Sample records for 116th ncab min

  1. OnlineMin

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel; Negoescu, Andrei


    In the field of online algorithms paging is one of the most studied problems. For randomized paging algorithms a tight bound of Hk on the competitive ratio has been known for decades, yet existing algorithms matching this bound have high running times. We present a new randomized paging algorithm...... OnlineMin that has optimal competitiveness and allows fast implementations. In fact, if k pages fit in internal memory the best previous solution required O(k2) time per request and O(k) space. We present two implementations of OnlineMin which use O(k) space, but only O(logk) worst case time and O...

  2. Se min kjole

    Bogen Se min kjole udkom i anledning af 50-året for de første ordinationer af kvindelige præster i den danske folkekirke i 1948. Bogen giver analyser af, hvad kvindelige præster har betydet for præsterollen og for prædikengenren; den fortæller om de første kvindelige præsters liv og syn på...

  3. 改进的 Min-Min 算法研究%Research on Improved Min-Min Algorithm

    邓树强; 刘波; 庞雄文


    Task scheduling is an important part of grid system, and the task scheduling algorithm is the most important in the task scheduling. After the research of Min-Min algorithm, this paper points out the shortcomings of Min-Min algorithm. With the goal of grid task scheduling, several improved Min-Min algorithms are drawn out in optimal scheduling, load balancing, quality of service and the charge. Then this paper introduces the advantages and disadvantages of the improved algorithms. It provides some reference to improve the algorithms in the future.%任务调度是网格系统中重要的一环,而任务的调度算法更显得是重中之重.本文对Min-Min算法进行分析,指出Min-Min算法存在的不足.结合网格任务调度的目标,分别从最优调度、负我均衡、服务质量、价格费用4方面提出几种改进的Min-Min算法,重点介绍算法思路,指出算法的优缺点,为以后的改进工作提供参考.

  4. Instant MinGW starter

    Shpigor, Ilya


    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  5. USGS 1-min Dst index

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.


    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  6. Self-organization of the MinE ring in subcellular Min oscillations

    Derr, Julien; Hopper, Jason T.; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.


    We model the self-organization of the MinE ring that is observed during subcellular oscillations of the proteins MinD and MinE within the rod-shaped bacterium {\\it Escherichia coli}. With a steady-state approximation, we can study the MinE-ring generically -- apart from the other details of the Min oscillation. Rebinding of MinE to depolymerizing MinD filament tips controls MinE ring formation through a scaled cell shape parameter $\\tilde{r}$. We find two types of E-ring profiles near the fil...

  7. Min-protein oscillations in round bacteria

    Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S.


    In rod-shaped Escherichia coli cells, the Min proteins, which are involved in division-site selection, oscillate from pole-to-pole. The homologs of the Min proteins from the round bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae also form a spatial oscillator when expressed in wild-type and round, rodA- mutants of E. coli, suggesting that the Min proteins form an oscillator in N. gonorrhoeae. Here we report that a numerical model for Min-protein oscillations in rod-shaped cells also produces oscillations in round cells (cocci). Our numerical results explain why the MinE-protein rings found in wild-type E. coli are absent in round mutants. In addition, we find that for round cells there is a minimum radius below which oscillations do not occur, and a maximum radius above which oscillations become mislocalized. Finally, we demonstrate that Min-protein oscillations can select the long axis in nearly round cells based solely on geometry, a potentially important factor in division-plane selection in cocci.

  8. 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data...

  9. Dynamic assembly of MinD on phospholipid vesicles regulated by ATP and MinE

    Hu, Zonglin; Gogol, Edward P.; Lutkenhaus, Joe


    Selection of the division site in Escherichia coli is regulated by the min system and requires the rapid oscillation of MinD between the two halves of the cell under the control of MinE. In this study we have further investigated the molecular basis for this oscillation by examining the interaction of MinD with phospholipid vesicles. We found that MinD bound to phospholipid vesicles in the presence of ATP and, upon binding, assembled into a well-ordered helical array that deformed the vesicle...

  10. Learnability of min-max pattern classifiers

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros


    This paper introduces the class of thresholded min-max functions and studies their learning under the probably approximately correct (PAC) model introduced by Valiant. These functions can be used as pattern classifiers of both real-valued and binary-valued feature vectors. They are a lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to three-layer perceptrons and morphological signal operators. Several subclasses of the thresholded min- max functions are shown to be learnable under the PAC model.

  11. min kilpailukyky Saksan markkinoilla

    Hakala, Johanna


    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin Pohjois-Satakunnassa Jämijärvellä sijaitsevan Jämin kilpailukyky matkailukohteena Saksan markkinoilla, eritoten Baijerin alueella, verrattuna Pohjois-Suomen viiteen suureen matkailukohteeseen Levi, Ylläs, Pyhä-Luosto, Ruka ja Vuokatti. Tutkimus loi katsauksen matkailualaan ja sen tulevaisuuden kehitykseen. Tutkimus ei käsitellyt pohjoisen lomakohteita yleisesti totuttuina laskettelukeskuksina, vaan ympärivuotisina lomakohteina ja keskittyi vertailussa kohteiden koko...

  12. 60wrd/min art critic

    Waxman, Lori


    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "The following was announced on the windows of a small blue house at dOCUMENTA (13) : The “60 wrd/min art critic” is available. ­Reviews are free of charge, and are written here on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays ­between the hours of 1 and 6 p.m. Lori Waxman will spend 25 minutes ­looking at submitted work and writing a 200-word review. Thoughtful responses are guaranteed. Completed reviews will be ­published in the Hessische/­Niedersächsische­Allgem...

  13. Preprocessing of Min Ones Problems: A Dichotomy

    Kratsch, Stefan


    A parameterized problem consists of a classical problem and an additional component, the so-called parameter. This point of view allows a formal definition of preprocessing: Given a parameterized instance (I,k), a polynomial kernelization computes an equivalent instance (I',k') of size and parameter bounded by a polynomial in k. We give a complete classification of Min Ones Constraint Satisfaction problems, i.e., Min Ones SAT(\\Gamma), with respect to admitting or not admitting a polynomial kernelization (unless NP \\subseteq coNP/poly). For this we introduce the notion of mergeability. If all relations of the constraint language \\Gamma are mergeable, then a new variant of sunflower kernelization applies, based on non-zero-closed cores. We obtain a kernel with O(k^{d+1}) variables and polynomial total size, where d is the maximum arity of a constraint in \\Gamma, comparing nicely with the bound of O(k^{d-1}) vertices for the less general and arguably simpler d-Hitting Set problem. Otherwise, any relation in \\Gam...

  14. 15. 7-min periodicity in OJ287

    Valtaoja, E.; Lehto, H.; Teerikorpi, P.; Korhonen, T.; Valtonen, M.; Teraesranta, H.; Salonen, E.; Urpo, S.; Tiuri, M.; Piirola, V.; Saslaw, W.C.


    The BL Lac-type object OJ287, with a redshift z = 0.306 and a luminosity exceeding 10/sup 47/ erg s/sup -1/ at maximum light, is among the brightest and most violently variable objects of its class. Rapid variations, with timescales of a few hours or less, have been reported over a wide range of wavelengths and also in polarization, imposing strong constraints on the size and dynamics of the source. The detection of periodic variations in OJ287, or in any other compact extragalactic source, would be even more important, as these could be related to rotation or orbital motion in the source. So far the only searches sensitive to periodic variations shorter than 1 h are the photometric observations of Visvanathan and Elliot, Frohlich et al. and Kiplinger, in which a 40-min period in OJ287 was respectively found, confirmed and not detected. Here the detection of a 15.7-min periodic flux variation in OJ287 in April 1981 at 37 GHz is reported. The source has been subsequently monitored for 265 h at 22 and 37 GHz, as well as in optical photometry, and the same period has been seen in simultaneous observations. The peak-peak amplitude of the variation is 1-10% of the total intensity. Other periods may also exist. 17 references, 3 figures.

  15. Max-min and min-max approximation problems for normal matrices revisited

    Tichý, Petr

    Praha: Institute of Computer Science AS CR, 2014 - (Bílková, H.; Rozložník, M.; Tichý, P.). s. 95-95 ISBN 978-80-87136-16-4. [SNA ’14. Seminar on Numerical Analysis. 27.01.2014-31.01.2014, Nymburk] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : matrix approximation problems * min-max and max-min approximation problems * best approximation * normal matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Strength training improves 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling

    Rønnestad, Bent R.; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Raastad, Truls


    To investigate the effects of heavy strength training on the mean power output in a 5-min all-out trial following 185 min of submaximal cycling at 44% of maximal aerobic power output in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E+S; n=11 (♂=11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n=9 (♂=7, ♀=2)]. The strength training performed by E+S consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4–10 repetiti...

  17. Min-Max Spaces and Complexity Reduction in Min-Max Expansions

    Gaubert, Stephane, E-mail: [Ecole Polytechnique, INRIA and CMAP (France); McEneaney, William M., E-mail: [University of California San Diego, Dept. of Mech. and Aero. Eng. (United States)


    Idempotent methods have been found to be extremely helpful in the numerical solution of certain classes of nonlinear control problems. In those methods, one uses the fact that the value function lies in the space of semiconvex functions (in the case of maximizing controllers), and approximates this value using a truncated max-plus basis expansion. In some classes, the value function is actually convex, and then one specifically approximates with suprema (i.e., max-plus sums) of affine functions. Note that the space of convex functions is a max-plus linear space, or moduloid. In extending those concepts to game problems, one finds a different function space, and different algebra, to be appropriate. Here we consider functions which may be represented using infima (i.e., min-max sums) of max-plus affine functions. It is natural to refer to the class of functions so represented as the min-max linear space (or moduloid) of max-plus hypo-convex functions. We examine this space, the associated notion of duality and min-max basis expansions. In using these methods for solution of control problems, and now games, a critical step is complexity-reduction. In particular, one needs to find reduced-complexity expansions which approximate the function as well as possible. We obtain a solution to this complexity-reduction problem in the case of min-max expansions.

