tissue Conray-125I was contained in the cytosol. Similar studies in three patients given Biligram-125I gave a mean tumour uptake of 3.3 +- 0.6% dose per kilogram with a plasma to tumour concentration ratio of 6.7 +- 3.8. On subcellular fractionation 81 +- 4% of the total tumour Biligram-125I was found in the cytosol. The distribution of the two agents in the plasma and tumour cytosol was studied by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex-G25. No protein binding of Conray-125I was observed in either plasma or cytosol, but whereas Biligram-125I was always protein-bound in the plasma, that contained in the tumour cytosol was not protein-bound. It is concluded that neither Conray nor Biligram are taken up by the cells of brain tumours to any significant extent and that the increased X-ray attenuation observed in areas of tumour following administration of these agents problowing administration of these agents probably reflects increases in the vascularity and interstitial fluid mass in the region of the lession as compared to that in normal tissue. (author)

  5. Isolation of 125I-concanavalin A-labeled plasma membrane from unfertilized mouse eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure was developed for isolation of plasma membrane (PM) preparations from unfertilized mouse eggs. Zona-free mouse eggs prepared by the method of Boldt and Wolf (Gamete Res 13:213-222, 1986) were labeled with 125I-concanavalin A (ConA) prior to sonication and fractionation on iso-osmotic self-generated Percoll density gradients. Experiments using the ConA-specific sugar alpha-methylmannoside (alpha MM) indicated that 125I-ConA bound specifically to the egg PM. Greater than 95% of 125I-ConA binding to zona-free eggs was blocked in the presence of 0.1 M alpha MM, and incubation of eggs in alpha MM after 125I-ConA labeling caused release of 85-90% of bound label. Fractionation of 125I-ConA-labeled eggs by Percoll density gradient centrifugation yielded a single radioactive peak at density = 1.025, corresponding to egg PM material. Prolonged incubation of 125I-ConA-labeled eggs or egg sonicates prior to fractionation did not alter the location of the radioactive peak, indicating that 125I-ConA did not label other organelles. As a control, human erythrocytes were labeled with 125I-ConA and fractionated under identical experimental conditions and yielded a single radioactive peak at density (1.020) comparable to that observed for 125I-ConA-labeled eggs. These results indicate that 125I-ConA can be used as a specific marker to support PM isolation from small numbers of zona-free mouse eggs

  6. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. Results A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47% seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7% patients. Sixty-nine (0.36% seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2% patients. Seven (0.036% seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2% patients. Fifteen (0.078% seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6% patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. Conclusion We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90.

  7. Morbimortalidad de la endocarditis infecciosa asociada a dispositivos electrónicos implantables permanentes / Morbimortality of infective endocarditis associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Pérez-Baztarrica; Flavio, Salvaggio; Norberto, Blanco; Héctor, Mazzetti; Ricardo, Levin; Alejandro, Botbol; Rafael, Porcile.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) asociada a dispositivos electrónicos implantables permanentes (DEIP) es una complicación de baja frecuencia pero alta mortalidad sin el tratamiento adecuado. El avance sobre el conocimiento de esta patología y el desarrollo de estrategias terapéuticas como el diagnóst [...] ico precoz, manejo de antibióticos, técnicas de extracción, entre otras, han mejorado el pronóstico de estos pacientes. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la morbimortalidad intrahospitalaria y alejada y analizar algunos factores que justifican las diferencias con los datos de la mortalidad publicada. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva pacientes entre marzo/2002 y marzo/2011 con diagnóstico de EI asociada a DEIP. Se analizaron características basales, diagnósticas, terapéuticas, evolución intrahospitalaria y alejada. Se incluyeron 26 casos atendidos en nuestro hospital, 23 de los cuales fueron remitidos desde otros centros para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. La edad promedio fue de 67,5 años. Todos los pacientes recibieron antibióticos durante seis semanas y se les retiró el sistema en forma completa; en el 95% de los pacientes por vía percutánea y en 2 pacientes se requirió estereotomía mediana, atriotomía y colocación de marcapasos epicardíaco. La mortalidad fue del 4% y en el seguimiento fue nula. La morbilidad intrahospitalaria fue del 31%. En el seguimiento alejado no hubo reinfecciones u otra complicación. Como conclusión la EI es un cuadro grave que presenta una morbilidad elevada con estadías hospitalarias prolongadas, pero la mortalidad es baja. La explicación podría estar en las técnicas percutáneas, experiencia, extracción completa, el tiempo del reimplante del nuevo dispositivo y el tratamiento precoz, entre otros factores. Abstract in english Infective endocarditis (IE) associated with permanent cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is a complication of low frequency, but high mortality without adequate treatment. Progress on the knowledge of this disease and the development of therapeutic strategies such as early diagnos [...] is, antibiotic management and better extraction techniques, among others, have improved the prognosis of these patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in-hospital and out-of-hospital morbidity, and analyze some factors that explain the differences among the published mortality data. Patients diagnosed with IE associated with CIEDs were studied, retrospectively, between March/2002 and March/2011. We analyzed baseline, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics, and in-hospital and out-of-hospital courses of the disease. We included 26 cases treated in our hospital, 23 of whom were referred from other centers for diagnosis and treatment. The average age of the patients was 67.5 years. All patients received antibiotics for six weeks and underwent complete removal of the device system, in 95% of patients by percutaneous extraction and 2 patients required a median sternotomy, atriotomy and epicardial pacemaker placement. Mortality was 4% and the follow up mortality was zero. The in-hospital morbidity was 31%. In the follow-ups there were no reinfections or other complications. In conclusion, IE is a serious condition that has a high morbidity with prolonged hospital stays, but with a low mortality. The explanation may lie in the use percutaneous extraction techniques, experience, complete extraction of the device system, the time of reimplantation of the new device and early treatment, among other factors.

  8. Usefulness of nano-zirconia for purification and concentration of 125I solution for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the utility of tetragonal nano-zirconia (t-ZrO2) to remove trace levels of 134Cs and 137Cs contaminants from 125I solution obtained from neutron irradiation of natural Xe target. A careful scrutiny of the adsorption parameters of t-ZrO2 was considered worthwhile investigating to arrive at the optimum conditions to perform the purification as well as concentration of 125I solution. The procedure proposed herein provides 125I of acceptable purity and radioactive concentration for clinical application. The compatibility of the separated product in the preparation of 125I brachytherapy sources was found to be satisfactory. - Highlights: • Utility of nano-zirconia sorbent for purification and concentration of 125I is proposed. • The process was demonstrated up to 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) activity level. • Radiocesium impurities could be completely removed from the 125I solution. • Greater than 10 fold increase in the radioactive concentration of 125I was achieved. • Iodine-125 obtained was found suitable for preparation of brachytherapy sources

  9. m-[125I]iodoaniline: a useful reagent for radiolabeling biotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotinyl-m-[125I]iodoanilide (BIA) was synthesized by coupling biotin to m-[125I]iodoaniline via a mixed anhydride reaction. m-[125I]Iodoaniline was produced from the tin precursor, which was prepared using a palladium catalyzed reaction of hexabutylditin with m-bromoaniline. The radioiodinated BIA derivative is characterized by a stable amide and/or intact ureido group on the biotin molecule, it may thus be a useful carrier for targeting radionuclides to avidin-conjugated antibodies previously localized on tumors. (author)

  10. OER and RBE for 125I and 192Ir at low dose rate on mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for 125I and 192Ir as well as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at low dose rates (40-80 cGy h-1) were determined for B16 melanoma cells in culture. The OER was found to be 2.1±0.03 for 125I and 2.7±0.04 for 192Ir. The RBE for 125I relative to 192Ir was determined as 1.8±0.03 under aerated conditions and as 2.4±0.03 under hypoxia. 18 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  11. 125I-labeled crosslinking reagent that is hydrophilic, photoactivatable, and cleavable through an azo linkage.

    OpenAIRE

    Denny, J B; Blobel, G.

    1984-01-01

    A radioactive crosslinking reagent, N-[4-(p-azido-m-[125I]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-N' -oxysulfosuccinimide ester, has been synthesized. The reagent is photoactivatable, water-soluble, cleavable through an azo linkage, and labeled with 125I at the carrier-free specific activity of 2000 Ci/mmol. Any protein derivatized with the reagent is thus converted into an 125I-labeled photoaffinity probe. Crosslinks are formed following photolysis with 366-nm light, and cleavage by sodium dith...

  12. Effect of fentanyl on 125I-?-CIT uptake in mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fentanyl on 125I-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl) tropane (125I-?-CIT) uptake in mice brain. Methods: 1) KM mice groups of five were given different doses of fentanyl, and 10 min or 1 h later were given a dose of 125I-?-CIT. 2)Two groups of animals were killed at 2 h after injection of 125I-?-CIT. 3)One group of animals were killed at 1 h after injection of 125I-?-CIT. Results: 1)In the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain, a dose-dependent increase in uptake (%ID/g or %ID) of 125I-?-CIT was detected at the fentanyl doses ranging from 125 to 300 ?g/kg, and the uptakes of hippocampus and cerebellum were higher than that of the controls. There was a great difference in the value of %ID/g or %ID between the group treated with 250 ?g/kg fentanyl and the control group; while at the doses from 12.5 to 100 ?g/kg, a dose-dependent decrease in uptake in the same regions was observed and all the uptake levels were lower (hippocampus: except 62.5 and 12.5 ?g/kg groups; brain stem: except 62.5 ?g/kg group) than that of the controls. 2)The uptakes of 125I-?-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain in the groups injected with 125I-?-CIT 10 min after fentanyl treatment were higher than that in the groups injected with 125I-?-CIT 1 h after fent/sup>I-?-CIT 1 h after fentanyl treatment. 3)The binding of 125I-?-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, brain stem, cerebellum and whole brain in the groups killed at 1 h after injection of 125I-?-CIT was higher than that in the control group, but without significant difference. Conclusion: Fentanyl may have different effects on 125I-?-CIT at various time points and doses

  13. In vivo study about specific captation of 125 I-insulin by rat brain structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific captation of 125 I-insulin was evaluated by brain structures, as olfactory bulbous, hypothalamus and cerebellum in rats, from in vivo experiences that including two different aspects: captation measure of 125 I-insulin after the intravenous injection of the labelled hormone, in fed rats and in rats with 48 h of fast or convulsion, procedure by the pentylene tetrazole; captation measure of 125 I-insulin after intra-cerebral-ventricular injection of the labelled hormone in fed rats. (C.G.C.)

  14. Improvement Of The Absolute Activity Determination Technique Of '125I In The Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for absolute determination of the activity of a 125I source based on the counting rate values of the 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo-peak is given in the literature. We had shown in previous works, that this method, within certain limitations, diminishes the geometry dependence of the activity determination for 125I sources and for measuring the uptake of 125I in human thyroid. In the present work we present a farther improvement of the accuracy of the absolute determination method

  15. Preparation of 125I-testosterone-3-(p-hydroxyphenylacetyl) hydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-labelled testosterone was prepared with a new kind of bridge. The product was 125I-testosterone-3-(p-hydroxyphenylacetyl) hydrazone. T0-3-HPAH was synthesized in three steps, identified by IR, NMR, MS and ultimate analysis, and then labelled with Na 125I by the chloramine-T method. The yield was higher than 85%. The radiochemical purity was higher than 95% when the product was purified by chloroform extraction and dropped slightly after a 50 days' storage at room temperature

  16. Exploration of dopamine transporter and D2 receptors in morphine dependent rats through 125I-?-CTT, 125I-IBZM cerebral autoradiography and the biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the variation of cerebral dopamine (DA) transmitting system in morphine dependent (MD) rats using dopamine transporter (DAT) and D2 receptors imaging agent. Methods: MD model rats were established by using a two-compartment (C1 and C2-morphine conditioned compartment) apparatus for assessing morphine conditioned place preferences in rats. 125I-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl) tropane (125I-?-CIT) and 125I-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl] benzamide (125I-IBZM) cerebral DAT and D2 receptor autoradiography and biodistribution study were used to evaluate the variation of DAT and D2 receptors in morphine dependent rats. Results: The mean time of MD rats entering from C1 to C2 was (0.84 +- 0.50) min after 6 days' conditioned place preference training, shorter than that of the control group [(2.40 +- 1.10) min, P 125I-?-CIT uptake ratio of striatum (ST)/cerebellum (CB) and nucleus acumens (NAC)/CB in MD group were 4.76 +- 0.92 and 2.72 +- 0.96, significantly lower than that of control group (5.92 +- 0.67 and 4.16 +- 0.56, P 125I-IBZM uptake ratio in MD group were 4.11 +- 0.56 and 2.64 +- 0.25, lower than that in control group (5.43 +- 0.74 and 3.49 +- 0.65, P 125I-?-CIT, 125I-IBZM biodistribution study also sp>I-IBZM biodistribution study also showed that the DAT and D2 binding sites were reduced in ST of MD group by (21.68 +- 11.11)% and (18.69 +- 9.97)% comparing to the controls, respectively. Conclusions: The DAT and D2 receptors in both ST and NAC were all involved and reduced to some extent in morphine dependent model rats, the DAT and D2 receptor imaging agent could reflect the variation of DAT and D2receptors, this would afford the theoretical basis for D2 receptors and DAT imaging in study on preventing drug addiction and on its abstinence

  17. Radioimmunoassay system for norethisterone using /sup 3/H- and /sup 125/I-labelled radioligands. [/sup 3/H or /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, S.E.; Cameron, E.H.D.

    1975-01-01

    The use of both /sup 3/H- and /sup 125/I-labelled radioligands was compared in the radioimmunoassay of norethisterone. At various time intervals, plasma hormone concentrations were measured in male volunteers after the oral administration of 10 mg norethisterone acetate (SH 420). Values obtained using both radioligands were found to be in good agreement and the effect of alumina thin-layer chromatography upon these titres was shown to be negligible. These results suggest that the use of a /sup 125/I-radioligand may be generally applicable for the radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids.

  18. Radiolabelling by tritium and [125I]iodine of an angiotensin II related peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the 3H- and 125I- labelling of Glu-Gly-Val-Tyr-Val-His-Pro-Val, (hIIA), an octapeptide encoded by an RNA strand complementary to the human angiotensin II (AII) mRNA. The labelling of this peptide with 125I was performed in two ways: 1:, mono-iodination of the Tyr residue, using Na125I in the presence of Chloramine T; 2: coupling of the [125I]Bolton-Hunter reagent to the terminal amine group of the octapeptide. The synthesis of the tritiated (3,5-3H2-Tyr4)octapeptide was achieved by a two step synthesis: di-iodination of the peptide followed by its catalytic dehalogenation in the presence of tritium gas. The compounds obtained inhibited the binding of AII to its receptors or antibodies but showed no direct binding to these proteins, suggesting no competition between AII and hIIA for these protein binding sites. (author)

  19. Bioevaluation studies of 125I-Bakuchiol in tumor bearing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakuchiol, a meroterpene phenol is abundant in seeds and leaves of the plant Psoralea corylifolia. Bakuchiol is widely used in Indian as well as Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases and possesses anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, cytotoxic and anti-helmenthic properties. The cytotoxicity of bakuchiol is mainly due to its DNA polymerase 1 inhibiting activity. 125I, an auger electron emitter is an effective radiotherapeutic agent when targeted close to DNA. The incorporation of 125I in bakuchiol might augment its cytotoxic activity is envisaged and had reported the radiolabelling of bakuchiol with 125I and its in vitro evaluation in lymphosarcoma and lymphoma. The current paper describes the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 125I-bakuchiol in fibrosarcoma cells

  20. Preparation of highly purified 125I-venom neural growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly purified and bio-active 125I-vNGF is prepared. The high performance ionexchange chromatographic (HPIEC) profile of non-labelled vNGF is appeared as a single peak eluted at about 0.4 mol/L-1NaCl. After 125I labelling and purification with Saphacryl HR200, the HPIEC profile of labelled protein exhibits a new large molecule that is not absorbed on the cation column. The result suggests that there may be aggregation and surface electronic changes during the labelling. After the second separation using Sepharose-SP to remove the non-absorbed component, a 97% 125I-vNGF is obtained. The bioassay of 125I-vNGF demonstrates the good biological activity. The result suggests that it is important to design an optimal purification method, according to the physical chemistry property of the labelled protein

  1. Preparation of 125I-celecoxib with high purity as a possible tumor agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preparation of 125I-celecoxib is carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The reaction parameters studied were celecoxib concentration, reaction temperature, pH of the reaction mixture and kinds of oxidizing agents in order to obtain a high radiochemical yield of the 125I-celecoxib. Using 3.7 MBq of Na125I, 150 ?g (3.9 mM (mmol/L)) of celecoxib, and 1.6 mM (mmol/L) of chloramine-T (CAT) as oxidant at pH 4 and 60 deg C for 15 min a maximum radiochemical yield of 125I-celecoxib (65%) was obtained. The labeled compound was separated and purified by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The biological distribution in infected mice indicates the suitability of radioiodinated celecoxib as imaging of tumor. (author)

  2. Radioiodination of ibuprofen with 125I and its biological behavior in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for radioiodination of Ibuprofen with iodine-125 is carried out via an electrophilic substitution reaction. The reaction parameters were studied Ibuprofen concentration, pH of the reaction mixture, reaction time temperature, and different oxidizing agents to optimize the conditions for the labeling of Ibuprofen to abstain a high radiochemical yield of 125I-Ibuprofen (125I-Ib up). Using 3.7 MBq of of Na 125I, 100?g of ibuprofen as substrate and 100?g of iodogen as oxidizing agent in ethanol at 60 OC for 10 min, a maximum radiochemical yield of 125I-Ib up (78%) was obtained. The labeled compound was separated and purified from inactive Ibuprofen by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The biological distribution in normal and inflamed mice indicates the suitability of radioiodinated Ibuprofen for imaging of inflammation only induced with turpentine oil. (Author)

  3. Upregulation of [125I] CGP42112 binding in the rat brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: [125I] CGP42112 is a specific ligand which has been used to demonstrate the presence of angiotensin AT2 receptors in peripheral and brain tissue, although [125I] CGP42112 also binds to a non-angiotensin II (Ang II) site. In the present study we have examined [125I] CGP42112 binding in the brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy using autoradiography. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent unilateral nodose ganglionectomy or sham operation (anaesthetised with methohexitone, 60mg/kg ip). Following a 14 day recovery period, animals were killed and slide mounted brainstem sections (14?m) were prepared and incubated in the presence of either [125I] (Sar1Ile8)Ang II (0.5nM), [125I] CGP42112 (0.3nM) or [3H] PKI11195 (3nM, a marker for activated microglia). Following incubation, slides were apposed to film for 10 days. Specific binding was determined in adjacent sections by co-incubations with either the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319, Ang II or PKI11195 (all at 10?M). In the ganglionectomised groups, there were significant reductions in [125I] (Sar1Ile8)Ang II binding on the denervated side of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) by 30 ± 2 % (n=5, P125I] CGP42112 binding in the NTS revealed an AT2 receptor component which was displaceable by PD 123319 and Ang II (?60%), and a non-Ang II component (?40%). Nodose ganglionectomy increased the density of [125I] CGP42112 binding on the denervated side of the NTS by 55 ± 3 % (n=5, P125I] CGP42112 binding in the NTS of the ganglionectomised groups was comprised of a greater non-Ang II component than in the sham group, since only ?30% was displaced by PD123319 and Ang II. [125I] CGP42112 also revealed high binding density in the dorsal motor nucleus and the nucleus ambiguus on the denervated side in both SHR and WKY rats. This binding was absent in shams and was only ?30-40% displaceable by PD 123319 and Ang II. Analogous experiments were also carried out with [3H] PKI 1195 which revealed a significant increase in binding density on the denervated side in the dorsal motor nucleus (52 ± 4%) and in the nucleus ambiguus (48 ± 3%) in WKY rats (n=6, P3H] PKI 1195 shows a similar upregulation in the ganglionectomised group to that seen by [125I] CGP42112. Copyright (1999) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  4. Selective binding of 2-[125I]iodo-nisoxetine to norepinephrine transporters in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioiodinated ligand, (R)-N-methyl-(2-[125I]iodo-phenoxy)-3-phenylpropylamine, [125I]2-INXT, targeting norepinephrine transporters (NET), was successfully prepared. A no-carrier-added product, [125I]2-INXT, displayed a saturable binding with a high affinity (Kd=0.06 nM) in the homogenates prepared from rat cortical tissues as well as from LLC-PK1 cells expressing NET. A relatively low number of binding sties (Bmax=55 fmol/mg protein) measured with [125I]2-INXT in rat cortical homogenates is consistent with the value reported for a known NET ligand, [3H]nisoxetine. Competition studies with various compounds on [125I]2-INXT binding clearly confirmed the pharmacological specificity and selectivity for NET binding sites. Following a tail-vein injection of [125I]2-INXT in rats, a good initial brain uptake was observed (0.56% dose at 2 min) followed by a slow washout from the brain (0.2% remained at 3 hours post-injection). The hypothalamus (a NET-rich region) to striatum (a region devoid of NET) ratio was 1.5 at 3 hours post-i.v. injection. Pretreatment of rats with nisoxetine significantly inhibited the uptake of [125I]2-INXT (70-100% inhibition) in locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and raphe nuclei, regions known to have a high density of NET; whereas escitalopram, a serotonin transporter ligand, did not show a similar effect. Ex vivo autoradiography ofsimilar effect. Ex vivo autoradiography of rat brain sections of [125I]2-INXT (at 3 hours after an i.v. injection) displayed an excellent regional brain localization pattern corroborated to the specific NET distribution in the brain. The specific brain localization was significantly reduced by a dose of nisoxetine pretreatment. Taken together, the data suggest that [123I]2-INXT may be useful for mapping NET binding sites in the brain

  5. Distribution of 125I-iodopamide-meglumine (Adipiodon) in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8 minutes after injection a maximum concentration of 16% of intravenously injected 125I-Adipiodon was found in the rat liver. This amount dropped to 1/25 after 256 minutes, 58 +- 25% were found in the gastrointestinal tract 64 minutes following injection as a result of biliary excretion. The storage rates of the 125I-Adipiodon concentrations in tissues and plasma characterize the affinity of Adipiodon to the organs after distribution equilibrium has started

  6. Microchemical synthesis of the serotonin receptor ligand, 125I-LSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis and properties of 2-[125I]-lysergic acid diethylamide, the first 125I-labeled serotonin receptor ligand, are described. A novel microsynthesis apparatus was developed for this synthesis. The apparatus employs a micromanipulator and glass micro tools to handle microliter to nanoliter volumes on a microscope stage. This apparatus should be generally useful for the synthesis of radioligands and other compounds when limited amounts of material must be handled in small volumes

  7. Estrogen receptor assay of mammary cancer by 16 alpha-125I-estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-labeled estradiol (16-?-125I-estradiol-17?) was synthesized from 16-?-Br-estradiol by halogen exchange reaction and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The comparative studies of estrogen receptor assays using 125I-E2 and 3H-E revealed that 125I-E2 had the high affinity to cytoplasmic estrogen receptors in rat uteri and human mammary tumor tissues (about 60% of estradiol-17?) and 8S and 4S of estrogen-receptor complexes determined by sucrose density gradient method were identical between 125I-E2 and 3H-E2. The strong coincided rate on the positivity and the negativity of estrogen receptors in human mammary tumor tissues was 97.9% (94/96) and the correlation coefficiency of the binding sites among estrogen receptor assays was r = 0.951 in 41 cases of receptor positive subjects. It made possible to assay estrogen receptor using relatively small amounts of tissues because of the higher radiospecific activity of 125I-E2 than that of 3H-E2. (author)

  8. Radiolabeling of EGCG with 125I and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to label EGCG with 125I and to determine its radiopharmaceutical potential in mice. EGCG was labeled with 125I using the iodogen method. The labeling yield and the radiochemical purity of 125I-EGCG were determined by radio thin-layer chromatography (RTLC). The Labeling yield was approximately 89.4 %. The radiochemical purity was approximately 96.4 %. The biodistribution studies of the labeled compound (specific activity; 0.47 TBq/?g) were performed in male Kunming mice. The uptakes of 125I-EGCG in some organs were determined at different time after injection to the mice. The radioactivity in each organ was counted and the percentage of injected activity per gram of tissue weight (%ID/g) for each organ and blood was calculated. Incorporation of radioactivity in the various tissue/organ was confirmed by microautoradiography. 125I-EGCG uptake in the stomach and salivary gland was higher than other organ/tissue. The black silver grains was concentrated in the nucleus, cytoplasm, intercellular substance and capillaries of that various organs, and its unevenly distributed. Thus, 125I-EGCG may be radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of the stomach and salivary gland. (author)

  9. Evidence for multiple pathways of 125I-insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin internalization has been characterized frequently as occurring by the coated pit pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The present study in rat hepatocytes demonstrates that insulin internalization is, in part, receptor-mediated, but also occurs by nonreceptor-mediated or fluid-phase endocytosis. Endocytosis was probed with four perturbations: depletion of metabolic energy with anoxia, inhibition of endocytosis with phenylarsine oxide, disruption of coated pits with hyperosmolar sucrose, and inhibition of receptor recycling or ligand-receptor dissociation with monensin. Internalization of 125I-epidermal growth factor and 125I-asialofetuin was compared to 125I-insulin internalization. Pretreatment of cells with anoxia or hyperosmolarity inhibited 125I-insulin internalization by 40%; pretreatment with phenylarsine oxide resulted in inhibition by 54%. Monensin has no effect on uptake or degradation of a high insulin concentration, but inhibited degradation of a low insulin concentration resulting in intracellular accumulation of insulin. In contract, all four perturbations inhibited 125I-asialofetuin internalization by greater than 90%. Phenylarsine oxide almost completely abolished 125I-epidermal growth factor uptake; the other perturbations caused partial inhibition. Competition studies demonstrated that insulin internalization was receptor-mediated over a wide concentration rangever a wide concentration range

  10. Evidence for multiple pathways of sup 125 I-insulin internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Insulin internalization has been characterized frequently as occurring by the coated pit pathway of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The present study in rat hepatocytes demonstrates that insulin internalization is, in part, receptor-mediated, but also occurs by nonreceptor-mediated or fluid-phase endocytosis. Endocytosis was probed with four perturbations: depletion of metabolic energy with anoxia, inhibition of endocytosis with phenylarsine oxide, disruption of coated pits with hyperosmolar sucrose, and inhibition of receptor recycling or ligand-receptor dissociation with monensin. Internalization of {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor and {sup 125}I-asialofetuin was compared to {sup 125}I-insulin internalization. Pretreatment of cells with anoxia or hyperosmolarity inhibited {sup 125}I-insulin internalization by 40%; pretreatment with phenylarsine oxide resulted in inhibition by 54%. Monensin has no effect on uptake or degradation of a high insulin concentration, but inhibited degradation of a low insulin concentration resulting in intracellular accumulation of insulin. In contract, all four perturbations inhibited {sup 125}I-asialofetuin internalization by greater than 90%. Phenylarsine oxide almost completely abolished {sup 125}I-epidermal growth factor uptake; the other perturbations caused partial inhibition. Competition studies demonstrated that insulin internalization was receptor-mediated over a wide concentration range.

  11. Heparin blocks 125I-calmodulin internalization by isolated rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-Calmodulin is internalized by isolated rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBV) in a time, temperature and calcium dependent manner. Internalization of 125I-calmodulin into the osmotically sensitive space of BBV was distinguished from binding of the ligand to the outer BBV surface by examining the interaction of ligand and BBV at different medium osmolarities (300-1100 mosm), uptake was inversely proportional to medium osmolarity. Internalized 125I-calmodulin was intact and Western blots of solubilized BBV with 125I-calmodulin demonstrated the presence of several calmodulin-binding proteins of 143, 118, 50, 47.5, 46.5 and 35 kilodaltons which could represent potential intravesicular binding sites for the ligand. Heparin and the related glycosaminoglycan heparin sulfate both showed a dose-dependent inhibition (0.5-50 ?g/ml) of 125I-calmodulin uptake by BBV, but other sulfated and nonsulfated glycosaminoglycans including chondroitin sulfates, keratan sulfate and hyaluronic acid showed little or no inhibitory effect. Desulfation of heparin virtually abolished the inhibition of uptake while depolymerization reduced it. Heparin did not block the binding of 125I-calmodulin to BBV proteins as assessed by Western blotting technique suggesting its effect was on internalization of the ligand rather than on its association with internal membrane proteins

  12. Preimplant factors affecting postimplant CT-determined prostate volume and the CT/TRUS volume ratio after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds

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    Asakura Hirotaka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume and the increase in prostate volume after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 180 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with 125I free seeds for clinical T1/T2 prostate cancer. Eighty-one (45% of the 180 patients underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. No patient received supplemental external beam radiotherapy. Postimplant computed tomography was undertaken, and postimplant dosimetric analysis was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify preimplant factors affecting postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Results Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, serum prostate-specific antigen, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography. The increase in prostate volume after implantation was significantly higher in patients with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy than in those without. Preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound, number of needles, and number of seeds implanted were significantly correlated with the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy were significant independent factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation. Conclusions The results of the present study show that preimplant prostate volume by transrectal ultrasound and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy are significant preimplant factors affecting both postimplant prostate volume by computed tomography and the increase in prostate volume after implantation.

