WorldWideScience

Sample records for 12-30 ev range

  1. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  2. Energy spectra of primary cosmic radiation in the 1013-1016 eV energy range

    Investigations of the primary cosmic radiation energy spectrum in the 1013-1016 eV energy range are performed using the Tien Shan complex device designed for the investigation of extensive air showers. On the basis of the analysis of experimental data, a conclusion is drawn that at present the energy spectrum of all particles is investigated for sure within the energy range up to (1-5)x1014 eV. In the framework of traditional models of hadron interaction and above experimental data on primary composition of cosmic rays at 1015-1016 eV energies, the energy spectrum of all primary particles in the first approximation is described with the power function of F (> E0) approximately Esub(0)sup(-#betta#sub(E)) with the power of #betta#sub(Esub(1))=1.63-1.68 at E0 15 eV and with #betta#sub(Esub(2))=2.0-2.1 in the 5x1015-5x1017 eV energy range

  3. The photofragmentation of naphthalene and azulene monocations in the energy range 7 22 eV

    Jochims, H. W.; Rasekh, H.; Rühl, E.; Baumgärtel, H.; Leach, S.

    1992-12-01

    Photoion mass spectrometry was used to study the fragmentation of naphthalene and azulene monocations over the excitation energy range 7-22 eV. Fifteen fragmentation processes in naphthalene and twelve in azulene have been examined in detail. The photoionization mass spectra at 20.58 eV are quasi-identical for the two isomers. This, and the constant value of the difference between the fragment appearance energies (AE) for naphthalene and azulene, equal to the difference in the heats of formations of the neutral parents, suggest that identical products are formed. The unimolecular dissociations fall mainly into (i) a "low energy" group, (AE 18 eV). The reactions in (i) have in common the bicyclic precursor C 10H +8 ion 18 which decays via rupture of one ring. The group (ii) reactions involve rupture of both rings to give an open chain precursor, the 1,6-bis-ethinyl-hexatriene radical cation 20. Thermodynamic and mechanistic arguments are given to propose specific reaction pathways and product structures. Two general schemes rationalize the low-energy and high-energy ionic decompositions.

  4. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  5. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d' astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  6. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented. PMID:23126955

  7. Dissociative photoionization of N2 in the 24-32 eV photon energy range

    Dissociative photoionization of N2 is studied with synchrotron radiation in the 24-32 eV photon energy range. Branching ratios between the different dissociation limits are measured from coincidence time of flight ion spectra threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence recorded for state-selected N2+ parent ions. In this energy range, N2+ molecular ions are observed to dissociate only towards the three lowest dissociation limits. Dissociations towards the second and third ones, which correspond to the formation of N+(1D) and N(2D) metastable states, respectively, occur right from their thermochemical onsets. From the second dissociation limit energy up to the third one, the N+(1D) + N(4S)/N+(3P) + N(4S) branching ratio is almost constant and equal to 0.6:0.4, except at the energy of the C 2 Σu+ (v = 12) state, where this branching ratio is found to be equal to 0.5:0.5. From the third dissociation limit onset, N2+ ions fragment only towards this limit. Possible dissociation mechanisms are discussed, involving a spin-orbit coupling between doublet and quartet states of N2+ to produce N+(1D) + N(4S) and a direct dissociation to produce N+(3P) + N(2D). No dissociation towards the other limits has been observed, in particular to produce the N+(1S), N+(5S) and N(2P) metastable states

  8. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi, E-mail: Yizheng@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Sanche, Léon [Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  9. Energy dependence of some neutron dosimeter sensitivities in the 1 ev up to 4 kev energy range

    The sensitivities of DN-A-1 device and SNM-14 slow neutron counter with a combined moderator in the 1 eV up to 4 keV energy range has been experimentally determined. The IBR-30 reactor served as a neutron source, spectral distribution was performed by the time-of-flight method. The sensitivity constancy of a long counter in the 1 eV up to 4 keV energy range has been experimentally shown. The obtained sensitivity values and other data available could be used in determining energy dependencies of the device sensitivity in essential neutron energy range. It permits to evaluate their errors when using as dosimeters in radiation fields of nuclear physics installations

  10. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  11. 19 CFR 12.30 - Whaling.

    2010-04-01

    ...)), or of any regulation issued under the Act (50 CFR part 351) is unlawful. Customs officers and... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whaling. 12.30 Section 12.30 Customs Duties U.S... OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.30 Whaling. The importation and exportation...

  12. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides

  13. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides

  14. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    Ranković, M. Lj. [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Canon, F. [INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon (France); Nahon, L. [SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, St Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Giuliani, A. [SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, St Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); INRA, UAR1008, CEPIA, Rue de la Géraudière, BP 71627, 44316 Nantes (France); Milosavljević, A. R., E-mail: vraz@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  15. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    John Smart

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  16. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Kleineberg, Ulf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Rauhut, Roman [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  17. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  18. Design of a polarised light beamline in the energy range of 30-4000 eV

    Chaudhari, S M; Phase, D M; Dasannacharya, B A

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the design of a possible polarised light beamline for magnetic circular dichroism and photoemission experiments on a bending magnet source of 2.5 GeV storage ring, Indus-2. It will have an energy range of 30-4000 eV and will deliver circular as well as linearly polarised light to perform absorption and photoemission experiments covering relevant L and M edges of most of the elements. The beamline optics consists of a vertically moveable aperture for polarisation selection. It has three spherical gratings and a double crystal monochromator necessary for energy selection in low and high-energy ranges respectively. Corresponding pre- and post-mirror optics, which is common for both the monochromators is the highlight of this design. Detailed ray-tracing calculations, which were carried out to evaluate and optimise the performance of the proposed beamline, are presented in this article.

  19. Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV.

    Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andrew L; Salmassi, Farhad; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Gullikson, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV), and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements. PMID:18758535

  20. Collision Cross Sections for O + Ar(+) Collisions in the Energy Range 0.03-500 eV.

    Sycheva, A A; Balint-Kurti, G G; Palov, A P

    2016-07-14

    The interatomic potentials of the a(2)Π and b(2)Π states of the OAr(+) molecule are calculated using the relativistic complete-active space Hartree-Fock method followed by a multireference configuration interaction calculation with an aug-cc-pwCVNZ-DK basis sets where N is 4 and 5. The calculations were followed by an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. An avoided crossing between the two potential energy curves is found at an internuclear separation of 5.75 bohr (3.04 Å). As the transition probability between the curves is negligible in the relative collision energy range 0.03-500 eV of interest here, collisions on the lower adiabatic a(2)Π potential may be treated without reference to the upper state. For low energies and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers, the one-dimensional radial Schrödinger equation is solved numerically using a Numerov algorithm method to determine the phase shift. The semiclassical JWKB approximation was employed for relative energies greater than 5 eV and orbital angular quantum numbers higher than 500. Differential, integral, transport (diffusion), and viscosity cross sections for elastic collisions of oxygen atoms with argon ions are calculated for the first time for the range of relative collision energies studied. The calculated cross sections are expected to be of utility in the fields of nanotechnology and arc welding. The combination of an Ar(+)((2)P) ion and a O((3)P) atom gives rise to a total of 12 different molecular electronic states that are all coupled by spin-orbit interactions. Potential energy curves for all 12 states are computed at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level and scattering calculations performed. The results are compared with those obtained using just the lowest potential energy curve. PMID:26741565

  1. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    Barnaveli, A T; Chubenko, A P; Eristavi, N A; Khaldeeva, I V; Nesterova, N M; Verbetsky, Yu G; Verbetsky, Yu.G.

    2002-01-01

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is carried out using large statistical material obtained at different configurations of experimental apparatus and under different triggering conditions. The existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the region Ne > 2*10^6 is confirmed. These irregularities have the character of sharp deeps and are located near the same values of N_e regardless of the experimental material and selection conditions used. So, at recent stage of research the existence of these irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the range of N_e > 2*10^6 may be regarded as reliably established. This fact supports our earlier conclusion on the existence of primary...

  2. Reevaluation and Validation of the 241Pu Resonance Parameters in the Energy Range Thermal to 20 eV

    A new SAMMY analysis of the 241Pu resonance parameters from thermal to 20 eV is presented. This evaluation takes into account the trends given by integral experiments [post-irradiation experiments performed in French pressurized water reactors (PWRs)]. Compared to the previous evaluations performed by Derrien and de Saussure, the capture cross section increases especially in the 0.26-eV resonance. It is shown that the new resonance parameters proposed in this work improve the prediction of the 242Pu buildup in a PWR, which was significantly underestimated with the previous evaluations

  3. Yakutsk array radio emission registration results in the energy range of 3*10^16-5*10^18 eV

    Petrov, I; Petrov, Z; Kozlov, V; Pravdin, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the set of measurements of ultra-high energy air shower radio emission at frequency 32 MHz in period of 2008-2012. The showers are selected by geomagnetic and azimuth angles and then by the energy in three intervals: 3*10^16 3*10^17 eV, 3*10^17 6*10^17 eV and 6*10^17 5*10^18 eV. In each energy interval average lateral distribution function using mathematically averaged data from antennas with di?fferent directions are plotted. In the paper, using experimental data the dependence of radio signal averaged amplitude from geomagnetic angle, the shower axis distance and the energy are determined. Depth of maximum of cosmic ray showers Xmax for the given energy range is evaluated. The evaluation is made according QGSJET model calculations and average lateral distribution function shape.

  4. Guided-ion beam measurements of Ar+ + Ar symmetric charge-transfer cross sections at ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 300 eV

    Guided-ion beam (GIB) measurements of the Ar+ + Ar symmetric charge-transfer (SCT) system are presented for ion energies ranging from 0.2 to 300 eV. Two methods are applied to distinguish primary and secondary ions: (i) based on isotopic-labeling, (ii) based on significant laboratory velocity differences. The absolute cross sections measured with these methods are in excellent agreement at energies above 1 eV. The experimental results are compared with semi-classical calculations performed with various published Ar2+ potentials. The calculations including spin-orbit effects lie within 10% of the isotope-selected and attenuation measurements at all investigated ion energies. The present results lie significantly above the simple Rapp and Francis model. Important errors in the latter approach are pointed out and a correct one-electron model is proposed. First measurements of the differential cross section at 0.5 eV collision energy are briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  5. Spectrometric investigations by using gravitational neutron spectrometer in the energy range from 10-4-10-8 eV

    The process of ultracold neutrons interaction (UCN) (10-8 eV-4 eV) with a number of solid polycrystallic samples: Cu, Cu-65, W, Mo, Ti, V, Be, Ta, Nb, Pd, is studied. The measurements are carried out using a gravitational neutron spectrometer. The neutron energy is determined according to the times of flight through a 6-meter vertical neutron guide. The spectrometer energy resolution is 16%. The installation gives the possibility to conduct measurements with samples both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. The dependence of the total and inelastic cross sections of interaction of UCN with substance is studied. The total effective neutron interaction cross sections (σsub(t), epsilonsub(t)) with studied substances are determined according to neutron transmission through the sample. The basic contribution into σsub(t), epsilonsub(t) is introduced by the neutron capture processes, their inelastic phonon scattering and fluctuation scattering on medium inhomogeneities (defects)

  6. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science,The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  7. Ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule in the VUV energy range (12 to 310 eV)

    Bernini, R.B., E-mail: rafael.bernini@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), 25050-100 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunez, C.V. [Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69060-001 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Castilho, R.B. de [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ionic fragmentation of isoprene following valence-shell and C 1s excitation. • Experimental observation of single and double ionization processes. • Large increase in fragmentation following core excitation. • Similar dissociation pattern bellow (270 eV) and above (310 eV) core edge. • Stable molecular ion observed at all photon energies. - Abstract: Isoprene, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}, is a biogenic volatile compound emitted from plants and animals, playing an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we have studied the ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule induced by high energy photons (synchrotron radiation), both at the valence (12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, and 21.0 eV) and carbon 1s edge (270 and 310 eV, respectively, below and above edge) energies. The ionic fragments were mass-analyzed using a Wiley–McLaren time-of-flight spectrometer (TOF) and single (PEPICO) and double ionization coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectra were obtained. As expected, the fragmentation degree increases with increasing energy. Below and above the carbon 1s edge, the fragmentation patterns are quite similar, and basically the same fragments are observed as compared to the spectra following valence-shell ionization. Stable doubly-charged ions were not observed. A PEPIPICO spectrum has shown that the main dissociation route for doubly-ionized species corresponds to the [CH{sub 3}]{sup +}/[C{sub 4}H{sub 2–5}]{sup +} ion pair. Intense fragmentation of the isoprene molecule has been observed following valence shell and core electron ionization. The observance of basically the same fragments when moving from valence to inner-shell suggests that basically the same fragmentation routes are present in both cases. All doubly (or multiply)-charged cations are unstable, at least on a microsecond scale.

  8. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    Gottardi, Luciano; Takei, Yoh; van der Kuur, Jan; de Korte, Piet A. J.; Hoevers, Henk F.C.; Boersma, Dirk; Bruijn, Marcel; Mels, Wim; Ridder, Marcel L.; Takken, Dick; van Weers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between...

  9. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8–24 eV photon energy range

    Highlights: ► We study the VUV photoionization of acetamide in the 8–24 eV photon energy range. ► Electron/ion coincidence measurements are performed using synchrotron radiation. ► The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide is determined by TPEPICO measurements. ► VUV induced fragmentation pathways of acetamide are assigned and discussed. - Abstract: A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8–24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (12A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 12A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH3, NH2, NH3, CO, HCCO and NH2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    Gottardi, Luciano; van der Kuur, Jan; de Korte, Piet A J; Hoevers, Henk F C; Boersma, Dirk; Bruijn, Marcel; Mels, Wim; Ridder, Marcel L; Takken, Dick; van Weers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between 1.5 to 2.1 eV in the investigated energy range and is weakly dependent on the detector set point. A first analysis shows a count-rate capability, without considerable loss of performance, of about 500 counts per second.