  18. Dynamic assembly of MinD into filament bundles modulated by ATP, phospholipids, and MinE

    Suefuji, Kyoko; Valluzzi, Regina; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata


    Accurate positioning of the division septum at the equator of Escherichia coli cells requires a rapid oscillation of MinD ATPase between the polar halves of the cell membrane, together with the division inhibitor MinC, under MinE control. The mechanism underlying MinD oscillation remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that purified MinD assembles into protein filaments in the presence of ATP. Incubation with phospholipid vesicles further stimulates MinD polymerization. Addition of pu...

  19. OPT-Min-Min:基于Min-Min网格资源调度算法的优化%OPT-Min-Min:the Grid Resources Scheduling Algorithm Based on Load Balance

    张忠平; 温利娟



  20. Minä mediatanssija? : erikoiskoulutusluokkalaisten tanssi-ihanteet ja minäkuva tanssitaiteen perusopetuksessa

    Lähteenmäki, Carita


    Tämä kirjallinen tutkielma on osa Turun ammattikorkeakoulun tanssinopettajan (AMK) tutkintoon sisältyvää opinnäytetyökokonaisuutta. Taiteellinen osa opinnäytetyöstä on koreografia Lähelle lausuttua. Kirjallinen osa on tutkielma tanssia erikoiskoulutusluokalla harrastavien nuorten ihanteista, minäkuvasta ja mediakäyttäytymisestä. Aineistona käytetään teoreettista tietoa mediapsykologiasta, 35 tanssinoppilaan kyselylomakevastaukset sekä kolmen tanssinopettajaopiskelijan sähköpostikysely ja yhde...

  1. QoS Guided Min-Min Heuristic for Grid Task Scheduling

    HE XiaoShan(何晓珊); SUN XianHe(孙贤和); Gregor von Laszewski


    Task scheduling is an integrated component of computing. With the emergence of Grid and ubiquitous computing, new challenges appear in task scheduling based on properties such as security, quality of service, and lack of central control within distributed administrative domains. A Grid task scheduling framework must be able to deal with these issues. One of the goals of Grid task scheduling is to achieve high system throughput while matching applications with the available computing resources. This matching of resources in a non-deterministically shared heterogeneous environment leads to concerns over Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper a novel QoS guided task scheduling algorithm for Grid computing is introduced. The proposed novel algorithm is based on a general adaptive scheduling heuristics that includes QoS guidance.The algorithm is evaluated within a simulated Grid environment. The experimental results show that the new QoS guided Min-Min heuristic can lead to significant performance gain for a variety of applications. The approach is compared with others based on the quality of the prediction formulated by inaccurate information.

  2. Research on Min-Min Scheduling Algorithm and Improved Algorithm in Grid%Min-Min调度算法及改进在网格中的研究

    严华; 周永刚; 蔡瑞英



  3. Improved Min-Min scheduling algorithm based on QoS%基于QoS的改进Min-Min调度算法

    林志杰; 张友斌; 顾静


    The classical Min-Min scheduling algorithm exists the problems of load unbalance, the low resource utilization rate and long processing time. To solve these problems, a scheduling algorithm named P-Min is proposed, which is based on task priority and combined greedy scheduling strategy to schedule. Experimental results show that, as compared with the Min-Min algorithm, the P-Min Algorithm improves 18% in load balance and 8.03% in the overall task execution time, respectively.%针对经典 Min–Min 调度算法存在负载不均,资源利用率低,处理时间长等问题,提出了 P–Min 算法。该算法根据任务的优先级并结合贪心算法来实现调度。仿真结果表明: P–Min算法在负载均衡的资源利用率方面较Min–Min算法提高了17%,任务总体执行时间调高了8.03%。

  4. Minä teen majani yrttitarhaan (3/4 C)


    Laulun sanat: Minä teen majani yrttitarhaan, jossa linnut laulaa saamull' varhain. En mä tee sitä itselleni, vaan sille jota minä rakastan. En mä tee sitä itselleni, vaan sille jota minä rakastan!

  5. MinFinder v2.0: An improved version of MinFinder

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.


    A new version of the "MinFinder" program is presented that offers an augmented linking procedure for Fortran-77 subprograms, two additional stopping rules and a new start-point rejection mechanism that saves a significant portion of gradient and function evaluations. The method is applied on a set of standard test functions and the results are reported. New version program summaryProgram title: MinFinder v2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADWU_v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC Licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 150 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 218 144 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: GNU C++, GNU FORTRAN, GNU C Computer: The program is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD RAM: 200 000 bytes Classification: 4.9 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 174 (2006) 166-179 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Solution method: Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from a rectangular domain. A clustering technique, based on a typical distance

  6. Automatic generation of min-weighted persistent formations

    Luo Xiao-Yuan; Li Shao-Bao; Guan Xin-Ping


    This paper researched into some methods for generating min-weighted rigid graphs and min-weighted persistent graphs.Rigidity and persistence are currently used in various studies on coordination and control of autonomous multi-agent formations.To minimize the communication complexity of formations and reduce energy consumption,this paper introduces the rigidity matrix and presents three algorithms for generating min-weighted rigid and min weighted persistent graphs.First,the existence of a min-weighted rigid graph is proved by using the rigidity matrix,and algorithm 1 is presented to generate the min-weighted rigid graphs.Second,the algorithm 2 based on the rigidity matrix is presented to direct the edges of min-weighted rigid graphs to generate min-weighted persistent graphs.Third,the formations with range constraints are considered,and algorithm 3 is presented to find whether a framework can form a min-weighted persistent formation.Finally,some simulations are given to show the efficiency of our research.

  7. Task scheduling based on Min-Min genetic algorithm in grid%基于Min-Min遗传算法的网格任务调度方法

    马景奕; 隋兵; 舒万能



  8. Research and improvement of Min-Min scheduling algorithm%Min-Min调度算法的研究与改进

    杜玉霞; 刘方爱; 郭磊



  9. Résolution exacte de MinSAT

    Li, Chu Min; Manya, Felip; Quan, Zhe; Zhu, Zhu


    MinSAT est le problème consistant à trouver une affectation qui minimise le nombre de clauses satisfaites dans une formule CNF. Nous présentons une approche originale pour résoudre MinSAT de façon exacte, qui repose sur le codage MaxSAT et les solveurs MaxSAT. Notre étude empirique fournit la preuve que, en l'absence de spécifiques solveurs exacts pour MinSAT, l'approche générique proposée dans ce papier est compétitive.

  10. Min-Max decoding for non binary LDPC codes

    Savin, Valentin


    Iterative decoding of non-binary LDPC codes is currently performed using either the Sum-Product or the Min-Sum algorithms or slightly different versions of them. In this paper, several low-complexity quasi-optimal iterative algorithms are proposed for decoding non-binary codes. The Min-Max algorithm is one of them and it has the benefit of two possible LLR domain implementations: a standard implementation, whose complexity scales as the square of the Galois field's cardinality and a reduced complexity implementation called selective implementation, which makes the Min-Max decoding very attractive for practical purposes.

  11. Projekti Min-E-Max kohtumine Saksamaal / Katrin Arge

    Arge, Katrin


    Oktoobri keskel toimus Lõuna-Saksamaa väikelinnas Oberderdingenis Hispaania, Portugali, Ungari, Leedu, Eesti ja Saksamaa õpetajate kohtumine seoses Euroopa Liidu poolt rahastatava Comenius1 projektiga Min-E-Max (minimum energy input maximum output)

  12. Teadlastele on Saksamaa kogemus hindamatu / Mart Min, Jaan Aru

    Min, Mart, 1943-


    Oma muljeid Saksamaalt jagavad Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli professor Mart Min, kes on viibinud õppejõuna Saksamaal ja Frankfurdis Max Plancki instituudis doktorantuuris aju ja teadvust uuriv noorteadlane Jaan Aru

  13. Scheduling algorithm based on modified Min-Min in grid%基于Min-Min改进后的网格调度算法

    魏天宇; 曾文华; 黄宝边



  14. 一类带约束min-max-min问题的区间算法%An Interval Algorithm for a Class of Constrained min-max-min Problems

    陈美蓉; 曹德欣



  15. Self-Corrected Min-Sum decoding of LDPC codes

    Savin, Valentin


    In this paper we propose a very simple but powerful self-correction method for the Min-Sum decoding of LPDC codes. Unlike other correction methods known in the literature, our method does not try to correct the check node processing approximation, but it modifies the variable node processing by erasing unreliable messages. However, this positively affects check node messages, which become symmetric Gaussian distributed, and we show that this is sufficient to ensure a quasi-optimal decoding performance. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the proposed Self-Corrected Min-Sum decoding performs very close to the Sum-Product decoding, while preserving the main features of the Min-Sum decoding, that is low complexity and independence with respect to noise variance estimation errors.

  16. Mapping the MinE Site Involved in Interaction with the MinD Division Site Selection Protein of Escherichia coli

    Ma, Lu-Yan; King, Glenn; Rothfield, Lawrence


    Interactions between the MinD and MinE proteins are required for proper placement of the Escherichia coli division septum. The site within MinE that is required for interaction with MinD was mapped by studying the effects of site-directed minE mutations on MinD-MinE interactions in yeast two-hybrid and three-hybrid experiments. This confirmed that the MinE N-terminal domain is responsible for the interaction of MinE with MinD. Mutations that interfered with the interaction defined an extended...

