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Sample records for 122sb 124sb 165er

  1. 122Sb - a potential radiotracer: Evaluation of cyclotron production via novel routes

    Enferadi Milad; Sadeghi Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-122, having a half-life of 2.723 d and Iß-=97.59%, is an important radiotracer in studies of environmental contamination and food crops. For the work discussed in this paper, the production of 122Sb was done via the natSn(p, xn)122Sb nuclear reaction. Radiochemical separation was performed by silica gel column chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction methods. Excitation functions for the 122Sb radionuclide, via 122Sn(p, n)122Sb, natSn(p, xn)122Sb, 122Sn(d, 2n)122Sb, natSn(d,...

  2. Production of 122Sb for the study of environmental pollution

    This article presents, 122Sb (T1/2 = 2.723 days, I β- 97.59%) was produced via the natSn(p,xn) nuclear process at the AMIRS (Cyclone-30, IBA, Belgium). The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by potassium stannate trihydrate (K2Sn(OH)6) and potassium hydroxide. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tin were as follows: 40 g/L natSn, 20 g/L KOH, 115 g/L K2Sn(OH)6, DC current density of 5 A/dm2 with a bath temperature of 75 deg C. The electroplated Tin-target was irradiated with 26.5 MeV protons at current of 180 μA for 20 min. Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added 122Sb from irradiated Tin-natural target hydrochloric solution was investigated using di-n-butyl ether (C8H18O). Yields of about 3.61 MBq/μAh were experimentally obtained. (author)

  3. 124Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of 124Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4πγ method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  4. Uptake and retention of 124Sb in the common mussel, shrimp and shore crab

    The uptake of radioactive antimony from water and food by mussels, shrimps and shore crabs and the subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water were studied with 124Sb. The concentration factors of about 0.6 for mussels and 2.5 for shrimps, reached by direct uptake from sea water, remained considerably below stable-antimony concentration factors reported for these organisms. The loss of 124Sb after uptake of the radionuclide by mussels during 19 and 32 days respectively, could be described by a loss from two compartments with different rates. The distribution of the radionuclide in the animals did not change during the retention period. Antimony-124 taken up from sea water by shrimps was largely accounted for by adsorption to the exoskeleton, as was shown by the effect of moulting on the time course of subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water. Antimony-124 applied to freeze-dried mussel flesh that was fed to shrimps was lost according to a single exponential function. The mean biological half-life of 124Sb elimination was about 10 days. Two components were shown to be present in the retention of 124Sb in two groups of shore crabs, one of which was fed freeze-dried shrimps spiked with 124Sb, while the second group received shrimps labelled by uptake of 124Sb with food. The only significant difference between the two groups was a longer mean biological half-life of the short-lived component in the second group. In shrimps and crabs only a small fraction of 124Sb taken up with food ends up in the exoskeleton. About 45% of retained activity in crabs was found in the digestive gland. (author)

  5. The 124Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of 124Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. 124Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. 124Sb decays by β-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point 124Sb solid sources were obtained from a 166mHo standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of 124Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  6. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  7. 723 keV beta transition in the negatron decay of 122Sb

    The energy dependence of the angular correlation of the cascade 2-(723 keV β particle) 2+(1260 keV γ ray)0+ in the decay of 122Sb is measured and found to agree with the reports of Raghavan et al. and Yamada et al. Nuclear matrix elements governing the 723 keV β transition are extracted using the available experimental data on this transition. Buhring's formulas that are simplified by Simms are used in the analysis. It is observed that the contribution of the nondiagonal elements to the Coulomb Hamiltonian is significant

  8. Gamow–Teller 1+ states in 112-124Sb isotopes

    Necla Çakmak; Serdar Ünlü; Cevad Selam

    2010-10-01

    The violated supersymmetry property of the pairing interaction between nucleons were restored using the Pyatov method [Pyatov and Salamov, Nucleonica 22, 127 (1977)]. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the restored Hamiltonian with the separable residual Gamow–Teller effective interactions in the particle–hole and particle–particle channels were solved within the framework of proton–neutron quasirandom phase approximation (pnQRPA). The Gamow–Teller resonance energies for 112-124Sb isotopes and the differential cross-sections for Sn(3He, )Sb reactions at (3He) = 200 MeV occurring by the excitation of the Gamow–Teller resonance state were calculated. The calculated values were compared with other calculations and the corresponding experimental data.

  9. {sup 124}Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities; {sup 124}Sb - Mesure de l'activite et determination des intensites photoniques

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-15

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of {sup 124}Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4pigamma method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  10. Formation of medical radioisotopes 111In, 117mSn, 124Sb, and 177Lu in photonuclear reactions

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes 111In, 117mSn, 124Sb, and 177Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes 112, 118Sn and Te and HfO2 of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes 111In and 117mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO2 of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of 124Sb and 177Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets

  11. Implementation of a anti-coincidence system of 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl and primary standardization of {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am; Implementacao de um sistema de anti-coincidencia 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl e padronizacao primaria do {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb e {sup 241}Am

    Silva, Carlos Jose da; Iwahara, Akira; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Prinzio, Maria Antonieta de, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of the IRD-Brazil, implemented a primary standardization system which utilizes the anti-coincidence technique with live time keeping. For testing the performance of these system it was made the standardization of the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am. Encourages results were obtained not only the standardization of {sup 241}Am but also of the {sup 124}Sb whose reference value obtained by the LNMRI was utilized for the key comparison organized by the IAEA and EURAMET. The standard uncertainties were of 0.28%, 0.22% and 0.13% for the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am, respectively

  12. Formation of medical radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu in photonuclear reactions

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H., E-mail: hov-gohar@ysu.am; Bakhshiyan, T. M. [Yerevan State University (Armenia); Avagyan, R. H.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Kerobyan, I. A.; Dallakyan, R. K. [A.I. Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) (YerPhI) (Armenia)

    2015-06-15

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes {sup 112,} {sup 118}Sn and Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes {sup 111}In and {sup 117}mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of {sup 124}Sb and {sup 177}Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets.

  13. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in 112-124Sb and isospin admixture in 100-124Sn isotopes

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in 112-124Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in 100-124Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the 100-124Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral JF for the Sn(3He,t)Sb reactions at E(3He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the 100Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 ± 5 MeV fm3). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the (3He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N ∼ Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations

  14. The effect of the pairing interaction on the energies of isobar analogue resonances in {sup 112-124}Sb and isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes

    Babacan, Tahsin [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Salamov, Djavad [Department of Physics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kuecuekbursa, Atalay [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey); Babacan, Halil [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Maras, Ismail [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Aygoer, Hasan A [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey); Uenal, Arslan [Department of Physics, Dumlupinar University, Kuetahya (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of the pairing interaction and the isovector correlation between nucleons on the properties of the isobar analogue resonances (IAR) in {sup 112-124}Sb isotopes and the isospin admixture in {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA). The form of the interaction strength parameter is related to the shell-model potential by restoring the isotopic invariance of the nuclear part of the total Hamiltonian. In this respect, the isospin admixtures in the {sup 100-124}Sn isotopes are calculated, and the dependence of the differential cross section and the volume integral J{sub F} for the Sn({sup 3}He,t)Sb reactions at E({sup 3}He) =200 MeV occurring by the excitation of IAR on mass number A is examined. Our results show that the calculated value for the isospin mixing in the {sup 100}Sn isotope is in good agreement with Colo et al's estimates (4-5%), and the obtained values for the volume integral change within the error range of the value reported by Fujiwara et al (53 {+-} 5 MeV fm{sup 3}). Moreover, it is concluded that although the differential cross section of the isobar analogue resonance for the ({sup 3}He,t) reactions is not sensitive to pairing correlations between nucleons, a considerable effect on the isospin admixtures in N {approx} Z isotopes can be seen with the presence of these correlations.

  15. 10 CFR 30.71 - Schedule B.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule B. 30.71 Section 30.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Schedules § 30.71 Schedule B. Byproduct material Microcuries Antimony 122 (Sb 122) 100 Antimony 124 (Sb 124) 10 Antimony...

  16. Distribution of 124Sb-labelled Bilharcid in schistosomiasis

    The behaviour of two antimonial drugs was observed, using the radioactive form of both Bilharcid and tartar emetic in a 3% solution. The tracer technique is the most suitable method for determining antimony in biological materials and in vivo studies. Moreover, it is easy to carry out and provides a high degree of accuracy. Sixty bilharzial patients were categorized into four groups: simple, hepatosplenomegalic, ascitic and bilharzial cases with kidney disease. All received intravenous injections of either Bilharcid or tartar emetic; a fifth group received Bilharcid syrup. The blood level of the radioactive drug was estimated, starting 5 min after injection and continuing for 24 h. The rate of antimony excretion in urine and stools was studied during the course of treatment and for 5 d after the injections. Distribution of antimony in the liver, heart, thyroid, kidneys and spleen was recorded. The maximum antimony blood level was reached 5 min after the single intravenous injection of Bilharcid in simple bilharzial cases, then dropped rapidly in the first 3 h. The background in most cases was reached in 24 h. The total excretion of antimony was almost the same using Bilharcid or tartar emetic, whether the drug was given as a single injection or 10 injections, but the route of excretion was different. Bilharcid was excreted in higher percentages via stools than was tartar emetic. (author)

  17. Behavior of antimony isotopes in the primary coolant of WWER-1000-type nuclear reactors in NPP Kozloduy during operation and shutdown

    Dobrevski, Ivan D.; Zaharieva, Neli N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy; Minkova, Katia F.; Gerchev, Nikolay B. [Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Kozloduy (Bulgaria). Dept. of Chemistry and Radiochemistry

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on the behavior of the antimony isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb in the coolant of the WWER reactors in the nuclear power plant Kozloduy (Bulgaria) during operation and shutdown. It is concluded that the chemical properties of their actual precursor, the isotope {sup 121}Sb, determine the behavior of {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb during operation, load fluctuations, and shutdown as well as during the reactor coolant purification process. It is supposed that differences between the reactor bulk and the core fuel cladding surface chemistry as well as the presence of sub-cooled nucleate boiling at the fuel cladding may create conditions under which a local oxidizing environment may come into existence. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of tetraphosphonates labelled with 212Bi, 212Pb and 165Er

