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Sample records for 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin

  1. Hemin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-kappa B activation and ornithine decarboxylase expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin

    Inflammation induced by various stimuli has been found to be associated with increased risk for most types of human cancer. Inflammation facilitates the initiation of normal cells, as well as the growth of initiated cells and their progression to malignancy through production of proinflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. These also activate the signaling molecules that are involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hemin inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced bacterial mutagenesis and oxidative DNA damage, reduced the level of DNA-DMBA adduct and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor formation in DMBA-initiated ICR mouse skin, and inhibited myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and H2O2 formation in TPA-treated mouse skin. In the present study, to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activity of hemin, its effect on the expression of ODC and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulating these proteins were explored in mouse skin with TPA-induced inflammation. Topically applied hemin inhibited ear edema and epidermal thickness in mice treated with TPA. Pretreatment with hemin reduced the expression of ODC and COX-2, and also reduced NF-κB activation in TPA-stimulated mouse skin. In addition, hemin suppressed the TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, hemin inhibited TPA-induced COX-2 expression by altering NF-κB signaling pathway via ERK and p38 MAPK, as well as TPA-induced ODC expression in mouse skin. Thereby, hemin may be an attractive candidate for a chemopreventive agent

  2. Biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes.

    Shi, Zhanquan; Ji, Kaiyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Zhang, Junzhen; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng; Fan, Ruiwen

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the optimal passage number according to the biological characteristics of mouse skin melanocytes from different passages. Skin punch biopsies harvested from the dorsal region of 2-day old mice were used to establish melanocyte cultures. The cells from passage 4, 7, 10 and 13 were collected and evaluated for their melanogenic activity. Histochemical staining for tyrosinase (TYR) activity and immunostaining for the melanocyte specific markers including S-100 antigen, TYR, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase related protein 2 (TYRP2) and micropthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) confirmed purity and melanogenic capacity of melanocytes from different passages, with better melanogenic activity of passage 10 and 13 cells being observed. Treatment of passage 13 melanocytes with α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) showed increased expression of MITF, TYR and TYRP2 mRNA. However, considering the TYR mRNA dramatically high expression which is the characteristics of melanoma cells, melanocytes from passage 10 was the optimal passage number for the further research. Our results demonstrate culture of pure populations of mouse melanocytes to at least 10 passages and illustrate the potential utility of passage 10 cells for studies of intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of genes controlling pigmentation and coat color in mouse. PMID:26905193

  3. Multistage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Skin tumors in mice can be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a noncarcinogenic tumor promoter. The initiation phase requires only a single application of either a direct acting carcinogen or a procarcinogen which has to be metabolized before being active and is essentially an irreversible step which probably involves a somatic cell mutation. There is a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activites of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their ability to bind covalently to epidermal DNA. Laboratory results suggest that bay region diol-epoxides are the ultimate carcinogenic form of PAH carcinogens. Potent inhibitors and stimulators of PAH tumor initiation appear to affect the level of the PAH diol-epoxide reacting with specific DNA bases. Reecent data suggests that the tumor promotion stage involves at least three important steps: (1) the induction of embryonic looking cells (dark cells) in adult epidermis; (2) an increased production of epidermal prostaglandins and polyamines; (3) sustained proliferation of dark cells. Retinoic acid specifically inhibits step two whereas the anti-inflammatory steriod fluocinolone acetonide is a potent inhibitor of steps one and three. The mechanism and the importance of a specific sequence for each step in chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin are detailed.

  4. Skin morphology of the mutant hairless USP mouse

    Massironi S.M.G.; Giacóia M.R.; Maiorka P.C.; Kipnis T.L.; Dagli M.L.Z.

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of the skin of the mutant hairless USP mouse was studied by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods and compared to the skin of BALB/c mice. Representative sections of the dorsal skin from mice of both strains aged 18 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 8 months were studied. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed cystic formations called utricles and dermal cysts in the dermis that increased in size and number during growth. Skin thickness increased signific...

  5. Expression of naked DNA in human, pig, and mouse skin.

    Hengge, U R; Walker, P. S.; Vogel, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion and expression of genes in the epidermis may have a variety of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of skin diseases. Here we show that when both human skin organ cultures and human skin grafts on immunocompromised mice are injected with naked DNA, the DNA is taken-up and genes are expressed in the epidermis in a manner similar to both pig skin injected in vivo and injected pig skin organ cultures. In contrast, DNA injected into mouse skin is expressed not just in the epide...

  6. Skin morphology of the mutant hairless USP mouse

    Massironi S.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the skin of the mutant hairless USP mouse was studied by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods and compared to the skin of BALB/c mice. Representative sections of the dorsal skin from mice of both strains aged 18 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 8 months were studied. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed cystic formations called utricles and dermal cysts in the dermis that increased in size and number during growth. Skin thickness increased significantly at 8 months. Sections stained with picrosirius and examined with polarized light, displayed different colors, suggesting different thicknesses of dermal collagen fibers (probably types I and III. Weigert, Verhoeff and resorcin-fuchsin stains revealed fibers of the elastic system. The PAS and Alcian blue methods revealed neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans in the skin ground substance of both mouse strains. Immunohistochemical staining for fibronectin and laminin did not show differences between the mutant and BALB/c mice. Mast cells stained by the Gomori method and macrophages positive for HAM 56 antibodies were observed in both mouse strains. Except for the presence of enlarged cysts in the hairless strain, no qualitative differences were found during development of the skin of BALB/c and the mutant hairless mice.

  7. Calcium Glucarate Prevents Tumor Formation in Mouse Skin

    2003-01-01

    Objective Calcium Glucarate (Cag), Ca salt of D-glucaric acid is a naturally occurring non-toxic compound present in fruits, vegetables and seeds of some plants, and suppress tumor growth in different models. Due to lack of knowledge about its mode of action its uses are limited in cancer chemotherapy thus the objective of the study was to study the mechanism of action of Cag on mouse skin tumorigenesis. Methods We have estimated effect of Cag on DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development following complete carcinogenesis protocol. We measured, epidermal transglutaminase activity (TG), a marker of cell differentiation after DMBA and/or Cag treatment and [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA as a marker for cell proliferation. Results Topical application of Cag suppressed the DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development. Topical application of Cag significantly modifies the critical events of proliferation and differentiation TG activity was found to be reduced after DMBA treatment. Reduction of the TG activity was dependent on the dose of DMBA and duration of DMBA exposure. Topical application of Cag significantly alleviated DMBA induced inhibition of TG. DMBA also caused stimulation of DNA synthesis in epidermis, which was inhibited by Cag. Conclusion Cag inhibits DMBA induced mouse skin tumor development. Since stimulation of DNA synthesis reflects proliferation and induction of TG represents differentiation, the antitumorigenic effect of Cag is considered to be possibly due to stimulation of differentiation and suppression of proliferation.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Mouse Skin Tumor Promotion

    Rundhaug, Joyce E.; Fischer, Susan M., E-mail: smfischer@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, P.O. Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2010-04-13

    Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion.

  9. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1+/−) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1+/− and Cx43+/− mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1+/− mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases

  10. Methodology for statistical analysis of SENCAR mouse skin assay data.

    Stober, J A

    1986-01-01

    Various response measures and statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data collected in the SENCAR mouse skin assay are examined. The characteristics of the tumor response data do not readily lend themselves to the classical methods for hypothesis testing. The advantages and limitations of conventional methods of analysis and methods recommended in the literature are discussed. Several alternative response measures that were developed specifically to answer the problems inherent i...

  11. Transgenic cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression sensitizes mouse skin for carcinogenesis

    Müller-Decker, Karin; Neufang, Gitta; Berger, Irina; Neumann, Melanie; Marks, Friedrich; Fürstenberger, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is critical for epithelial carcinogenesis and provides a major target for cancer chemoprevention by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Transgenic mouse lines with keratin 5 promoter-driven COX-2 overexpression in basal epidermal cells exhibit a preneoplastic skin phenotype. As shown here, this phenotype depends on the level of COX-2 expression and COX-2-mediated prostaglandin accumulation. The tran...

  12. Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

    Itsuo Murakami

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a plant polyphenol, which is thought to have beneficial metabolic effects in laboratory animals as well as in humans. Following oral administration, RESV is immediately catabolized, resulting in low bioavailability. This study compared RESV metabolites and their tissue distribution after oral uptake and skin absorption. Metabolomic analysis of various mouse tissues revealed that RESV can be absorbed and metabolized through skin. We detected sulfated and glucuronidated RESV metabolites, as well as dihydroresveratrol. These metabolites are thought to have lower pharmacological activity than RESV. Similar quantities of most RESV metabolites were observed 4 h after oral or skin administration, except that glucuronidated RESV metabolites were more abundant in skin after topical RESV application than after oral administration. This result is consistent with our finding of glucuronidated RESV metabolites in cultured skin cells. RESV applied to mouse ears significantly suppressed inflammation in the TPA inflammation model. The skin absorption route could be a complementary, potent way to achieve therapeutic effects with RESV.

  13. Hyperacute rejection of skin allografts in the mouse

    The destructive action of alloantiserum and exogenous complement on ingrowing skin allografts was studied. B6AF1 recipients of a B10.D2 skin graft received a single intravenous injection of B6AF1 anti-B10.D2 serum (antiserum to H-2K.31) together with rabbit complement (RC) within the first 10 days after transplantation. Different models were used: recipients without immunosuppression, recipients treated with antilymphocyte serum, x-irradiation, or enhancing antibody. If the injection was given between day 5 and 10 after grafting, hyperacute rejection occurred in all cases. The rejection seemed to be most violent when the injection was given on days 7 or 8. Injections given on days 1, 2, or 3 after grafting could not induce hyperacute rejection, but resulted, on the contrary, in a prolongation of graft survival, probably due to immunological enhancement. Injections on day 4 produced patchy necrosis, but the grafts recovered and the residual tissue showed a prolonged survival. The results suggest that the presence of a functioning vascular network is a prerequisite for the occurrence of hyperacute rejection of skin allografts in the mouse

  14. Entactin: ultrastructural localization of an ubiquitous basement membrane glycoprotein in mouse skin

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Ljubimov, A V; Yamasaki, H; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    present study, we have sought to determine the localization of entactin in mouse skin. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (the latter via immunoperoxidase technique) were performed on both intact and NaCl-separated mouse skin, using a well-characterized IgG class entactin...

  15. UV-induced skin cancer in a hairless mouse model.

    de Gruijl, F R; Forbes, P D

    1995-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a very common carcinogen in our environment, but epidemiological data on the relationship between skin cancers and ambient solar UV radiation are very restricted. In hairless mice the process of UV carcinogenesis can be studied in depth. Experiments with this animal model have yielded quantitative data on how tumor development depends on dose, time and wavelength of the UV radiation. In combination with epidemiological data, these experimental results can be transposed to humans. Comparative studies on molecular, cellular and physiological changes in mouse and man can further our fundamental understanding of UV carcinogenesis in man. This is likely to improve risk assessments such as those related to stratospheric ozone depletion, and to yield well-targeted intervention schemes, e.g. prescribing a specific drug or diet, for high-risk individuals. PMID:7646487

  16. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/μm also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/μm in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/μm were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/μ steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  17. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W. [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S.; Kanai, T. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  18. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Xia, Xiaojun [The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Eunmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Fischer, Susan M. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78967 (United States); Hu, Yinling, E-mail: huy2@mail.nih.gov [Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.

  19. Mouse Genetic Models Reveal Surprising Functions of IκB Kinase Alpha in Skin Development and Skin Carcinogenesis

    Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikkα heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKα deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikkα floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKα in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKα represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKα deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikkα gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKα and Ikkα mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKα in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside

  20. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT-Reductase in Mouse Skin

    2001-01-01

    Objective Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. Methods The fresh frozen tissue sections (8m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. Results  The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. Conclusion The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  1. Matrine inhibits proliferation of mouse skin fibroblasts induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB

    WU Yan-an; GAO Chun-fang; WANG Hao; HUANG Chao; KONG Xian-tao

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of matrine on proliferation of mouse skin fibroblasts induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Methods: Mouse skin fibroblasts were obtained from newborn ⅠCR mice and propagated in vitro. Proliferation of cell was analyzed by mitochondrial reduction of tetrazolium salt MTT and actual cell count. Results: Matrine (50 to 500 μg/ml) caused dose-dependent reduction of serum-stimulated cell growth. Growth inhibition was totally reversed after removal of the drug. Matrine also inhibited PDGF-BB induced cell growth dose-dependently. Conclusion: Matrine exhibits potent anti-proliferation effect on mouse skin fibroblast. This effect appears to be mediated by decrease of PDGF-induced growth. These results suggest that matrine might have preventive and therapeutic implication in skin fibrosis.

  2. Optical clearing assisted confocal microscopy of ex vivo transgenic mouse skin

    Song, Eunjoo; Ahn, YoonJoon; Ahn, Jinhyo; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Sanghoon; Boutilier, Richard Martin; Lee, Yongjoong; Kim, Pilhan; Lee, Ho

    2015-10-01

    We examined the optical clearing assisted confocal microscopy of the transgenic mouse skin. The pinna and dorsal skin were imaged with a confocal microscope after the application of glycerol and FocusClear. In case of the glycerol-treated pinna, the clearing was minimal due to the inefficient permeability. However, the imaging depth was improved when the pinna was treated with FocusClear. In case of dorsal skin, we were able to image deeply to the subcutaneous connective tissue with both agents. Various skin structures such as the vessel, epithelium cells, cartilage, dermal cells, and hair follicles were clearly imaged.

  3. Expression and Function of Group IIE Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin.

    Yamamoto, Kei; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Nishito, Yasumasa; Gelb, Michael H; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto

    2016-07-22

    Recent studies using knock-out mice for various secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) isoforms have revealed their non-redundant roles in diverse biological events. In the skin, group IIF sPLA2 (sPLA2-IIF), an "epidermal sPLA2" expressed in the suprabasal keratinocytes, plays a fundamental role in epidermal-hyperplasic diseases such as psoriasis and skin cancer. In this study, we found that group IIE sPLA2 (sPLA2-IIE) was expressed abundantly in hair follicles and to a lesser extent in basal epidermal keratinocytes in mouse skin. Mice lacking sPLA2-IIE exhibited skin abnormalities distinct from those in mice lacking sPLA2-IIF, with perturbation of hair follicle ultrastructure, modest changes in the steady-state expression of a subset of skin genes, and no changes in the features of psoriasis or contact dermatitis. Lipidomics analysis revealed that sPLA2-IIE and -IIF were coupled with distinct lipid pathways in the skin. Overall, two skin sPLA2s, hair follicular sPLA2-IIE and epidermal sPLA2-IIF, play non-redundant roles in distinct compartments of mouse skin, underscoring the functional diversity of multiple sPLA2s in the coordinated regulation of skin homeostasis and diseases. PMID:27226633

  4. Mouse skin regeneration after injuries caused by ionizing radiation and hyperthermia

    The half-period of mouse skin regeneration after sublethal injuries caused by hyperthermia (44 deg C) was 2.9 h and completed within 16-24 h. The half-period of regeneration after sublethal injuries caused by ionizing radiation was 2.1 h at a dose of 5 Gy and 4.3 at a dose of 20 Gy. The rate of mouse skin regeneration after sublethal injuries caused by exposure to ionizing radiation only and in combination with hyperthermia at similar levels of injury did not differ

  5. Topical Application of Oleuropein Induces Anagen Hair Growth in Telogen Mouse Skin.

    Tao Tong

    Full Text Available Oleuropein promoted cultured human follicle dermal papilla cell proliferation and induced LEF1 and Cyc-D1 mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression in dermal papilla cells. Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in dermal papilla cells was observed after oleuropein treatment. Topical application of oleuropein (0.4 mg/mouse/day to C57BL/6N mice accelerated the hair-growth induction and increased the size of hair follicles in telogenic mouse skin. The oleuropein-treated mouse skin showed substantial upregulation of Wnt10b, FZDR1, LRP5, LEF1, Cyc-D1, IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression.These results demonstrate that topical oleuroepin administration induced anagenic hair growth in telogenic C57BL/6N mouse skin. The hair-growth promoting effect of oleuropein in mice appeared to be associated with the stimulation of the Wnt10b/β-catenin signaling pathway and the upregulation of IGF-1, KGF, HGF, and VEGF gene expression in mouse skin tissue.

  6. RNA isolation for transcriptomics of human and mouse small skin biopsies

    Breit Timo M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of RNA from skin biopsies presents a challenge, due to the tough nature of skin tissue and a high presence of RNases. As we lacked the dedicated equipment, i.e. homogenizer or bead-beater, needed for the available RNA from skin isolation methods, we adapted and tested our zebrafish single-embryo RNA-isolation protocol for RNA isolation from skin punch biopsies. Findings We tested our new RNA-isolation protocol in two experiments: a large-scale study with 97 human skin samples, and a small study with 16 mouse skin samples. Human skin was sampled with 4.0 mm biopsy punches and for the mouse skin different punch diameter sizes were tested; 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mm. The average RNA yield in human samples was 1.5 μg with an average RNA quality RIN value of 8.1. For the mouse biopsies, the average RNA yield was 2.4 μg with an average RIN value of 7.5. For 96% of the human biopsies and 100% of the mouse biopsies we obtained enough high-quality RNA. The RNA samples were successfully tested in a transcriptomics analysis using the Affymetrix and Roche NimbleGen platforms. Conclusions Using our new RNA-isolation protocol, we were able to consistently isolate high-quality RNA, which is apt for further transcriptomics analysis. Furthermore, this method is already useable on biopsy material obtained with a punch diameter as small as 1.5 mm.

  7. Non-stochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig and mouse skin

    In this collaborative study skin areas of various sizes were irradiated with different energy beta emitters. In the post-irradiation period fields were examined for erythema, desquamation, ulceration and dermal necrosis. The aim of the study is to determine the threshold doses for the different biological reactions as a function of the energy of the radiation and the size of skin field irradiated. At St. Bartholomew's Hospital and Oxford the irradiation of mouse and pig skin was carried out using strontium-90 and thulium-170 sources. In addition, mice were irradiated with thallium-204, a slightly lower energy beta emitter than thulium. (author)

  8. Imaging the electric field associated with mouse and human skin wounds

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Nuccitelli, Pamela; Ramlatchan, Samdeo; Sanger, Richard; Smith, Peter J.S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive instrument called the bioelectric field imager (BFI) for mapping the electric field between the epidermis and the stratum corneum near wounds in both mouse and human skin. Rather than touching the skin, the BFI vibrates a small metal probe with a displacement of 180 μm in air above the skin to detect the surface potential of the epidermis through capacitative coupling. Here we describe our first application of the BFI measuring the electric field between the st...

  9. Preparation of Single-cell Suspensions for Cytofluorimetric Analysis from Different Mouse Skin Regions.

    Broggi, Achille; Cigni, Clara; Zanoni, Ivan; Granucci, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a barrier organ that interacts with the external environment. Being continuously exposed to potential microbial invasion, the dermis and epidermis home a variety of immune cells in both homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Tools to obtain skin cell release for cytofluorimetric analyses are, therefore, very useful in order to study the complex network of immune cells residing in the skin and their response to microbial stimuli. Here, we describe an efficient methodology for the digestion of mouse skin to rapidly and efficiently obtain single-cell suspensions. This protocol allows maintenance of maximum cell viability without compromising surface antigen expression. We also describe how to take and digest skin samples from different anatomical locations, such as the ear, trunk, tail, and footpad. The obtained suspensions are then stained and analyzed by flow cytometry to discriminate between different leukocyte populations. PMID:27166881

  10. The optical properties of mouse skin in the visible and near infrared spectral regions.

    Sabino, Caetano P; Deana, Alessandro M; Yoshimura, Tania M; da Silva, Daniela F T; França, Cristiane M; Hamblin, Michael R; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2016-07-01

    Visible and near-infrared radiation is now widely employed in health science and technology. Pre-clinical trials are still essential to allow appropriate translation of optical methods into clinical practice. Our results stress the importance of considering the mouse strain and gender when planning pre-clinical experiments that depend on light-skin interactions. Here, we evaluated the optical properties of depilated albino and pigmented mouse skin using reproducible methods to determine parameters that have wide applicability in biomedical optics. Light penetration depth (δ), absorption (μa), reduced scattering (μ's) and reduced attenuation (μ't) coefficients were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model of photon transport and spectrophotometric measurements. Within a broad wavelength coverage (400-1400nm), the main optical tissue interactions of visible and near infrared radiation could be inferred. Histological analysis was performed to correlate the findings with tissue composition and structure. Disperse melanin granules present in depilated pigmented mouse skin were shown to be irrelevant for light absorption. Gender mostly affected optical properties in the visible range due to variations in blood and abundance of dense connective tissue. On the other hand, mouse strains could produce more variations in the hydration level of skin, leading to changes in absorption in the infrared spectral region. A spectral region of minimal light attenuation, commonly referred as the "optical window", was observed between 600 and 1350nm. PMID:27101274

  11. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    Eranée Stewart; Moyosore Salihu Ajao; Amadi Ogonda Ihunwo

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. I...

  12. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT—Reductase in Mouse Skin

    YOESHWERSHUKLA

    2001-01-01

    Objective:Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium(NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated.Methods:The fresh frozen tissue sections(8m thickness)were prepared and incuated in medium containing NBT,reduced glutathione(GSH) and Phosphate uffer,The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange.Results:The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has een found to be localized in the areas rich in glutatione and actively proliferating area of the skin.Conclusion:The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutatione contents.

  13. Metabolic conversion of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in adult and newborn mouse skin and mouse liver microsomes

    Berry, D.L.; Bracken, W.M.; Fischer, S.M.; Viaje, A.; Slaga, T.J.

    1978-08-01

    Tritiated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was applied to adult mouse skin; at specified time intervals the mice were killed, and the labeled phorbol was extracted and subjected to separation and quantitation by high-pressure liquid chromatography. After 24 hr, TPA comprised >96% of the recovered label from the skin, and its apparent half-life was 17.8 hr. Pretreatment of adult skin with TPA for 4 weeks before treatment with labeled TPA resulted in an increase in the clearance rate of TPA from the skin. Skin from newborn mice was capable of converting TPA into monoesters and pharbol, but the clearance rate in the adult was about 12 times more rapid than it was in the newborn. Epidermal homogenates converted TPA into 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol, phorbol-13-acetate, and phorbol. Hepatic homogenates were able to convert TPA to monoesters and phorbol at rates 14 to 15 times faster than were epidermal homogenates. Attempts to isolate any previously undescribed metabolites of TPA by use of liver homogenates were unsuccessful, and mixed-function oxidation did not contribute to the metabolism of TPA. From inhibitor studies it was judged that esterases were implicated in the conversion of TPA to monoesters and phorbol. The results support the hyphothesis that the tumor-promoting activity of TPA is directly related to its concentration in a specific tissue and that conversion of TPA to an active metabolite probably does not occur.

  14. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio

    Eranée Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin.

  15. Histology and ultrastructure of transitional changes in skin morphology in the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  16. Tumor initiating and promoting activities of various benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in mouse skin

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Levin, W; Conney, A H; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M

    1977-01-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of BP revealed that 2-OHBP was as potent as BP while 11-OHBP was moderately active and the others were weak or inactive. However, 2-OHBP has not been shown to be formed from BP in the skin or any other tissue. The (-)-trans-7,8-diol of BP skin was found to be more active as a skin tumor initiator than BP suggesting that it is a proximal carcinogen. The data on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and metabolism suggest that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is the ultimate carcinogenic form of BP. The skin tumor-initiating activities of the various BP metabolites correlate very well with their complete carcinogenic in mouse skin except for BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide. It was found to have skin tumor initiating activity but not complete carcinogenic activity. However, BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide was found to be a very potent complete carcinogen in newborn mice. It is possible that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is only a tumor initiator in which a promoting stimulus must be supplied for carcinogenic activity. A natural tumor promoting stimulus may be present in the newborn mouse. There is also a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activities of the various BP metabolites and their mutagenic activity in the V79 mammalian cell mediated mutagenesis system.

  17. The effects of human skin fibroblast monolayers on human sperm motility and mouse zygote development.

    Wetzels, A M; Punt-Van der Zalm, A P; Bastiaans, B A; Janssen, B A; Goverde, H J; Rolland, R

    1992-07-01

    A new system for co-culture in human in-vitro fertilization (IVF), using human skin fibroblasts, is described and tested pre-clinically. The first test involved the development of 1-cell mouse embryos which exhibit the 2-cell developmental block in vitro. Passage through this block (pb1-ratio) was determined by the ratio of compacted morula stages on day 4 of incubation. For nine human skin cell lines tested (fetal, neonatal and adult), the pb1-ratio was approximately 0.45 (0.07 in culture medium alone; P less than 0.0005). At the compacted morula stage, a second developmental block was observed. The ratio of passing this block (pb2-ratio) was 0.70 +/- 0.09 on skin fibroblasts obtained from fetal or neonatal tissue. On fibroblasts from adult patients the pb2-ratio was 0.30 +/- 0.04 (P less than 0.0005). The second test examined the influence of skin fibroblasts from fetal or neonatal tissue on human sperm motility. After 24 h of incubation, all skin cell lines had a positive influence (P less than 0.01) on the percentage motility compared to culture medium alone. The curvilinear velocity was not significantly increased. From the results we conclude that (i) human skin fibroblasts (especially from fetal tissue) have a positive influence on the development of mouse embryos in vitro, (ii) there is a positive influence of human skin fibroblasts on the percentage motility of human spermatozoa, and (iii) a clinical trial of co-culture with human skin fibroblasts can be justified. PMID:1500485

  18. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  19. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  20. Quantitative measurements of oxidative stress in mouse skin induced by X-ray irradiation

    To find efficient methods to evaluate oxidative stress in mouse skin caused by X-ray irradiation, several markers and methodologies were examined. Hairless mice were irradiated with 50 Gy X-rays and skin homogenates or skin strips were prepared. Lipid peroxidation was measured using the skin homogenate as the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The level of lipid peroxidation increased with time after irradiation and was twice that of the control at 78 h. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of skin strips showed a clear signal for the ascorbyl radical, which increased with time after irradiation in a manner similar to that of lipid peroxidation. To measure levels of glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized forms (GSSG) simultaneously, two high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, sample derivatization with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and detection with a UV detector (method A) and no derivatization and detection with an electrochemical detector (method B), were compared and the latter was found to be better. No significant change was observed within 24 h after irradiation in the levels of GSH and GSSG measured by method B. The GSH/GSSG ratio may be a less sensitive parameter for the evaluation of acute oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation in the skin. Monitoring the ascorbyl radical seems to be a good way to evaluate oxidative stress in skin in vivo. (author)

  1. Arsenic-induced enhancement of ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis in mouse skin: a dose-response study.

    Burns, Fredric J.; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Wu, Feng; Nádas, Arthur; Rossman, Toby G.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the form of the dose-response relationship for dietary sodium arsenite as a co-carcinogen with ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in a mouse skin model. Hairless mice (strain Skh1) were fed sodium arsenite continuously in drinking water starting at 21 days of age at concentrations of 0.0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/L. At 42 days of age, solar spectrum UVR exposures were applied three times weekly to the dorsal skin at 1.0 kJ/m2 per exposure until the experi...

  2. Curcumin Stimulates the Antioxidant Mechanisms in Mouse Skin Exposed to Fractionated γ-Irradiation.

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Rajanikant, Golgod Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important radiotherapy regimens to treat different types of neoplasia. Despite of the immense therapeutic gains accrued by delivering fractionated irradiation to tumors, the radiation burden on skin increases significantly. Low doses of irradiation to skin adversely affect its molecular and metabolic status. The use of antioxidant/s may help to alleviate the radiation-induced changes in the skin and allow delivering a higher dose of radiation to attain better therapeutic gains. Curcumin is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenging dietary supplement, commonly used as a flavoring agent in curries. Therefore, the effect of 100 mg/kg body weight curcumin was studied on the antioxidant status of mice skin exposed to a total dose of 10, 20 and 40 Gy γ-radiation below the rib cage delivered as a single fraction of 2 Gy per day for 5, 10 or 20 days. Skin biopsies from both the curcumin treated or untreated irradiated groups were collected for the biochemical estimations at various post-irradiation times. The irradiation of animals caused a dose dependent decline in the glutathione concentration, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and increased the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated skin. Curcumin treatment before irradiation resulted in a significant rise in the glutathione concentration and activities of both the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in mouse skin, whereas lipid peroxidation declined significantly. The present study indicates that curcumin treatment increased the antioxidant status of mouse exposed to different doses of fractionated γ-radiation. PMID:26785336

  3. Curcumin Stimulates the Antioxidant Mechanisms in Mouse Skin Exposed to Fractionated γ-Irradiation

    Ganesh Chandra Jagetia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractionated irradiation is one of the important radiotherapy regimens to treat different types of neoplasia. Despite of the immense therapeutic gains accrued by delivering fractionated irradiation to tumors, the radiation burden on skin increases significantly. Low doses of irradiation to skin adversely affect its molecular and metabolic status. The use of antioxidant/s may help to alleviate the radiation-induced changes in the skin and allow delivering a higher dose of radiation to attain better therapeutic gains. Curcumin is an antioxidant and a free radical scavenging dietary supplement, commonly used as a flavoring agent in curries. Therefore, the effect of 100 mg/kg body weight curcumin was studied on the antioxidant status of mice skin exposed to a total dose of 10, 20 and 40 Gy γ-radiation below the rib cage delivered as a single fraction of 2 Gy per day for 5, 10 or 20 days. Skin biopsies from both the curcumin treated or untreated irradiated groups were collected for the biochemical estimations at various post-irradiation times. The irradiation of animals caused a dose dependent decline in the glutathione concentration, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and increased the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated skin. Curcumin treatment before irradiation resulted in a significant rise in the glutathione concentration and activities of both the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in mouse skin, whereas lipid peroxidation declined significantly. The present study indicates that curcumin treatment increased the antioxidant status of mouse exposed to different doses of fractionated γ-radiation.

  4. In Vivo SILAC-Based Proteomics Reveals Phosphoproteome Changes during Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    Sara Zanivan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer progresses through distinct stages, and mouse models recapitulating traits of this progression are frequently used to explore genetic, morphological, and pharmacological aspects of tumor development. To complement genomic investigations of this process, we here quantify phosphoproteomic changes in skin cancer development using the SILAC mouse technology coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. We distill protein expression signatures from our data that distinguish between skin cancer stages. A distinct phosphoproteome of the two stages of cancer progression is identified that correlates with perturbed cell growth and implicates cell adhesion as a major driver of malignancy. Importantly, integrated analysis of phosphoproteomic data and prediction of kinase activity revealed PAK4-PKC/SRC network to be highly deregulated in SCC but not in papilloma. This detailed molecular picture, both at the proteome and phosphoproteome level, will prove useful for the study of mechanisms of tumor progression.

  5. The acute effects of different energy beta-emitters on pig and mouse skin

    Acute changes were studied in the skin of mice and pigs following irradiation with Sr90 (Esub(max) 2.27 MeV), Tm170 (Esub(max) 0.97 MeV) and Pm147 (Esub(max) 0.225 MeV). Sr90 irradiation in the pig and Sr90 and Tm170 exposure in the mouse resulted in a distinct field-size effect for sources of 5-22.5 mm diameter; ED50 values for moist desquamation were 22.0-27.5 Gy from the 22.5 mm source and 75-90 Gy for the 5 mm source. Tm170 irradiation in the pig produced no distinct area effect for sources of 5-19 mm diameter (ED50 approx.= 80 Gy). Acute tissue breakdown was only achieved in pig and mouse skin by very high doses (ED50 >= 140 Gy) from sources of 147 produced acute epithelial breakdown, only after high skin-surface doses (ED50 550-725 Gy). Area-and energy-related changes can, in part be explained by an hypothesis based on repopulation of the epithelium in the irradiated area by the migration of either cells from the edge of that area and/or cells surviving at the base of hair follicles. Differences in the results in pig and mouse can be explained on the basis of the distribution of target cells in the epidermis at varying depths. (author)

  6. Mouse allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 and risk of mouse skin test sensitivity

    E.C. Matsui; G.B. Diette; E.J.M. Krop; R.C. Aalberse; A.L. Smith; P.A. Eggleston

    2006-01-01

    Background High serum levels of cat-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with protection against allergic sensitization to cat, but whether this association applies to other animal allergens remains unclear. Objective To determine if high levels of mouse-specific IgG and IgG4 are associated with a d

  7. LC-ESI-MS method for the determination of dexamethasone acetate in skin of nude mouse.

    Li, Lingjun; Ma, Pengcheng; Wei, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tao, Lei

    2013-08-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) method for the determination of dexamethasone acetate in skin of nude mouse using triamcinolone acetonide acetate as the internal standard (I.S.) was developed and fully validated. Both compounds were precipitated from skin homogenate with methanol and were separated by HPLC on a Shimadzu Shim-pack VP-ODS C18 column (150mm×2.0mm, 5μm) with a mobile phase of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. Calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-5μg/mL. The intra-run relative standard deviations were less than 9.59%. The inter-run relative standard deviations were less than 7.82%. The mean recovery was in the ranges of 89.95-95.97%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determinate the concentration of dexamethasone acetate in skin and study the percutaneous absorption process in skin of nude mouse. PMID:23867829

  8. The response of mouse skin to re-irradiation with x-rays or fast neutrons

    Effects of neutrons and x-rays on mouse skin which had been previously irradiated with x-rays were investigated. Two tattoo marks were placed in the hairless legs of mice at intervals of 15 mm. The legs were exposed to various doses of x-ray and neutrons to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) using the contraction of the skin as an index. The RBE was 0.93 - 1.73. The legs of the mice were preexposed to 25 Gy of x-ray, and exposed 4 months later. The contraction of the skin began earlier than after the first irradiation. RBE was 2.18 - 2.47. This RBE was higher than that in untreated mice. These results suggest that previously irradiated normal tissues are much more sensitive to neutrons than to x-rays. (author)

  9. Degenerative alterations of dermal collagen fiber bundles in photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin: possible effect on decreasing skin mechanical properties and appearance of wrinkles.