  17. Complexity of tropical and min-plus linear prevarieties

    Grigoriev, Dima


    A tropical (or min-plus) semiring is a set $\\mathbb{Z}$ (or $\\mathbb{Z \\cup \\{\\infty\\}}$) endowed with two operations: $\\oplus$, which is just usual minimum, and $\\odot$, which is usual addition. In tropical algebra the vector $x$ is a solution to a polynomial $g_1(x) \\oplus g_2(x) \\oplus...\\oplus g_k(x)$, where $g_i(x)$'s are tropical monomials, if the minimum in $\\min_i(g_{i}(x))$ is attained at least twice. In min-plus algebra solutions of systems of equations of the form $g_1(x)\\oplus...\\oplus g_k(x) = h_1(x)\\oplus...\\oplus h_l(x)$ are studied. In this paper we consider computational problems related to tropical linear system. We show that the solvability problem (both over $\\mathbb{Z}$ and $\\mathbb{Z} \\cup \\{\\infty\\}$) and the problem of deciding the equivalence of two linear systems (both over $\\mathbb{Z}$ and $\\mathbb{Z} \\cup \\{\\infty\\}$) are equivalent under polynomial-time reduction to mean payoff games and are also equivalent to analogous problems in min-plus algebra. In particular, all these proble...

  18. Multistability and dynamic transitions of intracellular Min protein patterns.

    Wu, Fabai; Halatek, Jacob; Reiter, Matthias; Kingma, Enzo; Frey, Erwin; Dekker, Cees


    Cells owe their internal organization to self-organized protein patterns, which originate and adapt to growth and external stimuli via a process that is as complex as it is little understood. Here, we study the emergence, stability, and state transitions of multistable Min protein oscillation patterns in live Escherichia coli bacteria during growth up to defined large dimensions. De novo formation of patterns from homogenous starting conditions is observed and studied both experimentally and in simulations. A new theoretical approach is developed for probing pattern stability under perturbations. Quantitative experiments and simulations show that, once established, Min oscillations tolerate a large degree of intracellular heterogeneity, allowing distinctly different patterns to persist in different cells with the same geometry. Min patterns maintain their axes for hours in experiments, despite imperfections, expansion, and changes in cell shape during continuous cell growth. Transitions between multistable Min patterns are found to be rare events induced by strong intracellular perturbations. The instances of multistability studied here are the combined outcome of boundary growth and strongly nonlinear kinetics, which are characteristic of the reaction-diffusion patterns that pervade biology at many scales. PMID:27279643

  19. The min--max construction of minimal surfaces

    Colding, T; C. De Lellis


    In this paper we survey with complete proofs some well--known, but hard to find, results about constructing closed embedded minimal surfaces in a closed 3-dimensional manifold via min--max arguments. This includes results of J. Pitts, F. Smith, and L. Simon and F. Smith.

  20. Linked Min.B configuration inside high shear magnetic surface

    Arrangement of the l = m baseball coils to form the toroidally linked Min.B configuration with large rotational transform is studied analytically and numerically. By an optimization the closed magnetic isobars are obtained inside the last closed magnetic surface having practical volume and high shear if l = 3 baseball coils are arranged. (auth.)

  1. Weighted Max-Min Resource Allocation for Frequency Selective Channels

    Zehavi, Ephi; Levanda, Ronny; Han, Zhu


    In this paper, we discuss the computation of weighted max-min rate allocation using joint TDM/FDM strategies under a PSD mask constraint. We show that the weighted max-min solution allocates the rates according to a predetermined rate ratio defined by the weights, a fact that is very valuable for telecommunication service providers. Furthermore, we show that the problem can be efficiently solved using linear programming. We also discuss the resource allocation problem in the mixed services scenario where certain users have a required rate, while the others have flexible rate requirements. The solution is relevant to many communication systems that are limited by a power spectral density mask constraint such as WiMax, Wi-Fi and UWB.

  2. Theoretical Prediction of Disrupted Min Oscillation in Flattened Escherichia coli.

    Jeff B Schulte

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the Min-protein system help Escherichia coli regulate the process of cell division by identifying the center of the cell. While this system exhibits robust bipolar oscillations in wild-type cell shapes, recent experiments have shown that when the cells are mechanically deformed into wide, flattened out, irregular shapes, the spatial regularity of these oscillations breaks down. We employ widely used stochastic and deterministic models of the Min system to simulate cells with flattened shapes. The deterministic model predicts strong bipolar oscillations, in contradiction with the experimentally observed behavior, while the stochastic model, which is based on the same reaction-diffusion equations, predicts more spatially irregular oscillations. We further report simulations of flattened but more symmetric shapes, which suggest that the flattening and lateral expansion may contribute as much to the irregular oscillation behavior as the asymmetry of the cell shapes.

  3. Compensatory Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network for Object Recognition

    Paras A. Tolia


    Full Text Available Object recognition is important component in computer vision.Object recognition system (ORS is mainly concern withdetermining the identity of the object in the image. Many ORSare available but they are quite computationally expensive orthey are not invariant under rotation, translation and scale (RTS.More over fuzzy min max neural network (FMNN classifierhaving problem with classification and gradation error. Theobject recognition system is divided into two steps namely,feature extraction and pattern classification. Feature Extractionpart consist of rotation, translation and scale invariant features.These features are used to train fuzzy min max neural networkwith compensatory neuron architecture (FMCNs. FMCN useshyperbox fuzzy sets to represent the pattern classes. The conceptcompensatory neurons are inspired from the reflex system ofhuman brain which takes over the control in hazardous condition.Compensatory neurons are getting activated when the testingsample falls in the overlapped regions of different classes.

  4. Min-Plus Techniques for Set-Valued State Estimation

    Kallapur, Abhijit G; McEneaney, William M; Petersen, Ian R


    This article approaches deterministic filtering via an application of the min-plus linearity of the corresponding dynamic programming operator. This filter design method yields a set-valued state estimator for discrete-time nonlinear systems (nonlinear dynamics and output functions). The energy bounds in the process and the measurement disturbances are modeled using a sum quadratic constraint. The filtering problem is recast into an optimal control problem in the form of a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, the solution to which is obtained by employing the min-plus linearity property of the dynamic programming operator. This approach enables the solution to the HJB equation and the design of the filter without recourse to linearization of the system dynamics/ output equation.

  5. Optimal Control of (Min,+) Linear Time-Varying Systems

    Lahaye, Sébastien; Boimond, Jean-Louis; Hardouin, Laurent


    International audience The class of discrete event dynamic systems involving only synchronization phenomena can be seen as linear time-invariant systems in a particular algebraic structure called (min,+) algebra. In the same framework, this paper deals with linear time-varying systems, that is, systems whose parameters may change as functions of time. For example, in a manufacturing system the number of working machines, or the number of trains running in a closed network of railway connec...

  6. Min-max minimal hypersurfaces in non-compact manifolds

    Montezuma, Rafael


    In this work we prove the existence of embedded closed minimal hypersurfaces in non-compact manifolds containing a bounded open subset with smooth and strictly mean-concave boundary and a natural behavior on the geometry at infinity. For doing this, we develop a modified min-max theory for the area functional following Almgren and Pitts' setting, to produce minimal surfaces with intersecting properties.

  7. John Disks, the Apollonian Metric, and Min-Max Properties

    M Huang; S Ponnusamy; X Wang


    The main results of this paper are characterizations of John disks–the simply connected proper subdomains of the complex plane that satisfy a twisted double cone connectivity property. One of the characterizations of John disks is an analog of a result due to Gehring and Hag who found such a characterization for quasidisks. In both situations the geometric condition is an estimate for the domain’s hyperbolic metric in terms of its Apollonian metric. The other characterization is in terms of an arc min-max property.

  8. Creating a Scandinavian brunch for BistroCafe Min Krog

    Häkämies, Pilvi


    This thesis is about creating a Scandinavian brunch menu and a brunch product for BistroCafé Min Krog located in Kirkkonummi, Finland. The goal of this thesis is to give a clear framework for creating a brunch menu for a restaurant. I planned and executed the Scandinavian brunch used as a case in this thesis in October 2013. The timeframe of this thesis is from October 2013 until August 2015. The thesis consists of theoretical background related to new-product development and menu planni...

  9. A Uniform Min-Max Theorem with Applications in Cryptography

    Vadhan, Salil P.; Zheng, Colin Jia


    We present a new, more constructive proof of von Neumann’s Min-Max Theorem for two-player zero-sum game — specifically, an algorithm that builds a near-optimal mixed strategy for the second player from several best-responses of the second player to mixed strategies of the first player. The algorithm extends previous work of Freund and Schapire (Games and Economic Behavior ’99) with the advantage that the algorithm runs in poly(n) time even when a pure strategy for the first player is a distri...

  10. Minätys! Lapsen itsetunnon tukeminen draamallisin menetelmin

    Visuri, Sanna-Maaria


    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää miten draamamenetelmillä voi tukea lapsen itsetunnon kehitystä. Opinnäytetyö on tehty yhteistyössä Kokkolan sosiaali- ja terveystoimen alaisen yksikön Isokadun perhepalvelukeskuksen kanssa. Kohderyhmänä oli lastensuojelun tarpeessa olevien perheiden 8-12 vuotiaat lapset. Kokonaisuudessaan työ koostuu toiminnallisesta osuudesta sekä teoriaosuudesta. Tutkimuksen toiminnallisessa osuudessa järjestin draamapainotteisen Minätys- pajan helmikuussa 1.2.14-2...

  11. Grayscale Image Compression Based on Min Max Block Truncating Coding

    Hilal Almarabeh


    Full Text Available This paper presents an image compression techniques based on block truncating coding. In this work, a min max block truncating coding (MM_BTC is presented for grayscale image compression relies on applying dividing image into non-overlapping blocks. MM_BTC differ from other block truncating coding such as block truncating coding (BTC in the way of selecting the quantization level in order to remove redundancy. Objectives measures such as: Bit Rate (BR, Mean Square Error (MSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and Redundancy (R, were used to present a detailed evaluation of MM_BTC of image quality.