  11. Photoion mass spectrometry of five amino acids in the 6-22 eV photon energy range

    Jochims, Hans-Werner; Schwell, Martin; Chotin, Jean-Louis; Clemino, Monique; Dulieu, Francois; Baumgaertel, Helmut; Leach, Sydney

    2004-03-08

    A photoionization mass spectrometry study in the 6-22 eV photon energy region of five amino acids, glycine-h{sub 5} and its -d{sub 5} isotopologue, {alpha}-alanine, {beta}-alanine, {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid and {alpha}-valine, revealed VUV-induced degradation pathways of these important biological molecules. The fragmentation patterns, ionization energies and ion appearance energies are reported, many for the first time, and are compared with results of electron impact and other studies. Assignment of ion peaks and determination of fragment ion formation channels were assisted by mass spectral data on deuterated isotopologues of the three proteinaceous amino acids studied. Thermochemical data, coupled with the observed ion appearance energies, was also useful in clarifying dissociative photoionization pathways. Ion pair formation appears to occur in certain low energy dissociation processes. Isomeric interconversion between {alpha}-alanine and {beta}-alanine cations does not occur up to 20 eV excitation energy. Some astrophysical implications concerning the prospects for amino acid observation and survival in the interstellar medium and in meteorites are briefly discussed.

  12. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H2CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy (∼15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  13. High-resolution threshold photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy of molecular nitrogen in the 15.0–52.7 eV photon energy range

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectrum of N2 over the photon energy range 15.0–52.7 eV. • High-resolution photoion spectrum of N2 over the photon energy range 15.0–28.0 eV. • Spectroscopic constants for electronic states of N2+ from analyses of vibrational data. • Vibrational assignment of electronic states of N2+. • Rydberg state assignment for series converging on N2+ states. - Abstract: We have performed an extensive study of the threshold photoelectron spectrum of N2 over the valence ionization region 15.0–28.0 eV under high-resolution conditions. In addition, we measured the high-resolution photoion spectrum of N2 over the same photon energy range. These complimentary views of ionization in molecular systems provide different perspectives of the mechanism for the production of both ions and threshold electrons. The studies are presented in the context of our current understanding of the relationship between: (i) the autoionization of neutral Rydberg states and direct photoionization to (ii) the production of electrons and the ionic states of nitrogen at threshold. In both cases (ions and threshold electrons) we have found a considerable amount of new information on the vibrational states of a number of neutral and ionic electronic states. The inner valence ionization region of nitrogen was also investigated using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy over the photon energy range (27.7–52.7 eV) and is presented from the perspective of the formation of mixed-configuration ionic satellite states and the possibility of the involvement of ionic Rydberg states converging on the double ionization of nitrogen

  14. The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 10^14 eV to 10^17 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array

    Amenomori, M

    2008-01-01

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10^14 eV to 10^17 eV using 5.5 times 10^7 events collected in the period from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located at 4300 m above sea level (atmospheric depth of 606 g/cm^2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We performed extensive Monte Carlo calculations and discuss the model dependences involved in the final result assuming interaction models of QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1 and primary composition models of heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) ones. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. The detector simulation was also made to improve the accuracy of determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under v...

  15. Sensitivity measurements of a microchannel plate intensified x-ray detector in the 100 - 1500 eV photon energy range (abstract)

    Microchannel plate intensified (MPI) x-ray detectors are commonly used for imaging and spectral measurements in the 100 - 1500 eV photon energy range. Using a laser-produced plasma x-ray source, we measured the integrated detector response versus incident x-ray intensity and the relative efficiency versus photon energy of a MPI x-ray detector. Two identical 2000 lines/mm transmission grating spectrometers simultaneously record broadband plasma source emission from a tantalum target. The relative efficiency was determined by comparing the spectrum recorded with an absolutely calibrated x-ray CCD reference detector on one spectrometer to the spectrum recorded with a MPI x-ray detector on the other spectrometer. The integrated detector response versus incident x-ray intensity was measured by simultaneously illuminating the CCD reference detector and the MPI detector with step-wedge-filtered magnesium plasma emission. The aluminum step wedge x-ray filters pass the 1s - 2p emission lines of H-like Mg at 1470 eV and the 1s2 - 1s2p emission lines of He-like Mg at 1350 eV, and provide a four order of magnitude range in incident intensity on the detectors.copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  16. A Correlation Potential Method for Electron Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules over Energy Range 10 ~ 5000 eV

    LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng; SUN Jin-Feng; ZHU Zun-Lue; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering on several molecules (NH3, H2O, CH4, CO, N2, O2, and C2H4) over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The difference between the bonded atom and the free one in states is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in a molecule is considered. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV. It is shown that the correlated calculations are much closer to the available experimental data than the uncorrelated ones at lower energies, especially below 500 eV. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  17. Fermi Bubble as a Source of Cosmic Rays in the Energy Range > 10E15 eV

    Cheng, K S; Dogiel, V A; Ko, C M; Ip, W H; Wang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Fermi-LAT has recently discovered two giant gamma-ray-bubbles which extend in the North and South of the Galactic center with diameter and height of the order of $H\\sim 10$ kpc. We suggest that periodic star capture processes by the galactic supermassive black hole, Sgr A$^*$, with a capture rate $\\tau_{cap}^{-1}\\sim 3\\times 10^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$ and energy release $W\\sim 3\\times 10^{52}$ erg per capture can produce hot plasma injecting into the Galactic halo at a wind velocity $u\\sim 10^8$ cm/s. The periodic injection of hot plasma can produce a series of shocks. Energetic protons in the Bubble are re-accelerated when they interact with these shocks. We show that for energy larger than $E > 10^{15}$ eV, acceleration process can be better described by the stochastic second order Fermi acceleration. We propose that hadronic CRs within the "knee" of the observed CR spectrum are produced by Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) distributed in the Galactic disk. Re-acceleration of these particles in the Fermi Bubble pr...

  18. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C–C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C–C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the “gateway states” for molecules with this orientation

  20. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry.

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Månsson, Erik P; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C-C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C-C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the "gateway states" for molecules with this orientation. PMID:26395707

  1. Spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range 1015–1018 eV derived from the Yakutsk array data

    Sabourov A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A spectrum of cosmic rays within energy range 1015 − 3 × 1017 eV was derived from the data of the small Cherenkov setup, which is a part of the Yakutsk complex EAS array. In this, work a new series of observation is covered. These observations lasted from 2000 till 2010 and resulted in increased number of registered events within interval 1016–1018 eV, which in turn made it possible to reproduce cosmic ray spectrum in this energy domain with better precision. A sign of a thin structure is observed in the shape of the spectrum. It could be related to the escape of heavy nuclei from our Galaxy. Cosmic ray mass composition was obtained for the energy region 1016–1018 eV. A joint analysis of spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays was performed. Obtained results are considered in the context of theoretical computations that were performed with the use of hypothesis of galactic and meta-galactic origin of cosmic rays.

  2. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical...

  3. R-matrix analysis of the 241Pu neutron cross sections in the energy range thermal to 300 eV

    The report is a description of the analysis of the 241Pu neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the multilevel-multichannel Reich-Moore code SAMMY. The resonance parameters were obtained in the energy range 0 to 300 eV. The table of the resonance parameters is given with some statistical properties of the parameters. Tabulated and graphical comparison between the experimental data and the calculated cross sections are given. The results are available in ENDF/B-V format and will be proposed for the evaluated data library JEF2 and ENDF/B-VI. 28 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Facilities and techniques for x-ray diagnostic calibration in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a pioneer in the field of x-ray diagnostic calibration for more than 20 years. We have built steady state x-ray sources capable of supplying fluorescent lines of high spectral purity in the 100-eV to 100-keV energy range, and these sources have been used in the calibration of x-ray detectors, mirrors, crystals, filters, and film. This paper discusses our calibration philosophy and techniques, and describes some of our x-ray sources. Examples of actual calibration data are presented as well

  5. Measurement of the U-236(n, f) cross section in the neutron energy range from 0.5 eV up to 25 keV

    Wagemans, Cyrillus; De Smet, Liesbeth; Vermote, Sofie; Heyse, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The U-236(n,f) cross section has been measured in the energy range from 0.5 eV to 25 keV at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator neutron time-of-flight facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Geel, Belgium. A highly enriched U-236 sample was mounted back-to-back with a B-10 sample in the center of a Frisch-gridded ionization chamber, hence realizing a 2 pi detection geometry. A U-235(n,f) cross-section control measurement was performed in the same experimental co...

  6. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0. 6--16. mu. eV range

    Hagmann, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Moltz, D.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics); Bluele, A.I

    1991-11-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet. This proposal capitalized on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho}{sub a}= 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.1. in the above mass range in 48 months.

  7. A proposed search for dark-matter axions in the 0. 6--16. mu. eV range

    van Bibber, K. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.S.; Tanner, D.B. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics); Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Moltz, D.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A proposed experiment is described to search for dark-matter axions in the mass range 0.6--16 {mu}eV. The method is based on the Primakoff conversion of axions into monochromatic microwave photons inside a tunable microwave cavity in a large volume high field magnet, as described by Sikivie. This proposal capitalizes on the availability of two Axicell magnets from the decommissioned MFTF-B fusion machine at LLNL. Assuming a local dark-matter density in axions of {rho} = 0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}, the axion would be found or ruled out at the 97% c.l. in the above mass range in 48 months. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Spectrometric investigations in the 10-8-10-5eV energy range by cold neutron spectrometer

    The work dwells on the study of interaction of very cold neutrons (VCN) with U, 235U, Pb, SiO2, SiBx (x=0.0006), Pd, PdHx (x=0; 0.008; 0.105; 0.26; 0.32; 0.51; 0.71). The main processes of VCN interaction with a substance in condensed state are as follows: nuclear capture, inelastic phonon scattering, elastic scattering on nuclear potential fluctuations, as well as noncoherent scattering on hydrogen in case of PdHx. Dependences of total cross sections of interaction σt(V) or Σt(V) were measured by neutron transmission through the sample in VCN spectrometer in the range of rates Vt ∼ 1/V by means of extrapolation to thermal range at V=2200m/s the σt2200 cross section was determined, as compared with table data on nuclear capture σc

  9. The energy-spectrum of light primaries in the range from 10^{16.6} to 10^{18.2} eV

    Schoo, S; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J

    2013-01-01

    Data of the Grande extension of the KASCADE experiment allows us to study extensive air showers induced by primary cosmic rays with energies above 10^{16} eV. The energy of an event is estimated in terms of the number of charged particles (Nch ) and the number of muons (N{\\mu} ) measured at an altitude of 110 m a.s.l. While a combination of the two numbers is used for the energy, the ratio defines the primary mass (group). The spectrum of the combined light and medium mass components, recently measured with KASCADE-Grande, was found to be compatible with both a single power-law and a broken power-law in the energy range between 10^{16.3} and 10^{18} eV. In this contribution we will present the investigation of possible structures in the spectrum of light primaries with increased statistics both from a larger data set including more recent measurements and by using a larger fiducial area than in the previous study. With the better statistical accuracy and with optimized selection criteria for enhancing light p...

  10. Stopping power and mean free path for low-energy electrons in ten scintillators over energy range of 20–20,000 eV

    Systematic calculations of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20–20,000 eV electrons in a group of 10 important scintillators have been carried out. The calculations are based on the dielectric model including the Born–Ochkur exchange correction and the optical energy loss functions (OELFs) are empirically evaluated because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the scintillators under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by both the f-sum rule and the calculation of mean ionization potential. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators over the energy range of 20–20,000 eV, and are of key importance for the investigation of liquid scintillation counting. - Highlights: ► Scintillators are important materials used in liquid scintillation counting (LSC). ► Stopping power (SP) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) are important for LSC. ► SPs and IMFPs for electrons of 20 eV–20 keV in 10 scintillators systematically calculated. ► Dielectric model used and optical energy loss function empirically evaluated. ► SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators.

  11. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi3O8, KAlSi3O8 and CaAl2Si2O8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO2, Al2O3 and CaCO3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered

  12. Differential cross sections of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 in the energy range 100-700eV

    Ma Er-Jun; Ma Yu-Gang; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Fang De-Qing; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the differential cross sections (DCS) of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 at six impact energies in a range of 100-700eV by employing the independent atom model (IAM) together with the relativistic partial waves. The atom is present in an optical potential which is complex, spherically symmetric, and energy dependent. The optical potential of the atom is the sum of the direct static, dynamic polarization, local exchange and modified absorption potentials. The results obtained by using a modified absorption potential show significant improvements on the unmodified absorption potential results. The present results are generally in good agreement with experimental data available. In addition, the present results indicate that the structure of molecule manifests the observable effects on electron-molecule scattering.

  13. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  14. Differential and integral electron scattering cross sections from tetrahydrofuran (THF) over a wide energy range: 1-10 000 eV*

    Fuss, Martina C.; Sanz, Ana G.; Blanco, Francisco; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Brunger, Michael J.; García, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Total, integral inelastic and integral and differential elastic cross sections have been calculated with the screening-corrected additivity rule (SCAR) method based on the independent atom model (IAM) for electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran (THF). Since the permanent dipole moment of THF enhances rotational excitation particularly at low energies and for small angles, an estimate of the rotational excitation cross section was also computed by assuming the interaction with a free electric dipole as an independent, additional process. Our theoretical results compare very favourably to the existing experimental data. Finally, a self-consistent set of integral and differential interaction CSs for the incident energy range 1 eV-10 keV is established for use in our low energy particle track simulation (LEPTS). All cross section data are supplied numerically in tabulated form.