    Nishimori, Y; Edwards, C; Pearse, A; Matsumoto, K; Kawai, M; Marks, R

    2001-12-01

    Dermal collagen fiber bundles (DCFB) are the major constructional element in the dermis. Although degenerative alterations of DCFB have been reported in chronologically aged skin, changes in photodamaged skin have not been fully investigated. We report ultrastructural alterations of DCFB, and their relation to skin elasticity using photodamaged human skin and UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin. The degree to which DCFB were intact and closely packed was evaluated and scored blindly. Exposed skin (outer forearm) exhibited marked ultrastructural degeneration. In UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin, the intact ultrastructural appearance of DCFB was gradually lost with increasing UV dosage; however, marked alterations in DCFB ultrastructure were absent in either human inner upper arm (unexposed) skin or nonirradiated age-matched control mouse skin. Skin mechanical properties were measured using a Cutometer SEM 474 suction extensometer, recording Ue* immediate deformation, Uv* viscous deformation, Uf* final deformation, and Ur* immediate contraction, all normalized for skin thickness. Uf*, Ue*, Uv*, and Ur/Uf were significantly decreased in exposed compared with unexposed skin. Significant positive correlations between degenerative alterations of DCFB and the decrease in Uf*, Ue*, and Uv* were seen. Changes of "% area of wrinkles" in UV-irradiated mouse skin was significantly correlated with degenerative changes of DCFB. Based on these results, we confirm observations made by others that chronic photodamage may have more severe effects on degeneration of DCFB than that of chronologic aging alone. Furthermore, degeneration of DCFB as detected ultrastructurally may, by its effect on skin elasticity, result in an increase in the appearance of wrinkles. PMID:11886509

  10. Reduction in squamous cell carcinomas in mouse skin by dietary zinc supplementation.

    Sun, Jin; Shen, Rulong; Schrock, Morgan S; Liu, James; Pan, Xueliang; Quimby, Donald; Zanesi, Nicola; Druck, Teresa; Fong, Louise Y; Huebner, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate dietary Zn consumption increases susceptibility to esophageal and other cancers in humans and model organisms. Since Zn supplementation can prevent cancers in rodent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) models, we were interested in determining if it could have a preventive effect in a rodent skin cancer model, as a preclinical basis for considering a role for Zn in prevention of human nonmelanoma skin cancers, the most frequent cancers in humans. We used the 7,12-dimethyl benzanthracene carcinogen/phorbol myristate acetate tumor promoter treatment method to induce skin tumors in Zn-sufficient wild-type and Fhit (human or mouse protein) knockout mice. Fhit protein expression is lost in >50% of human cancers, including skin SCCs, and Fhit-deficient mice show increased sensitivity to carcinogen induction of tumors. We hypothesized that: (1) the skin cancer burdens would be reduced by Zn supplementation; (2) Fhit(-/-) (Fhit, murine fragile histidine triad gene) mice would show increased susceptibility to skin tumor induction versus wild-type mice. 30 weeks after initiating treatment, the tumor burden was increased ~2-fold in Fhit(-/-) versus wild-type mice (16.2 versus 7.6 tumors, P < 0.001); Zn supplementation significantly reduced tumor burdens in Fhit(-/-) mice (males and females combined, 16.2 unsupplemented versus 10.3 supplemented, P = 0.001). Most importantly, the SCC burden was reduced after Zn supplementation in both strains and genders of mice, most significantly in the wild-type males (P = 0.035). Although the mechanism(s) of action of Zn supplementation in skin tumor prevention is not known in detail, the Zn-supplemented tumors showed evidence of reduced DNA damage and some cohorts showed reduced inflammation scores. The results suggest that mild Zn supplementation should be tested for prevention of skin cancer in high-risk human cohorts. PMID:27185213

  11. Absence of tumor promoting activity of Euphorbia milii latex on the mouse back skin.

    Delgado, I F; De-Carvalho, R R; De-Oliveira, A C A X; Kuriyama, S N; Oliveira-Filho, E C; Souza, C A M; Paumgartten, F J R

    2003-11-30

    Euphorbia milii (Euphorbiaceae) is a decorative plant used in gardens and living fences. In China, it has also been employed in herbal remedies for hepatitis and abdominal edema. Since E. milii latex--lyophilized or in natura--proved to be a potent plant molluscicide, its toxicity to non-target organisms has been comprehensively studied. Concerns on a possible tumor promoting activity have discouraged its use as a locally-available alternative molluscicide in schistosomiasis control programs. Two in vitro assays (inhibition of metabolic cooperation in V79 cells and Epstein-Barr virus induction in Raji cells) had suggested that E. milii latex contained tumor-promoting substances. This study was undertaken to verify whether the latex acts as a tumor promoter in vivo as well. A single dose of the initiating agent DMBA (400 nmol) was applied on the back skin of male and female DBA/2 mice. Testing for tumor promoting activity began 10 days after initiation. Tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) (5 nmol, positive control), lyophilized latex (20, 60 and 200 microg per mouse) or acetone (vehicle control) were applied on mouse back skin twice a week for 20 weeks. In TPA-treated mice, papillomas were firstly noted during the 11th week, and by the 17th week all animals exhibited skin tumors. No tumors developed in mice treated with the solvent alone and in those exposed to latex. Findings from the present study therefore indicated that E. milii crude latex does not act as a tumor promoting agent on the mouse back skin assay. PMID:14581170

  12. Allelic losses in mouse skin tumors induced by {gamma}-irradiation of p53 heterozygotes

    Miyazawa, Tomonori; Sato, Hiroki; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Kominami, Ryo [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences; Kitagawa, Tomoyuki [Cancer Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Skin tumors were induced by {gamma}-irradiation in F{sub 1} mice between C3H/He or BALB/c and MSM carrying a p53-deficient allele. The incidence was 39.1% (34/87) in p53(KO/+) mice of the C3H/MSM genetic background and 14.3% (19/133) in those of the BALB/MSM background. Interestingly, most of the tumors (82%) lost the wild-type p53 allele and no skin tumor was found in p53(+/+) F{sub 1} mice. This suggests a requirement of p53 loss for the skin cancer development. Genome scan localized a chromosomal locus showing frequent allelic losses near D12Mit2, which may harbor a tumor suppressor gene. In addition, 23 loci distributed on 13 chromosomes exhibited allelic losses at frequencies of more than 20%. The genome-wide occurrence of allelic losses suggests that genomic instability of the skin tumors may be implicated in radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The present study is the first to report a mouse model system useful for the analysis of radiation induction of skin cancer in man. (author)

  13. Oral Supplementation with Cocoa Extract Reduces UVB-Induced Wrinkles in Hairless Mouse Skin.

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Song, Dasom; Kim, Junil; Choi, Jina; Kim, Jong Rhan; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Lee, Sein; Hong, Ji Sun; Song, Dayoung; Kim, Seong-Jin; Son, Myoung-Jin; Choi, Sang-Woon; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae-Aug; Lee, Ki Won

    2016-05-01

    Cacao beans contain various bioactive phytochemicals that could modify the pathogeneses of certain diseases. Here, we report that oral administration of cacao powder (CP) attenuates UVB-induced skin wrinkling by the regulation of genes involved in dermal matrix production and maintenance. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 788 genes are down- or upregulated in the CP supplemented group, compared with the UVB-irradiated mouse skin controls. Among the differentially expressed genes, cathepsin G and serpin B6c play important roles in UVB-induced skin wrinkle formation. Gene regulatory network analysis also identified several candidate regulators responsible for the protective effects of CP supplementation against UVB-induced skin damage. CP also elicited antiwrinkle effects via inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases-1 expression in both the human skin equivalent model and human dermal fibroblasts. Inhibition of UVB-induced activator protein-1 via CP supplementation is likely to affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1. CP supplementation also downregulates the expression of cathepsin G in human dermal fibroblasts. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, a major in vivo metabolite of CP, showed effects similar to CP supplementation. These results suggest that cacao extract may offer a protective effect against photoaging by inhibiting the breakdown of dermal matrix, which leads to an overall reduction in wrinkle formation. PMID:26854493

  14. Effects of Nicotinamide on Mouse Skin Tumor Development and lts Mode of Action

    KRISHNA P. GUPTA

    1999-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NA), a naturally occuring vitamin and a protease inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in treating some skin ailments. It inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell differentiation. This report shows the effects of NA on mouse skin tumor development and on the critical events involved in this process. NA reduced tumor growth, inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA) induced ornithine decarboxylase activity, but induced the transglutaminase activity which was inhibited by TPA under different experimental conditions.The effects of NA on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and transglutaminase (TG) indicated that nicotinamide (NA) probably programmmed the cells for their death in the natural course of time, I.e. Programed cell death. This observation indicates that NA might be a better agent for the detailed study and for the better use in prevention of cancer alone or in combination with other drugs.

  15. Expression and significance of EGFR protein in model of radiation injury in mouse skin

    Objective: The expression of EGFR protein was studied by SABC immunohistochemistry in 40 cases of model of radiation injury in mouse skin. Methods: Experiment animals were divided into four groups according to radiation dose. Results: The positive rates were 27.0%, 49.3%, 72.2%, 87.6% in 5 Gy group, 15 Gy group, 30 Gy group, 45 Gy group respectively, showing significant difference (P < 0.01). While the positive rate was 10.8% in normal control group, with significant difference (P < 0.01) compared with each radiation group. Conclusion: The enhancement of expression of EGFR in accordance with the increasing of radiation dose in certain dose range might be one important factor related to c-erbB-1 gene activated and enlarged by radiation, and the overexpression of EGFR protein might be related to poor healing in radiation skin injury

  16. Mouse skin reactions to 40 MeV helium ion irradiation

    The change of mouse skin was recorded periodically. Mice are periodically sacrificed to obtain irradiated skin specimens. The specimens are made into microscopic study preparations. 4He ion radiation dose applied to the skin ranges from 2,000 rads to 12,000 rads. 40MeV 4He ion beam is fairly stable. The study was repeated four times in total. When the beam position is in the center of scattering foil, Cobalt-60 gamma ray calibrateb one rad corresponded to 20-23 scattering 4He ion count detected by a solid state detector placed in the direction of 40 degree to the axis of down stream beam. One rad also corresponded to 0.52-0.55 nano-Ampere Farady cnp current placed in the center axis 80 centi-meter apart from the target foil. Monitoring with Farady cup current is more consistent, in which beam deviation from the center can not be detected. Hence the dose was monitored with the current with scattering helium count recorded. Depth dose was measured with TLD and 50% depth dose of plateau is approximately 0.08 g/cm. The skin was irradiated from 2,000 rads to 12,000 rads. In one week epilation starts. In two week complete epilation in all groups and in high dose groups (above 4,000 rads) at the same time erosions occur. In four weeks erosions heal. Higher dose group takes a little longer. In five weeks all erosins heal any way. Even the skin irradiated with 12,000 rads heals. Skin hypertrophy follows. The higher dose induces the more hypertrophy. Cell number in a hair follicle decreases with increased dose. Hair follicle itself decreases its number. (J.P.N.)

  17. Life science research using positron annihilation spectroscopy: UV-irradiated mouse skin

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States); Liu Guang [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is applied to study mouse skin under different UV irradiations as a function of positron incident energy (0-30 keV). Significant variations in the depth profile of S parameter are observed in a period of hours and of days for UVA and UVB exposures, respectively. The high sensitivity of positron annihilation signals responding to UV irradiation shows that PAS may be developed as a new noninvasive technique for the detection of molecular damage in life science research.

  18. Anti-tumour promoting activity of diphenylmethyl selenocyanate against two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    Das, Rajat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence collectively suggests that Se in different inorganic and organic forms provides a potential cancer chemopreventive agent, active against several types of cancer. It can exert preventive activity in all the three stages of cancer: initiation, promotion and progression. Literature reports revealed that organoselenocyanates have more potential as chemopreventive agents than inorganic forms due to their lower toxicity. In our previous report we showed chemopreventive efficacy of diphenylmethyl selenocyanate during the initiation and pre- plus post-initiation phases of skin and colon carcinogenesis process. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-tumour promoting activity of diphenylmethyl selenocyanate in a 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-croton oil two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. The results obtained showed significant (pliver and skin. Thus, the present data strongly suggest that diphenylmethyl selenocyanate also has the potential to act as anti-tumour promoter agent in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis mouse model, pointing to possible general efficacy. PMID:16101330

  19. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin cell proliferation and inflammation via MAPK pathway

    Mishra, Sakshi [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi (India); Tripathi, Anurag [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Chaudhari, Bhushan P. [Pathology Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Mahatma Gandhi Marg, PO Box 80, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Dwivedi, Premendra D. [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Pandey, Haushila P. [Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi (India); Das, Mukul, E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com [Food Drug and Chemical Toxicology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), P.O. Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2014-09-01

    Several toxicological manifestations of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, are well documented; however, dermal toxicity is not yet explored. The effect of topical application of DON to mice was studied using markers of skin proliferation, inflammation and tumor promotion. Single topical application of DON (84–672 nmol/mouse) significantly enhanced dermal hyperplasia and skin edema. DON (336 and 672 nmol) caused significant enhancement in [{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake in DNA along with increased myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, suggesting tissue inflammation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, DON (168 nmol) caused enhanced expression of RAS, and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs. DON exposure also showed activation of transcription factors, c-fos, c-jun and NF-κB along with phosphorylation of IkBα. Enhanced phosphorylation of NF-κB by DON caused over expression of target proteins, COX-2, cyclin D1 and iNOS in skin. Though a single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly application of DON (84 and 168 nmol) showed no tumorigenesis after 24 weeks, however, histopathological studies suggested hyperplasia of the epidermis and hypertrophy of hair follicles. Interestingly, intestine was also found to be affected as enlarged Peyer's patches were observed, suggesting inflammatory effects which were supported by elevation of inflammatory cytokines after 24 weeks of topical application of DON. These results suggest that DON induced cell proliferation in mouse skin is through the activation of MAPK signaling pathway involving transcription factors NFκB and AP-1, further leading to transcriptional activation of downstream target proteins c-fos, c-jun, cyclin D1, iNOS and COX-2 which might be responsible for its inflammatory potential. - Highlights: • Topical application of DON enhanced epidermal inflammation and cell proliferation. • DON follows PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling cascade, with activation of AP-1 and NF

  20. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin cell proliferation and inflammation via MAPK pathway

    Several toxicological manifestations of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, are well documented; however, dermal toxicity is not yet explored. The effect of topical application of DON to mice was studied using markers of skin proliferation, inflammation and tumor promotion. Single topical application of DON (84–672 nmol/mouse) significantly enhanced dermal hyperplasia and skin edema. DON (336 and 672 nmol) caused significant enhancement in [3H]-thymidine uptake in DNA along with increased myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, suggesting tissue inflammation and cell proliferation. Furthermore, DON (168 nmol) caused enhanced expression of RAS, and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt, ERK, JNK and p38 MAPKs. DON exposure also showed activation of transcription factors, c-fos, c-jun and NF-κB along with phosphorylation of IkBα. Enhanced phosphorylation of NF-κB by DON caused over expression of target proteins, COX-2, cyclin D1 and iNOS in skin. Though a single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly application of DON (84 and 168 nmol) showed no tumorigenesis after 24 weeks, however, histopathological studies suggested hyperplasia of the epidermis and hypertrophy of hair follicles. Interestingly, intestine was also found to be affected as enlarged Peyer's patches were observed, suggesting inflammatory effects which were supported by elevation of inflammatory cytokines after 24 weeks of topical application of DON. These results suggest that DON induced cell proliferation in mouse skin is through the activation of MAPK signaling pathway involving transcription factors NFκB and AP-1, further leading to transcriptional activation of downstream target proteins c-fos, c-jun, cyclin D1, iNOS and COX-2 which might be responsible for its inflammatory potential. - Highlights: • Topical application of DON enhanced epidermal inflammation and cell proliferation. • DON follows PI3K/Akt/MAPK signaling cascade, with activation of AP-1 and NF-κB.

  1. Epithelial cell kinetics in mouse and rat skin irradiated with electrons

    Experiments were performed to examine the kinetic responses of mouse and rat epidermal cells in vivo after single doses of ionizing radiation including responses of hair follicles at times after irradiation. The labeling indices in both species were reduced to 30 to 50% of control values immediately following irradiation at all the doses. In the rat, the labeling indices recovered and overshot control values within the first three days after 300 to 1200 rads. The mouse labeling indices continued to be suppressed for up to 10 days after 300 to 2400 rads. This indicated that rat G1 phase epidermal cells recovered three times faster than those of the mouse with respect to the ability to maintain or increase control level cell proliferation after irradiation. After 1800 and 2400 rads, doses which produce skin ulceration, both species showed a reduction in their labeling indices for up to 7 days, indicating that a dose-dependent mechanism of recovery may be operable in the rat. 99 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the skin of rat, mouse, pig, guinea pig, man, and in human skin models

    Oesch, F; Fabian, E.; Guth, K.; Landsiedel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The exposure of the skin to medical drugs, skin care products, cosmetics, and other chemicals renders information on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) in the skin highly interesting. Since the use of freshly excised human skin for experimental investigations meets with ethical and practical limitations, information on XME in models comes in the focus including non-human mammalian species and in vitro skin models. This review attempts to summarize the information available in the ...

  3. The co-application effects of fullerene and ascorbic acid on UV-B irradiated mouse skin

    The role of fullerene as a pro-oxidant or anti-oxidant in Ultraviolet B ray (UV-B)-induced disorders in mouse skin was investigated. Fullerene gave no photo-toxic effect to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin. Since erythema was concentrated at the pore circumference in a UV-B irradiation experiment in mouse skin, the sebaceous gland pairs was strongly implicated as a site for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a histological evaluation of the skin stained with CH3MDFDA (ROS index) and YO-Pro-1 (apoptosis index), the fluorescence intensity of a sebaceous gland significantly increased with UV-B irradiation. With the application of fullerene to UV-irradiated mouse skin, no toxicity was recognized in comparison with the control, and erythema, the ROS index, and the apoptosis index decrease with the application of fullerene. Ascorbyl radical (AA·) increased with the application of ascorbate (AA) to UV-B-irradiated mouse skin, and AA· decreased with the application of fullerene. The co-application of AA and fullerene, which suppressed AA· in vitro, significantly suppressed erythema, and also suppressed both the ROS index and apoptosis index in mouse skin after UV-B irradiation. In both mouse skin at 48 h after UV-B irradiation and in an attempt to reproduce this phenomenon artificially in vitro, a similar high AA· peak (AA·/H· > 4) was observed in electron spin resonance (ESR) charts. The binding of fullerene with AA impairs the Fenton reaction between AA and Fe-protein based on the observation of ascorbate-specific UV absorption and a linear equation for the calibration curve. Therefore, fullerene may impair the intercalation of AA to a heme pocket by binding with AA. These results suggest that the co-application of AA and fullerene is effective against oxidative skin damage caused by UV-B irradiation, and the development of an AA· inhibitor such as fullerene should be useful for reducing organ damage associated with Fe-protein oxidation.

  4. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  5. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  6. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar [College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan [Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon, E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Tumor Microenvironment Global Core Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  7. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin

  8. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in a transgenic mouse line (TG.AC) carrying a v-Ha-ras gene.

    Spalding, J W; Momma, J; Elwell, M R; Tennant, R W

    1993-07-01

    A transgenic mouse line (TG.AC) created in the FVB/N strain, carries a v-Ha-ras gene fused to a zeta-globin promoter gene. These trangenic mice have the properties of genetically initiated skin and have been shown to be sensitive to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-described promoter of skin papillomas in the two-stage mouse skin tumorigenesis model. It was of interest to determine whether the TG.AC mouse strain was also responsive to other known promoters. Groups of heterozygous or homozygous TG.AC mice were treated topically, 2x/week, for up to 20 weeks with benzoyl peroxide (BPO), 2-butanol peroxide (2-BUP), phenol (PH), acetic acid (AA), TPA and acetone (ACN), the vehicle control. Skin papillomas were induced in all groups treated with TPA, BPO and 2-BUP. Papillomas were observed in some treatment groups as early as 3 weeks. The relative activity of the promoters was TPA > 2-BUP > BPO > PH = AA = ACN. No papillomas were observed in any of the uninitiated FVB/N mice treated in a similar manner and which served as treatment control groups. Studies to determine the sensitivity of TG.AC mice to TPA, indicated that a total dose of 25-30 micrograms of TPA administered in 3 or 10 applications, was sufficient to induce an average incidence of 11-15 papillomas per mouse. The papilloma incidence continued to increase and was maintained up to 15 weeks after TPA treatment was terminated. The short latency period and high incidence of papilloma induction indicate that TG.AC mice have a high sensitivity to known skin promoters. The TG.AC line should prove to be a sensitive model for identifying putative tumor promoters or complete carcinogens. PMID:8330346

  9. Mechanisms of action of okadaic acid class tumor promoters on mouse skin

    Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami; Yoshizawa, Seiji; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Winyar, Boonsong (National Cancer Center Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Sugimura, Takashi (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    Okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (35-methylokadaic acid), and calyculin A are the okadaic acid class of non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, which do not bind to the phorbol ester receptors in cell membranes or activate protein kinase C in vitro. They have potent tumor-promoting activities on mouse skin, as strong as TPA-type tumor promoters, such as TPA, teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin. DNA samples isolated from tumors induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and each of the okadaic acid class tumor promoters had the same mutation at the second nucleotide of codon 61 (CAA to CTA) in the c-H-ras gene. Okadaic acid receptors, protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, are present in the particulate as well as cytosolic fractions of various mouse tissues. The apparent activation of protein kinases by the okadaic acid class tumor promoters, after their incubation with {sup 32}P-ATP, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases, was observed. This activation was caused by inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A by the okadaic acid class tumor promoters. Treatment of primary human fibroblasts and human keratinocytes with the okadaic acid class tumor promoters induced the hyperphosphorylation of a 60-k-Da protein in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, due to the inhibition of protein phosphatases. The 60-kDa protein is a proteolytic fragment of nucleolin, a major nonhistone protein and is designated as N-60. The mechanisms of action of the okadaic acid class tumor promoters are discussed with emphasis on the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity.

  10. Multimodality pH imaging in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber model

    Leung, Hui Min; Schafer, Rachel; Pagel, Mark M.; Robey, Ian F.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2013-03-01

    Upregulate levels of expression and activity of membrane H+ ion pumps in cancer cells drives the extracellular pH (pHe,) to values lower than normal. Furthermore, disregulated pH is indicative of the changes in glycolytic metabolism in tumor cells and has been shown to facilitate extracellular tissue remodeling during metastasis Therefore, measurement of pHe could be a useful cancer biomarker for diagnostic and therapy monitoring evaluation. Multimodality in-vivo imaging of pHe in tumorous tissue in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber (DSFWC) model is described. A custom-made plastic window chamber structure was developed that is compatible with both imaging optical and MR imaging modalities and provides a model system for continuous study of the same tissue microenvironment on multiple imaging platforms over a 3-week period. For optical imaging of pHe, SNARF-1 carboxylic acid is injected intravenously into a SCID mouse with an implanted tumor. A ratiometric measurement of the fluorescence signal captured on a confocal microscope reveals the pHe of the tissue visible within the window chamber. This imaging method was used in a preliminary study to evaluate sodium bicarbonate as a potential drug treatment to reverse tissue acidosis. For MR imaging of pHe the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was used as an alternative way of measuring pHe in a DSFWC model. ULTRAVIST®, a FDA approved x-ray/CT contrast agent has been shown to have a CEST effect that is pH dependent. A ratiometric analysis of water saturation at 5.6 and 4.2 ppm chemical shift provides a means to estimate the local pHe.

  11. In vivo characterization of early-stage radiation skin injury in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy.

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Shim, Sehwan; Wang, Taejun; Yoon, Yeoreum; Jang, Won-Suk; Myung, Jae Kyung; Park, Sunhoo; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) injury is tissue damage caused by high energy electromagnetic waves such as X-ray and gamma ray. Diagnosis and treatment of IR injury are difficult due to its characteristics of clinically latent post-irradiation periods and the following successive and unpredictable inflammatory bursts. Skin is one of the many sensitive organs to IR and bears local injury upon exposure. Early-stage diagnosis of IR skin injury is essential in order to maximize treatment efficiency and to prevent the aggravation of IR injury. In this study, early-stage changes of the IR injured skin at the cellular level were characterized in an in vivo mouse model by two-photon microscopy (TPM). Various IR doses were applied to the mouse hind limbs and the injured skin regions were imaged daily for 6 days after IR irradiation. Changes in the morphology and distribution of the epidermal cells and damage of the sebaceous glands were observed before clinical symptoms. These results showed that TPM is sensitive to early-stage changes of IR skin injury and may be useful for its diagnosis. PMID:26755422

  12. In vivo characterization of early-stage radiation skin injury in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy

    Jang, Won Hyuk; Shim, Sehwan; Wang, Taejun; Yoon, Yeoreum; Jang, Won-Suk; Myung, Jae Kyung; Park, Sunhoo; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) injury is tissue damage caused by high energy electromagnetic waves such as X-ray and gamma ray. Diagnosis and treatment of IR injury are difficult due to its characteristics of clinically latent post-irradiation periods and the following successive and unpredictable inflammatory bursts. Skin is one of the many sensitive organs to IR and bears local injury upon exposure. Early-stage diagnosis of IR skin injury is essential in order to maximize treatment efficiency and to prevent the aggravation of IR injury. In this study, early-stage changes of the IR injured skin at the cellular level were characterized in an in vivo mouse model by two-photon microscopy (TPM). Various IR doses were applied to the mouse hind limbs and the injured skin regions were imaged daily for 6 days after IR irradiation. Changes in the morphology and distribution of the epidermal cells and damage of the sebaceous glands were observed before clinical symptoms. These results showed that TPM is sensitive to early-stage changes of IR skin injury and may be useful for its diagnosis. PMID:26755422

  13. Loss of Endogenous Interleukin-12 Activates Survival Signals in Ultraviolet-Exposed Mouse Skin and Skin Tumors

    Syed M. Meeran

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12-deficiency promotes photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation resulted in enhancement of the levels of cell survival kinases, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, Akt (Ser473, p-ERK1/2, and p-p38 in the skin of IL-12p40 knockout (IL-12 KO mice compared with the skin of wild-type mice. UV-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB/p65 in the skin of IL-12 KO mice was also more prominent. The levels of NF-κB-targeted proteins, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclooxygenase-2, cyclin D1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were higher in the UV-exposed skin of IL-12 KO mice than the UV-exposed skin of wild types. In short-term UV irradiation experiments, subcutaneous treatment of IL-12 KO mice with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12 or topical treatment with oridonin, an inhibitor of NF-κB, resulted in the inhibition of UV-induced increases in the levels of PCNA, cyclin D1, and NF-κB compared with non-rIL-12- or non-oridonin-treated IL-12 KO mice. UV-induced skin tumors of IL-12 KO mice had higher levels of PI3K, p-Akt (Ser473, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, NF-κB, and PCNA and fewer apoptotic cells than skin tumors of wild types. Together, these data suggest that the loss of endogenous IL-12 activates survival signals in UV-exposed skin and that may lead to the enhanced photocarcinogenesis in mice.

  14. Baicalin modulates microRNA expression in UVB irradiated mouse skin.

    Xu, Yang; Zhou, Bingrong; Wu, Di; Yin, Zhiqiang; Luo, Dan

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of baicalin on ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-mediated microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse skin. We determined miRNA expression profiles in UVB irradiated mice, baicalin treated irradiated mice, and untreated mice, and conducted TargetScan and Gene Ontology analyses to predict miRNA targets. Three miRNAs (mmu-miR-125a-5p, mmu-miR-146a, and mmu-miR-141) were downregulated and another three (mmu-miR-188-5p, mmu-miR-223 and mmu-miR-22) were upregulated in UVB irradiated mice compared with untreated mice. Additionally, these miRNAs were predicted to be related to photocarcinogenesis, hypomethylation and apoptosis. Three miRNAs (mmu-miR-378, mmu-miR-199a-3p and mmu-miR-181b) were downregulated and one (mmu-miR-23a) was upregulated in baicalin treated mice compared with UVB irradiated mice, and they were predicted to be related to DNA repair signaling pathway. These deregulated miRNAs are potentially involved in the pathogenesis of photodamage, and may aid treatment and prevention of UVB-induced dermatoses. PMID:23554741

  15. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin

    Bewick, Guy S.; Banks, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control co...

  16. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  17. Expression analysis of the mouse S100A7/psoriasin gene in skin inflammation and mammary tumorigenesis

    The human psoriasin (S100A7) gene has been implicated in inflammation and tumor progression. Implementation of a mouse model would facilitate further investigation of its function, however little is known of the murine psoriasin gene. In this study we have cloned the cDNA and characterized the expression of the potential murine ortholog of human S100A7/psoriasin in skin inflammation and mammary tumorigenesis. On the basis of chromosomal location, phylogenetic analysis, amino acid sequence similarity, conservation of a putative Jab1-binding motif, and similarities of the patterns of mouse S100A7/psoriasin gene expression (measured by RT-PCR and in-situ hybridization) with those of human S100A7/psoriasin, we propose that mouse S100A7/psoriasin is the murine ortholog of human psoriasin/S100A7. Although mouse S100A7/psoriasin is poorly conserved relative to other S100 family members, its pattern of expression parallels that of the human psoriasin gene. In murine skin S100A7/psoriasin was significantly upregulated in relation to inflammation. In murine mammary gland expression is also upregulated in mammary tumors, where it is localized to areas of squamous differentiation. This mirrors the context of expression in human tumor types where both squamous and glandular differentiation occur, including cervical and lung carcinomas. Additionally, mouse S100A7/psoriasin possesses a putative Jab1 binding motif that mediates many downstream functions of the human S100A7 gene. These observations and results support the hypothesis that the mouse S100A7 gene is structurally and functionally similar to human S100A7 and may offer a relevant model system for studying its normal biological function and putative role in tumor progression

  18. Induction of active melanocytes in mouse skin by carcinogens: a new method for detection of skin carcinogens.

    Iwata, K; Inui, N; Takeuchi, T

    1981-01-01

    Application of potent skin carcinogens, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced numerous dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-positive cells in the interfollicular epidermis of C57BL/6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Chrysene, a weak skin carcinogen, and croton oil, a tumor promoter, also induced 3--4 times more dopa-positive cells than acetone. Liver carcinogens, such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and N-2-acetylaminofluorene, and non-carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and pyrene, did not induce increase in these cells. These results indicate that increase in the number of dopa-positive cells after application of chemicals is well correlated with the abilities of these compounds to induce skin carcinogenesis and suppress sebaceous glands. PMID:7273337

  19. Differential Features between Chronic Skin Inflammatory Diseases Revealed in Skin-Humanized Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis Mouse Models.

    Carretero, Marta; Guerrero-Aspizua, Sara; Illera, Nuria; Galvez, Victoria; Navarro, Manuel; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Jorcano, Jose Luis; Larcher, Fernando; del Rio, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are chronic and relapsing inflammatory diseases of the skin affecting a large number of patients worldwide. Psoriasis is characterized by a T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 immunological response, whereas acute atopic dermatitis lesions exhibit T helper type 2-dominant inflammation. Current single gene and signaling pathways-based models of inflammatory skin diseases are incomplete. Previous work allowed us to model psoriasis in skin-humanized mice through proper combinations of inflammatory cell components and disruption of barrier function. Herein, we describe and characterize an animal model for atopic dermatitis using similar bioengineered-based approaches, by intradermal injection of human T helper type 2 lymphocytes in regenerated human skin after partial removal of stratum corneum. In this work, we have extensively compared this model with the previous and an improved version of the psoriasis model, in which T helper type 1 and/or T helper type 17 lymphocytes replace exogenous cytokines. Comparative expression analyses revealed marked differences in specific epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers and immune-related molecules, including antimicrobial peptides. Likewise, the composition of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate presented important differences. The availability of accurate and reliable animal models for these diseases will contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and provide valuable tools for drug development and testing. PMID:26763433

  20. Progression of mouse skin carcinogenesis is associated with increased ERα levels and is repressed by a dominant negative form of ERα.

    Stella Logotheti

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptors (ER, namely ERα and ERβ, are hormone-activated transcription factors with an important role in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the implication of ERα in skin cancer, using chemically-induced mouse skin tumours, as well as cell lines representing distinct stages of mouse skin oncogenesis. First, using immunohistochemical staining we showed that ERα is markedly increased in aggressive mouse skin tumours in vivo as compared to the papilloma tumours, whereas ERβ levels are low and become even lower in the aggressive spindle tumours of carcinogen-treated mice. Then, using the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model, we showed that ERα gradually increases during promotion and progression stages of mouse skin carcinogenesis, peaking at the most aggressive stage, whereas ERβ levels only slightly change throughout skin carcinogenesis. Stable transfection of the aggressive, spindle CarB cells with a dominant negative form of ERα (dnERα resulted in reduced ERα levels and reduced binding to estrogen responsive elements (ERE-containing sequences. We characterized two highly conserved EREs on the mouse ERα promoter through which dnERα decreased endogenous ERα levels. The dnERα-transfected CarB cells presented altered protein levels of cytoskeletal and cell adhesion molecules, slower growth rate and impaired anchorage-independent growth in vitro, whereas they gave smaller tumours with extended latency period of tumour onset in vivo. Our findings suggest an implication of ERα in the aggressiveness of spindle mouse skin cancer cells, possibly through regulation of genes affecting cell shape and adhesion, and they also provide hints for the effective targeting of spindle cancer cells by dnERα.

  1. v-Ha-ras transgene abrogates the initiation step in mouse skin tumorigenesis: Effects of phorbol esters and retinoic acid

    Leder, A.; Sinn, E. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Kuo, A.; Leder, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Boston, MA (United States)); Cardiff, R.D. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Experimental carcinogenesis has led to a concept that defines two discrete stages in the development of skin tumors: (i) initiation, which is accomplished by using a mutagen that presumably activates a protooncogene, and (ii) promotion, which is a reversible process brought about most commonly by repeated application of phorbol esters. The authors created a trangenic mouse strain that carries the activated v-Ha-ras oncogene fused to the promoter of the mouse embryonic {alpha}-like, {zeta}-globin gene. Unexpectedly, these animals developed papillomas at areas of epidermal abrasion and, because abrasion can also serve as a tumor-promoting event in mutagen-treated mouse skin, we tested these mice for their ability to respond to phorbol ester application. Within 6 weeks virtually all treated carrier mice had developed multiple papillomas, some of which went on to develop squamous cell carcinomas and, more frequently, underlying sarcomas. They conclude that the oncogene preinitiates carrier mice, replacing the initiation/mutagenesis step and immediately sensitizing them to the action of tumor promoters. In addition, treatment of the mice with retinoic acid dramatically delays, reduces, and often completely inhibits the appearance of promoter-induced papillomas. This strain has use in screening tumor promoters and for assessing antitumor and antiproliferative agents.

  2. Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation

    Leong, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Rakhlin, N.; Habib, A.; Maclouf, J.; Goldyne, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal expression of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H-generating cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated both by immunohistochemistry performed on human and mouse skin biopsy sections and by Western blotting of protein extracts from cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. In normal human skin, COX-1 immunostaining is observed throughout the epidermis whereas COX-2 immunostaining increases in the more differentiated, suprabasilar keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinomas express little if any COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining whereas both isozymes are strongly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas deriving from a more differentiated layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocyte cultures, raising the extracellular calcium concentration, a recognized stimulus for keratinocyte differentiation, leads to an increased expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA; expression of COX-1 protein, however, shows no significant alteration in response to calcium. Because of a recent report that failed to show COX-2 in normal mouse epidermis, we also looked for COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining in sections of normal and acetone-treated mouse skin. In agreement with a previous report, some COX-1, but no COX-2, immunostaining is seen in normal murine epidermis. However, following acetone treatment, there is a marked increase in COX-1 expression as well as the appearance of significant COX-2 immunostaining in the basal layer. These data suggest that in human epidermis as well as in human keratinocyte cultures, the expression of COX-2 occurs as a part of normal keratinocyte differentiation whereas in murine epidermis, its constitutive expression is absent, but inducible as previously published.