  12. Min-max event-triggered computation tree logic

    Pallab Dasgupta; P P Chakrabarti; Jatindra Kumar Deka


    Very often timing verification involves the analysis of the timings of discrete events such as signal changes, sending and receiving of signals, and sensitization of edge-triggered circuit components. The main bottleneck in verifying timing properties of timed finite state machines (FSM) has been the inherent complexity of verifying timed properties (PSPACE-complete for timed extensions of computational tree logic (CTL)). Often however, we are interested in the best case or worst case timings between events. In this paper we introduce a temporal query language called Min-max Event-Triggered Computational Tree Logic for expressing such extremal queries on the timings of events and show that such queries can be evaluated in time polynomial in the size of the system times the length of the formula.

  13. Variable operator technique and the min-max theorem

    Sambhu Nath Datta


    We investigate a variation method where the trial function is generated from the application of a variable operator on a reference function. Two conditions are identified, one for obtaining a maximum and another for a minimum. Although the conditions are easy to understand, the overall formulation is somewhat unusual as each condition gives rise to a two-step variation process. As an example, projection operators are used to form the variable operator, and by this tactics one obtains the new interpretation that the pseudopotential formalism is in fact equivalent to a minimax procedure. The two-step variational process is nevertheless more flexible than the pseudopotential formalism, for it can also be used when the variable operator isnot manifestly expressed in terms of projectors. This is illustrated by a comparison of the two-step method with the variational solution of Dirac’s relativistic electron equation. The same comparison leads to an alternative proof that the process of maximizing energy by varying the – coupling operator eliminates all negative-energy contributions from a trial spinor. The latter observation is crucial for the derivation of the min-max theorem in relativistic quantum mechanics.

  14. Min-cut segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents

    Davis, Brian L.; Barrett, William A.; Swingle, Scott D.


    Handwritten tabular documents, such as census, birth, death and marriage records, contain a wealth of information vital to genealogical and related research. Much work has been done in segmenting freeform handwriting, however, segmentation of cursive handwriting in tabular documents is still an unsolved problem. Tabular documents present unique segmentation challenges caused by handwriting overlapping cell-boundaries and other words, both horizontally and vertically, as "ascenders" and "descenders" overlap into adjacent cells. This paper presents a method for segmenting handwriting in tabular documents using a min-cut/max-flow algorithm on a graph formed from a distance map and connected components of handwriting. Specifically, we focus on line, word and first letter segmentation. Additionally, we include the angles of strokes of the handwriting as a third dimension to our graph to enable the resulting segments to share pixels of overlapping letters. Word segmentation accuracy is 89.5% evaluating lines of the data set used in the ICDAR2013 Handwriting Segmentation Contest. Accuracy is 92.6% for a specific application of segmenting first and last names from noisy census records. Accuracy for segmenting lines of names from noisy census records is 80.7%. The 3D graph cutting shows promise in segmenting overlapping letters, although highly convoluted or overlapping handwriting remains an ongoing challenge.

  15. The US Army HazMin probe model

    In 1987, the US Department of Defense (DOD) established a goal of reducing the quantity of hazardous waste generated by DOD facilities by 50%. To help achieve this goal, the US Army Production Base Modernization Activity (PBMA) has contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop decision support software to be used in the Army-wide hazardous waste minimization (HazMin) program. The resulting waste minimization prioritization software has been named the Project Opportunity and Benefit Evaluation (PROBE) model. PROBE can be used to evaluate both waste stream and project priorities. PROBE operates on any IBM-compatible personal computer hardware with at least 640K of memory and 5 megabytes of available hard disk space. PROBE was developed under the direction of PBMA, which retains unlimited rights to the Federal version of PROBE. PBMA encourages other DOD services and other Federal agencies to use PROBE to assist in their own waste minimization programs. PNL is also considering developing a copyrighted version of PROBE for the commercial market. PROBE was written using FoxPro 2.0 application development software, and runs as an executable file from either MS-DOS or Windows. The software can be loaded onto a single high-capacity floppy disk in a compressed format and can be transferred onto hard disk, ready to operate, via a simple start-up routine

  16. Transmembrane Helix Assembly by Max-Min Ant System Algorithm.

    Sujaree, Kanon; Kitjaruwankul, Sunan; Boonamnaj, Panisak; Supunyabut, Chirayut; Sompornpisut, Pornthep


    Because of the rapid progress in biochemical and structural studies of membrane proteins, considerable attention has been given on developing efficient computational methods for solving low-to-medium resolution structures using sparse structural data. In this study, we demonstrate a novel algorithm, max-min ant system (MMAS), designed to find an assembly of α-helical transmembrane proteins using a rigid helix arrangement guided by distance constraints. The new algorithm generates a large variety with finite number of orientations of transmembrane helix bundle and finds the solution that is matched with the provided distance constraints based on the behavior of ants to search for the shortest possible path between their nest and the food source. To demonstrate the efficiency of the novel search algorithm, MMAS is applied to determine the transmembrane packing of KcsA and MscL ion channels from a limited distance information extracted from the crystal structures, and the packing of KvAP voltage sensor domain using a set of 10 experimentally determined constraints, and the results are compared with those of two popular used stochastic methods, simulated annealing Monte Carlo method and genetic algorithm. PMID:26058409

  17. Topic Modeling for Keyword Extraction: using Natural Language Processing methods for keyword extraction in Portal Min@s

    Arnaldo Candido Junior


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo da avaliar a aplicação de dois métodos automáticos eficientes na extração de palavras-chave, usados pelas comunidades da Linguística de Corpus e do Processamento da Língua Natural para gerar palavras-chave de textos literários: o WordSmith Tools e o Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA. As duas ferramentas escolhidas para este trabalho têm suas especificidades e técnicas diferentes de extração, o que nos levou a uma análise orientada para a sua performance. Objetivamos entender, então, como cada método funciona e avaliar sua aplicação em textos literários. Para esse fim, usamos análise humana, com conhecimento do campo dos textos usados. O método LDA foi usado para extrair palavras-chave por meio de sua integração com o Portal Min@s: Corpora de Fala e Escrita, um sistema geral de processamento de corpora, concebido para diferentes pesquisas de Linguística de Corpus. Os resultados do experimento confirmam a eficácia do WordSmith Tools e do LDA na extração de palavras-chave de um corpus literário, além de apontar que é necessária a análise humana das listas em um estágio anterior aos experimentos para complementar a lista gerada automaticamente, cruzando os resultados do WordSmith Tools e do LDA. Também indicam que a intuição linguística do analista humano sobre as listas geradas separadamente pelos dois métodos usados neste estudo foi mais favorável ao uso da lista de palavras-chave do WordSmith Tools.

  18. Genetic Mapping of the minB Locus in Escherichia coli K-12

    Schaumberg, Thomas H.; Kuempel, Peter L.


    The minB (minicell production) locus of Escherichia coli K-12 was mapped by transduction using bacteriophage P1. minB is located at min 25.6, between purB (min 25.2) and dadR (min 25.8). The mapping was facilitated by the use of insertion zcf-236::Tn10, which is inserted at min 25.4.

  19. a Min-Cut Based Filter for Airborne LIDAR Data

    Ural, Serkan; Shan, Jie


    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a routinely employed technology as a 3-D data collection technique for topographic mapping. Conventional workflows for analyzing LiDAR data require the ground to be determined prior to extracting other features of interest. Filtering the terrain points is one of the fundamental processes to acquire higher-level information from unstructured LiDAR point data. There are many ground-filtering algorithms in literature, spanning several broad categories regarding their strategies. Most of the earlier algorithms examine only the local characteristics of the points or grids, such as the slope, and elevation discontinuities. Since considering only the local properties restricts the filtering performance due to the complexity of the terrain and the features, some recent methods utilize global properties of the terrain as well. This paper presents a new ground filtering method, Min-cut Based Filtering (MBF), which takes both local and global properties of the points into account. MBF considers ground filtering as a labeling task. First, an energy function is designed on a graph, where LiDAR points are considered as the nodes on the graph that are connected to each other as well as to two auxiliary nodes representing ground and off-ground labels. The graph is constructed such that the data costs are assigned to the edges connecting the points to the auxiliary nodes, and the smoothness costs to the edges between points. Data and smoothness terms of the energy function are formulated using point elevations and approximate ground information. The data term conducts the likelihood of the points being ground or off-ground while the smoothness term enforces spatial coherence between neighboring points. The energy function is optimized by finding the minimum-cut on the graph via the alpha-expansion algorithm. The resulting graph-cut provides the labeling of the point cloud as ground and off-ground points. Evaluation of the proposed method on

  20. Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Comparison of 20–25 min delayed and 60–180 min delayed images

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Stadnik, Anna, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Lezak, Aleksandra, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Maj, Edyta, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Zieniewicz, Krzysztof, E-mail: [Chair and Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Rowinska-Berman, Katarzyna, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Grudzinski, Ireneusz P., E-mail: [Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Krawczyk, Marek, E-mail: [Chair and Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Rowiński, Olgierd, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland)


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) performed in different time delays after injection of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for the diagnosis of active bile leak. Methods: This retrospective analysis included Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR images of 34 patients suspected of bile leak. Images were acquired 20–25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA injection. If there was inadequate contrast in the bile ducts then delayed images after 60–90 min and 150–180 min were obtained. Results were correlated with intraoperative findings, ERCP results, clinical data, laboratory tests, and follow-up examinations. Results: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.4%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 97.1% for the diagnosis of an active bile leak. The sensitivity of 20–25 min delayed MR images was 42.9%, of combined 20–25 min and 60–90 min delayed images was 92.9% and of combined 20–25 min, 60–90 min and 150–180 min delayed images was 96.4%. Conclusions: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC utilizing delayed phase images was effective for detecting the presence and location of active bile leaks. The images acquired 60–180 min post-injection enabled identification of bile leaks even in patients with a dilated biliary system or moderate liver dysfunction.