    The main goal of this work has been to achieve a synthesis of radiolabelled phosphonates for the improvement of diagnostic and therapy of osteoblastic osteosarcoma and sclerotic bone metastases. 212Bi-DOTMP is shown to be an in vivo stable bone seeking radiopharmaceutical with a potential for a α-particle therapy of the above mentioned diseases. It has biodistribution characteristics similar to 153Sm-EDTMP, which is now formally approved in several countries, most recently in the US. 212Pb-DOTMP is also a promising candidate having the advantage of increasing the effective half life of the α-emitter, although loss of some of the in vivo generated 212Bi may be a problem. A generator has been developed for the production of the α-emitting radionuclide 212Bi and its parent nuclide 212Pb. The generator is based on the emanation of 220Rn from (228Th)barium stearate. The decay product of 220Rn, 212Pb deposits on the walls of a polyethylene bottle, and can be wasted off with distilled water. The generator shows no leakage of any long-lived parent nuclides, is easy to operate and has a high degree of radiation safety

  19. The energy calibration and precision of a gamma spectrometry unit - Method using the electron annihilation energy as the only standard

    Spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors is discussed. The excellent resolution of this type of detector, the mathematical analysis of the spectral lines of the pulses, and the reproducibility of the spectrometer enable highly accurate measurements of the abscises (some 10-5) corresponding to the peaks. A method using the annihilation energy of the electron as the only standard was developed. The method is applied to the measurement of the gamma ray energies of the radioelements: 22Na, 24Na, 56Mn, 56Co, 59Fe, 72Ga, 88Y, 122Sb, 124Sb and 137Cs. (author)

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of tetraphosphonates labelled with {sup 212}Bi, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 165}Er

    Hassfjell, S.P

    1997-08-01

    The main goal of this work has been to achieve a synthesis of radiolabelled phosphonates for the improvement of diagnostic and therapy of osteoblastic osteosarcoma and sclerotic bone metastases. {sup 212}Bi-DOTMP is shown to be an in vivo stable bone seeking radiopharmaceutical with a potential for a {alpha}-particle therapy of the above mentioned diseases. It has biodistribution characteristics similar to {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, which is now formally approved in several countries, most recently in the US. {sup 212}Pb-DOTMP is also a promising candidate having the advantage of increasing the effective half life of the {alpha}-emitter, although loss of some of the in vivo generated {sup 212}Bi may be a problem. A generator has been developed for the production of the {alpha}-emitting radionuclide {sup 212}Bi and its parent nuclide {sup 212}Pb. The generator is based on the emanation of {sup 220}Rn from ({sup 228}Th)barium stearate. The decay product of {sup 220}Rn, {sup 212}Pb deposits on the walls of a polyethylene bottle, and can be wasted off with distilled water. The generator shows no leakage of any long-lived parent nuclides, is easy to operate and has a high degree of radiation safety.

  1. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  2. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  3. Uptake and release of 65Zn and 124Sb by Biomphalaria alexandrina and Cleopatra bulimoides snails and their effects on the ultrastructure of the hermaphrodite gland

    The freshwater snails, are by far the most prevalent organisms among the local freshwater fauna, and represent an important group of mollusks, from the stand point of health and economy. This is due to he role played by many of them as hosts for certain parasites of man and his animals. These snails are rather considered pests and so their populations are currently controlled by several measures. On the other hand, various radioactive elements are increasingly detected in the aquatic environment, some of them may find their way to the freshwater ecosystems. So it became necessary to find any radiobioindicator from among the common aquatic biota that can be used to detect any radioactive disposal into the freshwater environment. This paper reports a radioactive tracer study on weather the previously mentioned snails can be used either in the biological treatment of low-level radioactive waste and/or as radiobioindicators

  4. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  5. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of 122Sb and '124Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of 76As and also of 134Cs and 152Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '122Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '24Na can also mask the peak of 122Sb hindering its detection

  6. Biodistribution of meglumine antimoniate in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected BALB/c mice

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime(r was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.

  7. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  8. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Moreau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et

  9. Realisation of a β spectrometer solenoidal and a double β spectrometer at coincidence

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of β spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports αK / αL and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the γ rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the β and γ emission is rather little lower to 4π steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations βγ and e-γ. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e-e-, e-β of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e-e-, e-β. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: 76As (26 h), 122Sb (2,8 j), 124Sb (60 j), 125Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.)

  10. Tissue distribution of radiolabeled phosphatidylserine-containing liposome in mice

    Liposomes are used as drug delivery systems to modify pharmacokinetic of drugs and also to improve their action in target cells. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine are efficiently eliminated from the blood by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), predominantly Kupffer cells in the liver. In this way, this is a valuable approach to treat infectious diseases involving MPS, especially leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe parasitic disease, caused by intramacrophage protozoa Leishmania sp., and is fatal if left untreated. Leishmania resides mainly in the liver and the spleen. Antileishmanial agents containing-liposomes showed more effective therapies with reduction of toxicity and adverse side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of radioactive meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor to produce antimony radiotracers, 122Sb and 124Sb, and encapsulated in liposome. Healthy mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of the radiolabeled drug. Analysis of the mean radioactive tissue concentration-time data curves showed that liver and spleen had the highest levels of radioactivity. In addition these levels of drug remained for more than 48 hours. The dominant route of elimination was via biliary excretion with slow rate. Small fraction of the drug was found in the kidneys with very fast elimination. In conclusion, the phosphatidylserine-containing liposome showed to be a very useful tool to target antileishmanial agents to MPS and to sustain the drug levels for longer times. Besides, radiolabeled liposome is the easiest approach to perform biodistribution evaluation. (author)

  11. Activation products in medical linear accelerators

    Full text of publication follows: Medical linear accelerators (linacs) are today the megavoltage treatment unit of choice in many modern radiotherapy departments. As is well known, the interaction of high energy gamma photons and the accompanying neutrons from linacs operating at energies above 10 MeV will activate the accelerator itself, treatment aids, the surrounding air and the structure of the treatment room producing radioactive species. To determine the radiation burden to the staff due to induced activity, measurements were performed immediately after treatment and 48 hours later at four different brands of treatment machines under the same experimental conditions. These brands and their maximum operating photon energies are Elekta (15 MV), Siemens (15 MV), Varian (15 MV) and General Electric (18 MV). A portable high purity germanium detector system (Canberra) and a dose rate meter (Berthold) were used to collect gamma spectra and measure the induced dose rate respectively at the iso-centre. The Genie PC Spectroscopy Software Package from Canberra Industries was utilized to analyze the spectra. Radioactive species identified include 24Na, 28Al, 51Cr, 54Mn, 56Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 60Co, 64Cu, 65Zn, 82Br, 99Mo, 122Sb, 124Sb, 184Re, 187W, 196Au, and 203Pb and their respective apparent activity values were calculated. With the help of the gamma dose rate constant, the induced dose rates for all identified isotopes were computed. The measured dose rates ranged between 1.4 and 2.7 μSv/h 2 mins after beam-off and between 0.5 and 1.57 μSv/h 10 mins after beam-off. Forty-eight hours after beam off the dose rate ranged between 0.11 and 0.28 μSv/h. Detailed results and conclusions for radiation protection of staff and service personnel will be presented. (authors)

  12. Tissue distribution of radiolabeled phosphatidylserine-containing liposome in mice

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia], e-mail: samanta@usp.br, e-mail: nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMTSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia], e-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Liposomes are used as drug delivery systems to modify pharmacokinetic of drugs and also to improve their action in target cells. Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine are efficiently eliminated from the blood by cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), predominantly Kupffer cells in the liver. In this way, this is a valuable approach to treat infectious diseases involving MPS, especially leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a severe parasitic disease, caused by intramacrophage protozoa Leishmania sp., and is fatal if left untreated. Leishmania resides mainly in the liver and the spleen. Antileishmanial agents containing-liposomes showed more effective therapies with reduction of toxicity and adverse side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tissue distribution of radioactive meglumine antimoniate encapsulated in phosphatidylserine-containing liposome. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor to produce antimony radiotracers, {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb, and encapsulated in liposome. Healthy mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of the radiolabeled drug. Analysis of the mean radioactive tissue concentration-time data curves showed that liver and spleen had the highest levels of radioactivity. In addition these levels of drug remained for more than 48 hours. The dominant route of elimination was via biliary excretion with slow rate. Small fraction of the drug was found in the kidneys with very fast elimination. In conclusion, the phosphatidylserine-containing liposome showed to be a very useful tool to target antileishmanial agents to MPS and to sustain the drug levels for longer times. Besides, radiolabeled liposome is the easiest approach to perform biodistribution evaluation. (author)

  13. Development of methods to control radiation field and corrosion in PHWRS

    Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) is the mainstay of Indian Nuclear Power Program. There are 18 PHWRs (220 MWe and 540 MWe) in operation and 4 X 700 MWe PHWRs are under construction. In these reactors, as far as radiation field is concerned, the philosophy of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is followed. The primary coolant system chemistry control is given due consideration during operation so that corrosion of structural material is minimized which in turn controls the radiation field. Development and application of full system Dilute Chemical Decontamination (DCD) process helped to reduce the radiation field in MAPS-1 and 2, RAPS-1 and 2, NAPS-1 and 2 and KAPS-1. PHWR being a tube type reactor, it enables application of full system decontamination to its heavy water primary coolant system. Significant reduction in radiation field and consequent savings in MANREM could be achieved. Attempts are being made to understand the problem created by the release of antimony activities (122Sb and 124Sb) during chemical decontamination and during planned shutdown. Passivation as a method to control the radiation field and corrosion is being studied. Magnesium ion as a passivator to the ferrite filmed structural materials of PHWRs is being investigated. In addition, as PHWRs uses carbon steel as structural material, the use of passivation as a method to control flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is also being studied. Magnesium ion gets incorporated in the ferrite film formed over carbon steel structural material and is expected to reduce the solubility of magnetite film thereby the FAC of feeders in PHWRs. (author)

  14. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  15. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb+5) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony and high uptake in

  16. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  17. Metabolism of antimony-124 in lactating dairy cows

    Lactating cows received oral and intravenous administrations of radioactive antimony (III) chloride to study its intestinal and urinary excretion, secretion into milk and organ distribution. Milk samples were taken twice a day and the milk, feces and urine assayed using gamma spectroscopy. Cows administered orally were sacrificed at 102 days and those injected intravenously at 70 days. Distribution of 124 Sb in the organs was determined at the time of sacrifice. Excretion of 124Sb occurs mainly via urine, little is secreted into milk. Highest organ concentrations are in the spleen, liver and bone. (U.K.)

  18. Direct evidence for Sb as a Zn site impurity in ZnO

    Wahl, U; Mendonça, T; Decoster, S

    2009-01-01

    The lattice location of ion implanted antimony in zinc oxide has been determined by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the radioactive $^{124}$Sb isotope. Following 30 keV implantation of $^{124}$Sb into a single-crystalline ZnO sample to a fluence of $1 \\times 10^{14}$ cm$^{−2}$, the angular-dependent emission rate of $\\beta^{-}$−particles around several crystallographic directions was measured with a position-sensitive Si detector. The majority of Sb was found to occupy Zn sites, with the possible fraction on O sites being at maximum 5%–6%.