  3. Curcumin Stimulates the Antioxidant Mechanisms in Mouse Skin Exposed to Fractionated γ-Irradiation

    Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Golgod Krishnamurthy Rajanikant

    2015-01-01

    Fractionated irradiation is one of the important radiotherapy regimens to treat different types of neoplasia. Despite of the immense therapeutic gains accrued by delivering fractionated irradiation to tumors, the radiation burden on skin increases significantly. Low doses of irradiation to skin adversely affect its molecular and metabolic status. The use of antioxidant/s may help to alleviate the radiation-induced changes in the skin and allow delivering a higher dose of radiation to attain b...

  4. Long-term bezafibrate treatment improves skin and spleen phenotypes of the mtDNA mutator mouse.

    Lloye M Dillon

    Full Text Available Pharmacological agents, such as bezafibrate, that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and PPAR γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α pathways have been shown to improve mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutator mouse is a mouse model of aging that harbors a proofreading-deficient mtDNA polymerase γ. These mice develop many features of premature aging including hair loss, anemia, osteoporosis, sarcopenia and decreased lifespan. They also have increased mtDNA mutations and marked mitochondrial dysfunction. We found that mutator mice treated with bezafibrate for 8-months had delayed hair loss and improved skin and spleen aging-like phenotypes. Although we observed an increase in markers of fatty acid oxidation in these tissues, we did not detect a generalized increase in mitochondrial markers. On the other hand, there were no improvements in muscle function or lifespan of the mutator mouse, which we attributed to the rodent-specific hepatomegaly associated with fibrate treatment. These results showed that despite its secondary effects in rodent's liver, bezafibrate was able to improve some of the aging phenotypes in the mutator mouse. Because the associated hepatomegaly is not observed in primates, long-term bezafibrate treatment in humans could have beneficial effects on tissues undergoing chronic bioenergetic-related degeneration.

  5. Systemic morphine treatment induces changes in firing patterns and responses of nociceptive afferent fibers in mouse glabrous skin

    Hogan, Dale; Baker, Alyssa L.; Morón, Jose A.; Carlton, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients receiving opioids for pain may experience decreased effectiveness of the drug and even abnormal pain sensitivity – either hyperalgesia and/or allodynia. We hypothesize that peripheral nociceptor hyperexcitability contributes to opioid-induced hyperalgesia and test this using an in vitro mouse glabrous skin-nerve preparation. Mice were injected i.p. with escalating doses of morphine (5, 8, 10, 15 mg/kg) or saline every 12 h for 48 h and sacrificed ~12 h following the last injection. R...

  6. DOSE-RESPONSE STUDIES OF SODIUM ARSENITE IN THE SKIN OF K6/ODC TRANSGENIC MOUSE

    It has previously been observed that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic and/or its metabolites increase(s) tumor frequency in the skin of K6/ODC transgenic mice. To identify potential biomarkers and modes of action for this skin tumorigenicity, gene expression profiles w...

  7. Berteroin Present in Cruciferous Vegetables Exerts Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Murine Macrophages and Mouse Skin

    Yoo Jin Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate is a sulforaphane analog present in cruciferous vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, rucola salad leaves, and mustard oil. We examined whether berteroin exerts anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced mouse skin inflammation models. Berteroin decreased LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Berteroin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα and nuclear factor-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus and DNA binding activity. Furthermore, berteroin suppressed degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1. Berteroin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and AKT. In the mouse ear, berteroin effectively suppressed TPA-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These results demonstrate that berteroin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that berteroin can be developed as a skin anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Folate deficiency enhances arsenic effects on expression of genes involved in epidermal differentiation in transgenic K6/ODC mouse skin

    Chronic arsenic exposure in humans is associated with cancers of the skin, lung, bladder and other tissues. There is evidence that folate deficiency may increase susceptibility to arsenic effects, including skin lesions. K6/ODC mice develop skin tumors when exposed to 10 ppm sodium arsenite for 5 months. In the current study, K6/ODC mice maintained on either a folate deficient or folate sufficient diet were exposed to 0, 1, or 10 ppm sodium arsenite in the drinking water for 30 days. Total RNA was isolated from skin samples and gene expression analyzed using Affymetrix Mouse 430 2.0 GeneChips. Data from 24 samples, with 4 mice in each of the 6 treatment groups, were RMA normalized and analyzed by two-way ANOVA using GeneSpringTM. Top gene ontology (GO) categories for genes responding significantly to both arsenic treatment and folate deficiency include nucleotide metabolism and cell organization and biogenesis. For many of these genes, folate deficiency magnifies the response to arsenic treatment. In particular, expression of markers of epidermal differentiation, e.g., loricrin, small proline rich proteins and involucrin, was significantly reduced by arsenic in the folate sufficient animals, and reduced further or at a lower arsenic dose in the folate deficient animals. In addition, expression of a number of epidermal cell growth/proliferation genes and cellular movement genes was altered. These results indicate that arsenic disrupts the normal balance of cell proliferation and differentiation, and that folate deficiency exacerbates these effects, consistent with the view that folate deficiency is a nutritional susceptibility factor for arsenic-induced skin tumorigenesis

  9. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer.

    Quigley, David A; Kandyba, Eve; Huang, Phillips; Halliwill, Kyle D; Sjölund, Jonas; Pelorosso, Facundo; Wong, Christine E; Hirst, Gillian L; Wu, Di; Delrosario, Reyno; Kumar, Atul; Balmain, Allan

    2016-07-26

    Inherited germline polymorphisms can cause gene expression levels in normal tissues to differ substantially between individuals. We present an analysis of the genetic architecture of normal adult skin from 470 genetically unique mice, demonstrating the effect of germline variants, skin tissue location, and perturbation by exogenous inflammation or tumorigenesis on gene signaling pathways. Gene networks related to specific cell types and signaling pathways, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt, Lgr family stem cell markers, and keratins, differed at these tissue sites, suggesting mechanisms for the differential susceptibility of dorsal and tail skin to development of skin diseases and tumorigenesis. The Pten tumor suppressor gene network is rewired in premalignant tumors compared to normal tissue, but this response to perturbation is lost during malignant progression. We present a software package for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) network analysis and demonstrate how network analysis of whole tissues provides insights into interactions between cell compartments and signaling molecules. PMID:27425619

  10. Deoxynivalenol induced mouse skin tumor initiation: Elucidation of molecular mechanisms in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Mishra, Sakshi; Tewari, Prachi; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Dwivedi, Premendra D; Pandey, Haushila P; Das, Mukul

    2016-11-01

    Among food contaminants, mycotoxins are toxic to both human and animal health. Our prior studies suggest that Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, behaves as a tumor promoter by inducing edema, hyperplasia, ODC activity and activation of MAPK's in mouse skin. In this study, topical application of DON, 336 and 672 nmol significantly enhanced ROS levels, DNA damage and apoptosis with concomitant downregulation of Ki-67, cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK2) thereby resulting in tumor initiation in mouse skin. Further, the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation by DON (0.42-3.37 nmol/ml) in HaCaT keratinocytes, revealed (i) enhanced ROS generation with cell cycle phase arrest in G0/G1 phase, (ii) increase in levels of 8-OxoG (6-24 hr) and γH2AX protein, (iii) significant enhancement in oxidative stress marker enzymes LPO, GSH, GR with concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes catalase, GPx, GST, SOD and mitochondrial membrane potential after DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (iv) suppression of Nrf2 translocation to nucleus, enhanced phosphorylation with subsequent activation ERK1/2, p38 and JNK MAPK's following DON (1.68 nmol) treatment, (v) overexpression of c-jun, c-fos proteins, upregulation of Bax along with downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins, (vi) increase in cytochrome-c, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase levels leads to apoptosis. Pretreatment of superoxide dismutase, mannitol and ethanol to HaCaT cells resulted in significant reduction in ROS levels and apoptosis indicating the role of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in DON induced apoptosis as an early event and skin tumor initiation as a late event. PMID:27389473

  11. Effects of Intense Pulsed Light on Tissue Vascularity and Wound Healing: A Study with Mouse Island Skin Flap Model

    Trinh Cao Minh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense pulsed light (IPL has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm2, 25 J/cm2, and 15 J/cm2 IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then, survival rate was assessed. Flaps in Group IV (treated with lowest dose of IPL have a survival rate significantly higher than other groups. Counting blood vessels did not demonstrate any significant differences; however, vessel dilation was found in this group. The results show that IPL at the therapeutic doses which are usually applied to humans is harmful to mouse dorsal skin and did not enhance wound healing, whereas, IPL at much lower dose could improve wound healing. The possible mechanism is the dilation of tissue vasculature thanks to the electromagnetic character of IPL. Another mechanism could be the heat-shock protein production.

  12. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    Hesham Fahmy; Ahmed, Safwat A.; Szymanski, Pawel T.; Bhimanna Kuppast; Sherief Khalifa

    2011-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enh...

  13. Early changes produced in mouse skin by the application of three middle distillates.

    Grasso, P; Sharratt, M; Ingram, A J

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported by the American Petroleum Institute (API) that dermal applications of certain middle distillates of mineral oils can result in high incidences of skin tumours in mice. This was unexpected as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in these were below detection limits. To examine the possible role of tissue injury in the induction of tumours, the skin reactions produced by thrice weekly applications of three middle distillates similar to those tested by the API were examined grossly and histopathologically at intervals up to 6 weeks. Various reference materials and oils were used as controls. Preliminary histological examination showed that severe skin damage was present from week 1 onwards in mice treated with the three middle distillates, two of them producing epidermal loss and ulceration. Marked epidermal hyperplasia was produced by all three middle distillates. These findings support the view that regenerative epidermal hyperplasia due to repeated severe skin damage may have exerted a powerful promotional effect in the production of the skin tumours by middle distillates in the API study. PMID:3180034

  14. Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells help restore function to ovaries in a premature ovarian failure mouse model.

    Dongmei Lai

    Full Text Available Skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. For this reason, they are considered a powerful tool for therapeutic cloning and offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. Recent studies showed that skin-derived stem cells can differentiate into cells expressing germ-cell specific markers in vitro and form oocytes in vivo. The idea that SMSCs may be suitable for the treatment of intractable diseases or traumatic tissue damage has attracted attention. To determine the ability of SMSCs to reactivate injured ovaries, a mouse model with ovaries damaged by busulfan and cyclophosphamide was developed and is described here. Female skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (F-SMSCs and male skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-SMSCs from red fluorescence protein (RFP transgenic adult mice were used to investigate the restorative effects of SMSCs on ovarian function. Significant increases in total body weight and the weight of reproductive organs were observed in the treated animals. Both F-SMSCs and M-SMSCs were shown to be capable of partially restoring fertility in chemotherapy-treated females. Immunostaining with RFP and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH antibodies demonstrated that the grafted SMSCs survived, migrated to the recipient ovaries. After SMSCs were administered to the treated mice, real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFNγ were significantly lower in the ovaries than in the untreated controls. Consistent with this observation, expression of oogenesis marker genes Nobox, Nanos3, and Lhx8 increased in ovaries of SMSCs-treated mice. These findings suggest that SMSCs may play a role within the ovarian follicle microenvironment in restoring the function of damaged ovaries and could be useful in reproductive health.

  15. In Vivo SILAC-Based Proteomics Reveals Phosphoproteome Changes during Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    Zanivan, Sara; Meves, Alexander; Behrendt, Kristina;

    2013-01-01

    SILAC technology in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) can be successfully used to measure phosphoproteomes in vivo. Here, Zanivan, Mann, and colleagues have applied SILAC-based MS to investigate phosphoproteomic changes during skin carcinogenesis, using the DMBA/TPA two-stag...

  16. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin.

    Bewick, Guy S; Banks, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given. PMID:27077818

  17. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  18. Inhibition of DMBA/croton oil-induced two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis by diphenylmethyl selenocyanate.

    Das, R K; Ghosh, S; Sengupta, A; Das, S; Bhattacharya, S

    2004-10-01

    Selenium, an essential micronutrient, is associated with antioxidant functions, physiological defence mechanisms against different diseases including several types of cancers. Search for new selenium compounds with more chemopreventive activities and lesser toxicities are in progress. In the present study, the antioxidative roles of a synthetic organoselenium compound, diphenylmethyl selenocyanate, were evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-induced two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. The compound was administered orally in carcinogen-induced mice in two different non-toxic doses: 2 mg/kg body weight and 3 mg/kg body weight. Significant inhibition in the incidence of papilloma formation (58-80%) as well as in the cumulative number of papilloma per papilloma-bearing mouse were observed in the treated groups as compared with the carcinogen control group. The compound was also found to significantly upregulate different phase II detoxifying enzymes in liver cytosol such as glutathione-S-transferase (Pliver microsomes was significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner by diphenylmethyl selenocyanate. Thus the compound exerts its chemopreventive activity by reducing papilloma formation during chemically induced carcinogenesis, which in turn, may be through modulating the level of lipid peroxidation and phase II detoxifying enzyme system at the doses evaluated. PMID:15452454

  19. Genetically engineered mouse models for skin research: taking the next step

    Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models are invaluable to investigators in nearly all areas of biomedical research. The use of genetically engineered mice has allowed researchers to explore fundamental functions of genes in a mammal that shares substantial similarities with human physiology and pathology. Genetically engineered mice are often used as animal models of human diseases that are vital tools in investigating disease development and in developing and testing novel therapies. Gene target...

  20. Disruption of protein kinase Ceta results in impairment of wound healing and enhancement of tumor formation in mouse skin carcinogenesis.

    Chida, Kazuhiro; Hara, Takeshi; Hirai, Takaaki; Konishi, Chieko; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuki; Aiba, Atsu; Katsuki, Motoya; Kuroki, Toshio

    2003-05-15

    We have generated a mouse strain lacking protein kinase C (PKC) eta to evaluate its significance in epithelial organization and tumor formation. The PKCeta-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to tumor formation in two-stage skin carcinogenesis by single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) for tumor initiation and repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for tumor promotion. The tumor formation was not enhanced by DMBA or TPA treatment alone, suggesting that PKCeta suppresses tumor promotion. Epidermal hyperplasia induced by topical TPA treatment was prolonged in the mutant mice. The enhanced tumor formation may be closely associated with the prolonged hyperplasia induced by topical TPA treatment. In the mutant mice, after inflicting injury by punch biopsy, wound healing on the dorsal skin, particularly reepithelialization, was significantly delayed and impaired in structure. Impairment of epithelial regeneration in wound healing indicates a possibility that PKCeta plays a role in maintenance of epithelial architecture. Homeostasis in epithelial tissues mediated by PKCeta is important for tumor formation in vivo. We propose that PKCeta is involved in tumor formation modulated by regulation of proliferation and remodeling of epithelial cells in vivo. PMID:12750259

  1. Transcription-coupled repair: Impact on UV-induced mutagenesis in cultured rodent cells and mouse skin tumors

    UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are removed with accelerated speed from the transcribed strand of expressed genes in cultured mammalian cells by a process called transcription-coupled repair (TCR). It has been previously shown that this phenomenon has consequences for the molecular nature of the mutations induced by UV-light. Here, we review these data and show that TCR has not only a clear impact on UV-induced mutations in cultured mammalian cells but also on genes involved in tumor formation in the skin of UV-exposed mice. Mutations observed in the p53 gene in UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma are predominantly found at sites of dipyrimidines in the non-transcribed strand. In contrast, in UVC-irradiated Csb -/- Chinese hamster cells and in UVB-induced tumors in the Csb -/- mouse, almost all mutations are at positions of dipyrimidine sites in the transcribed strand of the mutated gene. Csb -/- mice appear to be susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer in contrast to the human CSB patients. We speculate that the UVB-induced cancer susceptibility of Csb -/- mice is related to the absence of TCR as well as to a lack of a compensating global genome repair system for CPDs in mice

  2. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on radiosensitivity of mouse skin and jejunal crypt

    Ginkgo biloba extract(GBE) is known to increase the peripheral blood circulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of GBE on the acute normal tissue radiation reaction. C3H mice were divided into two groups, radiation alone and two doses GBE plus radiation, for both acute skin reaction and jejunal crypt assay. GBE was given i.p. one hour before irradiation with priming dose given one day earlier. Thirty to Fifty Gy for acute skin reaction and 11 to 14 Gy for jejunal crypt were irradiated to right hind leg and whole body, respectively. Radiation doses(RD50) for peak skin score of 2.0 were 44.2Gy(40.6-48.2Gy) for radiation alone and 44.4Gy(41.6-47.4Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, showing no effect of GBE on acute radiation skin damage. The numbers of regenerating jejunal crypts per circumference were also almost the same for each radiation dose level(p=0.57-0.94), and the mean lethal doses(Do) were 1.80Gy(1.57-2.09Gy) for radiation alone and 1.88Gy(1.65-2.18Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, indicating no effect of GBE on jejunal crypt cell survival after radiation. GBE doesn't increase acute normal tissue radiation reaction in this model system. As GBE was verified to enhance radiation effect on tumor, high therapeutic gain is expected when GBE is combined with radiation therapy

  3. Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism

    Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; William A Gahl; Brooks, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with th...

  4. A polygenic mouse model of psoriasiform skin disease in CD18-deficient mice.

    Bullard, D C; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; McArthur, M J; Chosay, J. G.; McBride, M E; Montgomery, C A; Beaudet, A L

    1996-01-01

    Previously, a hypomorphic mutation in CD18 was generated by gene targeting, with homozygous mice displaying increased circulating neutrophil counts, defects in the response to chemically induced peritonitis, and delays in transplantation rejection. When this mutation was backcrossed onto the PL/J inbred strain, virtually all homozygous mice developed a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a mean age of onset of 11 weeks after birth. The disease was characterized by erythema, hair loss, and ...

  5. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on radiosensitivity of mouse skin and jejunal crypt

    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract(GBE) is known to increase the peripheral blood circulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of GBE on the acute normal tissue radiation reaction. C3H mice were divided into two groups, radiation alone and two doses GBE plus radiation, for both acute skin reaction and jejunal crypt assay. GBE was given i.p. one hour before irradiation with priming dose given one day earlier. Thirty to Fifty Gy for acute skin reaction and 11 to 14 Gy for jejunal crypt were irradiated to right hind leg and whole body, respectively. Radiation doses(RD{sub 50}) for peak skin score of 2.0 were 44.2Gy(40.6-48.2Gy) for radiation alone and 44.4Gy(41.6-47.4Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, showing no effect of GBE on acute radiation skin damage. The numbers of regenerating jejunal crypts per circumference were also almost the same for each radiation dose level(p=0.57-0.94), and the mean lethal doses(D{sub o}) were 1.80Gy(1.57-2.09Gy) for radiation alone and 1.88Gy(1.65-2.18Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, indicating no effect of GBE on jejunal crypt cell survival after radiation. GBE doesn't increase acute normal tissue radiation reaction in this model system. As GBE was verified to enhance radiation effect on tumor, high therapeutic gain is expected when GBE is combined with radiation therapy.

  6. UVB irradiation-enhanced zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced DNA damage and cell death in mouse skin.

    Pal, Anu; Alam, Shamshad; Mittal, Sandeep; Arjaria, Nidhi; Shankar, Jai; Kumar, Mahadeo; Singh, Dhirendra; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Ansari, Kausar Mahmood

    2016-09-01

    UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in photocarcinogenesis and skin aging. This is because UV-induced ROS can induce DNA damage that, if unrepaired, can lead to carcinogenesis. Sunscreens contain UV attenuators, such as organic chemical and/or physical UV filters, which can prevent all forms of damage from UV irradiation. In recent years, the effective broad-spectrum UV attenuation properties of ZnO-nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have made them attractive as active components in sunscreens and other personal care products. As the use of ZnO-NPs in sunscreens is on the rise, so is public concern about their safety, particularly with exposure to sunlight. Therefore, in the present study, using various experimental approaches, we investigated the possible toxic effects resulting from exposure to UVB and ZnO-NPs in primary mouse keratinocytes (PMKs) as well as in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice. The findings of the present study demonstrated that co-exposure to UVB and ZnO-NPs: (1) translocated the ZnO-NPs into the nucleus of PMKs; (2) caused enhanced generation of ROS; (3) induced more severe DNA damage as evident by alkaline comet assay and immunocytochemistry for γ-H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); and (4) subsequently caused much more pronounced cell death in PMKs. Further, to elucidate the physiological relevance of these in vitro findings, SKH-1 hairless mice were topically treated with ZnO-NPs and after 30min irradiated with UVB (50mJ/cm(2)). Interestingly, we found that co-exposure of ZnO-NPs and UVB caused increased oxidative DNA damage and cell death, indicated by immunostaining for 8-OHdG and TUNEL assay in sections of exposed mouse skin. Thus, collectively, our findings suggest that UVB exposure increases ZnO-NPs-mediated oxidative stress and oxidative damage, thereby enhancing ZnO-NPs-induced cell death. PMID:27542711

  7. Inhibition of akt enhances the chemopreventive effects of topical rapamycin in mouse skin

    Dickinson, Sally E; Janda, Jaroslav; Criswell, Jane; Blohm-Mangone, Karen; Olson, Erik R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Barber, Christie; Rusche, Jadrian J.; Petricoin, Emmanuel, III; Calvert, Valerie; Einspahr, Janine G.; Dickinson, Jesse; Stratton, Steven P.; Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Saboda, Kathylynn; Hu, Chengcheng; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Alberts, David S.; Bowden, G. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The PI3Kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway has important roles in cancer development for multiple tumor types, including UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancer. Immunosuppressed populations are at increased risk of aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals who are treated with rapamycin, (sirolimus, a classical mTOR inhibitor) have significantly decreased rates of developing new cutaneous SCCs compared to those that receive traditional immunosuppression. However, systemic rapamycin use can lead to significant adverse events. Here we explored the use of topical rapamycin as a chemopreventive agent in the context of solar simulated light (SSL)-induced skin carcinogenesis. In SKH-1 mice, topical rapamycin treatment decreased tumor yields when applied after completion of 15 weeks of SSL exposure compared to controls. However, applying rapamycin during SSL exposure for 15 weeks, and continuing for 10 weeks after UV treatment, increased tumor yields. We also examined whether a combinatorial approach might result in more significant tumor suppression by rapamycin. We validated that rapamycin causes increased Akt (S473) phosphorylation in the epidermis after SSL, and show for the first time that this dysregulation can be inhibited in vivo by a selective PDK1/Akt inhibitor, PHT-427. Combining rapamycin with PHT-427 on tumor prone skin additively caused a significant reduction of tumor multiplicity compared to vehicle controls. Our findings indicate that patients taking rapamycin should avoid sun exposure, and that combining topical mTOR inhibitors and Akt inhibitors may be a viable chemoprevention option for individuals at high risk for cutaneous SCC.

  8. Percutaneous absorption of selected hydrophilic compounds - an in vitro study on hairless mouse skin

    The objective of this study was to assess 1. the relationship between hydrophobicity and percutaneous absorption; and 2. the validity of the view that the skin can be diffusionally characterized as a simple lipoidal barrier. In the course of the permeability studies, a very slow but gradually accelerating permeation of the hydrophylic compounds was noted, a phenomenon that became very noticeable when the permeation profile was observed over longer periods e.g. 100 hours instead of the conventional 6-12 hours. The initial objective had to be expanded to search for the cause of the increasing permeability of these compounds. With urea reproduceable results were obtained in the preliminary study and therefore urea was chosen for this study. The percutaneous absorption studies of urea, thiourea, glycerol and glucose were executed by means of an in vitro method. The method included the use of a diffusion cell system where the skin was clamped between two diffusion cells. The ether-water partition coefficients of the hydrophylic compounds were determined by a simple radiotracer procedure. The radio-labelled compound was equilibrated between the ether and water phases and the sample taken from the phases were analysed by means of scintillation counting. The ether-water partition coefficients of hydrocortisone and its 21-n-alkyl esters were determined by means of a HPLC method. The significance of this study may be summarized as: 1. it showed errors of interpretation in previous work on the percutaneous absorption of hydrophilic compounds; 2. it confirmed the incompatibility of a simple lipid membrane mechanism with the behaviour of skin; and 3. it formed a basis for the systematic solution of the mechanism of increasing permeability as a function of time phenomenon, encountered with the studied hydrophilic compounds

  9. Effect of glycyrrhizin on pseudomonal skin infections in human-mouse chimeras.

    Yoshida, Shohei; Lee, Jong O; Nakamura, Kiwamu; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Hendon, David N; Kobayashi, Makiko; Suzuki, Fujio

    2014-01-01

    In our previous studies, peripheral blood lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells (CD31(+) IMC) appearing in severely burned patients have been characterized as inhibitor cells for the production of β-defensins (HBDs) by human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). In this study, the effect of glycyrrhizin on pseudomonal skin infections was studied in a chimera model of thermal injury. Two different chimera models were utilized. Patient chimeras were created in murine antimicrobial peptide-depleted NOD-SCID IL-2rγ(null) mice that were grafted with unburned skin tissues of severely burned patients and inoculated with the same patient peripheral blood CD31(+) IMC. Patient chimera substitutes were created in the same mice that were grafted with NHEK and inoculated with experimentally induced CD31(+) IMC. In the results, both groups of chimeras treated with glycyrrhizin resisted a 20 LD50 dose of P. aeruginosa skin infection, while all chimeras in both groups treated with saline died within 3 days of the infection. Human antimicrobial peptides were detected from the grafted site tissues of both groups of chimeras treated with glycyrrhizin, while the peptides were not detected in the same area tissues of controls. HBD-1 was produced by keratinocytes in transwell-cultures performed with CD31(+) IMC and glycyrrhizin. Also, inhibitors (IL-10 and CCL2) of HBD-1 production by keratinocytes were not detected in cultures of patient CD31(+) IMC treated with glycyrrhizin. These results indicate that sepsis stemming from pseudomonal grafted site infections in a chimera model of burn injury is controllable by glycyrrhizin. Impaired antimicrobial peptide production at the infection site of severely burned patients may be restored after treatment with glycyrrhizin. PMID:24497916

  10. Effect of glycyrrhizin on pseudomonal skin infections in human-mouse chimeras.

    Shohei Yoshida

    Full Text Available In our previous studies, peripheral blood lineage(-CD34(+CD31(+ cells (CD31(+ IMC appearing in severely burned patients have been characterized as inhibitor cells for the production of β-defensins (HBDs by human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK. In this study, the effect of glycyrrhizin on pseudomonal skin infections was studied in a chimera model of thermal injury. Two different chimera models were utilized. Patient chimeras were created in murine antimicrobial peptide-depleted NOD-SCID IL-2rγ(null mice that were grafted with unburned skin tissues of severely burned patients and inoculated with the same patient peripheral blood CD31(+ IMC. Patient chimera substitutes were created in the same mice that were grafted with NHEK and inoculated with experimentally induced CD31(+ IMC. In the results, both groups of chimeras treated with glycyrrhizin resisted a 20 LD50 dose of P. aeruginosa skin infection, while all chimeras in both groups treated with saline died within 3 days of the infection. Human antimicrobial peptides were detected from the grafted site tissues of both groups of chimeras treated with glycyrrhizin, while the peptides were not detected in the same area tissues of controls. HBD-1 was produced by keratinocytes in transwell-cultures performed with CD31(+ IMC and glycyrrhizin. Also, inhibitors (IL-10 and CCL2 of HBD-1 production by keratinocytes were not detected in cultures of patient CD31(+ IMC treated with glycyrrhizin. These results indicate that sepsis stemming from pseudomonal grafted site infections in a chimera model of burn injury is controllable by glycyrrhizin. Impaired antimicrobial peptide production at the infection site of severely burned patients may be restored after treatment with glycyrrhizin.

  11. Epidermal hyperplasia in mouse skin following treatment with alternative drinking water disinfectants.

    Robinson, M.; Bull, R J; Schamer, M; R.E. Long(Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom)

    1986-01-01

    Female SENCAR mice were treated with aqueous solutions of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and monochloramine (NH2Cl) by whole body exposure (except head) for a 10-min period for 4 days in the first experiment and for 1 day (except NH2Cl) in the second experiment. Animals were sacrificed the day following the last treatment (experiment 1) or on day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 12 following treatment (experiment 2), and skin thickness was measured by...

  12. Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.

    Bao, Wenlei; Yin, Jianxin; Liang, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Wang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dongjun; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice. PMID:25178380

  13. Modulatory influence of Rosemarinus officinalis on DMBA-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    Sancheti, Garima; Goyal, Pk

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to explore the anti-tumor promoting activity of Rosemarinus officinalis on two-stage skin carcinogenesis, induced by a single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and promoted by treatment of croton oil for 15 weeks in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of Rosemary leaf extract at a dose of 1,000 mg/ kg b. wt. / day at pre, peri and post-initiational phases, was found to be effective in decreasing the tumor incidence (50, 41.7, 58.3%, respectively) in comparison to the control (100%). Furthermore, the cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were also found to be reduced in R. officinalis-treated animals. This was associated with significant alteration in liver lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) levels. PMID:16839234

  14. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m2/day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m2/day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing

  15. Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model

    Chen, Szu-Hsien [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Ching-Ting [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Epithelial Biology Laboratory/Transgenic Mice Core-Laboratory, Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Hao [Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yi-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fung [Animal Medicine Center, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei City 10018, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Ching-Nan [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hung-Chia [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Kuang, E-mail: ckwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Kuo-Haung, E-mail: khhsieh@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Wound dressings of chitosan are biocompatible, biodegradable, antibacterial and hemostatic biomaterials. However, applications for chitosan are limited due to its poor mechanical properties. Here, we conducted an in vivo mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-chitosan (RPC) hydrogels. RPC hydrogels were formed by cross-linking chitosan with PEGs of different molecular weights at various PEG to chitosan ratios in our previous paper. These dressings can keep the wound moist, had good gas exchange capacity, and was capable of absorbing or removing the wound exudate. We examined the ability of these RPC hydrogels and neat chitosan to heal small cuts and full-thickness skin defects on the backs of male Balb/c mice. Histological examination revealed that chitosan suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation, while PEG enhanced epithelial migration. The RPC hydrogels promoted wound healing in the small cuts and full layer wounds. The optimal RPC hydrogel had a swelling ratio of 100% and a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day. In addition, they possess good mechanical property and appropriate degradation rates. Thus, the optimal RPC hydrogel formulation functioned effectively as a wound dressing and promoted wound healing. Highlights: ► Mouse angiogenesis study on reinforced poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan (RPC) ► Water vapor transmission rate of about 2000 g/m{sup 2}/day is characteristic of RPC. ► RPC suppressed inflammatory cells and accelerated fibroblast proliferation. ► RPC composed of 1000-RP10C90 can be used as a biomaterial for wound dressing.

  16. Attenuation of DMBA/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma by Apodytes dimidiata mediated by its antioxidant and antimutagenic potential.

    Divya, Menon K; Salini, Sasidharan; Meera, Nair; Lincy, Lawrence; Seema, Menon; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; Babu, Thekkekara D

    2016-09-01

    Context Considering the role of cellular oxidative stress in mutations and subsequent transformation, phytochemicals with antioxidant potential has become a primary choice as chemopreventives. Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (Icacinaceae), a widely used plant in Zulu traditional medicine, is reported to possess antioxidant activity. Objective To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of methanol extract of A. dimidiata leaf (AMF). Materials and methods Antimutagenic potential of AMF (25, 50 and 75 μg/plate) was evaluated by the Ames test. The ability of AMF (100 and 250 mg/kg orally) on restoration of depleted antioxidant status by sodium fluoride (NaF) was analysed on BALB/c mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma model was studied up to 20 weeks to analyse the anticarcinogenic effect of AMF (1%, 3% and 5% topically, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Phytochemicals of AMF were characterized by GC-MS. Results AMF (75 μg/plate) reverted 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA) induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, 100 and 102 by 74.8%, 72.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Against sodium azide, the percentage reversion was 80.4, 71.3 and 71.3. In mice, AMF (250 mg/kg for 4 days) increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities by 48.71% and 30.3% against the NaF-induced drop. GSH level was improved by 48.59% with a concomitant decrease in TBARS (57.67%). The skin papilloma reduction was 79.32% for 5% AMF. Squalene, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids are the known antioxidant and chemopreventive molecules identified by GC-MS. Discussion and conclusion Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of AMF might have contributed to its anticarcinogenic potential. PMID:26878464

  17. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm2) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E2 production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser473) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-κB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  18. Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism.

    Onojafe, Ighovie F; Adams, David R; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M; Sergeev, Yuri V; Dolinska, Monika B; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Brilliant, Murray H; Gahl, William A; Brooks, Brian P

    2011-10-01

    Mutation of the tyrosinase gene (TYR) causes oculocutaneous albinism, type 1 (OCA1), a condition characterized by reduced skin and eye melanin pigmentation and by vision loss. The retinal pigment epithelium influences postnatal visual development. Therefore, increasing ocular pigmentation in patients with OCA1 might enhance visual function. There are 2 forms of OCA1, OCA-1A and OCA-1B. Individuals with the former lack functional tyrosinase and therefore lack melanin, while individuals with the latter produce some melanin. We hypothesized that increasing plasma tyrosine concentrations using nitisinone, an FDA-approved inhibitor of tyrosine degradation, could stabilize tyrosinase and improve pigmentation in individuals with OCA1. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mice homozygous for either the Tyrc-2J null allele or the Tyrc-h allele, which model OCA-1A and OCA-1B, respectively. Only nitisinone-treated Tyrc-h/c-h mice manifested increased pigmentation in their fur and irides and had more pigmented melanosomes. High levels of tyrosine improved the stability and enzymatic function of the Tyrc-h protein and also increased overall melanin levels in melanocytes from a human with OCA-1B. These results suggest that the use of nitisinone in OCA-1B patients could improve their pigmentation and potentially ameliorate vision loss. PMID:21968110

  19. Radioprotection of mouse skin vasculature and the RIF-1 fibrosarcoma by WR-2721

    The degree of radioprotection obtained with WR-2721 is critically dependent upon the oxygen tension of the tissue concerned. It was therefore considered of interest to examine the response of vascular tissue, which would be supposedly well oxygenated, to treatment with WR-2721 plus X rays. The response of this tissue is of interest because of its role in late radiation damage. In addition, for therapeutic gain an agent must protect normal tissue without concomitant tumor protection. However, data on tumor radioprotection have been conflicting and therefore the effect of WR-2721 on an experimental tumor was also tested. Vascular damage was assessed using the fact that tumors grow more slowly in irradiated beds (Tumor Bed Effect). WR-2721 injected 30 minutes before 5 to 30 Gy X rays protected skin stroma by a factor of 1.6. However, WR-2721 given 10 to 60 minutes before 20 Gy X rays to the RIF-1 tumor had either no effect or was protective, according to the method of immobilizing the mice during irradiation

  20. Overexpression of galectin-7 in mouse epidermis leads to loss of cell junctions and defective skin repair.

    Gaëlle Gendronneau

    Full Text Available The proteins of the galectin family are implicated in many cellular processes, including cell interactions, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. In human and mouse, galectin-7 is almost exclusively expressed in stratified epithelia, notably in the epidermis. Galectin-7 expression is also altered in several human tumors of epithelial origin. This study aimed at dissecting the consequences of galectin-7 overexpression on epidermis structure and functions in vivo.We established transgenic mice specifically overexpressing galectin-7 in the basal epidermal keratinocytes and analyzed the consequences on untreated skin and after UVB irradiation or mechanical injury.The intercellular cohesion of the epidermis is impaired in transgenic animals, with gaps developing between adjacent keratinocytes, associated with loss of adherens junctions. The epidermal architecture is aberrant with perturbations in the multilayered cellular organisation of the tissue, and structural defects in the basement membrane. These transgenic animals displayed a reduced re-epithelialisation potential following superficial wound, due to a defective collective migration of keratinocytes. Finally, a single mild dose of UVB induced an abnormal apoptotic response in the transgenic epidermis.These results indicate that an excess of galectin-7 leads to a destabilisation of adherens junctions associated with defects in epidermal repair. As this phenotype shares similarities with that of galectin-7 null mutant mice, we conclude that a critical level of this protein is required for maintaining proper epidermal homeostasis. This study brings new insight into the mode of action of galectins in normal and pathological situations.