  13. DNA strand breakage by 125I-decay in oligoDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide containing 125I-dC in a defined location, with 5'- or 3'-32P-end-labelling of either strand, was used to investigate DNA strand breakage resulting from 125I decay. Samples of the 32P-end-labelled and 125I-dC containing oligoDNA were incubated in 20 mM phosphate buffer (PB), or PB + 2 M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at 4 deg during 18-20 days. The 32P-end-labelled DNA fragments produced by 125I decays were separated on denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and the 3P activity in each fragment was determined by scintillation counting after elution from the gel. The fragment size distribution was then converted to a distribution of single stranded break probabilities at each nucleotide position. The results indicate that each 125I decay event produces at least one break in the 125I-dC containing strand, and causes breakage of the opposite strand in 75-80% of events. Thus, the double stranded break is produced by 125I decay with probability ?0.8. Most of single stranded breaks (around 90%) occurred within 5-6 nucleotides of the 125I-dC, however DNA breaks were detected up to 18-20 nucleotides from the decay site. The average numbers of single stranded breaks per decay are 3.7 (PB) and 3.3 (PB+DMSO) in 125I-dC containing strand, and 1.5 (PB) and 1.3 (PB+DMSO) in the opposite strand. Deconvolution of strand break probabilities as a function of separation from the 125I, in terms of both distance (to target deoxyribosyl carbon atoms, in B-DNA) and nucleotide number, show that the latter is an important parameter for the shorter-range damage. This could indicate a role for attenuation/dissipation of damage through the stacked bases. In summary, the results represent a much more extensive set of data than available from earlier experiments on DNA breakage from l25I-decay, and may provide new mechanistic insights

  14. Dose rate distribution on cultured cell exposed to 125I seed in vitro irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the dose rate distribution on cultured cell plane and establish a reference dose rate table of in vitro cell line 125I seed irradiator. Methods: Thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) was used to measure the irradiation dose rate of a single 6711 model 125I seed with apparent activity of 10.323 MBq in water at point P. Meanwhile, the theoretic value of the irradiation dose rate at point P was calculated with theoretic formula. The difference between the calculated and observed values within 10% was set as standard to analyze the accuracy of the measurement. The irradiation dose rate ora single 6711 model 125I seed was measured in 1 mm- thick polystyrene + water medium at point P. The value was applied to differential m non-differential proof along with the value from water medium to study the effect of 1 mm thick polystyrene on distribution of irradiation dose in water. Finally, by simulating the 125I seed plane irradiator with nine 125I seeds, the distribution table of irradiation dose rate on the cultured cell plane was calculated with theoretical formula. Results: The observed value (n 10) of irradiation dose rate with one 125I seed in water at point P was(0.359 ± 0.023) eGy/h and the calculated value was 0.347 cGy/h, the difference was within 10%. The observed value (n=10) of irradiation dose of one 125I seed in 1 mm-thick polystyrene + water medium at point P was (0.350 ene + water medium at point P was (0.350±0.027) cGy/h, which showed no statistical difference from the observed value in water under differential and non-differential proof. The reference table on dose rate distribution for cells exposed to 125I seed irradiation in vitro was developed. Conclusions: 1 mm-thick polystyrene gives no significant effect on irradiation dose rate distribution flora 125I seeds in water. A reference table on the dose rate distribution for cells exposed to 125I seed irradiation in vitro has been developed, which can be used to determine an optimal irradiating strategy for future work. (authors)

  15. Study on preparation and brain distribution of 125I-?-CIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop a relatively simpler and faster method for the routine preparation of 125I-?-CIT and animal brain distribution of 125I-?-CIT. Methods: Peracetic acid or Iodogen as an oxidant was used to prepare 125I-?-CIT and comparison was made between them. The HPLC purification technique was used to identify the labeled tracer. Stability and safety of the radioiodinated ?-CIT were also studied. Groups of mice (n=5) were injected i.v. into the tail vein with 125I-?-CIT . Animals were killed at 5, 15, 30 and 45 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. Autoradiography was performed on brains of mice at 4 hours after injection. Results: Two kinds of labeling methods using Iodogen or peracetic acid produced 125I-?-CIT of radiochemical yields 91.10% ± 8.09%, 54.70 ± 9.81% respectively, with high radiochemical purity (RCP) 99.33% ± 0.15%, 18-25 degree C and pH 1 or 2 is the best for Iodogen preparation. The labeled product was stable for at least 23 days when kept in room temperature, and stable for at least 10 weeks when kept in -4 degree C refrigerator. The peak time of uptake of 125I-?-CIT in striatum was at four hours after injection and the highest value was 22.93% ± 3.11% ID/g. It's highest uptake rate is 20.09 ± 2.11. Conclusions: The Iodogen preparation method is simpler and has a higher labeling yield than peracetic acid labeling method and the labeling yield is higher than which ng yield is higher than which ever reported abroad. The labeled radiopharmaceutical is stable. 125I-?-CIT showed the highest accumulation in striatum with high densities of dopamine transporters in brain

  16. [125I]Aminobenzyladenosine, a new radioligand with improved specific binding to adenosine receptors in heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density of adenosine receptors in membranes derived from rat hearts in 25 times lower than the density of receptors in rat brain membranes. Consequently, adenosine radioligands which are useful in brain such as l-[3H]phenylisopropyladenosine, [3H]cyclohexyladenosine, [3H]-2-chloroadenosine and l-[125I]hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine are of limited usefulness in heart, due to a high ratio of nonspecific to specific binding. We have synthesized a new radioligand, [125I]-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine, which binds to rat heart membranes with one-sixth the nonspecific binding of the other radioligands. [125I]-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine bound to rat ventricle membranes with a K/sub D/ equivalent to that of l-[125I]hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine and a B/sub max/ of 15.2 fmol/mg protein. [125I]-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine bound with a higher affinity to brain (K/sub D/ . 1.93 nM) than to heart membranes (K/sub D/ . 11.6 nM). At the radioligand K/sub D/, 60% of the total [125I]-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine bound to heart membranes was specifically bound. Iodination of aminobenzyladenosine increased its affinity for the adenosine receptor by 22-fold, possibly due to a steric or hydrophobic effect of iodine. The new ligand was found to be a full adenosine agonist based on its ability to inhibit cyclic adenosinemonophosphate accumulation in isolated embryonic chick heart cells and rat adted embryonic chick heart cells and rat adipocytes. [125I]-N6-4-Aminobenzyladenosine bound to a single affinity site and was displaced from cardiac and brain adenosine receptors by other adenosine analogues with a potency order of l-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine. These characteristics suggest that the radioligand binds to an Ri adenosine receptor

  17. A novel 125I-labeled daunorubicin derivative for radionuclide-based cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Auger electron emitters, such as 125I, are getting increasingly wider recognition as alternatives to current anticancer treatments. The effectiveness of Auger electrons is strongly dependent on their proximity to DNA and is therefore considered as harmless outside the nucleus. Methods: 125I or 127I was conjugated with Comp1, Comp2 or Comp3 - three derivatives of the chemotherapeutic drug daunorubicin. Their capacity factors, DNA-binding constants and exclusion parameters, and the degree of DNA fragmentation after incubating isolated DNA with our 127I- or 125I-conjugated daunorubicin derivatives were determined. Human breast adenocarcinoma (SK-BR-3) cells were incubated with the derivatives; fluorescent microscopy and autoradiography images were generated; and cell growth was monitored. Results and Discussion: The capacity factor of 127I-Comp1 was similar to those of daunorubicin and doxorubicin, whereas lower capacity factors of 127I-Comp2 and 127I-Comp3 suggested reduced interactions with lipid membranes. DNA exclusion parameters and binding constants of 127I-Comp1 and 127I-Comp2, but not of 127I-Comp3, were similar to those of doxorubicin. Fluorescent microscopy and autoradiography images of SK-BR-3 cells revealed that 127I-Comp1 and 125I-Comp1 accumulated in tumor cell nuclei, whereas 127I-Comp2 and nuclei, whereas 127I-Comp2 and 127I-Comp3 were present predominantly in other cell compartments. The binding of 125I-Comp1 to isolated chromosomal DNA led to major fragmentation. Incubation of SK-BR-3 cells with 125I-Comp1 inhibited cell growth, whereas doxorubicin or 127I-Comp1 administered at the same concentration had no effect on cell growth. Our results thus suggest that 125I-Comp1 has the potential to become a new tool for anticancer therapy

  18. Comparison of sperm abnormalities of mice induced by 125I and 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of effects of 125I and 131I on the rate of abnormal sperm and the radioactivity in testicles of mice was described. In the experiment, different doses of 125I and 131I was injected intraperitoneally into male ICR mice, respectively. The results show that for mice into which 0.185, 370 and 555 kBq of 125I was injected, rates of abnormal sperm were 9.0%, 9.6%, 11.6% and 13.9% at 4 and 5 weeks after injection, and that for animals into which the above-mentioned doses of 131I were injected, the same parameter was 8.5%, 12.5%, 14.7% and 15.5% respectively. No significant difference (x2 test, p > 0.05) was found in the rate of abnormal sperm of mice between 125I and 131I. For 125I and 131I, the results also show a similar pattern of change in the radioactivity of testicle tissue at 2 hrs and up to 7 days after injection: a peak of radioactivity in testicle tissue was found at 2 hrs after injection and the activity per gram of testicle tissue was 0.72% (for 125I) and 0.50% (for 131I) of the original, then the activity per gram of testicle tissue decreased quickly and only 0.035%(for 125I) and 0.011% (for 131I) of the original at the end of first week after injection

  19. Inulin-125I-tyramine, an improved residualizing label for studies on sites of catabolism of circulating proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residualizing labels for protein, such as dilactitol-125I-tyramine (125I-DLT) and cellobiitol-125I-tyramine, have been used to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of long-lived plasma proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and lipoproteins. The radioactive degradation products formed from labeled proteins are relatively large, hydrophilic, resistant to lysosomal hydrolases, and accumulate in lysosomes in the cells involved in degradation of the carrier protein. However, the gradual loss of the catabolites from cells (t1/2 approximately 2 days) has limited the usefulness of residualizing labels in studies on longer lived proteins. We describe here a higher molecular weight (Mr approximately 5000), more efficient residualizing glycoconjugate label, inulin-125I-tyramine (125I-InTn). Attachment of 125I-InTn had no effect on the plasma half-life or tissue sites of catabolism of asialofetuin, fetuin, or rat serum albumin in the rat. The half-life for hepatic retention of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled asialofetuin was 5 days, compared to 2.3 days for 125I-DLT-labeled asialofetuin. The whole body half-lives for radioactivity from 125I-InTn-, 125I-DLT-, and 125I-labeled rat serum albumin were 7.5, 4.3, and 2.2 days, respectively. The tissue distribution of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled proteins agreed with results of previous studies using 125I-DLT, except that a greater fraction of total degradation products was recovered in tal degradation products was recovered in tissues. Kinetic analyses indicated that the average half-life for retention of 125I-InTn degradation products in tissues is approximately 5 days and suggested that in vivo there are both slow and rapid routes for release of degradation products from cells

  20. The effectiveness of 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy for transplantation tumor of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice: an experiment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the effectiveness and therapeutic mechanism of 125I interstitial brachytherapy for transplantation tumor of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice. Methods: The human pancreatic cell line Sw1990 was subcutaneously injected into the right lower limb partially dorsal area next to the groin of the immunodeficient BABL /c nude mice. The tumor was removed and cut into small pieces after it was formed,then the tumor pieces were inoculated in nude mice. The tumor developed to 8-10 mm in size after six weeks. A total of 16 nude mice with the suitable tumor size were used in this study. The 16 experimental mice were randomly and equally divided into two groups. The mice in study group (n = 8) were implanted with 125I seeds, while the mice in control group (n = 8) were implanted with ghost seeds. After the implantation both the long and short diameter of the tumors as well as the mouse body weight were measured every 4 days. The tumor weight was measured when the mouse was sacrificed. The paraffin-embedded samples were sent for histopathological examination. Apoptotic cells were checked with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected with immuno-histochemical staining. Results: The tumor grew slowly in the study group, but rapidly in the control group. The tumor weight in the study group and the control group was (2.68 ± 0.70)g and the control group was (2.68 ± 0.70)g and (4.68 ± 1.45)g, respectively, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.021). The tumor inhibition rate was about 42.66%. No significant difference in body weight of nude mice existed between two groups both before and after the treatment (P > 0.05). Marked tumor necrosis was seen in study group, but no obvious, or only a little, tumor necrosis could be observed in the control group. The apoptotic index checked with the TUENL method in the study group and control group was (23.2 ± 1.9)% and (8.1 ± 1.5)%, respectively, and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P 125I interstitial brachytherapy is an effective treatment for transplantation tumor of human pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice. Its mechanisms include directly killing the tumor cells, inducing tumor cell apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation. Additionally, 125I seeds implantation in vivo tumor is safe for the surrounding organs. (authors)

  1. EGSnrc-based calculation of energy response correction factors for various detector materials for 125I and 169Yb brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I and 169Yb are promising radionuclides for brachytherapy implants. Measurement-based dosimetry for these sources involves the use of various solid detectors used (for example LiF, Li2B2O4, diamond etc). These detectors are generally calibrated against 60Co beam from a telecobalt machine. As the response of the detectors depends on photon energy the measured response requires energy response correction factor. In the present work we derive the correction factors for different detectors for the above-mentioned sources using Monte Carlo methods

  2. Marca-passo permanente após implante percutâneo valvular aórtico: a necessidade é maior que imaginávamos? / Permanent pacemaker after percutaneous aortic valve implantation: is the need greater than we had anticipated?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Sarmento-Leite; Alexandre Schaan de, Quadros; Paulo Roberto Lunardi, Prates; Ismael, Voltolini; Elias, Conti; Imarilde, Giusti; Paulo Affonso, Salgado Filho; Gustavo Glotz de, Lima; Carlos Antonio Mascia, Gottschall.

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O implante percutâneo valvular aórtico é uma alternativa promissora no tratamento da estenose aórtica grave de pacientes com elevado risco cirúrgico. No entanto, parte desses pacientes pode desenvolver distúrbios do sistema de condução elétrico do coração e necessidade de implante de mar [...] ca-passo permanente. O mecanismo das alterações do sistema de condução não está completamente elucidado. Nosso objetivo é avaliar a frequência e os fatores relacionados à necessidade de marca-passo permanente em nosso meio. MÉTODO: Série de casos com descrição das variáveis absolutas e relativas associadas à necessidade de marca-passo permanente em pacientes submetidos a implante percutâneo valvular aórtico no Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. RESULTADOS: Entre novembro de 2008 e novembro de 2009, 10 pacientes foram submetidos a implante percutâneo valvular aórtico com prótese CoreValveTM. Excluíram-se da análise 2 pacientes que faleceram por complicações não associadas aos distúrbios do sistema de condução. Nos 8 pacientes restantes obteve-se sucesso do procedimento, com redução dos gradientes entre o ventrículo esquerdo e a aorta e melhora sintomática. A maioria era composta por mulheres (75%), com média de idade de 86 anos. Houve necessidade de marca-passo permanente em 6 pacientes (75%) pós-implante percutâneo valvular aórtico. O único fator relacionado foi o surgimento de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo. No seguimento clínico, 1 paciente reassumiu o ritmo sinusal, 2 alternam ritmo próprio com o do marcapasso e 3 permanecem dependentes do estímulo artificial, até o momento. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se elevada necessidade de marca-passo permanente após implante percutâneo valvular aórtico e o surgimento de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo parece estar associado a essa ocorrência. Estudos adicionais com maior poder, comparativos com outras técnicas, são necessários para definir a exata incidência dos distúrbios de ritmo provocados pelo implante percutâneo valvular aórtico. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Percutaneous aortic valve implantation (PAVI) is a promising alternative treatment for severe aortic stenosis in high surgical risk patients. However, part of these patients may develop electrical conduction system disturbances and require permanent pacemaker implantation. The mechanism [...] of such electrical conduction system disturbances has not been totally elucidated. Our objective is to assess the frequency and factors related to the need of a permanent pacemaker (PPM) in this scenario. METHOD: A series of cases describing absolute and relative variables associated to PPM implantation in patients submitted to PAVI at Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul. RESULTS: Between November 2008 and November 2009, ten patients were submitted to PAVI using the CoreValveTM prosthesis. Two patients who died due to complications not associated to the conduction system disturbances were excluded. The procedure was successfully carried out in the eight remaining patients, with gradient reduction between the left ventricle and aorta and symptomatic relief. Most of the patients were women (75%) and mean age was 86 years. PPM was required in six patients (75%) after PAVI. The single procedure related event was the development of left bundle branch block (LBBB). During clinical follow-up, one patient resumed sinus rhythm, two alternated their own rhythm with the pacemaker rhythm and three remain totally dependent of artificial stimulus. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an increased need of PPM after PAVI and the development of LBBB seems to be associated to it. Additional and powered studies, comparing other techniques, are required to define the exact incidence of rhythm disturbances caused by PAVI.

  3. CT-guided 125I brachytherapy for mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes recurrence from esophageal carcinoma: Effectiveness and safety in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate effectiveness and safety of CT-guided 125I brachytherapy in 16 patients with mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes recurrence from esophageal carcinoma. Materials and methods: Sixteen metastatic lymph nodes in 16 patients were percutaneously treated in 19 125I brachytherapy sessions. Each metastatic lymph node was treated with computed tomographic (CT) guidance. Follow-up contrast material-enhanced CT or positron emission tomographic (PET) scans were reviewed and the treatment's effectiveness was evaluated. Results: Months are counted from the first time of 125I brachytherapy and the median duration of follow-up was 11 months (range, 5–16 months). The local control rates after 3, 6, 10 and 15 months were 75.0, 50.0, 42.9 and 33.3% respectively. At the time of writing, four patients are alive without evidence of recurrence at 16, 9, 16 and 9 months. The 4 patients presented good control of local tumor and no systemic recurrence, and survived throughout the follow-up period. The other 12 patients died of multiple hematogenous metastases 5–15 months after brachytherapy. A small amount of local hematoma occurred in 2 patients that involved applicator insertion through the lung. Two patients presented pneumothorax with pulmonary compression of 30 and 40% after the procedure and recovered after drainage. One patient had minor displacement of radioactive seeds. Severe complications such as massive bleeding and radiation pneumonitis did not occur. Conclusion: 125I radioactive seed implantation is effective and may be safely applied to mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes recurrence from esophageal carcinoma

  4. 125I-spiperone: a novel ligand for D2 dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-Spiperone binds with high affinity K/sub D/ 0.3 nM) to a single specific site (B/sub max/ 34 pmole/g wet weight) in homogenates of rat corpus striatum. Specific binding is about 40-60 percent of total binding and is displaced stereo-specifically by butaclamol and clopenthixol. Neuroleptic drugs of various classes are potent inhibitors of 125I-spiperone binding (/sub i/'s 1-10 nM). Selective dopamine antagonists such as sulpiride (K/sub i/ 50 nM) and dopamine agonists such as apomorphine (K/sub i/ 200 nM) are also potent inhibitors. The drugs specificity of 125I-spiperone binding correlates well with that of 3H-spiperone binding, providing good evidence that 125I-spiperone labels D2 dopamine receptors in striatal membranes. 125I-Spiperone, with its high specific activity (2200 Ci/mmol) may prove to be a useful ligand in studies examining D2 dopamine receptors in soluble preparations and by autoradiography. Furthermore iodinated spiperone may be useful in radioreceptor assays of neuroleptic drug levels and, in a 123I-labeled form for imaging of dopamine receptors, in vivo, using single photon tomography. 18 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Synthesis of 125 I - Salicyl Hydroxamic Acid for Urinary Bladder Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salicylhydroxamic acid is a salicylate derivative. Radiolabeling of Salicyl hydroxamic acid ( SHA ) with iodine-125 may have considerable interest for imaging of urinary bladder. This study is aimed to optimize the radiolabeling yield of Salicyl hydroxamic with radio iodine (125-123) using chloramine - T (CAT) as an oxidizing agent with respect to factors that affect the reaction conditions such as SHA amount, CAT amount, reaction time and ph of the reaction mixture. In - vitro stability of the radiolabeled complex was checked and it was found to be stable for up to 24 h. 125 I-SHA was injected via intravenous administration routes into normal male Sprague – Dawley rats. Bio - distribution studies have revealed that 125I-SHA was excreted in urine with extent that it could give a clear image for urinary bladder especially if the bladder it tightly closed. The amount of 125 I - Salicyl hydroxamic excreted was increased in case of giving potassium bicarbonate to rat before injection of 125 I-SHA. The result of biodistribution study of 125 I - SHA in experimental animal suggest ed the possibility of using 123 I-SHA to image the urinary bladder

  6. Influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[{sup 125}i]iododexetimide to muscarinic brain receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weckesser, Matthias E-mail: m.weckesser@fz-juelich.de; Fixmann, Anton; Holschbach, Marcus; Mueller-Gaertner, Hans-W

    1998-11-01

    The distribution of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human brain in vivo has been successfully characterized using radiolabeled tracers and emission tomography. The effect of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft on receptor binding of these tracers has not yet been investigated. The present study examined the influence of acetylcholine on binding of 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide to muscarinic cholinergic receptors of porcine brain synaptosomes in vitro. 4-Iododexetimide is a subtype-unspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist with high affinity. Acetylcholine competed with 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide in a dose-dependent manner. A concentration of 500 {mu}M acetylcholine inhibited 50% of total specific 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide binding to synaptosomes when both substances were given simultaneously. An 800 {mu}M acetylcholine solution reduced total specific 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide binding by about 35%, when acetylcholine was given 60 min after incubation of synaptosomes with 4-[{sup 125}I]iododexetimide. Variations in the synaptic acetylcholine concentration might influence muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging in vivo using 4-[{sup 123}I]iododexetimide. Conversely, 4-[{sup 123}I]iododexetimide might be an appropriate molecule to investigate alterations of acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography.

  7. Labelling of antisense oligonucleotide with 125I and the experimental research of identification of the lymphoma cell by using 125I-FR-ASON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a new method of labeling oligonucleotide with radioisotope of iodine and to investigate the possibility of using 125I-FR-ASON as imaging agent or therapeutic antisense radiopharmaceutical in lymphoma. Methods: A 18 mer oligonucleotide sequence was synthesized and grafted in 5' with a tyramine group. Radioiodination of the tyramine conjugated oligonucleotide with 125I was performed using the Chloramine T method. The Namalwa and HL-60 cell lines were transduced with DMRIE-C mediated 125I-ASON, then the transduction efficiency was calculated, authors also compared it with the transduction efficiency without DMRIE-C reagent. After incubation with serum, the tyramine-ASON was analysed by electrophoresis in 20% polyacrylamide gel. Results: The radiolabeling efficiency, radiochemical purity and specific activity were 80.7%, 98.7% and 100 kBq/?g, respectively. The transduction efficiency in Namalwa cell line reached (26.8 ±1.54)% that was as 18 times greater as that in transduction without mediation. The transduction efficiency in HL-60 cell line was only (13.6 ± 2.54)%, that was far lower than in Namalwa cell line. The gel electrophoresis showed that there wasn't any additional band at 2, 6 and 24 h post-incubation. Conclusions: The radioiodination method by conjugating the oligonucleotide with tyramine was very successful. The 125I-FR-ASON showed high specificity in Namalwa cell line and it could be used Namalwa cell line and it could be used as an antisense imaging agent or antisense radiopharmaceutical in therapeutic research on lymphoma

  8. Affinity of binding of radiolabelled (125I) heparin and low molecular weight heparin fraction CY 222 to endothelium in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of 125I-heparin and its low molecular weight fraction CY 222 to human and porcine cultured endothelium was investigated. The binding was measured over a wide range of heparin or CY 222 concentration in culture medium, from less than 20 times up to more than 30 times of the therapeutic heparin level. A relatively small fraction (less than 1%) of tested products was bound to the endothelium. The process of binding was temperature-independent. A comparable number of endothelial binding sites (approx. 1012/cm2) for both 125I-heparin and 125I-CY 222 was calculated. About 40% totally bound 125I-heparin and 30% of 125I-CY 222 was found in the extracellular matrix of cultured endothelium. The endothelium exhibited a 2.4 times lower affinity for 125I-CY 222 (Kd = 5.59 ± 1.77 ?M) than for 125I-heparin (Kd = 2.35 ± 0.78 ?M). A similar affinity of human and porcine endothelium for 125I-heparin was demonstrated. Cultured endothelium exhibited the same affinity for unlabelled heparin as for 125I-heparin. The endothelium depleted of sialic acid residues bound 1.5 times more of 125I-CY 222 than the control endothelium in culture. (author)

  9. Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are embedded in your bone, they feel more like your natural teeth than dentures. Convenience — You will not need to worry about denture ... taste. Self-esteem — Because implants are so much like ... denture problems or people noticing that you have missing teeth. Regular dentures ...

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of (125I) Daunorubicin as a Potential Agent for Tumor Detection and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the optimization of daunorubicin labeling with iodine-125 and its biological evaluation were described. Daunorubicin was labeled via direct electrophilic substitution using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. The optimum amounts of reactants were: 40?g daunorubicin, 30?g Chloramine-T and ? 19 KBq carrier free Na125I. The labeled daunorubicin was stable for more than 24 hours. Results of the in-vivo evaluation revealed that the tracer, [125I] daunorubicin, tends to localize in tissues with high proliferation rate with preferential accumulation in cancerous tissues. Imaging should be carried at 3 hours post injection. The in-vitro cell growth inhibition assay showed that the effect of [125I] Daunorubicin was stronger than the effect of cold daunorubicin which strongly suggested that its cytotoxicity was mainly due to radiotoxicity rather than chemotherapeutic activity.

  11. Binding of 125I-hCG to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) testis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homogenates of maturing rainbow trout testes show specific binding sites for 125I-labeled hCG (. 125I-labeled hCG). The binding is competitively inhibited by unlabeled hCG and by a hypophyseal extract of rainbow trout. It could be demonstrated that the tissue 125I-hCG binding specificity is restricted to the gonadal preparation. The trout testis was characterized by determining affinity and capacity from Scatchard plot analysis giving a high constant of dissociation Kd 3.65 x 10(-10)/M and a low binding capacity of 0.88 x 10(-15) M/mg tissue. The test system is markedly dependent on temperature, incubation-time, and pH. The maximum binding was found at 37 degrees during 2 hr of incubation in a buffer of pH 7.5

  12. Successful permanent catheter implantation after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to the right subclavian and inominate vein stenosis in a hemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Yurugi, Takatomi; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Maki, Kei

    2010-02-01

    Difficulties in gaining vascular access have become one of the major problems in long-term hemodialysis patients. We report a case with an extreme vascular access problem, which was solved by the placement of a permanent central vein catheter after successful angioplasty to the right subclavian and inominate vein stenosis. A 78-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy had been on hemodialysis since 1982. She had a history of four procedures that created an arteriovenous fistula during the first four years. In 1986 she was switched to peritoneal dialysis. However, hemodialysis was restarted with a regular arteriovenous fistula in 1991 because of repeated peritonitis, and from 1993 a superficialized brachial artery was used until the artery was exhausted. Since 1997, a permanent central vein catheter was utilized and reinsertion was required four times due to catheter infection during a 6-year period. In 2004, difficulty was experienced in reinserting a new central venous catheter because of multiple stenotic and occlusive lesions of the central veins. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was carried out in the stenotic right subclavian and inominate veins, and after successful angioplasty, a permanent central vein catheter could be placed into the right subclavian vein as a vascular access for hemodialysis. Pretreatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the stenotic central veins before inserting a permanent catheter may be a useful strategy in patients that experience difficulty in the insertion of a catheter. PMID:20438527

  13. Binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by renal glomeruli and tubules isolated from rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli and tubules were shown to exhibit specific binding of 125I-insulin and enzymatic degradation of the hormone. Binding to both renal fractions reached a plateau by 1 h at 220C and increased linearly with increasing protein concentrations. Binding was inhibited in both preparations by insulin and its analogues in the order of relative potency: insulin > despentapeptide insulin > proinsulin, but insulin was ten times more potent in inhibiting 125I-insulin binding to glomeruli than that to tubules, indicating a different affinity of receptors for the hormone in the two renal fractions (about 17 versus 210 ?g unlabelled insulin/1 inhibiting 50% of the 125I-insulin binding to glomeruli and tubules, respectively). Bound 125I-insulin dissociated at a faster rate from tubules than from glomeruli; this release was accelreated by unlabelled insulin in both renal fractions, but to a greater extent in glomeruli than in tubules. Two-thirds of the total bound material released from glomeruli was found to be intact insulin as measured by trichloroacetic acid precipitation, whereas only one-third of the material released from tubules was intact. No direct relationship beteen binding and degradation of 125I-insulin in these renal fractions could be demonstrated, however, because of the release of proteolytic enzymes into the incubation medium resulting in almost all degradation being extracel in almost all degradation being extracellular. Although differing in their affinity for 125I-insulin the high affinity glomerular insulin receptor and the lower affinity tubular insulin receptor have characteristics similar to those of insulin receptors in insulin responsive tissues. (orig.)

  14. Simple detection of hepatitis C virus using 125I-2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate and gamma counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is the major cause of post transfusion and sporadic non A, non B hepatitis. Current infection of HCV can be detected by PCR method. Using PCR, it has been possible to detect HCV viremia prior to immunological sero-conversion and to detect fluctuation of viremia in antibody-positive chronic HCV patients undergoing therapy with interferon. In this study, we established the simple method to detect HCV DNA by incorporation of 125I-deoxyuridine triphosphate(dUTP) into DNA during the PCR, and counted the radioactivity of PCR product by gamma counter. 125I-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate was prepared, and incorporated into DNA during PCR. dUTP was radiolabeled by the iododemercuration of 5-mercuri intermediate. Iododemercuration labeling was completed with 98% yield and the obtained product was incorporated into DNA without further purification. After incorporation, covalently bonded radioiodine substituent was remained stable during PCR procedure HCV positive standard and positive patient sera in immunological assay were centrifuged. HCV RNA is isolated from by GTC(Guanidine Thiocyanate) and phenol/chloroform extraction method and synthesized complementary DNA by using reverse transcriptase. The '125I-dUTP was incorporated into HCV C DNA during PCR. PCR product purified by fiber matrix column and counted by gamma counter. PCR products were electrophoresized, and autoradiography image obtained. Amplified HCV DNA by 125I-dUTP PCR obtained the band on the gel by electrophoresis and autoradiography at the same position. In patient sera, radioactivity of HCV positive sample was 8 times higher than HCV negative viremia sample. We established HCV detection method using 125I-dUTP. 125I-dUTP PCR detection of HCV is convenient and reporducible

  15. Use of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin to characterize melatonin binding sites in chicken retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-[125I]Iodomelatonin binds with high affinity to a site possessing the pharmacological characteristics of a melatonin receptor in chicken retinal membranes. The specific binding of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin is stable, saturable, and reversible. Saturation experiments indicated that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin labeled a single class of sites with an affinity constant (Kd) of 434 +/- 56 pM and a total number of binding sites (Bmax) of 74.0 +/- 13.6 fmol/mg of protein. The affinity constant obtained from kinetic analysis was in close agreement with that obtained in saturation experiments. Competition experiments showed a monophasic reduction of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding with a pharmacological order of indole amine affinities characteristic of a melatonin receptor: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-dichloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin much greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine (inactive). The affinities of these melatonin analogs in competing for 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites were correlated closely with their potencies for inhibition of the calcium-dependent release of [3H]dopamine from chicken and rabbit retinas, indicating association of the binding site with a functional ron of the binding site with a functional response regulated by melatonin. The results indicate that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin is a selective, high-affinity radioligand for the identification and characterization of melatonin receptor sites

  16. Optimization of the synthesis of a high specific activity 125 I-labelled hapten for radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this first report it is described the synthesis, separation and purification of the 2-radioiodinated histamine ''125 I-labelled histamine by a mixed anhydride reaction. About 75% incorporation of I''1125, from Na''125, I, was achieved with a molecular ratio of 1:1 mixed anhydride:histamine. The radiochemical purity of the conjugate by TLC was >99% and its theoretical specific activity, 3850 mu Ci/mug. Dissolved in ethanol and held at -20 degree centigree under darkness decomposition on storage did not exceed 1% per month

  17. p-[125I]iodoclonidine is a partial agonist at the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding properties of p-[125I]iodoclonidine [( 125I]PIC) to human platelet membranes and the functional characteristics of PIC are reported. [125I]PIC bound rapidly and reversibly to platelet membranes, with a first-order association rate constant (kon) at room temperature of 8.0 +/- 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 sec-1 and a dissociation rate constant (koff) of 2.0 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) sec-1. Scatchard plots of specific [125I]PIC binding (0.1-5 nM) were linear, with a Kd of 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. [125I]PIC bound to the same number of high affinity sites as the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2-AR) full agonist [3H] bromoxidine (UK14,304), which represented approximately 40% of the sites bound by the antagonist [3H]yohimbine. Guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate greatly reduced the amount of [125I]PIC bound (greater than 80%), without changing the Kd of the residual binding. In competition experiments, the alpha 2-AR-selective ligands yohimbine, bromoxidine, oxymetazoline, clonidine, p-aminoclonidine, (-)-epinephrine, and idazoxan all had Ki values in the low nanomolar range, whereas prazosin, propranolol, and serotonin yielded Ki values in the micromolar range. Epinephrine competition for [125I]PIC binding was stereoselective. Competition for [3H]bromoxidine binding by PIC gave a Ki of 1.0 nM (nH = 1.0), whereas competition for [3H]yohimbine could be resolved into high and low affinity components, with Ki values of 3.7 and 84 nM, respectively. PIC had minimal agonist activity itively. PIC had minimal agonist activity in inhibiting adenylate cyclase in platelet membranes, but it potentiated platelet aggregation induced by ADP with an EC50 of 1.5 microM. PIC also inhibited epinephrine-induced aggregation, with an IC50 of 5.1 microM. Thus, PIC behaves as a partial agonist in a human platelet aggregation assay. [125I]PIC binds to the alpha 2B-AR in NG-10815 cell membranes with a Kd of 0.5 +/- 0.1 nM

  18. (E)-[125I]-5-AOIBV: a SPECT radioligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The premise that, over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), changes in the levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) occur in parallel with changes to other cholinergic marker proteins provides the basis for the applicability of benzovesamicol derivatives as radioligands for AD studies by single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography. We report the synthesis of enantiopure benzovesamicol derivatives: (R,R) or (S,S)-(E)-2-hydroxy-5-(3-iodoprop-2-en-1-oxy)-3- (4-phenylpiperidino)tetralin [(R,R)-AOIBV: Kd=0.45 nM or (S,S)-5-AOIBV: Kd=4.3 nM] and their corresponding tributyltin precursors for radioiodination. (R,R or S,S)-5-AOIBV was labeled with iodine-125 from their corresponding n-tributyltin precursors. Both compounds were obtained with radiochemical and optical purity greater than 97% and in radiochemical yields ranging 34-36%. To determine if these compounds could provide an advantage when compared to [125I]-iodo benzovesamicol (IBVM), IBVM was also labeled and used as the reference compound in all ex vivo experiments. Ex vivo biodistribution experiments in rats revealed that [125I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV displayed the most suitable pharmacological profile as the radioactivity distribution corresponded well with the known VAChT brain density. Moreover, pre-injection of vesamicol prevented the uptake of [125I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV in striatum, cortex and hippocampus, demonstrating um, cortex and hippocampus, demonstrating selectivity for the VAChT. However, even if time activity curves of [125I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV confirmed that this compound could be used to visualize the VAChT in vivo, at each point of the kinetic study, [125I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV showed a lower specific binding compared to [125I]-IBVM. These results made [125I]-( R,R)-5-AOIBV inferior to [125I]-IBVM for the VAChT exploration in vivo

  19. (E)-[{sup 125}I]-5-AOIBV: a SPECT radioligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, Patrick [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France); Mavel, Sylvie [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France)], E-mail: sylvie.mavel@univ-tours.fr; Zea-Ponce, Yolanda [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France); Kassiou, Michael [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2050 (Australia); School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garreau, Lucette; Bodard, Sylvie; Drossard, Marie-Laure; Chalon, Sylvie; Guilloteau, Denis [INSERM U619, 37000 Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CHRU, Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine nucleaire, 37000 Tours (France)

    2007-11-15

    The premise that, over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), changes in the levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) occur in parallel with changes to other cholinergic marker proteins provides the basis for the applicability of benzovesamicol derivatives as radioligands for AD studies by single photon emission computed tomography or positron emission tomography. We report the synthesis of enantiopure benzovesamicol derivatives: (R,R) or (S,S)-(E)-2-hydroxy-5-(3-iodoprop-2-en-1-oxy)-3- (4-phenylpiperidino)tetralin [(R,R)-AOIBV: K{sub d}=0.45 nM or (S,S)-5-AOIBV: K{sub d}=4.3 nM] and their corresponding tributyltin precursors for radioiodination. (R,R or S,S)-5-AOIBV was labeled with iodine-125 from their corresponding n-tributyltin precursors. Both compounds were obtained with radiochemical and optical purity greater than 97% and in radiochemical yields ranging 34-36%. To determine if these compounds could provide an advantage when compared to [{sup 125}I]-iodo benzovesamicol (IBVM), IBVM was also labeled and used as the reference compound in all ex vivo experiments. Ex vivo biodistribution experiments in rats revealed that [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV displayed the most suitable pharmacological profile as the radioactivity distribution corresponded well with the known VAChT brain density. Moreover, pre-injection of vesamicol prevented the uptake of [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV in striatum, cortex and hippocampus, demonstrating selectivity for the VAChT. However, even if time activity curves of [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV confirmed that this compound could be used to visualize the VAChT in vivo, at each point of the kinetic study, [{sup 125}I]-(R,R)-5-AOIBV showed a lower specific binding compared to [{sup 125}I]-IBVM. These results made [{sup 125}I]-( R,R)-5-AOIBV inferior to [{sup 125}I]-IBVM for the VAChT exploration in vivo.