  19. ZZ-SCALE5.1/COVA-44G, 44-group cross section covariance matrix library extracted from SCALE5.1

    1 - Description: ZZ-SCALE5.1/COVA-44G is a 44-group cross section covariance matrix library retrieved from the SCALE-5.1 package. The package includes the following 4 covariance libraries in COVERX format: - 44GROUPV5COV, Basic ENDF/B-V Covariance Library - 44GROUPV5REC, Recommended ENDF/B-V Covariance Library - 44GROUPV6COV, Basic ENDF/B-VI Covariance Library - 44GROUPV6REC, Recommended ENDF/B-VI Covariance Library The files contain the covariance data for the following reactions or parameters: total, elastic, inelastic, (n,2n), fission, chi, (n,gamma), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,3He), (n,α), and ν-bar. The nuclides or materials (in ZA order) for which covariance data are provided. In parentheses the total number of the different relative covariance matrices in the four libraries for each nuclide is specified. H-1(10),H-2(3),H-3(2),He-3(2),He-4,Li-6(2),Li-7(3),Be-9(2), B-10(3),B-11(2),C-0(6),N-14(2),N-15,O-16(3),O-17,F-19(3), Na-23(3),Mg-0,Al-27(2),Si-0(3),Si-28,Si-29,Si-29,Si-30, P-31,S-0,S-32,Cl-0,K-0,Ca-0,Sc-45(2),Ti-0, V-0(2),Cr-0(2),Cr-50,Cr-52,Cr-53,Cr-54,Mn-55(3),Fe-0(2), Fe-54,Fe-56,Fe-57,Fe-58,Co-59(3),Ni-0(2),Ni-58,Ni-60, Ni-61,Ni-62,Ni-64,Cu-0,Cu-63,Cu-65,Ga-0,Ge-72, Ge-73,Ge-74,Ge-76,As-75,Se-74,Se-76,Se-77,Se-78, Se-80,Se-82,Br-79,Br-81,Kr-78,Kr-80,Kr-82,Kr-83, Kr-84,Kr-85,Kr-86,Rb-85,Rb-87,Sr-84,Sr-86,Sr-87, Sr-88,Sr-89,Sr-90,Y-89,Y-89,Y-90,Y-91,Zr-0, Zr-90,Zr-91,Zr-92,Zr-93,Zr-94,Zr-96,Nb-93,Nb-93, Nb-94,Nb-95,Mo-0,Mo-94,Mo-95,Mo-96,Mo-97,Tc-99, Ru-96,Ru-99,Ru-100,Ru-101,Ru-102,Ru-104,Ru-105,Ru-106, Rh-103,Rh-105,Pd-102,Pd-104,Pd-105,Pd-106,Pd-107,Pd-108, Pd-110,Ag-107,Ag-109,Ag-111,Cd-0,Cd-106,Cd-108,Cd-110, Cd-111,Cd-112,Cd-113,Cd-114,Cd-116,In-0,In-113,In-115, Sn-112,Sn-114,Sn-115,Sn-116,Sn-117,Sn-118,Sn-119,Sn-120, Sn-122,Sn-124,Sb-121,Sb-123,Sb-124,Te-120,Te-122,Te-123, Te-124,Te-125,Te-126,Te-127(m),Te-128,Te-130,I-127,I-129, I-130,I-131,Xe-124,Xe-126,Xe-128,Xe-129,Xe-130,Xe-131, Xe-132,Xe-133,Xe-134,Xe-135,Xe-136,Cs-133,Cs-134,Cs-135, Cs-137

  20. ZZ MCB-JEF2.2, MCB Continuous-Energy Neutron Cross Section Libraries for Temperatures from 300 to 1800 K

    1 - Description of program or function: MCB-JEF2.2 is a continuous-energy cross section libraries in ACE Format suitable for the MCB-1C and MCNP codes. Libraries for various materials were generated at six different Temperatures, and cover the energy range up to 20 MeV. Format: ACE. Number of groups: Continuous energy. Nuclides: H-1, H-2, H-3, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-nat., N-14, N-15, O-16, O-17, Na-23, F-19, Mg-nat., Al-27, Si-nat., P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-nat, K-nat, Ca-nat., Ti-nat, V-nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-59, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-nat, Ga-nat, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74, Ge-76, As-75, Se-74, Se-76, Se-77, Se-78, Se-80, Se-82, Br-79, Br-81, Kr-78, Kr-80, Kr-82, Kr-83, Kr-84, Kr-85, Kr-86, Rb-85, Rb-86, Rb-87, Sr-84, Sr-86, Sr-87, Sr-88, Sr-89, Sr-90, Y-89, Y-90, Y-91, Zr-nat, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Nb-94, Nb-95, Mo-nat, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Tc-99, Ru-96, Ru-98, Ru-99, Ru-100, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-103, Ru-104, Ru-105, Ru-106, Rh-103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-111, Cd-nat., Cd-106, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-115, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-24, Sn-125, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Sb-126, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127, Te-128, Te-129, Te-130, Te-132, I-127, I-129, I-130, I-131, I-135, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-139, La-140, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-143, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-142, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-149, Pm-151, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu

  1. Resonance spin memory in low-energy gamma-ray spectra from Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta odd-odd compound nuclei

    The low-energy gamma-ray spectra from neutron resonance capture with natural samples of Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta were measured using a HPGe detector at the IBR-30 pulsed reactor (JINR, Dubna). The resonance spin memory effect in the spectra from the odd-odd compound nuclei of 122Sb, 160Tb and 166Ho was found to be quite distinct. For the 182Ta compound nucleus it proved to be rather weak

  2. A transportable neutron radiography system based on a SbBe neutron source

    Fantidis, J.G. [Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering, ' Democritus' University of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece); Nicolaou, G.E. [Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering, ' Democritus' University of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece)], E-mail: nicolaou@ee.duth.gr; Tsagas, N.F. [Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering, ' Democritus' University of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece)

    2009-07-21

    A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating a SbBe neutron source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. Design provisions have allowed two radiography systems to be utilised using the same SbBe neutron source. In this respect, neutron radiographies can be carried out using the photoneutrons produced when the {sup 124}Sb is surrounded by the Be target. Alternatively, {gamma}-radiography can be utilised with the photons from the {sup 124}Sb with the target removed. Appropriate collimators were simulated for each of the radiography modes. Apart from Be, the materials considered were compatible with the European Union Directive on 'Restriction of Hazardous Substances' (RoHS) 2002/95/EC, hence excluding the use of cadmium and lead. Bismuth was chosen as the material for {gamma}-radiation shielding and the proposed system allowed a maximum activity of the {sup 124}Sb up to 1.85x10{sup 13} Bq. The system simulated allows different object sizes to be studied with a wide range of radiography parameters.

  3. A transportable neutron radiography system based on a SbBe neutron source

    A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating a SbBe neutron source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. Design provisions have allowed two radiography systems to be utilised using the same SbBe neutron source. In this respect, neutron radiographies can be carried out using the photoneutrons produced when the 124Sb is surrounded by the Be target. Alternatively, γ-radiography can be utilised with the photons from the 124Sb with the target removed. Appropriate collimators were simulated for each of the radiography modes. Apart from Be, the materials considered were compatible with the European Union Directive on 'Restriction of Hazardous Substances' (RoHS) 2002/95/EC, hence excluding the use of cadmium and lead. Bismuth was chosen as the material for γ-radiation shielding and the proposed system allowed a maximum activity of the 124Sb up to 1.85x1013 Bq. The system simulated allows different object sizes to be studied with a wide range of radiography parameters.

  4. Lattice location of the group V elements As and Sb in ZnO

    Wahl, Ulrich; Decoster, Stefan; Mendonça, Tânia

    2009-01-01

    The lattice locations of the potential p-type dopants arsenic and antimony in single-crystalline ZnO were studied by means of the electron emission channeling method following the implantation of radioactive $^{73}$As and $^{124}$Sb isotopes. The majority of the implanted As and Sb probe atoms was found to occupy substitutional Zn sites, with the possible fraction on substitutional O sites being at maximum a few percent. The obtained results illustrate the difficulty in introducing oversized group V impurities on O sites and thus put further into question whether these elements may act as simple chemical dopants in ZnO.

  5. Lattice location of the group V elements As and Sb in ZnO

    Wahl, U; Decoster, S; Mendonca, T

    2009-01-01

    The lattice locations of the potential p-type dopants arsenic and antimony in single-crystalline ZnO were studied by means of the electron emission channeling method following the implantation of radioactive 73As and 124Sb isotopes. The majority of the implanted As and Sb probe atoms was found to occupy substitutional Zn sites, with the possible fraction on substitutional O sites being at maximum a few percent. The obtained results illustrate the difficulty in introducing oversized group V impurities on O sites and thus put further into question whether these elements may act as simple chemical dopants in ZnO.

  6. Determination of a liquid core profile during continuous steel casting by the radiotracer method

    Knowledge of profile of liquid core is an important part of technological know-how of continuous casting of steel. Tracing methods are used for direct determination of profile and dimensions of the liquid core. Lead is used as inactive indicator, its presence in the cast semis is determined by the AAS method. More evidential information can be obtained by use of radioactive indicator antimony 124Sb, autoradiographic method is used for determination of its distribution in the cast semis. Realization of trial heats is subject to approval by the SUJB (State Office for Nuclear Safety), which stipulates also manner of liquidation of generated waste. (author)

  7. Lattice location of the group V elements As and Sb in ZnO

    The lattice locations of the potential p-type dopants arsenic and antimony in single-crystalline ZnO were studied by means of the electron emission channeling method following the implantation of radioactive 73As and 124Sb isotopes. The majority of the implanted As and Sb probe atoms was found to occupy substitutional Zn sites, with the possible fraction on substitutional O sites being at maximum a few percent. The obtained results illustrate the difficulty in introducing oversized group V impurities on O sites and thus put further into question whether these elements may act as simple chemical dopants in ZnO.