  1. Assessment of the potential skin irritation of lysine-derivative anionic surfactants using mouse fibroblast and human keratinocytes as an alternative to animal testing

    Sánchez Molina, Lourdes; Mitjans Arnal, Montserrat; Infante Martínez-Pardo, Ma. Rosa; Vinardell Martínez-Hidalgo, Ma. Pilar

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to identify new surfactants with low skin irritant properties for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, employing cell culture as an alternative method to in vivo testing. In addition, we sought to establish whether potential cytotoxic properties were related to the size of the counterions bound to the surfactants. Methods. Cytotoxicity was assessed in the mouse fibroblast cell line 3T6, and the human keratinocyte cell line NCTC 2544, using the MT...

  2. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  3. The radiation effect on healing of surgical wound in mouse skin

    Remarkable improvement in control of malignant tumor was achieved by combined surgery and post-operative radiation therapy. In past, radiation therapy had been recommended after 4-6 weeks from operation because of worry about increased complication rate of surgical wound by post-operative irradiation. Nowadays, early surgical extirpation and early post-operative irradiation is recommended for better therapeutic effect. To evaluate the relationship between surgery-radiation interval and healing of surgical wound, an experimental study was undertaken using a total of 132 mice. A single dose of 2000 rads irradiation was delivered immediate after and on 1, 3, 5, 10, 14 days after incision and suture on the skin of hind limbs of mice. Tensile strengths of the wounds were measured after removal of stitches on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th and 21st post-operative days. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Wound healing was delayed by irradiation delivered within 3 days from operation. 2. No significant delay of wound healing was observed by irradiation on 5 or more days after operation. 3. Normal wound strength was attained at 21st post-operative day in any surgery-radiation interval. 4. More severe delay of wound healing by irradiation at 24 hrs after operation than by immediate post-operative irradiation although statistical significance is not confirmed. In conclusion, early post-operative irradiation delays healing of the surgical wound though ultimately tensile strength reaches the value of non-irradiated wound

  4. Temporal aspects of tumorigenic response to individual and mixed carcinogens. Comprehensive progress report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1978. [Mouse skin, rats, hamsters

    Albert, R.E.; Burns, F.J.; Altshuler, B.

    1978-02-01

    The research proposed here is designed to obtain a better understanding of the temporal kinetics of tumor induction when one or more carcinogens are present simultaneously or sequentially for prolonged periods of time. Studies done to date under this contract have shown that carcinogenesis in mouse skin by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens is consistent with the induction of dependent and autonomous cell transformations by the carcinogen followed by the conversion of autonomous tumor cells into malignancies at a rate which is determined by the level of carcinogen exposure. Dependent cell transformations remain latent in the skin unless expressed by a promoting agent. Dependent neoplasia appears to follow one-hit kinetics while malignancy is a multihit endpoint. Dose-related and time-related aspects of tumor induction are separable in the initiation-promotion system of mouse skin which along with rat skin and hamster lung is being used as a model for testing hypotheses. Results to date provide the basis for a new interpretation of the linear non-threshold extrapolation model. The broad aim of the study is to provide a basis or rationale for estimating risks associated with prolonged exposures to carcinogens found in the environment and to predict how different tissues and species respond to the same carcinogens.

  5. Impact of intense pulse light irradiation on BALB/c mouse skin-in vivo study on collagens, matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Luo, Dan; Cao, Yan; Wu, Di; Xu, Yang; Chen, Bin; Xue, Zhuyun

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of intense pulsed light (IPL) on collagen expression in BALB/c mouse skin and confirm its relative molecular mechanisms. The dorsal skin of BALB/c mice was irradiated by IPL. Before treatment and from 1 day to 8 weeks (1 day, 3 days, 5 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks) after treatment, the irradiated skin specimens were examined. The histology showed dermis thickening, accompanied with increased collagen and better organization. After IPL irradiation from 2 W up to 8 W, the staining of collagen types I and III in the IPL-treated groups was stronger than in the sham groups (P IPL irradiation were time-dependent. The mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 decreased progressively after IPL irradiation at 2 W up to 8 W (P IPL was also time-dependent. However, the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) had shown no obvious change by the end of the experiment (P > 0.05). Taking these factors together, we can conclude that IPL irradiation can not only enhance new collagen production, but also decrease collagen degradation in photo-rejuvenation mechanisms in mouse skin. PMID:18084809

  6. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    Muizzuddin, N.; Shakoori, A.R. [Univ. of the Punjab, Dept. of Zoology, Cell and Molecular Biology Lab., Lahore (Pakistan); Marenus, K.D. [SUNY at Stonybrook, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1998-11-01

    treatment, respectively. Conclusion: Data from these studies suggest that low level chronic exposures to UV can lead to alteration of the skin, like epidermal thickening and appearance of sunburn cells. The data also indicates that a mix of common antioxidants and free radical scavengers are photoprotective against chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse skin model. (au)

  7. Effect of topical application of antioxidants and free radical scavengers on protection of hairless mouse skin exposed to chronic doses of ultraviolet B

    treatment, respectively. Conclusion: Data from these studies suggest that low level chronic exposures to UV can lead to alteration of the skin, like epidermal thickening and appearance of sunburn cells. The data also indicates that a mix of common antioxidants and free radical scavengers are photoprotective against chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse skin model. (au)

  8. Photosensitivity of murine skin greatly depends on the genetic background: clinically relevant dose as a new measure to replace minimal erythema dose in mouse studies.

    Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Lőrincz, Kende; Keszeg, András; Haluszka, Dóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Tátrai, Erika; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2016-07-01

    Artificial UV irradiation of murine skin is a frequently used method for testing photosensitivity, study carcinogenesis and photoprotective effects of different compounds. However, doses of UV radiation and mouse strains used in experiments vary greatly. The genetic background of mice may influence the photosensitivity as melanin content, pigmentation and hair cycle parameters are dissimilar. Doses of UV are often expressed in relation to the minimal erythema dose (MED) that was not necessarily determined for the given strain. We set out to standardize the method of measuring photosensitivity in three commonly used mouse strains, C57BL/6N, Balb/c and SKH-1. We found that MED may not be determined for some strains as erythema development in mice with diverse genotypes differs greatly. We measured the oedema response in vivo and ex vivo by using OCT. Given the strain-specific variability of erythema, we introduced Clinically Relevant Dose (CRD) as a new term to replace MED in experiments, to describe the lowest dose that triggers a perceptible skin reaction in mice. Not only the CRD but the proportion of erythema and oedema were different in strains examined. C57BL/6N mice display skin reactions at the lowest UVB dose, while SKH-1 hairless mice show changes, mostly oedema, after higher doses of UVB. The cellular composition and skin thickness were examined by histopathology. IL-1beta and IL-6 levels in skin correlated with the increasing doses of UVB. Despite the variations in the degree of erythema and oedema, no major differences in cytokine expressions were seen among various strains of mice. PMID:26910301

  9. Ultrasonic stimulation of mouse skin reverses the healing delays in diabetes and aging by activation of Rac1

    Roper, James A.; Williamson, Rosalind C.; Bally, Blandine; Cowell, Christopher AM; Brooks, Rebecca; Stephens, Phil; Harrison, Andrew J; Bass, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic skin healing defects are one of the leading challenges to lifelong wellbeing, affecting 2-5% of populations. Chronic wound formation is linked to age and diabetes and frequently leads to major limb amputation. Here we identify a strategy to reverse fibroblast senescence and improve healing rates. In healthy skin, fibronectin activates Rac1 in fibroblasts, causing migration into the wound bed and driving wound contraction. We discover that mechanical stimulation of skin with ultrasound...

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio, E-mail: toshio_n@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.

  11. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata Mitigates 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Tumor Promotion Cascade in Mouse Skin

    Shakilur Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC Coville (creosote bush. It has a long history of traditional medicinal use by the Native Americans and Mexicans. The modulatory effects of topically applied NDGA was studied on acute inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in mouse skin induced by stage I tumor promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. Double TPA treatment adversely altered many of the marker responses of stage I skin tumor promotion cascade. Pretreatment of NDGA in TPA-treated mice mitigated cutaneous lipid peroxidation and inhibited production of hydrogen peroxide. NDGA treatment also restored reduced glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Elevated activities of myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase and skin edema formation in TPA-treated mice were also lowered by NDGA indicating a restrained inflammatory response. Furthermore, results of histological study demonstrated inhibitory effect of NDGA on cellular inflammatory responses. This study provides a direct evidence of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of NDGA against TPA-induced cutaneous inflammation and oxidative stress corroborating its chemopreventive potential against skin cancer.

  12. Human atopic dermatitis skin-derived T cells can induce a reaction in mouse keratinocytes in vivo

    Martel, Britta C; Blom, Lars; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice;

    2015-01-01

    through keratinocyte activation and consequently cause development of eczematous lesions. Punch biopsies of lesional skin from AD patients were used to establish skin-derived T cell cultures and which were transferred into NOD.Cg-Prkd(scid) Il2rg(tm1Sug) /JicTac (NOG) mice. We found that subcutaneous...

  13. Sarcophine-Diol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent, Inhibits Proliferation and Stimulates Apoptosis in Mouse Melanoma B16F10 Cell Line

    Hesham Fahmy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcodiol (SD is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B16F10 cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3 and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4. SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53 and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved-PARP. SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B16F10 tumor cells.

  14. Sarcophine-diol, a skin cancer chemopreventive agent, inhibits proliferation and stimulates apoptosis in mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line.

    Szymanski, Pawel T; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham

    2012-01-01

    Sarcodiol (SD) is a semi-synthetic derivative of sarcophine, a marine natural product. In our previous work, we reported the significant chemopreventive effects of SD against non-melanoma skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In this investigation, we extended this work to study the effect of sarcodiol on melanoma development, the more deadly form of skin cancer, using the mouse melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ cell line. In this study we report that SD inhibits the de novo DNA synthesis and enhances fragmentation of DNA. We also evaluated the antitumor effect of SD on melanoma cell viability using several biomarkers for cell proliferation and apoptosis. SD inhibits the expression levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription protein (STAT-3) and cyclin D1, an activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). SD treatment also enhances cellular level of tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53) and stimulates cleavage of the nuclear poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP). SD also enhances cellular levels of cleaved Caspase-3, -8, -9 and stimulates enzymatic activities of Caspase-3, -8 and -9. These results, in addition to inhibition of cell viability, suggest that SD inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by arresting the cell-division cycle in a Go quiescent phase and activates programmed cell death (apoptosis) via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Finally, these studies demonstrate that SD shows a very promising chemopreventive effect in melanoma B₁₆F₁₀ tumor cells. PMID:22363217

  15. The risk of hydroquinone and sunscreen over-absorption via photodamaged skin is not greater in senescent skin as compared to young skin: nude mouse as an animal model.

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-08-25

    Intrinsic aging and photoaging modify skin structure and components, which subsequently change percutaneous absorption of topically applied permeants. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate drug/sunscreen permeation via young and senescent skin irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. Both young and senescent nude mice were subjected to UVA (10 J/cm(2)) and/or UVB radiation (175 mJ/cm(2)). Physiological parameters, immunohistology, and immunoblotting were employed to examine the aged skin. Hydroquinone and sunscreen permeation was determined by in vitro Franz cell. In vivo skin absorption was documented using a hydrophilic dye, rhodamine 123 (log P=-0.4), as a permeant. UVA exposure induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) upregulation. Epidermal tight junction (TJ) were degraded by UVA. UVB increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from 13 to 24 g/m(2)/h. Hyperplasia and inflammation, but not loss of TJ, were also observed in UVB-treated skin. UVA+UVB- and UVA-irradiated skin demonstrated similar changes in histology and biomarkers. UVA+UVB or UVA exposure increased hydroquinone flux five-fold. A negligible alteration of hydroquinone permeation was shown with UVB exposure. Hydroquinone exhibited a lower penetration through senescent skin than young skin. Both UVA and UVB produced enhancement of oxybenzone flux and skin uptake. However, the amount of increase was less than that of hydroquinone delivery. Photoaging did not augment skin absorption of sunscreens with higher lipophilicity, including avobenzone and ZnO. Exposure to UVA generally increased follicular entrance of these permeants, which showed two- to three-fold greater follicular uptake compared to the untreated group. Photoaging had less impact on drug/sunscreen absorption with more lipophilic permeants. Percutaneous absorption did not increase in skin subjected to both intrinsic and extrinsic aging. PMID:24858384

  16. In vivo characterization of early-stage radiation skin injury in a mouse model by two-photon microscopy

    Won Hyuk Jang; Sehwan Shim; Taejun Wang; Yeoreum Yoon; Won-Suk Jang; Jae Kyung Myung; Sunhoo Park; Ki Hean Kim

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) injury is tissue damage caused by high energy electromagnetic waves such as X-ray and gamma ray. Diagnosis and treatment of IR injury are difficult due to its characteristics of clinically latent post-irradiation periods and the following successive and unpredictable inflammatory bursts. Skin is one of the many sensitive organs to IR and bears local injury upon exposure. Early-stage diagnosis of IR skin injury is essential in order to maximize treatment efficiency and ...

  17. Influence of misonidazole, anaesthesia, clamping of the leg and stress of the animal during treatment on the radiation-induced skin reaction of mouse feet

    The influence of anaesthesia and misonidazole on the 'acute' (average of the scores between day 10 and 30) and 'late' (average of the scores between day 100 and 120) skin reaction of the feet of mice was investigated under two different conditions. Firstly, the legs were kept untaped in the radiation field; secondly, the legs were fixed with surgical tape on the backscatter block. Irradiation was carried out by X-radiation at a dose of 35 Gy. Results showed that stress in unanaesthetized animals has a large influence on the radiation response of mouse skin. Adequate treatment conditions, tranquillizers or anaesthesia can compensate for this factor. Taping of the animals' legs, resulting in clamping, interferes with the assessment of these modalities. No influence of misonidazole on the skin reaction could be demonstrated in conditions where no artificial hypoxia was induced. The importance of taking experimental conditions into account is pointed out for the correct assessment of the effect of radiosensitizers and possibly other anticancer drugs. (U.K.)

  18. In Vivo Spectrum of UVC-induced Mutation in Mouse Skin Epidermis May Reflect the Cytosine Deamination Propensity of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers.

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Mori, Toshio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    Although ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has a genotoxicity for inducing skin cancers, the skin may tolerate UVC component because the epidermal layer prevents this short wavelength range from passing through. Here, UVC genotoxicity for mouse skin was evaluated in terms of DNA damage formation and mutagenicity. UVC induced UVR photolesions and mutations remarkably in the epidermis but poorly in the dermis, confirming the barrier ability of the epidermis against shorter UVR wavelengths. Moreover, the epidermis itself responded to UVC mutagenicity with mutation induction suppression, which suppressed the mutant frequencies to a remarkably low, constant level regardless of UVC dose. The mutation spectrum observed in UVC-exposed epidermis showed a predominance of UV-signature mutation, which occurred frequently in 5'-TCG-3', 5'-TCA-3' and 5'-CCA-3' contexts. Especially, for the former two contexts, the mutations recurred at several sites with more remarkable recurrences at the 5'-TCG-3' sites. Comparison of the UVC mutation spectrum with those observed in longer UVR wavelength ranges led us to a mechanism that explains why the sequence context preference of UV-signature mutation changes according to the wavelength, which is based on the difference in the mCpG preference of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation among UVR ranges and the sequence context-dependent cytosine deamination propensity of CPD. PMID:26335024

  19. A Herbal Formula, Atofreellage, Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in an NC/Nga Mouse Model.

    Kim, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Jin-Seok; Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Lee, Sung-Bae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) effect of Atofreellage (AF), a herbal formula composed of 10 medicinal plants. AD was induced on the dorsal skin areas of NC/Nga mice (male, seven weeks old) by daily application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for five weeks. After three weeks of DNCB application, 200 μL of AF (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/mL) was applied to the skin lesions. Histological findings, blood cell populations, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory signaling in the skin tissue, and T-helper cell type 2 (Th₂)-related cytokines in splenocytes were analyzed. Histopathological findings showed AF treatment notably attenuated the thickness of dorsal skin, and eosinophil infiltration. AF treatment (especially 100 mg/mL) also demonstrably ameliorated the blood cell population abnormalities, as the notable elevation of serum concentrations of IgE, histamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were remarkably normalized by AF treatment. Western blot analysis evidenced the apparent normalization of inflammatory signals (ERK, p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and NF-κB) in the skin tissue. Additionally, AF treatment notably attenuated the activation of Th₂-dominant cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5) in Con A-treated splenocytes in an ex vivo assay. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical relevance of Atofreellage. PMID:26712731

  20. A Herbal Formula, Atofreellage, Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in an NC/Nga Mouse Model

    Won-Yong Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD effect of Atofreellage (AF, a herbal formula composed of 10 medicinal plants. AD was induced on the dorsal skin areas of NC/Nga mice (male, seven weeks old by daily application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB for five weeks. After three weeks of DNCB application, 200 μL of AF (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/mL was applied to the skin lesions. Histological findings, blood cell populations, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE, histamine, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory signaling in the skin tissue, and T-helper cell type 2 (Th2-related cytokines in splenocytes were analyzed. Histopathological findings showed AF treatment notably attenuated the thickness of dorsal skin, and eosinophil infiltration. AF treatment (especially 100 mg/mL also demonstrably ameliorated the blood cell population abnormalities, as the notable elevation of serum concentrations of IgE, histamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were remarkably normalized by AF treatment. Western blot analysis evidenced the apparent normalization of inflammatory signals (ERK, p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and NF-κB in the skin tissue. Additionally, AF treatment notably attenuated the activation of Th2-dominant cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5 in Con A-treated splenocytes in an ex vivo assay. In conclusion, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical relevance of Atofreellage.

  1. Tumor initiating activities of various derivatives of benz(a)anthracene and 7, 12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene in mouse skin

    Slaga, T.J.; Gleason, G.L.; DiGiovanni, J.; Berry, D.L.; Juchau, M.R.; Harvey, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Current information indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exert their toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic activities after they have been metabolically activated by target cells to reactive epoxides. The results obtained from IN VIVO and IN VITRO binding, mutagenicity, metabolism, and carcinogenicity studies have led to the conclusion that BP-7, 8-diol is a proximate carcinogenic metabolite of BP, and the BP-diol-epoxide is an ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BP. Recent results concerning the strong carcinogenicity of BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxide in newborn mice and in mouse skin strongly indicate that it is the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BP. Since diol-epoxides may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of PAH other than BP, diols and diol-epoxides as well as other derivatives of PAH were tested for skin tumor-initiation in a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. In addition, since activation of methylated PAH may involve the side-chain methyl group, the skin tumor-initiating activity of various side-chain derivatives of methylated PA were determined. In this report, the skin tumor initiation of various derivatives of a nonmethylated PAH, BA as well as a methylated PAH, DMBA are compared. The data suggest that bay region diol-epoxides may be important in BA and DMBA carcinogenicity in mice which is supportive of the theory proposed by Jerina and co-workers which predicts that diol-epoxides in the bay region are the major determinants of PAH carcinogenicity.

  2. 小鼠对量子点的透皮吸收和代谢%Transdermal Delivery Through in vivo Mouse Skin and Metabolic Path of Quantum Dots

    唐蕾; 张春玲; 宋光明; 徐忠伟; 金迅

    2012-01-01

    皮肤是身体的最大器官,能够直接与含纳米材料的防晒霜、化妆品等接触,但是人们对纳米材料的皮肤渗透性却了解不多.本文研究了水溶性硫硒化镉(CdSeS)量子点纳米颗粒的皮肤渗透性和在体内的代谢情况.将雄性ICR鼠背部脱毛,在脱毛部位涂抹直径约为5nm、发光波长为620 nm的量子点0.32 nmol,然后检测皮肤和心、肝、脾、肺、肾中量子点沉积量随时间的变化情况.荧光显微像显示,量子点能够堆积在皮肤的表皮层中和真皮层的毛囊和腺体中,电感耦合等离子体质谱(inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry,ICP-MS)结果表明,透皮吸收的量子点能够沉积在器官中,并且肝和肾中沉积的量子点代谢缓慢,涂抹量子点5天之后,肾脏中残存的镉离子浓度仍超过14 ng/g.这些结果表明,量子点能够被小鼠透皮吸收,而且对肝和肾产生严重影响.%Skin is the largest organ of the body and is a potential route of exposure to sunscreens and cosmetics containing nanoparticles, but the permeability of the skin to these nanoparticles is unknown. In this paper, we studied the transdermal delivery capacity through mouse skin of water-soluble CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) and the deposition of these QDs in the body. QD solution was coated on the dorsal hairless skin of male ICR mice. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the deposition of QDs in mouse skin and heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure the mCd concentration to indicate the concentration of QDs in plasma and organs. The fluorescence images show that QDs can penetrate into the dermal layer and deposit in the organs through blood circulation. ICP-MS result indicates that QDs deposit seriously in liver and kidney, and they are difficult to clear. 111Cd concentration is still more than 14 ng/g in kidney after 5 days. These results suggest that QDs has in vivo

  3. The effects of Origanum hypericifolium essential oil application and ultraviolet B irradiation on mouse skin: An ultrastructural study.

    Ili, Pinar

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to UV radiation can cause histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the skin. Origanum hypericifolium, an endemic Turkish plant,essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes. The effects of undiluted O. hypericifolium oil on the ultrastructural characteristics of the UVB-irradiated dorsal skin of mice were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The BALB/c mice were shaved of dorsal hair and randomly housed into 4 groups: 1: control; 2: UVB-irradiated; 3: oil applied; and 4: oil applied and UVB-irradiated. The oil was applied topically to the dorsal skins of the mice on alternate days for 1week prior to UVB exposure. The skins were irradiated for a total dose of 3.5J/cm(2). The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, semithin sections were stained with toluidine blue and ultrathin sections were contrasted with uranyl acetate/lead citrate. There were histopathological changes such as parakeratosis and squamous hyperplasia in the epidermal cell layers (Groups 3 and 4). There were also ultrastructural changes including lacunae formations throughout the stratum corneum layer (Groups 2, 3, and 4), enlargement of intercellular spaces (Groups 2 and 3), reduced desmosomes, narrow and elongated interdigitations, shortened, relatively indistinct and electron dense intermediate keratin filament bundles (Group 3). There were various sizes of cytoplasmic and perinucleolar vacuoles (Groups 3 and 4) and apoptotic bodies phagocytized by keratinocytes (Group 4). I conclude that undiluted oil has side-effects and the potential to inflict injury to the skin. The oil does not ameliorate the negative effects of UVB on epidermal skin cells. PMID:27156161

  4. Effects of Intense Pulsed Light on Tissue Vascularity and Wound Healing: A Study with Mouse Island Skin Flap Model

    Trinh Cao Minh; Do Xuan Hai; Pham Thi Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm2, 25 J/cm2, and 15 J/cm2 IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then...

  5. Diminution of acute radiation reaction of mouse skin with low-intensity infrared laser/red diodes-emitted light

    Efficiency of the application of different regimes of laser treatment of radiation-induced skin reactions in mice feet is compared. Posterior limb feet of mice were exposed to acute X radiation at 30-36 Gy dose or fractionated radiation at 45 Gy dose. In the day of primary irradiation or different time later the feet were treated using magnetic infrared laser therapeutic MILTA-01 apparatus. Magnetic and light components of the MILTA-01 apparatus reduce the effect of radiation on mice skin corresponding two time decrease in X-radiation dose

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 in HR-1 hairless mouse skin by blocking MSK1 signaling.

    Mostafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a representative ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of DHA on UVB-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Our study revealed that topical application of DHA prior to UVB irradiation attenuated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and NAD(PH:oxidase-4 (NOX-4 in hairless mouse skin. DHA pretreatment also attenuated UVB-induced DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB through the inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB kinase-α/β, phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. In addition, UVB-induced phosphorylation of p65 at the serine 276 residue was significantly inhibited by topical application of DHA. Irradiation with UVB induced phosphorylation of mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1 (MSK1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, and all these events were attenuated by pretreatment with DHA. Blocking ERK and p38 MAP kinase signaling by U0126 and SB203580, respectively, diminished MSK1 phosphorylation in UVB-irradiated mouse skin. Pretreatment with H-89, a pharmacological inhibitor of MSK1, abrogated UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 in mouse skin. In conclusion, topically applied DHA inhibits the UVB-induced activation of NF-κB and the expression of COX-2 and NOX-4 by blocking the phosphorylation of MSK1, a kinase downstream of ERK and p38 MAP kinase, in hairless mouse skin.

  7. MOUSE SKIN TUMOR INITIATION-PROMOTION AND COMPLETE CARCINOGENESIS BIOASSAYS: MECHANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF EMISSION SAMPLES

    Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil sha...

  8. Roughness threshold for cell attachment and proliferation on plasma micro-nanotextured polymeric surfaces: the case of primary human skin fibroblasts and mouse immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts

    Bourkoula, A.; Constantoudis, V.; Kontziampasis, D.; Petrou, P. S.; Kakabakos, S. E.; Tserepi, A.; Gogolides, E.

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces have been micro-nanotextured in oxygen plasmas with increasing ion energy, leading to micro-nanotopography characterized by increased root mean square roughness, correlation length and fractal dimension. Primary human skin fibroblasts and mouse immortalized 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured on these surfaces and the number of adhering cells, their proliferation rate and morphology (cytoplasm and nucleus area) were evaluated as a function of roughness height, correlation length, and fractal dimension. A roughness threshold behavior was observed for both types of cells leading to dramatic cell number decrease above this threshold, which is almost similar for the two types of cells, despite their differences in size and stiffness. The results are discussed based on two theoretical models, which are reconciled and unified when the elastic moduli and the size of the cells are taken into account.

  9. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  10. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

    Pengchao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF and Tyrosinase (TYR were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5.

  11. In-vivo and label-free imaging of cellular and tissue structures in mouse ear skin by using second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy

    Lee, Eung Jang; Kim, Boram; Ahn, Hong-Gyu; Park, Seung-Han; Cheong, Eunji; Lee, Sangyoup

    2015-02-01

    A video-rate multimodal microscope, which can obtain second- and third- harmonic generation (SHG and THG) images simultaneously, is developed for investigating cellular and tissue structures in mouse ear skin. By utilizing in-vivo video-rate epi-detected SHG and THG microscopy, we successfully demonstrate that combined images of subcutaneous cellular components and peripheral nerve fibers, together with the collagen fiber, in the mouse ear pinna can be obtained without employing fluorescent probes. We also show that the flow of red blood cells and the diameter change of arteriole-like blood vessels can be visualized with femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 1036 nm. In particular, the epi-THG contrast images of the blood-vessel walls display clearly the difference between the arteriole-like and the venule capillary-like blood-vessel types. We should emphasize that our newly-developed microscope system has a unique feature in that it can produce simultaneous in-vivo label-free SHG and THG images in contrast to the conventional confocal and two-photon microscopes.

  12. Designing a ridge filter based on a mouse foot skin reaction to spread out Bragg-peaks for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Background and purpose: Carbon-ion radiotherapy uses spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) to produce uniform biological effects within a target volume. The relative biological effectiveness is determined by the in vitro cell kill after a single dose is employed to design the SOBP. A question remains as to whether biological effects for in vivo tissues after fractionated doses are also uniform within the SOBP. Material and methods: Mouse foot skin was irradiated with fractionated doses of carbon ions at various linear energy transfer (LET) values. A new ridge filter was designed based on alpha and beta values for each LET to cause moderate skin reaction, and was studied concerning its uniformity. Results: The reciprocal total doses of intermediate-LET carbon ions and of reference gamma rays linearly increased with an increase of a dose per fraction in Fe-plots. As the single total dose of higher LET run off linearity, data obtained from 2 to 6 fractions were used to design a new ridge filter. The physical dose distribution of the new ridge filter was almost identical to, and indistinguishable from, the ridge filter designed based on the in vitro cell kill. Conclusions: The LET dependence of alpha is a principle of the biological factor to be used for designing spread-out Bragg peaks of carbon-ion radiotherapy

  13. The Immune Response to Skin Trauma Is Dependent on the Etiology of Injury in a Mouse Model of Burn and Excision.

    Valvis, Samantha M; Waithman, Jason; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W; Fear, Vanessa S

    2015-08-01

    Skin trauma has many different causes including incision, blunt force, and burn. All of these traumas trigger an immune response. However, it is currently unclear whether the immune response is specific to the etiology of the injury. This study was established to determine whether the immune response to excision and burn injury of equivalent extent was the same. Using a mouse model of a full-thickness 19 mm diameter excision or 19 mm diameter full-thickness burn injury, we examined the innate immune response at the level of serum cytokine induction, whole-blood lymphocyte populations, dendritic cell function/phenotype, and the ensuing adaptive immune responses of CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations. Strikingly, both the innate and adaptive immune system responses differed between the burn and excision injuries. Acute cytokine induction was faster and different in profile to that of excision injury, leading to changes in systemic monocyte and neutrophil levels. Differences in the immune profile between burn and excision were also noted up to day 84 post injury, suggesting that the etiology of injury leads to sustained changes in the response. This may in part underlie clinical observations of differences in patient morbidity and mortality in response to different skin injury types. PMID:25826422

  14. Dual Effects of Bisphosphonates on Ectopic Skin and Vascular Soft Tissue Mineralization versus Bone Microarchitecture in a Mouse Model of Generalized Arterial Calcification of Infancy.

    Li, Qiaoli; Kingman, Joshua; Sundberg, John P; Levine, Michael A; Uitto, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Generalized arterial calcification of infancy is an intractable ectopic mineralization disorder caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene, resulting in reduced plasma inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels. We previously characterized the Enpp1(asj) mutant mouse as a model of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, and we have now explored the potential efficacy of bisphosphonates, nonhydrolyzable PPi analogs, in preventing ectopic mineralization in these mice. The mice were maintained on either basic diet (control) or diets containing etidronate or alendronate in three different concentrations (experimental). Considering low bioavailability of bisphosphonates when administered orally, subsequent studies tested the mice with subcutaneous injections of etidronate. The treatments were initiated at 4 weeks of age, and the degree of mineralization was assessed at 12 weeks of age by quantitation of calcium deposits in the muzzle skin containing dermal sheath of vibrissae and in aorta. We found that bisphosphonate treatments significantly reduced mineralization in skin and aorta. These changes in treated mice were accompanied with restoration of their bone microarchitecture, determined by microcomputed tomography. The inhibitory capacity of bisphosphonates, with mechanistic implications, was confirmed in a cell-based mineralization assay in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that bisphosphonate treatment may be beneficial by a dual effect for preventing ectopic soft tissue mineralization while correcting decreased bone mineralization in generalized arterial calcification of infancy caused by ENPP1 mutations. PMID:26763447

  15. Mouse skin tumor initiation-promotion and complete carcinogenesis bioassays: mechanisms and biological activities of emission samples.

    Nesnow, S; Triplett, L L; Slaga, T J

    1983-01-01

    Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil shale soot, and gasoline vehicle exhaust materials have been examined by this method. The studies reported here have been constructed to compare the carcinogenic and tumorigenic potency of extracts from various particula...

  16. Flat Mount Imaging of Mouse Skin and Its Application to the Analysis of Hair Follicle Patterning and Sensory Axon Morphology

    Chang, Hao; Wang, Yanshu; Wu, Hao; Nathans, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Skin is a highly heterogeneous tissue. Intra-dermal structures include hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, epidermal specializations (such as Merkel cell clusters), sebaceous glands, nerves and nerve endings, and capillaries. The spatial arrangement of these structures is tightly controlled on a microscopic scale - as seen, for example, in the orderly arrangement of cell types within a single hair follicle - and on a macroscopic scale - as seen by the nearly identical orientations of thous...

  17. Mutation spectrum in sunlight-exposed mouse skin epidermis: small but appreciable contribution of oxidative stress-mediated mutagenesis

    Ikehata, Hironobu [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikehata@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp; Nakamura, Shingo [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Radiobiology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Asamura, Takaaki [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ono, Tetsuya [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2004-11-22

    We studied the mutations induced in skin by sunlight using transgenic Muta{sup TM} mice. Noon sunlight during summer at Sendai, Japan induced mutations efficiently in both epidermis and dermis. The mutant frequency (MF) in epidermis reached nearly 0.5% during the first 40 min irradiation but became saturated at this level with the appearance of skin inflammation after further irradiation. At the equivalent inflammatory dose, sunlight was twice as genotoxic as 313 nm-peak UVB. The 81 mutations detected in 80 lacZ transgene mutants isolated from the sunlight-exposed epidermis were dominated by C {yields} T transitions (89%), occurring exclusively at dipyrimidine sites, and also included a CC {yields} TT tandem substitution. Thus, the sunlight-induced mutation spectrum is highly UV-specific, quite similar to that induced by UVB but significantly different from that induced by UVA. Although oxidative damage-related C {yields} A transversions were detected only in five mutants (6%), their frequency was elevated to at least 15 times the background level, suggesting that the contribution of UVA-mediated oxidative stress is comparatively small but considerable. An analysis of bases adjacent to the mutated cytosines revealed that the sunlight-induced mutations prefer 5'-TC-3' dipyrimidine sites to 5'-CC-3' and 5'-CT-3'. The distribution of the frequent C {yields} T transition sites in the transgene was well associated with the CpG motif, which is known to be completely methylated in the gene, and quite similar to that induced by UVB rather than that by UVA. Thus, the UVB component contributes to the sunlight-induced mutations in the mammalian skin much more than the UVA component, whose influence through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mutagenesis is still appreciable.

  18. Fluorescent peptide biosensor for monitoring CDK4/cyclin D kinase activity in melanoma cell extracts, mouse xenografts and skin biopsies.