  20. An instrument for measurement of 125I with automatic efficiency correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counting efficiencies for 125I are often uncertain because of self-absorption of the low-energy radiation. A special purpose instrument, AEP-5285, has been designed to simplify the measurement of 125I activities using a known technique in which the observed counting rate is compensated for self-absorption and any other uncertainties in the counting efficiency by making use of the coicidence properties of the radiation. The instrument contains pulse amplifiers, discriminators to define the energy regions of interest, and operational amplifier circuits to perform the necessary calculations automatically, and it displays an estimate of the source activity in becquerels. (auth)

  1. The recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) for high-dose-rate brachytherapy and for permanent prostatic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) Committee 3 ('Radioprotection in medicine') is currently finalizing two recommendations about Brachytherapy. The first text, from Task Group (TG) 53, is focussing on the prevention of high-dose-rate brachytherapy accidents. It reminds the reader of the 500 accidents/incidents which have been reported so far in the literature, and reports in details on some representative accidents. Building on those data, the text gives general and specific recommendations, aiming at reducing both the frequency and the severity of those accidents. The second text, from Task Group 57, considers the radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy for prostate cancer using permanently implanted sources. For this topic, no severe accident has never been reported so far. However, some radioprotection problems arose, due to the dose received from the patients, to migrating seeds and to cremation. The text presents recommendations specifically addressing those issues. (authors)

  2. Comparison of cyclosporine determinations in whole blood by three different methods. HPLC, 125I RIA and 3H RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have analyzed and compared the cyclosporine concentrations in whole blood specimens from pediatric renal transplant patients using three different methods: high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (5u C18 reverse-phase column), 3H radioimmunoassay (RIA), and 125I RIA (substituted 3H-tracer in Sandoz Kit with 125I tracer. Results obtained by the 125I RIA correlated well with results obtained by the 3H RIA. Both RIA methods had similar correlation with the HPLC method. The 125I RIA method showed higher sensitivity and greater precision than the 3H RIA method. The authors conclude that the 125I RIA method can be used for cyclosporine determination in whole blood specimens. The use of the 125I RIA provides a simple and rapid method with higher counting efficiency and less background quenching than the 3H RIA method, which requires cumbersome liquid scintillation counting procedures

  3. Development of a high specific activity radioligand, 125I-LSD, and its application to the study of serotonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-Labeled receptor ligands can be synthesized with specific activities exceeding 2000 Ci/mmol, making them nearly 70-fold more sensitive in receptor site assays than (mono) tritiated ligands. We have synthesized and characterized 125I-lysergic acid diethylamide (125I-LSD), the first radioiodinated ligand for serotonin receptor studies. The introduction of 125I at the 2 position of LSD increased both the affinity and selectivity of this compound for serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in rat cortex. The high specific activity of 125I-LSD and its high ratio of specific to nonspecific binding make this ligand especially useful for autoradiographic studies of serotonin receptor distribution. We have found that 125I-LSD binds with high affinity to a class of serotonin receptors in the CNS of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica

  4. Inter-software variability in post-implanted CT analysis for interstitial permanent brachytherapy for prostate cancer: Differences in automatically detected seed location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. The present study investigated inter-software variability in automatically detected seed location and dose volume histogram (DVH). Materials and methods. Image sets from computed tomography (CT) of 25 patients treated using interstitial permanent brachytherapy were examined. Interplant and Variseed were used as software for post-implanted CT analysis. Seed locations are automatically detected by Variseed and Interplant. Dose-volume histograms were calculated using seed locations as detected by the two programs. DVH parameters were compared between Variseed and Interplant. Results. Considerable differences in DVH parameters existed between Variseed and Interplant. For example, mean differences in dose to 90% of prostate volume (pD90) and dose to 5% of urethral volume (uD5) were 8.27 Gy and 20.18 Gy, respectively. The difference in uD5 was associated with prostate volume. Conclusion. Our results suggest that considerable inter-software variability exists in post-implanted CT analysis. DVH parameters from other software should be used with care

  5. Anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN ? gene therapy combined with 125I-UdR radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN? gene therapy combined with 125I-UdR radionuclide therapy in mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma and its mechanism. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pcDNAEgr-IFN? mixed with liposome was injected into tumor. 48 h later, 370 kBq 125I-UdR was injected into tumor. The tumor growth rates at different times were observed. After 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy, the concentration of IFN? in cytoplasm of H22 cells and cytotoxic activities of splenic CTL of the mice in different groups were examined. Results: The tumor growth rates of pcDNAEgr-IFN? + 125I-UdR group were obviously lower than those of control group, 125I-UdR group and pcDNAEgr-1 + 125I-UdR group 6-15 d after gene-radionuclide therapy. IFN? protein was found in cytoplasm of H22 cells in pcDNAEgr-IFN? + 125I-UdR group after 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy. Cytotoxic activity of splenic CTL in pcDNAEgr-IFN? + 125I-UdR group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P125I-UdR radionuclide therapy are better than those of 125I-UdR therapy. (authors)

  6. Absolute intensity of internal bremsstrahlung from the electron capture decay of 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute intensity of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum accompanying the electron capture decay of 125I has been measured and compared to the recent calculation of Suric et al. The measured intensity above the 1s end point is found to be (86±10)% of the calculated intensity

  7. In vitro assay of thrombolysis with /sup 125/I-fibrinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Y.; Chandler, A.B. (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (USA))

    1981-12-01

    A radioactive method for assaying thromobolysis in vitro is described. Artificial thrombi were labelled with /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and the percentage lysis occurring in blood samples containing a thrombolytic agent was determined. This method was found to be more sensitive, accurate and convenient than an alternative assay method based on the weighing of fixed thrombi after treatment with a thrombolytic agent.

  8. Apparent volumes of distribution of 125I-lothalamate and inulin in chickens (38781)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of utilizing 125I-iothalamate to estimate the volume of extracellular fluid was assessed in ureterally ligated chickens. Subsequent to intravenous administration the movement of labeled iothalamate from the plasma compartment follows closed two-compartment kinetics and equilibration between vascular and extravascular phases is attained in about 20 minutes. The volume of distribution of 125I-iothalamate prior to and following the infusion of 0.15 M NaCl (equal to 15 percent of the estimated ECFV) averaged 23.6 +- 0.61 and 28.4 +- 0.22 percent of the body weight, respectively. The observed postsaline labeled iothalamate space did not differ statistically from the expected value. When administered simultaneously inulin penetrates into an apparent volume that is 75 percent of the labeled iothalamate space after 60 minutes. The content of 125I-iothalamate is relatively high in liver and kidney tissue and suggests that these are major sites where removal of the indicator from plasma occur. It is suggested that 125I-iothalamate, under appropriate conditions, could be used to measure the plasma volume and the extravascular fluid with which plasma is in rapid diffusion equilibrium. (U.S.)

  9. Distribution of 125I-thyroxine in different organs and tissues of dietically obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 125I-thyroxine (% dose/g tissue; tissue/plasma radioactivity ratio) was investigated in different tissues of 28-week-old obese Wistar rats. Obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and confirmed by carcass analysis; in heavy obese animals the relative and absolute fat content is increased twofold and threefold, respectively, compared to control rats fed on a low-fat diet (LFD). Heavy HFD rats exhibit diminished 125I-T4 distribution in the 'slow pool' (fat tissue, muscle) and unchanged values in the 'fast pool' (liver, kidneys) in comparison with LFD rats with low body weight. The differences in distribution presented here are not caused by the diet per se, but they are the consequence of the obesity of the animal, because no differences in the 125I-T4 distribution were found in the 125I-T4 between HFD and LFD rats with relatively equal body weight and body composition. The reduced T4 distribution in the fat tissue of obese rats is discussed in connection with possibly decreased lipolysis in this tissue and possible causal participation in the beginning of obesity. (author)

  10. Effects of age and sex on 125I-?-CIT binding to DAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate effects of age and sex on 125I-?-CIT binding to dopamine transporter (DAT). Methods: Detection of the differences in 125I-?-CIT binding kinetics in vivo between 6 week and 6 month old KM mice, and the differences of in vivo binding between female and male, and between 3 month and 12 month old SD rats.The animals were sacrificed 2 h after injection. Results: Uptake of 125I-?-CIT in the striatum, frontal cortex, parietal cortex, temporal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus, brain stem and whole brain in 6 week old mice was higher than that in 6 month old mice, and similar uptake pattern happened in between 3 month old and in 12 month old SD rats. In 12 months old SD rats, female rats had higher uptake in the striatum than male rats did. Conclusions: Young mice and rats have a higher uptake of 125I-?-CIT in the striatum than aged ones and female rats have a higher uptake than male ones do. This result indicates that the density of DAT in rat or mouse striatum may be reduced with aging

  11. Dopamine transport sites selectively labeled by a novel photoaffinity probe: 125I-DEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dopamine transporter was labeled using a photosensitive compound related to GBR-12909, 125I-1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-[2- (4-azido-3-iodophenyl)ethyl]piperazine (125I-DEEP). 125I-DEEP bound reversibly and with high affinity to the dopamine transport protein in the absence of light and could be covalently attached to the protein following exposure to UV light. In rat striatal homogenates, 125I-DEEP was found to incorporate covalently into a protein with apparent molecular weight of 58,000 Da. The properties of this binding protein were characteristic of the dopamine transporter since covalent attachment could be inhibited by dopamine-uptake blockers with the proper pharmacological rank order of potencies. Covalent binding was also inhibited in a stereospecific manner by (+) and (-) cocaine, as well as other cocaine analogs. The protein was not found in the cerebellum. The dopamine transporter appears to exist in a glycosylated form since photoaffinity-labeled transport sites could adsorb to wheat germ-agglutinin and could be specifically eluted from the column by beta-N-acetylglucosamine

  12. Studies on the influence on the excretory kinetics of 125I-Adipiodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of influencing distribution and elimination of 125I-Adipiodon (125I-iodipamide meglumine) by a preceding administration of Falignost (iomeglamic acid) as well as by dose-time variants of the mechanic intravenous application of contrast medium was tested in 55 anicteric and 2 icteric patients within clinically indicated cholegraphic examination with the aim of methodical optimization. For the detection of principal regularities comparative studies with 125I-Adipiodon and Falignost in rats as well as examinations of protein binding of 125I-Adipiodon in the plasm of rats and in the plasm and in mixed serum (application in vitro) of patients by gel filtration with Epidex B 2 coarse and batch operation on more than 1,200 samples were additionally carried out. For combined cholecystography with intravenous infusion of Adipiodon in immediate temporal connection with the administration of Falignost a reduced visibility of the biliary tract in the X-ray picture is not to be expected as the consequence of the mutual influence of the contrast media. For intact excretory function of liver and kidneys the combined cholecystography can be recommended. The effects of a dose increase, of protracted infusion of Adipiodon and of the intravenous administration of 0.01 g metroclopramide on the demonstration of the biliary tract in the intravenous cholegram are outlined. (author)

  13. Determination of bone density via 125I-densitometry in idiophathic scoliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether idiopathic scoliosis is associated with a general reduction of the calcium salt content of the bones. The study was conducted in a scoliosis patient group of 48 individuals, using 125I densitometry. (orig.)

  14. In vitro root caries progression measured by 125I absorptiometry: comparison with chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation from a 125I source and a non-image-forming detector was used for non-destructive measurements of root caries progression. Blocks were cut parallel to the cementum surface of unexposed human roots. These blocks were then individually demineralized in under-saturated calcium phosphate solutions over an 84-hour period. In order for the in vitro root surface demineralization to be followed, the changes in transmission (delta T) through the blocks were measured, by 125I absorptiometry, eight times during the course of the experiment. Chemical analyses of the calcium output (delta Ca) from the blocks into the demineralizing solutions were also performed, and the rate of demineralization (Vdem) was calculated from these values. The precision of 125I absorptiometry was calculated from 176 duplicate transmission measurements, and the coefficient of variation was found to be 0.20%. The correlation coefficient between delta T and total delta Ca for each of 22 cementum/dentin blocks ranged between r = 0.934 and r = 0.998. The progression of root hard-tissue lesions observed by these two methods and by the calculated Vdem was found to be proportional to the square and cubic roots of time. The study shows that 125I absorptiometry can be used for continuous non-destructive measurements of root hard-tissue demineralization in vitro

  15. Myocardial uptake of 125I-BMIPP in rats treated with adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of 125I-BMIPP in assessing myocardial mitochondrial function was investigated in rats treated with adriamycin (ADR). Intraperitoneal administration of ADR (4 mg/kg) for 6 days significantly decreased a ratio of heart/body weight as compared with the control rats. The light and electron microscopic analysis showed that ADR produced histological damages mainly in the mitochondria with minimal changes in the myofibril and nucleus. In the study of mitochondrial respiratory function, oxygen consumption with adding ADP, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio were significantly lower in ADR rats than control rats. While myocardial uptake of 201TlCl was not different between the two groups, the uptake of 125I-BMIPP corrected by blood counts was significantly reduced in ADR rats (3.1±0.4 vs. 2.3±0.8, p125I-BMIPP. The observation suggests that 125I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy could be a useful method for determining mitochondrial function in patients with myocardial diseases. (author)

  16. Solid-phase receptor binding assay for 125I-hCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solid-phase radioligand-receptor assay (RRA) to measure the binding of 125I-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin (125I-hCG) to target cell membranes has been developed. The binding of 125I-hCG to membranes immobilized on the wells of microtitration plates reached a maximum at about 3 hours at 37 degrees C, was saturable, displayed a high affinity (Ka = 2.4 X 10(9) M-1) and was specifically inhibited by unlabelled hCG. In comparison with RRAs carried out with membranes in suspension, the solid-phase RRA is significantly simpler and much faster to perform as it avoids centrifugation or filtration procedures. The solid-phase RRA was adapted profitably to process large numbers of samples at the same time. It proved particularly useful as a screening assay to detect anti-hCG monoclonal antibodies with high inhibitory activity for binding of 125I-hCG to its receptors

  17. Use of immunoaffinity chromatography for purification of 125I-labeled human prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers assessed a simple method for purifying 125I-labeled human prolactin, taking advantage of the abundant supplies of monoclonal antibodies available. 125I-labeled human prolactin purified by immunoaffinity chromatography is compared with that purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Researchers used monoclonal antibodies to prolactin to prepare the affinity chromatography columns. Prolactin was radiolabeled by the Chloramine T method, purified by each of the above procedures, and the binding and displacement characteristics were studied in radioimmunoassays in which either monoclonal antibodies or a rabbit anti-prolactin serum was the first antibody. A nonimmune fraction of 125I-labeled prolactin that co-eluted with the immunoreactive hormone from Sephadex G-100 was removed by affinity chromatography, which increased the antibody binding of 125I-labeled prolactin in the radioimmunoassay in the absence of unlabeled antigen (B/T0, in percent) twofold or more, increased the assay sensitivity, and increased the slope of antigen displacement measured by the 50% intercept. Several advantages make this the purification method of choice

  18. Multidetector scintillation detection unit for the measurement of 125I in an automatic gamma counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing number of in vitro measurement of samples, esp., of 125I-labelled samples within radioimmunoassay and other applications stimulates the search for advanced concepts of measuring systems. The design of a multidetector scintillation detection unit whose specifications are reported is a contribution to this search. (author)

  19. Fragmentation of Nimotuzumab for Preparation of 125I-F(ab’)2-Nimotuzumab as a Precursor for Preparing 125I-F(ab’)2-Nimotuzumab-NLS Radiopharmaceutical for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimotuzumab is an anticancer agent which belongs to the inhibitor group of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). This monoclonal antibody has a relatively high molecular weight which slows penetration on tumor cells, making it less attractive in imaging kinetics and potentially elicits antibodies responses. Therefore, in this study nimotuzumab was fragmented to form a bivalent antibody [F(ab’)2] and then labeled with 125I to form 125I-F(ab’)2-nimotuzumab which can be used further as a precursor for preparing 125I-F(ab’)2-nimotuzumab-NLS (NLS = nuclear localization sequence) radiopharmaceutical for radioimmunotherapy. The aims of this study was to obtain characteristics of 125I-F(ab’)2-nimotuzumab by comparing with the 125I labeled-intact nimotuzumab (125I-nimotuzumab). This study was initiated by purifying nimotuzumab by mean of dialysis. The purified nimotuzumab was then fragmented by using pepsin. The F(ab')2-nimotuzumab formed was then purified from its by-products which formed in fragmentation process by using a PD-10 column (consisted Sephadex G25). The intact nimotuzumab and its F(ab’)2 fragment were then labeled with the 125I to form 125I-nimotuzumab and 125I-F(ab’)2-nimotuzumab. The radiochemical purity are 98.27 % and 93.24 %, respectively. Stability test results show that, both 125I-nimotuzumab and 125I-F(ab’)2-nimotuzumab are more stable at 4 °C than at room temperature storage and 37 °C. (author)

  20. Study on the thyroid function of thoroughbred horses by means of 'in vitro' 125I-T3 modified and 125I-T4 tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera of 71 animals, divided in groups of males and females, in repose and after activity were studied. The method to establish the percentage of the 125I-lyothyronine retention in resin (Test 125I-T3 or T3) was modified by the use of 0.2 ml of serum on the resin column, after addition of the marked hormone. This modification served to prove that thoroughbred equines show binding of the I-lyothyronine to the serum four times reduced, indicating, therefore, that these animals have four times more ligation sites of triidothyronin saturation in the serum, when compared with the results obtained from human beings. The variance analysis applied to the T3 Test showed no significant results at the 95% level as regards to activity. For the 71 animals, the author has found an average of 50.30% of the 125I-Lyothyronine in resin retention, being the confidence interval for this group between 48.75% and 51.85% to a 95% confidence coefficient. Evaluating the results of the T4 Test by means of the variance analysis, we noticed that the male and female groups in repose differed statistically from the groups after activity to a 95% confidence coefficient. The author has grouped the results of the T4 Test of 32 equines, 18 males and 14 females, in repose, obtaining an average of 0.61 mcg and 0.51 mcg and 0.71 mcg T4/100 ml as confidence interval to a 95% confidence coefficient. We have lio a 95% confidence coefficient. We have listed 39 results of T4 Test, being 23 males and 61 Females, after activity, obtaining an average of 2.01 mcg of thyroxin by 100 ml of serum and 1.72 mcg and 2.30 T4/100 ml as confidence interval to a 95% confidence coefficient

  1. The incidence of radioepidermitis and the dose-response relationship in parotid gland cancer patients treated with 125I seed brachytherapy. Incidence of radioepidermitis and the dose-response relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Lei; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Shu-ming; Huang, Ming-wei; Shi, Yan [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Beijing (China); Zhang, Jian-Guo [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Beijing (China); Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fujian (China)

    2014-09-09

    We studied the incidence and dose-response relationship of radioepidermitis in parotid gland carcinoma patients treated with [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy in the hopes of designing an optimized pre-implant treatment plan that would reduce the incidence and severity of radioepidermitis in patients receiving this therapy. Between January 2007 and May 2010, 100 parotid gland cancer patients were treated postoperatively with [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy. The matched peripheral dose (MPD) was 80-140 Gy, and [{sup 125}I] seed activity was 0.7-0.8 mCi. The mean dose delivered to the skin was calculated in the post-implant CT on day 0 following implantation. Grades of acute and late dermatitis were evaluated at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months post-implantation. Most patients experienced grade 0-2 acute and late skin side effects (86 and 97 %, respectively), though a small subset developed severe complications. Most grade 1-3 effects resolved within 6 months of implantation, though some grade 1-3 effects and all grade 4 effects remained unchanged throughout the 18-month follow-up period. Grade 3 and 4 effects were most prominent (75 and 25 %, respectively) with doses of 110-140 Gy; doses higher than 140 Gy produced only grade 4 effects. [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy produced acceptable levels of acute and late radioepidermitis with a good clinical outcome. A mean dose under 100 Gy delivered to the skin was safe, though doses of 110-140 Gy should be given with caution and extra monitoring; doses greater than 140 Gy are dangerous and likely to produce grade 4-5 effects. (orig.) [German] Wir untersuchten die Inzidenz und die Dosis-Wirkung-Beziehung bei Patienten mit Ohrspeicheldruesenkrebs, die mit [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, in der Hoffnung, eine optimierte praeimplantologische Behandlung zu entwickeln, welche die Inzidenz und Schwere der Radioepidermitis bei Patienten, die diese Therapie erhalten haben, reduziert. Zwischen Januar 2007 und Mai 2010 wurden 100 Patienten mit Ohrspeicheldruesenkrebs postoperativ mit [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie behandelt. Die angeglichene periphere Dosis (MPD) betrug 80-140 Gy und die Aktivitaet der [{sup 125}I]-Seed war 0,7-0,8 mCi. Die durchschnittliche Dosis, die auf die Haut gebracht wurde, wurde beim postimplantologischen CT am Tag 0 nach der Implantation kalkuliert. Die Grade von akuter und verspaeteter Dermatitis wurden nach 2, 6, 12 und 18 Monaten postimplantologisch ausgewertet. Die meisten Patienten erlebten akute und verspaetete Nebenwirkungen (86 % bzw. 97 %) auf der Haut vom Grad 0-2, obwohl eine kleine Untergruppe schwere Komplikationen entwickelte. Die meisten Grad-1- bis Grad-3-Wirkungen hatten sich innerhalb von 6 Monaten nach der Implantation aufgeloest, obwohl einige der Grad-3- bis Grad-4-Wirkungen und alle Grad-4-Wirkungen waehrend des 18-monatigen Nachfolgezeitraums unveraendert geblieben sind. Die Grad-3- bis Grad-4-Wirkungen waren am bedeutendsten (75 % bzw. 25 %) mit der Dosis von 110-140 Gy; eine Dosis hoeher als 140 Gy erzeugte nur Grad-4-Wirkungen. Die [{sup 125}I]-Seed-Brachytherapie erzeugt akzeptable Ebenen von akuter und verspaeteter Radioepidermitis mit einem guten klinischen Ergebnis. Eine durchschnittliche Dosis unter 100 Gy, die auf die Haut aufgebracht wurde, war sicher, obwohl Dosen von 110-140 Gy mit Vorsicht und zusaetzlicher Ueberwachung gegeben werden sollten; Dosen hoeher als 140 Gy sind gefaehrlich und werden wahrscheinlich Grad-4-Wirkungen erzeugen. (orig.)

  2. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181-196 ml (-2.3-2.5 ml/kg). The tracer disappearance rate was significantly higher with (99m)Tc-albumin (-23.1±7.1%/h) thanwith (125)I-albumin (-6.7±3.6%/h) (p <0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that (99m)Tc-HSA can replace (125)I-HSA for single measurements of plasma volume in healthy volunteers. It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation.

  3. Binding characteristics of 125I-folate to cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate binding characteristics of 125I-folate to cultured human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line, and to evaluate the possibilities of the existence of high density, high affinity folate receptors in SGC-7901 cell line, and whether SGC-7901 can be used as a new target for folate receptor mediated, non-destructive diagnosis and tumor-targeting drug and gene delivery. Methods: Binding kinetics of 125I-folate to SGC-7901 cells, effect of SGC-7901 cell concentrations on binding, radioligand saturation binding experiment, competition assay, and internalization of 125I-folate into SGC-7901 cells were investigated by classic radioligand binding techniques. Results: Specific binding of 125I-folate to its receptors in SGC-7901 was time, temperature, and concentration dependent, and showed to be of high affinity, satuarable, competitable. The best fit to the data was of a single-binding-site model with a equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 2.86 x 10-10 mol/L, and a maximum binding density (Bmax) 143.26 fmol/106 cells. SGC-7901 cell bound 125I-folate was internalized at 37 degree C. These characteristics were in agreement with earlier studies on other kinds of cancer cells that overexpress folate receptors. Conclusion: Gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line is of the characteristics of high density, high affinity folate receptors and has the possibilities of se receptors and has the possibilities of serving as a new target for folate receptor mediated tumor specific diagnosis and therapeutics, but that conception needs further identification. (authors)

  4. In vivo binding of 125I-LSD to serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of 125I-LSD (2-[125I]-lysergic acid diethylamide) was studied in various mouse brain regions following intravenous injection of the radioligand. The high specific activity of 125I-LSD enabled the injection of low mass doses (14ng/kg), which are well below the threshold for induction of any known physiological effect of the probe. The highest levels of 125I-LSD binding were found in the frontal cortex, olfactory tubercles, extra-frontal cortex and striatum while the lowest level was found in the cerebellum. Binding was saturable in the frontal cortex but increased linearly in the cerebellum with increasing doses of 125I-LSD. Serotonergic compounds potently inhibited 125I-LSD binding in cortical regions, olfactory tubercles, and hypothalamus but had no effect in the cerebellum. Dopaminergic compounds caused partial inhibition of binding in the striatum while adrenergic compounds were inactive. From these studies the authors conclude that 125I-LSD labels serotonin 5-HT2 receptor sites in cortical regions with no indication that other receptor sites are labeled. In the olfactory tubercles and hypothalamus, 125I-LSD labeling occurs predominantly or entirely at serotonic 5-HT2 sites. In the striatum, 125I-LSD labels approximately equal proportions of serotonergic and dopaminergic sites. These data indicate that 125I-LSD labels serotcate that 125I-LSD labels serotonin receptors in vivo and suggests that appropriate derivatives of 2I-LSD may prove useful for tomographic imaging of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in the mammalian cortex

  5. Local treatment of malignant brain tumors by removable stereotactically implanted radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one patients harbouring malignant primary or metastiatic brain tumors were treated with 34 implantations of 198Au or 125I sources using stereotactic neurosurgical techniques. All of the sources were mounted in catheters for removal after the desired dose had been delivered. One or more sources were placed in each tumor to deliver 3.5 to 7.2 krad for 198Au or 3.0 to 12.5 krad for 125I. Seven patients received gold-198 sources. Twenty-four patients underwent 27 implantations with removable high-activity 125I sources; 15 patients (18 implantations) are currently evaluable

  6. Monte Carlo dosimetry for 125I and 103Pd eye plaque brachytherapy with various seed models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dose distributions are calculated for various models of 125I and 103Pd seeds in the standardized plaques of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS). The sensitivity to seed model of dose distributions and dose distributions relative to TG-43 are investigated. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations are carried out with the EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose. Brachytherapy seeds and eye plaques are fully modeled. Simulations of one seed in the central slot of a 20 mm Modulay (gold alloy) plaque backing with and without the Silastic (silicone polymer) insert and of a 16 mm fully loaded Modulay/Silastic plaque are performed. Dose distributions are compared to those calculated under TG-43 assumptions, i.e., ignoring the effects of the plaque backing and insert and interseed attenuation. Three-dimensional dose distributions for different 125I and 103Pd seed models are compared via depth-dose curves, isodose contours, and tabulation of doses at points of interest in the eye. Results are compared to those of our recent BrachyDose study for COMS plaques containing model 6711 (125I) or 200 (103Pd) seeds [R. M. Thomson et al., Med. Phys. 35, 5530-5543 (2008)]. Results: Along the central axis of a plaque containing one seed, variations of less than 1% are seen in the effect of the Modulay backing alone for different seed models; for the Modulay/Silastic combination, variations are 2%. For a 16 mm plaque fully loations are 2%. For a 16 mm plaque fully loaded with 125I (103Pd) seeds, dose decreases relative to TG-43 doses are 11%-12% (19%-20%) and 14%-15% (20%) at distances of 0.5 and 1 cm from the inner sclera along the plaque's central axis, respectively. For the same prescription dose, doses at points of interest vary by up to 8% with seed model. Doses to critical normal structures are lower for all 103Pd seed models than for 125I with the possible exception of the sclera adjacent to the plaque; scleral doses vary with seed model and are not always higher for 103Pd than for 125I. Conclusions: Dose decreases relative to doses calculated under TG-43 assumptions vary slightly with seed model (for each radionuclide). Dose distributions are sensitive to seed model; however, variations are generally no larger than the magnitudes of other systematic uncertainties in eye plaque therapy.