  15. Experimental and theoretical determinations of the absolute ionization cross section of alkali metals by electron impact in the energy range from 100 to 2000 eV

    The absolute electron impact ionization cross sections for the alkali metals in the energy range between 100 eV and 2000 eV were measured by the non-modulated crossed beam technique. The neutral beam of alkali atoms is produced by a Knudsen cell and crossed at right angles with the electron beam. The ions formed are collected on a plate and their intensity determined with a D.C. amplifier. The neutral beam is condensed on a cold trap cooled with liquid nitrogen, this temperature being much lower than that required to obtain total condensation. The amount of metal deposited is measured by the isotopic dilution technique and by atomic absorption, and the density of the atoms in the neutral beam is calculated. The total absolute ionization cross sections can then be determined. All possible errors have been carefully analyzed and their magnitudes estimated. The absolute ionization cross section for Li at an energy of 500 eV is: QLi = 0,358 x 10-16 cm2. This value is half of that obtained by Mac Farland and Kinney. The partial ionization cross sections for the singly and multiply charged ions is determined with a mass spectrometer attached to this apparatus. For the singly charged ions, the variation of the cross section with the energy of the ionizing electrons is in agreement with the optically allowed transition law: Q = A log BE/E. From the variation of Q with E, the squared matrix elements of the transition moment (|Mi|)2 are determined for all the elements studied. New calculations of the ionization cross section of Li and Na were performed in the framework of the Born-Bethe approximation as modified by Gaudin and Botter to take into account collisions with large momentum variation of the incident electron. Hartree-Fock type wave functions for the ground state atom (tabulated by Clementi) were used. The calculated values are in good agreement with our experimental results and with the former theoretical results calculated by various methods. This work also

  16. The photoluminescence emission in the 0.7-0.9 eV range from oxygen precipitates, thermal donors and dislocations in silicon

    There is a wide set of literature reports that suggest that over-coordinated oxygen or self-interstitials are, directly or indirectly, the chemical bridge between thermal donors, oxygen precipitates and dislocations, capable of supporting a common origin of their emission features in the 0.7-0.9 eV range. Finding the experimental proof of these suggestions was the aim of this present work, which required both appropriate preparation of samples and their careful optical, electrical and microscopical characterization. We were able to show not only that the photoluminescence emissions from oxide precipitates could be correlated to their density and to the presence of closed dislocation rings around them, but also that the precursors of dislocations are optically active as well. For samples thermally annealed in the range of thermal donors, we were able to show that their optical activity seems to be correlated to a transition from a shallow donor level of thermal donors to a deep level of a CiO2 complex. (author)

  17. Electron stopping power and inelastic mean free path in amino acids and protein over the energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong

    2006-07-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping power (SPs) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) values for 20-20,000 eV electrons in a group of 15 amino acids and a simple protein have been performed. The calculations are based on the dielectric response model and take into account the exchange effect between the incident electron and target electrons. The optical energy-loss functions for the 15 investigated amino acids and the protein are evaluated by using an empirical approach, because of the lack of experimental optical data. For all the considered materials, the calculated mean ionization potentials are in good agreement with those given by Bragg's rule, and the evaluated SP values at 20 keV converge well to the Bethe-Bloch predictions. The data shown represent the first results of SP and IMFP, for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range below 20 keV, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials. In addition, the average energy deposited by inelastic scattering of the electrons on this group of 15 amino acids, on the protein, on Formvar and on DNA, respectively, has been estimated for energies below 20 keV. The dependences of the average energy deposition on the electron energy are given. These results are important for any detailed studies of radiation-induced inactivation of proteins and the DNA. PMID:16733724

  18. Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 TeV to 1015 eV observed with the new Tibet AS core detector array

    Huang Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called “YAC-I” has been successfully carried out in 2009–2010 together with Tibet-III air-shower array. YAC-II has also been operated from 2011. Preliminary results of YAC-I and performance of YAC-II are presented in this paper. The primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from50 TeV to 1015 eV derived from YAC-I data based on QGSJET2 and SIBYLL2.1 are reported. The obtained P+He spectrum is smoothly connected with directobservation data below 100 TeV and also with our previously reported results at higher energies within statistical error s. Based on these results and the sharp kneeof all-particle energy spectrum observed by our experiment, the possible origin of the sharp knee is discussed. See the published papers.

  19. BOLUX: A cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as high accuracy primary detector in the 150-11,000 eV range

    We have measured the electrical and radiometric properties of a cryogenic absolute radiometer BOLUX (Bolometre pour l'Utilisation dans le domaine de rayons X). BOLUX is intended for use as a primary detector standard for radiant power measurement of a synchrotron beam from EUV to X-ray spectral ranges. The absolute radiometer uses a composite bolometer with a built-in electrical heating element. The bolometer's absorber, optimized for beam diameter and for X-ray absorption, is coupled both to a Ge doped thermometer and to the electrical resistance calibrator with similar thermal paths so that electrical and radiant heating are equivalent. This device operates between 4 K the liquid helium temperature, and 1.25 K obtained by pumping helium. The main advantage of BOLUX over other radiometers is its portability (weight 12 kg) which means it can be used with any synchrotron beamline. The second advantage is its very small time constant (20 ms) compared with other apparatus (typically a few min). We can use it in DC mode or in AC mode and Alpha sources calibration experiments have already been realized. We have measured synchrotron radiant power at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY II. We reported experiments in DC mode and showed the possibility to study the drift and the temporal stability at the exit of a synchrotron beamline. For a helium bath temperature of 1.33 K and in the spectral range of 150 eV-11 keV, we have measured a high limit of detection (in 1 s integrated) to be 10-10 W, with a DC responsivity of 1.3x105 V/W, spatial nonuniformity over 4 mm diameter below 1% and possibility to use over five decades between a few nW and 100 μW with a good linearity (<1%). Typically available radiant power of 50 nW can be measured with a standard uncertainty as low as 1%. BOLUX response has been directly compared with qualified photodiodes ; we have observed a standard deviation between the two

  20. A search for νμ oscillations in the Δm2 range 0.3-90 eV2

    Dydak, F.; Feldman, G. J.; Guyot, C.; Merlo, J. P.; Meyer, H.-J.; Rothberg, J.; Steinberger, J.; Taureg, H.; von Rüden, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wahl, H.; Wotschack, J.; Blümer, H.; Buchholz, P.; Duda, J.; Eisele, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Pszola, B.; Renk, B.; Belusevic, R.; Falkenburg, B.; Flottmann, T.; de Groot, J. G. H.; Geweniger, C.; Keilwerth, H.; Tittel, K.; Debu, P.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Schuller, J. P.; Turlay, R.; Abramowicz, H.; Królikowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    We have searched for νμ oscillations by comparing the rates of νgm charged-current interactions in two detectors located 130 and 885 m from the target, which was struck by a 9.2 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN Proton Synchroton. No evidence for νμ oscillations was found. At the 90% confidence level, Δm2 values between 0.26 and 90 eV2 are excluded for maximal mixing. The most restrictive limit on the neutrino mixing-angle parameter sin22θ is 0.053 at Δm2=2.5 eV2.

  1. A search for νsub(μ) oscillations in the Δm2 range 0.3-90 eV2

    We have searched for νsub(μ) oscillations by comparing the rates of νsub(μ) charged-current interactions in two detectors located 130 and 885 m from the target, which was struck by a 19.2 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron. No evidence for νsub(μ) oscillations was found. At the 90% confidence level, Δm2 values between 0.26 and 90 eV2 are excluded for maximal mixing. The most restrictive limit on the neutrino mixing-angle parameter sin22THETA is 0.053 at Δm2 = 2.5 eV2. (orig.)

  2. Calculations of electron stopping powers for 41 elemental solids over the 50 eV to 30 keV range with the full Penn algorithm

    We present mass collision electron stopping powers (SPs) for 41 elemental solids (Li, Be, graphite, diamond, glassy C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ge, Y, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, In, Sn, Cs, Gd, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and Bi) that were calculated from experimental energy-loss-function data with the full Penn algorithm for electron energies between 50 eV and 30 keV. Improved sets of energy-loss functions were used for 19 solids. Comparisons were made of these SPs with SPs calculated with the single-pole approximation, previous SP calculations, and experimental SPs. Generally satisfactory agreement was found with SPs from the single-pole approximation for energies above 100 eV, with other calculated SPs, and with measured SPs.

  3. Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes

    Imazono, T.; Koike, M.; Kawachi, T.; Koeda, M.; Nagano, T.; Sasai, H.; Oue, Y.; Yonezawa, Z.; Kuramoto, S.; Sano, K.

    2011-09-01

    A versatile soft x-ray flat-field grating spectrograph to be installed to a conventional transmission electron microscope has been developed. A holographic spherical grating of a 1200-lines/mm effective groove density which places emphasis on the low energy region of 50-200 eV is designed by an aspheric wavefront recording system. Laminar and blazed types master (LM and BM) gratings and their respective replica (LR and BR) gratings are fabricated by holographic exposure and ion-beam etching methods. Absolute diffraction efficiencies in the 50-300 eV range at the angle of incidence of 86.0 degrees were measured using a synchrotron radiation. The first order diffraction efficiencies are 6.1-7.5% (or 12%) for LM (or BM) and 7.4-9.6% (or 13%) for LR (or BR) gratings at near 55 eV, and over 5% (or 8%) in the 50-200 eV range for LM and LR (or BM and BR) gratings. The replica gratings show the comparable first-order diffraction efficiencies with their respective laminar and blazed types of master gratings.

  4. R-MATRIX RESONANCE ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESONANCE PARAMETERS OF 233U IN THE NEUTRON ENERGY RANGE FROM THERMAL TO 600 eV

    Leal, L.C.

    2001-02-27

    The R-matrix resonance analysis of experimental neutron transmission and cross sections of {sup 233}U, with the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY, was extended up to the neutron energy of 600 eV by taking advantage of new high resolution neutron transmission and fission cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). The experimental data base is described. In addition to the microscopic data (time-of-flight measurements of transmission and cross sections), some experimental and evaluated integral quantities were included in the data base. Tabulated and graphical comparisons between the experimental data and the SAMMY calculated cross sections are given. The ability of the calculated cross sections to reproduce the effective multiplication factors k{sub eff} for various thermal, intermediate, and fast systems was tested. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters were examined and recommended values of the average s-wave resonance parameters are given.

  5. VUV photophysics and dissociative photoionization of pyrimidine, purine, imidazole and benzimidazole in the 7-18 eV photon energy range

    Schwell, Martin [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS-UMR 7583, Universite Paris 7 and 12, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France)], E-mail: schwell@lisa.univ-paris12.fr; Jochims, Hans-Werner; Baumgaertel, Helmut [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Freien Universitaet Berlin, Takustr. 3, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Leach, Sydney [Laboratoire d' Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique (LERMA), CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules-Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)], E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr

    2008-11-03

    Photoionization mass spectrometry is used to study ionization processes and fragmentation pathways of four prebiotic species, pyrimidine, purine, imidazole and benzimidazole, in the 7-18 eV photon energy region, with synchrotron radiation as excitation source. These molecules are possible precursors of the nucleic acid bases that occur in DNA and RNA. Ionization energies and ion appearance energies are reported. They are compared with electron impact and other studies and are discussed in terms of the electronic and nuclear structures of these species and their cations. The ion appearance energies, in conjunction with thermochemical data, were used to propose dissociative photoionization pathways, principally involving loss of HCN molecules in each of the four species. Astrophysical implications of the results concern the prospects for observation and survival of these molecules in the interstellar medium, in comets and in meteorites. Suggestions are made concerning suitable sites for radioastronomical searches for these purines and pyrimidines.

  6. High resolution measurement of the 234U(n,f) cross section in the neutron energy range from 0.5 eV to 100 keV

    The 234U(n,f) cross section has been measured in the energy range from 0.5 eV to 100 keV at the GELINA neutron time-of flight facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Geel using highly enriched 234U samples. Two independent measurements were performed: one in a low detection geometry (15% of 2 π) and another in a 2 π detection geometry. A235U(n,f) cross-section measurement was performed under the same experimental conditions, allowing a reliable correction for the 235U(n,f) contribution to the yield. Special attention has been given to the strongest resonance at 5.16 eV and to the fission resonance integral If for which large discrepancies are reported in the literature. (authors)

  7. Photon stimulated desorption investigations of positive ions of MgO, TiO2, Yb2O3, Nd2O3, H2O/Si(100), CaF2/Si and of H2O, CO and NO on Yb and Nd in the energy range 14 eV up to 800 eV

    Photon-stimulated desorption of positive ions from surfaces has been studied with synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range 14 -800 eV of the 'FLIPPER'-monochromator using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. TiO2, as a prototype of a maximal valency ionic compound, shows a strong desorption of O+- in the photon energy range of the Ti 3 p → 3d- and Ti 2p → 3d-resonance as well as at the 0 1s-excitation due to intraatomic respectively intraatomic Auger decays, which is in agreement with the Knotek-Feibelman model. The desorption of F+ from CaF2-covered silicon is found to follow the respective excitation and decay processes in Ca and F. In addition, the very large cross section for the F+ desorption causes a radiation damage by photons of more than about 30 eV. The adsorbate system H2O/Si (100) needs a multiple electron excitation to show a significant desorption setting in only 30 eV above the 0 1s threshold. The rare earth metals Yb and Nd covered with O2, H2O, CO or NO exhibit a competitive desorption of O+ partly due to intraatomic Auger decays caused by single electron excitations and partly due to multiple electron excitations. The variation of the 0+ yield with regard to the different adsorbates on Yb and Nd is unexpectedly low. A detailed investigation was concerned with thin oxidized Mg-films and differently prepared MgO-single-crystals. Here we found a very efficient desorption of O+ and H+ resulting from the excitation of O 1s-surface-excitons. In addition, the strong hole-hole-interaction energy of crystalline MgO appears to be responsible for a suppressed O+-signal in the energy range of the Mg 2p-excitation. (orig./BHO)

  8. Broadband multilayer mirror and diffractive optics for attosecond pulse shaping in the 280-500 eV photon energy range

    Schmidt J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirped broadband multilayer mirrors are key components to shape attosecond pulses in the XUV range. Compressing high harmonic pulses to their Fourier limit is the major goal for attosecond physics utilizing short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report about the first implementation of multilayers and diffractive optics fulfilling these requirements in the “water-window” spectral range.