    Prével, Camille; Pellerano, Morgan; González-Vera, Juan A; Henri, Pauline; Meunier, Laurent; Vollaire, Julien; Josserand, Véronique; Morris, May C

    2016-11-15

    Melanoma constitutes the most aggressive form of skin cancer, which further metastasizes into a deadly form of cancer. The p16(INK4a)-Cyclin D-CDK4/6-pRb pathway is dysregulated in 90% of melanomas. CDK4/Cyclin D kinase hyperactivation, associated with mutation of CDK4, amplification of Cyclin D or loss of p16(INK4a) leads to increased risk of developing melanoma. This kinase therefore constitutes a key biomarker in melanoma and an emerging pharmacological target, however there are no tools enabling direct detection or quantification of its activity. Here we report on the design and application of a fluorescent peptide biosensor to quantify CDK4 activity in melanoma cell extracts, skin biopsies and melanoma xenografts. This biosensor provides sensitive means of comparing CDK4 activity between different melanoma cell lines and further responds to CDK4 downregulation by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors. By affording means of monitoring CDK4 hyperactivity consequent to cancer-associated molecular alterations in upstream signaling pathways that converge upon this kinase, this biosensor offers an alternative to immunological identification of melanoma-specific biomarkers, thereby constituting an attractive tool for diagnostic purposes, providing complementary functional information to histological analysis, of particular utility for detection of melanoma onset in precancerous lesions. This is indeed the first fluorescent peptide biosensor which has been successfully implemented to monitor kinase activity in skin samples and melanoma tumour xenografts. Moreover by enabling to monitor response to CDK4 inhibitors, this biosensor constitutes an attractive companion assay to identify compounds of therapeutic relevance for melanoma. PMID:27203461

  19. The acute effects of alpha and beta irradiation of mouse skin and the factors affecting the response

    Several problems regarding acute effects of alpha and beta irradiation were investigated in order to clarify protection problems of localised doses to the skin. A study into the acute biological effects of different energy beta emitters and the effects of energy and area on the response showed direct relationships between these criteria for a range of different acute responses with different time courses. Three different types of acute response were found and these are described as 'moist desquamation', 'acute ulceration' and 'acute epidermal necrosis'. An unexpected finding was that the lower energy beta emitter 170Tm was as efficient at inducing scab formation as the higher energy 90Sr sources for the same area of exposure. Experiments using 2x4 cm2 exposures to 224Cm alpha particles showed that the response to this poorly penetrating radiation was minimal after doses as high as 180 Gy measured at 10 μm into the skin. In comparison, large area exposure to 170Tm produced areas of prolonged scabbing after doses up to 100 Gy. However, the intensity of the reaction varied between strains. (author)

  20. The excimer lamp induces cutaneous nerve degeneration and reduces scratching in a dry-skin mouse model.

    Kamo, Atsuko; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Kaneda, Kazuyuki; Ko, Kyi C; Matsuda, Hironori; Kimura, Utako; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Epidermal hyperinnervation, which is thought to underlie intractable pruritus, has been observed in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules has been reported to regulate epidermal hyperinnervation. Previously, we showed that the excimer lamp has antihyperinnervative effects in nonpruritic dry-skin model mice, although epidermal expression of axonal guidance molecules was unchanged. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation and its mechanism of action. A single irradiation of AD model mice significantly inhibited itch-related behavior 1 day later, following improvement in the dermatitis score. In addition, irradiation of nerve fibers formed by cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons increased bleb formation and decreased nerve fiber expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2, suggesting degenerative changes in these fibers. We also analyzed whether attaching a cutoff excimer filter (COF) to the lamp, thus decreasing cytotoxic wavelengths, altered hyperinnervation and the production of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a DNA damage marker, in dry-skin model mice. Irradiation with COF decreased CPD production in keratinocytes, as well as having an antihyperinnervative effect, indicating that the antipruritic effects of excimer lamp irradiation with COF are due to induction of epidermal nerve degeneration and reduced DNA damage. PMID:24940652

  1. Response of mouse skin to tattooing: use of SKH-1 mice as a surrogate model for human tattooing

    Tattooing is a popular cosmetic practice involving more than 45 million US citizens. Since the toxicology of tattoo inks and pigments used to formulate tattoo inks has not been reported, we studied the immunological impact of tattooing and determined recovery time from this trauma. SKH-1 hairless mice were tattooed using commercial tattoo inks or suspensions of titanium dioxide, cadmium sulfide, or iron oxide, and sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days post-tattooing. Histological evaluation revealed dermal hemorrhage at 0.5 and 1 day. Acute inflammation and epidermal necrosis were initiated at 0.5 day decreasing in incidence by day 14. Dermal necrosis and epidermal hyperplasia were prominent by day 3, reducing in severity by day 14. Chronic active inflammation persisted in all tattooed mice from day 3 to 14 post-tattooing. Inguinal and axillary lymph nodes were pigmented, the inguinal being most reactive as evidenced by lymphoid hyperplasia and polymorphonuclear infiltration. Cutaneous nuclear protein concentrations of nuclear factor-kappa B were elevated between 0.5 and 4 days. Inflammatory and proliferative biomarkers, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and ornithine decarboxylase protein levels were elevated between 0.5 and 4 days in the skin and decreased to control levels by day 14. Interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-10 were elevated in the lymph nodes but suppressed in the tattooed skin, with maximal suppression occurring between days 0.5 and 4. These data demonstrate that mice substantially recover from the tattooing insult by 14 days, leaving behind pigment in the dermis and the regional lymph nodes. The response seen in mice is similar to acute injury seen in humans, suggesting that the murine model might be a suitable surrogate for investigating the toxicological and phototoxicological properties of ingredients used in tattooing

  2. Silibinin prevents ultraviolet B radiation-induced epidermal damages in JB6 cells and mouse skin in a p53-GADD45α-dependent manner.

    Roy, Srirupa; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2012-03-01

    Better preventive strategies are required to reduce ultraviolet (UV)-caused photodamage, the primary etiological factor for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Accordingly, here we examined the preventive efficacy of silibinin against UVB-induced photodamage using mouse epidermal JB6 cells and SKH1 hairless mouse epidermis. In JB6 cells, silibinin pretreatment protected against apoptosis and accelerated the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) induced by moderate dose of UVB (50 mJ/cm(2)), which we are at risk of daily exposure. Silibinin also reversed UVB-induced S phase arrest, reducing both active DNA synthesizing and inactive S phase populations. In mechanistic studies, UVB-irradiated cells showed a transient upregulation of both phosphorylated (Ser-15 and Ser-392) and total p53, whereas silibinin pretreatment led to a more sustained upregulation and stronger nuclear localization of p53. Silibinin also caused a marked upregulation of GADD45α, a downstream target of p53, implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Importantly, under p53 and GADD45α knockdown conditions, cells were more susceptible to UVB-induced apoptosis without any significant S phase arrest, and protective effects of silibinin were compromised. Similar to the in vitro results, topical application of silibinin prior to or immediately after UVB irradiation resulted in sustained increase in p53 and GADD45α levels and accelerated CPD removal in the epidermis of SKH1 hairless mice. Together, our results show for the first time that p53-mediated GADD45α upregulation is the key mechanism by which silibinin protects against UVB-induced photodamage and provides a strong rationale to investigate silibinin in reducing the risk and/or preventing early onset of NMSC. PMID:22166495

  3. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  4. Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis

    Kuen-Daw Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been shown to possess a preventive effect against various cancers and interfere with multiple-cell signaling pathways. We evaluated the protective effects of CUR in regression of UVB-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and its underlying early molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis. Mice irradiated with UVB at 180 mJ/cm2 twice per week elicited 100% tumor incidence at 20 weeks. Topical application of CUR prior to UVB irradiation caused delay in tumor appearance, multiplicity, and size. Topical application of CUR prior to and immediately after a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2 resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53 and p21/Cip1-positive cell population in epidermis. Simultaneously, CUR also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and nitric oxide (NO levels. The results suggest that the protective effect of CUR against photocarcinogenesis is accompanied by downregulation of cell proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-κB, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, while upregulation of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.

  5. Radionecrosis skin model induced an athymic mouse nude (Nu/Nu) for development of dermal-epidermal human substitute based regenerative therapy

    The neoplasms incidence has increased significantly in recent years and continued population growth and aging will increase the statistics of this illness in the world's diseases. The cancer treatment usually consists in individual or combined use of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy depending on the etiology of the tumor. In cases where radiotherapy is used in addition to the therapeutic effects of radiation, specific complications can occur, and in the skin, these complications can be present with a clinical expression ranging from erythema to radionecrosis, and this latter being the adverse effect with greater severity. The radionecrosis treatment consists in debridement necrotic areas and covering the surgical wounds. Autologous grafts are most commonly used for this covering, however when large areas are affected, allografts can be used for occlusive treatment and the keratinocytes and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) addition becomes an alternative, due to the knowing for immunomodulatory and regenerative response. For that reason, aiming to simulate the radionecrosis adverse effects, an animal model of induced cutaneous radionecrosis was created, in athymic mouse Nude (Nu/Nu), for developing regenerative therapies based on human dermal-epidermal substitutes containing keratinocytes and ADSC, which proved occlusive as an efficient treatment, furthermore, having this radionecrosis animal model established, new possibilities for treatment of diseases involving dermal regeneration, can be tested. (author)

  6. Bromelain nanoparticles protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in mouse model.

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Pant, Aditya B; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Chaudhari, Bhushan; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2015-04-01

    Conventional cancer chemotherapy leads to severe side effects, which limits its use. Nanoparticles (NPs) based delivery systems offer an effective alternative. Several evidences highlight the importance of Bromelain (BL), a proteolytic enzyme, as an anti-tumor agent which however has been limited due to the requirement of high doses at the tumor site. Therefore, we illustrate the development of BL loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) NPs that show enhanced anti-tumor effects compared to free BL. The formulated NPs with a mean particle size of 130.4 ± 8.81 nm exhibited sustained release of BL. Subsequent investigation revealed enhanced anti-tumor ability of NPs in 2-stage skin tumorigenesis mice model. Reduction in average number of tumors (∼ 2.3 folds), delay in tumorigenesis (∼ 2 weeks), percent tumorigenesis (∼ 4 folds), and percent mortality rate as well as a reduction in the average tumor volume (∼ 2.5 folds) in mice as compared to free BL were observed. The NPs were found to be superior in exerting chemopreventive effects over chemotherapeutic effects at 10 fold reduced dose than free BL, validated by the enhanced ability of NPs (∼ 1.8 folds) to protect the DNA from induced damage. The effects were also supported by histopathological evaluations. NPs were also capable of modulating the expression of pro-apoptotic (P53, Bax) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) proteins. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that developed NPs formulation could be used to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy by exerting chemo-preventive effects against induced carcinogenesis at lower dosages. PMID:25619920

  7. Treatment of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

    Vayalil, Praveen K; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-05-01

    The use of botanical supplements has received immense interest in recent years to protect human skin from adverse biological effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The polyphenols from green tea are one of them and have been shown to prevent photocarcinogenesis in animal models but their mechanism of photoprotection is not well understood. To determine the mechanism of photoprotection in in vivo mouse model, topical treatment of polyphenols from green tea (GTP) or its most chemopreventive constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (1 mg/cm(2) skin area) in hydrophilic ointment USP before single (180 mJ/cm(2)) or multiple UVB exposures (180 mJ/cm(2), daily for 10 days) resulted in significant prevention of UVB-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (78-100%, P 0.001). Further, to delineate the inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative stress with cell signaling pathways, treatment of EGCG to mouse skin resulted in marked inhibition of a single UVB irradiation-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (16-95%), JNK (46-100%) and p38 (100%) proteins of MAPK family in a time-dependent manner. Identical photoprotective effects of EGCG or GTP were also observed against multiple UVB irradiation-induced phosphorylation of the proteins of MAPK family in vivo mouse skin. Photoprotective efficacy of GTP given in drinking water (d.w.) (0.2%, w/v) was also determined and compared with that of topical treatment of EGCG and GTP. Treatment of GTP in d.w. also significantly prevented single or multiple UVB irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes (44-61%, P the possibility of its use for the humans, and the data obtained from this in vivo study further suggest that GTP could be useful in attenuation of solar UVB light-induced oxidative stress-mediated and MAPK-caused skin disorders in humans. PMID:12771038

  8. Changes in the distribution pattern of Claudin tight junction proteins during the progression of mouse skin tumorigenesis

    epidermis) remained restricted to the cell membrane throughout the tumorigenesis protocol. However commencing 2 weeks after treatment there was a marked decrease in the number of Cldn1-positive basal cells, and the zone of Cldn1-null epidermal cells was expanded up into the lower stratified epidermis throughout the progression of DMBA/TPA treatment. In addition, there was no Cldn1 localization in the infiltrating epidermal structures of the tumorigenic epidermis. This is the first demonstration of the changes in Cldn expression in the progression of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumors; however further investigation into the molecular mechanisms regulating the observed changes in barrier selectivity during tumorigenesis is required

  9. Carcinogenicity of the environmental pollutants cyclopenteno-(cd)pyrene and cyclopentano(cd)pyrene in mouse skin

    Cavalieri, E.; Rogan, E.; Toth, B.; Munhall, A.

    1981-01-01

    Cyclopenteno(cd)pyrene (CPEP) is a widespread environmental pollutant. This hydrocarbon and its 3,4-dihydro derivative, cyclopentano(cd)pyrene (CPAP), were tested on skin in a two-stage initiation-promotion experiment in CD-1 mice and by repeated application in Swiss mice. The biological effect of CPEP and CPAP was compared to that of benzo(a)-pyrene (BP). Nine-week-old female CD-1 mice in groups of 30 were treated every other day over a 20-day period at mini-dose levels of 0.18, 0.06 and 0.02 mumol of CPEP or CPAP in acetone. One group was treated with BP at the low mini-dose level. Initiation was followed by twice weekly application of tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate for 40 weeks. In the second experiments, nine-week-old female Swiss mice in groups of 30 were treated at dose levels of 1.8, 0.6 and 0.2 mumol CPEP or CPAP in acetone twice weekly for 30 weeks. One group was treated with BP at the low dose. CPAP was virtually inactive in both studies. In the initiation-promotion experiment CPEP was inactive at the low dose level, whereas BP exhibited significant tumorigenicity. At the medium and high doses CPEP showed weak, but statistically insignificant, tumorigenic activity. Repeated application of CPEP at the high, medium and low doses resulted in tumor incidences of 23, 37 and 57%, respectively. This reverse dose-response may be due to the relatively high cytotoxicity of CPEP, BP, which was compared to CPEP at the low dose, elicited tumors in 100% of the mice. Most of the CPEP-induced neoplasms were malignant and some metastasized to lungs and lymph nodes. The inactivity of CPAP suggests the carcinogenicity of CPEP is probably due to formation of the ultimate metabolite CPEP 3,4-oxide. In view of the abundance of CPEP in environmental and occupational pollutants, its moderately potent carcinogenicity may represent a potential health hazard.

  10. Skin graft

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique pattern of

  12. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  13. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs

  14. Correlation of 32P-postlabelling-detection of DNA adducts in mouse skin in vivo with the polycyclic aromatic compound content and mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium of a range of oil products

    The in vivo genotoxic activities in mouse skin of the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extracts of a range of oil products [residual aromatic extract; untreated heavy paraffinic distillate aromatic extract; mildly refined light naphthenic base oil; bitumen (vacuum residue); high viscosity index base oil obtained by catalytic hydrogenation] were evaluated by 32P-postlabelling DNA analysis. The results of quantitative 32P-postlabelling analyses of epidermal DNA from mice treated with the DMSO extracts showed linear relationships with the total polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) contents, determined by the Institute of Petroleum method IP 346 and also the 3-6 ring PAC contents, measured by on-line liquid-liquid extraction using flow injection analysis. The 32P-postlabelling data also showed a linear relationship with the mutagenicity indices of these oil products determined in S. typhimurium TA98 using the modified Ames Salmonella microsome test. The in vivo genotoxicity of the DMSO extracts from the oil products was low, judged by 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts measured in epidermal DNA of treated mouse skin, and ranging from 2 to 723 attomole/μg DNA per mg oil product. The in vivo 32P-postlabelling data from this study are consistent with these materials expressing low genotoxicity in mouse skin in vivo. The DMSO extraction procedure coupled with 32P-postlabelling DNA analysis is useful for ranking the relative genotoxic potency in vivo of a wide range of oil products. In general the trend observed is similar to rankings based on physicochemical measurements of total PAC contents or 3-6 ring PAC contents of the oil products. (orig.)

  15. Correlation of {sup 32}P-postlabelling-detection of DNA adducts in mouse skin in vivo with the polycyclic aromatic compound content and mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium of a range of oil products

    Booth, E.D.; Loose, R.W.; Watson, W.P. [Toxicology Department, Shell International Chemicals B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brandt, H.C.A. [Product Development Department, Shell International Oil Products B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-07-01

    The in vivo genotoxic activities in mouse skin of the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extracts of a range of oil products [residual aromatic extract; untreated heavy paraffinic distillate aromatic extract; mildly refined light naphthenic base oil; bitumen (vacuum residue); high viscosity index base oil obtained by catalytic hydrogenation] were evaluated by {sup 32}P-postlabelling DNA analysis. The results of quantitative {sup 32}P-postlabelling analyses of epidermal DNA from mice treated with the DMSO extracts showed linear relationships with the total polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) contents, determined by the Institute of Petroleum method IP 346 and also the 3-6 ring PAC contents, measured by on-line liquid-liquid extraction using flow injection analysis. The {sup 32}P-postlabelling data also showed a linear relationship with the mutagenicity indices of these oil products determined in S. typhimurium TA98 using the modified Ames Salmonella microsome test. The in vivo genotoxicity of the DMSO extracts from the oil products was low, judged by {sup 32}P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts measured in epidermal DNA of treated mouse skin, and ranging from 2 to 723 attomole/{mu}g DNA per mg oil product. The in vivo {sup 32}P-postlabelling data from this study are consistent with these materials expressing low genotoxicity in mouse skin in vivo. The DMSO extraction procedure coupled with {sup 32}P-postlabelling DNA analysis is useful for ranking the relative genotoxic potency in vivo of a wide range of oil products. In general the trend observed is similar to rankings based on physicochemical measurements of total PAC contents or 3-6 ring PAC contents of the oil products. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 44 refs.

  16. Inhibitory effect of euphol, a triterpene alcohol from the roots of Euphorbia kansui, on tumour promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    Yasukawa, K; Akihisa, T; Yoshida, Z Y; Takido, M

    2000-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of euphol, twelve other triterpene alcohols and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Euphorbia kansui, has been evaluated in mice with inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). TPA (1.7 nmol; 1.0 microg/ear) was dissolved in acetone and 10 microL delivered to the inner and outer surfaces of the right ear of ICR mice. A triterpene alcohol, sterol glucoside or vehicle (20 microL; chloroform-methanol 1:1), was applied topically approximately 30 min before each TPA treatment. The ear thickness was measured before treatment and then oedema was measured 6 h after TPA treatment. For the two-stage carcinogenesis experiment, initiation was accomplished by administration of a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA; 195 nmol; 50 microg/mouse) to the shaved backs of mice. Promotion was with 1.7 nmol (1.0 microg) TPA, applied twice weekly to the same shaved area, begun one week after the initiation. Euphol (2.0 micromol; 853 microg), or its vehicle (acetone-dimethylsulphoxide, 9:1; 100 microL), was applied topically 30 min before each TPA treatment. The number and diameter of skin tumours were measured every other week for 20 weeks. All the compounds were found to possess marked inhibitory activity and their 50% inhibitory dose for TPA-induced inflammation was 0.2-1.0 mg/ear. Topical application of euphol (2.0 micromol; 853 microg/mouse) markedly suppressed the tumour-promoting effect of TPA (1.7 nmol; 1.0 microg/mouse) in mouse skin initiated with DMBA. PMID:10716613

  17. Development of Alopecia Areata Is Associated with Higher Central and Peripheral Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Tone in the Skin Graft Induced C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    Zhang, Xingqi; Yu, Mei; Yu, Wayne; Weinberg, Joanne; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of the stress response to the pathogenesis of alopecia areata (AA) was investigated by subjecting normal and skin graft-induced, AA-affected C3H/HeJ mice to light ether anesthesia or restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and estradiol (E2) levels were determined by RIA, whereas gene expression in brains, lymphoid organs, and skin was measured by quantitative RT-PCR for corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), arginine vasopressin (Avp), proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1), mineralo corticoid receptor (Nr3c2), corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor types 1 and 2 (Crhr1, Crhr2), interleukin-12 (Il12), tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfα), and estrogen receptors type-1 (Esr1) and type-2 (Esr2). AA mice had a marked increase in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) tone and activity centrally, and peripherally in the skin and lymph nodes. There was also altered interaction between the adrenal and gonadal axes compared with that in normal mice. Stress further exacerbated changes in AA mouse HPA activity both centrally and peripherally. AA mice had significantly blunted CORT and ACTH responses to acute ether stress (physiological stressor) and a deficit in habituation to repeated restraint stress (psychological stressor). The positive correlation of HPA hormone levels with skin Th1 cytokines suggests that altered HPA activity may occur as a consequence of the immune response associated with AA. PMID:19020552

  18. Delineating the role of histamine-1- and -4-receptors in a mouse model of Th2-dependent antigen-specific skin inflammation.

    Subhashree Mahapatra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histamine drives pruritus in allergic skin diseases which clinically constitutes a most disruptive symptom. Skin pathology in allergic skin diseases is crucially influenced by different T-helper subsets. However, the contribution of different histamine-receptors to T-helper cell dependent skin pathology has not been definitively answered. Models which can specifically address the functional role of T-helper subsets and the mediators involved are therefore valuable to gain further insights into molecular pathways which contribute to allergic skin disease. They might also be helpful to probe amendable therapeutic interventions such as histamine-receptor antagonism. OBJECTIVE: Establishing an adoptive transfer model for antigen-specific Th cells, we aimed to delineate the role of histamine H1- and H4-receptors in Th2-dependent skin inflammation. METHODS: In-vitro differentiated and OVA primed Th2 cells were adoptively transferred into congenic recipient mice. In vivo treatment with specific histamine H1- and H4-receptor antagonists was performed to analyze the contribution of these histamine-receptors to Th2-dependent skin pathology in our model. Analysis four days after epicutaneous challenge comprised skin histology, flow cytometric detection of transferred T-helper cells and analysis of antigen-cytokine profiles in skin-draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: Use of specific H1- and H4-receptor antagonists revealed a crucial role for H1- and H4-receptors for Th2 migration and cytokine secretion in a Th2-driven model of skin inflammation. While H1- and H4-receptor antagonists both reduced Th2 recruitment to the site of challenge, local cytokine responses in skin-draining lymph nodes were only reduced by the combined application of H1- and H4-receptor antagonists and mast cell counts remained altogether unchanged by either H1R-, H4R- or combined antagonism. CONCLUSION: Our model demonstrates a role for H1- and H4-receptors in Th2 cell

  19. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    ... threatening skin cancer. The "ABCD's" of what to watch for with the moles on your skin: Asymmetry : ... skin cancer has been increasing. Exposure to the sun is a major factor. In 2006, over 30 ...

  20. Anti-Aging Effect of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Skin Aging Induced by D-Galactose

    Zhang, Shengchang; Dong, Ziqing; Peng, Zhangsong; Lu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Glycation products accumulate during aging of slowly renewing tissue, including skin, and are suggested as an important mechanism underlying the skin aging process. Adipose-derived cells are widely used in the clinic to treat ischemic diseases and enhance wound healing. Interestingly, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are also effective in anti-aging therapy, although the mechanism underlying their effects remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the anti-...

  1. Morphological classification of nuchal skin in human fetuses with trisomy 21, 18, and 13 at 12-18 weeks and in a trisomy 16 mouse.

    von Kaisenberg, C S; Krenn, V; Ludwig, M; Nicolaides, K H; Brand-Saberi, B

    1998-02-01

    An increase in the nuchal translucency that can be detected at 10-14 weeks of gestation by ultrasound forms the basis for a screening test for chromosomal abnormality. Several mechanisms leading to this increase in skin thickness have been proposed, including changes of the extracellular matrix, cardiac defects and abnormalities of the large vessels. This study examines the composition of the extracellular matrix of the skin in gestational age-matched fetuses with trisomy 21, 18 and 13 from 12-18 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was applied with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against collagen type I, III, IV, V and VI and against laminin and fibronectin. Collagen type VI gene expression was further studied by in situ hybridization to detect differences in expression patterns of COL6A1, COL6A3 and COL1A1 between normal fetuses and those with trisomy 21. The ultrastructure of tissue samples was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and additionally by immunogold TEM. Further, we examined the morphology of the skin in an animal model for Down's syndrome, the murine trisomy 16, by light and TEM. The dermis of trisomy 21 fetuses was richer in collagen type VI than that of normal fetuses and other trisomies, and COL6A1, located on chromosome 21, was expressed in a wider area than COL6A3, which is located on chromosome 2. Collagen type I was less abundant in the skin of trisomy 18 fetuses, while the skin of all three trisomies contained a dense network of collagen type III and V in comparison with normal fetuses. Collagen type IV, of which two genes are located on chromosome 13, was expressed in the basement membranes of the skin in all fetuses and additionally in the dermal fibroblasts only of trisomy 13 fetuses. Likewise, laminin was present in all basement membranes of normal and trisomic fetuses as well as in dermal fibroblasts of fetuses with trisomy 18. LAMA1 and LAMA3 genes are located on chromosome 18. Dermal cysts were found in the skin of trisomy 18

  2. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse.

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Bunde, Kristi L; Harper, Tod A; McQuistan, Tammie J; Löhr, Christiane V; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Krueger, Sharon K; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. PMID:26049101

  3. Preparation of studies on antibody production against food allergens in mice and effect of flavonoids in simultaneous injection into mouse skin.

    We had tried to evaluate antibody production against food allergens in mouse models. Some food allergens, which were beta-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, and peanut allergen Ara h 1, were used as immunoges in this experiment. Under the same conditions these allergens were immunized as emulsion with freund...

  4. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for tumor control, acute skin damage and late radiation-induced fibrosis in a mouse model

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Horsman, Michael Robert; Alsner, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    right hind limb were irradiated with single fractions of either photons, or 12 C ions using a 30-mm spread-out Bragg peak. The endpoint of the study was local control (no tumor recurrence within 90 days). For the acute skin reaction, non-tumor bearing CDF1 mice were irradiated with a comparable...

  5. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of [3H]uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of [3H]methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of [3H]methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression

  6. The alpha/beta carboxy-terminal domains of p63 are required for skin and limb development. New insights from the Brdm2 mouse which is not a complete p63 knockout but expresses p63 gamma-like proteins

    Wolff, S; Talos, F; Palacios, G; Beyer, U; Dobbelstein, M; Moll, U M

    2009-01-01

    p63, an ancestral transcription factor of the p53 family, has three C-terminal isoforms whose relative in vivo functions are elusive. The p63 gene is essential for skin and limb development, as vividly shown by two independent global knockout mouse models. Both strains, although constructed diffe...

  7. Aging Skin

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  8. Skin Conditions

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  9. Combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid, nicotinamide and calcium glucarate against the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis attained by enhancing the induction of intrinsic apoptotic events.

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2015-01-25

    We explored the basis of the combinatorial chemopreventive effect of butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) on mouse skin exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). We studied the effects of topical application of DMBA in the presence or absence of BA, NA and CAG on the regulators of apoptosis. DMBA treatment suppressed Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, Apaf1, caspase-9, -3 mediated apoptosis. Downregulation of p21 and upregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53 were also observed in only DMBA treated mice. Simultaneous application of BA, NA and CAG induced a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, characterized by a rise in the Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, release of cyt c, upregulation of Apaf1 with down-stream activation of caspase-9, -3. Furthermore treatment with BA, NA and CAG demonstrated an upregulation of p21 and downregulation of Bcl-2, mut p53. But this effect was enhanced in the presence of all the three compounds together in combination. Chemoprevention by a combination of BA, NA and CAG by inducing the apoptosis, the natural cell death, suggest the importance of the potential combinational strategies capable of preventing skin tumor development. PMID:25478867

  10. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents.

    Tiwari, Prakash; Gupta, Krishna P

    2014-07-15

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. PMID:24792773

  11. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management. PMID:26655363

  12. 祛斑汤对小鼠皮肤黑素合成影响的研究%Study on the Effect of Qu-ban Decoction On the Melanin Synthesis in Mouse Skin

    李艳; 艾儒棣; 肖桦; 郝平生

    2012-01-01

    To observe the effect of Qu-ban Decoction on melanin synthesis in the female C57BL/6J mouse skin and provide the experimental basis for exploring deeply the mechanism of treating melasma by the prescription. Methods; Female C57BL/ 6J mice were randomly divided into the blank control group, the Qu-ban Decoction low dose group (10 g/kg) , the middle dose group (20 g/kg) , the high dose group (40 g/kg) and the vitamin C group. Take the skin from mice fed with drug for 30 days. Use immu-nohistochemical techniques to observe the melanin distribution and the result was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA statistically. Results : The melanocytes that contained the melanin granules were named positive cells. The average optical densities of positive cells of the high dose group and the middle dose group were lower than the blank control group. The difference between the high dose group, the middle dose group and the blank control group was significant statistically (P <0. 01) . Conclusion; The Qu-ban Decoction can inhibit the melanin synthesis and reduce the melanin distribution in female C57BI/6J mouse skin.%目的:观察祛斑汤对雌性C57BL/6J小鼠皮肤黑素合成的影响,为探索该方剂治疗黄褐斑机制提供实验依据.方法:将雌性C57BL/6J小鼠随机分成空白对照组、祛斑汤低(10 g/kg)、中(20 g/kg)、高剂量(40 g/kg)组、维生素C组.各组灌胃给药30 d后皮肤取材.采用免疫组化法观察小鼠皮肤黑素分布.结果:祛斑汤高、中剂量组黑素颗粒阳性反应的黑素细胞平均光密度低于空白对照组,差别有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:祛斑汤能抑制雌性C57BI/6J小鼠皮肤中黑素合成、降低黑素分布.

  13. miR-206-3p在小鼠皮肤中的表达及其作用%Expression and distribution of miR-206-3p in mouse skin and its potential roles

    穆原; 周红; 李文艳; 李耀武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and distribution of miR-206-3p and its target gene Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in mouse skin and the potential roles during the development of skin.Methods The full-thickness back skins of BALB/c mice on the 13.5 dpc (day post coition),15.5 dpc,17.5 dpc,1 dpp (day post partum),4 dpp and 16 weeks were collected respectively.The expression levels of miR-206-3p and BdnfmRNA were measured by real time RT-PCR,and BDNF protein was detected by western blot.The distributions of miR-206-3p and BDNF in tissue were profiled by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively.Results The expression level of miR-206-3p increased gradually until 17.5 dpc and subsequently receded to the similar level of the 13.5 dpc during adult stage.The expression of BDNF protein exhibited in the opposite manner of miR-206-3p but BdnfmRNA remained stable from the 17.5 dpc until adult stage.ISH results showed that the distribution of miR-206-3p was gradually regionalized during the development of skin in the postnatal days and mainly located in the suprabasal layer and periphery of hair follicles,which was adjacent to the regions of BDNF expression at the same stage in a nonoverlapping manner.Conclusion The miR-206-3p may be involved in neurodevelopment of mouse skin through the post-transcriptional regulation of Bdnf.%目的 对小鼠皮肤中miR-206-3p及其靶基因脑源性神经营养因子(Bdnf)进行表达与定位检测,以探讨其在皮肤发育过程中的可能作用.方法 手术剪取13.5 dpc(交配后天数)、15.5 dpc、17.5 dpc胎鼠,1 dpp(出生后天数)、4 dpp乳鼠及16周龄雄鼠的背部全层皮肤,用实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测miR-206-3p与Bdnf mRNA的表达水平,western blot检测BDNF蛋白质表达水平,原位杂交与免疫组化分别检测miR-206-3p与BDNF的组织定位.结果 皮肤中miR-206-3p在胚胎期持续升高,到17.5 dpc后逐渐降低,于成年鼠时回复至13.5 dpc时

  14. 5-HT1A/1B receptors as targets for optimizing pigmentary responses in C57BL/6 mouse skin to stress.

    Hua-Li Wu

    Full Text Available Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2 expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs, 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs, the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP, a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253, finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT

  15. Effect of treatment in fractionated schedules with the combination of x-irradiation and six cytotoxic drugs on the RIF-1 tumor and normal mouse skin

    RIF-1 tumors, implanted syngeneically in the gastrocnemius muscles of the right hind legs of C3H/Km mice, were treated either with X ray alone, drug alone, or drug and X ray combined. The drugs tested were bleomycin, BCNU, cis-diamminedichloro platinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and actinomycin-D. All drugs were administered either in the maximum tolerated dose or a dose that causes minimal tumor growth delay. Both drugs and X rays were administered either as a single dose or in five daily fractions. In addition to the single modality controls, seven different schedules of combined modalities were tested. Tumors were measured periodically after treatment in order that the day at which each tumor reached 4 times its initial cross-sectional area, i.e., its size at the time of treatment, could be determined. The effect of treatment on tumors was based upon excess growth delay (GD), i.e., T400% (treated)-T400% (untreated control). Treatment effects for the same combined modality schedules were also determined for normal skin, using the early skin reaction as an endpoint. Dose effect factors (DEF) were computed for all combined modality schedules and were based upon calculated radiation dose equivalents. We also calculated supra-additivity ratios, SR/sub I/ and SR/sub II/, therapeutic gain factors and adjusted therapeutic gain factors. The only drugs to produce significant supra-additivity with X rays were cis-Pt and cyclo

  16. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. - Highlights: • DMBA modulates miR-203 and its regulator before and after the onset of tumors. • Suppression of miR-203 and p16 could be the result of gene promoter methylation. • BA, NA or CAG prevents the effects of DMBA. • Combination of BA, NA or CAG is more effective in preventing the DMBA modulations

  17. Modulation of miR-203 and its regulators as a function of time during the development of 7, 12 dimethylbenz [a] anthracene induced mouse skin tumors in presence or absence of the antitumor agents

    Tiwari, Prakash; Gupta, Krishna P., E-mail: krishnag522@yahoo.co.in

    2014-07-15

    We investigated the chemopreventive effects of naturally occurring compounds like butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG) individually or in combination in 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) treated mouse skin at 4 and 16 weeks, the time before and after the tumor development. DMBA application did not show any skin tumors at 4 weeks but well defined tumors appeared at 16 weeks. BA, NA or CAG prevented the tumor development significantly but the protection was highly enhanced when all these compounds were given together. In order to see the molecular changes progressing with tumors, we showed the downregulation of tumor suppressor miR-203 at 16 weeks and upregulation of histone deacetylases (HDAC), DNA methyltransferase, promoter methylation of miR-203 at 4 or 16 weeks. Regulators of micro RNA biogenesis such as DICER1 and Ago2 were also deregulated by DMBA. Proto-oncogene c-myc and BMI1 were upregulated and tumor suppressor gene p16 was downregulated by DMBA as a function of time. Effects of BA, NA or CAG were more pronounced after 16 weeks as compared to 4 weeks in preventing the tumor development and altered gene expression. Concomitant administration of BA, NA and CAG tried to prevent these alterations more effectively than that of individual compound possibly by regulating miR-203 status through epigenetic or biogenetic modulations before and after the tumor development. Study provides a rationale for chemoprevention by combination of different compounds targeting miR-203. - Highlights: • DMBA modulates miR-203 and its regulator before and after the onset of tumors. • Suppression of miR-203 and p16 could be the result of gene promoter methylation. • BA, NA or CAG prevents the effects of DMBA. • Combination of BA, NA or CAG is more effective in preventing the DMBA modulations.