  7. Effect of an occlusal screw-access hole on the fracture resistance of permanently cemented implant crowns: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadid, Rola M; Abu-Naba'a, Layla; Al-Omari, Wael M; Asfar, Khaled R; El Masoud, Bilal M

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the fracture resistance of cement-retained metal-ceramic implant-supported posterior crowns. Three groups of 10 restorations each were tested: group A (cement-retained using zinc phosphate), group B (cement-retained using zinc oxide-eugenol), and group C (cement-retained using zinc phosphate but with an occlusal screw-access hole). All specimens were thermocycled and vertically loaded in a universal testing machine. Mean values of fracture loads were calculated and analyzed statistically. The cement-retained restorations without an occlusal screw-access hole showed significantly higher mean fracture loads than those having one. The type of cement did not affect the porcelain fracture resistance significantly. PMID:21519576

  8. Benzodiazepine effect of 125I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated 125I-iomazenil (125I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of 125I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P125I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which 125I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam

  9. Comparison of the accumulation of 125I and 144Ce in the growing oocytes of the Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese quail were doubly-labeled with 125I (carrier free, as sodium iodide) and 144Ce (.015 micromol/100 g, as trichloride). by 1 hr after administration, the growing oocytes and the ova had accumulated 29% of the 125I and 21% of the 144Ce. By 18 hr, the accumulations were 30% of the 125I and 79% of the 144Ce. Lanthanum (15 micromol/100 g, as trichloride), given iv 5 min before the radionuclides, resulted in 1-hr accumulations of 4% for 125I and 23% for 144Ce. On fractionation of the oocyte yolk, 86% of the 125I present in the yolk was found in the low density fraction and 69% of the 144Ce remained with the phosvitin fraction. These results were consistent with the suggestion of Schjeide and Prahlad (1977) that, in plasma, iodide becomes associated with the calcium-containing vitellogenin complex

  10. Variación esperable de parámetros medidos en el implante y seguimiento de electrodos de fijación activa de marcapasos definitivos Foreseeable variation in parameters measured at implant and follow-up of permanent pacemaker active fixation electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Canabal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la variación de parámetros relativos al electrodo de fijación activa en el implante y seguimiento posterior durante 6 meses de fase aguda de implante. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, analítico, prospectivo, observacional sobre cohorte de casos sucesivos durante 8 meses (abril-diciembre de 2010. Ámbito: Unidad de electro-estimulación cardiaca de un Servicio de Medicina Intensiva. Pacientes o participantes: Pacientes sometidos a implante de marcapasos definitivo con electrodos de fijación activa, implantados en aurícula y ventrículo, Intervenciones: medición de variables descritas con analizador de umbrales durante la fijación de electrodo y en los diferentes momentos del estudio, Variables principales que se comparan; umbral, impedancia y actividad intrínseca tanto auricular como ventricular antes y después de la fijación del electrodo, a las 48h, al mes y 6 meses de seguimiento, Se realizaron comparaciones utilizando test T-student para datos pareados; con significación si p0,0001, A las 48h se suma una disminución del umbral de estimulación ventricular (0,86±0,35 vs 0,48±0,23 voltios, p=0,0001, auricular (1,10±0,39 vs 0,43±0,23 voltios, p=0,0003, onda P (3,61±2,25 vs 2,32±1,09mV, p=0,0463, En el seguimiento posterior los parámetros se estabilizan y varían de forma no significativa. Conclusiones: Tras la fijación activa de electrodos es esperable una caída de impedancia del electrodo auricular y ventricular, A las 48h pueden mejorar el umbral auricular, ventricular y en sentido contrario, la sensibilidad de la actividad intrínseca auricular. Estos valores en el seguimiento posterior ambulatorio se estabilizan y varían de forma no significativa en el periodo de evolución aguda estudiado.Objectives: To analyze the variations in the parameters relative to active fixation electrodes at the time of implantation and over subsequent follow-up during 6 months of the acute phase of implantation. Design: A descriptive, analytical, prospective, observational cohort study was made of consecutive cases over a period of 8 months (April-December 2010. Setting: Pacing unit of an Intensive Care Unit. Patients or participants: Patients undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation with active fixation electrodes, implanted in both atrium and ventricle, Interventions: Measurement of variables described with a threshold analyzer during electrode fixation and at different times during the study, Main compared variables: threshold, impedance and intrinsic activity (both atrial and ventricular before and after fixation, at 48hours, at one month and 6 months, Comparisons were made using the Student t-test for paired data, assuming significance for p0,0001, In the first 48hours it was coupled with a decrease in ventricular (0,86±0,35 vs 0,48±0,23 volts, p=0,0001 and atrial pacing threshold (1,10±0,39 vs 0,43±0,23 volts, p=0,0003, and p-wave sensing (3,61±2,25 vs 2,32±1,09mV, p=0,0463, Over follow-up we found the parameters to be stable, with no significant changes. Conclusions: After active lead fixation, a fall in impedance of the antrial and ventricular is expected, Over the next 48hours improvement in atrial and ventricular threshold may occur, in contrast to the sensitivity of the intrinsic activity, which reached significance at the P wave measured after 48hours, These values stabilize over patient follow-up and do not differ significantly in the studied acute patient course.

  11. Variación esperable de parámetros medidos en el implante y seguimiento de electrodos de fijación activa de marcapasos definitivos / Foreseeable variation in parameters measured at implant and follow-up of permanent pacemaker active fixation electrodes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Canabal; V., Hortigüela; A., Raigal; P., Sánchez; M., Sánchez; C., Marco; E., Fernández; J.A., Márquez.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la variación de parámetros relativos al electrodo de fijación activa en el implante y seguimiento posterior durante 6 meses de fase aguda de implante. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, analítico, prospectivo, observacional sobre cohorte de casos sucesivos durante 8 meses (abril-diciem [...] bre de 2010). Ámbito: Unidad de electro-estimulación cardiaca de un Servicio de Medicina Intensiva. Pacientes o participantes: Pacientes sometidos a implante de marcapasos definitivo con electrodos de fijación activa, implantados en aurícula y ventrículo, Intervenciones: medición de variables descritas con analizador de umbrales durante la fijación de electrodo y en los diferentes momentos del estudio, Variables principales que se comparan; umbral, impedancia y actividad intrínseca tanto auricular como ventricular antes y después de la fijación del electrodo, a las 48h, al mes y 6 meses de seguimiento, Se realizaron comparaciones utilizando test T-student para datos pareados; con significación si p0,0001), A las 48h se suma una disminución del umbral de estimulación ventricular (0,86±0,35 vs 0,48±0,23 voltios, p=0,0001), auricular (1,10±0,39 vs 0,43±0,23 voltios, p=0,0003, onda P (3,61±2,25 vs 2,32±1,09mV, p=0,0463), En el seguimiento posterior los parámetros se estabilizan y varían de forma no significativa. Conclusiones: Tras la fijación activa de electrodos es esperable una caída de impedancia del electrodo auricular y ventricular, A las 48h pueden mejorar el umbral auricular, ventricular y en sentido contrario, la sensibilidad de la actividad intrínseca auricular. Estos valores en el seguimiento posterior ambulatorio se estabilizan y varían de forma no significativa en el periodo de evolución aguda estudiado. Abstract in english Objectives: To analyze the variations in the parameters relative to active fixation electrodes at the time of implantation and over subsequent follow-up during 6 months of the acute phase of implantation. Design: A descriptive, analytical, prospective, observational cohort study was made of consecut [...] ive cases over a period of 8 months (April-December 2010). Setting: Pacing unit of an Intensive Care Unit. Patients or participants: Patients undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation with active fixation electrodes, implanted in both atrium and ventricle, Interventions: Measurement of variables described with a threshold analyzer during electrode fixation and at different times during the study, Main compared variables: threshold, impedance and intrinsic activity (both atrial and ventricular) before and after fixation, at 48hours, at one month and 6 months, Comparisons were made using the Student t-test for paired data, assuming significance for p0,0001), In the first 48hours it was coupled with a decrease in ventricular (0,86±0,35 vs 0,48±0,23 volts, p=0,0001) and atrial pacing threshold (1,10±0,39 vs 0,43±0,23 volts, p=0,0003), and p-wave sensing (3,61±2,25 vs 2,32±1,09mV, p=0,0463), Over follow-up we found the parameters to be stable, with no significant changes. Conclusions: After active lead fixation, a fall in impedance of the antrial and ventricular is expected, Over the next 48hours improvement in atrial and ventricular threshold may occur, in contrast to the sensitivity of the intrinsic activity, which reached significance at the P wave measured after 48hours, These values stabilize over patient follow-up and do not differ significantly in the studied acute patient course.

  12. Characterization of (125)I-IABN, a novel azabicyclononane benzamide selective for D2-like dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, R R; Freeman, R A; Boundy, V A; Martin, M W; Huang, Y; Mach, R H

    2000-12-15

    The properties of an (125)I-labeled structural analog of 2, 3-dimethoxy-N-[9-(4-fluorobenzyl)-9-azabicyclo[3.3. 1]nonan-3beta-yl]benzamide (MABN), (125)I-IABN, are described. (125)I-IABN was developed as a high-affinity radioligand selective for the D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) dopamine receptor subtypes. (125)I-IABN binds with picomolar affinity and nonselectively to rat D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in Sf9 and HEK 293 cells. (125)I-IABN binds with 7- to 25-fold lower affinity to human D4.4 dopamine receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Dissociation constants (Kd) calculated from kinetic experiments were in agreement with equilibrium Kd values obtained from saturation binding studies. Saturation plots of the binding of (125)I-IABN with rat caudate membrane preparations were monophasic and exhibited low nonspecific binding. The pharmacologic profile of the binding of (125)I-IABN to rat caudate was consistent with a D2-like receptor, suggesting that the ligand binds primarily to D2 dopamine receptors. In addition, IABN was found to bind with low affinity to D1 dopamine receptors, as well as to the sigma1 and sigma2 receptor subtypes. Quantitative autoradiographic studies using rat brain slices indicate that (125)I-IABN selectively labels the striatum and the olfactory tubercle area, which is consistent with the labeling of D2-like receptors. IABN blocks dopamine-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity at D2 or D4.4 receptors expressed in HEK cells. Therefore, (125)I-IABN appears to be a high-affinity, selective antagonist at D2-like dopamine receptors. Finally, a unique property of the azabicyclononane benzamide (125)I-IABN compared to previously studied substituted benzamides is that the binding of this radioligand is not effected by variations in Na(+) concentration. PMID:11044891

  13. Low elastic modulus Ti-Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteven, Jazmin; Kannan, M Bobby; Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis; Choe, Han-Choel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium-tantalum (Ti-Ta) alloys (10-30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti-Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3×10(-4) mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2×10(-3) mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4×10(-3) mm/y). All the Ti-Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8×10(-3) mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1×10(-4) mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ~22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ~48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8×10(-3) mm/y) showed ~53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. PMID:25491981

  14. Polymer gel dosimetry for the TG-43 dosimetric characterization of a new {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papagiannis, P [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA), PO Box 17214 GR-10024, Athens (Greece); Pantelis, E [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Georgiou, E [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Karaiskos, P [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Medical Physics Department, Hygeia Hospital, Kifisias Avenue and Erythrou Stavrou 4, Marousi, 151 23 Athens (Greece); Angelopoulos, A [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Sakelliou, L [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA), PO Box 17214 GR-10024, Athens (Greece); Stiliaris, S [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA), PO Box 17214 GR-10024, Athens (Greece); Baltas, D [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach, 63069 Offenbach (Germany); Seimenis, I [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA), PO Box 17214 GR-10024, Athens (Greece); Philips Hellas Medical Systems, 44 Kifissias Ave., Maroussi, 151 25 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-21

    In this work, a polymer gel-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method is employed for the dosimetric characterization of a new {sup 125}I low dose rate seed (IsoSeed (registered) model I25.S17). Two vials filled with PABIG gel were prepared in-house and one new seed as well as one commercially available {sup 125}I seed of similar dose rate and well-known dosimetric parameters (IsoSeed (registered) model I25.S06) were positioned in each vial. Both seeds in each vial were MR scanned simultaneously on days 11 and 26 after implantation. The data obtained from the known seed in each vial are used to calibrate the gel dose response which, for the prolonged irradiation duration necessitated by the investigated dose rates, depends on the overall irradiation time. Data for this study are presented according to the AAPM TG-43 dosimetric formalism. Polymer gel results concerning the new seed are compared to corresponding, published dosimetric results obtained, for the purpose of the new seed clinical implementation, by our group using the established methods of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and thermo-luminescence dosimetry (TLD). Polymer gel dosimetry yields an average dose rate constant value of {lambda} = (0.921 {+-} 0.031) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} relative to {sub MC}{lambda} = (0.929 {+-} 0.014) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}, {sub TLD}{lambda} = (0.951 {+-} 0.044) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} and the average value of {lambda} = (0.940 {+-} 0.051) cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} proposed for the clinical implementation of the new seed. Results for radial dose function, g{sub L}(r), and anisotropy function, F(r, {theta}), also agree with corresponding MC calculations within experimental uncertainties which are smaller for the polymer gel method compared to TLD. It is concluded that the proposed polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging methodology could be used at least as a supplement to the established techniques for the dosimetric characterization of new low energy and low dose rate interstitial brachytherapy seeds.

  15. Polymer gel dosimetry for the TG-43 dosimetric characterization of a new 125I interstitial brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a polymer gel-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method is employed for the dosimetric characterization of a new 125I low dose rate seed (IsoSeed (registered) model I25.S17). Two vials filled with PABIG gel were prepared in-house and one new seed as well as one commercially available 125I seed of similar dose rate and well-known dosimetric parameters (IsoSeed (registered) model I25.S06) were positioned in each vial. Both seeds in each vial were MR scanned simultaneously on days 11 and 26 after implantation. The data obtained from the known seed in each vial are used to calibrate the gel dose response which, for the prolonged irradiation duration necessitated by the investigated dose rates, depends on the overall irradiation time. Data for this study are presented according to the AAPM TG-43 dosimetric formalism. Polymer gel results concerning the new seed are compared to corresponding, published dosimetric results obtained, for the purpose of the new seed clinical implementation, by our group using the established methods of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and thermo-luminescence dosimetry (TLD). Polymer gel dosimetry yields an average dose rate constant value of ? = (0.921 ± 0.031) cGy h-1 U-1 relative to MC? = (0.929 ± 0.014) cGy h-1 U-1, TLD? = (0.951 ± 0.044) cGy h-1 U-1 and the average value of ? = (0.940 ± 0.051) cGy h-1 U- 0.051) cGy h-1 U-1 proposed for the clinical implementation of the new seed. Results for radial dose function, gL(r), and anisotropy function, F(r, ?), also agree with corresponding MC calculations within experimental uncertainties which are smaller for the polymer gel method compared to TLD. It is concluded that the proposed polymer gel-magnetic resonance imaging methodology could be used at least as a supplement to the established techniques for the dosimetric characterization of new low energy and low dose rate interstitial brachytherapy seeds

  16. Specific activity determination of 125I labelled prolactin by receptor and radioinmunological self-displacement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was studied the specific activity of 125i labelled prolactin by mean of self-displacement of the hormone in binding experiments, using radioimmunoassay or receptor technique. The results obtained immediately after the labelling were compared to those calculated from yield measurement through radiochromatography. The specific activity was determined by self-displacement in order to study its modification with the time elapsed after labelling. The change of specific activity with different labelling conditions and using RIA or receptor techniques for its determination was also studied. The S.A. of 125I labelled prolactin as a function of time depends also on the method used for the labelling and even on every particular labelling process. Therefore we may conclude that, whenever S.A. or parameters derived from its value, such as the mass of the labelled protein, have to be used, the greatest caution must be used in order to avoid misleading results. (M.E.L.)

  17. Study on permeability of ?-NGF through blood brain barrier by 125I tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?-NGF is extracted from fetus brain by centrifugation, dialysing and ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of ?-NGF is 13 kD detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis; the isoelectric point of ?-NGF are 9.0, 9.2 and 9.3 respectively detected by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis; the ?-NGF shows the effect of stimulating neurite growth by PC12 cells culture. Using the 125I tracing technique, the animal experiments indicate (2.41 +- 0.12)% of injected 125I-?-NGF could go through the blood brain barrier at 15 min, and increase to (4.20 +- 0.07)% at 30 min. The results provides scientific basis for research of ?-NGF in clinical therapeutic application

  18. 125I-?-iodo-D-alanine-synthesis, biodistribution and antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl N-carbobenzoxy-?-iodo-D-alaninate (1) served as an intermediate to synthesize methyl ?-iodo-D-alaninate (2) and ?-iodo-D-alanine (3). The 125I-labeled compound 1 was synthesized by the melt method and used to synthesize 125I-labeled compounds 2 and 3. Compound 3 was shown to be substrate for D-amino acid oxidase. It was also shown that compounds 2 and 3 were rapidly eliminated from normal mammalian tissues and that compound 3 inhibited the Escherichia coli growth in a dose-dependent manner at 100-500 ?/ml while compound 2 showed no effect at 500 ?g/ml level. Therefore, it was suggested that compound 3 may serve as an abcess localizing agent. (orig.)

  19. Enzymatic iodination of salivary proteins by the 125I-lactoperoxidase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified milk lactoperoxidase and endogenous human salivary peroxidase were used to label the proteins of whole mouth saliva with [125I]iodide. The proteins were then analyzed by isoelectric focusing or they were subjected to one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.4. The radioactivity of the resolved protein fractions was determined. There were three to four major and four to five minor areas of radioactivity which were carried together with more or less distinctive fractions. Amylase and albumin were shown to be the most effective in binding [125I]iodide. No significant differences were observed in the iodination patterns of salivary proteins iodinated in the presence of endogenous saliva peroxidase and those iodinated in the presence of added milk lactoperoxidase. Hydrogen peroxide was necessary for iodination to take place. The significance of iodoproteins and the role of salivary peroxidases in the nonthyroidal metabolism of iodine are discussed. (author)

  20. Preparation of 125I-Ochratoxin and its biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochratoxin was successfully labelled with 125I in presence of chloramine-T (Ch-T) as an oxidizing agent. The effects of different reaction parameters such as reaction time, oxidizing agent concentration, ph and concentration of ochratoxin have been investigated. Separation and identification of the labelled products were achieved by means of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gel chromatography using sephadex G-25 column. The labelled product was orally administrated to rats and the accumulation of radioactivity in the body at definite time intervals was examined. The accumulation of the radioactivity was pronounced at the kidney, the liver, the blood and digestive intestinal tract. The produced 125I-ochratoxin was found stable in-vivo against biological decomposition

  1. Preparation of a radioimmunoassay kit for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1? using 125I derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay kit for 6-keto-PGF1? was prepared in which 125 I-labeled histamine derivative was used. The antiserum was raised by immunizing rabbits with 6-keto-PGF1?-BSA conjugate. Its specificity was satisfactory, presenting minor crossreactions (125I-histamine-6-keto-PGF1? was prepared using the chloramine-T procedure, the spcific activity was over 14.8 MBq/?g (400?Ci/?g). The minimal detectable limit was 2.2 pg per tube. The recovery rate was 97.2 ? 102.3%. The accuracy was 6.62%, and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.17% and 8.41% respectively. The normal plasma 6-keto-PGF1? value was 22.9±6.3 pg/mL (X ± SD, n=20)

  2. Preparation and properties of 125I-hemagglutinin from influenza viruses - Iodination of a membrane glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio iodination of influenza hemagglutinin produced low yields only. It was demonstrated that the cause is not of chemical nature, such as impurities and/or the reducing properties of the carbohydrate substituents of hemagglutinin itself, but is caused by the physical structure of the protein. Enzymatic cleavage and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel elctrophoresis of 125I-hemagglutinin revealed the distribution of 125I atoms in the tracer molecule and demonstrated, that that it is a sensible monitor for differences of the chemical and/or physical properties of the proteins used for iodination. Furthermore, evidence is given that uncellar aggregation of hemagglutinin is without effect on iodination, but plays an important role in tracer experiments because of their high kinetic stability. (author)

  3. Immobilization of viral antigens on filter paper for a [125I] staphylococcal protein A immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique is described for the rapid detection and quantitation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigens and antiviral antibodies. It involves immobilization of HSV antigens on filter paper discs and subsequent analysis by 125I-labelled staphylococcal protein A (SPA) radioimmunoassay. A specially designed 96-well filtration device is employed which serves both as an incubation chamber and as a filtration manifold. It is rapid, simple, sensitive and specific, and requires only small volumes of antiserum and few target cells. The results may be readily and objectively quantitated. This technique permits the simultaneous assay of a large number of specimens in less than 1h. Its sensitivity is considerably greater than that of other currently used immunologic techniques, and it is amenable to automation. These characteristics suggest that this [125 I]SPA immunofiltration technique may be applicable to the rapid diagnosis of viral infections. (Auth.)

  4. 125I-radioimmunotherapy with carbohydrate-based linkers coupling radioiodinated molecules to IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrophilically radioiodinated IgG's for in vivo radioimmunotherapy are fraught with difficulties; enzymatic dehalogenation, failure to deliver enough radionuclide to effectively destroy the cell, release of radionuclide from the cytoplasm before an effective disintegration can occur and binding avidity loss by the IgG for its target antigen. Many of these problems are solved by avoiding direct radioiodination of the IgG. The authors studies use carbohydrate moieties, including dextran derivatives and cellobiose, as linker/spacers to increase the amount of 125I-labelled species (tyramine or pyrimidines) a single IgG can deliver. The approach appears to increase residence time of the radionuclide within the cell. Syntheses, labeling, assembly, uptake and release rates for 125I-immunoconjugates of MAb 425 (targeted to human glioma tumor cells) are discussed

  5. Iodine-125 thin seeds decrease prostate swelling during transperineal interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate swelling following seed implantation is a well-recognised phenomenon. The purpose of this intervention was to assess whether using thinner seeds reduces post-implant swelling with permanent prostate brachytherapy. Eighteen consecutive patients eligible for prostate seed brachytherapy underwent seed implantation using iodine-125 (I-125) thin seeds. Operative time, dosimetry, prostate swelling and toxicity were assessed and compared with standard I-125 stranded seed controls, sourced from the department's brachytherapy database. A learning curve was noted with the thin seeds in terms of greater bending and deviation of needles from their intended path. This translated into significantly longer total operative time (88 vs 103 minutes; P=0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-24.3) and time per needle insertion (2.6 vs 3.7 minutes; P<0.001, 95% CI 0.5-1.3) for the thin seeds. Day 30 prostate volumes were significantly smaller in the thin seed group compared with standard seeds (40.9cc vs 46.8cc; P=0.001, 95% CI 1.5-5.6). The ratio of preoperative transrectal ultrasound to day 30 post-implant CT volume was also smaller in the thin seed group (1.2±0.1 for standard seeds vs 1.1±0.1 for thin seeds). Post-implant dosimetric parameters were comparable for both groups. No significant differences were seen in acute urinary morbidity or quality of life between the two groups. I-125 thin seeds are associated with an initial learning curve, with longer operative time, even for experienced brachytherapists. The significant reduction in day 30 prostate volumes with the thin seeds has useful implications in terms of optimising dose coverage to the prostate in the early period post-implantation, as well as improving the accuracy of post-implant dosimetric assessments.

  6. Differential dose contributions on total dose distribution of 125I brachytherapy source

    OpenAIRE

    Camgo?z, B.; Yeg?in, G.; Kumru, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    This work provides an improvement of the approach using Monte Carlo simulation for the Amersham Model 6711 125I brachytherapy seed source, which is well known by many theoretical and experimental studies. The source which has simple geometry was researched with respect to criteria of AAPM Tg-43 Report. The approach offered by this study involves determination of differential dose contributions that come from virtual partitions of a massive radioactive element of the studied source to a total ...

  7. Measurement of specific radioactivity of 125I, 139Ce, etc 7 kinds of nuclide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay characteristic of 125I, 139Ce, 88Y, 57Co, 60Co, 137Cs and 134Cs radio-nuclide and the principle for measurement of specific activity of the seven kinds of nuclide with coincidence method, 4?? ionization room method, spectroscopy method and summing peak method are simply is described. The results compare with the measurement result from National Institute of Metrology P.R. China, they are agreeable within uncertainty. (authors)

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 125I-erythropoietin as a potential radiopharmaceutical agent for tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo dos Santos Clemente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO is a glycoprotein hormone responsible for regulating erythropoiesis. Expression of EPO and EPO receptors (EPOr has recently been demonstrated in some neoplastic cell lines and tumours, suggesting a potential new target for therapy. In this work, EPO was labeled with iodine-125 using the lactoperoxidase method, known to prevent damage to protein during radioiodination, and labeling conditions were optimized. In vitro stability studies have shown that 125I-EPO is radiochemically stable for 20 days after radiolabeling. In vitro cell binding studies have demonstrated very low binding (A eritropoetina (EPO é um hormônio glicoprotéico responsável pela regulação da eritropoese. Recentemente foi demonstrado que os receptores de EPO (EPOr estão expressos em algumas linhas celulares neoplásicas, o que sugere a sua potencialidade como um novo alvo terapêutico. Neste trabalho a EPO foi radiomarcada com iodo-125 através do método da lactoperoxidase, menos agressivo para a viabilidade biológica das proteínas. A 125I-EPO revelou ser radioquimicamente estável durante 20 dias após a síntese. Um estudo biológico in vitro em linhas celulares tumorais demonstrou que a 125I-EPO apresenta uma ligação muito fraca (<2%, tanto em células normais como nas linhagens tumorais testadas. A biodistribuição em camundongos saudáveis apresentou taxas de fixação relativamente maiores nos órgãos excretores e a tireóide revelou ser o órgão crítico, o que pode indicar a dissociação in vivo da 125I-EPO. No estudo em camundongos com melanoma induzido a fixação no tumor foi residual. Serão, no entanto, necessários novos estudos em outras linhagens tumorais para entender o seu processo de internalização e ligação nas células. Estudos da EPO radiomarcada com carbono-11 poderão também revelar-se interessantes, já que neste método há maior probabilidade da atividade biológica ser preservada.

  9. 125I-labeled crosslinking reagent that is hydrophilic, photoactivatable, and cleavable through an azo linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioactive crosslinking reagent, N-[4-(p-azido-m-[125I]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-N'-oxysulfosuccinimide ester, has been synthesized. The reagent is photoactivatable, water-soluble, cleavable through an azo linkage, and labeled with 125I at the carrier-free specific activity of 2000 Ci/mmol. Any protein derivatized with the reagent is thus converted into an 125I-labeled photoaffinity probe. Crosslinks are formed following photolysis with 366-nm light, and cleavage by sodium dithionite results in the donation of radioactivity to the distal partner in crosslinked complexes. The newly labeled proteins are then analyzed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The compound was prepared by iodination of N-[4-(p-aminophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropionic acid using carrier-free Na125I and chloramine-T, followed by azide formation and conversion to the water-soluble sulfosuccinimide ester. As a model system, protein A-Sepharose was derivatized with the reagent under subdued light. Each derivatized protein A molecule contained only one crosslinker. The derivatized protein A-Sepharose was then photolyzed in the presence of human serum and subsequently treated with sodium dithionite. Analysis of the serum by gel electrophoresis revealed that 1.1% of the radioactive label originally present on the protein A-Sepharose was transferred to the heavy chain of IgG, which was the most intensely labeled protein in the gel. The netensely labeled protein in the gel. The next most intensely labeled protein was IgG light chain, which incorporated radioactivity that was lower by a factor of 3.6 than that of the heavy chain. 36 references, 3 figures

  10. A new 125I-anti-DNA-radioimmunoassay for the diagnosis of systematic Lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a differential diagnosis distinguishing between systematic lupus erythematosus and progressive and chronic polyarthritis, a special RIA method has been developed and tested. The anti-DNA activity was determined as follows: the antigen was a high-molecular double strand DNA from a human tumour cell strain biologically labelled with 125I-desoxyuridine. Free and bound antigen was separated by precipitation using saturated ammonium sulfate solution. Recovery and interassay variance of this RIA are comparable with that of other RIAs. (GSE)

  11. Synthesis of 3-(4-)125I(-iodophenylimine)-oxindole, its solubility and TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multistage synthesis of 3-(4-)125I(-iodophenylimine)-oxindole (IOX) is described. A radioactively labelled oxindole derivative was used for solubility determinations in various solvents and for the determination of its Rsub(F) values in two-component elution mixtures on Silufol TLC plates by increasing elution. Rsub(F) values are compared with analogous quantities for 3-phenylimineoxindole (HOX) and in some cases for iodide. (author)

  12. Binding of 125I-human growth hormone to specific receptors in human cultured lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of human growth hormone with human lymphocytes from an established culture (IM-9) was studied using 125I- human growth hormone. The binding of 125I-human growth hormone was rapid; with human growth hormone at 0.1 nM a steady state was observed in 90 min at 300. Bound labeled human growth hormone was dissociated rapidly by addition of excess unlabeled human growth hormone. Binding of 125I-human growth hormone to cultured lymphocytes was relatively insensitive to alterations in the pH and in the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA. At 800 there was very little degradation of labeled human growth hormone or of the specific receptor sites. Tryptic digestion destroyed the capacity of cells to bind human growth hormone. The IM-9 cells bound all human growth hormone preparations but not unrelated hormones or nonprimate growth hormones. The binding of 125I-human growth hormone was inhibited 10 to 14 percent with 1 to 2 ng per ml of unlabeled human growth hormone and 50 percent with 30 to 40 ng per ml, well within the range of hormone concentrations in vivo. Analysis of steady state data revealed a single order of binding sites with an affinity constant of 1.3 x 109 M-1 and about 4000 binding sites per cell. Numerous human growth hormone preparations were assayed by use of this receptor system as well as by immunoassay and by bioassay in vivo. The pooassay and by bioassay in vivo. The po

  13. Localization of 125I-insulin binding sites in the rat hypothalamus by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro autoradiography and computer video densitometry were used to localize and quantify binding of 125I-insulin in the hypothalamus of the rat brain. Highest specific binding was found in the arculate, dorsomedial, suprachiasmatic, paraventricular and periventricular regions. Significantly lower binding was present in the ventromedial nucleus and median eminence. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that insulin modulates the neural regulation of feeding by acting at sites in the hypothalamus. (author)

  14. Role of mitochondrial DNA in cell death induced by 125I decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of mitochondrial DNA in radiation-induced cell death was determined by selective [125I]iododeoxyuridine (125IUdR) incorporation into exclusively nuclear sites compared to labelling in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Chinese hamster cells. Such selectivity was achieved by using berenil (25 ?g/ml for 24 h), a drug which inhibits mitochondrial DNA synthesis without affecting incorporation of 125IUdR into nuclear DNA but does not result in reduced clonogenicity or cell cycle perturbations or alteration in the X-ray response of cells. There was no difference in cell killing between cells with nuclear labelling alone compared with nuclear plus mitochondrial labelling. The absence of decays in mitochondrial DNA does not affect the ability of 125I to induce lethal cell damage. The two treatment groups have superimposable curves with a D0 of 96 decays/cell. These findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA is not the most sensitive target for radiation-induced cell death from 125I decay. (author)

  15. Dopamine1 receptors in rat kidneys identified with 125I-Sch 23982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine1 receptors were studied in rat kidney using the selective dopamine1 antagonist 125I-labeled Sch 23982. The specific binding of 125I-Sch 23982 (defined by 5 microM Sch 23390) to renal cortical homogenates incubated at room temperature was rapid, saturable with time and ligand concentration, and reversible. Analysis of Rosenthal plots revealed a single class of receptors with an apparent dissociation constant of 12.2 +/- 1.9 nM and maximum receptor density of 1.03 +/- 0.15 pmol/mg protein (n = 6). However, competition experiments with the dopamine1 antagonist Sch 23390 revealed a low- and high-affinity binding site with inhibition constants of 1 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The competition experiments were also indicative of dopamine1 receptors with stereoselectivity noted for dopamine1 but not for dopamine2 antagonists. The inhibition constants for dopamine1 antagonists and agonists were two orders of magnitude greater in renal cortical than striatal homogenates. Different buffers affected striatal but not renal cortical binding. Autoradiographic studies revealed 125I-Sch 23982 binding in renal cortical but not medullary tissue. These studies confirm the presence of dopamine1 receptors in the cortex of the rat kidney

  16. Novel high resolution 125I brachytherapy source dosimetry using Ge-doped optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steep dose gradients close to brachytherapy sources limit the ability to obtain accurate measurements of dose. Here we use a novel high spatial resolution dosimeter to measure dose around a 125I source and compare against simulations. Ge-doped optical fibres, used as thermoluminescent dosimeters, offer sub-mm spatial resolution, linear response from 10 cGy to >1 kGy and dose-rate independence. For a 125I brachytherapy seed in a PMMA phantom, doses were obtained for source-dosimeter separations from 0.1 cm up to several cm, supported by EGSnrc/DOSRZznrc Monte Carlo simulations and treatment planning system data. The measurements agree with simulations to within 2.3%±0.3% along the transverse and perpendicular axes and within 3.0%±0.5% for measurements investigating anisotropy in angular dose distribution. Measured and Veriseed™ brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS) values agreed to within 2.7%±0.5%. Ge-doped optical fibre dosimeters allow detailed dose mapping around brachytherapy sources, not least in situations of high dose gradient. - Highlights: • We evaluate fall-off in dose for distances from an 125I source of 1 mm to 60 mm. • The TL of optical fibres accommodate high dose gradients and doses that reduce by a factor of 103 across the range of separations. • We verify measured values using DOSRZnrc Monte Carlo code simulations and the Variseed™ Treatment Planning System. • Measured radial and angular dose are obtained with ?3% uncertainty