  1. Cross sections for the formation of sup(114m)In and sup(116m)In on bombardment of cadmium by deuterons

    Cross sections for sup(114m)In and sup(116m)In production by (d,xn) reactions on natural cadmium were measured by the stacked foils activation method. The results are compared with the maximum cross sections estimated from other published studies. Thick target yield for Cd (d,xn) sup(114m)In reactions were determined for different irradiation times and as a function of deuteron energy. (author)

  2. GridSim Simulation of Min-min Task Scheduling Algorithm in Grid%网格任务调度算法Min-min的GridSim模拟实现




  3. Isolation and characterization of topological specificity mutants of minD in Bacillus subtilis

    Karoui, M E; Errington, J


    In rod-shaped bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, division site selection is mediated by MinC and MinD, which together function as a division inhibitor. Topological specificity is imposed by DivIVA, which ensures that MinCD specifically inhibits division close to the cell poles, while allowing division at mid-cell. MinD plays a central role in this process, as it positions and activates MinC and is dependent on DivIVA for its own positioning at the poles. To investigate MinD activities furthe...

  4. 无向图中边不相交Min-Min问题的复杂度%Hardness of the edge-disjoint Min-Min problem in undirected graphs

    郭龙坤; 沈鸿


    We show incorrectness of the NP-completeness proof of Bhatia et al.for the edge-disjoint Min-Min problem in undirected graphs,by giving a counter example that is an unsatisfiable 3SAT instance but was classified satisfiable in the proof of Bhatia etal. We then give a proof of NP-completeness of the edge-disjoint Min-Min problem in undirected graphs,based on a reduction from the MAX-2SAT problem.%Bhatia等指出,Xu等对无向图中的边不相交Min-Min问题的NP-完全性证明并不成立.我们首先用一个反例指出Bhatia等对Xu等的NP-完全性证明的修正依然存在错误.基于一个从MAX-2SAT的归约,我们给出了一个无向图中边不相交Min-Min问题的NP-完全性的正确证明.

  5. Results evaluation of max rule, min rule and product rule in score fusion multibiometric systems

    Shekhar Karanwal,


    Full Text Available this paper discusses about unibiometric systems, multibiometric systems, product rule, max rule and min rule of score level fusion. Score level fusion is used to generate scores of a person. Min max normalization scheme is used for normalization which normalizes scoresbetween 0 and 1. The proposed method also evaluates the results between product rule, min rule and max rule.

  6. 基于带抑制弧的Petri网的min-min算法模型研究%Research on min-min algorithm model based on Petri net model with inhibitor arcs

    傅游; 花嵘; 田银花



  7. Changes in the Min oscillation pattern before and after cell birth.

    Juarez, Jennifer R; Margolin, William


    The Min system regulates the positioning of the cell division site in many bacteria. In Escherichia coli, MinD migrates rapidly from one cell pole to the other. In conjunction with MinC, MinD helps to prevent unwanted FtsZ rings from assembling at the poles and to stabilize their positioning at midcell. Using time-lapse microscopy of growing and dividing cells expressing a gfp-minD fusion, we show that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MinD often paused at midcell in addition to at the poles, and the frequency of midcell pausing increased as cells grew longer and cell division approached. At later stages of septum formation, GFP-MinD often paused specifically on only one side of the septum, followed by migration to the other side of the septum or to a cell pole. About the time of septum closure, this irregular pattern often switched to a transient double pole-to-pole oscillation in the daughter cells, which ultimately became a stable double oscillation. The splitting of a single MinD zone into two depends on the developing septum and is a potential mechanism to explain how MinD is distributed equitably to both daughter cells. Septal pausing of GFP-MinD did not require MinC, suggesting that MinC-FtsZ interactions do not drive MinD-septal interactions, and instead MinD recognizes a specific geometric, lipid, and/or protein target at the developing septum. Finally, we observed regular end-to-end oscillation over very short distances along the long axes of minicells, supporting the importance of geometry in MinD localization. PMID:20543068

  8. Local Optimization for Task Scheduling Algorithm Based on QoS Guided Min-min%基于QoS Guided Min-min任务调度算法局部优化



    在对网格环境中现有任务调度算法的研究基础上,分析了调度算法中经典的Min-Min算法和Qos GuidedMin-min算法,指出了这些算法中所存在的负载不平衡的缺点,在此基础上,提出对Qos Guided Min-min算法进行局部优化和改进,并采用SimGrid模拟器对优化的算法进行仿真,结果表明,优化改进后的算法合理,具有较高的性能.

  9. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions. (paper)

  10. A Grid Task Scheduling Method Based on Min-Min and ACO Algorithm%基于Min-Min和蚁群算法的网格任务调度方法

    黄学雨; 何焕; 戴志晃



  11. AREVA announces US$ 7.75 Per share friendly cash offer for UraMin

    AREVA and UraMin Inc. ('UraMin') entered on June 15, 2007 into an agreement in respect of AREVA's friendly cash offer for 100% of the share capital of UraMin. UraMin is listed in London (AIM) and Toronto (TSX). AREVA (Euronext Paris) already owns 5.5% of UraMin's share capital. This cash offer of AREVA will be made through its indirect wholly-owned subsidiary CFMM Development ('AREVA') based on a price of US$ 7.75 per UraMin share. The total offer consideration amounts to more than USD 2.5 billion for 100% of the fully diluted share capital of UraMin. This represents a premium of 21% over UraMin 20-day weighted average trading price ending on June 8, 2007. The UraMin Board of Directors, after consulting with its financial advisors, has determined that the offer is fair and in the best interest of the UraMin shareholders and it has resolved to recommend acceptance of the Offer. BMO Capital Markets has provided an opinion that the offer is fair, from a financial point of view, to the UraMin shareholders. In connection with the offer, all directors and certain other shareholders representing approximately 25% of the outstanding UraMin shares (calculated on a fully diluted basis) have entered into lock-up agreements with AREVA pursuant to which they have agreed to tender all their UraMin shares to AREVA's offer. The support agreement entered into between AREVA and UraMin provides for, among other things, in case a superior proposal is accepted by UraMin, a right to match in favour of AREVA. The support agreement also includes a break up fee in favour of AREVA of US$ 75 million under certain circumstances. Concurrently with the closing of the proposed offer, UraMin will declare a dividend payable in shares of the capital of Niger Uranium Limited held by UraMin (where permitted by law) or a cash equivalent of the value of such shares

  12. Radiation-induced intestinal neoplasia in a genetically-predisposed mouse (Min)

    A mouse lineage with inherited predisposition to multiple intestinal neoplasia (min) has been proposed as a model to study human colorectal cancer. Min mice are heterozygous for the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene implicated in human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). There is an increased risk of intestinal cancer in humans following radiation exposure and the min mouse model may be used to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. The present study showed a 2 Gy dose of x-rays doubles the tumour numbers in the murine gastrointestinal tract of F1 min heterozygotes. The distribution of tumours through the gut was also recorded. (authors)

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Y-box Binding Protein Gene in Min Pig

    Zhang Dong-jie; Liu Di; Wang Liang; He Xin-miao; Wang Wen-tao


    In order to study the gene sequence of Min pig Y-box binding protein (YB-1) gene, the complete coding sequence of Min pig YB-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, the sequence features were analyzed by some software and online website. The results showed that the complete CDS of Min pig Y-box was found to be 975 bp long, encoding 324 amino acids. It contained a conserved cold shock domain and several phosphorylation sites, but had no transmembrane domains, and was consistent with a protein found in the cytoplasm. Min pig YB-1 nucleotides shared high similarity (61.37%-97.66%) with other mammals.

  14. MinCD Proteins Control the Septation Process during Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    Barák, Imrich; Prepiak, Peter; Schmeisser, Falko


    Mutation of the divIVB locus in Bacillus subtilis causes misplacement of the septum during cell division and allows the formation of anucleate minicells. The divIVB locus contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The last two ORFs (minCD) are homologous to minC and minD of Escherichia coli but a minE homolog is lacking in B. subtilis. There is some similarity between minicell formation and the asymmetric septation that normally occurs during sporulation in terms of polar septum localization. ...

  15. Quality control of the 113Sn-113mIn generator

    Methods for quality control of 113Sn-113mIn generators are compared and recommended the most convenient to applicate in hospitals and in more specialized quality control laboratories. The quality of 113Sn-113mIn generator produced by POLATOM (Poland) is also evaluated. The product met the requirements of the International Pharmacopeia

  16. Frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations in microwave and EUV emission above sunspots

    Sych, R; Nakariakov, V M; Anfinogentov, S A; Shibasaki, K; Yan, Y


    We analyse 3-min oscillations of microwave and EUV emission generated at different heights of a sunspot atmosphere, studying the amplitude and frequency modulation of the oscillations, and its relationship with the variation of the spatial structure of the oscillations. High-resolution data obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, TRACE and SDO/AIA are analysed with the use of the Pixelised Wavelet Filtering and wavelet skeleton techniques. 3-min oscillations in sunspots appear in the form of repetitive trains of the duration 8-20 min (13 min in average). The typical interval between the trains is 30-50 min. The oscillation trains are transient in frequency and power. We detected a repetitive frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations during the development of individual trains. Wavelet analysis shows three types of the frequency drift: positive, negative and fluctuations without drift. The start and end of the drifts coincide with the start time and end of the train. The comparative study of 3-min oscillation...

  17. Sustained Aftereffect of α-tACS Lasts Up to 70 min after Stimulation

    Kasten, Florian H.; Dowsett, James; Herrmann, Christoph S.