  18. Sagging Skin

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  19. Skin Dictionary

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  20. Skin turgor

    ... up during a check. This can indicate severe dehydration that needs quick treatment. You have reduced skin turgor and are unable ... Urinalysis Intravenous fluids may be needed for severe ... treat other conditions that affect skin turgor and elasticity.

  1. Skin Cancer

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  2. SKIN CANCER

    Made Putri Hendaria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases was happened in United States, which makes it become the most common cancer type in that country. Skin cancer diagnosis is build from anamnesis, physic examination about skin eufloressence, using dermoscopy, and histopatologic examination as the gold standar. Therapy for skin cancer is classified to surgery and non surgery therapy and its prognostic is depend to the types of the skin cancer itself.

  3. Skin Aging

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  4. Skin Biopsy

    ... skin condition cannot be diagnosed by the patient's history and what the physician finds on examination alone. Confirming a clinical diagnosis may also be necessary prior to starting therapy. Skin biopsy types are as follows: Shave biopsies Punch biopsies ...

  5. Skin Graft

    Ruka Shimizu; Kazuo Kishi

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  6. SKIN CANCER

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  7. Skin graft

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  8. Skin Aging

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  9. Periostin in Skin Tissue Skin-Related Diseases

    Yukie Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, periostin—a matricellular protein—has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD, attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Keloid-derived, plasma/fibrin-based skin equivalents generate de novo dermal and epidermal pathology of keloid fibrosis in a mouse model.

    Lee, Yun-Shain; Hsu, Tim; Chiu, Wei-Chih; Sarkozy, Heidi; Kulber, David A; Choi, Aaron; Kim, Elliot W; Benya, Paul D; Tuan, Tai-Lan

    2016-03-01

    Keloids are wounding-induced tumor-like human scars. Unclear etiology and lack of animal models to reveal disease mechanisms and invent therapies deepen the grievous health and psychosocial state of vulnerable individuals. Epitomizing the injury-repair environment which triggers and fosters keloid formation and essential dermal/epidermal interactions in disease development, the novel animal model was established by implanting porous polyethylene ring-supported plasma/fibrin-based epidermal-dermal skin constructs on the dorsum of athymic NU/J mice. The implants were stable to 18 weeks, contained abundant human cells, and remodeled to yield scar architecture characteristic of keloid fibrosis compared with normal implants and clinical specimens: (1) macroscopic convex or nodular scar morphology; (2) morphogenesis and accumulation of large collagen bundles from collagen-null initial constructs; (3) epidermal hyperplasia, aberrant epidermal-dermal patency, and features of EMT; (4) increased vasculature, macrophage influx, and aggregation; and (5) temporal-spatial increased collagen-inducing PAI-1 and its interactive partner uPAR expression. Development of such pathology in the NU/J host suggests that T-cell participation is less important at this stage than at keloid initiation. These accessible implants also healed secondary excisional wounds, enabling clinically relevant contemporaneous wounding and treatment strategies, and evaluation. The model provides a robust platform for studying keloid formation and testing knowledge-based therapies. PMID:26683740

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi: in vivo evaluation of iron in skin employing X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to infection.

    Estevam, Marcelo; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Malvezi, Aparecida Donizette; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia Hideko; Panis, Carolina; Cecchini, Rubens; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2012-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease (CD), is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Laboratory mice inoculated with T. cruzi have served as important animal models of acute CD. Host hypoferremic responses occur during T. cruzi infection; therefore, it has been hypothesized that T. cruzi requires iron for optimal growth in host cells and, unlike extracellular pathogens, may benefit from host hypoferremic responses. Recent technological improvements of X-ray fluorescence are useful for diagnostics or monitoring in biomedical applications. The goal of our study was to determine whether the iron availabilities in Swiss and C57BL/6 mice differ during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection and whether the availability correlates with oxidative stress in the susceptible and resistant phenotypes identified in these mice. Our results showed that the decrease in iron levels in the skin of resistant infected mice correlated with the increase in oxidative stress associated with anemia and the reduction in parasite burden. PMID:22136203

  12. Undergraduate Laboratory Module on Skin Diffusion

    Norman, James J.; Andrews, Samantha N.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    To introduce students to an application of chemical engineering directly related to human health, we developed an experiment for the unit operations laboratory at Georgia Tech examining diffusion across cadaver skin in the context of transdermal drug delivery. In this laboratory module, students prepare mouse skin samples, set up diffusion cells…

  13. Curious Skin

    Angel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of Henry Wellcome’s collection of tattoos on human skin will be on display in our forthcoming Skin exhibition. But how did the Parisian doctor from whom they were acquired come by his macabre collection of tattoos in the first place, and what did they mean to those whose skin they were on? It’s Gemma Angel‘s job to find out…

  14. Investigation of skin cancer treatment efficiency by raman spectroscopy

    Lee, M. S.; Kim, D. W. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    From the successful perform of the molecular structures of various kinds of human skin cancer. We can predict the types of cancer when a small abnormal change change occurs on skin by raman spectrum. When we applied the cancer causing chemicals, bezopyrene, to nude mouse, it did not develop to cancer. But we had radiated UV light after developed to skin cancer in a few days. We can deduce the development of human skin cancer from the result of nude mouse skin cancer, because the two skin are structurally very similar to each other. From the results of own research we could conform the UV light is essential for the development of skin cancer. The results of own research can be directly apply to early detection and proper treatment of skin cancer in hospital. 32 refs., 40 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  15. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color.

  16. Skin Pigment

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment that ...

  17. Skin abscess

    ... infection (often staphylococcus) A minor wound or injury Boils Folliculitis (infection in a hair follicle) A skin ... Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 90. Read More Boils Endocarditis Folliculitis MRSA Osteomyelitis Update Date 11/12/ ...

  18. A Simplified Procedure to Reconstitute Hair-Producing Skin

    Lee, Lily F.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Garner, Warren; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2011-01-01

    One of the major objectives of tissue engineering is to reconstitute skin from stem cells. This requires multipotent skin stem cells and the ability to guide these cells to form a piece of skin with proper architecture and skin appendages. Based on previous progress, we develop a simplified procedure that can be useful for large-scale screening of factors that can modulate the hair formation ability of candidate cells. Newborn mouse cells are used. Dissociated epidermal and dermal cells in hi...

  19. Skin color - patchy

    Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. Mottling or mottled skin refers to blood vessel changes in ... in the skin cells that gives skin its color Growth of bacteria or other organisms on the ...

  20. Skin Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    ... watch for with the moles on your skin: Asymmetry : the shape of one half does not match ... Number 4 Pages 22 - 25 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National ...

  2. Innate lymphoid cells and the skin

    Salimi, Maryam; Ogg, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are an emerging family of effector cells that contribute to lymphoid organogenesis, metabolism, tissue remodelling and protection against infections. They maintain homeostatic immunity at barrier surfaces such as lung, skin and gut (Nature 464:1367–1371, 2010, Nat Rev Immunol 13: 145–149, 2013). Several human and mouse studies suggest a role for innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory skin conditions including atopic eczema and psoriasis. Here we review the innate lymphoid...

  3. The effects of X-rays on the mitotic activity of mouse epidermis

    Knowlton, N.P. Jr.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1949-04-19

    This report describes a simplified technique of obtaining the mitotic index of mouse skin and indicates the surprising sensitivity of the mitotic activity of mouse epithelium to the effects of x-rays.

  4. 金雀异黄素对D-半乳糖损伤的乳鼠皮肤成纤维细胞的作用%Study of genistein on mouse skin fibroblasts injured by D-galactose

    顾翠英; 韩志芬; 夏花英; 蒋嘉烨; 曹红平; 金国琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of genistein (Gen) on the mouse skin fibroblasts (MSFs) injured by D-galactose and investigate the mechanisms. Methods MSFs were cultured in vitro, then Gen was used to affect the model cells injured by D-galactose. The morphostructure of the MSFs were observed with microscope. The vitalities of superoxide dismutase ( SOD) , lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) , and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by kit methods. Erαand ERβmRNA were detected by RT-PCR method. Results Compared with model group, 0. 5 mg/L Gen could improve the content of MDA, increase the vitalities of SOD and LDH (P < 0.01) markedly. Gen could decrease the expression of Erα mRNA (P<0. 05) and increase Erβ mRNA (P<0. 05) obviously. Conclusions 0. 5 mg/L Gen can improve ER mRNA, enhance the vitality of SOD and antioxidation, increase the content of MDA and the vitality of LDH, change the biological characteristics of MSFs, inhibit MSFs proliferation.%目的 观察金雀异黄素(Gen)对D-半乳糖(D-gal)损伤的小鼠皮肤成纤维细胞(MSFs)模型的作用,并探索其机制.方法 体外培养MSFs,D-gal制作细胞损伤模型,并用Gen进行干预.显微镜下观察各组MSFs生长形态变化;试剂盒法检测MSFs上清液中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量和乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性;RT-PCR法检测MSFs的雌激素受体雌激素受体(ER)α和ERβ mRNA的表达.结果 与模型组相比,浓度为0.5 mg/L Gen能显著提高SOD活性,同时亦提高MDA含量和LDH活性(P<0.01);明显下调ERα mRNA表达(P<0.05),上调ERβmRNA表达(P<0.05).结论 浓度为0.5 mg/L Gen可以通过改善模型细胞ER mRNA的表达,提高SOD活性和抗氧化作用;同时升高MDA含量和LDH活性,改变MSFs的生物学特性,抑制其过度增殖.

  5. Allergy testing - skin

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  6. Skin Care and Aging

    ... Home » Skin Care and Aging Heath and Aging Skin Care and Aging Dry Skin and Itching Bruises Wrinkles Age Spots ... doctor. For More Information About Skin Care and Aging American Academy of Dermatology 1-866-503-7546 ( ...

  7. Skin Care and Aging

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It ... if they bother you. See additional resources on aging skin, including information on treatment options, specific conditions, ...

  8. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  9. Skin Substitutes

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  10. Skin aging:

    Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2008-01-01

    There are two main processes that induce skin aging: intrinsic and extrinsic. A stochastic process that implies random cell damage as a result of mutations during metabolic processes due to the production of free radicals is also implicated. Extrinsic aging is caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, air pollution, smoking, alcohol abuse, and poor nutrition. Intrinsicaging reflects the genetic background and depends on time. Various expressions of intrinsic aging include smooth, ...

  11. TSLP is differentially regulated by vitamin D3 and cytokines in human skin

    Landheer, Janneke; Giovannone, Barbara; Sadekova, Svetlana; Tjabringa, Sandra; Hofstra, Claudia; Dechering, Koen; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; Chang, Charlie; Ying, Yu; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Hijnen, DirkJan; Knol, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in allergic diseases and is highly expressed in keratinocytes in human lesional atopic dermatitis (AD) skin. In nonlesional AD skin TSLP expression can be induced by applying house dust mite allergen onto the skin in the atopy patch test. Several studies have demonstrated that the induction of TSLP expression in mouse skin does not only lead to AD-like inflammation of the skin, but also predisposes to severe inflammation of the airwa...

  12. Autoinflammatory Skin Disorders: The Inflammasomme in Focus.

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-07-01

    Autoinflammatory skin disorders are a group of heterogeneous diseases that include diseases such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Therapeutic strategies targeting IL-1 cytokines have proved helpful in ameliorating some of these diseases. While inflammasomes are the major regulators of IL-1 cytokines, inflammasome-independent complexes can also process IL-1 cytokines. Herein, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of how IL-1 cytokines, stemming from inflammasome-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in the regulation of skin conditions. Importantly, we discuss several mouse models of skin inflammation generated to help elucidate the basic cellular and molecular effects and modulation of IL-1 in the skin. Such models offer perspectives on how these signaling pathways could be targeted to improve therapeutic approaches in the treatment of these rare and debilitating inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27267764

  13. Cutaneous skin tag

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  14. Possible role for metallothionein in the cellular defense mechanism against UVB irradiation in neonatal human skin fibroblasts

    The role of metallothionein (MT) in protecting skin cells against UVB irradiation was investigated. Fibroblast strains from normal adult (HS-K) and neonatal (NB1RGB) human skins as well as keratinocyte strains from human skin (SV40-HSK) and newborn Balb/c mouse skin (Pam 212) were exposed to UVB irradiation. (Author)

  15. Skin to skin care:heat balance.

    Karlsson, H.

    1996-01-01

    Skin to skin care has been practised in primitive and high technology cultures for body temperature preservation in neonates. Regional skin temperature and heat flow was measured in moderately hypothermic term neonates to quantitate the heat transfer occurring during one hour of skin to skin care. Nine healthy newborns with a mean rectal temperature of 36.3 degrees C were placed skin to skin on their mothers' chests. The mean (SD) rectal temperature increased by 0.7 (0.4) degrees C to 37.0 de...

  16. Mouse adhalin

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W;

    1997-01-01

    analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin was...... specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation in...

  17. Bone Marrow Cell Transfer into Fetal Circulation Can Ameliorate Genetic Skin Diseases by Providing Fibroblasts to the Skin and Inducing Immune Tolerance

    Chino, Takenao; Tamai, Katsuto; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Otsuru, Satoru; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Nimura, Keisuke; Endo, Masayuki; Nagai, Miki; Uitto, Jouni; Kitajima, Yasuo; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that skin injury recruits bone marrow-derived fibroblasts (BMDFs) to the site of injury to accelerate tissue repair. However, whether uninjured skin can recruit BMDFs to maintain skin homeostasis remains uncertain. Here, we investigated the appearance of BMDFs in normal mouse skin after embryonic bone marrow cell transplantation (E-BMT) with green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cells (GFP-BMCs) via the vitelline vein, which traverses the uterine wall and ...

  18. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  19. Induction of anti-EBNA-1 protein by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment of human lymphoblastoid cells

    Wen, Longthung; Tanaka, Akiko; Nonoyama, Meihan (Showa Univ. Research Institute for Biomedicine in Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Binding of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) to BamHI-C DNA was studied by affinity column chromatography followed by immunoblotting with human serum specific for EBNA-1. Two species of EBNA-1 (68 and 70 kilodaltons) were identified in nuclear extracts of the EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Raji and not in nuclear extracts of the EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BJAB. Both EBNA-1s bound specifically to the region required for EBV plasmid DNA maintenance (oriP) located in the BamHI-C fragment. Upon treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activates latent EBV genome in Raji cells, the 68-kilodalton EBNA-1 was uncoupled from binding to EBV oriP. Nuclear extracts from 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated BJAB cells also uncoupled the binding of both EBNA-1s to oriP. DNA-cellulose column chromatography identified two protein species which competed for and uncoupled the binding of EBNA-1 to oriP. The two cellular competitors the authors called anti-EBNA-1 proteins had molecular masses of 60 and 40 kilodaltons, respectively. They were not found in nuclear extracts of BJAB cells not activated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

  20. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  1. Effects of Selenium on DNA Binding Activity of Nuclear Factor-κB Induced by Arsenic in Mouse Skin JB6-CI41 Cells in vitro%硒对砷诱导小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞核因子κB的DNA结合活性体外实验研究

    余日安; 贺凌飞; 鲁文清; 李晓暖; 王艺陪; 陈秉; 戴文涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究硒对砷诱导小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞核因子κB(nuclear factor κB,NF-κB)的DNA结合活性和细胞凋亡的作用.方法 调整JB6-CI41细胞密度为1×105/孔,分别设立对照(生理盐水)组,不同浓度的亚砷酸(3.125、6.25、12.5 μmol/L)和亚硒酸钠(2.5 μmol/L)单独染毒组,亚硒酸钠(2.5μmol/L)+不同浓度的亚砷酸(3.125、6.25和12.5μmol/L)联合染毒组,NF-κB特异化学抑制剂二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸盐(diethyldithiocarbamate,DTYC,100 μmol/L,提前染毒2 h)+亚砷酸(6.25 μmol/L)联合染毒组.采用凝胶阻滞电泳法(electrophoretic mobility shift assay,EMSA)检测NF-κB的DNA结合活性,采用流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡情况.结果 2.5 μmol/L亚硒酸钠对小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性和细胞凋亡无显著影响(P>0.05).6.25和12.5 μmol/L的亚砷酸能够增强小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性(P<0.01),具有明显剂量-效应关系(r=0.942 6,P<0.01).3.125、6.25和12.5 μmol/L亚砷酸诱导小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞凋亡(P<0.01),呈现显著剂量-反应关系(r=0.991 8,P<0.01).NF-κB的DNA结合活性与细胞凋亡率呈显著正相关(r=0.977 5,P<0.01).2.5 μmol/L亚硒酸钠能抑制6.25和12.5 μmol/L亚砷酸作用下的小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性(P<0.01),对3.125、6.25和12.5 μmol/L的亚砷酸引起的小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞凋亡率也表现出显著抑制作用(P<0.01).100 μmol/L的DTYC对6.25μmol/L亚砷酸引起的小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性和细胞凋亡率具有显著抑制作用(P<0.01).结论 在本实验中,一定剂量(6.25~12.5 μmol/L)的砷能够使小鼠皮肤JB6-CI41细胞NF-κB的DNA结合活性显著增高并诱导细胞凋亡,2.5 μmol/L的硒能抑制砷引起的NF-κB的活化和细胞凋亡.%Objective To explore the effects of selenium on arsenic-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and apoptosis in mouse skin JB6-CI

  2. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  3. Gesture Recognition Based Mouse Events

    Rachit Puri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the maneuver of mouse pointer a nd performs various mouse operations such as left click, right click, double click, drag etc using ge stures recognition technique. Recognizing gestures is a complex task which involves many aspects such as mo tion modeling, motion analysis, pattern recognition and machine learning. Keeping all the essential factors in mind a system has been created which recognizes the movement of fingers and various patterns formed by them. Color caps have been used for fingers to distinguish it f rom the background color such as skin color. Thus recog nizing the gestures various mouse events have been performed. The application has been created on MATL AB environment with operating system as windows 7.

  4. Skin color - patchy

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  5. Skin Cancer Foundation

    ... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... About Us Contact Us © 2016 The Skin Cancer Foundation | 149 Madison Avenue Suite 901 New York, NY ...

  6. Learning about Skin Cancer

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  7. Skin care and incontinence

    Incontinence - skin care ... or bowels (called incontinence) are at risk of skin problems around the buttocks, hips, genitals, and the ... rectum (perineum). Excess moisture in these areas makes skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast ...

  8. The influence of cosmetics on the properties of skin autofluorescence

    Tamošiūnas, M.; Bertulytė, I.; Rečiūnaitė, I.; Jakštys, B.; Šatkauskienė, I.; Čepurnienė, K.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the changes of autofluorescence and sensitized fluorescence under the effect of cosmetics. We used a method of fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo and examined the mouse skin covering the tumour. Analysis of fluorescence spectral changes was made after differentiation of the cosmetics according to its effects: i) inducing temporary changes of skin autofluorescence after absorbtion into skin (lipsticks, face powders, body lotions, mascaras); ii) permanently changing the fluorescence of the skin (collagen containing products). Cosmetics have been shown to be optically active and capable to alter the fluorescence of exogenously accumulated photosensitizers and endogenous tissue fluorophores.

  9. Iron in Skin of Mice with Three Etiologies of Systemic Iron Overload

    Adams, Brian D.; Lazova, Rossitza; Andrews, Nancy C.; Milstone, Leonard M

    2005-01-01

    In human hemochromatosis, tissue toxicity is a function of tissue iron levels. Despite reports of skin toxicity in hemochromatosis, little is known about iron levels in skin of individuals with systemic iron overload. We measured skin iron and studied skin histology in three mouse models of systemic iron overload: mice with a deletion of the hemochromatosis (Hfe) gene, mice fed a high iron diet, and mice given parenteral injections of iron. In Hfe−/− mice, iron content in the epidermis and de...

  10. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  11. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review).

    Neagu, Monica; Caruntu, Constantin; Constantin, Carolina; Boda, Daniel; Zurac, Sabina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands‑on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro‑inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro‑inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  12. Skin Cancer Prevention

    ... the lower part of the epidermis. They make melanin , the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skin to tan, or darken. The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels , hair follicles , and glands . Enlarge Anatomy of the skin, ...

  13. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ... Dry skin public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases ...

  14. Estrogens and aging skin

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  15. Stiff skin syndrome.

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  16. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Wojciechowicz, K.; Gledhill, K; Ambler, C.A.; Manning, C B; Jahoda, C.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before bir...

  18. The City Mouse and the Country Mouse

    2000-01-01

    Once two mice (老鼠) were good friends. One lived in the city, the other lived in the country (乡村). After many years, the city mouse came to see the country mouse. The country mouse took him to his house in a field. He gave him the nicest food that he could find. The city mouse said,

  19. Mouse lymphotoxin.

    Trivers, G; Braungart, D; Leonard, E J

    1976-07-01

    The addition of PHA to C3H mouse spleen cells in tissue culture led to the production of lymphotoxin (LT). Cytotoxicity was assayed by addition of the culture fluids to syngeneic target cells labeled with tritiated thymidine; after an incubation period of 72 hr the amount of radioactivity released into the supernatant was measured. The LT activity in unfractionated culture fluids survived lyophilization, remained unchanged for many weeks at 4 degrees C, and progressively decreased on heating at 56 degrees C for periods from 1 to 9 hr. Based on the G-200 Sephadex distribution coefficients for several preparations, the m.w. of mouse lymphotoxin was about 41,000 daltons. Lymphotoxin from three different spleen cell production runs was recovered from isoelectric focusing columns in sharply focused peaks, the pH of which ranged from 4.4 to 4.8. PMID:1084362

  20. Climate change and human skin cancer.

    van der Leun, Jan C; Piacentini, Rubén D; de Gruijl, Frank R

    2008-06-01

    As part of an inventory of potential interactions between effects of ozone depletion and climate change, a possible effect of ambient temperature on sun-induced skin cancers was suggested. Mouse experiments had shown that increased room temperature enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced carcinogenesis; the effective UV dose was increased by 3-7% per degrees C. The present investigation was aimed at studying a possible temperature effect on human skin cancer. Existing data on the incidence of human skin cancer were analyzed, as available from two special surveys of non-melanoma skin cancer in the United States. The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the ten regions surveyed not only correlated significantly with the ambient UV dose but also with the average daily maximum temperature in summer. For squamous cell carcinoma the incidence was higher by 5.5% (SE 1.6%) per degrees C and for basal cell carcinoma by 2.9% (SE 1.4%) per degrees C. These values correspond to an increase of the effective UV dose by about 2% per degrees C. Although the precise nature of this correlation with temperature requires further studies, it can be concluded that the temperature rises coming with climate change can indeed amplify the induction of non-melanoma skin cancers by UV radiation in human populations. PMID:18528559

  1. Effect of 8-methoxypsoralen plus long-wave ultraviolet (PUVA) radiation on mast cells: PUVA suppresses degranulation of mouse skin mast cells induced by compound 48/80 or concanavalin A

    Ears of mice were treated with a 0.5% 8-MOP solution topically plus UVA radiation (1.5-2.5 J/cm2). After PUVA radiation, skin responses to intradermal injection with mast cell liberators, including compound 48/80 (2.5 mg/ml, 10 microliter) and concanavalin A (Con-A) (2.0 mg/ml), or with a mixture of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and histamine as vasodilator (1.0 mg/ml and 50 mM, respectively) were examined with time (2 h-14 days). At each time point, an ear swelling response (ESR) was measured with a dial thickness gauge. The rate of mast cell degranulation and mast cell numbers were assessed by light microscopy using toluidine blue-stained semithin (1 micron) sections. ESR induced by compound 48/80 or Con-A was significantly suppressed dose-dependently (greater than 42% inhibition) by PUVA between 2 h-3 days postirradiation as compared with that in nonirradiated control mice, and the value returned to normal levels by 7-14 days. Compound 48/80- or Con-A-induced mast cell degranulation (%) was remarkably decreased between 2 h-3 days (greater than 48% inhibition) in accordance with the suppression in ESR and it was restored to the rates in nonirradiated controls by 7-14 days. Neither ESR nor percent degranulation was affected by UVA radiation only (less than 3.5 J/cm2) or application of 8-MOP only. 5-HT plus histamine-mediated ESR was not altered at all by PUVA throughout the experimental period. Since PUVA radiation itself at given doses did not produce measurable ESR, mast cell degranulation, or a reduction in mast cell numbers, and since PUVA did not affect a normal vascular response to vasodilator, it seemed that decreased skin reactivity to mast cell degranulators by PUVA might be due to a PUVA-induced noncytolytic alteration in mast cell release mechanisms

  2. Healthy Skin Matters

    ... your health, talk to your doctor or a physical therapist to find out what kinds of activities are ... the treatment of diseases of the skin. Follicle (FALL-lick-el). The opening in the skin where ...

  3. Examine Your Skin

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  4. Aging changes in skin

    ... pigments seem to provide some protection against sun-induced skin damage. Blue-eyed, fair-skinned people show ... 80. Women gradually produce less oil beginning after menopause. This can make it harder to keep the ...

  5. Dry Skin Relief

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  6. CSD skin test

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  7. Allergic Skin Conditions

    ... can trigger eczema, especially in young children. Skin staph infections can cause flare-ups in children as well. ... oral corticosteroids are also prescribed. If a skin staph infection is suspected to be a trigger for an ...

  8. Examine Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  9. Squamous cell skin cancer

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  10. Skin lesion KOH exam

    ... KOH exam is a test to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin . How the Test is Performed ... Performed This test is done to diagnose a fungal infection of the skin. Normal Results No fungus is ...

  11. Skin Cancer Trends

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  12. Stages of Skin Cancer

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  13. Skin Cancer Treatment

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  14. Examine Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  15. Radionecrosis skin model induced an athymic mouse nude (Nu/Nu) for development of dermal-epidermal human substitute based regenerative therapy; Modelo de radionecrose cutanea induzida em camundongos Nude (Nu/Nu) para desenvolvimento de terapias regenerativas baseadas em substitutos dermo-epidermicos humanos

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo

    2014-07-01

    The neoplasms incidence has increased significantly in recent years and continued population growth and aging will increase the statistics of this illness in the world's diseases. The cancer treatment usually consists in individual or combined use of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy depending on the etiology of the tumor. In cases where radiotherapy is used in addition to the therapeutic effects of radiation, specific complications can occur, and in the skin, these complications can be present with a clinical expression ranging from erythema to radionecrosis, and this latter being the adverse effect with greater severity. The radionecrosis treatment consists in debridement necrotic areas and covering the surgical wounds. Autologous grafts are most commonly used for this covering, however when large areas are affected, allografts can be used for occlusive treatment and the keratinocytes and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) addition becomes an alternative, due to the knowing for immunomodulatory and regenerative response. For that reason, aiming to simulate the radionecrosis adverse effects, an animal model of induced cutaneous radionecrosis was created, in athymic mouse Nude (Nu/Nu), for developing regenerative therapies based on human dermal-epidermal substitutes containing keratinocytes and ADSC, which proved occlusive as an efficient treatment, furthermore, having this radionecrosis animal model established, new possibilities for treatment of diseases involving dermal regeneration, can be tested. (author)

  16. Artificial Skin in Robotics

    Strohmayr, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Artificial Skin - A comprehensive interface for system-environment interaction - This thesis investigates a multifunctional artificial skin as touch sensitive whole-body cover for robotic systems. To further the evolution from tactile sensors to an implementable artificial skin a general concept for the design process is derived. A standard test procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance. The artificial skin contributes to a safe and intuitive physical human robot interaction.

  17. The skin migratory stage of the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni has a surface showing greater permeability and activity in membrane internalisation than other forms of skin or mechanical schistosomula.

    DE Jesus Jeremias, Wander; DA Cunha Melo, Jose Renan; Baba, Elio Hideo; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Kusel, John Robert

    2015-08-01

    Skin schistosomula can be prepared by collecting them after isolated mouse skin have been penetrated by cercariae in vitro. The schistosomula can also migrate out of isolated mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vitro and from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo. Schistosomula can also be produced from cercariae applied through a syringe or in a vortex. When certain surface properties of the different forms of schistosomula were compared, those migrating from mouse skin penetrated by cercariae in vivo or in vitro had greatly increased permeability to membrane impermeant molecules such as Lucifer yellow and high molecular weight dextrans. These migrating forms also possessed surfaces which showed greatly enhanced uptake into internal membrane vesicles of the dye FM 143, a marker for endocytosis. This greatly enhanced activity and permeability of the surfaces of tissue migrating schistosomula is likely to be of great importance in the adaptation to the new host. PMID:26028506

  18. TL transgenic mouse strains

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4- CD8- double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tlaa-3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3b-TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3b-TL is driven by the promoter of H-2Kb. With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8+TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3b-TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL+ lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3b-TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  19. 17种生物碱类药物体外经皮渗透行为的实验研究%To Study in Vitro Percutaneous Absorption of 17 Alkaloidal Drugs with Mouse Skin

    许景峰

    2001-01-01

    目的研究生物碱类药物经皮吸收系数与药物油/水分配系数的关系。方法采用Ficks扩散装置测定17种生物碱类药物在小鼠皮的透皮速率,并与含2%促渗剂氮酮比较。结果生物碱类药物的经皮渗透系数(kp)与药物油/水分配系数(logk)的关系式为:logkp=7.35×10-2-3.079×10-2logk-8.11(logk)2;logkp(2%Azo)=8.32×10-2-2.68×10-2logk-5.27(logk)2;结论 17种药物的油/水分配系数平均最佳值为2.83,含2%氮酮后的其平均最佳值为3.17。%Aim To study the relationship between permeability coefficient and oil/water partition coefficient of 17 alkaloidal drugs.Methods The percutaneous absorption speed of 17 alkaloidal drugs were studied in mouse with improved Fick's diffusing device.Results The relationship between permeability coefficient (kp) and oil/water partition coefficient (logk) of 17 alkaloidal drugs or drugs containing 2% Azone can be described as following equations.logkp=7.35×10-2-3.079×10-2logk-8.11(logk)2;logkp(2%Azo)=8.32×10-2-2.68×10-2logk-5.27(logk)2,respectively.Conclusion ko/w and ko/w(2%Azo) was 2.83 and 3.17 respectively.

  20. Artificial skin. Jinko hifu

    Kifune, K. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    In order to restore the human skin wounds, the transplantation is only one measure. The transplantation can take only when own skin is used, and there is no successful example by using other person's skin. When the own skin is not sufficient due to the too vast damage, the artificial skin, which can be regenerated as it is, is required. The artificial skin is said to be the most difficult organ among the artificial organs, even though its function is quite simple. Although there are the pig skin, the collagen membrane and the synthetic materials such as the polyurethane and so forth, as the materials similar to the artificial skin, they cover the wounds just until the cuticle is formed. Recently there is a cultivated skin. Firstly the normal skin with a size of the stamp is cut off, and then the cuticle cells are taken to pieces and cultivated, and consequently it is possible to increase the area by several 10 times. In addition, there is also a trial to make the artificial skin synthetically. Its upper layer is composed of the silicon, and the lower layer is the collagen membrane with a sponge structure. The silicon, membrane can be said to be an ideal artificial skin, because it detaches naturally. The chitin, which has recently appeared as the wound protection material, is also the promising material. 3 figs.

  1. Friction induced skin tags.

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  2. Microbiome and skin diseases

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  3. Microbiome and skin diseases

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  4. Skin self-exam

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  5. The effect of microneedles on the skin permeability and antitumor activity of topical 5-fluorouracil

    Youssef W. Naguib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU is approved for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. However, 5-FU suffers from poor skin permeation. Microneedles have been successfully applied to improve the skin permeability of small and large molecules, and even nanoparticles, by creating micron-sized pores in the stratum corneum layer of the skin. In this report, the feasibility of using microneedles to increase the skin permeability of 5-FU was tested. Using full thickness mouse skin mounted on Franz diffusion apparatus, it was shown that the flux of 5-FU through the skin was increased by up to 4.5-fold when the skin was pretreated with microneedles (500 μm in length, 50 μm in base diameter. In a mouse model with B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells implanted in the subcutaneous space, the antitumor activity of a commercially available 5-FU topical cream (5% was significantly enhanced when the cream was applied on a skin area that was pretreated with microneedles, as compared to when the cream was simply applied on a skin area, underneath which the tumor cells were implanted, and without pretreatment of the skin with microneedles. Fluorouracil is not approved for melanoma therapy, but the clinical efficacy of topical 5-FU against tumors such as basal cell carcinoma may be improved by integrating microneedle technology into the therapy.

  6. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  7. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Arun C Inamadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  8. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  9. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  10. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A.; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-you

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary...

  11. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells maintain immune homeostasis in the skin

    DUDDA, Jan C.; Perdue, Nikole; Bachtanian, Eva; Campbell, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous immune responses must be tightly controlled to prevent unwanted inflammation in response to innocuous antigens, while maintaining the ability to combat skin-tropic pathogens. Foxp3+ regulatory T (T reg) cells are potent immune regulators and are found at high frequency in both human and mouse skin. Although T reg cells migrate to the skin and can dampen immune responses during experimentally induced inflammation or infection, the importance of cutaneous T reg cells for maintaining n...

  12. Skin mirrors human aging.

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies. PMID:25436743

  13. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Inamadar, Arun C.; Aparna Palit

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial...

  14. Archaea on human skin

    Alexander J Probst; Auerbach, Anna K.; Christine Moissl-Eichinger

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin mi...

  15. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    Heide, van der, M.; X. Zeng; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  16. Visualization of potential acupuncture points in rat and nude mouse and DiI tracing method

    Byung-Cheon Lee; Ki-Hoon Uhm; Kyoung-Hee Bae; Dae-In Kang; Kwang-Sup Soh

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To find the potential acupuncture points by using Trypan blue staining on the skin of rat and Nude mouse. Methods: 0.4% Trypan blue was applied to the skin of rat or Nude mouse previously treated by surfactant. Washing by warm saline was followed after enough application of trypan blue and surfactant. Frequency of Trypan blue application should be varied to the experimental animals' condition for visualizing significant spots. Results: Blue spots appeared roughly in symmetry...

  17. Dorsoventral patterning of the mouse coat by Tbx15.

    Candille, Sophie I.; Van Raamsdonk, Catherine D.; Changyou Chen; Sanne Kuijper; Yanru Chen-Tsai; Andreas Russ; Frits Meijlink; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Many members of the animal kingdom display coat or skin color differences along their dorsoventral axis. To determine the mechanisms that control regional differences in pigmentation, we have studied how a classical mouse mutation, droopy ear (de(H)), affects dorsoventral skin characteristics, especially those under control of the Agouti gene. Mice carrying the Agouti allele black-and-tan (a(t)) normally have a sharp boundary between dorsal black hair and yellow ventral hair; the de(H) mutati...

  18. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  19. An elastic second skin

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  20. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    ... Skin Rejuvenation Soft-tissue Fillers Combination: Soft-tissue Fillers and Neuromodulators Neuromodulators – wrinkle-relaxing injections of botulinum toxin commercially known as Botox, Dysport ...

  1. Skin Images Segmentation

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  2. Shark skin: function in locomotion.