  17. Influence of 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy on recovery of facial nerve function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy in parotid region on the recovery of facial nerve function. Methods: A total of the data of 21 patients with primary parotid carcinoma were treated with resection and 125I interstitial brachytherapy. All the patients had no facial palsy before operation and the prescribed dose was 60 Gy. During 4 years of follow-up, the House-Brackmann grading scales and ENoG were used to evaluate the function of facial nerve. According to the modified regional House-Brackmann grading scales, the facial nerve branches of patients in affected side were divided into normal and abnormal groups, and were compared with those in contra-lateral side. Results: Post-operation facial palsy occurred in all the patients, but the facial palsy recovered within 6 months. The latency time differences between affected side and contralateral side were statistically significant in abnormal group from 1 week to 6 months after treatment (t=2.362, P=0.028), and were also different in normal group 1 week after treatment (t=2.522, P=0.027). Conclusions: 125I interstitital brachytherapy has no influence on recovery of facial nerve function after tumor resection and no delayed facial nerve damage. (authors)

  18. Protein radioiodination in a radioassay laboratory: evaluation of commercial Na125I reagents and related biohazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three commercial Na125I solutions (Amersham, New England Nuclear, and Union Carbide) have been examined with respect to multiple parameters affecting their use in the radioiodination of three representative peptides (insulin, growth hormone, and gastrin): % of radioiodine incorporation in protein; immunoreactivity and non-specific binding properties of the radiolabeled proteins; pH, volatility, and radionuclidic purity of radioiodine solutions; and vial construction with respect to multidose use. All three commercial Na125I produced radioiodinated proteins of good quality for use in radioligand assays. The radioiodines differed with respect to the amount of iodine released during initial vial opening as a consequence of different pH levels. Two of the three products were shipped in vials with poor construction with respect to multidose use. Selection of a radioiodine was therefore reduced to the secondary considerations of iodine volatility and vial construction. The volatilized radioiodine observed during the spill of millicuries quantities of unbuffered pH 7.5 Na125I was 14 microcuries per millicurie within the first 30 minutes. One thickness of rubber gloves reduced potential skin contamination from an accidental spill to insignificant levels: 20-30 picocuries per microcurie. Common good housekeeping procedures: i.e. rubber gloves, laboratory coat and a fume hood were found to be sufficient protection to eliminate most radioiodine vprotection to eliminate most radioiodine volatility and contamination hazards associated with protein radiolabeling procedures

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 125I-erythropoietin as a potential radiopharmaceutical agent for tumours

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonçalo dos Santos, Clemente; Vera Lúcia Serra, Duarte.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A eritropoetina (EPO) é um hormônio glicoprotéico responsável pela regulação da eritropoese. Recentemente foi demonstrado que os receptores de EPO (EPOr) estão expressos em algumas linhas celulares neoplásicas, o que sugere a sua potencialidade como um novo alvo terapêutico. Neste trabalho a EPO foi [...] radiomarcada com iodo-125 através do método da lactoperoxidase, menos agressivo para a viabilidade biológica das proteínas. A 125I-EPO revelou ser radioquimicamente estável durante 20 dias após a síntese. Um estudo biológico in vitro em linhas celulares tumorais demonstrou que a 125I-EPO apresenta uma ligação muito fraca ( Abstract in english Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone responsible for regulating erythropoiesis. Expression of EPO and EPO receptors (EPOr) has recently been demonstrated in some neoplastic cell lines and tumours, suggesting a potential new target for therapy. In this work, EPO was labeled with iodine-125 [...] using the lactoperoxidase method, known to prevent damage to protein during radioiodination, and labeling conditions were optimized. In vitro stability studies have shown that 125I-EPO is radiochemically stable for 20 days after radiolabeling. In vitro cell binding studies have demonstrated very low binding (

  20. Direct label method and crystal structure of 3'-125I-BTA-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop 123I-labeled benzothiazole derivatives as imaging agents for A? plaques in the brain with Alzheimer's disease, 3'-125I-BTA-0 was synthesized with direct labeling method. The experimental condition of directly labeling BTA-0 with 125I was studied. The optimum condition is obtained: labeling reaction lasts for 25 min at 60 degree C and pH=2.5, the volume of 0.6 g/L BTA-0 is 0.1 mL, and the mass concentration of H2O2 is about 0.4 kg/L. Under the optimum condition, the labeling yield of 3'-125I-BTA-0 is 72%, and its radiochemical purity is more than 95%. The single crystal of 3'-I-BTA-0 was prepared via electrophilic reaction. The crystal structure of 3'-I-BTA-0 was determined. The result indicates that I atom and S atom are on the same side in the molecule. (authors)

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 125-I-labelled meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine : Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of some pharmacokinetics providing the mechanism of uptake amd metabolism parameters for the 125-I-mIBG is described. NMRI mice are used for plasma binding study, the animals are killed by decapitation after intravenously (IV) injection of 125-I-mIBG. Wistar rats are used in urinary excretion study. After IV injection, animals are placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. For biodistribution, the rats are killed at different time intervals. The considered organs are removed. The radioactivity of all parameters was performed by gamma counter. The results show that the blood clearance is very high after several hours post injection and very high after 72 hours. Furthermore, we note a rapid excretion of radioactivity 24 hours post injection. However, we observe that 72 hours after injection, the radioactivity per gram of different organs was normalized according to the adrenal glands. Also, we note, that the adrenal glands may be the only target organs 48 hours post injection. These results confirm that 125-I-mIBG a high affinity for the adrenergic innervation organs (Adrenal glands, salivary glands, heart and spleen)

  2. Synthesis and 125I labelling of a precursor for imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (nAChRs) are involved in various pharmacological effects or diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and tobacco addiction. It will be very appealing to image nAChRs in vivo, diagnose and treat the above diseases, and probe the mechanism of nAChRs in tobacco addiction if the suitable radioactive labeled compound can be synthesized. In this study, (s)-5-(tri-butylstannyl)-3{[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-azetidinyl]methoxy} pyridine, a precursor for imaging nAChRs, was synthesized with commercial 2-furfurylamine and (s)-2-azetidinecarboxylic acid as starting materials, and was further labeled with 125/123I. The whole procedure for radiosynthesis needs 50-55 min and more than 30% of the 125I are found in the purified 5-[125I]-A-85380. Even staying for 3 days at room temperature in vitro, the purified 5-[125I]-I-85380 can maintain its stability, with a radiochemical purity of more than 95%. (authors)

  3. Pharmacokinetics and tumor retention of 125I-labeled RGD peptide are improved by PEGylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor growth and metastasis are angiogenesis dependent. Overexpression of integrin ?v?3 in angiogenic vessels as well as various malignant human tumors suggests the potential of suitably labeled antagonists of this adhesion receptor for radionuclide imaging and therapy of tumors. Small head-to-tail cyclic peptides including the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence have been radiolabeled and studied in preclinical animal models. However, the fast blood clearance, high kidney and liver uptake, and rapid washout from tumors make this type of tracer ineffective for clinical applications. In this study we modified the cyclic pentapeptide c(RGDyK) with monofunctional methoxy-PEG (mPEG, M.W. = 2,000) and labeled the RGD-mPEG conjugate with 125I. We studied the tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of 125I-RGD-mPEG by means of direct tissue sampling and autoradiography in mice xenografted subcutaneously with U87MG glioblastoma. Compared to the 125I-RGD analog, this PEGylated RGD peptide revealed faster blood clearance, lower kidney uptake, and prolonged tumor uptake without compromising the receptor targeting ability

  4. Photoaffinity labelling of the rat liver nuclear thyroid hormone receptor with [125I]triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [125I]Triiodothyronine (T3) was used as a photoreactive probe for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor in photoaffinity labelling experiments. Autoradiograms of photolysis products electrophoresed on either one or two-dimensional gels showed that [125I]T3 covalently, but nonspecifically, labelled many proteins in the partially purified receptor preparations used. However, one of these proteins with an estimated molecular weight of 47,000 and an isoelectric point of approximately 6.2 +/- 0.5 pH units appears to be the thyroid hormone receptor, since, in contrast to the other proteins, its photoinduced labelling was blocked by concentrations of T3 and thyroxine (T4) similar to those that inhibit binding of [125I]T3 by the receptor in equilibrium binding assays. In addition, the isoelectric point of the photolabelled protein agrees with that determined in separate equilibrium isoelectric focusing studies. These results indicate that [125]T3 can serve as a photoreactive probe for the thyroid hormone nuclear receptor, and they suggest that this receptor is a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 47,000 with an isoelectric point of 6.2 +/- 0.5 pH units

  5. Portable detectors for 125I-insulin absorption measurement during subcutaneous infusion with portable pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmed subcutaneous insulin infusion is a promising method for normalisation of the blood glucose concentration in insulin-dependent diabetics. The absorption rate from the depot is usually measured intermittently by radioactively-labelled insulin and stationary scintillation detectors. Small portable detectors are an alternative, however, and continuous absorption measurements could be made during normal life conditions. Contrary to conventional single injection therapy, the insulin depot initially expands during infusion treatment, changing the geometry during measurements. In the present study the methodological aspects and geometrical dependences were investigated. Simulated studies were made with various plane disc 125I sources in Perspex phantoms as well as 125I-insulin absorption studies in short-term subcutaneous infusion experiments with anaesthetised rabbits. Results from portable, end-window Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors fixed above the depots and close to the surfaces of phantom or skin were compared with results obtained by a conventional stationary NaI(Tl) detector 15 cm from the phantom or skin surface. With a 125I-insulin infusion site at 5 mm depth in the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits, an overall linear proportionality was found between the results obtained with a NaI(Tl) detector and a GM detector raised 15 mm above the skin surface inside the detector housing. (author)

  6. Sequential evaluation of prostate edema after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy using CT-MRI fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the extent and time course of prostate edema and its effect on dosimetry after permanent seed prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients scheduled for permanent seed 125I prostate brachytherapy agreed to a prospective study on postimplant edema. Implants were preplanned using transrectal ultrasonography. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated using computed tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) fusion on the day of the implant (Day 1) and Days 8 and 30. The prostate was contoured on MRI, and the seeds were located on CT. Factors investigated for an influence on edema were the number of seeds and needles, preimplant prostate volume, transitional zone index (transition zone volume divided by prostate volume), age, and prostate-specific antigen level. Prostate dosimetry was evaluated by the percentage of the prostate volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose (V100) and percentage of prescribed dose received by 90% of the prostate volume (D90). Results: Prostate edema was maximal on Day 1, with the median prostate volume 31% greater than preimplant transrectal ultrasound volume (range, 0.93-1.72; p 100 on Day 1 was 93.6% (range, 86.0-98.2%) and was 96.3% (range, 85.7-99.5%) on Day 30 (p = 0.079). Patients with a Day 1 V100 >93% were less affected by edema resolution, showing a median increase in V100 of 0.67% on Day 30 compared with 2.77% for patients with a V100 100 >93%)

  7. Evaluation of iodogen-coated tubes for 125I-iodination of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 125I-iodine labelled antibodies such as anti-CD-20, Rituximab, Mabthera(r): are required for various initial immunoreactivity experiments. For this purpose a progressive method is the usage of IODOGEN precoated iodination tubes. Iodogen has become a wide spread mild and effective solid phase oxidation agent in radiochemistry for the past years. There are different techniques to coat either the reaction vial or the antibody itself, yet for getting acquainted with radioiodination ready to use coated tubes are feasible. Iodogen is a 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3?,6?-diphenylglycouril, insoluble in aqueous solutions. Per tube 50?g of this agent are coated inside onto the glass wall of the bottom of the vessel. The labelling procedure is as follows: 0.1 ml antibody - solution (containing l mg MoAb) and 40 to 60 MBq of 125I - NaI in PBS (0.6 m1) are injected through the septum of the tube. After an incubation time of 15 min at room temperature (gently shaking) the reaction is stopped by adding 0.1 ml of a solution of l mg potassium iodide in l ml saline, and simultaneously BioRad AG1-X8, 100-200 mesh, anion exchange resin (20 % in saline). After l min of ion exchange the reaction mixture is passed through a 0.22 ?m membrane filter. Further purification can be obtained by gel filtration through PD-10 columns with PBS as eluent. Radiochernical purity is surveyed by ITLC (0.9 % saline); the 0.5 m1-fractions of the eluate of the gelfiltration are analyzed by ?-scintillation-counting. Overall yields are between 30 and 40 %, yet both yield and reaction velocity are declining with enlarging the reaction volume. The anion exchange resin traps any possible 125I-iodide very well yet the following 0.22 ?m-filtration is consecuted by a retention of up to 23 % of total activity. In the PD-10 purification step the first 2 ml must be discarded whereas the antibody elutes with the next 3 to 4 ml. 125I-Iodide would elute afterwards. The labelling reaction can be performed in the described way very easily yet attention has to be payed to keep the reaction volume as small as possible since otherwise the Na 125I would not get into contact with the iodogen reaction zone at the bottom of the tube. (author)

  8. The preliminary biocharacteristic study of a potential dopamine D3 receptor imaging agent, 125I-7-OH-PIPAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the biocharacteristics of a potential dopamine D3 receptor imaging agent, 125I-7-hydroxy-2-[N-propyl-N-(3'-iodo-2'-propenyl)-amino]tetralin (7-OH-PIPAT) which was synthesized in this lab. Methods: 125I-7-OH-PIPAT was used as a radioactive tracer to study the biodistribution of 125I-7-OH-PIPAT in rats and in particular, in the brain regions, and autoradiography was used to study the binding sites of 125I-7-OH-PIPAT in rat brain slices. Results: The uptake of 125I-7-OH-PIPAT in the whole brain reached to 1%, and autoradiography showed that 125I-7-OH-PIPAT was accumulated at olfactory tubercle and limbic regions of rat brain. Conclusions: 125I-7-OH-PIPAT is able to penetrate the brain blood barrier, and has the affinity to dopamine D3 receptors. It has the potential activity to be a dopamine D3 receptor imaging agent

  9. Measurement of 125I-low density lipoprotein uptake in selected tissues of the squirrel monkey by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed technique of absolute quantitative light microscopic autoradiography of 125I-labeled proteins in biologic specimens was used to measure 125I-low density lipoprotein (125I-LDL) concentration levels in various tissues of the squirrel monkey after 30 minutes of in vivo LDL circulation. Liver and adrenal cortex exhibited high 125I-LDL concentrations, presumably because of binding to specific cell surface receptors and/or internalization in vascular beds with high permeability to LDL. High tissue concentrations of LDL were associated with the zona fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortex and the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testis; significantly lower levels of 125I-LDL were observed in the adrenal medulla, the zona glomerulosa, and germinal centers of the testis. Contrary to previous reports, low 125I-LDL concentrations were observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in lymph nodes. In addition, multiple arterial intramural focal areas of high 125I-LDL concentrations were identified in arteries supplying the adrenal gland, lymph node, small bowel, and liver

  10. Bioactivity assays and application of 125I labeled human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the bioactivity and application of 125I labeled human mouse chimeric monoclonal SM03, SM03 was labeled with 125I using Indogen method. The labeled mixture was purified by Sephacryl S-300 HR separation chromospectry. The purity and concentration of separated fractions were determined by HPLC and Protein Assay Kit, respectively. Competitive binding method and ELISA method were used for bioactivity assays. 125I-SM03 was applied to screen cell lines which express the most abundant CD22 antigen. The purity and recovery of 125I-SM03 were >99% and >47%, respectively. The bioactivity of 125I- SM03 and SM03 hasn't significant difference in statistics. Ramos cell line had the strongest special radioactivity when 125I-SM03 bound with in Raji, Daudi and Ramos cell lines. Indogen method is a good way to label Human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03 and the label will not affect the activity of SM03. The 125I-SM03 not only can be used for detect agent, but also may be put into market for NHL therapy. (authors)

  11. 125I-labeled protein A as a general tracer in immunoassay: suitability of goat and sheep antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunoassay method in which 125I-labeled staphylococcal Protein A ([125I]PA) serves as a general tracer has been extended to include goat and sheep IgG antibodies. Goat and sheep IgG normally do not react significantly with PA. However, once IgG antibody is bound to immobilized antigen or hapten, binding of [125I]PA is enhanced markedly. Binding efficiencies of [125I]PA to immune complexed goat anti-human IgM, human IgE, methotrexate and sheep anti-IgE were determined and compared quantitatively to rabbit IgG with the corresponding specificity. Immunoassays were developed based on the inhibition of [125I]PA binding as a measure of antibody inhibition by fluid-phase homologous ligand. Goat antibody to the monovalent hapten methotrexate behaved anomalously: for each concentration of IgG tested, there was an optimal amount of methotrexate beads that gave maximum binding of [125I]PA. In the other immune systems, for each antibody concentration maximum binding of tracer was a function only of the amount of immobilized anitgen added. In contrast to the results obtained with solid-phase antigen, solutions containing antibody and amounts of antigen ranging from large antigen excess to antibody excess failed to react significantly with PA or [125I]PA. (Auth.)

  12. Radiosynthesis, in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo biodistribution of 3'-O-(3-benzenesulfonylfuroxan-4-yl)-5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, a nucleoside-based nitric oxide donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: 3'-O-(3-Benzenesulfonylfuroxan-4-yl)-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (1) is a cytotoxic nitric oxide (NO) donor-nucleoside dual action prodrug designed to exploit both NO and an antimetabolite nucleoside for cancer therapy. Methods: 1 was radiolabeled by radioiodide exchange and purified by HPLC in 16% overall radiochemical yield. The specific activity of [125I]1 was 31.8 ?Ci/?g (680 MBq/?M). Protein binding, deiodination, cellular uptake and incorporation of 1 into cellular nucleic acids were measured by standard methods, and its in vivo biodistribution was determined in Balb/c mice bearing implanted EMT-6 tumors following intravenous injection. Results: [125I]1 degraded rapidly during the in vitro tests, thus impeding unequivocal assessment but indicating that it was only weakly protein bound and that it was resistant to deiodination under test conditions. Uptake of [125I]1 by murine tumor cells (KBALB and KBALB-STK) in vitro was low (?17 fmol/?g protein over 2 h) with only ?0.3% (0.04-0.06 fmol/?g protein) of total uptake present in the DNA fraction. In the murine tumor model, liver, kidney, intestine and tumor showed the greatest uptake, with liver, intestine and blood all containing >5 injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) during the 15-min to 2-h postinjection period. Maximum tissue/blood level ratios were 3.6 (2 h) for tumor and 6.4 (24 h) for liver. Low uptake in thyroid and stomach was indicative of minimal inmach was indicative of minimal in vivo deiodination. Conclusions: [125I]1 undergoes only minimal deoiodination under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Under conditions of the in vitro NO release assay, 1 reacts to produce a single, major, unstable adduct that decomposes upon workup. Protein binding of [125I]1 could not be assessed because of similar chemical reaction with albumin. Incorporation of radioactivity into the cellular nucleic acid fraction was low, and in vivo distribution of [125I]1 was consistent with nonspecific reactivity towards tissue nucleophiles. The chemical reactivity of [125I]1 mitigates against its use as a NO donor and as a tracer for this class of compounds

  13. Retrograde axonal transport of 125I-nerve growth factor in rat ileal mesenteric nerves. Effect of streptozocin diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrograde axonal transport of intravenously (i.v.) administered 125I-nerve growth factor (125I-NGF) was examined in mesenteric nerves innervating the small bowel of rats with streptozocin (STZ) diabetes using methods described in detail in the companion article. The accumulation of 125I-NGF distal to a ligature on the ileal mesenteric nerves of diabetic animals was 30-40% less than in control animals. The inhibition of accumulation of 125I-NGF in diabetic animals was greater at a ligature tied 2 h after i.v. administration than at a ligature tied after 14 h, which suggests that the diabetic animals may have a lag in initiation of NGF transport in the terminal axon or retardation of transport at some site along the axon. The 125I-NGF transport defect was observed as early as 3 days after the induction of diabetes, a time before the development of structural axonal lesions, and did not worsen at later times when dystrophic axonopathy is present. Both the ileal mesenteric nerves, which eventually develop dystrophic axonopathy in experimental diabetes, and the jejunal mesenteric nerves, which never develop comparable structural alterations, showed similar 125I-NGF transport deficits, suggesting that the existence of the transport abnormality does not predict the eventual development of dystrophic axonal lesions. Autoradiographic localization of 125I-NGF in the ileal mesenteric nerves of animNGF in the ileal mesenteric nerves of animals that had been diabetic for 11-13 mo demonstrated decreased amounts of 125I-NGF in transit in unligated paravascular nerve fascicles. There was, however, no evidence for focal retardation of transported 125I-NGF at the sites of dystrophic axonal lesions

  14. A rapid means of separating A14-125I-insulin from heterogeneously labeled insulin molecules for biologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used two methods for the preparation of a highly homogeneous insulin with high specific activity. After iodination with chloramine T, the labeled peptides were retained on a disposable Sep Pak cartridge and subsequently eluted. The eluted labeled insulins were further purified by either DEAE cellulose or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate A14-125I- from A19-125I-insulin. Both methods of chromatography were effective, but HPLC offered the advantage of better resolution in less time and higher yields of A14-125I-insulin, which is suitable for biologic studies in various target tissues

  15. Preliminary study on determination of dopamine 2 receptor in rat striatum by 12'5I-chlorpromazine-tyramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the offectineness of labelled chlorpro mazine for the determination of dopa- mine 2(D2) receptor in rat striatum, the chlorpromazine-tyramine, which was synthesized by coupling chlorpromazine to tyramine, was 125Ilabelled by Iodogen method and used as radioactive ligands. Non-labelled ligands were set to compete with 125I-labelled competitors of different concentrations. The 125I-labelled chlorpromazine-tyramine could be bound to D2 receptor in rat striatum. The binding affinity was strong and the rolated data were stable, suggesting that 125I- labelled chlorpromazine -tyramine is useful for determining 2(D2) receptor. (authors)

  16. Processing of receptor-bound [125I-Tyr11]somatostatin by RINm5F insulinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peptide somatostatin (SRIF) is secreted by delta cells of the endocrine pancreas and inhibits the secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. It has been shown that [125I-Tyr11]SRIF binds to specific, high affinity receptors on RINm5F insulinoma cells and that these receptors mediate the action of SRIF to inhibit insulin release. In the present study we investigated the processing of receptor-bound [125I-Tyr11]SRIF in this clonal cell line. Surface-bound and internalized peptides were distinguished by the ability of an acid/salt solution (0.2 M acetic acid, 0.5 M NaCl, pH 2.5) to dissociate only exposed ligand-receptor complexes. Surprisingly, greater than 80% of saturably bound [125I-Tyr11]SRIF was removed by this acid wash independent of the time or temperature of the binding incubation. In contrast, the processing of receptor-bound [125I]EGF (epidermal growth factor) in RINm5F cells was markedly temperature-dependent. Although over 90% of saturably bound [125I]EGF was dissociated by acid after a 4 degrees C binding incubation, less than 10% was removed by acid treatment after 37 degrees C binding. The radioactivity released upon dissociation of receptor-bound [125I-Tyr11]SRIF was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and shown to consist of a mixture of intact peptide (40%) and [125I]tyrosine (60%). However, neither the rate of [125I-Tyr11]SRIF dissociation nor its degradation were affected by NH4Cl, methylamine, or leupeptin at concentrationsethylamine, or leupeptin at concentrations which inhibited the lysosomal degradation of [125I] EGF. Of 11 other protease inhibitors tested, only the metalloendoprotease inhibitor, phosphoramidon, substantially reduced the degradation of receptor-bound [125I-Tyr11]SRIF. These data indicate that, unlike [125I] EGF, receptor-bound [125I-Tyr11]SRIF is not rapidly internalized by RINm5F cells and is degraded by a nonlysosomal process which may involve a metalloendoprotease

  17. Molecular suicide studies of 125I and 3H disintegration in the DNA of Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent experiments are discussed which yield some new data to help further understand the dramatic sensitivity of mammalian cells to 125I induced reproductive death. The authors discuss the effects of halogenated pyrimidines on removing the shoulder of the survival curve after tritium thymidine suicide; the effect of oxygen on 125I decay effects as a functions of the localization of the decays within the nucleus; and recent data on the induction of chromosome aberrations by 125I DNA decays in CHO cells stored in the G1-stage of the cell cycle. (B.R.H.)

  18. Alternative labelling of the cocaine analogue isomers ?-CIT and ?-CIT by direct iodination with no-carrier-added Na125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative labelling of the cocaine analogue isomers ?-CIT and ?-CIT with no-carrier-added 125I by direct iodination of 2?- and 2?-carbomethoxy-3?-phenyltropane with Na125I/sulfuric acid/nitric acid/acetic acid and peracetic acid under different reaction conditions, is described. The maximum radiolabelling yield obtained with the two isomers was 48% for [125I]?-CIT and 28% for [125I]?-CIT. (author)

  19. Radiobiology for eye plaque brachytherapy and evaluation of implant duration and radionuclide choice using an objective function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, Nolan L.; Leonard, Kara L.; Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Clinical optimization of Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) eye plaque brachytherapy is currently limited to tumor coverage, consensus prescription dosage, and dose calculations to ocular structures. The biologically effective dose (BED) of temporary brachytherapy treatments is a function of both chosen radionuclide R and implant duration T. This study endeavored to evaluate BED delivered to the tumor volume and surrounding ocular structures as a function of plaque position P, prescription dose, R, and T. Methods: Plaque-heterogeneity-corrected dose distributions were generated with MCNP5 for the range of currently available COMS plaques loaded with sources using three available low-energy radionuclides. These physical dose distributions were imported into the PINNACLE{sup 3} treatment planning system using the TG-43 hybrid technique and used to generate dose volume histograms for a T = 7 day implant within a reference eye geometry including the ciliary body, cornea, eyelid, foveola, lacrimal gland, lens, optic disc, optic nerve, retina, and tumor at eight standard treatment positions. The equation of Dale and Jones was employed to create biologically effective dose volume histograms (BEDVHs), allowing for BED volumetric analysis of all ROIs. Isobiologically effective prescription doses were calculated for T = 5 days down to 0.01 days, with BEDVHs subsequently generated for all ROIs using correspondingly reduced prescription doses. Objective functions were created to evaluate the BEDVHs as a function of R and T. These objective functions are mathematically accessible and sufficiently general to be applied to temporary or permanent brachytherapy implants for a variety of disease sites. Results: Reducing T from 7 to 0.01 days for a 10 mm plaque produced an average BED benefit of 26%, 20%, and 17% for {sup 103}Pd, {sup 125}I, and {sup 131}Cs, respectively, for all P; 16 and 22 mm plaque results were more position-dependent. {sup 103}Pd produced a 16%-35% BED benefit over {sup 125}I, whereas {sup 131}Cs produced a 3%-7% BED detriment, independent of P, T, and plaque size. Additionally, corresponding organ at risk physical doses were lowest using {sup 103}Pd in all circumstances. Conclusions: The results suggest that shorter implant durations may correlate with more favorable outcomes compared to 7 day implants when treating small or medium intraocular lesions. The data also indicate that implant duration may be safely reduced if the prescription physical dose is likewise diminished and that {sup 103}Pd offers a substantial radiobiological benefit over {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs irrespective of plaque position, implant duration, and tumor size.

  20. A study of thyroid contaminations with 125I and of their blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive method for the detection of 125I contaminations of the thyroid was set up, the uptakes being determined by comparison with a standard curve, obtained by placing various calibrated sources of in a neck phantom. The detector efficiency was of the order of 0.25% with a stability of +- 0.011% (CV=4.4%) over a six month period. Accuracy was also confirmed, while precision studies showed an inter measurement coefficient of variation of 2 - 6 % when the measured activities were above 1 kBq. Sensitivity determined according to two different definitions ranged between 30 and 80 Bq. Thirty workers, performing routine 125I labeling in several laboratories of the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil), were monitored, 25 of which (83%) presented significant thyroid contaminations, the maximum being 24 kBq (650 nCi) at the moment of first detection. In five individuals the effective half-life of life of 125I could also be calculated, with enough precision, resulting in a value of 39.4 +- 6.1 d. With basis on these findings and methodology a study was carried out in an animal model (dog) in order to find an useful correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and radioiodine urinalysis at a certain time after contamination, that still could allow the intervention with an adequate blocking agent. The best correlation was found considering 125I thyroid uptake 48 hours (T-48) and urine radioactivity 4 to 6 hours (U-4, U-5, U-6) after contamination (r = 0.974 with a level of significance pT-48 = 0.790 XU-4 + 2.973. could also be calculated, with enough precision, resulting in a value of 39.4 +- 6.1 d. With basis on these findings and methodology a study was carried out in an animal model (dog) in order to find an useful correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and radioiodine urinalysis at a certain time after contamination, that still could allow the intervention with an adequate blocking agent. The best correlation was found considering 125I thyroid uptake 48 hours (T-48) and urine radioactivity 4 to 6 hours (U-4, U-5, U-6) after contamination (r = 0.974 with a level of significance pT-48 = 0.790 XU-4 + 2.973. An analogous study, carried out in humans to which was administered, presented a similar correlation and level of significance : YT-24 = 1.162 XU-4 + 3.263 (r = 0.9265; p125I or 131I, showing a good agreement between measured and extrapolated thyroid uptake, with a mean difference of less than 10%. Three different blocking agents were tested : potassium iodide and perchlorate and tapazol. The first two compounds presented a blocking action of about 90% while the third of 24% only. Potassium iodide was chosen due to its limited side effects and a final study, carried out with different doses, indicated that 25 mg of KI should be the ideal amount to be administered to the dog. This corresponds to an extrapolated amount of approximately 100 mg for a 70 kg human, the same being recommended by various authors. (author)

  1. Pharmacokinetics of 125I-labelled recombinant epidermal growth factor after intravenous injection of the drug in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I-rhEGF was prepared by Iodogen method. Purity was (97.1 +- 0.45)% as determined by SDS-PAGE. The results revealed that plasma radioactivities remained at high level within 8 hours, while fraction of 125I-rhEGF determined by RHPLC decreased rapidly and 125I labelled hydrophilic fraction increased simultaneously. Concentration-time curve of 125I-rhEGF was best fitted with two-compartment model. Disintegration half-lives were 9 min and 11.6 h, respectively. Levels in tissues were urine>thyroid gland>contents in jejunum>kidneys>plasma>bile>submaxillary glands>lungs. A total of (20.3 +- 5.1)% of injected radioactivity was excreted through urine within 8 h

  2. Synthesis of 2-n butyl 3-(3,5-125diiodo 4-(N,N-diethylamino 2-ethoxybenzoyl)) benzofuran hydrochloride (125I amiodarone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    125I Amiodarone an antianginal and antiarrhythmic agent, was prepared by iodination of 2-n butyl 4-hydroxy 3-benzoyl benzofuran with Na125I in alkaline medium. By amination with N,N-diethyl 2-amino 1-chloroethane, 125I amiodarone was obtained with 30% yield and a specific activity of about 1 Ci/mmol. (author)

  3. Use of /sup 125/I as a monoclonal antibody label for localizing human soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor specific IgG fragments labeled with /sup 125/I are commonly used for immunologic screening of monoclonal antibodies (Mab). When /sup 125/I-labeled mouse Mab 19-24 against a soft tissue sarcoma was injected into patients (Pts) with metastatic disease, external probe surveys localized sites of known metastasis. The question of feasibility of metastatic imaging with I-125 was raised and investigated. 11 Pts with biopsy proven metastasis and 5 suspected but found disease free subsequently were imaged. Each received 300 ?g of Mab 19-24 (corresponding to 250 ?Ci I-125 in 10 pts and 500 ?Ci in 6 pts) diluted in 50cc 5% HSA. Gamma camera had 1/4'' crystal, 10'' diameter and capability of selecting a 20% window symmetrically bracketed over the 35 KeV peak. Serial imaging included anterior abdomen, anterior and posterior chest and any other suspected areas of recurrence. The first set of images were obtained for 10 K cts or 10 min whichever occured first. Follow up images were taken for the corresponding same duration in order to facilitate washout evaluation. In five pts nonspecific /sup 125/I Mab-P/sub 3/ was also administered several days before or following the specific antibody imaging. Correlative imaging procedures were performed on all patients. Optimum tumor/background visualization occurred between 24-48 hours. Lesions were detected in 10 of 11 biopsy proven pts (sens. = 91%). Smallest lesion detected was 1 x 1.5 cm in the groin area. No lesions were detectedhe groin area. No lesions were detected in 5 tumor free pts (spec. = 100%). With suitably specific Mab, proper equipment and proper imaging protocol, I-125 Mab can provide diagnostically useful images