  8. Neutron radiography of ordnance stores, pyrotechnic devices and composite materials

    The parameters to be considered in choice of a neutron source for successful neutron radiography are neutron energy, source yield, thermalizing factor, collimation, background radiation, size, portability and cost. The practical experience with 124Sb(γ,n)Be, 241Cm-242Cm(α,n)Be, 244Cm(α,n)Be, 238Pu(α,n)Be and 252Cf is presented. The recent developments in image enhancement such as flux multipliers, emulsion cooling and real time imaging are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  9. Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test of March 15, 1978

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has measured the radionuclide concentration of short-lived debris from a radioactive cloud, produced by a nuclear weapons test conducted by the People's Republic of China on March 15, 1978. Analysis with a 40 cfm Sierra impactor showed that a large portion of the radioactivity was associated with relatively large particles. Surface air samples showed significant concentrations of 124Sb. Samples of rain water from New York State showed that radioactivity arrived on the east coast at about the same time as peak debris levels were observed on the west coast. Highest concentrations of 131I occurred along the Washington State--Canadian border

  10. Study on the application of magnesium oxide adsorptive compound to preconcentrate trace elements (As, Cu, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn) in high salt water and neutron activation analysis

    The project presents preconcentration neutron activation analysis techniques for determination of trace metals (As, Co, Cr Cu, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn) in high salt water by adsorption of trace metals on magnesium oxide. Precipitate is collected on 0.45 μm membrane filters and irradiated in pneumatic rabit system and Lazy Susan facility at flux 5.1012 n/cm2.sec for As, Cu, Mn and 2.1012 n/cm2.sec for Hg, Sb, Cr, Co and Zn. The radioactivities of 76As, 60Co, 64Cu, 51Cr, 203Hg, 56Mn, 124Sb and 65Zn were measured. 76As, 60Co, 64Cu, 51Cr, 203Hg, 56Mn, 124Sb and 65Zn radio traces were used to establish optimum conditions and to evaluate the chemical yield. Detection limits of this method are 0.019, 0.006, 0.044, 0.058, 0.021, 0.027, 0.012 and 0.094 μg of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn respectively. (author)

  11. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37Ar, 41Ca, 49V, 53Mn, 55Fe,59Ni, 68Ge,82Sr, 97Tc, 118Te, 131Cs, 137La, 140Nd, 157Tb, 165Er, 193pt, 194Hg, and 205Ph The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  12. Liquid scintillation counting efficiency in three photomultiplier systems. Pure electron capture

    The tables of counting efficiency as a function of the figure of merit for a liquid scintillation counting system working with three phototubes are presented. The evaluation has been carried out for a Toluene-based scintillator with 5, 10 and 15 ml column, and 19 different radionuclides decaying by pure electron capture: 37Ar 41Ca, 49V, 53 Mn, 55Fe, 59Ni, 68Ge 7iGe, 82Sr, 97Tc, 118Te, 131CS, 137La, 140Ca, 157Tb, 165Er, 193Pt, 194Hg, 205Pb. (Author) 22 refs

  13. 33P and 125Sb uptake by plants under conditions of water culture

    33P and 125Sb uptakes in plants were compared and the degree of their correlation and differences was estimated quantitatively at accumulation by plants. The laboratory experiments showed the occurrence of close correlation between accumulation of 33P and 124Sb by sprouts of pea and barley. Accumulation factors of those radionuclides for early-ripening pea turned to be higher, while the rate of their variation lower than those for late-ripening one. Inoculation of seeds does not affect the ratio of uptake rates of 33P and 125Sb while the sorts of plants differing in early-ripening nature changes essentially the given ratio. 125Sb is essentially higher accumulated in roots in contrast to 33P. Within solution-roots system the discrimination factors of 125Sb in contrast to 33P increases with growth of plants reaching 3 value

  14. Impact of nuclear releases into the aquatic environment

    Selected effluents from a nuclear power plant were found to contain 3H, 131I, 124Sb, 125Sb, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 58Co, 60Co, 54Mn and traces of 57Co, 110Ag and 154Eu. The effluents were used as radionuclide sources for uptake studies with marine organisms. Experiments with several marine algae have shown that the radionuclides most concentrated are 131I, 58Co, 60Co and 54Mn. Moreover, some radionuclides present in the effluents only in traces (57Co, 110Ag and 154Eu) may be concentrated by the algae to measurable amounts. 131I, 58Co and 60Co are strongly retained by the algae

  15. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    New procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12-15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/ hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg from Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs. (author)

  16. Radiochemical studies on corrosion products of oral biomaterials

    The work given in this thesis deals with a radioactive tracer study of the sorption of the corrosion products of dental amalgams and antimony on human teeth, porcelain and acrylic materials, used as dental restorative material. Sorption was investigated in presence of water and liquids commonly intaken by man; namely tea with or without sugar, soluble coffee ( Nescaffee) with or without sugar and/or milk, red tea (karkadeh or hibiscus) with or without sugar and chicken soup. The radioactive isotopes of Ag, Sn, Zn (amalgam components) and antimony were prepared by their irradiation in the nuclear reactor; 110m Ag, 113Sn, 65Zn and 124 Sb were thereby produced. The percent uptake of each studied element was evaluated from the depletion of radioactivity of the corresponding radioactive tracer in the given medium containing a tooth (human or artificial)

  17. Long life radioactive nuclides in the regenerant of ion exchange column for purifying the KUR primary cooling water

    The radioactive regenerant, sampled in July 30, 1978 from the regeneration of KUR primary coolant purifying system, was analysed to investigate the long life radioactive nuclides. In this sample, in addition to the activated products of 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 51Cr, such products as 125Sb, 124Sb, 137Cs, and 90Sr-90Y which seem to be fission products were detected. This result was similar to those of past experiences. The main nuclides in this sample, however, were 65Zn, 54Mn, 51Cr, etc. that emit little or no β-rays. It seems that there would be considerable error in the determination of radioactive concentration only by β-rays measurement using GM counter in such sample. (author)

  18. Purification of radioactive decontamination liquids from NPP Paks with reactive adsorption and ion-exchange process

    In nuclear power plant Paks, Hungary, alkaline oxidative (NaOH, KMnO4, H2O) and acidic reductive (citric- and oxalic acid, water) liquids are using for the decontamination of primary circuit equipment (main liquid circulating pumps, steam generators, pipelines etc). The above mentioned decontamination liquids are containing 110mAg, 95Nb, 54Mn, 58 Co, 60Co, 51 Cr, 124 Sb radioisotopes, summarized radioactivity is between 103-8x104 kBq/dm3 liquid. The decontamination liquid can be cleaned with reactive adsorption (active carbon) and ion-exchange process at elevated temperature (333-368 K) in multilayered columns. After purification the summarized radioactivity for 54Mn, 60Co, and 110mAg are in the outlet liquid below 1 kBq/dm3. Decontamination factor DF≅103-104, volumetric reduction factor VRF≅50-500

  19. 4. Quaterly progress report 1983

    This report of the SCPRI exposes an interpretation of the principal results concerning the surveillance of radioactivity in the environment: atmospheric dusts, rainwater, surface water, underground water, sevrage water, drinking water, food chain, sea water around nuclear plant sites and other sites. The activities of various radioisotopes are presented in tables (7Be, 58Co, 60Co, 75Se, 103Ru, sup(110m)Ag, 124Sb, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144Ce, 90Sr, 95Nb, 106Ru, 226Ra, 54Mn, U, K and T). This report exposes also the state of surveillance and assistance operations on work sites and, the state of incidents along the three months; a bibliographic selection is also presented

  20. Measurement of the ionization produced by sub-keV silicon nuclear recoils in a CCD dark matter detector

    Chavarria, A E; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Robinson, A E; Scholz, B; Sengul, C; Zhou, J; Estrada, J; Izraelevitch, F; Tiffenberg, J; Neto, J R T de Mello; Machado, D Torres

    2016-01-01

    We report a measurement of the ionization efficiency of silicon nuclei recoiling with sub-keV kinetic energy in the bulk silicon of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Nuclear recoils were produced by low-energy neutrons ($<$24 keV) from a $^{124}$Sb-$^{9}$Be photoneutron source, and their ionization signal was measured down to 60 eV electron-equivalent. This energy range, previously unexplored, is relevant for the detection of low-mass dark matter particles. The measured efficiency was found to deviate from the extrapolation to low energies of Lindhard model. This measurement also demonstrates the sensitivity to nuclear recoils of CCDs employed by DAMIC, a dark matter direct detection experiment located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory.

  1. Antimony mobility in Japanese agricultural soils and the factors affecting antimony sorption behavior

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in Japanese agricultural soils was studied by radiotracer experiments using 124Sb tracer. The soil-solution distribution coefficients (K d) of Sb were measured for 110 soil samples. These K ds ranged from 1 to 2065 L kg-1; the geometric mean was 62 L kg-1 excluding one extremely high value, 2065 L kg-1. Experimental measurement of K d showed a decrease with both increasing pH and increasing phosphate concentration. The latter suggested that one aspect of the Sb sorption phenomena in Japanese soil was influenced by specific adsorption of anions such as phosphate. However, other aspects could not be explained by this specific adsorption mechanism, because only 20-40% of soil-sorbed Sb could be extracted by phosphate solution. - Antimony mobility in tested Japanese agricultural soils was generally low and was affected by pH and phosphate concentration

  2. Finnish studies in the Baltic Sea on the behaviour of radionuclides due to global fall-out and releases from nuclear power plants. A summary report

    A summary is given of studies on the behaviour of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. The balances of 90Sr and 137Cs in water phase are discussed as well as their elimination from water by sedimentation and distribution in sediments. The distribution of 239Pu, 240Pu in sediments is also described. In soft bottoms the amount of 90Sr per unit area varies from 6 to 15% of that deposited on land surface, 137Cs from 17 to 700% and 239Pu,240Pu from 65 to 1000%. Accumulation of the above-mentioned radionucides as well as 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, sup(110m)Ag and 124Sb by some Baltic mussels, a crustacean different littoral algae, plankton and some fish species is reported

  3. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,γ), product, 26.32 h 76As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via 122Sb and 64Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV 76As/564-keV 122Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics

  4. Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Jourdan, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,..gamma..), product, 26.32 h /sup 76/As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via /sup 122/Sb and /sup 64/Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV /sup 76/As/564-keV /sup 122/Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics.

  5. Calculation of the photoelectric efficiency with Monte Carlo method of a planar high purity Ge detectors and application to cross sections measurement

    The aim of this work is to elaborate a Monte Carlo programme which calculate the photoelectric efficiency of a planar high purity Ge detector for low energy photons. This programme calculate the auto absorption, the absorption in different media crossed by the photon and the intrinsic and total efficiencies. The results of this programme were very satisfactory since they reproduce the measured values in the two different cases of punctual and volumic sources. The result of the photoelectric efficiency calculation with this programme has been applied to determine the cross section of the 166-Er (n,2 n) 165-Er reaction induced by 14 MeV neutron, where only the measurement by x spectrometry is possible. The value obtained is concordant with the data given by the literature. 119 figs., 39 tabs., 96 refs. (F.M.)