  9. Range profiles of low energy (100 to 1500 eV) implanted 3He and 4He in tungsten. II. Analysis and discussion. Materials Science Center Report No. 4108

    The identifiable sources of possible systematic error in the measurement of the mean range (x bar) and the straggling (Δx) of the 3He and 4He range profiles, reported on in a previous paper were modeled mathematically and the resulting expressions numerically evaluated. The evaluations showed that these possible sources of systematic error were not of significant magnitude to affect the range parameters x bar and Δx. The role of the transfer of energy, either indirectly or directly, from the incoming beam of He ions to those He atoms that had already been implanted was also considered as a possible source of systematic error. It was shown that there was a possibility of radiation-induced diffusion or the simple collisional displacement of He atoms at an implantation energy of 100 eV and a dose of 4 x 1015 cm-2. It was also demonstrated that for the sample sizes employed in the experimental work (Part I) the integral profiles were characterized with a reasonable degree of statistical significance. The experimental results presented in Part I were compared with the calculated results of Biersack's and Haggmark's TRIM simulation program. There was qualitative agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the range parameters but not quantitative. In general, the experimental values of the dimensionless range parameters were greater then the calculated values. The possible sources of this discrepancy were attributed to: the use of the Moliere interatomic potential in the TRIM program; and possible low-energy channeling effects along the [110] direction of W. Simple expressions were given for the experimental range-energy data and the effective stopping powers of both 3He and 4He in W in the energy range 100 to 1500 eV

  10. Oxygen and argon plasma effect in stainless steels and graphite in the ion energy range of 10-100 eV

    Experimental data on the effect of accelerated plasma flow of oxygen and argon in the near-threshold ion energy range on the possible materials of the thermonuclear reactor first wall (stainless steel and graphite) are presented. The oxygen ion sputtering coefficient are higher for graphite and lower for steel in comparison with argon ion. Effect on graphite of molecular accelerated oxygen ions is accompanied by their dissociation

  11. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Bhutadia, Harshad [Government Engineering College, Patan 384265, Gujarat (India); Antony, Bobby [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad JH-826004 (India); Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy ({approx}15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  12. Electron stopping power and mean free path in organic compounds over the energy range of 20-10,000 eV

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong; Li, Feng; Huang, Boda; Ji, Yanju

    2004-07-01

    An empirical method to obtain optical energy loss functions is presented for a large number of organic compounds, for which optical data are not available, on the basis of structure feature analysis of the existed optical energy loss functions for certain organic compounds. The optical energy loss functions obtained by using this method are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the Penn's statistical model, a set of systematic expressions have been given for the calculation of the stopping powers and mean free paths of electrons penetrating into the organic compounds in the energy range of E⩽10 keV. Detailed comparison of the calculated data with other theoretical results is presented. The stopping powers and mean free paths for a group of important polymers, without available optical data, have been calculated. In the calculations, three different cases have been considered, i.e. exchange correction not being considered, Ashley exchange correction being involved, and Born-Ochkur exchange correction being included. The results indicate that for these compounds the calculated stopping powers agree well with those obtained by using Bethe-Bloch theory at high-energy limit E=10 keV, as expected for a stopping power theory that should be converged to Bethe-Bloch theory at high energies.

  13. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  14. The study in the primary energy range 10^{16} - 10^{17} eV with the Muon Tracking Detector in the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Łuczak, P; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2013-01-01

    The KASCADE-Grande Muon Tracking Detector enables with high accuracy the measurement of directions of EAS muons with energy above 0.8 GeV and up to 700 m distance from the shower centre. Reconstructed muon tracks are used to investigate muon pseudorapidity (eta) distributions. These distributions are nearly identical to the pseudorapidity distributions of their parent mesons produced in hadronic interactions. Comparison of the eta distributions from measured and simulated showers can be used to test the quality of the high energy hadronic interaction models. In this context a comparison of the QGSJet-II-2 and QGSJet-II-4 model will be shown. The pseudorapidity distributions reflect the longitudinal development of EAS and, as such, are sensitive to the mass of the cosmic rays primary particles. With various parameters of the eta distribution, obtained from the MTD data, it is possible to calculate the mean logarithmic mass of CRs. The results of the analysis in the primary energy range 10^{16} eV - 10^{17} eV...

  15. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  16. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  17. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...... characteristics of EV batteries, the driving distance per trip and the availability of EVs for charging and providing grid service. The charging and discharging characteristics of EV batteries were used to determine the upper and lower limits of the state of charge (SOC) of EV batteries and to calculate the...... charging and discharging power. The driving distance per trip and availability of EVs were used to reflect the driving requirements and to implement intelligent charging and discharging management....

  18. Results of the Cyg X-3 X-ray source observation in the energy range more than 1012 eV by the Tien-Shan installation for Cherenkov flashes detection from extensive air showers

    The results of observations of the X-ray source Cyg X-3 for the energy > 1012 eV by the Tien-Shan installation for Cerenkov flashes detection from extensive air showers. The Tien-Shan installation for detection Cherenkov radiation from cosmic-ray air showers has been described. The observational results of the Cyg X-3 X-ray source for the energy more than 3x1012 eV which have been obtained during July-November 1977 are presented. The excess of the flux in direction to this object is (2.77+-0.54)% of cosmic-ray background. The periodic component of γ-ray flux is explored. The effect is (4.0+-1.0)% of cosmic-ray background or approximately 1.6x10-10 quantaxcm-2xs-1 E > 3x1012 eV in phase interval 0.157-0.212. At this stage of the investigations it can be said only about reliable detection of a periodical component of gamma radiation flux with an energy > 1012 eV from the Cyg X-3 X-ray source

  19. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    Barnaveli, T T; Khaldeeva, I V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large sta...

  20. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. II. Molecular-frame and recoil-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J.C.; Raseev, G.;

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for molecular-frame photoemission are presented for inner-valence shell photoionization of the CO molecule induced by linearly and circularly polarized light. The experimental recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) obtained from dissociative...... the case of general elliptically polarized light, to obtain the RFPAD rather than the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD), which would be obtained with the assumption of instantaneous dissociation. We have considered photoionization of CO for the photon energies of 26.0 eV, 29...... photoionization measurements where the velocities of the ionic fragment and photoelectron were detected in coincidence, are compared to RFPADs computed using the multichannel Schwinger configuration interaction method. The formalism for including a finite lifetime of the predissociative ion state is presented for...

  1. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Julien, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont

  2. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  3. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  4. Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3

    Garber, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to build and program an advanced robot.""Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3"" is for both the adult tinkerer who has never touched LEGO before and the experienced LEGO engineer who has evolved from Mindstorm NXT to EV3. If you are interested in entering or advising students in robot competitions such as the FIRST LEGO League, the Wold Robot Olympiad, or RoboGames, then this book is a must for you. Even if you haven't purchased yo

  5. Digitaliseerimise demopäev

    1999-01-01

    8. XI tarbekunstimuuseumis, 10. XI rahvusraamatukogus digitaliseerimise demopäev koostöös OÜ Art Digitali, Eesti Kultuuriministeeriumi, Tarbekunstimuuseumi ja Eesti Rahvusraamatukoguga. OÜ Art Digital (asutasid 1998. a. Rein Tammik, Mauri Gross) skaneeris 1999. a. suvel Eesti Kunstimuuseumis 2400 graafilist lehte ja maali. Eesti digikeskuse loomisest, ülesannetest

  6. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  7. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 → 5000 eV

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV → 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I ± 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find So J = 2 ≅ 2 So J = 1 and So J = 1 ≅ So J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but 77Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width Γγ depend on the spin value I = I ± 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (Eγ ∼ 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E5γ instead of E3γ. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author)

  8. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  9. Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Infections by a Novel Antiviral Peptide Derived from EV-71 Capsid Protein VP1

    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC50 values ranging from 6–9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71. PMID:22563456

  10. Absolute Integral Cross Sections for the State-selected Ion–Molecule Reaction N2+(X2Σg+ v+ = 0–2) + C2H2 in the Collision Energy Range of 0.03–10.00 eV

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chung Chang, Yih; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion source, together with the double-quadrupole–double-octopole mass spectrometer developed in our laboratory, we have investigated the state-selected ion–molecule reaction {{{{N}}}2}+({X}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+; v + = 0–2, N+ = 0–9) + C2H2, achieving high internal-state selectivity and high kinetic energy resolution for reactant {{{{N}}}2}+ ions. The charge transfer (CT) and hydrogen-atom transfer (HT) channels, which lead to the respective formation of product {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+ and N2H+ ions, are observed. The vibrationally selected absolute integral cross sections for the CT [σ CT(v +)] and HT [[σ HT(v +)] channels obtained in the center-of-mass collision energy (E cm) range of 0.03–10.00 eV reveal opposite E cm dependences. The σ CT(v +) is found to increase as E cm is decreased, and is consistent with the long-range exothermic CT mechanism, whereas the E cm enhancement observed for the σ HT(v +) suggests effective coupling of kinetic energy to internal energy, enhancing the formation of N2H+. The σ HT(v +) curve exhibits a step at E cm = 0.70–1.00 eV, suggesting the involvement of the excited {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+({A}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+) state in the HT reaction. Contrary to the strong E cm dependences for σ CT(v +) and σ HT(v +), the effect of vibrational excitation of {{{{N}}}2}+ on both the CT and HT channels is marginal. The branching ratios and cross sections for the CT and HT channels determined in the present study are useful for modeling the atmospheric compositions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. These cross sections and branching ratios are also valuable for benchmarking theoretical calculations on chemical dynamics of the titled reaction.

  11. Markets Share Models for EVs

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    emissions from new cars to 95 g/km on average in 2020. The energy agreement from March 2012 states that the transport sec-tor is facing a radical change from fossil fuels to electricity and bio-mass in the long run. Here, the target for 2020 is 10% bio-fuels in 2020 and the tax exemption for EVs is...... small car choice model with the objective to project future sales of electric vehicles and to assess the effect of a number of political initiatives on the sales. The car choice model is based on a Danish stated preference experiment. The results from the choice experiment are con-densed in the...... estimation of a logit choice model and based on the estimated parameters a simulation model is set up. The model will be available for assessing different scenarios and forecasts of the sales of EVs under different assumptions of prices of the cars, life-time of batteries, the operations costs, the driving...

  12. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  13. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    Cuenca, R. M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM (original equipment manufacturer) cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains, are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  14. Moby.Cockpit Project for EV seamless integration in the cooperative transport infrastructure

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, João L.

    2013-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) are being introduced in the market, however the reduced energy storage capacity of their batteries and the lack of a high density charging infrastructure, limits their autonomy range. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose the development of a new solution for EV drivers that enables to travel longer distances. This is achieved by integrating some components of the cooperative transport infrastructure, as EV battery charging systems and public transports syste...

  15. Sensitivity of an image plate system in the XUV (60 eV < E < 900 eV)

    Failor, B H; Link, N G; Riordan, J C; Wilson, B C

    2012-01-01

    Phosphor imaging plates (IPs) have been calibrated and proven useful for quantitative x-ray imaging in the 1 to over 1000 keV energy range. In this paper we report on calibration measurements made at XUV energies in the 60 to 900 eV energy range using beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We measured a sensitivity of ~25 plus or minus 15 counts/pJ over the stated energy range which is compatible with the sensitivity of Si photodiodes that are used for time-resolved measurements. Our measurements at 900 eV are consistent with the measurements made by Meadowcroft et al. at ~1 keV.

  16. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  17. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics. PMID:25505956

  18. Presidendi sünnipäev

    2003-01-01

    Milliseid mõtteid või mälestusi tekitab Teis president Arnold Rüütli 75. juubelisünnipäev? Vastavad: Toivo Tootsen, Peeter Kreitzberg, Toomas Varek, Heiki Männik, Paavo Palk, Mai Vöörmann, Andres Keevallik

  19. Alkoholentwöhnung im Verbundsystem (EVS)

    Tielking, Knut Hrsg; Kuß, Gabriele Hrsg.

    2002-01-01

    Die Landesversicherungsanstalt (LVA) Oldenburg-Bremen und die Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg verfolgen mit dem Modellprojekt 'Alkoholentwöhnung im Verbundsystem (EVS)' das gemeinsame Ziel, die Qualität von Alkoholentwöhnungsbehandlungen zu verbessern und noch wirkungsvoller zu gestalten. Der Eröffnungsbericht ist eine Zwischenbilanz der bisherigen Arbeiten des Modellprojekts.

  20. Study on the economic and environmental benefits of different EV powertrain topologies

    Highlights: • EV powertrain topologies can be realized by flexible distributed electric motors. • Model-based design optimization method is used to analyze and evaluate the EV. • The wheel-hub drive with reducer possesses the most competitive advantages. • US06 and NYCC result in the deterioration of EVs’ cost and GHG emissions. - Abstract: Numerous feasible schemes of powertrain topology can be designed for the electric vehicles (EVs) based on the distributed configurations of the electric motors. In this study, the effects of different EV powertrain topologies on the energy efficiency, vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of EVs are investigated. Energy-based vehicle simulation model including the regenerative braking function and battery degradation prediction method is established firstly. An optimization scheme combining the energy-based vehicle simulation model is conducted to minimize the electric energy consumption under various scenarios and driving conditions. Then the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions of EVs are evaluated based on Chinese EV market and electricity grid. The sensitivity analyses of EV powertrain topology are implemented based on the different vehicle weights, CO2 intensities of electricity and all-electric ranges. Results show that EVs using the powertrain of wheel-hub drive with the gear reducer have lower energy consumption. Furthermore, the driving cycles with more aggressive acceleration/deceleration and frequently stop-and-go conditions can increase both the vehicle ownership cost and lifecycle GHG emissions simultaneously. Chinese city traffic conditions will help EVs to obtain more benefits in respect of the economy and environment

  1. Arrival directions of cosmic rays of energy 2 1015 to 2 1017 eV

    In addition to the continuing operation of our array sensitive above 6 1016 eV, we are investigating the range 2 1015 to 2 1017 eV using one 50m array, responding over the range 2 1015 to 2 1016 eV, and four 150m arrays which respond from 2 1016 to 2 1017 eV. The arrival direction of each event is measured to 10-2 sr, and the ground parameters measured as estimators of the primary energy are the water-Cerenkov densities at 50m, rho(50) and 150m, rho(150), for the smaller and larger arrays respectively. Background rates above 0.2m-2 and 1m-2 are monitored continuously in each 13.5m2 detector, together with atmospheric pressure and temperature, and the detector temperature

  2. Ratio of the 10BF3 and 3He(n,p) cross sections between 0.025 eV and 25,000 eV

    The /sup 10/BF/sub 3/(n,/alpha/) and /sup 3/He(n,p) cross sections have been compared in the energy range from 0.025 to 25,000 eV. Measurements at National Bureau of Standards using filtered beams gave results at 2 and 25 keV. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORELA facility measurements were completed between 0.025 and 10,000 eV. Normalizing the ratio of BF/sub 3//He to 1 at 0.03 eV, the ratio increases by 1% at 10 eV, by 2% at a few hundred ev, by 4% at 2 kev, and by 16% at 25 keV. The large deviations at the higher energies are expected purely from the nuclear parameterization of the cross sections. However, the deviations from 1/v in the ratio below 100 ev are surprising and perhaps might have their origin in the molecular binding for /sup 10/B in the /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ system. 8 refs

  3. Air shower universality from 1014 to 1022 eV

    Scaling properties of nuclei- and photon-initiated air showers are examined in wide primary energy range (1014 ÷ 1022 eV) taking into account Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal and geomagnetic field effects. It is shown that the invariance in lateral distribution and also the universal dependence between shower age and root mean square radius of electron component exist up to the highest energies. The implications of shower universality for reanalysis, crosschecking and validation of the results of different experiments together with decreasing of the influence of hadronic model uncertainties are discussed in detail.