    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to increase power of endogenous brain oscillations in the range of the stimulated frequency after stimulation. In the alpha band this aftereffect has been shown to persist for at least 30 min. However, in most experiments the aftereffect exceeded the duration of the measurement. Thus, it remains unclear how the effect develops beyond these 30 min and when it decays. The current study aimed to extend existing findings by monitoring the physiological aftereffect of tACS in the alpha range for an extended period of 90 min post-stimulation. To this end participants received either 20 min of tACS or sham stimulation with intensities below their individual sensation threshold at the individual alpha frequency (IAF). Electroencephalogram (EEG) was acquired during 3 min before and 90 min after stimulation. Subjects performed a visual vigilance task during the whole measurement. While the enhanced power in the individual alpha band did not return back to pre-stimulation baseline in the stimulation group, the difference between stimulation and sham diminishes after 70 min due to a natural alpha increase of the sham group. PMID:27252642

  18. Extensive metabolic disorders are present in APC(min) tumorigenesis mice.

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Zhengxiang; Mao, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Jinxing; Xiong, Lu; Liao, Chaonan; Huang, Fulian; Liu, Zehao; Ali Sheikh, Md Sayed; Plutzky, Jorge; Huang, He; Yang, Tianlun; Duan, Qiong


    Wnt signaling plays essential role in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Activation of Wnt signaling suppresses adipogenesis, but promotes osteogenesis in MSC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a negative regulator of β-catenin and Wnt signaling activity. The mutation of APC gene leads to the activation of Wnt signaling and is responsible for tumorigenesis in APC(min) mouse; however, very few studies focused on its metabolic abnormalities. The present study reports a widespread metabolic disorder phenotype in APC(min) mice. The old APC(min) mice have decreased body weight and impaired adipogenesis, but severe hyperlipidemia, which mimic the phenotypes of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), an inherited disease also caused by APC gene mutation in human. We found that the expression of lipid metabolism and free fat acids (FA) use genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of the APC(min) mice is much lower than those of control. The changed gene expression pattern may lead to the disability of circulatory lipid transportation and storage at WAT. Moreover, the APC(min) mice could not maintain the core body temperature in cold condition. PET-CT determination revealed that the BAT of APC(min) mice has significantly impaired ability to take up (18)FDG from the blood. Morphological studies identified that the brown adipocytes of APC(min) mice were filled with lipid droplets but fewer mitochondria. These results matched with the findings of impaired BAT function in APC(min) mice. Collectively, our study explores a new mechanism that explains abnormal metabolism in APC(min) mice and provides insights into studying the metabolic disorders of FAP patients. PMID:26948948

  19. Synergy between Apc min and an activated ras mutation is sufficient to induce colon carcinomas.

    D Abaco, G. M.; Whitehead, R. H.; Burgess, A W


    Colon carcinomas appear to arise from the cumulative effect of mutations to several genes (APC, DCC, p53, ras, hMLH1, and hMSH2). By using novel colonic epithelial cell lines derived from the Immorto mouse, named the YAMC (young adult mouse colon) cell line, and an Immorto-Min mouse hybrid, named the IMCE (Immorto-Min colonic epithelial) cell line, carrying the Apc min mutation, we investigated the effect of an activated v-Ha-ras gene on tumor progression. The YAMC and IMCE cell lines are nor...

  20. ApcMin, a mutation in the murine Apc gene, predisposes to mammary carcinomas and focal alveolar hyperplasias.

    Moser, A R; Mattes, E M; Dove, W. F.; Lindstrom, M.J.; Haag, J D; Gould, M N


    ApcMin (Min, multiple intestinal neoplasia) is a point mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene. Min/+ mice develop multiple intestinal adenomas, as do humans carrying germ-line mutations in APC. Female mice carrying Min are also prone to develop mammary tumors. Min/+ mammary glands are more sensitive to chemical carcinogenesis than are +/+ mammary glands. Transplantation of mammary cells from Min/+ or +/+ donors into +/+ hosts demonstrates that the propensity to develop mammary tumors ...

  1. New cross section data and review of production routes of medically used $^{110m}$In

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Baba, M; Mohsena, B M A; Ignatyuk, A V


    Evaluation of nuclear data for production routes of $^{110m}$In is in progress in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). New experimental cross section data for the indirect $^{nat}$In(p,x)$^{110}$Sn $\\longrightarrow$ $^{110m}$In and for the direct $^{107}$Ag($\\alpha$,n)$^{110m}$In and $^{109}$Ag($^{3}$He,2n)$^{110m}$In production routes and for the satellite impurity reactions $^{107}$Ag($\\alpha$,xn)$^{110g,109}$In and $^{109}$Ag($^{3}$He,xn)$^{110g,111,109}$In have been measured by using the activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. Additional data are reported for production of the $^{111}$In diagnostic gamma-emitter via the $^{109}$Ag($\\alpha$,2n)$^{111}$In reaction. The earlier experimental data were critically reviewed in order to prepare recommended data and optimal production parameters for the different routes.

  2. 2.5-min Isostatic Gravity Grid for the United States

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2.5-min isostatic gravity data set was produced by regridding the 4-km residual isostatic gravity grid of the U.S. The isostatic residual gravity grid was...

  3. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe


    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  4. Frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations in microwave and EUV emission above sunspots

    Sych, R.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Nakariakov, V.M.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Shibasaki, K; Yan, Y.


    We analyse 3-min oscillations of microwave and EUV emission generated at different heights of a sunspot atmosphere, studying the amplitude and frequency modulation of the oscillations, and its relationship with the variation of the spatial structure of the oscillations. High-resolution data obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, TRACE and SDO/AIA are analysed with the use of the Pixelised Wavelet Filtering and wavelet skeleton techniques. 3-min oscillations in sunspots appear in the form...

  5. On the gauge-invariant operator $A^2_{\\min}$ in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories

    Capri, M A L; Guimaraes, M S; Mintz, B W; Palhares, L F; Sorella, S P


    We review our recent work on the gauge-invariant non-local dimension-two operator $A^2_{\\rm min}$, whose minimization is defined along the gauge orbit. Albeit non-local, the operator $A^2_{\\rm min}$ can be cast in local form through the introduction of an auxiliary Stueckelberg field. The whole procedure results into a local action which turns out to be renormalizable to all orders.

  6. Min-Min任务调度算法的研究与仿真




  7. Berberine Inhibits Intestinal Polyps Growth in Apc (min/+) Mice via Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

    Piao, Meiyu; Cao, Hailong; He, Nana; Yang, Boli; Dong, Wenxiao; Xu, Mengque; Yan, Fang; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Bangmao


    Antitumor effect of berberine has been reported in a wide spectrum of cancer, however, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that berberine suppresses tumorigenesis in the familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) by regulating the macrophage polarization in Apc (min/+) mouse model. Berberine was given to Apc (min/+) mice for 12 weeks. Primary macrophages were isolated; after berberine treatment, the change in signaling cascade wa...

  8. Rainfall Prediction using Data-Core Based Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network for Classification

    Rajendra Palange,; Nishikant Pachpute


    This paper proposes the Rainfall Prediction System by using classification technique. The advanced and modified neural network called Data Core Based Fuzzy Min Max Neural Network (DCFMNN) is used for pattern classification. This classification method is applied to predict Rainfall. The neural network called fuzzy min max neural network (FMNN) that creates hyperboxes for classification and predication, has a problem of overlapping neurons that resoled in DCFMNN to give greater accu...

  9. Failure of caffeine to affect metabolism during 60 min submaximal exercise.

    Titlow, L W; Ishee, J H; Riggs, C E


    Caffeine consumption prior to athletic performance has become commonplace. The usual dosage is approximately 200 mg, a level of caffeine ingestion equivalent to two cups of brewed coffee. This study was designed to examine the effects of a common level of caffeine ingestion, specifically 200 mg, on metabolism during submaximal exercise performance in five males. The subjects performed two 60-min monitored treadmill workouts at 60% maximal heart rate during a 2-week period. The subjects were randomly assigned, double-blind to receive a caffeine or placebo capsule 60 min prior to exercise. Testing was performed in the afternoon following a midnight fast. Venous blood was withdrawn pre-exercise, every 15 min during the workout, and 10 min after recovery. Blood was analysed for free fatty acid, triglycerides, glucose, lactic acid, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The respiratory exchange ratio (R), perceived exertion (RPE) and oxygen uptake were measured every 4 min during exercise. An examination of the data with repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that 200 mg caffeine failed to affect metabolism during 60 min submaximal exercise. PMID:1856908

  10. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti


    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity ΔBh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold (nT/min) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site, proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1 σ, lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500, [350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nT/min. At 40°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and 1 σ values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nT/min.

  11. Purification and Crystallization of MinCD Complex from Escherichia coli%大肠杆菌MinCD蛋白复合物纯化方法和晶体筛选

    金瑾; 杨少媛; 朱嘉; 雷振; 郑积敏; 贾宗超



  12. Preliminary results of a computer-assisted vocal load test with 10-min test duration.

    Hanschmann, Holger; Gaipl, Christoph; Berger, Roswitha


    Nowadays, many occupations require a high vocal loading capacity. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to have suitable test procedures for the vocal load, which can be executed with a low personnel and temporal expenditure. Patients with decreased vocal loading capacity were distinguished from test persons free of voice complaints with a 15-min test. It should be examined whether the test duration can be further shortened by an increase in the demanded vocal intensity. Sixty two persons underwent a vocal load test (VLT) of 10 min: in each case, 1 min in the volumes 75 dB(A) and 80 dB(A). Volume and fundamental frequency were measured real time. Before and directly after vocal load, as well as after a 30-min voice rest, the Goettingen hoarseness diagram was executed for the objective judgment of vocal quality. Besides, every person assessed himself on the bases of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI 12) and a questionnaire on the subjective state before the examination and after the VLT. The test could be mastered by all participants, patients and test persons, and was evaluated by all as tiring. However, we could not distinguish persons who indicated a decreased vocal maximum stress in everyday life from persons without vocal complaints using the shorter test with higher load, which was possible in the 15-min test pattern. A shortening of the test duration to 10 min for an examination of the vocal loading capacity is not possible, in spite of raised vocal load. It was proved in this study that a reliable distinction between patients and test persons was not possible using the 10-min vocal load test. A reliable statement concerning the permanent capacity of the voice cannot be made. Further scientific investigation in the important field of vocal load diagnostics is required. PMID:21107853