  6. Pairing and Coriolis effects in deformed odd-mass nuclei

    The many particles plus rotor model provides an appropriate framework for the study of strongly deformed nuclei. We discuss here a version of this model in which the pairing correlations between the valence nucleons in the intrinsic deformed field are treated by a new method, the chain-calculation method. This method has the power to reduce the computational work drastically while yielding practically exact results. The model is applied to the two odd-mass nuclei 163 Er and 165 Er focusing attention on the lowest-lying decoupled band. The role of the recoil term as a mechanism that produces attenuation of the Coriolis coupling is emphasized. The results of our calculation for both nuclei turn out to be in good agreement with experiment. (authors)

  7. On the 161Tm, 163Tm, 165Tm decay

    For the purpose of obtaining data on 161Er, 163Er and 165Er nuclear level properties the 161Tm→161Er, 163Tm→163Er, 165Tm→165Er decay is investigated. Radioactive isotopes sup(161, 163, 165)Tm have been obtained in the deep fission reaction at the tantalum target irradiation during 1-10 h by 660 MeV protons. The electron spectra of internal conversion have been investigated by beta spectrographs with constant magnetic field. Gamma radiation spectra have been measured by means of precision gamma spectrometers with Ge(Li) detectors. Measurement results in the gamma radiation energy range from 5 to 400 keV are tabulated. Gamma radiation and conversion electron energies and intensities are specified. 68 gamma transitions are related to 161Tm decay. For 67 of them multipolarity types are determined, for 20 - coefficients of multipolarity mixture. 47 gamma transitions have been found at the 163Tm decay. New gamma transitions with energies of 14.72(E1), 20.34(E2) and 35.05 KeV have been found out. Coefficients of multipolarity mixture are obtained for 18 gamma transitions. 82 gamma transitions have been found out at the 165Tm decay. 13 gamma transitions have been observed for the first time. 60 gamma transition multipolarities are determined. Coefficients of multipolarity mixture are calculated for 19 gamma transitions. Coefficients of multipolarity mixture are obtained from the intensity ratio of L1-, L2-, L3-, M1-, M2-, M3-lines

  8. Chromatographic purification of neutron capture molybdenum-99 from cross-contaminant radionuclides

    Technetium-99m is called the work horse, for many reasons, in nuclear medicine diagnostic purposes. It is produced as the β-decay of 99Mo radionuclide. Molybdenum-99 gel type generators are considered as a suitable alternative of the conventional chromatographic alumina columns loaded with fission molybdenum-99. 99Mo neutron-capture is cross-contaminated with radionuclides originated from activation of chemical impurities in the Mo target such 60C0, 65Zn, 95Zr, 175Hf, 181Hf, 86Rb, 134Cs, 141Ce, 152Eu, 140La,51Cr, 124Sb,46Sc, 54Mn, 59Fe and / or fast neutrons interactions with the stable isotopes of molybdenum such as 92mNb, 95Nb and 95Zr. To prevent contamination of the eluted 99mTc, successive purification methods were made. After complete dissolution of the irradiated target wrapped with thin Al foil in 5 M NaOH solution, hydrogen peroxide was added to start precipitation of Fe(OH)3. The formed Fe (III) minerals allow complete elimination of some radio contaminants from the molybdate solute such as 152Eu, 140La,141Ce, 45Mn and 92mNb in addition to partial elimination of 46Sc, 60Co and 59Fe radionuclides. The remaining supernatant was acidified by concentrated nitric acid to ph 9.5 for precipitation of Al(OH)3 with complete elimination of radio contaminants such as 95Zr 175Hf, 181Hf, 65Zn, 124Sb, 51Cr, 46Sc, 60Co and 59Fe. 134Cs and 86Rb radionuclides were not affected by precipitation of Fe(OH)3 or Al(OH)3. Chromatographic column of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (II) (KNHCF) has high affinity towards elimination of 134Cs and 86Rb radionuclides. Highly pure molybdate-99Mo solution was processed for preparation of zirconium molybdate gel generator with 99mTc eluate of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purity suitable for use in medical purposes.

  9. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of 124I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of 124I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from 121Te and 122Sb was > 104. The method was applied to the production of 124I via the 123Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of natSb2O3 (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm2) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of Eα = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of 124I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the 125I and 126I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of 124I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the 124I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  10. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of {sup 124}I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    Shuza Uddin, Md. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, Seyed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-07-01

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from {sup 121}Te and {sup 122}Sb was > 10{sup 4}. The method was applied to the production of {sup 124}I via the {sup 123}Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of {sup nat}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm{sup 2}) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of E{sub α} = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of {sup 124}I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the {sup 124}I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  11. Feasibility of the instrumental neutron activation analysis of entire archaeological pottery. Part 1: Precision of the results and radiological safety of the process

    The feasibility of the instrumental neutron activation analysis of entire pieces of archaeological pottery, using low thermal neutron fluxes, is examined. The study takes into account the chemical elements relevant for archaeological investigations, as well as the degree of accuracy required for such kind of research. It is shown that after irradiation of a typical pottery sample of about 1 kg during 45 minutes, at a thermal flux of about 109 n.cm-2.s-1, analytical signals are obtained, by gamma spectrometry, with counting statistics better than 1%, for 76As, 131Ba, 141Ce, 60Co, 134Cs, 181Hf, 140La, 24Na, 122Sb, 46Sc, 153Sm and 233Pa, whereas 51Cr, 152Eu, 42K, 86Rb, 175Yb and 65Zn can be detected with counting statistics within 1% and 2%. On the other hand, the statistics of measurement are relatively poor (orders of 3% - 10%) for 177Lu, 147Nd, 239Np, 160Tb and 181Ta. The feasibility of accomplishment reliable quantitative determinations, taking into account the complexity of the analysis of entire pieces of archaeological pottery is discussed, which involves factors such as high masses, as well as asymmetric and variable shapes. (orig.)

  12. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry for analysing fusion plasma conditions

    Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)], E-mail: elisabeth.wieslander@gmail.com; Hult, Mikael [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: mikael.hult@ec.europa.eu; Bonheure, Georges [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association ' Euratom-Belgian State' , Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30 Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Arnold, Dirk; Dombrowski, Harald [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Gasparro, Joel [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Laubenstein, Matthias [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, S.S. 17/bis, km 18-910, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Marissens, Gerd [EU Commission - JRC - IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Vermaercke, Peter [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2008-06-21

    A new method, combining activation by neutrons and charged particles with ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry, aimed at obtaining a better understanding and more adequate measurements of MeV particle leaks in magnetic fusion devices was studied here. A total of 36 samples containing Ti, LiF, B{sub 4}C and W were placed in a boron-nitride holder mounted on the ceiling of the JET Tokamak. The samples were activated by 63 pulses from a D-{sup 3}He plasma and were later measured using underground gamma-ray spectrometry. The radionuclides {sup 7}Be, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co, {sup 124}Sb, {sup 181}Hf, {sup 182}Ta, {sup 181}W and {sup 185}W were detected in several of the samples, with very low levels of activity of {sup 47}Sc and {sup 48}V found in a few of the samples. The various production channels for the radionuclides in question are discussed.

  13. Lattice location of the group V elements Sb, As, and P in ZnO

    Wahl, Ulrich; Mendonça, Tânia; Decoster, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Modifying the properties of ZnO by means of incorporating antimony, arsenic or phosphorus impurities is of interest since these group V elements have been reported in the literature among the few successful p-type dopants in this technologically promising II-VI compound. The lattice location of ion-implanted Sb, As, and P in ZnO single crystals was investigated by means of the electron emission channeling technique using the radioactive isotopes $^{124}$Sb, $^{73}$As and $^{33}$P and it is found that they preferentially occupy substitutional Zn sites while the possible fractions on substitutional O sites are a few percent at maximum. The lattice site preference is understandable from the relatively large ionic size of the heavy mass group V elements. Unfortunately the presented results cannot finally settle the interesting issue whether substitutional Sb, As or P on oxygen sites or Sb$_{Zn}$−2V$_{Zn}$, As$_{Zn}$−2V$_{Zn}$ or P$_{Zn}$−2V$_{Zn}$ complexes (as suggested in the literature) are responsible f...

  14. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  15. Membrane systems to treat gaseous and nuclear industry waste streams

    Membranes are creating a revolution in the world separation technology. The applications of the membrane systems are recognised in water purification, removal of undesired waste constituents from the aqueous, organic liquids and gaseous streams. The systems named reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis are well known and have found applications in the above fields. Membranes have been known to common man for use only in filtration systems at the laboratory scale. Recent developments in gas separations have found applications in CO/sub 2/, So/sub 2), H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ stripping from the industrial and also nuclear gaseous effluents to save the environment from pollution and retain radioactivity in house. The supported liquid membrane based systems have been applied to recover metals from the industrial and radioactive liquid wastes. The status of the technology to treat the gaseous and liquid effluents have been described with the contributions for the development of immobilised liquid systems for the removal of some metal ions, which are present as radionuclides in the liquid wastes. Application of reverse osmosis to reduce the waste volume and the undesired radionuclides like /sup 54/Mn, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 110/Ag, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs have also been discussed. Membranes systems for gas purification have also been discussed to treat industrial effluents. (author)

  16. Combined radioactivation methods in determining trace elements

    The authors have devised a method of radioactivation analysis (RAA) for determining 32 elements by NAA, proton-activation analysis (PAA), and emission spectral analysis (ESA). Here they examine element distributions in certain plants by NAA, PAA, and DAA (deuteron activation analysis) as described elsewhere. The results are compared with those from activation analysis (AA) and ESA. The authors used five species of medicinal plant: Plantago Major L, Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Alhagi Persarum, and Eremurus. They used referenced methods for preparing the samples, irradiating them in the reactor or cyclotron, and measuring the radioactivity. The γ-ray spectra for the activated samples from all the plants gave peaks representing 24Na, 42K, 56Mn, 140La, 82Br, 124Sb, 46Sc, 59Fe, 198Au, 139Ce, 153Sm, 86Rb, 65Zn, 60Co, and 147MSn. The concentrations of Fe, Sb, Sn, Zn, Rb, Co were determined when the irradiated samples have been kept for 10 days. To determine Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, Zn, and Sr, ash disks were irradiated by proton and deuteron beams in a cyclotron, where they recorded radiation from the 48Sc, 56Co, 48V, 65Zn, 67Ga, 88Y. The conclusions are that all these plants and the parts of them accumulate the elements in different ways

  17. Algebraic realization of the quantum rotor - odd-A nuclei

    An algebraic realization of the quantum rotor for non-zero spin values (integer as well as half-integer) is established by constructing a model Hamiltonian out of rotationally invariant functions of the generators of SU(3). The eigenvalues of this Hamiltonian in the leading normal-SU(3) symmetry for 25Mg and the so-called leading pseudo-SU(3) symmetries for 159Dy and 165Er are compared with the corresponding rotor results. For spin-free systems the internal symmetry group of the rotor and its SU(3) realization are known to be D2, the Vierergruppe. This symmetry extends to integral spin values, while for half-integer spins the rotor and its SU(3) realization are shown to display an internal quaternion group symmetry. The theory points to a microscopic (many-particle shell-model) picture of nuclear rotational motion with spin degrees of freedom taken fully into account. An algebraic realization of the many-particle Nilsson model for odd-A nuclei, with the orbit-orbit and spin-orbit terms included, is given and applied to 23Na. (orig.)