  4. Specific binding of 125I-salmon calcitonin to rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat brain particulate fraction was found to contain binding sites for 125I-Salmon Calcitonin-I (125I-SCT). Maximum binding occurred in the physiological pH range of 7.25 - 7.5. The binding reaction proceeded in a temperature-dependent manner. Binding sites were broadly distributed among the various rat brain regions and considerable regional differences existed in the affinity and density as detected by Scatchard analysis. The highest affinity was recorded in the case of the hypothalamus and the lowest in the case of the cerebellum. The KD (nM) and Bmax (pmole/mg protein) estimated for the binding to four regions were as follows: hypothalamus: 1.4 and 0.19, midbrain, hippocampus plus striatum: 1.5 and 0.08, pon plus medulla oblongata: 3.0 and 0.15 and cerebellum: 8.3 and 0.20. Using a particulate fraction of rat brain void of cerebellum and cortices, a binding assay for calcitonins was developed. Binding of 125I-SCT was inhibited by unlabeled salmon, [Asu sup(1,7)]-eel and porcine calcitonins in a dose-dependent manner and the IC50s were 2.0, 8.0 and 30 nM, respectively. The IC50s were comparable to those estimated using a kidney particulate fraction. Human calcitonin, ?-endorphin and substance P were weak inhibitors of the binding. Other peptides, drugs and putative neurotransmitters tested (totally 23 substances) failed to inhibit the binding at concentrations of 1.0 ?M. The physiological significance of brain binding sites for calnificance of brain binding sites for calcitonin, with the possibility that the brain may possess endogenous ligands for these sites are discussed. (author)

  5. An improved synthesis of an 125I and 211At labelled benzamide for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have indicated that benzamides can exhibit affinity for malignant melanoma and may be exploited diagnostically in the treatment of this cancer. Radioiodinated N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[123I/131I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide (*I-IMBA) is a benzamide with promising diagnostic properties. A new synthesis procedure was developed to obtain 125I-IMBA suitable for use in vivo. The assets of the procedure include the use of less toxic reagents and better reproducible results when radiolabelling the precursor. The procedure also facilitates the synthesis of the astatinated N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-[211At]astatine-4-methoxybenzamide (211At-AMBA), a new benzamide with a therapeutic potential. The regiospecific no-carrier-added 125I- and 211At-labeling of the benzamide is performed by demetalation of an organotin precursor. Using tributylstannyl as a leaving group, the radiochemical yield obtained after 15 minutes of reaction was 70 %-90 % for both 125I-IMBA and 211At-AMBA. The labelling was performed in a solution of MeOH:AcOH with NCS as the oxidising agent. The organotin precursor N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)-4-methoxy-benzamide was synthesized from 3-bromo-4-methoxybenzoic acid, with n-BuLi (2 eq) and Bu3SnCl (1 eq) in THF, giving 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The amide function was introduced by converting the acid group into an active N-succinimidyl-ester, a good leaving group in the reaction with 2-(diethylamino)ethylamine. The overall yield of the organotin precursor was 65 %

  6. Receptors for human ? interferon: binding and crosslinking of 125I-labeled recombinant human ? interferon to receptors on WISH cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified recombinant human ? interferon (HuIFN-?), labeled with 125I (125I-HuIFN-?), was used to study receptors for HuIFN-? on human WISH cells. 125I-HuIFN-? was bound to WISH cells, and this binding was displaced by unlabeled HuIFN-? but not by unlabeled recombinant HuIFN-?2 or [Ser17]HuIFN-? (HuIFN-? with serine substituted for cysteine at position 17), indicating the presence of specific binding sites for HuIFN-?. The cell-bound 125I-HuINF-? was crosslinked with disuccinimidyl suberate or ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate), which yielded a complex of M/sub r/ approx. = 105,000 +/- 5000 as analyzed by NaDodSO4/PAGE. The formation of this complex was prevented by preincubation of cells with unlabeled HuIFN-? but not with HuIFN-?2 or [Ser17]HuIFN-?, indicating that HuIFN-? binds to specific receptor molecule and that HuIFN-?2 or HuIFN-? do not interact with this receptor. Experiments were carried out with 125I-labeled recombinant [Ser17]HuIFN-? (125I-[Ser17]HuIFN-?) to verify this conclusion. Binding and crosslinking of 125I-[Ser17]HuIFN-? to human WISH cells and Daudi cells yielded a complex of M/sub r/ 4z 150,000 similar to that obtained with 125I-HuIFN-? as described earlier. The formation of this M/sub r/ 150,000 complex with 125I-[Ser125I-[Ser17]HuIFN-? was displaced by unlabeled [Ser17]HuIFN-? and by HuINF-? but not by HuIFN-?, indicating that [Ser17]HuIFN-? binds to the same receptor as does HuIFN-?2, identified earlier, and that HuIFN-? does not compete with 125I-[Ser17]HuIFN-? for this receptor. 34 references, 7 figures

  7. Photoaffinity labeling of the ?1-adrenergic receptor using an 125I-labeled aryl azide analogue of prazosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ?1-Adrenergic receptor probes, which can be radioiodinated to yield high specific activity radioligands, have been synthesized and characterized. 2-[4-(4-Amino-benzoyl)piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (CP63,155), an arylamine analogue of the selective ?1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin, and its iodinated derivative, 2-[4-(4-amino-3-[125I]iodobenzoyl)piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([125I]CP63,789), bind reversibly and with high affinity (K/sub D/ = 1 nM and 0.6 nM, respectively) to rat hepatic membrane ?1-adrenergic receptors. Conversion of [125I]CP63,789 to the aryl azide yields a photolabile derivative, 2-[4-(4-azido-3-[125I]iodobenzoyl)piperazin-1-yl]-4-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([125I]CP65,526), which prior to photolysis binds competitively and with high affinity (K/sub D/ = 0.3 nM). Binding of [125I]CP63,789 and [125I]CP65,526 (prior to photolysis) is rapid and saturable. Both ligands identify similar ?1-adrenergic receptor binding site concentrations as the parent probe, [3H]prazosin. Specific binding by these iodinated ligands is stereoselective and inhibited by a variety of adrenergic agents with a specificity typical of the ?1-adrenergic receptor. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and autoradiography of [125I]CP65,526-labeled rat heup>125I]CP65,526-labeled rat hepatic membranes reveal major protein species with molecular weights of 77K, 68K and 59K. Each protein binds adrenergic ligands with stereoselectivity and with a specificity typical of the ?1-adrenergic receptor. Smaller peptides with molecular weights of 42K and 31K display prazosin-inhibitable [125I]CP65,526 binding. Labeling of these protein species with [125I]CP65,526 is not inhibitable by other adrenergic agonists or antagonists. They are thus unlikely to represent subunits of the receptor

  8. Preclinical pharmacological study on 125I-ADAM as a serotonin transporter ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the new ligand: 2-((2-((Dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio) -5-iodophenylamine (125I-ADAM) as a serotonin imaging agent. Methods: Biological evaluations were performed in rats and mice. Results: Biodistribution studies in rats showed that the initial uptake of 125I-ADAM in the brain was high (1.265ID/organ at 2 min postinjection), and consistently displayed the highest binding (between 60-240 min post injection) in hypothalamus, a region with the highest density of SERT. The specific binding((T/CB)-l) of 125I-ADAM in hypothalamus were 3.38, 3.62 and 4.36 at 60 min, 120 min and 240 min postinjection, respectively. The (T/CB)-I was significantly blocked by pretreatment with paroxetine, which is known as a serotonin site reuptake inhibitor, while other nonselective competing drug Ketanserin, showed no block effect. The rat brain autoradiography and analysis showed that there was high 131I-ADAM uptake in hypothalamus, the ratio of hypothalamus/cerebellum was significantly reduced from 7.94±0.39 to 1.30±0.56 by pretreatment with paroxetine at 60 min postinjection. Blood clearance kinetics was performed in rats, and the initial half-life of 13.79 min and late half-life of 357.14 min were obtained. The kinetic equation is: C=3.614e-0.0725t + 1.0413e-0.0028t. The thyroid uptake was 0.129%ID and 1.541%ID at 2 min and 120 min postinjection , respectively, suggesting that in vivo deiodination maybe the major route of metabolism. Toxicity trial showed that thetabolism. Toxicity trial showed that the dose per kilogram administered to mice was 1000 times greater than that to humans, assuming a weight of 50 kg. Conclusion: These data suggest that 125I-ADAM may be useful for SPECT imaging of SERT binding sits in the brain. (authors)

  9. Detection of deep vein thrombosis using the fibrinogen 125I uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiplicity and diversity of deep vein thrombosis (D.V.P.) detection methods show how difficult it is, in spite of using of sophisticated techniques to diagnose a D.V.P. And when the diagnosis is suspected, it is not always easy to precise the importance and the site of the thrombosis. The fibrinogen 125I uptake test allows a satisfying approach of this problem. It is of a great value in the early detection of D.V.P. and falls within the framework of the prevention of the thrombo-embolism disease

  10. 125I-labeling and purification of peptide hormones and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodination and separation of various diagnostically and/or experimentally important peptides including (Tyr1)-somatostatin-14, rat Tyr-?-calcitonin gene-related peptide (23-37), motilin and vasoactive intestinal peptide, furthermore bovine serum albumin are described. All species were iodinated by the iodogen method. The 125I-labeled peptide products were separated by reversed-phase HPLC, the specific activities of mono-iodinated forms are near identical with the theoretical value. The labeled bovine serum albumin was separated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. (author)

  11. A method for the determination of 125I in air by collecting on a polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A resilient polyurethane foam cylinder was used for collecting airborne radioiodine in the exhaust of a plant producing 125I-labelled compounds. The cylinder was used unimpregnated or impregnated with technical long-chain tri-n-alkylamine type Alamine 336 with or without dissolved inactive elemental iodine. After compressing the foam cylinder into the smallest possible volume, the activity of the collected radioiodine was measured using a conventional well-type NaI(Tl) detector with a very favourable counting efficiency. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 11 refs

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography of 125I-labelled proteins with on-line detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microgram amounts of 125I-labelled proteins were chromatographed using hydrophilic molecular exclusion columns (Waters ?Bondapak-protein I125). A sodium iodide crystal was used as an on-line detector. Inherent hydrophobic properties of the column were overcome with a mobile phase containing 0.36 mol/l pyridinium formate-n-propanol (75:25), yielding recoveries in the range 90 - 95% of injected material. The resolution increased with increasing column length. Two columns (30 x 0.8 cm) in series seem to be optimal. Compared with Sephadex chromatography of microgram amounts, high-performance liquid chromatography is superior with regard to resolution and operating time. (orig.)

  13. Widespread distribution of brain dopamine receptors evidenced with [125I]iodosulpride, a highly selective ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new benzamide derivative [125I]iodosulpride is a highly sensitive and selective ligand for D-2 dopamine receptors and displays a very low nonspecific binding to membrane or autoradiographic sections. On autoradiographic images, D-2 receptors are present not only in well-established dopaminergic areas but also, in a discrete manner, in a number of catecholaminergic regions in which the dopaminergic innervation is still unknown, imprecise, or controversial, as in the sensorimotor cerebral cortex or cerebellum. This widespread distribution suggests larger physiological and pathophysiological roles for cerebral dopamine receptors than was previously thought

  14. Rapid extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of 125I-labeled fibrinogen in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods were analyzed for the rapid extraction of equine fibrinogen from fresh plasma, using ammonium sulfate-sodium phosphate buffer. Fibrinogen from each of these 2 methods was then radiolabeled with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days, gamma = 35 keV), using monochloroiodine reagent. Mean protein-bound activity was 98.5% and mean clottable radioactivity was 94.1%. Radiolabeled fibrinogen administered IV to 15 horses had an overall mean (+/- SD) plasma half-life of 4.95 +/- 0.44 days

  15. Clinical outcome of intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with iodine 125 mono-therapy: The Hotel-Dieu of Quebec experience;Evolution clinique des patients atteints d'un cancer prostatique de risque intermediaire traites par implants permanents d'iode-125: l'experience de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebentout, O.; Apardian, R.; Beaulieu, L.; Harel, F.; Martin, A.G.; Vigneault, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, CHUQ Hotel-Dieu, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, L.; Harel, F. [Centre de recherche en cancerologie, CHUQ Hotel-Dieu, universite de Laval, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, L. [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, universite de Laval, QC (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose To describe the biochemical failure-free survival (B.F.F.S.), G.U. toxicity and erectile dysfunction in intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with iodine 125 mono-therapy ({sup 125}I). Patients and methods Between October 1994 and October 2007, 1282 patients were treated with {sup 125}I at the Hotel Dieu de Quebec. Two hundred patients were intermediate risk prostate cancer. One hundred and fifty-seven had enough follow-up to be evaluated in this study. Biochemical failure-free survival is reported using Phoenix definition. Acute and late G.U. toxicity was described using the International Prostate Symptoms Score (I.P.S.S.) as well as with the rate of bladder catheter. Erectile dysfunction was also reported. Results The mean age of the patients was 65.6 years (S.D. = 6 years) and the mean pretreatment P.S.A. was 8.7 ng/ml. About half of the patients (51%) were T2b/T2c. About 44.6% had a P.S.A. greater than 10 and 4.5% had Gleason score of 7/10. More than half of the patients received a short course of hormones of less than 6 months for cyto-reduction (57.4%). The median follow-up was 60 months. Biochemical failure-free survival at 60-month and 96-month were 87.1% and 81% according to Phoenix definition. The mean I.P.S.S. rose from 5 immediately after the implant to 15 1 month after and then slowly decreased to 8 at 24 months. Acute urinary retention with bladder catheter occurred in 10.9% of patients. Only 4.3% presented erectile dysfunction at 5 months post-implant. Conclusion {sup 125}I mono-therapy for intermediate risk prostate implant gives biochemical failure-free survivals at 5 years and 8 years comparable to those obtained with high dose external beam radiotherapy. G.U. toxicity and erectile dysfunction were low and acceptable. Therefore, the use of {sup 125}I alone in this group of patients could be presented and discussed with the patient in the waiting of phase III validation. (authors)

  16. Effects of 125I seed on apoptosis and cell cycle of esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of 125I seed on apoptosis and cell cycle of esophageal carcinoma Eca-109 cell line in vitro, cells were divided randomly into four groups: untreated cell (group A), treated cell with 0.2mCi 125I seed (group B), treated cell with 0.4mCi 125I seed (group C) and treated cell with 0.8mCi 125I seed (group D). After 7 days, the apoptosis and cell cycle of Eca-109 cells were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that the apoptosis index (AI) in group B, C and D were statistically higher than that of control group A (P 0.05). G2/M phase cells increased with the dose enhancing of the 125I seed(P125I seed could induce apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells Eca-109 in vitro, and it may work through cell cycle G2/M phase block. (authors)

  17. Effect of 125I seed irradiation on biodegradation properties of chitosan-coated PGLA carrier sheet in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation properties of chitosan-coated PGLA (poly(lactic-glycolic acid)) brachytherapy seeding carrier was investigated by continuous low-dose-rate irradiation of 125I seeds in vitro. PBS (phosphate-buffered solution) was used to simulate internal environment in vitro. Five 125I seeds with an apparent activity of 29.6 MBq each were arranged in coated PGLA carrier. Weight loss, elasticity recovery rate and SEM (Scanning electron microscope) observation were used to evaluate its biodegradation properties. The coated PGLA carrier was slightly degraded by losing the weight of 10% and elasticity retention rate still kept at above 60% after two week's exposure. The PGLA filament structure was well maintained and only a few coating layers were detached. With a maximum dose of 2.2 kGy in the coated PGLA carrier after four weeks' exposure to the 125I seeds, the weight loss rate was less than 50% and elasticity retention rate was 36%. SEM observation indicated further detachment of coating layers and fissure and slit of a few filaments. The results showed that continuous low-dose-rate irradiation delivered by the 125I seeds caused to some extent accelerated biodegradation of chitosan-coated PGLA after four weeks' exposure in vitro, but majority of mass and certain elasticity were retained and the morphology structure was well maintained. The chitosan-coated PGLA carrier could maintain the space distribution of 125I see space distribution of 125I seeds. (authors)

  18. Removal of 125I from radioactive waste using an anion exchange paper membrane treated with trimethylhydroxypropylamino group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop a safe and effective removal method of 125I from radioactive waste using an anion exchange paper membrane, the membrane characteristics controlling 125I and 36Cl transport across paper membrane are examined with two paper membranes treated with different anion exchange groups; a trimethylhydroxypropylamino group as a quaternary ion exchange group and a diethylaminoethyl group as a ternary ion exchange group. Transmembrane potentials, membrane conductance, and ion fluxes are measured in Na125I and Na36Cl concentration-cell systems. Electro conductive membrane permeabilities and diffusional membrane permeabilities based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics are derived from electrochemical measurement data to evaluate an ionic paper membrane transport process. The membrane permeabilities for 125I are higher than those for 36Cl in all cases. This finding indicates the potential utility of paper membranes prepared in this way for separating 125I from radioactive waste that has been contaminated with chloride ions. Additionally, treatment with the trimethylhydroxypropylamino group improves the 125I diffusion within a paper membrane. (author)

  19. In vitro binding characteristics of 125I labeled neurotensin analogue NT2 to human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line HT29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the binding properties of radioiodinated peptide neurotensin analog 125I-NT2 through its binding with HT29 cells in vitro. Methods: NT2 (Lys-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Tle-Leu)was labeled with Na125I by Ch-T, purified by Sep-Pak column and assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The incubation time, cell concentration and temperature for 125I-NT2 binding to HT29 cells were carried out in order to obtain optimal labeling condition. Saturable binding between 125I-NT2 and HT29 cells was also performed in order to investigate the binding affinity. Results: (1)The labeling rate of 125I- NT2 was 76%. The radiochemical purity was >98%. The specific activity was 9.71 x 1012 Bq/mmol. (2) The optimal condition of binding: cell number, temperature and time of incubation were 106, 25 degree C and 1 h respectively. The Kd and Bmax were (0.745 ± 0.418) nmol/L and (0.103 ± 0.060) pmol/106 cell. Conclusion: 125I-NT2 has high affinity of binding to HT29 cells and it may be a promising targeting agent for the imaging of colon adenocarcinoma. (authors)

  20. Feasibility of MR Imaging/MR Spectroscopy-Planned Focal Partial Salvage Permanent Prostate Implant (PPI) for Localized Recurrence After Initial PPI for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Charles C., E-mail: hsucc@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Pickett, Barby [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Crehange, Gilles [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dijon University, Dijon (France); Hsu, I-Chow Joe; Dea, Ryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Kurhanewicz, John [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-planned partial salvage permanent prostate implant (psPPI) among patients with biopsy-proven local recurrence after initial PPI without evidence of distant disease. Methods and Materials: From 2003-2009, 15 patients underwent MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) planning for salvage brachytherapy (psPPI, I-125 [n=14; 144 Gy]; Pd-103 [n=1; 125 Gy]) without hormone therapy. Full dose was prescribed to areas of recurrence and underdosage, without entire prostate implantation. Limiting urethral and rectal toxicity was prioritized. Follow-up was from salvage date to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration failure (Phoenix criteria = nadir + 2.0; ASTRO = 3 consecutive rises), recurrence, distant metastases, or last follow-up PSA level. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as no PSA failure or biopsy-proven recurrence without all-cause mortality. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results: At salvage, median age was 68 years, and PSA concentration was 3.5 ng/mL (range, 0.9-5.6 ng/mL). Abnormal MRI/MRS findings were evident in 40% of patients. Biopsy-proven recurrences consisted of a single focus (80%) or 2 foci (20%). At recurrence, Gleason score was 6 (67%) or {>=}7 (27%). Median interval between initial and salvage implantation was 69 months (range, 28-132 months). psPPI planning characteristics limited doses to the rectum (mean V100 = 0.5% [0.07 cc]) and urethra (V100 = 12% [0.3 cc]). At median follow-up (23.3 months; range, 8-88 months), treatment failure (n=2) resulted only in localized recurrence; both patients underwent second psPPI with follow-up PSA tests at 12 and 26 months, resulting in 0.6 and 0.7 ng/mL, respectively. American Society for Radiation Oncology PFS rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 86.7%, 78.4%, and 62.7%, respectively, with 5 patients for whom treatment failed (n=3 with negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy results). Phoenix PFS rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 100%, 100%, and 71.4%. 73%, respectively; achieved PSA nadir of <0.5 ng/mL; and 47% of patients had a nadir of <0.1 ng/mL. Treatment-related toxicity was minimal, with no operative interventions, fistulas, or other grade {>=}3 gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicity. Thirteen percent had grade 1 GI and 33% had grade 2 GU toxicities. Postsalvage, 20% of patients had no erectile dysfunction, 67% of patients had medication-responsive erectile dysfunction, and 13% of patients had erectile dysfunction refractory to medication. Conclusions: Focal psPPI with MR-planning in highly selected patients is feasible with short-term control comparable to conventional salvage, with less toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm its impact on quality of life and treatment.

  1. Feasibility of MR Imaging/MR Spectroscopy-Planned Focal Partial Salvage Permanent Prostate Implant (PPI) for Localized Recurrence After Initial PPI for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-planned partial salvage permanent prostate implant (psPPI) among patients with biopsy-proven local recurrence after initial PPI without evidence of distant disease. Methods and Materials: From 2003-2009, 15 patients underwent MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) planning for salvage brachytherapy (psPPI, I-125 [n=14; 144 Gy]; Pd-103 [n=1; 125 Gy]) without hormone therapy. Full dose was prescribed to areas of recurrence and underdosage, without entire prostate implantation. Limiting urethral and rectal toxicity was prioritized. Follow-up was from salvage date to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration failure (Phoenix criteria = nadir + 2.0; ASTRO = 3 consecutive rises), recurrence, distant metastases, or last follow-up PSA level. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as no PSA failure or biopsy-proven recurrence without all-cause mortality. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results: At salvage, median age was 68 years, and PSA concentration was 3.5 ng/mL (range, 0.9-5.6 ng/mL). Abnormal MRI/MRS findings were evident in 40% of patients. Biopsy-proven recurrences consisted of a single focus (80%) or 2 foci (20%). At recurrence, Gleason score was 6 (67%) or ?7 (27%). Median interval between initial and salvage implantation was 69 months (range, 28-132 months). psPPI planning characteristics limited doses to the rectum (mean V100 = imited doses to the rectum (mean V100 = 0.5% [0.07 cc]) and urethra (V100 = 12% [0.3 cc]). At median follow-up (23.3 months; range, 8-88 months), treatment failure (n=2) resulted only in localized recurrence; both patients underwent second psPPI with follow-up PSA tests at 12 and 26 months, resulting in 0.6 and 0.7 ng/mL, respectively. American Society for Radiation Oncology PFS rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 86.7%, 78.4%, and 62.7%, respectively, with 5 patients for whom treatment failed (n=3 with negative transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy results). Phoenix PFS rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 100%, 100%, and 71.4%. 73%, respectively; achieved PSA nadir of <0.5 ng/mL; and 47% of patients had a nadir of <0.1 ng/mL. Treatment-related toxicity was minimal, with no operative interventions, fistulas, or other grade ?3 gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicity. Thirteen percent had grade 1 GI and 33% had grade 2 GU toxicities. Postsalvage, 20% of patients had no erectile dysfunction, 67% of patients had medication-responsive erectile dysfunction, and 13% of patients had erectile dysfunction refractory to medication. Conclusions: Focal psPPI with MR-planning in highly selected patients is feasible with short-term control comparable to conventional salvage, with less toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm its impact on quality of life and treatment.

  2. Search for 17-keV neutrinos in the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted an experiment to search for the signature of a 17-keV neutrino in the internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum of 125I. Gamma rays from a ? 100 mCi 125I point source were counted in a planar HPGe detector which is 16 mm in diameter and 10 mm in depth and which has a resolution of 560 eV at 122 keV. The source was counted for 61 d and the background for 17 d. At the start of the counting period the count rate was 650 s-1; the number of counts 17 keV below the 2p endpoint is 106 per keV. Data in the energy interval 120-150.5 keV were fitted with a theoretical spectrum calculated using nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock atomic wavefunctions. The preliminary fits reject the hypothesis of a 0.8% 17-keV neutrino at a confidence level of ? 98%. We are in the process of reanalyzing the data using recent relativistic theoretical shapes

  3. Determination of the effective diffusion coefficient for 125I- in Beishan granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the policy of active development of nuclear energy in China in the following 20 years or more, the high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels will increase considerably. In order to dispose of these wastes safely, China plans to construct a geological repository in the middle of the 21st century. Through more than 20 years of research and discussion in China, granite has been regarded as one of the most favorable candidate host rocks for a potential geological repository and 129I has been recognized as one of the most important nuclides for the safety of the potential repository. In this paper, the diffusion of 125I (as a surrogate of 129I) in deep granite taken from Beishan, Gansu Province is investigated with the help of a small scale diffusion apparatus. The granite core sample was taken at the depth of about 300 m and cut into sections of 5 ? 20 mm. The granite section samples were weighted and the pore volume was determined with water immersion method. The chemical and elemental compositions of the granite are presented. Experimental results were treated with different methods, producing an effective diffusion coefficient of 125I- in the granite of (2.44-2.72) x 10-12 m2 s-1. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of 125I-estradiol radioimmunoassay system with double antibody method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic and clinical evaluation of a new radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit for estradiol (E2) using 125I-estradiol was performed. This system was double antibody method of RIA with 125I-labeled E2, antiserum against E2-6-oxime-BSA and second antibody. The lowest detectable amount was 3.1 pg/tube, the water blank was 3.2 +- 3.15 pg (N=11), and the recovery rate through procedure was 92.6 +- 4.55%. The coefficient of variation was 4.3 - 5.1% for intraassay and the correlation between E2 values in I-assay and those in II-assay was good (N=30, ?=0.9870, p3H-RIA method, there was a high correlation between this method and 3H-RIA method in E2 values (N=31, ?=0.9754, p2 values obtained by this method were slightly higher than those obtained by 3H-RIA method. Serum E2 values in normal cycle, short luteal phase, amenorrhea, castrated women, normal men and cases of induced ovulation were measured with this RIA kit, the results were very satisfactory. From these results, it is suggested that this RIA kit can be qualified for clinical application, because this kit is the system without chromatography and many clinical samples can be measured within one day. (auth.)

  5. New technique of investigating the kidney function in infants using 125I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanner is described with an optimized profilographic detection system which allows to examine the relative position of the kidneys, their function and the filling of the bladder in infants and toddlers using 125I-hippuran or radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 99mTc. The chosen design of the apparatus eliminates the shortcomings of existing renographic examinations and considerably increases the validity of investigations. The scanned field is sufficiently large to take the entire abdominal cavity of infants and toddlers. There is thus no need to know the position of the kidneys and the bladder and there is no need to adjust collimated detectors above the kidneys. The high sensitivity of the scanner allows to evaluate the results from the screen of a multi-channel analyzer during applications of 125I-hippuran with an activity level of over 100 kBq without adjustment data and of under 74 kBq with data smoothing. The radiation burden of the examined child is thereby reduced to approximately one quarter. (Z.M.). 6 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  6. Plasma kinetics of 125I beta endorphin turnover in lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma clearance kinetics for Beta Endorphin (BEP) are not well-defined and no definitive data exist for lean versus obese animals. To determine such kinetic parameters, a bolus of 125I BEP (1?Ci/kg) was infused into awake lean(L) and obese(O) Zucker rats. Arterial blood samples were withdrawn initially at 20 seconds intervals and less frequently as a 3-hour experimental period progressed. Donor rat blood was infused (venous catheter) to replace withdrawn blood. At 180 minutes approximately 10% of the initial dose remained in the plasma. Clearance kinetics for 125I BEP were analyzed by compartmental analysis. A 3-component equation (i.e., 3 compartment model) provided the best fit for both L and O groups. Plasma transit times were very rapid; however, plasma fractional catabolic rate was low. Plasma mean residence time was similar for both groups (50 minutes) as was recycle time. These data suggest that BEP kinetics are similar in L and O rats, and that this peptide may undergo extensive recycling into and out of the plasma compartment. The identity of the other two compartments requires further investigation

  7. Radioimmunoanalysis of delta-9-THC in blood by means of an 125I tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for delta-9-THC in plasma, whole blood, or hemolyzed blood specimens has been presented. Samples and standards were diluted with methanol and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant fluid was incubated with RIA buffer, 125I-labeled delta-8-THC and rabbit anti-THC serum. Solid phase goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were added to separate bound from free THC. After centrifugation the supernatant fluid was aspirated and the radioactivity of the precipitate was counted in a gamma counter. The concentration of THC was calculated from a standard curve using the logit-log transformation of the average counts of duplicate tubes. The assay had several advantages. Methanol dilution gave better results than direct analysis. The 125I-labeled THC had high specific activity and could be counted in a gamma counter. The immunological separation of antibody-bound THC from free THC was better than separation techniques using ammonium sulfate and activated charcoal. THC was determined in 0.1 ml of sample with a sensitivity of 1.5 ng/ml in plasma and 3.0 ng/ml in hemolyzed blood

  8. Autoradiographic localization of [125I]-angiotensin II binding sites in the rat adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain greater insight into sites of action of circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) within the adrenal, we have localized the [125I]-Ang II binding site using in vitro autoradiography. Autoradiograms were generated either by apposition of isotope-sensitive film or with emulsion-coated coverslips to slide-mounted adrenal sections labeled in vitro with 1.0 nM [125I]-Ang II. Analysis of the autoradiograms showed that Ang II binding sites were concentrated in a thin band in the outer cortex (over the cells of the zona glomerulosa) and in the adrenal medulla, which at higher power was seen as dense patches. Few sites were evident in the inner cortex. The existence of Ang II binding sites in the adrenal medulla was confirmed by conventional homogenate binding techniques which revealed a single class of high affinity Ang II binding site (K/sub d/ . 0.7nM, B/sub max/ . 168.7 fmol/mg). These results suggest that the adrenal medulla may be a target for direct receptor-mediated actions of Ang II

  9. 125I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin: pharmacokinetics in cats after intramuscular injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On unilateral injection of sublethal doses of 125I-botulinum A neurotoxin (BTA) into one gastrocnemius muscle of the cat we found after 48 h: a disto-proximal gradient of radioactivity (RA) hat developed in the sciatic nerve of the injected side. The ventral roots of the spinal cord half segments supplying the injected muscle showed a higher RA than the ventral roots of the contralateral control side. The spinal cord half segments innervating the injected muscle had a RA much higher than the corresponding segments of the contralateral side. However, a small rise of RA was also observed in the contralateral half segments. In histoautoradiographs of the (ligatured) ventral roots the RA was strictly confined to the intraaxonal space of a few nerve fibres. On injection of equal doses of 125I-BTA into either gastrocnemius muscle we found after 38 h: direct stimulation of only one of the injected muscles caused the RA to reach a higher level in the spinal cord half segments ipsilateral to the stimulated muscle than in the spinal cord half segments of the non-stimulated side. Unilateral stimulation of one gastrocnemius nerve under the influence of gallamine or unilateral antidromic stimulation of the dorsal roots L7, S1 failed to cause a difference in RA between stimulated and non-stimulated side. (orig.)