    Wainwright, S A; Vosburgh, F; Hebrank, J H

    1978-11-17

    Hydrostatic pressure under the skin of sharks varies with swimming speed. Stress in the skin varies with the internal pressure, and the skin stress controls skin stiffness. Locomotory muscles attach to the skin which is thus a whole-body exotendon whose mechanical advantage in transmitting muscular contraction is greater than that of the endoskeleton. PMID:17807247

  3. Shikonin Suppresses Skin Carcinogenesis via Inhibiting Cell Proliferation.

    Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Chunjing; Ren, Amy; Li, Teena; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Gu, Xin; Shi, Runhua; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been shown to be up-regulated in human skin cancers. To test whether PKM2 may be a target for chemoprevention, shikonin, a natural product from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and a specific inhibitor of PKM2, was used in a chemically-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis study. The results revealed that shikonin treatment suppressed skin tumor formation. Morphological examinations and immunohistochemical staining of the skin epidermal tissues suggested that shikonin inhibited cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. Although shikonin alone suppressed PKM2 activity, it did not suppress tumor promoter-induced PKM2 activation in the skin epidermal tissues at the end of the skin carcinogenesis study. To reveal the potential chemopreventive mechanism of shikonin, an antibody microarray analysis was performed, and the results showed that the transcription factor ATF2 and its downstream target Cdk4 were up-regulated by chemical carcinogen treatment; whereas these up-regulations were suppressed by shikonin. In a promotable skin cell model, the nuclear levels of ATF2 were increased during tumor promotion, whereas this increase was inhibited by shikonin. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF2 decreased the expression levels of Cdk4 and Fra-1 (a key subunit of the activator protein 1. In summary, these results suggest that shikonin, rather than inhibiting PKM2 in vivo, suppresses the ATF2 pathway in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25961580

  4. Examine Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: February ...

  5. Deformable skinning on bones

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  6. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  7. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  8. Quantification of quantum dot murine skin penetration with UVR barrier impairment.

    Mortensen, Luke J; Jatana, Samreen; Gelein, Robert; De Benedetto, Anna; De Mesy Bentley, Karen L; Beck, Lisa A; Elder, Alison; Delouise, Lisa A

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) skin exposure is a common exogenous insult that can alter skin barrier and immune functions. With the growing presence of nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer goods and technological applications the potential for NPs to contact UVR-exposed skin is increasing. Therefore it is important to understand the effect of UVR on NP skin penetration and the potential for systemic translocation. Previous studies qualitatively showed that UVR skin exposure can increase the penetration of NPs below the stratum corneum. In this work, an in vivo mouse model was used to quantitatively examine the skin penetration of carboxylated (CdSe/ZnS, core/shell) quantum dots (QDs) through intact and UVR barrier-disrupted murine skin by organ Cd mass analysis. Transepidermal water loss was used to measure the magnitude of the skin barrier defect as a function of UVR dose and time post-UVR exposure. QDs were applied to mice 3-4 days post-UVR exposure at the peak of the skin barrier disruption. Our results reveal unexpected trends that suggest these negative-charged QDs can penetrate barrier intact skin and that penetration and systemic transport depends on the QD application time post-UVR exposure. The effect of UVR on skin-resident dendritic cells and their role in the systemic translocation of these QDs are described. Our results suggest that NP skin penetration and translocation may depend on the specific barrier insult and the inflammatory status of the skin. PMID:23078247

  9. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... brown hair been treated for skin cancer a family member who's had skin cancer If you take ... Day” offers simple steps that you and your family can take to prevent sun-related skin cancer, ...

  10. Skin and Psyche : Diversionary Symbiosis

    Sharma, YK; Sudarsanan, S.; Bhatnagar, A

    2005-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with skin diseases have associated psychosocial factors. Not only does psychopathology manifest on the skin in absence of any real skin disease, primary skin disorders can also be exacerbated by emotional stress adversely influencing the homeostasis of immunological and inflammatory processes in deeper layers of the skin. Furthermore, many patients develop emotional problems as a result of having disfiguring skin diseases. In addition, some patients having...

  11. Skin Picking Disorder

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  12. Archaea on human skin.

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  13. Occupational skin cancers

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  14. Skin disorders at sea.

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  15. Skin or nail culture

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  16. Examine Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Patient Access Grant: Apply Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos ...

  17. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    ... skin may have cracks that resemble a dry lake bed. Inflammation of the areas may lead to ... free creams or ointments Preparations containing alpha-hydroxy acids such as glycolic acid or lactic acid Creams ...

  18. Skin Allergy Quiz

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... Your local allergist can do a skin prick test or blood test to find out if you ...

  19. Laser Skin Renewal

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Skin Renewal, Laser A A A BEFORE: This patient wanted the appearance of his acne scars minimized by laser treatment. Procedure Overview Photorejuvenation, simply put, is the ...

  20. Layers of the Skin

    ... Review Abstracting, Coding, & Staging ICD-O Site Codes Morphology & Grade Extent of Disease Evaluation Physical Exam Lab ... the majority of the structure of the skin, hair, and nails. The squamous cell layer is the ...

  1. Necrotizing Skin Infections

    ... and Treatment Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  2. Fungal Skin Infections

    ... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  3. Aging changes in skin

    ... developing heat stroke increases. Growths such as skin tags , warts , rough patches (keratoses), and other blemishes are ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  4. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  5. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  6. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  7. Designing pliable structural Skins

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton; Andersen, Niels Jakubiak; Campbell, Reese; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins.......Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  8. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. PMID:24635573

  9. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    Findley, Keisha; OH, JULIA; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; ,; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota 1 . Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders 2,3,4 . However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; micro...

  10. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  11. An in vitro human skin test for assessing sensitization potential.

    Ahmed, S S; Wang, X N; Fielding, M; Kerry, A; Dickinson, I; Munuswamy, R; Kimber, I; Dickinson, A M

    2016-05-01

    Sensitization to chemicals resulting in an allergy is an important health issue. The current gold-standard method for identification and characterization of skin-sensitizing chemicals was the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, for a number of reasons there has been an increasing imperative to develop alternative approaches to hazard identification that do not require the use of animals. Here we describe a human in-vitro skin explant test for identification of sensitization hazards and the assessment of relative skin sensitizing potency. This method measures histological damage in human skin as a readout of the immune response induced by the test material. Using this approach we have measured responses to 44 chemicals including skin sensitizers, pre/pro-haptens, respiratory sensitizers, non-sensitizing chemicals (including skin-irritants) and previously misclassified compounds. Based on comparisons with the LLNA, the skin explant test gave 95% specificity, 95% sensitivity, 95% concordance with a correlation coefficient of 0.9. The same specificity and sensitivity were achieved for comparison of results with published human sensitization data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The test also successfully identified nickel sulphate as a human skin sensitizer, which was misclassified as negative in the LLNA. In addition, sensitizers and non-sensitizers identified as positive or negative by the skin explant test have induced high/low T cell proliferation and IFNγ production, respectively. Collectively, the data suggests the human in-vitro skin explant test could provide the basis for a novel approach for characterization of the sensitizing activity as a first step in the risk assessment process. PMID:26251951

  12. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  13. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body. PMID:27152354

  14. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Shenefelt, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. ...

  15. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Shenefelt PD; Shenefelt DA

    2014-01-01

    Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritua...

  16. Gaze beats mouse

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  17. Stable Skin-specific Overexpression of Human CTLA4-Ig in Transgenic Mice through Seven Generations

    Yong WANG; Yong NI; Hong WEI; Feng-Chao WANG; Liang-Peng GE; Xiang GAO

    2006-01-01

    Skin graft rejection is a typical cellular immune response, mainly mediated by T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4-immunoglobin (CTLA4-Ig) extends graft survival by blocking the T cell co-stimulation pathway and inhibiting T cell activation. To investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig in prolonging skin graft survival, human CTLA4-Ig (hCTLA4-Ig) was engineered to overexpress in mouse skin by transgenesis using the K14 promoter. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay indicated that the expression of CTLA4-Ig remained skin-specific and relatively constant compared to the internal control protein, AKT, through seven generations. The presence and concentration of the hCTLA4-Ig protein in transgenic mouse sera was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results indicated that the serum CTLA4-Ig concentration also remained constant through generations. Survival of transgenic mouse skins grafted onto rat wounds was remarkably prolonged compared to that of wild-type skins from the same mouse strain, and remained comparable among all seven generations. This suggested that the bioactive hCTLA4-Ig protein was stably expressed in transgenical mice through at least seven generations, which was consistent with the stable skin-specific CTLA4-Ig expression.The results demonstrated that the transgenic expression of hCTLA4-Ig in skin driven by the K14 promoter remained constant through generations, and a transgenic line can be established to provide transgenic skin with extended survival reproducibly.

  18. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermore, we discuss the recent literature surrounding the prevention and treatment of skin aging. Although current research is suggestive of the role of antioxidants in anti-aging skin therapies, further research is much needed to explore its role in humans.

  19. DCP-LA Exerts an Antiaging Action on the Skin.

    Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study assessed the possibility for the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) as an antiaging compound for the skin by assaying senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), a biomarker of senescence and cell viability. The nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased in SA-β-Gal-positive cells in cultured human fibroblasts and mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly inhibited the effect of SNP. Moreover, SNP induced cell death in cultured mouse keratinocytes, and DCP-LA significantly prevented NO stress-induced death of keratinocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that DCP-LA exerts an antiaging action on the skin. PMID:27310436

  20. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  1. Molecular genetic basis for the rhino mouse from Chinese KM subcolony

    TIAN Ming; XIONG Yuliang; WANG Wanyu; ZHANG Yaping

    2004-01-01

    Both the rhino mouse and hairless mouse resulted from hairless gene mutation, but they show different phenotypes of skin physiology. The rhino mouse has more similar histological characters to human papular alopecia. Therefore rhino mouse is a good experimental animal model for human papular alopecia. This study reports a hairless mouse named rhino KIZ, arose from KM colony in Kunming Institue of Zoology, by systematic studies on morphology, skin histopathology, gene sequence, pedigree and protein domain analysis. The results demonstrate that a C-to-T transition in exon 11 of hr gene (The mutant gene has been applied for a Chinese patent (patent No. 03135280)) results in the rhino KIZ. The rhino KIZ with clear genetic mechanism will be a useful animal model.

  2. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders.

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  3. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  4. Increased in vivo skin penetration of quantum dots with UVR and in vitro quantum dot cytotoxicity

    Mortensen, Luke; Zheng, Hong; Faulknor, Renea; De Benedetto, Anna; Beck, Lisa; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2009-02-01

    The growing presence of quantum dots (QD) in a variety of biological, medical, and electronics applications means an increased risk of human exposure in manufacturing, research, and consumer use. However, very few studies have investigated the susceptibility of skin to penetration of QD - the most common exposure route- and the results of those that exist are conflicting. This suggests that a technique allowing determination of skin barrier status and prediction of skin permeability to QD would be of crucial interest as recent findings have provided evidence of in vitro cytotoxicity and long-term in vivo retention in the body for most QD surface chemistries. Our research focuses on barrier status of the skin (intact and with ultraviolet radiation induced barrier defect) and its impact on QD skin penetration. These model studies are particularly relevant to the common application condition of NP containing sunscreen and SPF cosmetics to UV exposed skin. Herein we present our initial efforts to develop an in vivo model of nanoparticle skin penetration using the SKH-1 hairless mouse with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) to evaluate skin barrier status and determine its ability to predict QD penetration. Our results show that ultraviolet radiation increases both TEWL and skin penetration of QD. Additionally, we demonstrate cytotoxic potential of QD to skin cells using a metastatic melanoma cell line. Our research suggests future work in specific targeting of nanoparticles, to prevent or enhance penetration. This knowledge will be used to develop powerful therapeutic agents, decreased penetration cosmetic nanoparticles, and precise skin cancer imaging modalities.

  5. Double-Skin Facade

    Kalyanova, Olena

    Double-Skin Facades (DSF) are gaining popularity that, in fact, appears to be independent from sturdy critics of the concept in the past years. DSF buildings are being built in Europe and worldwide, DSF concept is being taught at schools of architecture and fully glazed office buildings are being...... to perform the simulations. To fill in the gap of lacking experimental data a range of measurements was carried out in an outdoor, double-skin façade full-scale test facility ‘The Cube'. As a result, three complete sets of experimental data were composed. These are available for external air curtain...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model...

  6. Thyroid and skin

    Dogra Alka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of thyroid disorders with skin manifestations is complex. Both hypothryoidism and hyperthyroidism are known to cause these changes. In order to study this association of skin changes in relation to hypothyroidism, a study was carried out in the outpatients department of Dermatology of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, over a period of 3 months from Jan-March 2005. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study and parameters were noted regarding history, general symptoms, cutaneous signs and associated diseases. We found gain in weight (71.85% and lethargy (65.62% to be the most common complaints. On cutaneous examination, dry, coarse texture of the skin (56%, pigmentary disorders (37.5% and telogen effluvium (40.62% were the most common findings. Other associated disorders were vitiligo, melasma, pemphigus, alopecia areata, xanthelasma palpebrarum, etc.

  7. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  8. Epidermal skin grafting.

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Hughes, Olivia B; Macquhae, Flor; Rakosi, Adele; Kirsner, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Autologous skin grafts, such as full- and split-thickness, have long been part of the reconstructive ladder as an option to close skin defects. Although they are effective in providing coverage, they require the need for a trained surgeon, use of anaesthesia and operating room and creation of a wound at the donor site. These drawbacks can be overcome with the use of epidermal skin grafts (ESGs), which can be harvested without the use of anaesthesia in an office setting and with minimal to no scarring at the donor site. ESGs consist only of the epidermal layer and have emerged as an appealing alternative to other autologous grafts for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. In this article, we provide an overview of epidermal grafting and its role in wound management. PMID:27547964

  9. Environment and the skin

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury

  10. Smoking and skin disease

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  11. Intelligent skin: Real virtual

    Bühlmann, Vera

    2006-01-01

    What will it feel like to live in a city, where houses court each other in springtime? The 'intelligent-skin' project investigates the potential of media-façades in terms of corporate communication: what does it mean to build houses out of bricks of mediality? What does it imply to say that communication literally takes place? The virtualization of housing through large sized media skins will introduce medial milieus into our urban spheres to come – they might seize to function as add-ons...

  12. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  13. In vivo stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence imaging of melanin in human skin

    Lai, Zhenhua; Gu, Zetong; Abbas, Saleh; Lowe, Jared; Sierra, Heidy; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The stepwise multi-photon activated fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin is a low cost and reliable method of detecting melanin because the activation and excitation can be a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser. Our previous work has demonstrated the melanin SMPAF images in sepia melanin, mouse hair, and mouse skin. In this study, we show the feasibility of using SMPAF to detect melanin in vivo. in vivo melanin SMPAF images of normal skin and benign nevus are demonstrated. SMPAF images add specificity for melanin detection than MPFM images and CRM images. Melanin SMPAF is a promising technology to enable early detection of melanoma for dermatologists.

  14. The radiosensitivity of keratinocytes from tongue and skin; enhanced radioresistance following serial cultivation

    A study has been carried out of the radiation response of keratinocytes from human skin, mouse skin and mouse tongue to 0-10 Gy of γ-radiation, carried out in suspension at 200C. The Dsub(o)values for primary cultures of keratinocytes was similar to those obtained in vivo for mice, suggesting that this in vitro assay could be used to measure the sensitivity of keratinocytes treated with various cytotoxic agents. Sensitivity appears to change on subculturing and hence subcultures may be less appropriate for determining in vivo cell sensitivities. (UK)

  15. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation. PMID:21923733

  16. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Mina Musashi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  17. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    Philipp R Esser; Wölfle, Ute; Dürr, Christoph; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed t...

  18. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    Esser, Philipp R.; Ute Wölfle; Christoph Dürr; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Thilo Jakob; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed ...

  19. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > About Skin- ...

  20. Slicing, skinning, and grafting

    Dumas, David; Kent IV, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a Bers slice is never algebraic, meaning that its Zariski closure in the character variety has strictly larger dimension. A corollary is that skinning maps are never constant. The proof uses grafting and the theory of complex projective structures.

  1. Skin peeling syndrome

    Sharma Rajeev; Kumar Ashok

    1994-01-01

    We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

  2. PPD skin test

    ... have been infected with the bacteria that cause TB. You may need treatment to lower the risk of the disease coming back (reactivation of the disease). A positive skin test does not mean that a person has active TB. More tests must be done to check whether ...

  3. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    ... line that runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes ... Nigra: A line running from the navel to pubic hair that darkens during pregnancy. Melasma: A common skin ...

  4. Researches on skin decontamination

    Living 4∼6 week-aged San Yuan white pigs (Suzhou, China) were used in skin decontamination experiments. Following a standard procedure, SM series of decontamination agents were used for decontamination of liquid nuclides. The results of immediate decontamination were as follows: K(decontamination efficiency) = 97.7% (decontamination factor DF = 43.5) for 131I; K>99% (DF>100) for 90Sr/90Y, MFP and U + TRU; K = 99.9% (DF 1000) for 137Cs. In 3 h-delayed decontamination, DF = 27∼67 (K 96.3%∼98.5) for the nuclides mentioned above. When the initiatory MFP contamination increased from 20 to 300 s-1·cm-2, the value of DF by immediate decontamination increased from 20 to 173 with the remaining activity not higher than 10 Bq·cm-2, and no additional decontamination was needed. For radioactive ash contamination of skin, DF 57∼1000 (K = 98.2%∼99.9%) in 4 h-delayed decontamination. SM series of decontamination agents are neutral liquid or cream without any irritative effect on skin. They are effective and easy to use in skin decontamination. (5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  5. Light and skin disease

    Because of the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere due to chlorofluorocarbons, the screening effect of this ozone layer on ultraviolet radiation (especially the so-called UV-B component) is reduced. This paper describes the impact of increased UV radiation on the human skin. Because of the 'ozone-hole', a distinct increase in the rate of skin cancer is to be expected which will affect all living beings but most of all man - an indirect consequence of the climate development. What makes the increased intensity of UV-B radiation so harmful is the fact that light-induced skin damage accumulates for the period of the life-time of the individual and cannot be reversed. A further thinning of stratospheric ozone would let through, in addition, the more short-waved ('harder') UV-C radiation. The latter, though clinically not significant currently, would then account for a further increase in the rate of malignant skin disease world-wide. (orig.)

  6. Preventing Skin Cancer

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  7. Chemokines and skin diseases.

    Sugaya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Chemokines are small molecules that induce chemotaxis and activation of certain subsets of leukocytes. The expression patterns of chemokines and chemokine receptors are specific to certain organs and cells. Therefore, chemokines are important to elucidate the mechanism of organ-specific human diseases. CCL17 expressed by Langerhans cells, blood endothelial cells, and fibroblasts plays a key role in attracting Th2 cells and tumor cells of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome into the skin, developing various Th2-type inflammatory skin diseases as well as cutaneous lymphoma. CCL11 and CCL26 expressed by skin-resident cells, such as fibroblasts, blood endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, induce infiltration of CCR3-expressing cells such as Th2 cells and eosinophils. CCL11 may also serve as an autocrine as well as a paracrine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. CX3CL1 expressed on blood endothelial cells leads to infiltration of CX3CR1(+) immune cells, such as mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, playing important roles in wound healing, tumor immunity, and vasculitis. Biologics targeting chemokines and their receptors are promising strategies for various skin diseases that are resistant to the current therapy. PMID:25182982

  8. Skin painting studies

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  9. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Guig?? Serra, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Adams, Leslie B.

    2012-01-01

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  10. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

    Pooja Bains; Alka Dogra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs) represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive...

  11. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  12. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis

  13. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    ... skin cells called melanocytes that produce skin color ( melanin ). Radiation therapy is used mostly for melanomas that ... in addition to surgery, chemotherapy or biologic therapy. Hair Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Hair Follicle Vein Artery © ASTRO ...

  14. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Sun Safety: Save Your Skin! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... show that exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer. Harmful rays from the sun—and from ...

  15. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    ... resources Meet our partners Español Donate Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp ...

  16. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... have pale skin blond, red, or light brown hair been treated for skin cancer a family member ... the sun. If you don't have much hair, apply sunscreen to the top of your head, ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  18. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    ... aftercare; Nevi - removal aftercare; Scissor excision aftercare; Skin tag removal aftercare; Mole removal aftercare; Skin cancer removal ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  19. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... that exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer. Harmful rays from the sun—and from sunlamps ... enjoying the outdoors, the National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP) has designated May 25, 2012 as “ ...

  20. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin longer, even if it gets wet. Reapply water-resistant sunscreens as instructed on the label back ...

  1. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  2. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... against all types of skin damage caused by sunlight water resistance—sunscreen that stays on your skin ... go out. back to top Protect the Eyes Sunlight reflecting off snow, sand, or water further increases ...

  3. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  4. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  5. Mir-434-5p mediates skin whitening and lightening

    David TS Wu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available David TS Wu, Jack S Chen, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung LinInstitute of Mello Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCAbstract: Utilization of gene silencing effectors, such as microRNA (miRNA and small airpin RNA (shRNA, provides a powerful new strategy for human skin care in vivo, particularly for hyperpigmentation treatment and aging prevention. In this study, tyrosinase (Tyr, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin (black pigment biosynthesis, was served as a target for treatment of hyperpigmentation in mouse and human skins. There are over 54 native microRNA capable of silencing human tyrosinase for skin whitening and lightening. To this, we have designed a mir-434-5p homologue and used it to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of miRNA-mediated skin whitening and lightening in vitro and in vivo. Under the same experimental condition in the trials, Pol-II-directed intronic mir-434-5p expression did not cause any detectable sign of cytotoxicity, whereas siRNAs targeting the same sequence often induced certain nonspecific mRNA degradation as previously reported. Because the intronic miRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway is tightly regulated by multiple intracellular surveillance systems, including Pol-II transcription, RNA splicing, exosomal digestion and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD, the current findings underscore the fact that intronic miRNA agents, such as manually re-designed mir-434-5p homologues, are effective, target-specific and safe to be used for skin whitening without any detectable cytotoxic effect. Given that the human skins also express a variety of other native miRNAs, we may re-design these miRNAs based on their individual functions for skin care, which may provide significant insights into areas of opportunity for new cosmetic and/or therapeutical applications.Keywords: microRNA, miRNA, mir-434, intron, gene silencing, RNAi, tyrosinase, melanin, cosmetics, pigmentation, skin whitening

  6. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  7. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  8. Microbial Skin Inhabitants: Friends Forever.

    Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gallo, Richard L; Knight, Rob

    2016-05-01

    To gain insight into the stability of the microbial communities that inhabit our skin, Oh et al., in a tour-de-force effort, map the human skin metagenomes over time. Remarkably, their data indicate that the individual, not the environment, primarily drives the composition of skin microbial communities. PMID:27153488

  9. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    ... skin of the lower legs and feet. Skin cancers affecting the feet may have a very different appearance from those arising on the rest of the body. For this reason, a podiatrist's knowledge and clinical training is of ... and malignant skin tumors. Learn the ABCDs of melanoma. If you notice ...

  10. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  11. Radiation-induced skin injury in the animal model of scleroderma: implications for post-radiotherapy fibrosis

    Radiation therapy is generally contraindicated for cancer patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) such as scleroderma due to an increased risk of fibrosis. The tight skin (TSK) mouse has skin which, in some respects, mimics that of patients with scleroderma. The skin radiation response of TSK mice has not been previously reported. If TSK mice are shown to have radiation sensitive skin, they may prove to be a useful model to examine the mechanisms underlying skin radiation injury, protection, mitigation and treatment. The hind limbs of TSK and parental control C57BL/6 mice received a radiation exposure sufficient to cause approximately the same level of acute injury. Endpoints included skin damage scored using a non-linear, semi-quantitative scale and tissue fibrosis assessed by measuring passive leg extension. In addition, TGF-β1 cytokine levels were measured monthly in skin tissue. Contrary to our expectations, TSK mice were more resistant (i.e. 20%) to radiation than parental control mice. Although acute skin reactions were similar in both mouse strains, radiation injury in TSK mice continued to decrease with time such that several months after radiation there was significantly less skin damage and leg contraction compared to C57BL/6 mice (p < 0.05). Consistent with the expected association of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) with late tissue injury, levels of the cytokine were significantly higher in the skin of the C57BL/6 mouse compared to TSK mouse at all time points (p < 0.05). TSK mice are not recommended as a model of scleroderma involving radiation injury. The genetic and molecular basis for reduced radiation injury observed in TSK mice warrants further investigation particularly to identify mechanisms capable of reducing tissue fibrosis after radiation injury

  12. Serotonin in human skin

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li

    2005-01-01

    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  13. Skin barrier in rosacea.

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  14. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  15. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  16. Lyme Borreliosis and Skin

    Biju Vasudevan; Manas Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, ...

  17. Dietary chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin of hairless mice

    The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male mice) and nickel in UVR-irradiated female Skh1 mice was investigated. The dietary vitamin E and selenomethionine were tested for prevention of chromium-enhanced skin carcinogenesis. The mice were exposed to UVR (1.0 kJ/m2 3x weekly) for 26 weeks either alone, or combined with 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate, or with 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride in drinking water. Vitamin E or selenomethionine was added to the lab chow for 29 weeks beginning 3 weeks before the start of UVR exposure. Both chromium and nickel significantly increased the UVR-induced skin cancer yield in mice. In male Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.9 ± 0.4 cancers/mouse, and 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate added to drinking water increased the yields to 5.9 ± 0.8 and 8.6 ± 0.9 cancers/mouse, respectively. In female Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.7 ± 0.4 cancers/mouse, and the addition of 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride increased the yields to 2.8 ± 0.9, 5.6 ± 0.7 and 4.2 ± 1.0 cancers/mouse, respectively. Neither vitamin E nor selenomethionine reduced the cancer yield enhancement by chromium. These results confirm that chromium and nickel, while not good skin carcinogens per se, are enhancers of UVR-induced skin cancers in Skh1 mice. Data also suggest that the enhancement of UVR-induced skin cancers by chromate may not be oxidatively mediated since the antioxidant vitamin E as well as selenomethionine, found to prevent arsenite-enhanced skin carcinogenesis, failed to suppress enhancement by chromate

  18. Skin metastases of lung cancer:

    Kecelj, Peter; Košnik, Mitja; Požek, Igor; Triller Vadnal, Katja; Triller, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    Skin metastases of lung cancer are rare. In over a 3-year period we found only14 cases of skin metastases among 1,614 patients with lung cancer admittedto the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases in Golnik. The metastases are usually manifested on the skin of the chest. Skin metastases are symptoms of progressive disease, and usually a sign of a poor prognosis. The median survival time of lung cancer patients with skin metastases was 85 days from the time of detection of the...

  19. Skin care in ethnic populations.

    Cole, Patrick D; Hatef, Daniel A; Taylor, Susan; Bullocks, Jamal M

    2009-08-01

    Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in Caucasian skin but are much more common in the ethnic patient. Here, we discuss various aspects of skin hydration, dyschromia, sunscreen use, and chemical depilatories in the ethnic population. PMID:20676310

  20. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    S. Ramya Silpa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of present review is to outline types, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of skin cancer.

  1. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  2. Study on skin decontamination

    Chinese San-Yuan white pigs 4∼6 weeks old were used in skin decontamination experiments. The decontamination agents used were the SM series of decontamination agents. In immediate decontamination test, K 97.7% (DF = 43.5) was obtained for 131I, K>99%(DF>100) for 90Sr/90Y, MFP and U + TRU, K = 99.9%(DF = 1000) for 137Cs. DF = 27∼67 (K 96.3%∼98.5%) was obtained for the nuclides mentioned above in 3 h delayed decontamination test. When the initial contamination level of MFP increased from 200 to 3000 cps/10 cm2, the remained activity was still lower than 10 Bq/cm2 after decontamination, and no additional decontamination is needed. For radioactive ashes contamination, DF = 57∼1000 (K 98.2%∼99.9%) was reached in 4 h-delayed decontamination. The SM series of decontamination agents are neutral liquid or cream having no stimulating effect to skin. It is effective and easy to use in skin decontamination

  3. Lead and the skin

    Allen, B.R.; Moore, M.R.; Hunter, J.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing use of lead will continue to give rise to problems of toxicity. Protective measures have resulted in florid lead poisoning becoming rare. Attention has recently turned to the possibility of prolonged exposure to low doses of lead causing morbidity in the absence of the classical clinical features of poisoning. Lead is absorbed mostly through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Some is also absorbed through the skin but with inorganic compounds the amount is small. Shortly after the most widely used compound, tetraethyl lead, was first manufactured, cases of toxicity began to occur. Manufacture was forbidden until plant design produced greater safety. Significant absorption can occur through the skin. The hazard to those handling leaded gasoline in a normal manner is probably small, mainly because 95 percent of a dose applied to the open skin surface evaporates. Hair has been used as a biopsy material to assess lead exposure. The biological effects of lead poisoning are discussed, including the synergistic effects of lead and agents provoking porphyria.

  4. Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer.

    Narayanan, Deevya L; Saladi, Rao N; Fox, Joshua L

    2010-09-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations in many parts of the world. The incidence, morbidity and mortality rates of skin cancers are increasing and, therefore, pose a significant public health concern. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major etiologic agent in the development of skin cancers. UVR causes DNA damage and genetic mutations, which subsequently lead to skin cancer. A clearer understanding of UVR is crucial in the prevention of skin cancer. This article reviews UVR, its damaging effects on the skin and its relationship to UV immunosuppression and skin cancer. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching the earth's surface, including ozone depletion, UV light elevation, latitude, altitude, and weather conditions. The current treatment modalities utilizing UVR (i.e. phototherapy) can also predispose to skin cancers. Unnecessary exposure to the sun and artificial UVR (tanning lamps) are important personal attributable risks. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR-induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives. PMID:20883261

  5. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  6. [Recent development in animal testing to predict the skin and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals].

    Aoyama, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    The identification of chemicals with skin and/or respiratory sensitizing potential is important for the prevention of allergic diseases in both living and work environments. Although a number of animal models for respiratory allergic diseases have been reported, none of these models meets the goals of broad assessments of chemical sensitizing potential. We are attempting to develop a test for predicting the respiratory sensitization of chemicals. In the evaluation of skin sensitization of chemicals, the mostly used predictive tests are the guinea pig maximization test, Buehler test, and mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA). However, only LLNA has been validated formally and independently. Recent studies have revealed that EC3 estimated by LLNA correlates well with human skin sensitizing potency and the threshold for the induction of skin sensitization in the human repeat patch test. Thus, LLNA can predict the potency of skin sensitizing potential of a chemical and its risk in humans. PMID:20134104

  7. Topical Treatment with Diclofenac, Calcipotriol (Vitamin-D3 Analog) and Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) Does Not Prevent Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer in Mice

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is a common cancer type with increasing incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate topical application of diclofenac, calcipotriol, and difluoromethylornithine as chemoprevention in a mouse model of ultraviolet light-induced skin tumors, since these agents have...

  8. Therapeutic levels of erythropoietin (EPO) achieved after gene electrotransfer to skin in mice

    Gothelf, A; Hojman, P; Gehl, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Gene electrotransfer refers to gene transfection by electroporation and is an effective non-viral method for delivering naked DNA into cells and tissues. This study presents data from gene electrotransfer with erythropoietin (EPO) to mouse skin. Nine-week-old female NMRI mice received one, two or...

  9. Effects of Orally Administered Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Dry Skin Conditions in Mice and Healthy Female Subjects.

    Nakano, Masahiko; Kamimura, Ayako; Watanabe, Fumiko; Kamiya, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Etsushi; Fukagawa, Mitsuhiko; Hasumi, Keiji; Suzuki, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme involved in the redox-cycling system. The supplemental use of PQQ has been examined based on its properties as an antioxidant and redox modulator. Although an animal study on deficiency of PQQ suggested that PQQ contributes to skin conditions, its efficacy in humans has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of orally administered PQQ on skin moisture, viscoelasticity, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both in dry skin mouse models and in healthy female subjects with a subjective symptom of dry skin. In our dry skin mouse model study, oral intake of PQQ (0.0089%, w/w, in the diet for 6 wk) significantly decreased the number of mast cells in the dermis and the number of CD3⁺ T-cells in the epidermis. In our human study, oral intake of PQQ (20 mg/d for 8 wk) significantly inhibited the increase in TEWL on the forearm. Finally, subject questionnaires showed positive impressions for the improvement of skin conditions. These results suggest that oral intake of PQQ improves skin conditions both in female subjects with dry skin and in mice with a compromised skin barrier function. PMID:26226961

  10. Characterization of dendritic cells subpopulations in skin and afferent lymph in the swine model.

    Florian Marquet

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous delivery of vaccines to specific skin dendritic cells (DC subsets is foreseen as a promising strategy to induce strong and specific types of immune responses such as tolerance, cytotoxicity or humoral immunity. Because of striking histological similarities between human and pig skin, pig is recognized as the most suitable model to study the cutaneous delivery of medicine. Therefore improving the knowledge on swine skin DC subsets would be highly valuable to the skin vaccine field. In this study, we showed that pig skin DC comprise the classical epidermal langerhans cells (LC and dermal DC (DDC that could be divided in 3 subsets according to their phenotypes: (1 the CD163(neg/CD172a(neg, (2 the CD163(highCD172a(pos and (3 the CD163(lowCD172a(pos DDC. These subtypes have the capacity to migrate from skin to lymph node since we detected them in pseudo-afferent lymph. Extensive phenotyping with a set of markers suggested that the CD163(high DDC resemble the antibody response-inducing human skin DC/macrophages whereas the CD163(negCD172(low DDC share properties with the CD8(+ T cell response-inducing murine skin CD103(pos DC. This work, by showing similarities between human, mouse and swine skin DC, establishes pig as a model of choice for the development of transcutaneous immunisation strategies targeting DC.

  11. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    Annika Vogt; Fiorenza Rancan; Sebastian Ahlberg; Berouz Nazemi; Chun Sik Choe; Darvin, Maxim E.; Sabrina Hadam; Ulrike Blume-Peytavi; Kateryna Loza; Jörg Diendorf; Matthias Epple; Christina Graf; Eckart Rühl; Meinke, Martina C; Jürgen Lademann

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e....

  12. Brain-Skin Connection: Stress, Inflammation and Skin Aging

    Chen, Ying; Lyga, John

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between stress and skin conditions has been documented since ancient times. Recent clinical observations also link psychological stress to the onset or aggravation of multiple skin diseases. However, the exact underlying mechanisms have only been studied and partially revealed in the past 20 years or so. In this review, the authors will discuss the recent discoveries in the field of “Brain-Skin Connection”, summarizing findings from the overlapping fields of psychol...

  13. Climate change and skin.

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  14. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  15. Alkalis and Skin.

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  16. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  17. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  18. Ultrastructure of Campylobacter jejuni in gamma-irradiated mouse jejunum

    Sosula, L.; Nicholls, E.M.; Skeen, M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrastructure of intracellular elongated, transitional and coccoid forms of Campylobacter jejuni, in irradiated mouse jejunum infected both in vitro and in vivo and in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Jejunum of irradiated mouse incubated for 1 hour under conditions favorable to the organisms showed minimal tissue degeneration. The intracellular organisms in this material were free cytoplasmic forms showing inner membrane degeneration, loss of cytoplasmic granules, and absence of flagella. The diameter of the coccoids was up to four times that of the elongated forms, as in plate cultures. Intracellular organisms were not found in challenged unirradiated controls, indicating that irradiation of mouse cells may be required for intracellular infection with human strains of C jejuni. In contrast, challenged human fibroblasts contained typical elongated organisms in cytoplasmic vacuoles. These findings are discussed with reference to Campylobacter strain, host resistance, and natural animal and human Campylobacter infections.