  18. Standard test of labelling efficiency for quality control of no carrier added 90YCl3

    Particle emitting radionuclides (e.g. beta-emitters 90Y and 177Lu, alpha-emitter 211At, Auger electron emitter 165Er or positron emitter 86Y) are beeing more and more frequently used in research and clinical practice for imaging and targeted therapy in nuclear medicine. This radiometals, altogether three valent lanthanides or actinides with high specific radioactivity, coupled to biomolecule carriers (peptides or monoclonal antibodies) through chelating link (e.g. DTPA or DOTA) are targeted against specific antigens and receptors of diseased tissues in order to obtain their image or to cause their radiation ablation. The radionuclide precursor 90YCl3 (solution of hard β-emitter 90Y in a diluted HCl) with high purity and specific activity is already commercially produced and successfully used in nuclear medicine, e.g. for radioimmunotherapy of Lymphoma. Specification and purity of our product obtained by extraction 90Sr/90Y generator (using technology of centrifuge extractors with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) is examined and compared to other similar products in this contribution. A standard method for determination of labelling efficiency of the precursor with DOTA Octreotide (DOTATATE) using ITLC/SG chromatography is also described and proposed for quality assesment. (Author)

  19. Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination

    A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci 124Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any 235U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U3O8 concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U3O8. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables

  20. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  1. Studies of Flerovium and Element 115 Homologs with Macrocyclic Extractants

    Study of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, Z >= 104, poses a unique challenge due to their low production cross-sections and short half-lives. Chemistry also must be studied on the one-atom-at-a-time scale, requiring automated, fast, and very efficient chemical schemes. Recent studies of the chemical behavior of copernicium (Cn, element 112) and flerovium (Fl, element 114) together with the discovery of isotopes of these elements with half-lives suitable for chemical studies have spurred a renewed interest in the development of rapid systems designed to study the chemical properties of elements with Z >= 114. This dissertation explores both extraction chromatography and solvent extraction as methods for development of a rapid chemical separation scheme for the homologs of flerovium (Pb, Sn, Hg) and element 115 (Bi, Sb), with the goal of developing a chemical scheme that, in the future, can be applied to on-line chemistry of both Fl and element 115. Carrier-free radionuclides, used in these studies, of the homologs of Fl and element 115 were obtained by proton activation of high-purity metal foils at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS): natIn(p,n)113Sn, natSn(p,n)124Sb, and Au(p,n)197m,gHg. The carrier-free activity was separated from the foils by novel separation schemes based on ion exchange and extraction chromatography techniques. Carrier-free Pb and Bi isotopes were obtained from development of a novel generator based on cation exchange chromatography using the 232U parent to generate 212Pb and 212Bi. Macrocyclic extractants, specifically crown ethers and their derivatives, were chosen for these studies; crown ethers show high selectivity for metal ions. Finally. a potential chemical system for Fl was established based on the Eichrom Pb resin, and insight to an improved system based on thiacrown ethers is presented.

  2. The activity of γ-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient γ for some radio-elements (1961)

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient γ (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 π γ chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy γ' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 π γ chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of β emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 π γ chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known (24Na, 60Co, 131I, 198Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm3 mc-1 h-1): 51Cr: 0,18; 56Mn: 8,8; 65Zn: 3,05; 124Sb: 9,9; 134Cs: 9,3; 137Cs: 3,35; 141Ce: 0,46; 170Tm: 0,023; 192Ir: 24,9; 203Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm170. In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author)

  3. Radionuclide accumulation by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water in artificial ecosystems before and after its passage through the ground

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative accumulation of radionuclides from contaminated water in artificial ecosystems before and after the water's passage through the ground. Fish, clams, algae, and an emergent vascular plant were experimentally exposed to mixtures of radionuclides in three aqueous streams. Two streams consisted of industrial water discharged directly into a leaching trench, and the same water after it had migrated through the ground for a distance of 260 meters. The third stream was river water, which served as a background or control. Biota exposed to river water in the control stream had very low concentrations of 60Co, less than 3 pCi per gram dry weight (pCi/g DW). Other radionuclides were essentially unmeasurable. Biota exposed to trench water accumulated very high relative concentrations of 60Co. Biota exposed to trench water also had measurable concentrations of 155Eu, 144Ce, 141Ce, 125Sb, 124Sb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 137Cs, 95Zr, 95Nb, 58Co, 54Mn, 59Fe, 65Zn, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 238Pu. Biota exposed to ground water had concentrations of 60Co that ranged between 50 and 1200 pCi/g DW. Fish flesh had the lowest concentration of 60Co and algae the highest. Strontium-90 was measured in the tissues of aquatic biota at concentrations ranging between 360 pCi/g DW in clam flesh to 3400 pCi/g DW in leaves and stems of Veronica. Leaves and fruits of tomato plants rooted in the ground water accumulated 90Sr at concentrations of 160 pCi in fruits and 4200 pCi in leaves. Data indicate that 60Co and 90Sr migrated through the ground along with ground-water flow and were available to all classes of aquatic biota and tomato plants rooted in the water via root uptake, sorption, and food chain transfers. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of 131I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to 110mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were 51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 59Fe, 60Co, 110mAg and 124Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were 54Mn, 58Co and 60Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of 60Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation. Small amounts may be transported within NPP workers to sewage water outside

  5. Study of weak interactions with triangle J = Oβ decays

    The β-γ angular correlation for the decay of 20Na and 20F to the 1.633 MeV state of 20Ne has been measured using a twenty-detector system of cylindrical symmetry. 20Na was produced by the 20Ne(p,n)20Na reaction using the 19 MeV proton beam, and 20F was produced by the reaction 19F(d,p)20F using SF6 gas and 4 MeV deuterons. The activated gases were continuously transferred from the target cell into the source cell, in the center of the correlation apparatus, through a thin capillary. Two γ detectors and sixteen β detector telescopes allowed for the simultaneous measurements of β-γ coincidences at 0 degree, 25 degree, 45 degree, 65 degree, 90 degree, 115 degree, 135 degree, 155 degree, and 180 degree and at their symmetric counterparts with respect to the 0 degree-180 degree direction. The β-γ correlation was also measured for the first-forbidden β- decay of 124Sb, in order to confirm the computed attenuation in measured anisotropy caused by the finite geometry of the detectors and the source cell. The correlation function is denoted by W±[θβ-γ] = 1 + A[p/E]cosΘβ-γ + B±[E][p/E]2cos2θβ-γ. The ± subscripts refer to electron or positron decay, p if the beta momentum, and E is the positron total energy. A arises from relativistic kinematics and can be calculable. The present results for 20Na(β,γ) correlation is B-[E] = [-4.45 ±0.31] x 10-3 E + [1.87 ± 0.44] x 10-4 E2

  6. β-γ angular correlations in 20Na and 20F beta decay

    The β-γ angular correlations for the decay of 20Na and 20F to the 1.633 MeV state of 20Ne have been measured using a twenty-detector system of cylindrical symmetry. 20Na was produced by the 20Ne(p,n)20Na reaction using a 19 MeV proton beam, and 20F was produced by the reaction 19F(d,p)20F using SF6 gas and 4 MeV deuterons. The activated gasses were continuously transferred, through a thin capillary, from the target cell into the source cell in the center of the correlation apparatus. Two γ detectors and 16 β detector telescopes allowed for the simultaneous measurements of β-γ coincidences at 00, 250, 450, 650, 900, 1150, 1350, 1550, and 1800, and at their symmetric counterparts with respect to the 00--1800 direction. The β-γ correlation was also measured for the first-forbidden β- decay of 124Sb, in order to confirm the computed attenuation in measured anisotropy caused by the finite geometry of the detectors and the source cell. The correlation function is denoted by W/sub +- /(θ/sub β/√/sub γ/) = 1+α/sub +- /(E)(pE)2cos2θ/sub β/√/sub γ/. The 0 subscripts refer to electron or positron decay, p is the beta momentum, and E is the beta total energy in MeV. The present result for 20Na(β-γ) correlation is α√(E) = (-4.45 +- 0.31) x 10-3E+(1.87 +- 0.42) x 10-4E2

  7. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including 60Co, 95Zr, 124Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  8. Safe partial decommissioning of APSARA reactor: a radiological safety experience

    Apsara, India's first nuclear research reactor, operated at 400 KW for 53 y, is a swimming pool type reactor with enriched uranium fuel and demineralised water in pool acting as coolant, moderator, reflector and shielding. The average neutron flux available in the core was around 1012 neutrons/cm2/sec. It was shut down for partial decommissioning and to build a modified Apsara reactor. The proposal of decommissioning was prepared by a Task Force, approved by various Safety Committees with an estimate of dose budget. The shipment in specially fabricated flask and on the spot guidance resulted in reduction of dose consumption in fuel transfer. All jobs were planned, discussed, reviewed and approved in ALARA committee which resulted in completing different jobs in lower person-mSv than estimated values. The characterisation of components showed the major contributing radioisotopes were 60Co, 137Cs and 65Zn with traces of activity due to 54Mn, 59Fe and 124Sb. The collective TLD dose consumed for the entire work was 21.69 person-mSv (DRD dose =23.50 person-mSv) which was 15% compared to estimated dose budget 160 person-mSv. Dose budget was estimated as per maintenance jobs carried out in year 1985. However radiation levels were less during current partial decommissioning operation. The proper planning of work with radiological safety coverage and ALARA discussion could reduce the collective dose consumption by a large factor compared to estimated dose. The characterization of in core components is highly useful from active waste disposal point of view and in prediction and minimization of active components, in modified Apsara reactor

  9. An imperative role of serum TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165 levels in disease free survival, clinico-pathological response, estrogen and progesterone receptor status in locally advanced breast cancer: a pilot study