  10. 125I-iodinated benzazepines bind to melanin: implications for the noninvasive localization of pigmented melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the 5-R and the 5-S enantiomers of [125I]2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-iodo-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol bind to melanin. The interaction between the 5-R enantiomer and melanin permits visualization of melanomas in mice with a noninvasive imaging procedure. Two lines of evidence suggest that the interaction between iodinated ligands and melanin is not related to the D-1 dopamine receptor, a known target for the 5-R enantiomer: first, melanin binds both enantiomers of the 125I-iodinated benzazepine while the D-1 receptor binds only the 5-R enantiomer; second, the melanin binding site displays only a 5-fold difference in affinity towards the R-and S-enantiomers of SCH 23390 while the D-1 receptor displays a 100-fold difference in affinity towards these two molecules. Because both enantiomers of the iodinated benzazepine bind to a human pigmented melanoma, we propose that such compounds may be of use in the diagnosis of pigmented melanoma: in addition, we discuss the possible application of these molecules as a supplement to existing technology for the localization of pigmented melanomas. (author)

  11. Study of late effects of 125I on function and morphology of the rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male wistar rats was used in the experiment. 125I solution with different activity were injected into animals intraperitoneally. After two years, the concentrations of T3, T4 and r-TSH in serum were determined and the relationships between their contents and pathological changes of the thyroid were observed. The results showed that concentration of T3 in serum was higher in the tested groups than in the control, but there was hardly any difference among all the tested groups. The levels of T4 were decreased gradually in the animals with increasing absorption doses in the range of 9.3-94 Gy, but they were increased in the 94 to 187 Gy range. As a general rule, the concentration of T4 were lower in the tested groups than in the control, and that of r-TSH in serum increased gradually with increase of absorption dose. These findings suggest that 125I results in the occurence of primary hypothyroid in rats and that the contents of T3, T4 and r-TSH can not reflect the type of histological changes in thyriod

  12. Radiation complications and tumor control after 125I plaque brachytherapy for ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the outcome of 125I plaque brachytherapy at our institution and identify the risk factors associated with the development of radiation complications, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Patients and Methods: From 1986 to 2000, 156 patients underwent 125I episcleral plaque (COMS design) application for the treatment of ocular melanoma. Chart analysis of follow-up ophthalmologic appointments assessed the incidence of ocular side effects after therapy. Statistical analysis assessed outcomes and significant influencing factors. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.2 years, the 5-year overall survival was 83%. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 91%. Initial local control at 5 years was 92%, with 100% ultimate local control after secondary therapy that included 9 enucleations. The risk of metastasis was 10% at 5 years and 27% at 10 years. Vision stayed the same or improved in 25% of patients, and 44% of patients maintained visual acuity better than 20/200. Thirteen percent of patients experienced chronic pain or discomfort in the treated eye. Dose rates to the tumor apex greater than 90 to 100 cGy/h were associated with increased systemic control but worse radiation toxicity. Conclusion: Patients in our series experienced excellent local tumor control. Higher dose rates to the tumor apex were associated with reduced rates of distant metastases but worse ocular function

  13. Autoradiographic characterization of (+-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-[125I] iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane ([125I]DOI) binding to 5-HT2 and 5-HT1c receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor has traditionally been labeled with antagonist radioligands such as [3H]ketanserin and [3H]spiperone, which label both agonist high-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-sensitive) and agonist low-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-insensitive) states of this receptor. The hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) is an agonist which labels the high-affinity guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state of brain 5-HT2 receptors selectively. In the present study, conditions for autoradiographic visualization of (+/-)-[125I]DOI-labeled 5-HT2 receptors were optimized and binding to slide-mounted sections was characterized with respect to pharmacology, guanyl nucleotide sensitivity and anatomical distribution. In slide-mounted rat brain sections (+/-)-[125I]DOI binding was saturable, of high affinity (KD approximately 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacologic profile typical of 5-HT2 receptors. Consistent with coupling of 5-HT2 receptors in the high-affinity state to a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein, [125I]DOI binding was inhibited by guanyl nucleotides but not by adenosine triphosphate. Patterns of autoradiographic distribution of [125I]DOI binding to 5-HT2 receptors were similar to those seen with [3H]ketanserin- and [125I]-lysergic acid diethylamide-labeled 5-HT2 receptors. However, the density of 5-HT2 receptors labeled by the agonist [125I]DOI was markedly lower (30-50%) than that labeled by the antagonist [3H]ketanserin. High densities of [1onist [3H]ketanserin. High densities of [125I]DOI labeling were present in olfactory bulb, anterior regions of cerebral cortex (layer IV), claustrum, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, islands of Calleja, mammillary nuclei and inferior olive. Binding in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus was generally sparse

  14. Autoradiographic characterization of (+-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-( sup 125 I) iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (( sup 125 I)DOI) binding to 5-HT2 and 5-HT1c receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Garlick, R.K.; Glennon, R.A.; Teitler, M.; De Souza, E.B. (National Institute on Drug Abuse Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The 5-HT2 (serotonin) receptor has traditionally been labeled with antagonist radioligands such as (3H)ketanserin and (3H)spiperone, which label both agonist high-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-sensitive) and agonist low-affinity (guanyl nucleotide-insensitive) states of this receptor. The hallucinogen 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) is an agonist which labels the high-affinity guanyl nucleotide-sensitive state of brain 5-HT2 receptors selectively. In the present study, conditions for autoradiographic visualization of (+/-)-(125I)DOI-labeled 5-HT2 receptors were optimized and binding to slide-mounted sections was characterized with respect to pharmacology, guanyl nucleotide sensitivity and anatomical distribution. In slide-mounted rat brain sections (+/-)-(125I)DOI binding was saturable, of high affinity (KD approximately 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacologic profile typical of 5-HT2 receptors. Consistent with coupling of 5-HT2 receptors in the high-affinity state to a guanyl nucleotide regulatory protein, (125I)DOI binding was inhibited by guanyl nucleotides but not by adenosine triphosphate. Patterns of autoradiographic distribution of (125I)DOI binding to 5-HT2 receptors were similar to those seen with (3H)ketanserin- and (125I)-lysergic acid diethylamide-labeled 5-HT2 receptors. However, the density of 5-HT2 receptors labeled by the agonist (125I)DOI was markedly lower (30-50%) than that labeled by the antagonist (3H)ketanserin. High densities of (125I)DOI labeling were present in olfactory bulb, anterior regions of cerebral cortex (layer IV), claustrum, caudate putamen, globus pallidus, ventral pallidum, islands of Calleja, mammillary nuclei and inferior olive. Binding in hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus was generally sparse.

  15. In vivo autoradiographic competition studies of isomers of [125I]IQNP against QNB demonstrating in vivo m2 muscarinic subtype selectivity for QNB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeberg, B R; Boulay, S F; Sood, V K; Rayeq, M R; Danesh, R A; McPherson, D W; Knapp, F F

    1997-01-01

    (R,S)-[125I]IQNB has been used extensively in in vivo studies in rats, and has been of utility in demonstrating the in vivo subtype selectivity of nonradioactive ligands in competition studies. Because of the implications for the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD), those ligands that demonstrate m2 selectivity are of particular interest. Radiolabelled Z- and E-(-,-)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-alpha-phenylacetate (Z- and E-(-,-)-[125I]IQNP) are analogs of (R,S)-[125I]IQNB. Rat brain regional dissection studies and in vivo autoradiographic comparison of the time-courses of (R,S)-[125I]IQNB, Z-(-,-)-[125I]IQNP, and E-(-,-)-[125I]IQNP have indicated that Z- and E-(-,-)-[125I]IQNP, in general, are distributed similarly to (R,S)-[125I]IQNB. Z-(-,-)-[125I]IQNP binds to the muscarinic receptors in those brain regions enriched in the m2 subtype with approximately a two- to fivefold higher % dose/g compared with (R,S)-[125I]IQNB. Thus, as we show here autoradiographically, using QNB as the competing nonradioactive ligand in in vivo competition studies against Z-(-,-)-[125I]IQNP provides a sensitive and accurate probe for demonstrating the in vivo m2 selectivity of nonradioactive ligands. PMID:9285530

  16. Characterization of membrane-bound and soluble D2 receptors in canine caudate using [125I]IBZM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (S)-(-)-3-iodo-2-hydroxy-6-methoxy-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]benzamide (IBZM) was shown to be a high-affinity antagonist selective for the D2 subtype of dopamine receptor. Binding sites for the radioligand [125I]IBZM were characterized with membranes and digitonin-solubilized extracts of canine caudate enriched by chromatography on heparin-agarose. Nonspecific binding, defined using 2 microM (+)-butaclamol, was less than 10% of the total ligand bound at the Kd of the receptor for [125I]IBZM. Direct binding, competition and kinetic experiments indicated that [125I]IBZM bound to a homogeneous population of binding sites. The rank order of potency for inhibition of the binding of [125I]IBZM by antagonists and agonists was found to be consistent with the pharmacological profile expected of a D2 receptor. The affinities of [125I]IBZM for membrane-associated and detergent-solubilized binding sites were essentially identical (Kd congruent to 0.4 nM). This result contrasts with findings obtained in studies with [3H]spiroperidol, where a marked decrease in the affinity of the receptor for the ligand has been observed during detergent solubilization and purification of the receptor. The high selectivity, nanomolar affinity and high specific activity of [125I]IBZM and the results obtained in studies with detergent extracts suggest that [125I]IBZM will be a particularly useful ligand for studiese a particularly useful ligand for studies of D2 receptors in the presence of detergents

  17. Probing the salmeterol binding site on the beta 2-adrenergic receptor using a novel photoaffinity ligand, [(125)I]iodoazidosalmeterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Arbabian, M; Thiriot, D S; Seibold, A; Clark, R B; Ruoho, A E

    1999-08-31

    Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) agonist used clinically to treat asthma. In addition to binding at the active agonist site, it has been proposed that salmeterol also binds with very high affinity at a second site, termed the "exosite", and that this exosite contributes to the long duration of action of salmeterol. To determine the position of the phenyl ring of the aralkyloxyalkyl side chain of salmeterol in the beta 2AR binding site, we designed and synthesized the agonist photoaffinity label [(125)I]iodoazidosalmeterol ([125I]IAS). In direct adenylyl cyclase activation, in effects on adenylyl cyclase after pretreatment of intact cells, and in guinea pig tracheal relaxation assays, IAS and the parent drug salmeterol behave essentially the same. Significantly, the photoreactive azide of IAS is positioned on the phenyl ring at the end of the molecule which is thought to be involved in exosite binding. Carrier-free radioiodinated [125I]IAS was used to photolabel epitope-tagged human beta 2AR in membranes prepared from stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Labeling with [(125)I]IAS was blocked by 10 microM (-)-alprenolol and inhibited by addition of GTP gamma S, and [125I]IAS migrated at the same position on an SDS-PAGE gel as the beta 2AR labeled by the antagonist photoaffinity label [125I]iodoazidobenzylpindolol ([125I]IABP). The labeled receptor was purified on a nickel affinity column and cleaved with factor Xa protease at a specific sequence in the large loop between transmembrane segments 5 and 6, yielding two peptides. While the control antagonist photoaffinity label [125I]IABP labeled both the large N-terminal fragment [containing transmembranes (TMs) 1-5] and the smaller C-terminal fragment (containing TMs 6 and 7), essentially all of the [125I]IAS labeling was on the smaller C-terminal peptide containing TMs 6 and 7. This direct biochemical evidence demonstrates that when salmeterol binds to the receptor, its hydrophobic aryloxyalkyl tail is positioned near TM 6 and/or TM 7. A model of IAS binding to the beta 2AR is proposed. PMID:10471277

  18. A simple procedure for preparation of 125I-insulin of high immunogenicity and long shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for preparing 125I-insulin of long shelf life and high immunogenicity. The technique is based on the use of chloramine-T as an oxidizing agent and Sephadex column chromatography for separating unreacted 125I from 125I-insulin. The fraction showing maximum amount of labelled hormone, as indicated from measurement of radioactivity in each of the fractions eluted from the column by barbitone buffer (0.1 M, pH 8.6), was further purified by passing through cellulose column and eluting with 0.15 N HCL-EtOH (25:75, vol./vol.) solvent mixture. Adsorption on dextran-coated charcoal, precipitation by 10% trichloroacetic acid and binding with excess of antibodies to insulin were carried out with and without repurification of 125I-insulin by cellulose column chromatography. The purified preparation of radioiodinated insulin was found highly promising for the purpose of radioimmunoassay of insulin in human blood samples and plasma membrane receptor binding studies for a period of at least 7 weeks whereas 125I-insulin without such repurification lost its usefulness within a period of 2 weeks. (author)

  19. Changes in 125I-insulin binding antibodies in diabetic pregnant women on insulin therapy and hypoglycemia in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate whether insulin antibodies in pregnant diabetics are related to changes in insulin requirement during pregnancy, and whether hypoglycemia in newborns of diabetic mothers is influenced by insulin antibodies transferred through the placenta, changes in 125I-insulin percent binding to insulin antibodies were measured at the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and at delivery, in 20 deliveries by 17 diabetics treated with insulin. The free insulin levels in the same serum were also measured for each patient in whom the 125I-insulin binding was decreased more than 5% in the third trimester. The mean percent of 125I-insulin binding in the 20 diabetic pregnancies was unchanged in the first (21.2%) and second trimester (21.1%), but tended to decrease to 17.6% in the third trimester and to increase to 24.6% after delivery. The 125I-insulin percent binding of 5 patients with neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly higher than that of the other patients without hypoglycemia (p125I-insulin percent binding was decreased in the third trimester in contrast with an increased insulin dosage. The finding that hypoglycemia tended to occur in the newborns of diabetic mothers with high insulin percent binding to insulin antibody during the third trimester, suggests that maternal insulin antibodies may affect the fetal pancrulin antibodies may affect the fetal pancreas. (author)

  20. Binding of 125I-labeled recombinant beta interferon (IFN-beta Ser17) to human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the binding of 125I-labeled beta interferon (IFN-beta Ser17), a nonglycosylated recombinant human fibroblast interferon in which cysteine at position 17 is replaced by serine by site-specific mutagenesis. An optimized chloramine T radiolabeling method produced a highly labeled, fully active 125I-IFN suitable for these studies. Unlike the case with the chloramine T method, incorporation of a single mole of Bolton-Hunter reagent into a mole of IFN-beta Ser17 led to nearly complete loss of biological activity. 125I-IFN-beta Ser17, prepared by the chloramine T method, bound specifically to human lymphoblastoid cells (Daudi) with a dissociation constant of 0.24 nM. The number of binding sites per cell was 4,000. In competition assays, unlabeled beta interferons (native, recombinant IFN-beta Cys17, and various preparations of IFN-beta Ser17) equally displaced labeled IFN-beta Ser17 on Daudi cells. Recombinant IFN-alpha-1 displaced 125I-IFN-beta binding to Daudi cells less efficiently than did unlabeled native or recombinant beta interferon. However, at the concentrations tested, native gamma interferon showed no competition with 125I-IFN. The results indicate that IFN-beta Ser17 and native IFN-beta posses similar binding properties

  1. Effects of diazepam on 125I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and epileptic seizures in the El mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in free benzodiazepine receptor density in response to repeated, long-term administration of diazepam in epilepsy, we assessed 125I-iomazenil (125I-IMZ) binding in a mouse model. El mice were divided into two groups of 12 mice each which received either no diazepam (El(D[-]) group) or 2 mg/kg of diazepam per week (El(D[+]) group). Nine ddY mice were used as a control. Once each week from the age of 5 to 19 weeks, the El mice received stimulation to produce epileptic seizures 20 minutes after receiving intraperitoneal injections. At 20 weeks of age, a total dose of 0.37 MBq of 125I-IMZ was injected in all mice and their brains were rapidly removed 3 hours later. The incidence of epileptic seizures at the age of 19 weeks and the autoradiograms of the brain were compared. The incidence of epileptic seizures in response to weekly stimulation was significantly lower in the El(D[+]) group than in the El(D[-]) group (p125I-IMZ per gram of tissue in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala were significantly lower in the El(D[+]) group than in the El(D[-]) group (p125I-IMZ as an agonist to free benzodiazepine receptor sites in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala and shows anticonvulsant effect in El mice. (author)

  2. Benzodiazepine effect of {sup 125}I-iomazenil-benzodiazepine receptor binding and serum corticosterone level in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: gzl13162@nifty.ne.jp; Ogi, Shigeyuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Uchiyama, Mayuki [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan); Mori, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 105-8461 (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    To test the change in free or unoccupied benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) density in response to diazepam, we investigated {sup 125}I-iomazenil ({sup 125}I-IMZ) binding and serum corticosterone levels in a rat model. Wistar male rats, which received psychological stress using a communication box for 5 days, were divided into two groups according to the amount of administered diazepam: no diazepam [D (0)] group and 10 mg/kg per day [D (10)] group of 12 rats each. The standardized uptake value (SUV) of {sup 125}I-IMZ of the D (10) group were significantly lower (P<.05) than those of the D (0) group in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. The serum corticosterone level ratio in the D (10) group was significantly lower than that in the D (0) group (P<.05). From the change in serum corticosterone levels, diazepam attenuated the psychological stress produced by the physical stress to animals in adjacent compartments. From the reduced binding of {sup 125}I-IMZ, it is clear that diazepam competed with endogenous ligand for the free BZR sites, and the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus are important areas in which {sup 125}I-IMZ binding is strongly affected by administration of diazepam.

  3. Biodistribution of 125I labeled anti-MIF McAb in the skin allograft rejection of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the production and biodistribution of macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) during allograft rejection using 125I labeled anti-MIF monoclonal antibody (McAb). Methods: 1) Anti-MIF McAb (III. D. 9) was radio-iodinated (Na125I) by Iodogen. 2) Skin allografting mice model was established and the rejection was observed and confirmed daily histologically. 3) The radioactivities in various normal tissues and in the skin allografts of model mice at different intervals after transplantation were measured. Results: 1) The allograft rejection period lasted (13.4 ± 2.5) d with a dense macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. 2) Transplanted mice received injection of 125I labeled anti-MIF McAb the high levels of radioactivities were found from day 1 and 3, then decreased, but it increased greatly from day 10 till day 14, then decreased again; and the transplanted mice received injection of 125I labeled control antibody showed increased radioactivities from day 1 to day 3 and a slight increase during day 10 to 14. No obvious difference in other organs were found between 125I labeled anti-MIF Abs and control Abs injection groups. Conclusions: MIF expression during allograft rejection process shows a highly significant correlation with macrophage and lymphocyte accumulation in the skin grafts. The up-regulation of MIF expression during rejection provides a possible method for radioimmunoimaging a possible method for radioimmunoimaging of graft rejection

  4. Separation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs from {sup 125}I solution for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Ramu; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Isotope Production and Applications Div.; Banerjee, Dayamoy [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Process Development Div.

    2015-06-01

    While neutron irradiation of natural Xe gas followed by wet chemical dissolution of activation products constitutes a successful paradigm for the small scale production {sup 125}I, the concomitant production of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs emerged as the primary impediment which necessitates purification of {sup 125}I solution. This paper describes an ion-exchange chromatographic technique using Resorcinol Formaldehyde (RF) resin to purify {sup 125}I solution from {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs impurities. A thorough investigation of the adsorption parameters of RF resin was carried out to arrive at the experimental conditions resulting optimum retention of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs impurities. Based on the experimental findings, an optimized separation procedure was developed in which the neutron irradiated dissolved products at pH ? 13 was passed through a chromatography column containing RF resin where in {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs impurities gets adsorbed leaving behind {sup 125}I to appear in the effluent. The overall recovery of {sup 125}I was >90% with acceptable purity amenable for clinical applications.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life up to Six Years After 125I Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after prostate brachytherapy has been extensively described in published reports but hardly any long-term data are available. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess long-term HRQOL 6 years after 125I prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 127 patients treated with 125I brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer between December 2000 and June 2003 completed a HRQOL questionnaire at five time-points: before treatment and 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years after treatment. The questionnaire included the RAND-36 generic health survey, the cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTCQLQ-C30), and the tumor-specific EORTC prostate cancer module (EORTC-PR25). A change in a score of ?10 points was considered clinically relevant. Results: Overall, the HRQOL at 6 years after 125I prostate brachytherapy did not significantly differ from baseline. Although a statistically significant deterioration in HRQOL at 6 years was seen for urinary symptoms, bowel symptoms, pain, physical functioning, and sexual activity (p 125I prostate brachytherapy. HRQOL scores returned to approximately baseline values at 1 year and remained stable up to 6 years after treatment. 125I prostate brachytherapy did not adversely affect patients' long-term HRQOL.

  6. Distribution of sup 125 I-neurotensin binding sites in human forebrain: Comparison with the localization of acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szigethy, E.; Quirion, R.; Beaudet, A. (Montreal Neurological Institute, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-07-22

    The distribution of 125I-neurotensin binding sites was compared with that of acetylcholinesterase reactivity in the human basal forebrain by using combined light microscopic radioautography/histochemistry. High 125I-neurotensin binding densities were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, islands of Calleja, claustrum, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala; lower levels were seen in the caudate, putamen, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Adjacent sections processed for cholinesterase histochemistry demonstrated a regional overlap between the distribution of labeled neurotensin binding sites and that of intense acetylcholinesterase staining in all of the above regions, except in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, and central amygdaloid nucleus, where dense 125I-neurotensin labeling was detected over areas containing only weak to moderate cholinesterase staining. At higher magnification, 125I-neurotensin-labeled binding sites in the islands of Calleja, supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert were selectively associated with neuronal perikarya found to be cholinesterase-positive in adjacent sections. Moderate 125I-neurotensin binding was also apparent over the cholinesterase-reactive neuropil of these latter three regions. These data suggest that neurotensin (NT) may directly influence the activity of magnocellular cholinergic neurons in the human basal forebrain, and may be involved in the physiopathology of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in which these neurons have been shown to be affected.

  7. [125I]Iodobolpyramine, a highly sensitive probe for histamine H1-receptors in guinea-pig brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [125I]Iodobolpyramine is a novel 125I-ligand for histamine H1-receptors, synthesised using the 125I-Bolton Hunter reagent for acylation of an aminopentyl analogue of mepyramine. Its specific binding varied linearly with the concentration of guinea-pig cerebellar membranes and represented about 80% of the total. Selective interaction with H1-receptors was demonstrated by estimation of Ksub(i) values of known agonists and antagonists and confirmed by the low affinity of histamine H2- and H3-receptor antagonists and of non-histaminergic agents. At 250C, [125I]iodobolpyramine exhibited a slow association rate and a slow dissociation rate. Kinetic and saturation data yielded Ksub(D) values of 0.05 and 0.15 nM, respectively, indicating that it is among the most potent H1-receptor antagonists known. The sensitivity for detecting H1-receptors in guinea-pig cerebellum using [125I]iodobolpyramine was increased 50-fold relative to use of [3H]mepyramine. Well-contrasted autoradiograms of guinea-pig brain, obtained after a short exposure time, confirmed previous H1-receptor localisation established with [3H]mepyramine and revealed new localisations, e.g. in cerebral cortex and nucleus accumbens. (Auth.)

  8. Investigations into the binding of 125I-calmodulin to CA++ transport ATPase of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described was carried out in order to investigate the binding of 125I-calmodulin to Ca++ transport ATPase using different Ca++ concentrations and temperatures. The data obtained from these experiments were subsequently analysed in such as a way as to yield meaningful information relating to the mechanisms underlying the attachment of calmodulin to Ca++ transport ATPase, the % proportion of membrane protein that was attributable to the enzyme as well as the number of calmodulin receptor sites on the individual erythrocytes, etc. Comparisons with data from the relevant literature permitted conclusions to be drawn concerning the mode of Ca++ transport at the level of the erythrocytes. A new methodology and processing technique had to be developed prior to the beginning of the experiments. (orig./MG)

  9. Autodegradation of 125I-labeled human epidermal cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triton X-100 extracts of cultured human epidermal cells exhibited proteolytic activity as measured by the hydrolysis of [3H]-casein at neutral pH. The majority of endogenous proteolytic activity was inhibited by parahydroxy mercuribenzoate and by mersalyl acid, indicating the enzyme(s) was a thiol class proteinase(s). Crude Triton X-100 extracts were prepared from epidermal cells following labeling of proteins with 125I. Autodegradation of labeled proteins at 37 degrees C was detected as early as 1 hr and reached a plateau level by 4 hr. Degradation was inhibited by thiol class proteinase inhibitors. Among the detergent-solubilized radiolabeled proteins a polypeptide chain of Mr 155,000 was particularly sensitive to degradation by endogenous thiol proteinase(s)

  10. Iodine labelled ligands in the radioimmunoassay of synthetic progestins. [/sup 3/H or /sup 125/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R.J.; Fotherby, K.

    1975-01-01

    Labelled ligands with specific activities of 120 to 160 Ci/mmol were produced by iodination of the tyrosine methyl esters of norgestrel and norethisterone 3-oximes. The syn and anti isomers of the steroid oxime tyrosine methyl esters could be separated and interacted with an antiserum raised against the steroid 3-carboxymethyl oxime to a similar extent. Some diiodinated steroid tyrosine methyl ester was also produced and this also interacted with the antiserum to the same extent as the monoiodinated derivatives. The specificity of the interaction with the antiserum depends on the labelled ligand used. Greater specificity was obtained with a (/sup 3/H)-ligand than with a (/sup 125/I)-ligand but use of the latter enabled the antiserum to be used for measuring metabolites of norgestrel and norethisterone. Plasma extracts after, but not before, chromatography on Sephadex gave inhibition curves parallel to those of the standard.

  11. Application of 131I- and 125I-thyroxine in research of thyroid activity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is presented on determining the normal levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the blood sera of man and of animals using tracer techniques with 125I as a tracer. A method was elaborated of determining thyroxine by equilibrium dialysis and conditions were found of the quantitative chemical analysis of the blood sera of man and of rats for triiodothyronine. A nodification of the method made possible microanalysis of samples smaller than 2 ml, thus permitting the application of the procedure in determining the components in the blood serum of individuals in contrast to the previous practice when only mixtures of blood sera taken from groups of animals could be analyzed. The effect was also studied of certain significant factors, such as anaesthetics and others on the level of free thyroxine in the blood sera of man and of rats. (L.O.)

  12. The effect of ionic strength on the diffusion of 125I in Gaomiaozi bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of 125I- in compacted Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite was investigated by capillary in-diffusion method. Apparent and effective diffusion coefficients and accessible porosity of iodide in GMZ bentonite were obtained, and the effect of ionic strength on diffusion parameters was studied. The apparent diffusion coefficients of iodide in compacted GMZ bentonite are in the range of 1.0-6.0 x 10-10 m2 s-1 under the conditions of dry bulk density 1,500 kg m-3 and temperature 298 K, and increase with increasing ionic strength. This effect was explained through the analysis of microscopic structure of compacted bentonite. The iodide can only diffuse in unbound interparticle pore solution of compacted bentonite. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a function of accessible porosity which is decided by the thickness of diffusion double layer, and the thickness is in turn controlled by ionic strength. (author)

  13. 125I-radioimmunoassay of amikacin and comparison with a microbioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed using 125I-amikacin. Amikacin was iodinated by a modified Bolton and Hunter method. Dextran-charcoal was used to separate bound from free drug. The standard curve was linear on a logit-log plot in the range of 0.5 ng to 4 ng amikacin per tube. There was no cross-reactivity of amikacin antisera to the aminoglycosides gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin, and sisomicin but a 70% cross-reaction was observed with kanamycin, the compound from which amikacin is synthetically derived. Correlation of the RIA with a microbioassay for the determination of serum amikacin levels in 18 patient samples was excellent (r=0.94). This new RIA technique is more sensitive, rapid, versatile, and less costly than the RIA using 3H-amikacin, and is far more sensitive and faster than microbioassay. (auth.)

  14. HPLC-purified 2-[125I]iodomelatonin labels multiple binding sites in hamster brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin in hamster brain synaptosomal membranes at 0 degrees C is rapid, saturable, reversible and sensitive to heat and trypsin treatment. Computer resolution of curvilinear Scatchard plots yielded high- and low-affinity components as follows: Kd1 = 0.32 +/- 0.14 nM, Bmax1 = 5.6 +/- 1.7 fmol/mg protein and Kd2 = 10.5 +/- 3.2 nM, Bmax2 = 123 +/- 33 fmol/mg protein (n = 3). Competition experiments indicated that 2-iodomelatonin and prazosin are the most potent inhibitors of high-affinity binding. Unlike prazosin, several alpha-adrenergic agents and various neurotransmitters were ineffective. These findings suggest that prazosin may be a potent antagonist at a unique, non-alpha-adrenergic, high-affinity binding site for melatonin

  15. Binding and internalization of 125I-glucagon in hepatocytes of intact mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization of labeled material in hepatocytes of intact mouse liver injected via the portal vein with 125I-glucagon was studied. At 3 minutes after pulse injection of the labeled glucagon, most grains were localized associated with the plasma membrane. At 10 min after the injection, the grains were distributed throughout the cytoplasm and did not appear localized exclusively in any specific cell organelles. At 20 min after the injection, the labeled material appeared decreased, and was not yet localized exclusively in any specific cell organelles. Thus, in hepatocytes of intact liver, labeled glucagon is internalized more rapidly than in freshly isolated hepatocytes, and there appear to be no cell organelles in which internalized glucagon is preferentially localized. (author)

  16. 125I-?-CIT imaging study of striatal dopamine transporters in mice model of parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect the activity of striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) in lesions of different order of severity of MPTP-induced mice model of parkinsonism by autoradiography with 125I-?-CIT and to evaluate the clinical use of the ?-CIT imaging for DAT detection. Methods: With regard to the different duration (days) of MPTP treatment, the C57BL mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, that is MPTP 1, 3, 5 and 7 day groups and control group treated with normal saline instead of MPTP. Two hours after intravenous administration with 125I-?-CIT of 148 kBq, the brain tissue sections were imaged by autoradiography. The levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum of the mice were observed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Results: As compared with control group, the radioactivity ratios of striatum to cortex (ST/CX) in 4 MPTP-treated groups were significantly reduced, by 20%, 42%, 45% and 52%, respectively. The concentrations of DA in the striatum of 4 MPTP-treated groups were remarkably decreased, by 47%, 75%, 95% and 95%, respectively. The gradual loss of DA neurons and fibres in the substantia nigra and striatum in 4 MPTP-treated groups was observed under microscopy. Conclusions: The functional abnormality of DAT paralleled the changes observed in DAT paralleled the changes observed in neurochemistry and neuropathology studies in the lesions of different order of injury of the MPTP-treated mice. The ?-CIT scanning for the activity of DAT may be useful for diagnosing PD at earlier phase and for monitoring the progression of the disease

  17. Modified COMS Plaques for 125I and 103Pd Iris Melanoma Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Novel plaques are used to treat iris melanoma at the Mayo Clinic Rochester. The plaques are a modification of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) 22 mm plaque design with a gold alloy backing, outer lip, and silicone polymer insert. An inner lip surrounds a 10 mm diameter cutout region at the plaque center. Plaques span 360o, 270o, and 180o arcs. This article describes dosimetry for these plaques and others used in the treatment of anterior eye melanomas. Methods and Materials: The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. Plaques and seeds are fully modeled. Three-dimensional dose distributions for different plaque models, TG-43 calculations, and 125I (model 6711) and 103Pd (model 200) seeds are compared via depth-dose curves, tabulation of doses at points of interest, and isodose contours. Results: Doses at points of interest differ by up to 70% from TG-43 calculations. The inner lip reduces corneal doses. Matching plaque arc length to tumor extent reduces doses to eye regions outside the treatment area. Maintaining the same prescription dose, 103Pd offers lower doses to critical structures than 125I, with the exception of the sclera adjacent to the plaque. Conclusion: The Mayo Clinic plaques offer several advantages for anterior eye tumor treatments. Doses to regions outside the treatment area are significantly reduced. Doses differ consideignificantly reduced. Doses differ considerably from TG-43 predictions, illustrating the importance of complete Monte Carlo simulations. Calculations take a few minutes on a single CPU, making BrachyDose sufficiently fast for routine clinical treatment planning.