  13. Nuclear model calculation and targetry recipe for production of 110mIn

    110mIn is potentially an important positron emitting that can be used in positron emission tomography. In this work, the excitation functions and production yields of 110Cd(d, 2n), 111Cd(d, 3n), natCd(d, xn), 110Cd(p, n), 111Cd(p, 2n), 112Cd(p, 3n) and natCd(p, xn) reactions to produce the 110mIn were calculated using nuclear model code TALYS and compared with the experimental data. The yield of isomeric state production of 110In was also compared with ground state production ones to reach the optimal energy range of projectile for the high yield production of metastable state. The results indicate that the 110Cd(p, n)110mIn is a high yield reaction with an isomeric ratio (σm/σg) of about 35 within the optimal incident energy range of 15–5 MeV. To make the target, cadmium was electroplated on a copper substrate in varying electroplating conditions such as PH, DC current density, temperature and time. A set of cold tests were also performed on the final sample under several thermal shocks to verify target resistance. The best electroplated cadmium target was irradiated with 15 MeV protons at current of 100 µA for one hour and the production yield of 110mIn and other byproducts were measured. - Highlights: • Optimization of a cadmium electroplating bath to produce high yield 110mIn. • Influence of targetry on isomeric cross section ratio 110mIn/110gIn. • Activity measurement for natCd(p, xn)110m,110g,111g,114mIn reactions

  14. Rain rate modeling of 1-min from various integration times in South Korea.

    Shrestha, Sujan; Park, Jung-Jin; Choi, Dong-You


    Rain plays a major impairment factor for propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere for systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. Several effects are noted such as depolarization, scintillation, interference due to scattering and extra attenuation which seems to increase with frequency. To mitigate its effect in satellite communication, knowledge of local rainfall statistics is necessary which act as milestone for design of radio link. Rain attenuation is best visualize by the 1-min rainfall rate statistic but the measurement of this rain rate distribution is rare on a worldwide basis and observation of rain rate are done with longer integration times typically 30 min or more. In this paper, efforts have been made to develop model that can convert rain rate complementary cumulative distribution function to shorter integration times. The average relative error margin of about 5, 14, 43, 71 and 115 % are noted for 5 to 1-, 10 to 1-, 20 to 1, 30 to 1- and 60 to 1-min respectively from ITU-R P.837-6 method which have been analyzed in further section of this article. The empirical natures of conversion methods as such Segal method, Burgueno's method, Chebil and Rahman method and Logarithmic model are studied along with the proposed new model that seems to be applicable in derivation of 1-min rain rate of the South Korea rain rate statistics. International Telecommunication Union-Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) has developed a recommendation ITU-R P.837-6 that enables the user to estimate the local 1-min rainfall rate statistical distribution which is compared with calculated 1-min rain rate distribution from experimental 1-min rainfall accumulation. Unfortunately, ITU-R P.837-6 estimated 1-min values show greater error percentages. In order to get better approximation of local 1-min rain rate estimation, a novel method is proposed and it's efficiency have been compared with rainfall rate statistics obtained from nine different locations in the South

  15. MinION nanopore sequencing identifies the position and structure of a bacterial antibiotic resistance island.

    Ashton, Philip M; Nair, Satheesh; Dallman, Tim; Rubino, Salvatore; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Wain, John; O'Grady, Justin


    Short-read, high-throughput sequencing technology cannot identify the chromosomal position of repetitive insertion sequences that typically flank horizontally acquired genes such as bacterial virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The MinION nanopore sequencer can produce long sequencing reads on a device similar in size to a USB memory stick. Here we apply a MinION sequencer to resolve the structure and chromosomal insertion site of a composite antibiotic resistance island in Salmonella Typhi Haplotype 58. Nanopore sequencing data from a single 18-h run was used to create a scaffold for an assembly generated from short-read Illumina data. Our results demonstrate the potential of the MinION device in clinical laboratories to fully characterize the epidemic spread of bacterial pathogens. PMID:25485618

  16. Remote Stimulated Triggering of Quantum Entangled Nuclear Metastable States of 115mIn

    Van Gent, D L


    We report experiments in which two indium foils were quantum entangled via photoexcitation of stable 115In to radioactive 115mIn by utilizing Bremsstrahlung gamma photons produced by a Varian Compact Linear Accelerator (CLINAC). After photo-excitation, remote triggering of the "master" foil with low energy gamma photons, yielded stimulated emissions of 336 keV gamma photons from quantum entangled 115mIn in the "slave" foil located up to 1600 m away from the "master" foil. These experiments strongly demonstrate that useful quantum information can be transferred through quantum channels via modulation of quantum noise (accelerated radioactive decay of 115mIn metastable nuclei). Thus, this modality of QE transmission is fundamentally different from optical QE information transfer via quantum entangled space "q-bits" as developed by information theorists for quantum channel information transfer. Additionally, there is no obvious potential for signal degradation with increasing distance nor the problems associated...

  17. Päiväkodin liikuntakasvatus lapsen minäkäsityksen ja itsetunnon tukemisessa

    Satoniitty, Sanna


    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutkia päiväkodin liikuntakasvatusta sosiaalialan ja sosiaalipedagogiikan näkökulmasta. Tutkimustehtävänä oli selvittää, pyritäänkö päiväkodin liikuntakasvatuksella tukemaan lapsen positiivista minäkäsitystä ja itsetuntoa, sekä millainen liikuntakasvatus tukee lapsen positiivista minäkäsitystä ja itsetuntoa parhaiten. Tutkimus oli luonteeltaan kvalitatiivinen ja se toteutettiin lomakekyselyllä Porin kaupungin päiväkodeille lokakuussa 2009. Tutkimuksen teore...

  18. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen;


    challenge is to find the most efficient one. AIMS: To compare the efficiency of a 24 min instruction using a DVD-based self-training BLS course combined with a simple, take-home resuscitation manikin to a conventional 6h course for teaching BLS to laypersons. METHODS: In total, 238 laypersons (age 21......: When assessed after 3 months, a 24 min DVD-based instruction plus subsequent self-training in BLS appears equally effective compared to a 6h BLS course and hence is more efficient. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Jun...

  19. Lavoisier, sa collection et l'Atlas et description minéralogique de la France

    Pelucchi, Stéphane


    La collection géologique de Lavoisier, conservée au muséum Henri-Lecoq de Clermont- Ferrand, est intimement liée au projet de publication de l'Atlas minéralogique de la France par Jean-Étienne Guettard. Choisi, pour ses qualités, comme collaborateur, Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, seul ou accompagnant Guettard, multiplie entre 1763 et 1768 les courses géologiques à travers le quart nord-est de la France et autour de Paris. Il accumule ainsi plusieurs milliers de spécimens minéralogiques et obs...

  20. AtMIN7 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya


    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein AtMIN7 mediated protection is enhanced and/or there is a decrease in activity of an AtMIN7 associated virulence protein such as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1. Reagents of the present invention provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  1. Mission Overview of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Mason, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden; Solomon, Stanley


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat to study the energy distribution of solar flare soft X-ray (SXR) emissions of the quiet Sun, active regions, and during flares and to model the solar SXR impact in Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere (ITM) using these MinXSS solar measurements. The energy variability in the SXR range can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXR to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. Energy from SXR radiation is deposited mostly in the ionospheric E-region, from ~80 to ~150 km, but the precise altitude is strongly dependent on the SXR spectrum because of the steep slope and structure of the photoionization cross sections of atmospheric gases in this wavelength range. The new MinXSS solar SXR spectra measurements and associated modeling of the solar spectra and Earth’s ITM response will address these outstanding issues. MinXSS includes an Amptek X123 X-ray spectrometer to measure solar irradiance spectra from 0.5 – 30 keV [2.5– 0.04 nm] with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution [spectral resolution of 0.7 nm at 2.5 nm and 0.0002 nm at 0.04 nm] and a SXR photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. Both of these SXR instruments had pre-flight calibrations with an accuracy of about 5% at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF). This presentation will include an overview of the MinXSS CubeSat design and development that involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The MinXSS CubeSat was launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) and awaits deployment from the ISS in April-May 2016. Assuming MinXSS has been deployed before June, we also intend to present first light observations from MinXSS to highlight solar SXR spectra and SXR variability during May 2016.

  2. Climate change and the irreversibility effect: combining expected utility and MaxiMin

    Lange, Andreas


    This paper analyzes decisions on emissions of a stock pollutant under uncertainty in a two period model. Decisions are based on a weighted average of expected utility (EU) and the MaxiMin criterion. I first show that more weight on the worst case (less weight on EU) may lead to increased first period emissions. The effect of learning possibilities on emissions is not clear in general, but depends qualitatively on the weight given to MaxiMin: For the quadratic utility case, considering prospec...

  3. Climate Change and the Irreversibility Effect – Combining Expected Utility and MaxiMin

    Lange, Andreas


    This paper analyzes decisions on emissions of a stock pollutant under uncertainty in a two period model. Decisions are based on a weighted average of expected utility (EU) and the MaxiMin criterion. I first show that more weight on the worst case (less weight on EU) may lead to increased first period emissions. The effect of learning possibilities on emissions is not clear in general, but depends qualitatively on the weight given to MaxiMin: For the quadratic utility case, considering prospec...