    This study explored the relationship between serum TGF beta 1, VEGF 165 and clinic pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. It also explored the association between TGF beta 1, VEGF 165 and their disease free survival (DFS), ER, PR status. Thirty patients were studied (Stage IIlA-6, stage IlIB-11 and stage IIlC-1). Serum samples collected before radiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy were assayed by ELISA for TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165. ER and PR status was determined from the diagnostic tumor biopsy by immunohistochemistry. Taxane/Anthracycline based chemotherapy was used in all the patients. Clinical response was assessed before surgery. Standard response assessment criteria (RECIST version 1.1) were applied. Surgery was either breast conservation surgery or modified radical mastectomy. They were then treated with 50 Gy in 25 by photons plus 16 Gy in 8 by electron boost. Low levels of both TGF Beta 1 (< 20 ng/ml) and VEGF 165 (< 200 pg/ml) were significantly associated with clinical (p=0.015 and p=0.038 for TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165 respectively) and pathological complete response (p=0.003 and p=0.003 respectively). Both ER and PR positivity were associated significantly with higher levels of TGF Beta 1 (>20 ng/ml) (ER: p=0.002, PR: p=0.003) and VEGF 165 (> 200 pg/ml) (ER: p=0.016, PR: p=0.008). Low baseline TGF beta 1 and VEGF 165 levels may be markers of complete pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. Longer follow up and larger number of patient is necessary to establish any correlation with DFS or overall survival. (author)

  10. Portable Beryllium Prospecting Instrument With Large Sensitive Area

    The instrument described was designed on the basis of the photoneutron method of determining beryllium in rock surfaces and developed with a view to prospecting beryllium minerals in the Ilímaussaq intrusion, south Greenland. These minerals occur,mainly in hydrothermal veins which are from 1 mm to about 2 m wide. Of the ten beryllium minerals found until now, chkalovite (12% BeO) is the most common. The distinctive feature of the prospecting instrument is a comparatively large effective measuring area (∼500 cm2). Since the instrument is intended for use in a difficult terrain without roads, it has been necessary to limit its weight and size as much as possible. The instrument consists of a detector unit and a control unit. The detector unit has the dimensions 46 x 21 x 10 cm, weighs 20 kg, and contains a 30 cm long gamma-activation device, a biological radiation shield, and two 30-cm long 3He-filled neutron proportional detectors embedded in paraffin wax. The gamma- activation device consists of 31 identical 12Sb-sources placed in a steel tube with spacings decreasing towards the ends of the tube and with a total activity of 20 mCi. During transport of the instrument the gamma-activation device is placed at the centre of the radiation shield, when the maximum dose-rate on the surface of the detector unit is 200 mR/h. When the instrument is in use, the activation device is turned to a position just above the bottom of the detector unit. The sensitivity per cm2 of the bottom surface to a 5-cm thick layer of beryllium is 20% of its value at the centre of the bottom surface along a curve which is roughly an ellipse with axes 34 and 18 cm The total sensitivity of the instrument is about 35 counts/min per % BeO per mCi 124Sb, and the background count-rate is 12-20 counts/mm. The corresponding theoretical detection limit for a single measurement of 8-min duration is 35-50 ppm BeO. (author)

  11. Combustion-Engine Wear Studies by a Radioactive Tracer Technique

    In the Motor Car Research Institute (ÚVMV) the radiotracer technique is used to study the wear of Škoda combustion engines for passenger cars. In 1960 a laboratory was built for tests with radioisotopes. For five years examinations have been carried out under laboratory conditions on the test bench and on the road. Special attention was given to the most strained engine parts - top piston rings and crank bearings. The parts to be traced were irradiated in the reactor and the following gamma emitters were used: cast-iron piston rings contained the radioisotopes 59Fe and 54Mn, lead bearings with tin and antimony addition contained the radioisotope 124Sb. The tests were made in four-cylinder spark ignition engines Škoda 990 and 993, of standard production. The measuring method consists in detecting the amount of radioactive wear debris in the crank-case oil. The measuring equipment comprises a scintillation counter with a Nal(Tl) crystal for detecting gamma radiation and electronic counting instruments complemented by special accessories. In laboratory tests the activity of the oil is measured continuously during engine operation. In long duration performance tests periodical oil samples are drawn from the crank-case; samples and radioactive standards are measured in the same arrangement. When evaluating the rate of wear, a wide range of results may be found (due to the statistical errors depending on counting rate level, relative wear increases, measuring time, etc.). Because of the error theory it is necessary to reach a suitable compromise between test conditions and the demanded accuracy of the obtained results. Road and laboratory tests carried out in UVMV show how various parameters influence engine wear rate. The effect of different factors was studied (different oils, oil filtration, frequent oil changes, cooling water temperature, etc.) and it is concluded that piston ring wear and especially bearing wear is caused mainly by rising engine-speed and load

  12. Leaching study of nuclear melt glass: Part I

    Ground samples of three nuclear melt glasses from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were leached at 250C with natural ground water from NTS. Using our dynamic single-pass flow-through leaching system we monitored the release of radionuclides from the glasses during 420 days of leaching. We continually flowed the ground water over the melt glass at flow rates of 185 ml/day for half of the samples and 34 ml/day for the rest. Leachate solutions were collected continuously, and composite samples, collected on days 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 32, 38, 70, 120, 230 and 420, were analyzed using low-background Ge(Li) gamma spectrometers. For most of the radionuclides the leach rate decreased smoothly throughout the experiment. Except for 95Zr, 144Ce, and 155Eu, there was no difference between the fast (185 ml/day) and slow (34 ml/day) flow-rate leach rates. The measurable leach rates ranged from a high of 1 x 10-2 g-glass/m2 day for 22Na (slow flow-rate, day 1 in glass No. 2) to a low of 1 x 6-6 g-glass/m2 day for 54Mn (slow flow-rate, day 420 in glass No. 2). Most of the leach-rate values were about 5 x 10-4 g-glass/m2 day initially, decreasing to 5 x 10-6 g-glass/m2 day after 420 days of leaching. The leach rates had not leveled off by the end of the experiment and were, in general, continuing to decrease. From the activities in the leachate solutions, we determined the percent of the pre-leach activity leached from the melt glasses during the experiment. Only 124Sb, in one fast flow-rate channel of glass No. 2, exceeded 3% of the initial activity leached. The majority of the samples released less than 1% of the pre-leach activity for a given radionuclide. The percent activity released from the samples leached at the fast and slow flow rates were nearly equal

  13. Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M

    1999-11-01

    Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main contributor is the radionuclide discharges of the NPPs into the atmosphere, but workers may transmit small amounts through their clothes or skin, or from internal contamination. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the amounts of radionuclides in sewage sludge and to obtain information on transport of the radionuclides from the NPPs to the wastewater treatment plants. Under normal operating conditions and during annual maintenance and refuelling outages at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs, sewage sludge samples were taken at wastewater treatment plants in communities located in the vicinity of the plants. With the exception of {sup 131}I, the most significant activities in discharges into the air from the Loviisa NPP were due to {sup 110}mAg. The latter was also noted most frequently in the sewage sludge at the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Loviisa about 10 km from the Loviisa pressurised water reactor (PWR) NPP. The other nuclides probably originating from the Loviisa NPP were {sup 51}Cr, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, {sup 110}mAg and {sup 124}Sb. In the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Rauma, about 10 km from the Olkiluoto boiling water reactor (BWR) NPP, the only nuclides possibly origination from the NPP were {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co. In the wastewater treatment plant, the variation in concentration of {sup 60}Co in sludge did not correlate with the activities measured in precipitation. The occurrence of the nuclide in the treatment plant did not correlate over time with the amounts of discharge from the NPP. This suggests that at least some of the activity was transported to the wastewater treatment plant via routes other than precipitation

  14. The activity of {gamma}-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient {gamma} for some radio-elements (1961); Mesure de l'activite des emetteurs {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Determination du coefficient specifique d'emission {gamma} de quelques radioelements (1961)

    Engelmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient {gamma} (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy {gamma}' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of {beta} emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 {pi} {gamma} chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known ({sup 24}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, {sup 198}Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm{sup 3} mc{sup -1} h{sup -1}): {sup 51}Cr: 0,18; {sup 56}Mn: 8,8; {sup 65}Zn: 3,05; {sup 124}Sb: 9,9; {sup 134}Cs: 9,3; {sup 137}Cs: 3,35; {sup 141}Ce: 0,46; {sup 170}Tm: 0,023; {sup 192}Ir: 24,9; {sup 203}Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm{sup 170}. In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les techniques de mesure par

  15. Testing of antimony selective media for treatment of liquid radwaste

    Nuclear power plants have sought radiation source term reduction and reduced discharge of radioactive constituents for many years. In the case of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the latter efforts have been directed toward capture and immobilization of recalcitrant (ubiquitous radionuclides with long half-lives) species such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 and Co-58 and Co-60. As these plants resolved, or at least mitigated, the problems with radiocesium and radio-cobalt, antimony radionuclides (Sb-122, Sb-124, and Sb-125) have become a primary concern in liquid liquid radwaste systems Graver Technologies developed a granular composite metal oxide media with good selectivity for radio-antimony. Initial laboratory data were collected using non-radioactive salts of antimony, cesium, and cobalt to judge efficacy of selective removal of antimony. Based on success of those trials, the media, designated Gravex GX187, was tested in partnership with Energy Solutions (nee Duratek) using actual liquid liquid radwaste in two PWR plants. One of these plants performed extensive slip-stream trials comparing the GX187 with strong base anion resins. With more than 2500 bed volumes of throughput, the GX187 outperformed the other competitors by reducing both Sb-124 and Sb-125 radionuclides below minimum detectable activity (MDA) with average decontamination factors (DF's) of 170, even when subjected to high levels of borate. Based on these favorable results, Energy Solutions installed the GX187 in a layered bed in their ALPS liquid radwaste processing system at this plant in August 2005. After one year of intermittent, batchwise operation including an outage, the GX187 processed more than 2.25 million liters (>600,000 gallons) of liquid liquid radwaste while reducing the Sb-125 activity to 2.9 E-08 Bq/L (DF=111) on average. This evaluation is ongoing and will continue at least until the fall 2006 outage at this plant. Concurrently, Graver developed a second generation antimony selective

  16. The synergic impact of the boiling and water radiolysis on the pressurized water reactor fuel cladding's chemical environment

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-01

    with higher resistance properties by the changed physical-chemical environment. Such kind of fuel cladding materials, as alternatives to Zircaloy-4 U.S. fuel cladding material which has a limited corrosion resistance under oxidizing conditions, are the French fuel cladding material M5 and the Russian fuel cladding material E 110 (Zr1Nb) and also the U.S. fuel cladding material ZIRLO. The fuel cladding material E 110 has been used for a long time to manufacture fuel assembly claddings of Russian Light Water Reactors - WWER-440 and WWER-1000. This cladding material shows enough high corrosion resistance by the implementation of {sup 235}U higher enriched (up to 4,3%) fuel in NPP Kozloduy, Bulgaria. The routine reactor coolant bulk chemistry monitoring data normally do not indicate the presence of oxidants in primary coolant. Specially the observed permanent presence of {sup 122}Sb (half life period - 2,7 days) during the entire operation period in the WWER-1000 Units in NPP Kozloduy, Bulgaria is an indirect indicator of the presence of SNB and water radiolysis processes. (author)

  17. High-spin states of 125Sb: Particle-core excitation coupling

    LIU; Zhong; (

    2003-01-01

    shell model analysis of high spin states, Z Phys. A, 1983, 312: 27-41.[15]Dombradi, Z., Brant, S., Paar, V., Role of collectivity in the structure of 120,122,124Sb nuclei, Phys. Rev. C, 1993, 47: 1539-1547.[16]Piel, W. F. Jr., Chapuran, T., High-spin gamma-ray spectroscopy in Z = 83 isotopes: 199,201Bi, Phys. Rev. C, 1985, 31: 2087-2103.