  18. 125I-labeled 8-phenylxanthine derivatives: antagonist radioligands for adenosine A1 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 8-phenylxanthine derivatives has been synthesized with oxyacetic acid on the para phenyl position to increase aqueous solubility and minimize nonspecific binding and iodinatable groups on the 1- or 3-position of the xanthine ring. The structure-activity relationship for binding of these compounds to A1 adenosine receptors of bovine and rat brain and A2 receptors of human platelets was examined. The addition of arylamine or photosensitive aryl azide groups to the 3-position of xanthine had little effect on A1 binding affinity with or without iodination, whereas substitutions at the 1-position caused greatly reduced A1 binding affinity. The addition of an aminobenzyl group to the 3-position of the xanthine had little effect on A2 binding affinity, but 3-aminophenethyl substitution decreased A2 binding affinity. Two acidic 3-(arylamino)-8-phenylxanthine derivatives were labeled with 125I and evaluated as A1 receptor radioligands. The new radioligands bound to A1 receptors with KD values of 1-1.25 nM. Specific binding represented over 80% of total binding. High concentrations of NaCl or other salts increased the binding affinity of acidic but not neutral antagonists, suggesting that interactions between ionized xanthines and receptors may be affected significantly by changes in ionic strength. On the basis of binding studies with these antagonists and isotope dilution with the agonist [125I]N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine, multiple agoamino-3-iodobenzyl)adenosine, multiple agonist affinity states of A1 receptors have been identified

  19. Simulation of 125I-induced DNA strand breaks in a CAP-DNA complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA strand breakage induced by decay of 125I incorporated into the pyrimidine of a small piece of DNA with a specific base pair sequence has been investigated theoretically and experimentally (Lobachevsky and Martin 2000a, 2000b; Nikjoo et al., 1996; Pomplun and Terrissol, 1994; Charlton and Humm, 1988). Recently an attempt was made to analyse the DNA kinks in a CAP-DNA complex with 125I induced DNA strand breakage (Karamychev et al., 1999). This method could be used as a so called radioprobing for such DNa distortions like other chemical and biological assays, provided that it has been tested and confirmed in a corresponding theoretical simulation. In the measurement, the distribution of the first breaks on the DNA strands starting from their labeled end can be determined. Based on such first breakage distributions, the simulation calculation could then be used to derive information on the structure of a given DNA-protein complex. The biophysical model PARTRAC has been applied successfully in simulating DNA damage induced by irradiation (Friedland et al., 1998; 1999). In the present study PARTRAC is adapted to a DNA-protein complex in which a specific sequence of 30 base pairs of DNA is connected with the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP). This report presents the first step of the analysis in which the CAP-DNA model used in NIH is overlaid with electron track structures in liquid water and the strand breaks due to direct ionization and due to radical attack are simulated. The second step will be to take into account the neutralization of the heavily charged tellurium and the protective effect of the CAP protein against radical attack. (orig.)

  20. p-[125I]iodoclonidine, a novel radiolabeled agonist for studying central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlabeled p-iodoclonidine was efficacious in attenuating forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Maximal attenuation was 76 +/- 3%, with an EC50 of 347 +/- 60 nM. Comparable values of epinephrine were 72 +/- 3% and 122 +/- 22 nM. Responses to both agonists were abolished by 10 microM phentolamine. Therefore, p-iodoclonidine is an agonist in a cell culture model system of the neuronal alpha 2-adrenergic receptor. p-[125I]Iodoclonidine binding to membranes were measured using various regions of the rat brain. The agonist labeled a single population of sites present on cerebral cortical membranes, which was saturable (Bmax = 230 fmol/mg of protein) and possessed high affinity for the ligand (Kd = 0.6 nM). Binding was largely specific (93% at 0.6 nM). A variety of alpha 2-adrenergic agonists and antagonists were shown to compete for the binding of the radioligand. The binding of p-[125I]iodoclonidine was much less sensitive to agents that interact with alpha 1-adrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic receptors. Approximately 65% of the binding was sensitive to guanine nucleotides. Association kinetics using 0.4 nM radioligand were biphasic (37% associate rapidly, with kobs = 0.96 min-1, with the remainder binding more slowly, with kobs = 0.031 min-1) and reached a plateau by 90 min at 25 degrees. Dissociation kinetics were also biphasic, with 30% of the binding dissociating rapidly (k1 = 0.32 min-1) and the remainder dissociating 50-fold m) and the remainder dissociating 50-fold more slowly (k2 = 0.006 min-1). Agonist binding is, therefore, uniquely complex and probably reflects the conformational changes that accompany receptor activation

  1. Monte Carlo dosimetry for 125I and 103Pd eye plaque brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo study of dosimetry for eye plaque brachytherapy is performed. BrachyDose, an EGSnrc user code which makes use of Yegin's multi-geometry package, is used to fully model 125I (model 6711) and 103Pd (model 200) brachytherapy seeds and the standardized plaques of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS). Three-dimensional dose distributions in the eye region are obtained. In general, dose to water is scored; however, the implications of replacing water with eye tissues are explored. The effect of the gold alloy (Modulay) backing is investigated and the dose is found to be sensitive to the elemental composition of the backing. The presence of the silicone polymer (Silastic) seed carrier results in substantial dose decreases relative to water, particularly for 103Pd. For a 20 mm plaque with a Modulay backing and Silastic insert, fully loaded with 24 seeds, the dose decrease relative to water is of the order of 14% for 125I and 20% for 103Pd at a distance of 1 cm from the inner sclera along the plaque's central axis. For the configurations of seeds used in COMS plaques, interseed attenuation is a small effect within the eye region. The introduction of an air interface results in a dose reduction in its vicinity which depends on the plaque's position within the eye and the radionuclide. Introducing bone in the eye's vicinity also causes dose reductions. The dose distributions in the eye for the two dife distributions in the eye for the two different radionuclides are compared and, for the same prescription dose, 103Pd generally offers a lower dose to critical normal structures. BrachyDose is sufficiently fast to allow full Monte Carlo dose calculations for routine clinical treatment planning.

  2. Four-year experience of interstitial permanent brachytherapy for Japanese men with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to report 4 year results obtained with our initial 100 patients with localized prostate cancer treated by interstitial permanent brachytherapy. One-hundred Japanese men with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy using 125I seeds. Median follow-up was 36 months (range, 30-42 months). Median initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 6.7 ng/ml (range, 1.5-25.2 ng/ml). Of these 100 patients, 31 received neoadjuvant hormone therapy for several months. Treatment morbidities were assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale and National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. A mean of 95 seeds (range, 48-123 seeds) were successfully implanted in patients with prostate cancer. Mean prostate volume receiving at least 100% dose (V100) and dose to 90% of prostate volume (D90) for the 100 patients were 96.6% and 166.1 Gy, respectively. Urinary morbidity was common, but was usually not severe. Only four patients needed catheterization for urinary retention (Grade 3) during follow-up. Most patients displayed no rectal morbidity after implantation, with only 3% of patients showing RTOG Grade 2 rectal morbidity and no patients showing morbidity of Grade 3 or more. Three patients experienced biochemical failure according to Phoenix consensus definition during follow-up. One patient displayed clinical failure with lymph node recurrence. These results indicate thnode recurrence. These results indicate that interstitial permanent brachytherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer. The import of matured techniques developed in Western countries might allow bypass of the trial-and-error process in Japanese institutions. (author)

  3. Apoptosis and p53 are not involved in the anti-tumor efficacy of 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting the cell membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies (125I-mAbs) can efficiently treat small solid tumors. Here, we investigated the role of apoptosis, autophagy and mitotic catastrophe in 125I-mAb toxicity in p53?/? and p53+/+ cancer cells. Methods: We exposed p53?/? and p53+/+ HCT116 cells to increasing activities of internalizing (cytoplasmic location) anti-HER1 125I-mAbs, or non-internalizing (cell surface location) anti-CEA 125I-mAbs. For each targeting model we established the relationship between survival and mean nucleus absorbed dose using the MIRD formalism. Results: In both p53?/? and p53+/+ HCT116 cells, anti-CEA 125I-mAbs were more cytotoxic per Gy than anti-HER1 125I-mAbs. Sensitivity to anti-CEA 125I-mAbs was p53-independent, while sensitivity to anti-HER1 125I-mAbs was higher in p53?/? HCT 116 cells, suggesting that they act through different signaling pathways. Apoptosis was only induced in p53+/+ HCT116 cells and could not explain cell membrane radiation sensitivity. Inhibition of autophagy did not modify the cell response to 125I-mAbs. By contrast, mitotic death was similarly induced in both p53?/? and p53+/+ HCT116 cells by the two types of 125I-mAbs. We also showed using medium transfer experiments that ?-H2AX foci were produced in bystander cells. Conclusion: Cell membrane sensitivity to 125I-mAbs is not mediated by apoptosis and is p53-independent. Bystander effects-mediated mitotic death could be involved in the efficacy of 125I-mAbs binding cell surface receptors

  4. Direct measurement of 60Co and 125I activity by the sum-peak method in PTKMR-BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sum-peak method was successfully applied to the determination of the activity of 60Co and 125I sources measured by HPGe and well-type NaI(Tl) detectors in PTKMR-BATAN. The result of the 60Co activity agrees with the activity value measured by using a calibrated ionization chamber within a range of about 0.35–0.5% and the activity result of 125I agrees with the activity value measured using the photon–photon coincidence method within a range of 0.05–0.26%. - Highlights: • Sum-peak method applied to activity determination of 60Co and 125I. • Measured by well-type NaI(Tl) and HP(Ge) detectors. • Results agree (<0.5% and <0.3%) with those from calibrated ionization chambers

  5. In situ DNA-RNA hybridization using in vitro 125I-labeled ribosomal RNA of higher plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ hybridization using 125I-labeled ribosomal RNA was applied to plant cells. Cytoplasmic 25 s rRNA, which was eluted from acrylamide gels after electrophoretic separation, was labeled in vitro with carrier-free 125I and hybridized with the interphase nuclei in root tips of Vicia faba. In most of the preparations, the nucleoli were more heavily labeled than the other regions within nuclei, and several types of grain distribution were observed on the nucleoli. From these results, it was confirmed that in situ hybridization using 125I-labeled rRNA can be used very effectively to detect the annealing sites of different molecular species of rRNA within the nuclei of plant cells, for which it is not as easy to obtain high specific radioactive rRNA in vivo as it is in the case of cultured animal cells. (auth.)

  6. Assay of estradiol receptors in human breast carcinomas using the gamma emitting ligand 16?[125I]iodoestradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estradiol receptors (ER) were measured in human breast carcinomas using the gamma emitting ligand 16?[125I]iodoestradiol. Competition experiments with excess unlabeled steroids showed that the iodoestradiol was bound specifically by the ER. The Ksub(d) of the iodo and tritium-labeled estradiol for the receptor were similar with values of 3.4 x 10-18 M and 2.1 x 10-10 M respectively. A comparison of ER determination in 25 human breast carcinomas using both [3H]estradiol and [125I]estradiol gave a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. It is concluded that the use of [125I]estradiol should greatly simplify the ER assay and facilitate its introduction into the routine hospital laboratory. (author)

  7. Effects of methoxyflurane anesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of 125I-IAZA in sprague-dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of methoxyflurane anesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous 125I-IAZA in rats are reported. No significant differences in t1/2?, t1/2?, Vss, and ClTB for total radioactivity (125I-IAZA and metabolites) were observed between the anesthetized (Group 1, n=4) and nonanesthetized (Group 2, n=3) animals. For 125I-IAZA, ClTB increased from 646±52 mL/h/kg to 2250±351 mL/h/kg and t1/2? decreased from 97.7±17.5 min to 35.6±5.4 min, for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. There were no differences in Vss or t1/2? between the two groups. These findings support literature reports of anesthetic effects on xenobiotic pharmacokinetics, and indicate a need for caution in the evaluation of preclinical imaging studies in which animals are immobilized with anesthetics

  8. Binding of the labelled muscarinic toxin 125I-MT1 to rat brain muscarinic M1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbroeck, M; De Neef, P; Domenach, V; Vandermeers-Piret, M C; Vandermeers, A

    1996-06-01

    The green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) "muscarinic toxin', MT1, was radioiodinated by the chloramine T method. 125I-MT1 labelled the muscarinic M1 receptor subtype with a very good selectivity in rat brain. It had no preference for the receptor states with high or low affinity for agonists, and was not affected by Gpp(NH)p addition to the incubation medium. The 125I-MT1 binding was reversible, with a half life of 45 min at 25 degrees C. The effect of competitive and allosteric muscarinic antagonists on 125I-MT1 binding and dissociation can be rationalized by assuming that the radioiodinated toxin is able to label the muscarinic (acetylcholine) binding site. PMID:8813552

  9. 111In-platelet and 125I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary 125I-fibrinogen and 111In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. 125I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). 125I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy

  10. Changes in the secondary structure of proteins labeled with 125I. CD spectroscopy and enzymatic activity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) were radiolabeled with 125I. Three different methods for protein iodination with 125I were optimized. Parameters like incubation time and ratio of oxidizing agent and amount of protein were established. During protein iodination with 125I, structural damages caused by the introduction of iodine into the protein may occur. These damages depend on the oxidizing agent used and may lead to considerable changes in the protein structure and, hence, their biological activity. Changes in secondary structure of LSZ and BSA were examined by circular dichroism (CD). Enzymatic activity tests were performed with lysozyme to check its biological activity. The Iodo Bead was found the best oxidizing agent for protein iodination. (author)

  11. Isradipine, a calcium-entry blocker, decreases vascular (125-I)low-density lipoprotein entry in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinzinger, H.; Lupattelli, G.; Virgolini, I.; Gerakakis, A.; Fitscha, P.; Molinari, E.; Angelberger, P. (Atherosclerosis Research Group (ASF) Vienna, Austria)

    1991-04-01

    In 72 male rabbits aged 6 months, the endothelium of the abdominal aorta was abraded by a Fogarthy catheter. The animals were then fed a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. In addition, half of the animals were treated for the entire period with isradipine (0.3 mg/kg daily), a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist; the other 36 animals served as controls. One hour and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours before the animals were killed, (125-I)low-density lipoprotein (LDL 10 microCi) was administered intravenously (i.v.) to six animals in each group. The (125-I)LDL entry was quantified in the abdominal aorta according to the type and presence of endothelial lining. Isradipine significantly reduced the (125-I)LDL entry at most time intervals. In parallel, an increase in vascular prostaglandin (PGI2) synthesis was noted, which might be the underlying mechanism for the decreased LDL entry.

  12. Isradipine, a calcium-entry blocker, decreases vascular [125-I]low-density lipoprotein entry in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 72 male rabbits aged 6 months, the endothelium of the abdominal aorta was abraded by a Fogarthy catheter. The animals were then fed a 1% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. In addition, half of the animals were treated for the entire period with isradipine (0.3 mg/kg daily), a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist; the other 36 animals served as controls. One hour and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours before the animals were killed, [125-I]low-density lipoprotein (LDL 10 microCi) was administered intravenously (i.v.) to six animals in each group. The [125-I]LDL entry was quantified in the abdominal aorta according to the type and presence of endothelial lining. Isradipine significantly reduced the [125-I]LDL entry at most time intervals. In parallel, an increase in vascular prostaglandin (PGI2) synthesis was noted, which might be the underlying mechanism for the decreased LDL entry

  13. Synthesis of 125I Labeled Estradiol-17?-Hemisuccinate and Its Binding Study to Estrogen Receptors Using Scintillation Proximity Assay Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Susilo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to obtain a selective ligand which strongly bind to estrogen receptors through determination of binding affinity of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate. Selectivity of these compounds for estrogen receptor was studied using Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA method. Primary reagents required in the SPA method including radioligand and receptor, the former was obtained by labeling of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate with 125I, while MCF7 was used as the receptor. The labeling process was performed by indirect method via two-stage reaction. In this procedure, first step was activation of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate using isobutylchloroformate and tributylamine as a catalist, while labeling of histamine with 125I was carried out using chloramin-T method to produce 125I-histamine. The second stage was conjugation of activated estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate with 125I-histamine. The product of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate labeled 125I was extracted using toluene. Furtherly, the organic layer was purified by TLC system. Characterization of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate labeled 125I from this solvent extraction was carried out by determining its radiochemical purity and the result was obtained using paper electrophoresis and TLC were 79.8% and 84.4% respectively. Radiochemical purity could be increased when purification step was repeated using TLC system, the result showed up to 97.8%. Determination of binding affinity by the SPA method was carried out using MCF7 cell lines which express estrogen receptors showed the value of Kd at 7.192 x 10-3 nM and maximum binding at 336.1 nM. This low value of Kd indicated that binding affinity of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate was high or strongly binds to estrogen recepto

  14. Synthesis of 125I Labeled Estradiol-17?-Hemisuccinate and Its Binding Study to Estrogen Receptors Using Scintillation Proximity Assay Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was carried out to obtain a selective ligand which strongly bind to estrogen receptors through determination of binding affinity of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate. Selectivity of these compounds for estrogen receptor was studied using Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) method. Primary reagents required in the SPA method including radioligand and receptor, the former was obtained by labeling of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate with 125I, while MCF7 was used as the receptor. The labeling process was performed by indirect method via two-stage reaction. In this procedure, first step was activation of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate using isobutylchloroformate and tributylamine as a catalyst, while labeling of histamine with 125I was carried out using chloramin-T method to produce 125I-histamine. The second stage was conjugation of activated estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate with 125I-histamine. The product of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate labeled 125I was extracted using toluene. Further, the organic layer was purified by TLC system. Characterization of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate labeled 125I from this solvent extraction was carried out by determining its radiochemical purity and the result was obtained using paper electrophoresis and TLC were 79.8% and 84.4% respectively. Radiochemical purity could be increased when purification step was repeated using TLC system, the result showed up to 97.8%. Determination of binding affinity by the SPA method was carried out using MCF7 cell lines which express estrogen receptors showed the value of Kd at 7.192 x 10-3 nM and maximum binding at 336.1 nM. This low value of Kd indicated that binding affinity of estradiol-17?-hemisuccinate was high or strongly binds to estrogen receptor. (author)

  15. Double labeling of transferrin: tritium labeling of sialic acid and 125I or 59Fe labeling of the protein moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described in which the glycoprotein transferrin was double labeled. Its sialic acid residues were labeled with 3H through a consecutive oxidation-reduction technique utilizing tritiated NaBH4. Its protein moiety was labeled with either 125I or 59Fe. Incubation of this double-labeled molecule at 40C with K562 cells gave overlapping curves, indicating identical patterns of binding for all labels. At 370C, 3H and 125I demonstrated identical patterns while 59Fe was cummulatively retained. This method can be used to follow the fate of other glycoproteins and their possible desialation in vivo

  16. Specific binding component of the "inactive" stereoisomer (S,S)-[125I] IQNB to rat brain muscarinic receptors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, S F; McRee, R C; Cohen, V I; Sood, V K; Zeeberg, B R; Reba, R C

    1996-04-01

    In vivo nonspecific binding can be estimated using the inactive stereoisomer of a receptor radioligand. However, the binding of the inactive stereoisomer may be partially specific. Specific binding of the inactive (S,S)-[125I]IQNB was estimated from the inhibition induced by a competing nonradioactive ligand. This technique differed from the usual approach, since it was used to study the inactive rather than the active stereoisomer. The results indicate that there is substantial specific binding for (S,S)-[125I]IQNB. PMID:8782228

  17. [125I]endothelin-1 binding sites: Autoradiographic studies in the brain and periphery of various species including humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative autoradiography with [125I]-endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been used to localize putative ET-1 recognition sites in the brain and peripheral organs of various species including humans. High densities of high-affinity [125I]ET-1 binding sites were observed in heart, lung, liver, kidney, blood vessels, and brain. A differential pattern of distribution of ET-1 recognition sites was observed in the periphery and in the brain, indicating that putative ET-1 receptors are not located only in blood vessels. The data are consistent with a role for ET-1 in vascular smooth muscle and nonvascular tissues, such as heart, lung, intestine, kidney, and brain

  18. Synthesis and in vivo studies of a selective ligand for the dopamine transporter: 3?-(4-[125I]iodophenyl) tropan-2?-carboxylic acid isopropyl ester ([125I]RTI-121)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selective ligand for the dopamine transporter 3?-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2?-carboxylic acid isopropyl ester (RTI-121) has been labeled with iodine-125 by electrophilic radioiododestannylation. The [125I]RTI-121 was obtained in good yield (86 ± 7%, n = 3) with high radiochemical purity (>99%) and specific radioactivity (1210-1950 mCi/?mol). After i.v. administration of [125I]RTI-121 to mice, the rank order of regional brain tissue radioactivity (striatum > olfactory tubercles >> cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum) was consistent with dopamine transporter labeling. Specific in vivo binding in striatum and olfactory tubercles was saturable, and was blocked by the dopamine transporter ligands GBR 12,909 and (±)-nomifensine. By contrast, binding was not reduced by paroxetine, a serotonin transporter inhibitor, or desipramine, a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. A variety of additional drugs having high affinities for recognition sites other than the neuronal dopamine transporter also had no effect. The [125I]RTI-121 binding in striatum and olfactory tubercles was inhibited by d-amphetamine in dose-dependent fashion. Nonmetabolized radioligand represents 85% of the signal observed in extracts of whole mouse brain. Thus, [125I]RTI-121 is readily prepared, and is a useful tracer for dopamine transporter studies in vivo

  19. Synthesis, in vitro pharmacologic characterization, and preclinical evaluation of N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-[125I]iodo-4-methoxybenzamide (P[125I]MBA) for imaging breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use of a radioiodinated benzamide, N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)ethyl]-3-iodo[125I]-4-methoxybenzamide (P[125I]MBA), a sigma receptor binding radioligand for imaging breast cancer. The chemical and radiochemical syntheses of PIMBA are described. The pharmacological evaluation of PIMBA was carried out for sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptor sites. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of the radioiodinated benzamide were determined in rats and comparison of P[125I]MBA with Tc-99m sestamibi were made in a rat mammary tumor model. Sigma-1 affinity (Ki) for PIMBA in guinea pig brain membranes using [3H](+)pentazocine was found to be 11.82±0.68 nM, whereas sigma-2 affinity in rat liver using [3H]DTG (1,3-o-di-tolylguanidine) was 206±11 nM. Sites in guinea pig brain membranes labeled by P[125I]MBA showed high affinity for haloperidol, (+)-pentazocine, BD1008, and PIMBA ( Ki=4.87±1.49,8.81±1.97,0.057±0.005,46.9±1.8 nM, respectively). Competition binding studies were carried out in human ductal breast carcinoma cells (T47D). A dose-dependent inhibition of specific binding was observed with several sigma ligands. Ki values for the inhibition of P[125I]MBA binding in T47D cells for haloperidol, N-[2-(1'-piperidinyl)]ethyl]4-iodobenzamide (IPAB), N-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-iodobenzamide (4-IBP), and PIMBA were found to be 1.30±0.0and PIMBA were found to be 1.30±0.07, 13±1.5, 5.19±2.3, 1.06±0.5 nM, respectively. The in vitro binding data in guinea pig brain membranes and breast cancer cells confirmed binding to sigma sites. The saturation binding of P[125I]MBA in T47D cells as studied by Scatchard analysis showed saturable binding, with a Kd=94±7 nM and a Bmax=2035±305 fmol/mg of proteins. Biodistribution studies in Sprague-Dawley rats showed a rapid clearance of P[125I]MBA from the normal organs. The potential of PIMBA in imaging breast cancer was evaluated in Lewis rats bearing syngeneic RMT breast cancers, a cancer that closely mimics human breast cancer histology. At 1 h postinjection, tumor uptake for P[125I]MBA and Tc-99m sestamibi were found to be 0.35±0.01 and 0.32±0.01 % injected dose/organ (%ID/g), respectively. The %ID/g for liver, kidneys, and heart were 2, 11, and 20 times lower, respectively, for P[125I]MBA as compared with Tc-sestamibi. Slightly higher uptake of P[125I]MBA in tumors (than Tc-sestamibi) and a low nontarget organ uptake warrants further studies of this and other sigma receptor ligands for their use as breast cancer imaging agents

  20. Dosimetric studies, spectrometric, radiographic, metallographic of a new argentinean seed of 125 I used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new source of 125 I model BraquibacTM has been developed in Argentina for applications in interstitial brachytherapy. The AAPM Task Group 43 (TG-43) recommends that dosimetric characteristics of new sources of brachytherapy of Iodine-125 have been theoretically and experimentally determined before its clinical use. The objectives outlined in this work were the study of the design of the new seed, the calculation of dosimetric parameters and the photons spectra analysis. Its were carried out radiographic and metallographic studies to determine the physical characteristics of the source. For the realization of the dosimetric calculations it was used the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Values of the radial dose function, g(r), of the constant of dose rate, ?, of the function of anisotropy of two dimensions, F(r, ?), of the factor and constant of anisotropy its were obtained simulating the source in water according to the recommended methodology in TG-43. The constant of dose rate is similar to 0,880 ± 0,080 c Gy h-1 U-1. The kerma in air rate of reference, SK, was calculated as 1,036 c Gy cm2h-1 mCi-1 simulating the seed in dry air. Its were carried out spectrometric studies using a semiconductor planar detector of HPGe (high purity germanium). Photons spectra showed characteristic x-rays of 125 I with energies of 27,20 keV, 27,47 keV, 31 keV and 31,70 keV gamma photons of 35,5 keV, and x-ray fluorescent coming from the silver nucleus of 22,10 keV, 24,94 keV and 25,45 keV. The angular dependence of the intensity of photons around the seed and in air it was analyzed with the planar detector. This was carried out to study the anisotropy in the photons flow due to variation in the thickness of the titanium wall and of the welding, movements of the silver tube inside the source and deposition of the radioactive material on the silver tube. (Author)

  1. Method of measurement for volume radioactivity and radionuclide purity of sodium iodide labeled with 125I using germanium and silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Considered questions of the reception a sodium iodide, labeled 125I by irradiations 124Xe in the nuclear reactor WWR-SM and strategy of measurement of the volumetric activity a sodium iodide labeled 125I and determination in him admixtures 126I with use of germanium and silicon detectors. Using the different detectors is stipulated by the significant scatter of main peaks 125I and 126I in the energy spectrum. So for the measurement of volumetric activities 125I used silicon detector, which effectively works in the X-ray range, but for the determination of admixtures 126I - a germanium semiconductor detector

  2. In vitro binding and in vivo biodistribution studies of the neuroprotective peptide humanin using [125I]humanin derivatives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evangelou, A.; Zikos, C.; Benaki, D.; Pelecanou, M.; Bouziotis, P.; Papadopoulos, M.; Borovi?ková, Lenka; Veselá, Iva; Elbert, Tomáš; Kunešová, G.; Pirmettis, I.; Paravatou-Petsotas, M.; Slaninová, Ji?ina; Livaniou, E.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 30, ?. 12 (2009), s. 2409-2417. ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 872 Grant ostatní: Czech-Greek Joint Research and Technology Programme(GR) 188-gamma Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : neuroprotective peptides * humanin derivatives * [125I] radiolabeling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.705, year: 2009

  3. Binding of an [125I] labelled thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor agonist to baboon platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor on baboon platelets the binding of [125I]BOP was studied. [125I]BOP bound to washed baboon platelets in a saturable manner. Scatchard analysis of binding isotherms revealed a Kd of 1.12 +/- 0.08 nM and a binding capacity of 54 +/- 5 fmoles/10(8) platelets (326 sites/platelet). Several TXA2/PGH2 agonists and antagonists displaced [125I]BOP from its baboon platelet binding site with a rank order of potency similar to human platelets: I-BOP greater than SQ29548 greater than U46619 = I-PTA-OH greater than PTA-OH. I-BOP aggregated washed baboon platelets with an EC50 of 10 +/- 4 nM. The results indicate that [125I]BOP binds to the TXA2/PGH2 receptor on baboon platelets and that this receptor is similar to its human counterpart

  4. Preparation of 2-[125I] iodohistamine-labelled ?8-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid for use in cannabinoid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method is described for the preparation of 2-[125I]iodohistamine-labelled ?8-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid with high specific activity for use in radioimmunoassay. This compound is produced in high yield and shows excellent radiochemical stability when stored at 40C. (author)

  5. Radioiodination of myoglobin with 125I using an on-line solid phase HPLC-coupled procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins, such as myoglobin, which carry sensitive moieties, such as thiols or porphyrins. Myoglobin has been iodinated with 125I by using the iodinating reagent, IODO-GENR, which has been adsorbed onto polyol silica and packed in a reactor pre-column coupled in tandem to a gel permeation chromatography column. (author)

  6. Chromosome damage in Chinese hamster cells produced by 125I-UdR at the site of its incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metaphase chromosomal aberrations were produced by 125I-labeled iododeoxyuridine (125I-UdR) incorporated into Chinese hamster Don cells at the end of the S-period of the cell cycle. Chromosome damage and the number of autoradiographic silver grains were recorded for whole cells, for chromosome pairs 4 and 5 and for the X and the Y chromosomes. The X and the Y chromosomes, which label late in S, were at least twice as heavily labeled as chromosome pairs 4 and 5 - two readily recognizable autosomes of similar size. The incidence of chromosome damage was at least six times that which would have been expected from equivalent doses of X-rays and the incidence of damage was directly related to the number of silver grains over each chromosome. It is estimated that it takes four to ten disintegrations to produce a visible chromosome aberration. The finding that chromosome damage is localized at the site of the 125I decay is most readily explained by the high flux of low energy Auger electrons occurring at the site of the decay of the incorporated 125I atom. (Auth.)

  7. Autoradiography: [125I]SCH 23982 binds with picomolar affinity to D1 sites on striatonigral neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCH 23390 is selective D1 antagonist. The authors show for the first time, with iodinated SCH 23390, [125I]SCH 23982, D1 binding sites on striatonigral neurons. Rat brain sections were covered for 1 hr by a pH 7.6 TRIS buffer containing 2-770 pM [125I]SCH 23982, rinsed 2 min at 4 0C, dried, and exposed to film for 18 hr. [125I]SCH 23982 was displaced by D1 (SCH 23390; IC50= 200 pM; cis-flupenthixol, 10 nM; SKF 38393, 90 nM) but not D2 (sulpiride, LY171555) ligands. Intermediate D1 binding was found in the internal capsule and entopeduncular nucleus. Striatal quinolinate (100 nmol) decreased nigral and striatal D1 binding. Intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6 ?g) that destroyed > 90% of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons did not alter nigral or striatal D1 binding. Thus, [125I]SCH 23982 labels with pM affinity D1 sites that reside on striatonigral neurons

  8. Lethal and mutagenic effects of decay of 125I incorporated into cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethal and mutagenic effects and the nature of mutations induced by the decay of 125I introduced into yeast haploid cells in the form of 125I-desoxyuridinemonophosphate (125IdUMP) and 125I-uridinemonophosphate (125IUMP) were studied. An inactivation probability for 125IdUMP was asub(I)=(0.23 -0.08) decaysup(-I) and for 125IUMP - asup(I)=(0.95+-0.32)x10sup(-4) decaysup(-I) or ?sup(I)=0.052-0.018 kradsup(-I). A probability of the occurrence of direct mutations in ade 1 and ade 2 genes during 125IdUMP decay was asup(m)=(3.1+-1.8)x10sup(-7) decaysup(-I). 125IdUMP induced in ade 2 genes approximately 1% of deletions, 24% - mutations of reading frame shift, and 75% - mutations of the sustitution of pairs of bases: 43% - transversions, 17% - transitions AT?GC, and 15% - transitions GC?AT. In the missence mutation spectrum transversions constituted 48%, transitions AT?GC - 32%, and transitions GC?AT - 20%. The obtianed results show that 125I decay in DNA of yeast cell causes strong and weak mutagenic effects. A relative mutagenic effectiveness of 125IdUMP is 0.12

  9. Synthesis of Sulochrin-125I and Its Binding Affinity as ?-Glucosidase Inhibitor using Radioligand Binding Assay (RBA) Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of diabetes patients have type 2 diabetes mellitus or non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be conducted by inhibiting the ?-glucosidase enzyme which converts carbohydrates into glucose. Sulochrin is one of the potential compounds which can inhibit the function of ?-glucosidase enzyme. This study was carried out to obtain data of sulochrin binding with ?-glucosidase enzyme as ?-glucosidase inhibitor using Radioligand Binding Assay (RBA) method. The primary reagent required in RBA is the labeled radioactive ligand (radioligand). In this study, the radioligand was sulochrin-125I. Prior to the sulochrin-125I synthesis, sulochrin-I was synthesized. Sulochrin-I and sulochrin-125I were synthesized and their bindings were studied using RBA. The molecular formula of the synthesized Sulochrin-I is C17H15O7I and its molecular weight is 457.9940. The sulochrin-125I was synthesized from sulochrin-I by isotope exchange method. From RBA, the dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximum binding (Bmax) were found as 26.316 nM and 9.302 nM, respectively. The low Kd indicates that sulochrin is capable of binding to ?-glucosidase. (author)

  10. Culture conditions affecting the incorporation of 125I-labelled iododeoxyuridine into DNA of mitogen-stimulated canine lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been conducted to define and describe the response of canine lymphocytes in the mitogen stimulation assay systems. These studies include the effects of serum, mitogen, and FUDR concentrations on the incorporation of 125I-IUDR by canine lymphocytes