  4. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Ataur Rahman; M Rashid; A K M Mohiuddin; M. N. A. Hawlader

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM). CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall ...

  5. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  6. Inherited MST1 deficiency underlies susceptibility to EV-HPV infections.

    Amandine Crequer

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is characterized by persistent cutaneous lesions caused by a specific group of related human papillomavirus genotypes (EV-HPVs in otherwise healthy individuals. Autosomal recessive (AR EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for two thirds of known cases of EV. AR RHOH deficiency has recently been described in two siblings with EV-HPV infections as well as other infectious and tumoral manifestations. We report here the whole-exome based discovery of AR MST1 deficiency in a 19-year-old patient with a T-cell deficiency associated with EV-HPV, bacterial and fungal infections. MST1 deficiency has recently been described in seven patients from three unrelated kindreds with profound T-cell deficiency and various viral and bacterial infections. The patient was also homozygous for a rare ERCC3 variation. Our findings broaden the clinical range of infections seen in MST1 deficiency and provide a new genetic etiology of susceptibility to EV-HPV infections. Together with the recent discovery of RHOH deficiency, they suggest that T cells are involved in the control of EV-HPVs, at least in some individuals.

  7. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  8. EVS25,Calls for Sustainable Mobility Revolution

    Yang Wei; Li Yinghong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Want to low your cost and save energy for your car,and also be environmentfriendly in nearby future? May you can find an answer in Zhenshen,Guangdong province,China,where the 25th world battery,hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle symposium and exhibition (EVS25) will be held.The special event will last from November 5 to 9,2010,and is expected to attract 2000-2500 visitors,with an exhibition size of 30 thousand square meters,the largest in all the sessions held.

  9. Chopper Circuits Developed for EV Drive Application

    Tsuruta, Yukinori; Kawamura, Atsuo

    In this paper, the technical stream on a high efficiency and high frequency chopper for the automotive industry, new energy and energy conservation technology field is surveyed. QRAS (Quasi-resonant Regenerating Active Snubber) and SAZZ (Snubber Assisted Zero Voltage and Zero Current Transition) topologies aimed for the electric vehicle (EV) drive application are proposed. 25kHz-8kW QRAS, 100kHz-8kW SAZZ choppers and 50kHz-25kW bilateral SAZZ-1 chopper are constructed and tested under rating conditions. It is verified that SAZZ topology retains high efficiency even at the increased operating frequency of 100kHz. It is shown that high efficiency can be realized at high operating frequency even in high power converters by QRAS and newly proposed SAZZ soft switching topologies.

  10. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  11. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Enterovirus (EV 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2 has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2 to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  12. Effects of electric vehicles (EV) on environmental loads with consideration of regional differences of electric power generation and charging characteristics of EV users in Japan

    In order to evaluate the reduction effect of electric vehicles (EVs) on various atmospheric environmental loads, we have performed a life-cycle inventory analysis (LCI), including the installation of charging stations and regional, seasonal and temporal difference of the energy mix of electricity generation. For an EV converted from a small gasoline vehicle, a regional LCI analysis was carried out in the following steps: (1) location of the charging stations, (2) modeling of charging characteristics of station users, (3) calculation of temporal life-cycle emission intensities of CO2, NOx and SOx by region, season and day. Assuming that total traveling distance is 100,000 km, the electricity consumption rate is 0.119 kWh/km and the charging/discharging efficiency is 70%, the average life-cycle emission of CO2 for that EV was 3.6 t-C throughout Japan. However, if we took regional difference into account, the emission ranged over 70-160% of the average amount. It was revealed that the regional difference of the primary energy mix significantly affected the emissions of EVs during the operation phase. (Author)

  13. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  14. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  15. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were......An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...

  16. Energy levels of Th+ between 7.3 and 8.3 eV

    Herrera-Sancho, O A; Okhapkin, M V; Peik, E

    2013-01-01

    Using resonant two-step laser excitation of trapped 232Th+ ions, we observe 43 previously unknown energy levels within the energy range from 7.3 to 8.3 eV. The high density of states promises a strongly enhanced electronic bridge excitation of the 229mTh nuclear state that is expected in this energy range. From the observation of resonantly enhanced three-photon ionization of Th+, the second ionization potential of thorium can be inferred to lie within the range between 11.9 and 12.3 eV. Pulsed laser radiation in a wide wavelength range from 237 to 289 nm is found to provide efficient photodissociation of molecular ions that are formed in reactions of Th+ with impurities in the buffer gas, leading to a significantly increased storage time for Th+ in the ion trap.

  17. Fission Fragment Folding Angle Distributions for the Systems sup 1 sup 1 B+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np, sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, and sup 1 sup 6 O+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th in the Energy Range 1.1<E/V sub B <2.1

    Kailas, S; Chatterjee, A; Saxena, A; Kapoor, S S; Vandenbosch, R; Lestone, J P; Liang, J F; Prindle, D J; Sonzogni, A A; Bierman, J D

    1999-01-01

    Fission fragment folding angle distributions have been measured for the systems sup 1 sup 1 B+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np, sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, and sup 1 sup 6 O+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, populating the same compound nucleus ( sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cf) and at similar excitation energies (E sub x 45-100 MeV). The full momentum transfer and incomplete momentum transfer fusion-fission components have been separated over the bombarding energy range 1.1T) and with smaller fission barriers (B sub f >T). It was interesting to find that the effective moment of inertia (J sub e sub f sub f) values deduced from the latter component were consistent with the values from Sierk prescription used in the former case

  18. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

  19. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability. The...

  20. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Træholt, Chresten

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...

  1. Charge your electric vehicle when driving?; Rijdend je EV opladen?

    Ishii, M.

    2012-07-05

    In late June 2012 a team of Japanese Toyota and ToyohashiUniversity of Technology (TUT) successfully developed and demonstrated a new induction charging method for electric vehicles (EV) [Dutch] Eind junidemonstreerde een Japans team van Toyota en ToyohashiUniversity of Technology (TUT) met succes een nieuwe inductie oplaadmethode voor elektrisch vervoer (EV)

  2. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas / Walter Pent

    Pent, Walter

    2004-01-01

    EV 86. aastapäeva puhul toimus 21. veebr. 2004 Ottawa Eesti Seltsi organiseeritud aktus, kus kõne pidas EV Suursaatkonna Ottawas asjur Argo Küünemäe, kes korraldas 24. veebr. 2004 saatkonnas ka piduliku diplomaatilise vastuvõtu

  3. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications. PMID:25939279

  4. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  5. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Ataur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM. CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall limited efficiency. This study presents a panel-style nano-battery technology built into an EV with CuO filler solid polymer electrolyte (SPE sandwiched by carbon fiber (CF and lithium (Li plate. In addition to this, an aluminum laminated polypropylene film is used as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC shield. The proposed battery body panel of the EV would reduce the car weight by about 20%, with a charge and discharge capacity of 1.5 kWh (10% of car total power requirement, and provide the heat insulation for the car which would save about 10% power consumption of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the EV would be benefited by 30% in terms of energy reduction by using the proposed body. Furthermore, the proposed body is considered environmental-friendly since it is recyclable for use in a new product. However, the main limiting factors of the SPE are its thermal behavior and moderate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The SPE temperature is maintained by controlling the battery panel charging/discharge rate. It is expected that the proposed panel-style nano-battery use in an EV would save up to 6.00 kWh in battery energy, equivalent to 2.81 liters of petrol and prevent 3.081 kg of CO2 emission for a travel distance of 100 km. KEYWORDS: epoxy resin; carbon fiber; lithium thin plate; energy generation; solid electrolyte battery

  6. A multipolar SR motor and its application in EV

    In order to bring out the advanced features of EVs, a direct-drive (DD) with in-wheel (IW) layout has been considered, but it requires more motors than the conventional layout and the motors will be used in a hard environment. Because switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are simple and strong, we have developed a new outer-rotor-type multipolar SRM suitable for DD-IW EVs through simulations and experiments. We have implemented the developed SRMs into a prototype EV. This is the first-ever in-vehicle research to our knowledge; the developing process and the road test results will bring many useful guidelines for future developments

  7. Electron inelastic interactions in bioorganic compounds in the energy range of 20 10000 eV

    Tan, Z.; Xia, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Ji, Y.; Li, F.; Huang, B.

    2005-09-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping powers (SPs) and mean free paths (MFPs) for 10 bioorganic compounds have been performed for electrons with energies lower than 10 keV, based on dielectric response theory and Penn’s statistical approximation. The exchange effect is also taken into account in the calculations. An empirical approach to obtain an optical energy loss function is presented for those organic compounds without available optical data. Using this method, the calculated values of the optical energy loss function are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparisons of SP and MFP values derived in this study with other published values are presented. Using the described model, the calculated mean ionization potentials agree well with the predictions from Bragg’s rule and the calculated SPs have also been compared with the Bethe Bloch results at an energy of 10 keV.

  8. The structure of EAS in the energy range 1014-1016 eV

    At Tien Shan complex array we have got the value S > 1 for the 'longitudinal' age parameter and the value S approximately 0.85 for the 'transverse' one while calculations for some models we could manage to deal with showed the equality of these two parameters. The muon structure function and muon probability distribution are in good agreement with the CKP model calculation and ordinary primary composition. (orig.)

  9. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  10. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  11. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  12. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV in the ATLAS EventView Analysis Framework

    Lagouri, T; Del Peso, J

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This experiment has been designed to study a large range of physics topics, including searches for previously unobserved phenomena such as the Higgs Boson and super-symmetry. The physics analysis package HiggsToFourLeptonsEV for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs to four leptons channel with ATLAS is presented. The physics goal is to investigate with the ATLAS detector, the SM Higgs boson discovery potential through its observation in the four-lepton (electron and muon) final state. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV is based on the official ATLAS software ATHENA and the EventView (EV) analysis framework. EventView is a highly flexible and modular analysis framework in ATHENA and it is one of several analysis schemes for ATLAS physics user analysis. At the core of the EventView is the representative view of an event, which defines the contents of event data suitable for event-level physics analysis. The HiggsToFourLeptonsEV package prepares the dat...

  13. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV in the ATLAS EventView Analysis Framework

    Lagouri, T; Del Peso, J

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This experiment has been designed to study a large range of physics topics, including searches for previously unobserved phenomena such as the Higgs Boson and super-symmetry. The physics analysis package HiggsToFourLeptonsEV for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs to four leptons channel with ATLAS is presented. The physics goal is to investigate with the ATLAS detector, the SM Higgs boson discovery potential through its observation in the four-lepton (electron and muon) final state. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV is based on the official ATLAS software ATHENA and the EventView (EV) analysis framework. EventView is a highly flexible and modular analysis framework in ATHENA and it is one of several analysis schemes for ATLAS physics user analysis. At the core of the EventView is the representative "view" of an event, which defines the contents of event data suitable for event-level physics analysis. The HiggsToFourLeptonsEV package, presented in ...

  14. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs, and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1 VP1 peptide (residues 211–225 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer; (2 recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160; (3 individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3 formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4 the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640, but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  15. Järjekordne keelepäev Hamburgis (Emakeelepäev Hamburgis) I-III / Liilika M. Allev

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2007-01-01

    seekord oli keskseks teemaks lapse keeleareng, korraldajateks EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium, Eesti Keeleinstituut ja EÜSLi HEA Selts. Keelepoliitikast. Kuidas eesti laps rääkima hakkab? Kakskeelsuse omandamine

  16. Decays D → Kev, D → K*ev, D → πev in QCD sum rules method

    The form factors of the semileptonic decays D → Kev, D → K*ev, D → πev are calculated by means of the QCD sum rules method for the three-point correlators. The decay widths are obtained. Our results agree with the experimental data within the theoretical and the experimental uncertainties involved. The restriction on the Kobayashi-Maskava matrix elements Vcs, Vcd are found. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig

  17. VUV photophysics of acetic acid: Fragmentation, fluorescence and ionization in the 6-23eV region

    VUV photodissociation of gaseous acetic acid was studied in the 6-23eV range using synchrotron radiation excitation, photofragment fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. OH (A-X), CH (A,B-X) and H-Balmer emissions were observed. Their relative intensities were studied by fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The fluorescence quantum yield for OH emission has a maximum of 0.9% at 13.3eV photoexcitation, dropping to 0.5% at 20eV; that for CH (A-X) is 0.35% at 16eV and 0.4% at 20eV. Photoionization mass spectra (PIMS) of CH3COOH were measured and the appearance energies of the principal photoions were determined. IE(CH3COOH)=10.58+/-0.02eV is 40-60meV lower than previous PIMS values. Dissociative ionization reaction channels are discussed in detail. The results call into question previous determinations of the heat of formation and ionization energy of the acetyl radical. A new pathway is suggested for the formation of HCO+, and the assignments of the m/z=16, 28 and 31 ions are clarified. The formation of CH3+ at threshold is shown to involve carbon-carbon bond rupture and a potential energy barrier. The results of this study are used to discuss aspects of astrophysical observations involving the parent and fragment species

  18. VUV photophysics of acetic acid: Fragmentation, fluorescence and ionization in the 6 23 eV region

    Leach, Sydney; Schwell, Martin; Jochims, Hans-Werner; Baumgärtel, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    VUV photodissociation of gaseous acetic acid was studied in the 6-23 eV range using synchrotron radiation excitation, photofragment fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. OH (A-X), CH (A,B-X) and H-Balmer emissions were observed. Their relative intensities were studied by fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The fluorescence quantum yield for OH emission has a maximum of 0.9% at 13.3 eV photoexcitation, dropping to 0.5% at 20 eV; that for CH (A-X) is 0.35% at 16 eV and 0.4% at 20 eV. Photoionization mass spectra (PIMS) of CH 3COOH were measured and the appearance energies of the principal photoions were determined. IE(CH 3COOH) = 10.58 ± 0.02 eV is 40-60 meV lower than previous PIMS values. Dissociative ionization reaction channels are discussed in detail. The results call into question previous determinations of the heat of formation and ionization energy of the acetyl radical. A new pathway is suggested for the formation of HCO +, and the assignments of the m/ z = 16, 28 and 31 ions are clarified. The formation of CH3+ at threshold is shown to involve carbon-carbon bond rupture and a potential energy barrier. The results of this study are used to discuss aspects of astrophysical observations involving the parent and fragment species.