  18. Membrane processes in nuclear technologies

    to the pressure-driven processes, e.g. ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, which were studied on a laboratory and pilot scale. Verification of the potential application of reverse osmosis on an industrial scale for treatment of liquid low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes has been carried out with the installation particularly designed and constructed for the Department of Radioactive Waste Processing, Institute of Atomic Energy at Swierk. The thin-layer composite membranes made from a cross-linked aromatic polyamide of high retention of NaCl (99,4-99,7%) were applied in this process. It has been proved that a three-stage installation enables the radioactive waste of specific radioactivity below 105 Bq/dm3 to be cleaned down to 10 Bq/dm3 in permeate, with simultaneous 7-15-fold reduction of the activity in the concentrate. The results of own studies concerning the removal of selected radionuclides from model aqueous solutions and radioactive wastes with ultra-filtration enhanced by complexation and sorption were also presented in this work. In these cases, the mineral (ceramic) porous membranes made from a-alumina, titanium and zirconium oxides were applied. These membranes exhibited a high resistance against ionizing radiation, aggressive chemical environment and high temperatures. The high effectiveness of removal of the main components of liquid radioactive waste like 134Cs, 137Cs, 60Co, 124Sb, 85Sr, 152Eu and 154Eu with a hybrid ultrafiltration/complexation process has been experimentally proved. The effects of this type of complexing agent, its concentration and pH of the processed solution on the complexation effectiveness have been studied. Efficacy of the method was tested with real radioactive wastes. The monograph performs results of the studies on membrane distillation which has been proposed by the author for processing of liquid radioactive wastes, and the analysis of its applicability for nuclear desalination and the production of pure water

  19. Radiation Protection Aspects of Primary Water Chemistry and Source-term Management Report

    are related to radiation field generation are addressed, such as material issues (steam generator, cobalt inventory, surface preconditioning and fuel assembly support structure material) and chemical methods (pH control, zinc injection, shut down and start-up operations and purification) are also addressed. Specific contamination with 110Ag or 124Sb is also discussed. Chapter 4 - radiation field measurement techniques - provides information regarding measurement techniques and mapping strategies (such as the EPRI methodology or the EDF RB index) that are used in order to precisely follow radiation field evolution within the RB and to detect abnormal elevation of dose rate. Routine measurements with common techniques such as routine dose rate meters are described as well as more complex techniques such as CZT detectors or germanium detector. Advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are discussed. In the follow up of the report, techniques for full system and component remediation are discussed with quantitative data sets 'remediation of contamination'. Experiences of various sites with respect to source term management are provided, addressing the topics previously discussed in the report in section titled as 'radiation protection outcomes'. (authors)

  20. Development and using radio analytical methods for the analysis of migration forms of pollutants in the main river waters of Central Asia

    Full text: Solution of problems of monitoring and protection, and rational using of river waters requires studying of space-temporarily distribution and migrations of pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM). It is also important to have exact information about forms of being HM because their fate, behavior, migration, and their toxic property are connected with their physic-chemical forms. But not enough sensitivity and accuracy of many physic-chemical methods of analysis requires necessity of developing and using of high-sensitive and multi-component methods of determination of contents and migration forms of HM in nature and sewage waters. Studying of migration forms of HM in the river waters was conducted by the following scheme: Neutron-activation analysis of divided fractions of separate forms of HM; experimental modeling by using of appropriate radio nuclides and thermodynamic modeling methods. There was developed and used neutron-activation method for getting quantitative data about forms of being HM in water. The ultra-filtration and electro-dialysis fractionating and concentrating of separate forms of HM was carried out before neutron activation analyses. There were established optimal conditions of division form of being of HM by using radionuclides 60Co, 51Cr and 124Sb in cationic and anionic forms. During 2003-2005 we have studied space-temporarily variations of content and phase distribution of Hg, Zn, Cd, Sb, Co, Th, Br, Cr, Au, La and Eu in the waters of Amudarya, Syrdarya and Surkhandarya rivers. Average concentration of HM fluctuates from 4.1 mg/l for Fe, till 2 ng/l for Au. Suspended composing of river waters makes from mountain rock and lands in river-heads and concentration of elements in weight form not exceeding the level of chalk's contents. In formation of solved phase of river water main role plays atmospheric precipitation. This fact concern to the technogenic elements (Hg, Cd, Zn, Sb, Cr, Se, V) mainly. Limits of determination of HM - 10

  1. ZZ MATXSLIBJ33, JENDL-3.3 based, 175 N-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group

    1 - Description of program or function: JENDL-3.3 based, 175 neutron-42 photon groups (VITAMIN-J) MATXS library for discrete ordinates multi-group transport codes. Format: MATXS. Number of groups: 175 neutron, 42 gamma-ray. Nuclides: 337 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.3: H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, Li-6, Li-7, Be-9, B-10, B-11, C-Nat, N-14, N-15, O-16, F-19, Na-23, Mg-24, Mg-25, Mg-26, Al-27, Si-28, Si-29, Si-30, P-31, S-32, S-33, S-34, S-36, Cl-35, Cl-37, Ar-40, K-39, K-40, K-41, Ca-40, Ca-42, Ca-43, Ca-44, Ca-46, Ca-48, Sc-45, Ti-46, Ti-47, Ti-48, Ti-49, Ti-50, V-Nat, Cr-50, Cr-52, Cr-53, Cr-54, Mn-55, Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, Fe-58, Co-59, Ni-58, Ni-60, Ni-61, Ni-62, Ni-64, Cu-63, Cu-65, Ga-69, Ga-71, Ge-70, Ge-72, Ge-73, Ge-74, Ge-76, As-75, Se-74, Se-76, Se-77, Se-78, Se-79, Se-80, Se-82, Br-79, Br-81, Kr-78, Kr-80, Kr-82, Kr-83, Kr-84, Kr-85, Kr-86, Rb-85, Rb-87, Sr-86, Sr-87, Sr-88, Sr-89, Sr-90, Y-89, Y-91, Zr-90, Zr-91, Zr-92, Zr-93, Zr-94, Zr-95, Zr-96, Nb-93, Nb-94, Nb-95, Mo-92, Mo-94, Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-97, Mo-98, Mo-99, Mo-100, Tc-99, Ru-96, Ru-98, Ru-99, Ru-100, Ru-101, Ru-102, Ru-103, Ru-104, Ru-106, Rh-103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m, Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m, Te-128, Te-129m, Te-130, I-127, I-129, I-131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m, Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu

  2. ZZ FSXJ32, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.2. ZZ FSXLIBJ33, MCNP nuclear data library based on JENDL-3.3

    -103, Rh-105, Pd-102, Pd-104, Pd-105, Pd-106, Pd-107, Pd-108, Pd-110, Ag-107, Ag-109, Ag-110m,Cd-106, Cd-108, Cd-110, Cd-111, Cd-112, Cd-113, Cd-114, Cd-116, In-113, In-115, Sn-112, Sn-114, Sn-115, Sn-116, Sn-117, Sn-118, Sn-119, Sn-120, Sn-122, Sn-123, Sn-124, Sn-126, Sb-121, Sb-123, Sb-124, Sb-125, Te-120, Te-122, Te-123, Te-124, Te-125, Te-126, Te-127m,Te-128, Te-129m,Te-130, I -127, I -129, I -131, Xe-124, Xe-126, Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, Xe-132, Xe-133, Xe-134, Xe-135, Xe-136, Cs-133, Cs-134, Cs-135, Cs-136, Cs-137, Ba-130, Ba-132, Ba-134, Ba-135, Ba-136, Ba-137, Ba-138, Ba-140, La-138, La-139, Ce-140, Ce-141, Ce-142, Ce-144, Pr-141, Pr-143, Nd-142, Nd-143, Nd-144, Nd-145, Nd-146, Nd-147, Nd-148, Nd-150, Pm-147, Pm-148, Pm-148m,Pm-149, Sm-144, Sm-147, Sm-148, Sm-149, Sm-150, Sm-151, Sm-152, Sm-153, Sm-154, Eu-151, Eu-152, Eu-153, Eu-154, Eu-155, Eu-156, Gd-152, Gd-154, Gd-155, Gd-156, Gd-157, Gd-158, Gd-160, Tb-159, Er-162, Er-164, Er-166, Er-167, Er-168, Er-170, Hf-174, Hf-176, Hf-177, Hf-178, Hf-179, Hf-180, Ta-181, W-182, W-183, W-184, W-186, Hg-196, Hg-198, Hg-199, Hg-200, Hg-201, Hg-202, Hg-204, Pb-204, Pb-206, Pb-207, Pb-208, Bi-209, Ra-223, Ra-224, Ra-225, Ra-226, Ac-225, Ac-226, Ac-227, Th-227, Th-228, Th-229, Th-230, Th-232, Th-233, Th-234, Pa-231, Pa-232, Pa-233, U-232, U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-237, U-238, Np-235, Np-236, Np-237, Np-238, Np-239, Pu-236, Pu-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Pu-244, Pu-246, Am-241, Am-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Am-244, Am-244m, Cm-240, Cm-241, Cm-242, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cm-247, Cm-248, Cm-249, Cm-250, Bk-247, Bk-249, Bk-250, Cf-249, Cf-250, Cf-251, Cf-252, Cf-254, Es-254, Es-255, Fm-255 Temperatures: 300 K. Origin: JENDL-3.3. Thermal scattering: Free gas model Kerma factors are provided. The original JENDL-3.3 has two problems in Am-241 data. One is the missing of MF/MT=4/18, and the other is the incorrect neutron spectra for MT=18 below 500 keV. The updated data have been produced as JENDL-3