  19. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers].

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A

    2016-09-01

    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. PMID:27522189

  20. Neutron Skins and Neutron Stars

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ("PREX") at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in 208Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron be...

  1. Skin Care in Ethnic Populations

    Cole, Patrick D.; Hatef, Daniel A.; Taylor, Susan; Bullocks, Jamal M.

    2009-01-01

    Use of over-the-counter cosmetics, approaches to hygiene, and many basic dermatologic principles differ between individuals with Caucasian skin and ethnic skin. Still, comparatively few publications highlight these variations or discuss appropriate management. Among many ethnic patients, issues related to skin hydration, restoration of even pigmentation, hair removal, and acne care remain problematic yet not fully addressed. As well, there are some dermatologic conditions that may be rare in ...

  2. Warfarin-Induced Skin Necrosis

    Kakagia, Despoina D.; Papanas, Nikolaos; Karadimas, Efthimios; Polychronidis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin-induced skin necrosis is an infrequent complication occurring in individuals under warfarin treatment who have a thrombophilic history or after administration of large loading doses of warfarin particularly without simultaneous initial use of heparin. A 62-year-old lady developed skin necrosis 4 days after initiating warfarin therapy of 5 mg daily without initial co-administration of heparin. The patient had a normal clotting profile. Skin necrosis progressed to eschar formation afte...

  3. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  4. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    Meltem Türkmen; Derya Aytimur

    2010-01-01

    Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen mor...

  5. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There...

  6. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  7. Skin aging modulates percutaneous drug absorption: the impact of ultraviolet irradiation and ovariectomy.

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Yin-Ku; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure and menopause are known as the inducers of damage to the skin structure. The combination of these two factors accelerates the skin aging process. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of UV and ovariectomy (OVX) on the permeation of drugs through the skin. The role of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) in the cutaneous absorption of extremely lipophilic permeants and macromolecules was explored. The OVX nude mouse underwent bilateral ovary removal. Both UVA and UVB were employed to irradiate the skin. The physiological and biochemical changes of the skin structure were examined with focus on transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, immunohistochemistry, and mRNA levels of proteins. UVB and OVX increased TEWL, resulting in stratum corneum (SC) integrity disruption and dehydration. A hyperproliferative epidermis was produced by UVB. UVA caused a pale skin color tone due to keratinocyte apoptosis in the epidermis. E-cadherin and β-catenin showed a significant loss by both UVA and UVB. OVX downregulated the expression of filaggrin and involucrin. A further reduction was observed when UV and OVX were combined. The in vitro cutaneous absorption demonstrated that UV increased the skin permeation of tretinoin by about twofold. However, skin accumulation and flux of estradiol were not modified by photoaging. OVX basically revealed a negligible effect on altering the permeation of small permeants. OVX increased tretinoin uptake by the appendages from 1.36 to 3.52 μg/cm(2). A synergistic effect on tretinoin follicular uptake enhancement was observed for combined UV and OVX. However, the intervention of OVX to photoaged skin resulted in less macromolecule (dextran, molecular weight = 4 kDa) accumulation in the skin reservoir because of retarded partitioning into dry skin. The in vivo percutaneous absorption of lipophilic dye examined by confocal microscopy had indicated that the SC was still important to

  8. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    Prakash Shashi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosmetics and therapeutic formulations and the real time measurement of the molecules in the skin layer has become obligatory. It is well known that the properties of both drug and the excipients have identical role in determining the skin permeability of chemical moieties. In the last decade several investigations have been carried out in this filed using several in vitro and in vivo models. This review provides a brief account on the basics of skin kinetics, parameters assessed, various techniques and methods adapted in skin kinetic studies. Moreover, we have also discussed about the micro-environment inside the skin layer and the possible mechanism of drug depot formation, skin metabolism and clearance of molecules from the skin layers.

  9. HOX genes in the skin

    YANG Mei; LI Qing-feng; ZHANG Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ Deep skin wounds heal by scar formation with a loss of its original appearance, structure and function.However, when the same damage occurs to the skin of an early gestational fetus, complete regeneration can be observed. Despite significant research in the field of skin regeneration, many mysteries remain, such as the loss of wound healing ability with maturity, the differences in healing at different parts of the body, and the presence of hypertrophic scars and keloids in some races but not in others. The finding of HOX genes in the skin provides new explanations to these conundrums.

  10. Skin Infections Due to Corynebacterium

    Meltem Türkmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria are Gram-positive, non-sporulated, non-capsulated, aerobic diphtheroid bacteria accounting for nearly 50%of the natural skin biocene. This bacterial family is responsible for various skin diseases such as cutaneous diphteria, cromhydrosis, bromhydrosis but the most common of them are pitted keratolysis, trichobacteriosis and erythrasma. A warm and moist environment and poor hygiene are the predisposition factors for these three diseases. Although this skin diseases are seen more frequently, they usually mistaken for a mycotic infection by general practitioners, with subsequent antimycotic treatment. Here skin diseases compromised with Corynebacterium are presented with their demographic features and discussed on the basis of a literature review.

  11. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao

    2006-01-01

    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  12. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 health...

  13. Combination chemoprevention with diclofenac, calcipotriol and difluoromethylornithine inhibits development of non-melanoma skin cancer in mice

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model.......Background/Aim: With increasing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), focus on chemoprevention of this disease is growing. The aim of this study was to evaluate topical combination therapies as chemoprevention of UV radiation-induced tumors in a mouse model....

  14. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini;

    2009-01-01

    , as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  15. Keratins and skin disease.

    Knöbel, Maria; O'Toole, Edel A; Smith, Frances J D

    2015-06-01

    Mutations in keratin genes cause a diverse spectrum of skin, hair and mucosal disorders. Cutaneous disorders include epidermolysis bullosa simplex, palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic ichthyosis and pachyonychia congenita. Both clinical and laboratory observations confirm a major role for keratins in maintaining epidermal cell-cell adhesion. When normal tissue homeostasis is disturbed, for example, during wound healing and cancer, keratins play an important non-mechanical role. Post-translational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation of keratins play an important role in protection of epithelial cells from injury. Keratins also play a role in modulation of the immune response. A current focus in the area of keratins and disease is the development of new treatments including small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to mutant keratins and small molecules to modulate keratin expression. PMID:25620412

  16. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    Hadar Lev-Tov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management.

  17. Camera Mouse Including “Ctrl-Alt-Del” Key Operation Using Gaze, Blink, and Mouth Shape

    Kohei Arai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents camera mouse system with additional feature: "CTRL - ALT - DEL" key. The previous gaze-based camera mouse systems are only considering how to obtain gaze and making selection. We proposed gaze-based camera mouse with "CTRL - ALT - DEL" key. Infrared camera is put on top of display while user looking ahead. User gaze is estimated based on eye gaze and head pose. Blinking and mouth detections are used to create "CTR - ALT - DEL" key. Pupil knowledge is used to improve robustness of eye gaze estimation against different users. Also, Gabor filter is used to extract face features. Skin color information and face features are used to estimate head pose. The experiments of each method have done and the results show that all methods work perfectly. By implemented this system, troubleshooting of camera mouse can be done by user itself and makes camera mouse be more sophisticated.

  18. Pivotal Role for α1-Antichymotrypsin in Skin Repair*

    Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Textoris, Christine; Oehme, Felix; Klaassen, Tobias; Goppelt, Andreas; Römer, Axel; Fugmann, Burkhard; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Werner, Sabine; Krieg, Thomas; Eming, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    α1-Antichymotrypsin (α1-ACT) is a specific inhibitor of leukocyte-derived chymotrypsin-like proteases with largely unknown functions in tissue repair. By examining human and murine skin wounds, we showed that following mechanical injury the physiological repair response is associated with an acute phase response of α1-ACT and the mouse homologue Spi-2, respectively. In both species, attenuated α1-ACT/Spi-2 activity and gene expression at the local wound site was associated with severe wound h...

  19. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    ... your skin and kidneys. About your stoma Your stoma is made from the part of your small intestine called the ileum. Your ureter is attached to a small piece of your ileum and pulled through the skin of your abdomen. A stoma is very delicate. A healthy stoma is pinkish- ...

  20. Dry skin - self-care

    ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to your skin. Avoid rough fabrics like wool. Wash clothes with detergents that are free of dyes or fragrances. Drink plenty of water. Ease itchy ...

  1. Air Pollution and the skin

    Eleni eDrakaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase of air pollution over the years has major effects on the human skin. The skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and environmental air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, oxides, particulate matter (PM, ozone (O3 and cigarette smoke. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemical and physical air pollutants, the prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure of the skin to air pollutants has been associated with skin aging and inflammatory or allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis or acne, while skin cancer is among the most serious effects. On the other hand, some air pollutants (ie, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide and scattering particulates (clouds and soot in the troposphere reduce the effects of shorter wavelength UVR and significant reductions in UV irradiance have been observed in polluted urban areas.

  2. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...

  3. Pain-induced skin autoimmunity

    Odoardi, Francesca; Neuhuber, Winfried; Flügel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A recent paper published in Nature reports sensory nerve fibers in the skin that give local immune cells important instructions for the organization of an immune response; in this particular case the cooperation between the nervous and immune systems had disastrous consequences, namely an auto-destruction of the skin.

  4. The Role of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Skin Cancer

    Delira Robbins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that antioxidant enzyme expression and activity are drastically reduced in most human skin diseases, leading to propagation of oxidative stress and continuous disease progression. However, antioxidants, an endogenous defense system against reactive oxygen species (ROS, can be induced by exogenous sources, resulting in protective effects against associated oxidative injury. Many studies have shown that the induction of antioxidants is an effective strategy to combat various disease states. In one approach, a SOD mimetic was applied topically to mouse skin in the two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. This method effectively reduced oxidative injury and proliferation without interfering with apoptosis. In another approach, Protandim, a combination of 5 well-studied medicinal plants, was given via dietary administration and significantly decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity by 33% and 57%, respectively. These studies suggest that alterations in antioxidant response may be a novel approach to chemoprevention. This paper focuses on how regulation of antioxidant expression and activity can be modulated in skin disease and the potential clinical implications of antioxidant-based therapies.

  5. Burn mouse models

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  6. Manipulation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells for Knockout Mouse Production

    Limaye, Advait; Hall, Bradford; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell liness has allowed for the generation of the knockout mouse. ES cells that are genetically altered in culture can then be manipulated to derive a whole mouse containing the desired mutation. To successfully generate a knockout mouse, however, the ES cells must be carefully cultivated in a pluripotent state throughout the gene targeting experiment. This unit describes detailed step-by-step protocols, reagents, equipment, and strategies needed...

  7. Skin decontamination of glyphosate from human skin in vitro.

    Zhai, H; Chan, H P; Hui, X; Maibach, H I

    2008-06-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (tap water, isotonic saline, and hypertonic saline) for their ability to remove a model herbicide (glyphosate) from an in vitro human skin model. Human cadaver skin was dosed (approximately 375microg) of [14C]-glyphosate on 3cm2 per skin. After each exposure time (1, 3, and 30min post-dosing, respectively), the surface skin was washed three times (4ml per time) with each solution. After washing, the skin was stripped twice with tape discs. Lastly, the wash solutions, strippings, receptor fluid, and remainder of skin were liquid scintillation analyzer counted to determine the amount of glyphosate. There were no statistical differences among these groups at any time points. The total mass balance recovery at three time exposure points was between 94.8% and 102.4%. The wash off rates (glyphosate in wash solutions) at three different exposure times is 79-101.2%. Thus the three tested decontaminants possess similar effectiveness in removing glyphosate from skin. This in vitro model is not only economic and rapid, but also provides quantitative data that may aid screening for optimal decontaminants. PMID:18407393

  8. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin. PMID:20548087

  9. Topically applied mesoridazine exhibits the strongest cutaneous analgesia and minimized skin disruption among tricyclic antidepressants: The skin absorption assessment.

    Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chang, Chia-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Fang, Jia-You

    2016-08-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are found to have an analgesic action for relieving cutaneous pain associated with neuropathies. The aim of this study was to assess cutaneous absorption and analgesia of topically applied TCAs. Percutaneous delivery was investigated using nude mouse and pig skin models at both infinite and saturated doses. We evaluated the cutaneous analgesia in nude mice using the pinprick scores. Among five antidepressants tested in the in vitro experiment, mesoridazine, promazine and doxepin showed a superior total absorption percentage. The drug with the lowest total absorption percentage was found to be fluphenazine (dose or at saturated solubility. The follicular pathway was important for mesoridazine and promazine delivery. Mesoridazine showed stronger skin analgesia than the other TCAs although the in vivo skin absorption of mesoridazine (0.34nmol/mg) was less than that of promazine (0.80nmol/mg) and doxepin (0.74nmol/mg). Mesoridazine had a prolonged duration of pain relief (165min) compared to promazine (83min) and doxepin (17min). The skin irritation test demonstrated an evident barrier function deterioration and cutaneous erythema by promazine and doxepin treatment, whereas mesoridazine caused no obvious adverse effect by topical application for up to 7days. PMID:27260201

  10. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... the development of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin...

  11. Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living with Psoriasis

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Itchy, Scaly Skin? Living With Psoriasis The thick, red, scaly skin of psoriasis can ... Diet Itchy, Scaly Skin? Wise Choices Links Treating Psoriasis Doctors often use a trial-and-error approach ...

  12. Sun’s effect on skin

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  13. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.;

    2007-01-01

    -driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis......CD4(+) T cells, in activated or malignant form, are involved in a number of diseases including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, and T cell lymphomas such as the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Targeting CD4 with an antibody that inhibits and/or eliminates disease...... xenograft mouse model. Zanolimumab treatment was shown to induce a significant reduction in the numbers of inflammatory mononuclear cells in upper dermis. This reduction in inflammatory mononuclear cells in situ was primarily due to a significant reduction in the numbers of skin-infiltrating CD4(+), but not...

  14. In Vivo Two-Photon Microscopy of Single Nerve Endings in Skin

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Molotkov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Nerve endings in skin are involved in physiological processes such as sensing1 as well as in pathological processes such as neuropathic pain2. Their close-to-surface positioning facilitates microscopic imaging of skin nerve endings in living intact animal. Using multiphoton microscopy, it is possible to obtain fine images overcoming the problem of strong light scattering of the skin tissue. Reporter transgenic mice that express EYFP under the control of Thy-1 promoter in neurons (including periphery sensory neurons) are well suited for the longitudinal studies of individual nerve endings over extended periods of time up to several months or even life-long. Furthermore, using the same femtosecond laser as for the imaging, it is possible to produce highly selective lesions of nerve fibers for the studies of the nerve fiber restructuring. Here, we present a simple and reliable protocol for longitudinal multiphoton in vivo imaging and laser-based microsurgery on mouse skin nerve endings. PMID:25178088

  15. Color Constancy For Improving Skin Detection

    A. Nadian-Ghomsheh

    2014-01-01

    Skin detection is a preliminary step in many human related recognition systems. Most skin detection systems suffer from high false detection rate, resulting from low variance between the skin and non-skin color distributions. This paper proposes the use of simple color correction algorithms with low computation complexity to obtain a corrected version of the skin color distribution, which could lead to more accurate skin detection. White patch retinex, Grey world assumption and several improv...

  16. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

  17. A Validated Questionnaire for Quantifying Skin Oiliness

    Leslie S. Baumann; Randall D. Penfield; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Deysi K. Duque

    2014-01-01

    Increased sebum production is a common skin complaint and plays an important role in acne and oily scalp conditions. To choose the correct skin care products, which mostly are marketed for dry, oily or normal skin, the consumer must self-assess their skin type. Studies show that individuals incorrectly self-assess their sebum secretion levels. In order to be able to correctly determine skin oiliness, we have developed a six-item skin oiliness scale (SOS) that correlates...

  18. Age-related skin changes

    Božanić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related skin changes can be induced by chronological ageing, manifested in subcutaneous fat reduction, and photo-ageing eliciting increased elastotic substance in the upper dermis, destruction of its fibrilar structure, augmented intercellular substance and moderate inflammatory infiltrate. Forty-five biopsy skin samples of the sun-exposed and sun-protected skin were analyzed. The patients were both males and females, aged from 17 to 81 years. The thickness of the epidermal layers and the number of cellular living layers is greater in younger skin. The amount of keratohyaline granules is enlarged in older skin. Dermoepidermal junction is flattened and the presence of elastotic material in the dermis is pronounced with age. The amount of inflammatory infiltrate is increased, the fibrous trabeculae are thickened in older skin and the atrophy of the hypodermis is observed. Chronological ageing alters the fibroblasts metabolism by reducing their life span, capacity to divide and produce collagen. During ageing, the enlargement of collagen fibrils diminishes the skin elasticity.

  19. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  20. Dermal lymphatic dilation in a mouse model of alopecia areata.

    Sundberg, John P; Pratt, C Herbert; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Victoria E; Stearns, Timothy M; Sundberg, Beth A; King, Lloyd E; HogenEsch, Harm

    2016-04-01

    Mouse models of various types of inflammatory skin disease are often accompanied by increased dermal angiogenesis. The C3H/HeJ inbred strain spontaneously develops alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disorder that can be controllably expanded using full thickness skin grafts to young unaffected mice. This provides a reproducible and progressive model for AA in which the vascularization of the skin can be examined. Mice receiving skin grafts from AA or normal mice were evaluated at 5, 10, 15, and 20weeks after engraftment. Lymphatics are often overlooked as they are small slit-like structures above the hair follicle that resemble artifact-like separation of collagen bundles with some fixatives. Lymphatics are easily detected using lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) by immunohistochemistry to label their endothelial cells. Using LYVE1, there were no changes in distribution or numbers of lymphatics although they were more prominent (dilated) in the mice with AA. Lyve1 transcripts were not significantly upregulated except at 10weeks after skin grafting when clinical signs of AA first become apparent. Other genes involved with vascular growth and dilation or movement of immune cells were dysregulated, mostly upregulated. These findings emphasize aspects of AA not commonly considered and provide potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26960166

  1. Skin-sparing mastectomy.

    González, Eduardo G; Rancati, Alberto O

    2015-12-01

    The surgical treatment of breast cancer has evolved rapidly in recent decades. Conservative treatment was adopted in the late 1970s, with rates above 70%, and this was followed by a period during which the indications for surgical intervention were expanded to those patients at high risk for BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations, and also due to new staging standards and use of nuclear magnetic resonance. This increase in the indications for mastectomy coincided with the availability of immediate breast reconstruction as an oncologically safe and important surgical procedure for prevention of sequelae. Immediate reconstruction was first aimed at correcting the consequences of treatment, and almost immediately, the challenge of the technique became the achievement of a satisfactory breast appearance and shape, as well as normal consistency. The skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) in conservation first and nipple-areola complex (NAC) later was a result of this shift that occurred from the early 1990s to the present. The objective of this review is to present all these developments specifically in relation to SSM and analyze our personal experience as well as the experience of surgeons worldwide with an emphasis on the fundamental aspects, indications, surgical technique, complications, oncological safety, and cosmetic results of this procedure. PMID:26645008

  2. Frog skin function revisited

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of the epidermis. These mechanisms have evolved pari passu with life alternating between aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with permeabilities of the skin controlled by external ion- and osmotic concentrations (loc. cit.). This allows for fast switching of the cutaneous uptake of chloride between active......Amphibians are adapted to living on dry land where body fluid turnover is governed by evaporative water loss. We aimed at testing the hypothesis [EH Larsen (2011) Acta Physiologica 202: 435–464] that water is evaporating from the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) secreted by subepidermal glands....... Samples of CSF contained, [Na] = 64.5±5.1 and [K] = 14.9±1.6 mM (mean±s.e.m., n = 16) with osmotic pressures of CSF and hemolymph, 168±4 (n = 22) and 238±1.7 (n = 25) mOsm/Kg. The relatively high [K] of CSF and an inwardly directed driving force for transepithelial water flux confirm that gland secretions...

  3. Development of prosthetic skin

    Kilaru, Rohit

    The objective of this research was to embed tactile sensors in polyimides. This novel method could be utilized to realize prosthetic skin for sensing different kinds of mechanical stimuli. Tactile sensors have an increasing demand in medical sectors: upper and lower-limb prosthetics and in the industrial sectors: robot end-effectors, grippers and manipulators. The sensors developed are targeted for prosthetic arm tactile sensing applications. Current work presents piezoresistive differential pressure sensors fabricated on flexible polyimide film or substrate. A unique technique to bond a flexible superstrate polyimide layer to a MEMS tactile sensor array is presented in this thesis. The sensor is made of aluminium oxide membrane layer with nichrome piezoresistors as the half-Wheatstone bridge elements. Four different types of sensor designs have been characterized to obtain gauge factor of thin film nichrome. The sensor arrays with and without the superstrate film were simulated for obtaining the maximum stress, average strain and deflection of the membrane. The maximum change in output voltage was 0.8 mV. The gauge factors calculated for tactile sensor with superstrate range between 2.2 to 7.8 and without superstrate range 1.5 to 5.7.

  4. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  5. Mouse-X

    Tagg, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mouse-X is a short Science Fiction film completed in 2014. It explores identity and reality through a powerful short story about a man trapped in a building with a thousand clones of himself, begging the question, 'Who are you, if you're not the only you?'

  6. Colonization, mouse-style

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  7. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  8. Tyrosinase Depletion Prevents the Maturation of Melanosomes in the Mouse Hair Follicle

    Paterson, Elyse K.; Fielder, Thomas J.; MacGregor, Grant R.; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Gillen, Daniel L.; Eby, Victoria; Boissy, Raymond E.; Ganesan, Anand K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to variation in human skin and hair color are not fully understood. To better understand the molecular control of skin and hair color variation, we modulated the expression of Tyrosinase (Tyr), which controls the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis, by expressing a single-copy, tetracycline-inducible shRNA against Tyr in mice. Moderate depletion of TYR was sufficient to alter the appearance of the mouse coat in black, agouti, and yellow coat color backgrounds, even though TYR depletion did not significantly inhibit accumulation of melanin within the mouse hair. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the reduction of Tyr inhibited the accumulation of terminal melanosomes, and inhibited the expression of genes that regulate melanogenesis. These results indicate that color in skin and hair is determined not only by the total amount of melanin within the hair, but also by the relative accumulation of mature melanosomes. PMID:26619124

  9. Tyrosinase Depletion Prevents the Maturation of Melanosomes in the Mouse Hair Follicle.

    Elyse K Paterson

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that lead to variation in human skin and hair color are not fully understood. To better understand the molecular control of skin and hair color variation, we modulated the expression of Tyrosinase (Tyr, which controls the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis, by expressing a single-copy, tetracycline-inducible shRNA against Tyr in mice. Moderate depletion of TYR was sufficient to alter the appearance of the mouse coat in black, agouti, and yellow coat color backgrounds, even though TYR depletion did not significantly inhibit accumulation of melanin within the mouse hair. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the reduction of Tyr inhibited the accumulation of terminal melanosomes, and inhibited the expression of genes that regulate melanogenesis. These results indicate that color in skin and hair is determined not only by the total amount of melanin within the hair, but also by the relative accumulation of mature melanosomes.

  10. Tyrosinase Depletion Prevents the Maturation of Melanosomes in the Mouse Hair Follicle.

    Paterson, Elyse K; Fielder, Thomas J; MacGregor, Grant R; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Gillen, Daniel L; Eby, Victoria; Boissy, Raymond E; Ganesan, Anand K

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to variation in human skin and hair color are not fully understood. To better understand the molecular control of skin and hair color variation, we modulated the expression of Tyrosinase (Tyr), which controls the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis, by expressing a single-copy, tetracycline-inducible shRNA against Tyr in mice. Moderate depletion of TYR was sufficient to alter the appearance of the mouse coat in black, agouti, and yellow coat color backgrounds, even though TYR depletion did not significantly inhibit accumulation of melanin within the mouse hair. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the reduction of Tyr inhibited the accumulation of terminal melanosomes, and inhibited the expression of genes that regulate melanogenesis. These results indicate that color in skin and hair is determined not only by the total amount of melanin within the hair, but also by the relative accumulation of mature melanosomes. PMID:26619124

  11. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Summary The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles. PMID:25551064

  12. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    Annika Vogt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide or antiseptics (silver. Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  13. Variations in the optical scattering properties of skin in murine animal models

    Calabro, Katherine; Curtis, Allison; Galarneau, Jean-Rene; Krucker, Thomas; Bigio, Irving J.

    2011-03-01

    In the work presented here, the optical scattering properties of mouse skin are investigated in depth with the use of Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy (ESS). In particular, sources of variation that lead to experimental error are identified and examined. The thickness of the dermal layer of the skin is determined to be the primary source of variation due to its high collagen content. Specifically, gender differences in skin thickness are found to cause increases in the reflectance and scattering coefficient value by a factor of two in males as opposed to females. Changes in the hair growth cycle are found to influence scattering strength not only due to changes in skin thickness, but also from melanin collection in hair follicles. Because direct and/or indirect measurement of mouse skin is common in the development of novel biomedical optics techniques (optical biopsy, molecular imaging, in vivo monitoring of glucose/blood oxygenation, etc.), the purpose of this work is to identify sources of experimental variation that may arise in these studies such that care can be taken to avoid or compensate for their affects.

  14. Mustard vesicating agent-induced toxicity in the skin tissue and silibinin as a potential countermeasure.

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to the vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) causes severe skin injury with delayed blistering. Depending upon the dose and time of their exposure, edema and erythema develop into blisters, ulceration, necrosis, desquamation, and pigmentation changes, which persist weeks and even years after exposure. Research advances have generated data that have started to explain the probable mechanism of action of vesicant-induced skin toxicity; however, despite these advances, effective and targeted therapies are still deficient. This review highlights studies on two SM analogs, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and NM, and CEES- and NM-induced skin injury mouse models that have substantially added to the knowledge on the complex pathways involved in mustard vesicating agent-induced skin injury. Furthermore, employing these mouse models, studies under the National Institutes of Health Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats program have identified the flavanone silibinin as a novel therapeutic intervention with the potential to be developed as an effective countermeasure against skin injury following exposure to mustard vesicating agents. PMID:27326543

  15. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) Inhibition on the Growth of Skin Through the Activation of Caspase-1 in Mouse%环磷酰胺(CYP)通过激活Caspase-1诱导表达抑制小鼠皮肤的生长

    向志雄; 付鹏; 齐麟; 贺洪

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug widey used in endometrial cancer, B-type lymphoma, central nervous system neoplasm, etc. However, one of the serious side effects of cyclophosphamide is its skin toxicity, and the underlying molecular mechanism is currently unclear. Cyclophosphamide induced caspase-1 expression, which mediates abnormal apoptosis and skin toxicity according to HE staining and Realtime qPCR experiment.%环磷酰胺对于子宫内膜癌、B细胞淋巴癌、中央神经系统肿瘤等各类癌症的治疗有着良好的效果.但是,一个重要的问题是它对于患者的皮肤,产生严重的有害作用,产生这个作用的详细机制还不是很清楚.苏木精-伊红(hematoxylin-eosin,HE)染色和实时荧光定量PCR (Real-time qPCR)实验结果表明,环磷酰胺诱导caspase-1过量表达,而caspase-1基因的诱导性表达,可能引起了皮肤的非正常凋亡,从而对皮肤构成毒害.

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    ... advanced melanoma. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 12 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  17. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  18. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... Sun damage to the body is caused by invisible ultraviolet (UV) radiation. People recognize sunburn as a ... uncovered skin, especially your lips, nose, ears, neck, hands, and feet. Apply sunscreen 15 minutes before going ...

  19. Taking Care of Your Skin

    ... using the product whenever redness or irritation happens. Screening Your Skin From Damage There is one product ... of your parents about whether to use an antibiotic (say: an-tie-bye-AH-tik) cream or ...

  20. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... member who's had skin cancer If you take medicines, ask your health care professional about sun-care ... from National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine Sunscreen and Sun Protection More in Consumer Updates ...

  1. Candida infection of the skin

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  2. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... skin cancer If you take medicines, ask your health care professional about sun-care precautions; some medications may ... children extra care in the sun. Ask a health care professional before applying sunscreen to children under 6 ...

  3. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Sun Safety: Save Your Skin! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Protect the Eyes Slip! Slop! Slap! Wrap! Sun safety is never out of season. Summer's arrival means ...

  4. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Sun Safety: Save Your Skin! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Protect the Eyes Slip! Slop! Slap! Wrap! Sun safety is never out of season. Summer's arrival means ...

  5. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  6. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... enjoying the outdoors, the National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP) has designated May 25, 2012 as “Don’t Fry Day.” The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency, ...

  7. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... and skin safety, visit www.skincancerprevention.org . This article appears on FDA's Consumer Updates page , which features ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  8. Sun Safety: Save Your Skin

    Full Text Available ... Studies show that exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer. Harmful rays from the sun—and from sunlamps and tanning beds—may also cause eye problems, weaken your immune system, and give ...

  9. Skin Rashes and Other Changes

    ... painful red bumps? Yes This could be a BOIL. A cluster of boils is called a CARBUNCLE. These occur due to infection under the skin. Gently compress the boil with a warm cloth. Use antibiotic ointments if ...

  10. Transplantation of human skin microbiota in models of atopic dermatitis

    Myles, Ian A.; Williams, Kelli W; Reckhow, Jensen D; Jammeh, Momodou L; Pincus, Nathan B; Sastalla, Inka; Saleem, Danial; Stone, Kelly D; Datta, Sandip K

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by reduced barrier function, reduced innate immune activation, and susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus. Host susceptibility factors are suggested by monogenic disorders associated with AD-like phenotypes and can be medically modulated. S. aureus contributes to AD pathogenesis and can be mitigated by antibiotics and bleach baths. Recent work has revealed that the skin microbiome differs significantly between healthy controls and patients with AD, including decreased Gram-negative bacteria in AD. However, little is known about the potential therapeutic benefit of microbiome modulation. To evaluate whether parameters of AD pathogenesis are altered after exposure to different culturable Gram-negative bacteria (CGN) collected from human skin, CGN were collected from healthy controls and patients with AD. Then, effects on cellular and culture-based models of immune, epithelial, and bacterial function were evaluated. Representative strains were evaluated in the MC903 mouse model of AD. We found that CGN taken from healthy volunteers but not from patients with AD were associated with enhanced barrier function, innate immunity activation, and control of S. aureus. Treatment with CGN from healthy controls improved outcomes in a mouse model of AD. These findings suggest that a live-biotherapeutic approach may hold promise for treatment of patients with AD.

  11. Effect of ultrasound-induced hyperthermia and x irradiation on skin

    Local hyperthermia for up to 60 min at 42.5 to 43.00C was induced in the skin of the mouse leg using ultrasound (780 kHz, 0.5 to 2.0 W/cm2). X radiation at doses of 10 to 30 Gy was delivered either before, during, or after the hyperthermia and the skin reactions were followed for 50 days. The thermal enhancement factor (TEF) was estimated using three criteria: (1) the maximum skin reaction; (2) the skin reaction integrated over the 50-day experimental period; (3) the skin reaction integrated over Days 8 to 32, which have a larger estimate The TEF was independent of the sequence of heat and x radiation for intervals up to 1 hr. For 1 hr of hyperthermia, the TEF as measured by the maximum skin reaction did not change with radiation doses of 10 to 20 Gy. When the skin reaction integrated over 50 days or Days 8 to 32 was used as the criterion of response, the TEF varied with radiation dose from 4.7 at 10 Gy to 1.6 at 20 Gy. For a fixed radiation dose of 20 Gy, the TEF was not increased significantly by extending the duration of the hyperthermia from 30 to 60 min. The TEF for a radiation dose of 20 Gy delivered in three fractions over 5 days was smaller than that for a single 10-Gy fraction

  12. Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model

    Kunal Sonavane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P<0.05 compared to control. Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15 mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tumor growth compared to control (P=0.004. Inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p-4EBP1, pSTAT3, and pERK1/2 was noted in SRB12-p9 cells post-curcumin treatment compared to control (P<0.05. Inhibition of pSTAT3 and pERK1/2 was also noted in curcumin-treated groups in vivo. IHC analysis revealed human tumor specimens that expressed significantly more activated pERK (P=0.006 and pS6 (P<0.0001 than normal skin samples. This is the first study to compare topical curcumin to oral curcumin. Our data supports the use of curcumin as a chemopreventive for skin SCC where condemned skin is a significant problem. Prevention strategies offer the best hope of future health care costs in a disease that is increasing in incidence due to increased sun exposure.

  13. Neutron skin in Osmium isotopes

    Here we have made an attempt to calculate neutron skin thickness in rare earth even-even osmium isotopes. The selected isotopes ranges from 2-p to 2-n drip line. Neutron skin is an important feature of neutron rich nuclei. The ground state proton and neutron rms radii have been calculated using HFB approximation. A comparison of calculated radii have been done by using two different Skyrme parameterizations and two different basis

  14. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    Williams, C. R.; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M.; Tyler, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical a...

  15. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  16. Parkinson's disease and the skin.

    Gregory, Ralph; Miller, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The concept that the skin is a mirror of Parkinson's disease dates to the start of the last century. Despite dermatological disorders being recognised as a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease, they are often overlooked. This article reviews the various skin disorders seen in Parkinson's disease and addresses the other dermatological questions that are frequently raised by those attending Parkinson's disease clinics. PMID:25862733

  17. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa

    Strumia, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adolescent females and young women. AN is associated with severe medical and psychological consequences, including death, osteoporosis, growth delay, and developmental delay. Skin signs are almost always detectable in severe AN and awareness of them may help in the early diagnosis of hidden AN. Skin signs are the expression of the medical consequences of starvation, vomiting, abuse of drugs, such as laxatives and di...

  18. Clinical utility of skin karyotype

    Luiza E. Dorfman; Agnes F. R. P. Silva; Giorgio A. Paskulin; Rafael F. M. Rosa; Paulo R. G. Zen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe report the case of a patient with Patau syndrome, diagnosed by skin karyotype, emphasizing the applications and importance of this test. The pregnancy morphology ultrasound showed face defects and of central nervous system and heart chambers asymmetry. In the postnatal evaluation it was identified microcephaly, single central nostril, and other malformations. We performed skin karyotype that resulted in full trisomy 13. Our report highlights the possibility of performing karyotype ...

  19. SKIN KINETICS AND DERMAL CLEARANCE

    Prakash Shashi; Nair Anroop; Saini Vipin; Sahu Neelam

    2012-01-01

    Availability of several therapeutic and cosmetic formulations for topical application has made the research on skin kinetics as a topic of current interest. Topical formulations are typically meant for local effect although there is always a chance that the low molecular weight chemicals are easily transported across the skin layer and make it available in the systemic circulation. Thus there is a major concern about the transport of chemical moieties following the topical application of cosm...

  20. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L.; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-5...