  19. R matrix analysis of the 239Pu cross sections up to 600 eV

    The ENDF/B-V representation of the 239Pu neutron cross sections in the resonance region is unsatisfactory: the single-level formalism is used, necessitating a structured file 3 contribution. Furthermore, Salvatores et al. have stressed the need to extend the resolved resonance region above the present ENDF/B limit of 300 eV for the calculation of Doppler effect and self-shielded group cross sections. The purpose of our work is to improve the representation of the 239Pu cross sections by using a multilevel formalism (which avoids the need for the file 3 contributions) and by extending the resolved resonance range from 300 up to 600 eV. The present resonance analysis is based on the Reich-Moore multilevel formalism and was performed with the Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters published in 1974 by Derrien were used as prior information. More than 200 levels and 1000 resonance parameters are included in the analysis

  20. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

    Lamarão Leticia Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  1. ZGODBE V TUJEM JEZIKU IN VLOGA STARŠEV

    Pušaver, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Zgodbe v tujem jeziku je empirično diplomsko delo, kjer predstavljamo zgodbe v tujem jeziku kot pripomoček za poučevanje tujega jezika v otroštvu. Osredotočamo se predvsem na vlogo staršev pri branju zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otrokom. V empiričnem delu smo preverjali stališča staršev do branja zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otrokom. Zaradi predvidevanja po upadu števila staršev, ki berejo svojim otrokom v tujem jeziku, smo sestavili tudi vprašanja za starše, ki zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otro...

  2. An investigation of mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1019 eV via the study of extensive air showers

    Doostmohammadi S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron and muon components of extensive air shower (EAS with energies above 1019 eV are analyzed via various giant EAS arrays. A varying property of showers is observed for two energy ranges; higher and lower than (3 − 4 x 1019 eV. The age parameter, zenith angle, shower size dependence on muon size and shower size dependence on primary energy show an increment of mass composition (MC above (3−4x 1019eV. Comparison of the observed EAS results with the simulations of Capdevielle et al. (2000 and Shinozaki et al. (2005 gives at most 20% photon fraction for primary energies above 1019 eV. The arrival directions of showers above 4x1019 eV indicate an increasing concentration towards the super galactic plane.

  3. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  4. KOMPETENTNOST STARŠEV ZA STARŠEVSKO VLOGO

    Križan, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Kompetentnost staršev za starševsko vlogo je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene različne teme, vezane na kompetentnost staršev za starševsko vlogo, ki so podkrepljene z ustrezno strokovno literaturo. Podrobno so opredeljeni pojem družina in njene oblike danes. Opisani so vzgojni stili, ki so podani glede na različne avtorje. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene nove paradigme zgodnjega otroštva. Podrobno je opisano,...

  5. Electron impact total cross sections for hydrogen molecule from 0.01 eV to 2 keV

    In the present work, we calculate electron impact total cross section for H2 molecule over wide range of incident energies starting from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The present results are examined as function of incident energies and compared with available results.

  6. Soft x-ray beamline (10--1000 eV) with a plane grating monochromator for surface studies

    The optical design and mechanical solution for a soft x-ray beamline BL-7A in PF-KEK for the energy range 10--1000 eV with a PGM are described. The optical characteristics of the beamline are tested with gas phase absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy

  7. Mass Absorption Coefficient of Tungsten and Tantalum, 1450 eV to 2350 eV: Experiment, Theory, and Application

    Levine, Zachary H.; Grantham, Steven; Tarrio, Charles; Paterson, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Levin, T. M.; Ankudinov, Alexei L.; Rehr, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The mass absorption coefficients of tungsten and tantalum were measured with soft x-ray photons from 1450 eV to 2350 eV using an undulator source. This region includes the M3, M4, and M5 absorption edges. X-ray absorption fine structure was calculated within a real-space multiple scattering formalism; the predicted structure was observed for tungsten and to a lesser degree tantalum as well. Separately, the effects of dynamic screening were observed as shown by an atomic calculation within the...

  8. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  9. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  10. Naistepäev ikka hinnas / Ivar Jung

    Jung, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Kunstihoone galeriis Ivika Kivi ja Dagmar Kase näituse "ID 2002" taustal 8. III toimunud Reet Varblase organiseeritud seminarist "Naised, ühiskond, ilu ja hügieen". Linnagaleriis lõpetas Meiu Mündi maalinäituse Oksana Titova tantsuetendus. 9. III Pärnus Taave Tuutma kureeritud tegevuskunstipäev

  11. Linear EV model with replicate observations on independent variables

    LIU; Jixue; ZHANG; Sanguo; CHEN; Xiru

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the linear EV model when replicate observations are made only on independent variables. We construct the estimates of regression coefficients and prove the consistency and asymptotic normality under some proper conditions. Results obtained reveal the difference between the case where the independent and dependent variables are observed repeatedly and simultaneously and the case studied in this article.

  12. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  13. Developing a 500-eV proton beam

    Tests have been carried out which indicate that H- intensity limitations in lamb-shift polarized ion sources result from large diveregence in the 500-eV H+ ion beam. Intensity limitations due to other effects are not yet measurable

  14. Ponjat samogo sebja / Ze'ev Hanin ; interv. Josef Kats

    Hanin, Ze'ev

    2006-01-01

    Lääne tsivilisatsiooni katse seostada tähtsamad maailma poliitikasündmused Iisraeliga ei ole selle riigi süü ega teene, tegemist on euroopa tsivilisatsiooni sügava kriisiga - sellisel seisukohal on hiljuti Tallinna külastanud Bar-Ilani ülikooli õppejõud ja politoloog Ze'ev Hanin

  15. CONSISTENCY OF LS ESTIMATOR IN SIMPLE LINEAR EV REGRESSION MODELS

    Liu Jixue; Chen Xiru

    2005-01-01

    Consistency of LS estimate of simple linear EV model is studied. It is shown that under some common assumptions of the model, both weak and strong consistency of the estimate are equivalent but it is not so for quadratic-mean consistency.

  16. Search for sub-ev mass solar axions by the cern axion solar telescope with he-3 buffer gas

    Çetin, Serkant Ali; CAST Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using He-3 as a buffer gas. At T = 1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with He-4. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV less than or similar to m(a) less than or similar to 0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to ...

  17. Temperature dependence of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV in single-wall carbon nanotube films

    Yukitaka Matsuoka, Akihiko Fujiwara, Naoki Ogawa, Kenjiro Miyano, Hiromichi Kataura, Yutaka Maniwa, Shinzo Suzuki and Yohji Achiba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of photoconductivity has been investigated for single-wall carbon nanotube films at 0.7 eV. In order to clarify the effect of atmosphere on photoconductivity, measurements have been performed under helium and nitrogen gas flow in the temperature range from 10 K to room temperature (RT and from 100 K to RT, respectively. Photoconductive response monotonously increases with a decrease in temperature and tends to saturate around 10 K. No clear difference in photoconductive response under different atmosphere was observed. We discuss the mechanism of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV.

  18. Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV

    Hofstetter, M; Schultze, M; Guggenmos, A; Gagnon, J; Yakovlev, V S; Krausz, F; Kleineberg, U [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aquila, A; Yang, S; Gullikson, E [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2-400, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Huth, M; Nickel, B [Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Goulielmakis, E, E-mail: michael.hofstetter@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    A novel multilayer material system consisting of lanthanum and molybdenum nano-layers for both broadband and highly reflecting multilayer mirrors in the energy range between 80 and 130 eV is presented. The simulation and design of these multilayers were based on an improved set of optical constants, which were recorded by extreme ultraviolet (XUV)/soft-x-ray absorption measurements on freestanding lanthanum nano-films between 30 eV and 1.3 keV. Lanthanum-molybdenum (La/Mo) multilayer mirrors were produced by ion-beam sputtering and characterized through both x-ray and XUV reflectivity measurements. We demonstrate the ability to precisely simulate and realize aperiodic stacks. Their stability against ambient air conditions is demonstrated. Finally, the La/Mo mirrors were used in the generation of single attosecond pulses from high-harmonic cut-off spectra above 100 eV. Isolated 200 attosecond-long pulses were measured by XUV-pump/IR-probe streaking experiments and characterized using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG/CRAB) analyses.

  19. Underwater Ranging

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  20. Photoionization Cross-Sections for the trans-iron element Se$^+$ from 18 eV to 31 eV

    McLaughlin, Brendan M

    2012-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section calculations are presented for Se$^+$ using large-scale close-coupling calculations within the Breit-Pauli and Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix approximations. The results from our theoretical work are compared with recent measurements made at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) radiation facility in Berkeley, California, USA. We report on results for the photon energy range 18.0 eV -- 31.0 eV, which spans the ionization thresholds of the $\\rm ^4S^o_{3/2}$ ground state and the low-lying $\\rm ^2D^o_{5/2,3/2}$ and $\\rm ^2P^o_{3/2,1/2}$ metastable states. Metastable fractions are inferred from our present work. Resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg resonances series identified in the spectra are compared for the $\\rm 4p \\rightarrow nd$ transitions with the recent ALS experimental measurements made on this complex trans-iron element.

  1. Neutron Transmission and Capture Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Neodymium from 1eV to 500 eV

    Neodymium is a 235U fission product and is important for reactor neutronic calculations. The aim of the present work is to improve upon the existing neutron cross section data of neodymium. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-off-light technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC laboratory using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a 16-segment NaI multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15-m and 25-m flight stations, respectively, with 6Li glass scintillation detectors. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by combined fitting of the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes were deduced within the energy range of 1 eV to 500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integrals from this energy. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 ± 1 barns that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters

  2. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  3. Bounds on sterile neutrino mixing for cosmologically interesting mass range

    Nunokawa, H; Rossi, A; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    This talk summarizes our recent work which studied the impact of resonant neutrino) conversions on supernova physics, under the assumption that the mass of the sterile state is in the few eV -cosmologically significant range.

  4. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  5. Open Innovation in EVs: A Case Study of Tesla Motors

    Karamitsios, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the topic of open innovation in EVs. Initially a brief description of the concept of innovation and open innovation is carried out. Moreover, the three processes of open innovation are deployed while the coupled process is described in more detail. Furthermore, a short description is also given for corporate entrepreneurship, alliances, and the U.S. government policy. Also, this report considers Tesla Motors’ partnerships as a case study and it aims to give an insight of h...

  6. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  7. Requirements for EV charge stations with photovoltaic generation and storage

    Cairó, Ignasi; Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in electric mobility, public and private charge facilities will be required to provide solutions adjusted to the actual needs and requirements. A new methodology for dimensioning charge stations for electric vehicles (EVs) is presented in this paper. Such proposal is based on the Markov chains, and uses as output rates, the capabilities of the charge station in providing energy from the sun through photovoltaic generation, stored energy in local batteries and also as a...

  8. An extension of detectable energy-range of SXES spectrometer for electron microscopes

    Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) instrument for electron microscopes of EPMA/TEM with an energy range of 50-3800 eV has designed and constructed. For extend the lowest and the highest detection energy, an Au-coated new grating (50-200 eV) and a new multilayer-structure of W/B4C coated one (1500-4000 eV) were designed and manufactured. Energy resolutions were 0.2 eV for Mg-L and 27 eV for Te-Lα. Software for elemental and/or electronic structure (chemical) mappings is also developed. (author)

  9. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  10. Definition of optimal driving range of electric vehicle considering its main parameters

    Слипченко, Николай Иванович; Письменецкий, Виктор Александрович; Гуртовой, Михаил Юрьевич; Махлова, Вера Олеговна

    2013-01-01

    Simulation of electric vehicle (EV) operation modes allows evaluation of important parameters such as driving range, acceleration, capacity and type of storage battery. At present time, analytical dependences of EV mileage on the depth of battery discharge are virtually absent.The task of analyzing and modeling EV parameters and features is of current importance and practical interest to developers and automakers.Based on driving range simulation algorithm, computational experiment was conduc...

  11. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  12. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-12-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-02-15 to 2009-12-30 (NODC Accession 0060860)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo...

  13. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  14. Calculation of resonance self-shielding for 235U from 0 to 2250 eV

    Over the years, the evaluated 235U cross sections in the resolved energy range have been extensively revised. A major accomplishment was the first evaluation released to the ENDF/B-VI library. In that evaluation, the low energy range bound was lowered to 10-5 eV, and the upper limit raised to 2,250 eV. Several high-resolution measurements in conjunction with the Bayesian computer code SAMMY were used to perform the analysis of the 235U resonance parameters. SAMMY uses the Reich-Moore formalism, which is adequate for representing neutron cross sections of fissile isotopes, and a generalized least-squares (Bayes) technique for determining the energy-dependence of the neutron cross sections. Recently a re-evaluation of the 235U cross section in the resolved resonance region was completed. This evaluation has undergone integral tests in various laboratories throughout the USA and abroad. The evaluation has been accepted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VI release 5. The intent of this work is to present results of calculations of self-shielded fission rates carried out with these resonance parameters and to compare those fission rates with experimental data. Results of this comparison study provide an assessment of the resonance parameters with respect to the calculation of self-shielded group cross sections

  15. Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV

    The optical constants of Eu films were obtained in the 8.3-1400 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Eu were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Eu films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. The refractive index n of Eu was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig analysis. Data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated extinction coefficient values available in the literature. Eu, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band just below the O2,3 edge onset; the lowest absorption was measured at about 16.7 eV. Therefore, Eu is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge in which materials typically have a strong absorption. The consistency of the composite optical constants was tested with the f and inertial sum rules and found to be good

  16. Dissociative scattering of low-energy SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions (5-200 eV) on Cu(100) surface

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Yuji; Sasaki, T.A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Dissociative scattering of molecular SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions from a Cu(100) single crystal surface has been investigated in the incident energy range from 5 eV to 200 eV with a scattering angle of 77deg. The scattered ion intensity of dissociative ions and parent molecular ions were measured as a function of incident ion energy. The observed data show that onset energies of dissociation for SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions are 30 eV and 40 eV, respectively. The obtained threshold energies are consistent with a impulsive collision model where the dissociation of incident ion is caused by vibrational excitation during collision. (author)

  17. Assessment of battery technologies for EV (Electric Vehicle) applications

    Ratner, Elliot Z.; Henriksen, Gary L.; Warde, Charles J.

    To guide future R and D program planning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned an assessment of all viable battery techniques for EV applications. Sixty-seven technology developers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa were solicited to design a power pack for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsions (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 8 representatives from DOE's National Laboratories evaluated 43 developer responses and consultant-prepared conceptual designs. Using six criteria---five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion---the assessment identified 12 most promising battery technologies.

  18. "Iga päev..." : [luuletused] / Doris Kareva

    Kareva, Doris, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. D. Kareva lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 175. Sisu: "Iga päev..." = "Every day..." ; "Ma nägin unes - Saatan kõneles..." = "I dream that I heard Satan speak..." ; "Viib sünnieelsest unest surmaunne..." = "Rainbow-coloured confusion bears us..." ; "Vaadeldes vikerkaarlevat maailma..." = "Viewing the rainbowing world..." ; "Ei jõua kirjutada puhtandit..." = "No time to write the final draft..." ; "Põletatud luuletused..." = ""Burnt poems..." ; Fraktalia ; Müsteerium 1-5 = Enigma 1-5 ; "Jumal juhtub..." = "God happens..." ; Moira 1-7 = Wishing well 1-7 ; Concerto strumenti e voce

  19. Estimation in partial linear EV models with replicated observations

    CUI Hengjian

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct the parameter estimators in the partial linear errors-in-variables (EV) models and explore their asymptotic properties. Unlike other related References, the assumption of known error covariance matrix is removed when the sample can be repeatedly drawn at each designed point from the model. The estimators of interested regression parameters, and the model error variance, as well as the nonparametric function, are constructed. Under some regular conditions, all of the estimators prove strongly consistent. Meanwhile, the asymptotic normality for the estimator of regression parameter is also presented. A simulation study is reported to illustrate our asymptotic results.

  20. Spatial distribution of 100-1000 eV electrons elastically reflected from a gold surface

    Spatial distribution of 100-1000 eV electrons elastically reflected from disordered film gold specimens is investigated using spectroscopy of elastically reflected electrons with angular resolution. Differences in spatial distributions measured in different geometrical conditions of the experiment are discussed. Cross sections of electron elastic scattering, which qualitatively and quantitatively agree with the cross section of elastic scattering on isolated atoms in a wide range of scattering angles, are obtained based on model representations on electron interaction with solids. Most essential discrepancies are observed in cross section minima as well as at small scattering angles. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed. The internal potential of a specimen equal to 14+-1 in a wide energy range is determined

  1. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used

  2. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    Roucka, Radek, E-mail: radek@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew [Translucent Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 94303 (United States); Landini, Barbara [Sumika Electronic Materials Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 85034 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  3. A Non-Mouse-Adapted Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Strain Exhibits Neurotropism, Causing Neurological Manifestations in a Novel Mouse Model of EV71 Infection

    Khong, Wei Xin; Yan, Benedict; Yeo, Huimin; Tan, Eng Lee; Lee, Jia Jun; Ng, Jowin K. W.; Chow, Vincent T.; Alonso, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that has been consistently associated with the severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of a relevant animal model has hampered our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, in particular the route and mode of viral dissemination. It has also hindered the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, making EV71 one of the most pressing public health concerns in Southeast Asia. Here we report a novel mou...

  4. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine. PMID:25936344

  5. Protective effect of enterovirus-71 (EV71) virus-like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model

    CAO, LEI; MAO, FENGFENG; PANG, ZHENG; YI, YAO; QIU, FENG; TIAN, RUIGUANG; MENG, QINGLING; JIA, ZHIYUAN; BI, SHENGLI

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine. PMID:25936344

  6. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Xin YAO; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evalu...

  7. Discovery of Gramine Derivatives That Inhibit the Early Stage of EV71 Replication in Vitro

    Yanhong Wei; Liqiao Shi; Kaimei Wang; Manli Liu; Qingyu Yang; Ziwen Yang; Shaoyong Ke

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhib...

  8. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  9. How to deal with PCR composition problem at $E_0 \\gtrsim 10^{17}$ eV

    Galkin, V I; Bakhromzod, R; Mukumov, A

    2015-01-01

    Basic ideas of muon tracker technique for the solution of primary cosmic ray (PCR) composition problem in the energy range $10^{17}-10^{18}$ eV are presented. The approach uses MC simulation data made with CORSIKA6.990 for "Pamir-XXI" site conditions. Similar technology can certainly be developed for other observation levels and interaction models. One can probably extend it to much higher primary energies.

  10. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob; You, Shi; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV...

  11. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  12. Defect generation in silicon dioxide from synchrotron radiation below 41 eV

    Generation of fixed positive charge, neutral electron traps, and fixed negative charge in SiO2 due to exposure to x radiation in the photon energy range below 41 eV from a synchrotron source is reported. For constant incident x-radiation exposure levels of 120 mJ/cm2 with both monochromatic and broadband radiation, the number of defects generated in the monitoring devices was at or below the detection limit of the equipment. This is in sharp contrast with the results obtained at photon energies above 300 eV reported earlier [C. K. Williams, A. Reisman, P. K. Bhattacharya, and W. Ng, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1145 (1988)] in which a large number of each of the three defects mentioned above were generated. The lack of damage indicates that the problems associated with x-ray-induced insulator damage due to x-ray lithography may be solved by tailoring the photon energy, provided suitable mask and photoresist materials can be developed

  13. Measurements of differential cross sections with electrons of intermediate energy (300-1000 eV) scattered by atom and molecule

    Differential Elastic Cross Sections for electrons scattered by osub(2) and Ar in the angular range 5 sup(0)- 140 sup(0) were measured in the energy range between 300 and 1000 eV. The Relative Flow Technique proposed by SRIVASTAVA et alii (1975) was used. Absolute Differential Elastic Cross Section data from DuBOIS and RUDD (1976) for Nsub(2) were stablished as a secondary standard. Our obtained results for Ar at 400, 800 and 1000 eV were compared against experimental and theoretical results available in the literature. For molecular Oxygen at 300, 400, 800 and 1000 eV our experimental data were compared with values from other authors and also theoretical values from Independent Atom Model including Multiple Intramolecular Scattering. Results for Ar at 1000 eV in the angular range between 60 sup(0) and 140 sup(0) and for osub(2) at 800 and 100 eV, between 5 sup(0) and 120 sup(0), were reported for the first time. (author)

  14. Geographical and temporal differences in electric vehicle range due to cabin conditioning energy consumption

    Kambly, Kiran; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2015-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles that are propelled by electric motors powered by rechargeable battery. They are generally asserted to have GHG emissions, driveability and life cycle cost benefits over conventional vehicles. Despite this, EVs face significant challenges due to their limited on-board energy storage capacity. In addition to providing energy for traction, the energy storage device operates HVAC systems for cabin conditioning. This results in reduced driving range. The factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, duration and thermal soak have been identified to affect the cabin conditions. In this paper, the development of a detailed system-level approach to HVAC energy consumption in EVs as a function of transient environmental parameters is described. The resulting vehicle thermal comfort model is used to address several questions such as 1) How does day to day environmental conditions affect EV range? 2) How does frequency of EV range change geographically? 3) How does trip start time affect EV range? 4) Under what conditions does cabin preconditioning assist in increasing the EV range? 5) What percentage increase in EV range can be expected due to cabin preconditioning at a given location?

  15. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  16. Mobile metering. Enabling cost-efficient smart charging for EVs

    Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [ubitricity GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Berg, Andreas [VOLTARIS, Merzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Users of electric vehicles want to and should be mobile with the least possible limitations. A fundamental requirement is an affordable and easy to use charging infrastructure that allows charging of the vehicle, if achievable wherever the EV is parked. ubitricity and VOLTARIS are developing and testing the On-Board Metering system and the underlying business and security concepts for such an ubiquitous charging infrastructure for electric mobility. Further leading partners are supporting the project that is being co-funded by research grants of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The basic idea is to install metering and communication technology inside the car to generate the information required for billing processes. (orig.)

  17. Approximation of Vorob'ev expectation for random closed sets

    Heinrich, Philippe; Tran, Viet Chi

    2010-01-01

    Random sets appear in many applications, in particular in image analysis. The issue of a "mean shape" often arises since there is no canonical definition. In this paper, we propose a consistent and ready to use estimator for the Vorob'ev expectation of a random set $X$. It is a kind of mean closely linked to quantile-like quantities and built from independent copies of $X$ with spatial discretization. The convergence is established through the Strong Law of Large Numbers of Kovyazin. The control of discretization errors is handled with a mild regularity assumption on the boundary of $X$: a not too large 'box counting' dimension. Some examples, including Boolean models, are studied.

  18. On the maximal terms of succesive Gelfond-Leont’ev-Salagen and Gelfond- Leont’ev-Ruscheweyh derivatives of a function analytic in the unit disc

    M. M. Sheremeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For a function analytic in the unit disc the concepts of Gelfond-Leont'ev-Salagen and Gelfond-Leont'ev-Ruscheweyh derivatives of n-th order are introduced and the asymptotic behaviour of the maximal terms of their power development as n→+∞ is investigated.

  19. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Reda Abbas Sabry

    2014-01-01

    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  20. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  1. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  2. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    Qingyong Ng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD, which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i inactivated vaccines; (ii baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg treatment; and (iv the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  3. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections. PMID:26670245

  4. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 1018 eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 1018 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 1018 eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 1018 eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  6. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    Yong Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  7. Studies on keV and eV electrons in solids

    The interaction between keV or eV electrons and solids was studied. The results presented mostly concern problems in connection with electron irradiation of solids, but to some extent they also include ion-induced secondary electron emission. The experiments were mainly performed on solidified gases using 1 - 3 keV electrons. The projected range of electrons was determined in solid hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen. The true secondary electron emission coefficient and the electron reflection coefficient of solid hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen were measured. The escape depth of the true secondary electrons in nitrogen was determined. The angular dependence of both the reflection coefficient and the true secondary electron emission coefficient of solid hydrogen and deuterium was investigated. Both ion- and electron-induced secondary electron emission were treated theoretically on the basis of ionization cascade theory. (Auth.)

  8. Oxygen-carbon interactions in silicon: photoluminescence defect spectrum at 1.06 eV emission

    We report a new luminescent defect with non-phonon emission at 1.0595 eV in silicon irradiated at high electron doses in the 1018 cm-2 range. Doping studies and 12C/13C and 16O/18O isotopic line shifts demonstrate that the defect forms upon oxygen-carbon interaction. Luminescence measurements at higher temperatures exhibit excited features consistent with an effective-mass like electron spectrum classifying the defect as a hole trap with hole binding energy of ≅79 meV. Stress data also hint to shallow bound electron and reveal low symmetry (triclinic) of the core defect. Similarities with the Ci-Oi 0.79 eV defect ('C line') are pointed out. (author) 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  10. Neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region of eV with the slowing down time method

    In terms of neutron spectrum measurement in the energy region of eV, no general-purpose method has been established so far. The time-of-flight (TOF) method, the multi-foil activation (MFA) method and the multi-spherical Bonner counter (MSB) method have been applied for the spectrum measurement in the energy range, however, these techniques have their own weak points and restrictions for the measurement. On the other hand, the slowing down time (SDT) method was proposed by Bergman, et al. in 1955 and the principle of the method has been applied for the so-called 'lead slowing down spectrometer'. In this study, the SDT method was investigated as another possibility of measuring method of neutron spectrum in the energy region of eV. (J.P.N.)

  11. Experimental investigation on EV battery cooling and heating by heat pipes

    Enhancing battery safety and thermal behaviour are critical for electric vehicles (EVs) because they affect the durability, energy storage, lifecycle, and efficiency of the battery. Prior studies of using air, liquid or phase change materials (PCM) to manage the battery thermal environment have been investigated over the last few years, but only a few take heat pipes into account. This paper aims to provide a full experimental characterisation of heat pipe battery cooling and heating covering a range of battery ‘off-normal’ conditions. Two representative battery cells and a substitute heat source ranging from 2.5 to 40 W/cell have been constructed. Results show that the proposed method is able to keep the battery surface temperature below 40 °C if the battery generates less than 10 W/cell, and helps reduce the battery temperature down to 70 °C under uncommon thermal abuse conditions (e.g. 20–40 W/cell). Additionally, the feasibility of using sintered copper-water heat pipes under sub-zero temperatures has been assessed experimentally by exposing the test rig to −15 °C/−20 °C for more than 14 h. Data indicates that the heat pipe was able to function immediately after long hours of cold exposure and that sub-zero temperature conditions had little impact on heat pipe performance. We therefore conclude that the proposed method of battery cooling and heating via heat pipes is a viable solution for EVs

  12. Resonance and threshold effects in photoemission up to 3500 eV

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Lindle, D.W.; Truesdale, C.M.; Southworth, S.H.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.

    1982-08-01

    Beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) now provide photon beams throughout the entire energy range 5 to 5000 eV, with a pulse structure very well-suited to time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectroscopy. We have used this facility, together with a TOF spectrometer, to measure photoemission cross sections sigma(epsilon) and asymmetry parameters ..beta..(epsilon) for several interesting systems. A summary of early results is given. Metal vapors (Ba, Cd, Mn, Hg) were studied using a high-temperature oven. Resonant photoemission was observed in several cases. Both sigma(epsilon) and ..beta..(epsilon) showed resonant behavior at 21.1 eV for several lines in Cd. The 4d, 5s, and 5p sigma(epsilon) line profiles differed dramatically, illustrating the detailed information about continuum states that is available from photoemission. Correlation satellites in photoemission from rare gases have been observed over a very wide energy range, including those seen in the K-shells of He, Ne and Ar and in the L-shell of Ne. The structure and preliminary intensity variations of these satellites will be discussed. Molecular shape resonances in C(1s), N(1s), and O(1s) photoemission were observed for the first time, in the molecules CO, CO/sub 2/, OCS, CF/sub 4/, N/sub 2/ and NO. Both the ..pi.. and sigma resonances were observed in KVV Auger emission, and the sigma resonances were studied by photoemission. The asymmetry parameters were measured in all cases. The results are in fair agreement with theory, but show systematic deviations and trends. 31 references.

  13. EVS vs TIPS shunt for gastric variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis:A meta-analysis

    Ming; Bai; Xing-Shun; Qi; Zhi-Ping; Yang; Kai-Chun; Wu; Dai-Ming; Fan; Guo-Hong; Han

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) in the management of gastric variceal (GV) bleeding in terms of variceal rebleeding, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and survival by meta-analysis.METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CNKI were searched. Studies compared TIPS with EVS in treating GV bleeding were identified and included according to our predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two of our authors. Studies with prospective randomized design were considered to be of high quality. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odd ratios(ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model when there was no inter-trial heterogeneity. Oppositely, a random-effects model was employed.RESULTS: Three studies with 220 patients who had at least one episode of GV bleeding were included in the present meta-analysis. The proportions of patients with viral cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis were 39% (range 0%-78%) and 36% (range 12% to 41%), respectively. The pooled incidence of variceal rebleeding in the TIPS group was significantly lower than that in the EVS group (HR = 0.3, 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17-0.71, P = 0.004). However, the risk of the development of any degree of HE was significantly increased in the TIPS group (OR = 15.97, 95% CI: 3.61-70.68). The pooled HR of survival was 1.26(95% CI: 0.76-2.09, P = 0.36). No inter-trial heterogeneity was observed among these analyses. CONCLUSION: The improved effect of TIPS in the prevention of GV rebleeding is associated with an increased risk of HE. There is no survival difference between the TIPS and EVS groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with GV bleeding.

  14. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation. PMID:26025091

  15. Analysis method and utilization mechanism of the overall value of EV charging

    Highlights: • Analysis on the overall value of EV charging from a viewpoint of system. • An analytical model of the overall value of EV charging was presented. • A model was proposed to calculate the value of emission reduction by EV. • A model to evaluate the improvement in new energy utilization was given. • A utilization mechanism apt to overall optimization was proposed. - Abstract: Electric Vehicle (EV) can save energy while reducing emissions and has thus attracted the attention of both academics and industry. The cost and benefit of charging are one of the key issues in relation to EV development that has been researched extensively. But many studies are carried out from a viewpoint of some local entities rather than a global system, focus on specific types or aspects of EV charging, or use mixed models that can only be computed by computer simulation and lack physical transparency. This paper illuminated that it is necessary to consider the value of EV charging on a system scale. In order to achieve this, it presents an analytical model for analyzing the overall value of EVs, an analysis model to evaluate the reduction of pollutions relevant to photovoltaic power, and a model to transfer the intrinsic savings of wind power to the off-peak charging loads. It is estimated that EV charging has a significant positive value, providing the basis for enhanced EV subsidies. Accordingly, a utilization mechanism apt to optimize globally is proposed, upon which sustainable business models can be formed by providing adequate support, including the implementation of a peak–valley tariff, charging subsidies and one-time battery subsidies. This utilization mechanism, by taking full advantage of the operation system of power utilities to provide basic support and service, may provide new approaches to the development of EVs. The method proposed here is of important value for the systematic considerations about EV development and maybe can help broaden the

  16. Consistency of modified MLE in EV model with replicated observations

    ZHANG; Sanguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kendall, M., Stuart, A., The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2, New York: Charles Griffin, 1979.[2]Anderson, T. W., Estimating linear statistical relationships, Ann. Statist., 1984, 12: 1.[3]Cui Hengjian, Asymptotic normality of M-estimates in the EV model, Sys. Sci. and Math. Sci., 1997, 10(3): 225.[4]Madansky, A., The fitting of straight lines when both variables are subject to error, JASA, 1959, 54: 173.[5]Villegas, C., Maximum likelihood estimations of a linear functional relationship, Ann. Math. Statist., 1961, 32(4): 1048.[6]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York: Academic Press, 1974.[7]Petrov, V. V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[8]Lai, T. L., Robbins, H., Wei, C. Z., Strong consistency of least squares estimates in multiple regression, J. Multivariate Anal., 1979, 9: 343.[9]Chen Xiru, On limiting properties of U-statistics and von-Mises statistics, Scientia Sinica (in Chinese), 1980, (6): 522.

  17. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  18. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  19. EV City Casebook: A Look At The Global Electric Vehicle Movement

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum, while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption. In recognition of the importance of urban areas in the introduction and scale-up of electric vehicles, the EV City Casebook presents informative case studies on city and regional EV deployment efforts around the world. These case studies are illustrative examples of how pioneering cities are preparing the ground for mass market EV deployment. They offer both qualitative and quantitative information on cities' EV goals, progress, policies, incentives, and lessons learned to date. The purpose of the EV City Casebook is to share experiences on EV demonstration and deployment, identify challenges and opportunities, and highlight best practices for creating thriving EV ecosystems. These studies seek to enhance understanding of the most effective policy measures to foster the uptake of electric vehicles in urban areas. The cities represented here are actively engaging in a variety of initiatives that share the goal of accelerating EV adoption. This publication is the result of an effort to coordinate those initiatives and provide a global perspective on the electric vehicle movement. This international knowledge-sharing network consists of the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI), a multi-government initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial; Project Get Ready, a Rocky Mountain Institute

  20. Determination of electron-heated temperatures of petawatt laser-irradiated foil targets with 256 and 68 eV extreme ultraviolet imaging

    Measurements of plasma temperature at the rear surface of foil targets due to heating by hot electrons, which were produced in short pulse high intensity laser matter interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser, are reported. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging at 256 and 68 eV energies is used to determine spatially resolved target rear surface temperature patterns by comparing absolute intensities to radiation hydrodynamic modeling. XUV mirrors at these two energies were absolutely calibrated at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Temperatures deduced from both imagers are validated against each other within the range of 75-225 eV.

  1. Mechanical system for production of monochromatic 0.025 eV neutrons on the horizontal channel No. 4 of IRT-2000 Sofia reactor

    A mechanical system for colimation and selection of thermal neutrons has been constructed that can be used for measurements by the time-of-flight method, with 0.025 eV neutrons and neutrons of any energy below the Cadmium limit. Relative measurements can also be performed in this energy range, but they should be calibrated to the point E=0.025 eV for which the cross sections of the elements are well known. The good colimation achieved allows for measurements with small quantities of matter

  2. Evaluating AAL systems through competitive benchmarking (EvAAL) - technical aspects of the first competition

    Chessa, Stefano; Furfari, Francesco; Potort?, Francesco; Barsocchi, Paolo; Tazari, Mohammad-Reza; Wichert, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    EvAAL (Evaluating AAL Systems Through Competitive Benchmarking) is an international competition aimed at the evaluation and assessment of Ambient Assisted Living systems components, services and platforms. In 2011 took place the first edition of EvAAL on the special theme of Indoor Localization and Tracking for AAL. This paper describes the technical aspects of the first edition of EvAAL and draws a roadmap for the future editions.

  3. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Yabiao Gao; Aleff Antonio Oliveira; Kathleen Blair Farley; Zion Tsz Ho Tse

    2016-01-01

    Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV) industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequ...

  4. Control of EV charging points for thermal and voltage management of LV networks

    J. Quiros, L.F. Ochoa, B. Lees

    2015-01-01

    High penetrations of domestic electric vehicles (EVs) in UK low voltage (LV) networks may result in significant technical problems. This paper proposes an implementable, centralized control algorithm, currently being trialed in 9 UK residential LV networks, that uses limited information to manage EV charging points to mitigate these technical problems. Two real UK LV networks are used to quantify the potential impacts of different EV penetration levels and to demonstrate the effectiveness of ...

  5. Optimization and control method for smart charging of EVs facilitated by Fleet operator

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Si, Chengyong;

    2013-01-01

    challenges to the utility system operator; accordingly, smart charging of EVs is needed. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging of EVs found in the literature. The study is mainly executed from the control theory perspectives. Firstly, service dependent aggrega-tion...... and control of smart charging of EVs. Finally, the paper discusses and proposes future research directions in the area....

  6. Absolute oscillator strength densities below 100eV of N2

    Sun Jian-Min; Zhong Zhi-Ping; Zhu Lin-Fan; Liu Xiao-Jing; Yuan Zhen-Sheng; Xu Ke-Zun

    2005-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) and generalized oscillator strength densities (GOSDs)below 100eV of N2 are determined with an incident electron energy of 2500eV and an energy resolution of 100 meV.The absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for two transitions to the superexcited states at 23 and 31.4eV are determined and their momentum transfer dependence behaviours are discussed.

  7. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2009/2010; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2009/2010

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  8. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2010/2011; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2010/2011

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  9. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  10. Variation of Kinetic Energy of Fragments in Fission of 235U with 0.006 - 20ev Neutrons

    Utilizing the LNF ONYal neutron spectrometer working in the energy range between 0.006 and 20 eV, the variation in fragments' kinetic energy (EK) was studied, applying the method of relative yields (W) measurements, in the thermal neutron region and at 11 resonances of 235U. It was found that the resonances at 0.29, 2.04, 3.14, 4.84, and 7.09 eV can be sorted in a group of resonances with small values of W and EK . The resonances at 1.14, 3.60, 6.40, 8.78, 12.4, and 19.3 eV form a group with big values of W and EK. Comparison of W with radiochemical data on fragments' yield at thermal and resonance region of 235U showed that EK is larger at more asymmetrical fission. From the values W ( I ) and W(II) for the two groups of resonances, the change in the average kinetic energy of fragments 2ΔEK = 0.74 ± 0. 32 MeV was determined. (author)

  11. Extending the dose range: Probing deep traps in quartz with 3.06 eV photons

    Jain, Mayank

    This article demonstrates that violet (405 nm) stimulated luminescence (VSL) signal from quartz contains contribution from deep traps that are otherwise not accessible with blue light (470 nm). Additionally, it also contains the typical fast and slow components observed with the blue light...

  12. Measurement of the efficiency of gold transmission gratings in the 100 to 5000 eV photon energy range

    Three x-ray spectrometers, each with a transmission grating dispersion element, are routinely used at the Z soft x-ray facility to measure the spectrum and temporal history of the absolute soft x-ray power emitted from z-pinch and hohlraum radiation sources. Our goal is to make these measurements within an accuracy of ±10%. We periodically characterize the efficiency of the gratings used in the spectrometers by using an electron-impact soft x-ray source, a monochromator, grazing-incidence mirrors, thin filters, and an x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We measure the transmission efficiency of the gratings at many photon energies for several grating orders. For each grating, we calculate efficiency as a function of photon energy using published optical constants of gold and multiple-slit Fraunhofer diffraction theory and fit the calculation to the measurements using the physical parameters of the grating as variables. This article describes the measurement apparatus and calibration techniques, discusses the grating efficiency calculation and fitting procedure, and presents recent results

  13. Real-Time Welfare-Maximizing Regulation Allocation in Dynamic Aggregator-EVs System

    Sun, Sun; Dong, Min; Liang, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The concept of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) has gained recent interest as more and more electric vehicles (EVs) are put to use. In this paper, we consider a dynamic aggregator-EVs system, where an aggregator centrally coordinates a large number of dynamic EVs to perform regulation service. We propose a Welfare-Maximizing Regulation Allocation (WMRA) algorithm for the aggregator to fairly allocate the regulation amount among its EVs. Compared to previous works, WMRA accommodates a wide spectrum of vi...

  14. The arrival directions of cosmic rays of energy > 5 x 1018 eV

    We analyse the arrival directions of air showers falling on the Sydney University Giant Air Shower Recorder from January 1968 to March 1975. The showers are selected to have zenith angles 0 and energies > 5 x 1018 eV (Sydney conversion). Using the method of analysis suggested by Krasilnikov et al, the probability that the distribution for -300 > delta >= -900 is due to chance selection for a random distribution is 23% for showers with Ep > 5 x 1018 eV, 4% for Ep > 1019 eV and 0.7% for Ep > 3 x 1019 eV. (orig./BJ)

  15. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    Qin Fan; Yong Zhang; Lan Hu; Qiang Sun; Hui Cui; Dongmei Yan; Huerxidan Sikandaner; Haishu Tang; Dongyan Wang; Zhen Zhu; Shuangli Zhu; Wenbo Xu

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demons...

  16. CDMA 1x EV-DO覆盖模型的分析与仿真%Analysis and Simulation of CDMA 1x EV-DO Coverage Model

    梅琼

    2006-01-01

    结合经过校正后的适合于本地无线环境的OKUMURA-HATA传播模型,建立起一种新的本地化基于1x EV-DO系统数据业务吞吐量分析的覆盖预测仿真模型,可应用于1x EV-DO系统的网络规划及系统性能分析.

  17. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  18. Measurements of lambda and chi parameters for excitation of the 21P state of helium at 80 eV

    Electron-photon angular correlations have been measured for excitation of the 21P state of helium at an incident energy of 80 eV over the range 10-1150 of electron scattering angles. analysis of the data yields values for the alignment and orientation parameters lambda and |chi| which are in excellent agreement with data of Hollywood et al (J. Phys. B.; 12: 819 (1979)) but the data for lambda are in marked disagreement with the results of Steph and Golden (preprint. Univ. of Oklahoma (1979)) at electron scattering angles thetasub(c)> 700. (author)

  19. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  20. Discovery of Gramine Derivatives That Inhibit the Early Stage of EV71 Replication in Vitro

    Yanhong Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs, but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  1. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  2. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chow, Yen-Hung; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25006583

  3. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Chih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV 71 and coxsackievirus (CV A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg emulsified in submicron particles was found (i to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  4. Sõlmornamendist, eriti muinaskäevõrudel ja setu naiste ülerõivastel / Mare Piho

    Piho, Mare, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli ajendiks sai 1972. aastal Setumaalt juhuleiuna saadud 11. sajandi käevõru. Käevõrul kujutaud plettornamenti on kasutatud setu naiste 19. sajandi keskpaiga - 20. sajandi riietelel. Sõlmest kui märgist ja selle tähendusest. Sõlmornamendist setu naiste pealisriietel. Sõlmornamendi järjepidevusest ja püsimisest

  5. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  6. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  7. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  8. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from $10^{10}$ to $10^{20}$ eV

    Peixoto, C J Todero; Biermann, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from \\energy{10} to \\energyEV{20.5} by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from \\energy{10} to \\energyEV{20.5}. Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is able to describe the total and individual particle flux of all experiments considered. It is shown that the theory used here is abl...

  9. Cross sections for 14-eV e-H2 resonant collisions: Isotope effect in dissociative electron attachment

    The process of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecular hydrogen and its isotopes in the energy range at approximately 14 eV is investigated. The dissociative electron attachment cross sections for all six hydrogen isotopes are calculated over an extended range of electron energies using the local complex potential model with the excited Rydberg 2Σg+ electronic state of H2- acting as the intermediate resonant state. A significant isotope effect in theoretical electron attachment cross sections is observed, in agreement with previous predictions and experimental observations. A two-parameter analytic expression for the cross section is derived from the theory that fits accurately the numerically calculated cross sections for all isotopes. Similarly, an analytic mass-scaling relation is derived from the theory that accurately reproduces the numerically calculated rate coefficients for all isotopes in the 0.1-1000 eV temperature range by using the rate coefficient for the H2 isotope only. The latter is represented by an analytic fit expression with two parameters only.

  10. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration. PMID:27234148