  4. Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate with 51Cr, 58Co, 114mIn, 115mIn and 169Yb- Labelled EDTA and DTPA Complexes

    Some metal complexes are suitable for determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A series of labelled EDTA and DTPA complexes have been produced during the last two years by the Isotope Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The common property of EDTA and DTPA complexes is their great stability, which is a major advantage over the iodinated compounds. We have demonstrated that none of the complexes used by us combine with plasma proteins or penetrate into the red blood cells. There is evidence that EDTA and DTPA leave the body exclusively by way of glomerular filtration. The results of more than 600 cases are presented. 169Yb EDTA was used in 315, 51Cr EDTA in 126, 114mIn EDTA in 83, 58Co DTPA in 72 and 115mIn EDTA in 28 cases for determination of GFR. The injected activity was 0.3 -4.0 μCi/kg body weight. In most cases the result has been compared with the 24-h endogenous creatine clearance, and in 50 cases with inulin clearance also. In general the single-shot method was used. Blood samples were taken about the first and the second hour after injection of the isotope. A formula is given for calculating GFR. In a few cases we administered the isotope in the same way as inulin (priming dose and constant plasma concentration sustained by an infusion pump). Our results show that the single-shot method is a very suitable one in routine clinical practice either in states of normal or reduced kidney function. Using the single-shot method for GFR determination is especially important in those cases where the collection of urine is impossible without using a catheter, which always entails the risk of infection. Results are reliable even in disorders of the urinary tract. During or after the procedure no side effects could be observed. (author)

  5. The Aggregate Homotopy Method for Multi-objective Max-min Problems

    He Li


    Full Text Available Multi-objective programming problem was transformed into a class of simple unsmooth single-objective programming problem by Max-min ways. After smoothing with aggregate function, a new homotopy mapping was constructed. The minimal weak efficient solution of the multi-objective optimization problem was obtained by path tracking. Numerical simulation confirmed the viability of this method.

  6. Minimum Cycle Basis and All-Pairs Min Cut of a Planar Graph in Subquadratic Time

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian


    algorithm, we obtain the fol- lowing result: with O(n3/2 log n) time and O(n3/2) space for prepro- cessing, the weight of a min cut between any two given vertices of G can be reported in constant time. Previously, such an oracle required quadratic time and space for preprocessing. The oracle can also be...

  7. Nuclear model calculation and targetry recipe for production of 110mIn.

    Kakavand, T; Mirzaii, M; Eslami, M; Karimi, A


    (110m)In is potentially an important positron emitting that can be used in positron emission tomography. In this work, the excitation functions and production yields of (110)Cd(d, 2n), (111)Cd(d, 3n), (nat)Cd(d, xn), (110)Cd(p, n), (111)Cd(p, 2n), (112)Cd(p, 3n) and (nat)Cd(p, xn) reactions to produce the (110m)In were calculated using nuclear model code TALYS and compared with the experimental data. The yield of isomeric state production of (110)In was also compared with ground state production ones to reach the optimal energy range of projectile for the high yield production of metastable state. The results indicate that the (110)Cd(p, n)(110m)In is a high yield reaction with an isomeric ratio (σ(m)/σ(g)) of about 35 within the optimal incident energy range of 15-5 MeV. To make the target, cadmium was electroplated on a copper substrate in varying electroplating conditions such as PH, DC current density, temperature and time. A set of cold tests were also performed on the final sample under several thermal shocks to verify target resistance. The best electroplated cadmium target was irradiated with 15 MeV protons at current of 100 µA for one hour and the production yield of (110m)In and other byproducts were measured. PMID:26141297

  8. Development of a colour scale for colour evaluation of beef carcasses at 60 min post mortem

    Hulsegge, I.; Merkus, G.S.M.


    The pectoralis profundus muscles of 200 selected beef carcasses were measured to develop a standard colour scale for evaluating beef carcasses at the time of classification (approximately 60 min post mortem). Five lightness (L*) values were chosen ranging from 22 to 42 with intervals of five L* unit

  9. Separation of sup(115m)In from mother 115Cd

    The methods of the accelerated isolation of the metallic sup(115m)In from the mother solution of 115Cd were worked out. The sample was dissolved in the concentrated HCl with the presence of H2O2. After the injection of 5 mg (recalculated for the metallic In) of the carrier, the solution was evaporated dry, the remainder was dissolved in 2n HCl. The obtained solution was lead through an ion-exchange column (9 mm in diameter and with the 250 mm height of the layer with the anionite Dowex 2x8 (50-100 mesh). The sup(115m)In was eluated by 0.15n HCl, and 115Cd - by 1.5n HCl. Radiochemical purity of the sup(115m)In was not less than 99.99%. The isolation of the sup(115m)In from the eluent (alkalined up to ph=2.3) was carried out electrochemically during approximately 1 hour on the platinum cathode at high (400 mA/cm2) cathode density of current

  10. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees


    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  11. A hypothesis to explain division site selection in Escherichia coli by combining nucleoid occlusion and Min.

    Norris, Vic; Woldringh, Conrad; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia


    The positioning of the site of cell division in Escherichia coli results, it is generally believed, from the operation of nucleoid occlusion in combination with the Min system. Nucleoid occlusion prevents division over the nucleoids and directs it by default to the mid-cell region between segregating nucleoids or to polar regions while the Min system prevents division in polar regions. Unresolved questions include how these systems interact to control the earliest known event in division, the assembly at the membrane of the tubulin-like protein, FtsZ, and, more importantly, what exactly constitutes a division site. Evidence exists that (1) the coupled transcription, translation and insertion of proteins into membrane (transertion), can structure the cytoplasmic membrane into phospholipid domains, (2) the MinD protein can convert vesicles into tubes and (3) a variety of membranous structures can be observed at mid-cell. These data support a model in which transertion from the segregating daughter chromosomes leads to the formation of a distinct proteolipid domain between them at mid-cell; the composition of this domain allows phospholipid tubes to extend like fingers into the cytoplasm; these tubes then become the substrate for the dynamic assembly and disassembly of FtsZ which converts them into the invaginating fold responsible for division; the Min system inhibits division at unwanted sites and times by removing these tubes especially at the cell poles. PMID:15013745

  12. Minásbate Equivalents of Mathematical Concepts: Their Socio-Cultural Undertones

    Balbuena, Sherwin E.; Cantoria, Uranus E.; Cantoria, Amancio L., Jr.; Ferriol, Eny B.


    This paper presents the collection and analysis of Minásbate equivalents of some concepts used in the study of arithmetic, counting, and geometry as provided by the elderly residents of the province of Masbate. The glossary of mathematical terms derived from interviews would serve as an authoritative reference for mother tongue teachers in the…

  13. CO2 laser welding of aluminum alloys at high speeds up to 20 m/min

    Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Kumagai, Mikio; Katayama, Seiji; Matsunawa, Akira


    CO2 laser welding of thin aluminum sheets was performed at welding speeds of up to 20 m/min to investigate the weldability, weld pool dynamics and mechanical properties of the weld bead of aluminum alloys. High-speed camera observation of weld areas showed that the thickness of the keyhole-front-face decreased to 100 μm under high-speed welding conditions and the weld pool became unstable. The focal length was optimized to increase the spot power density and thereby easily melt the aluminum sheets. Using a 76-mm focal length lens, which corresponds to 11 MW/cm2 power density, we obtained a keyhole mode weld bead with a depth of 1.3 mm at 20 m/min welding speed at 2 kW laser power. It was also possible to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) width to only 1.6 mm when the welding speed was 20 m/min. The HAZ width decreased as welding speed was increased. The tensile strength test of A6N01 weld beads showed that the fracture strength increased as the welding speed was increased up to 16 m/min, probably because the soft region of weld specimens was decreased. On the other hand, solidification cracks formed in the weld bead center at higher speeds, resulting in decreased strength.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Strongly Nonlinear Oscillation Systems using He's Max-Min Method

    Babazadeh, H; Domairry, G; Barari, Amin;


    Nonlinear functions are crucial points and terms in engineering problems. Actual and physical problems can be solved by solving and processing such functions. Thus, most scientists and engineers focus on solving these equations. This paper presents a novel method called the max-min method...

  15. Reliability of the 6-min walk test after total knee arthroplasty

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas


    min. The reliability is unknown in patients with TKA. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to assess the reliability of the 6-min walk test in patients with recent TKA. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with TKA performed 2 test trials the same day, separated by a 1-h seated rest. To assess...... reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC(2,1)), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. RESULTS: The patients walked on average 14.1 m longer at the second (397.2 m) compared to the first (383.1 m) test trial. The ICC(2,1), SEM, and SRD were 0.......97, 13.0, and 36.1 m, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The intra-tester reliability of the 6-min walk test was high in patients with TKA. The thresholds of the 6-min walk test to detect a real change are acceptable in research (SEM) and clinical settings (SRD). We recommend that the longest distance walked in...

  16. Determinants of poor 6-min walking distance in patients with COPD: the ECLIPSE cohort

    Spruit, Martijn A; Watkins, Michael L; Edwards, Lisa D; Vestbo, Jørgen; Calverley, Peter M A; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Celli, Bartolome R; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Wouters, Emiel F M; NN, NN


    BACKGROUND: The 6-min walking test (6MWT) is widely used to assess exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Given the prognostic significance of the 6MWT, it is important to identify why some COPD patients perform poorly in terms of this outcome. We aimed to...

  17. The effect of soy isoflavones on the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mouse

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Kristiansen, Eva; Mortensen, Alicja; Nicolaisen, G.M.; Wijnandes, J.A.H.; van Kranen, H.J.; van Kreijl, C.F.

    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones in soy may have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Therefore, we have investigated whether soy isoflavones will inhibit intestinal tumour development in Apc(Min) mice. The mice were fed a Western-type high r...

  18. Ja jos minä menisin naapuriin (2/4 F)


    Laulun sanat: Ja jos minä menisin naapuriin, sun tuutima lullanlei, kyll' saisin sieltä mä tyttären, sun tuutima lullanlei, ja ois se niin helkkarin komea, sun tuutima lullanlei, sen kotia veisin oriilla, sun tuutima lullanlei!

  19. Identification of 158Yb, Tsub(1/2)=1.1+-0.2 min

    On the basis of the analysis of the gamma-spectrum of A = 158 isobars the 158Yb isotope has been identified. Its half-life Tsub(1/2)=1.1+-0.2 min. has been measured. The 158Y decay is followed by emission of 74.2+-0.2 keV gamma-ray. (author)

  20. A New World: Redefining the Legacy of Min-Zhan Lu

    Ray, Brian


    This article discusses exchanges between a number of scholars during the 1990s centering on Min-Zhan Lu's controversial essay "Conflict and Struggle: The Enemies or Preconditions of Basic Writing?" In some ways, "Conflict and Struggle" blazed a trail for later work in "hybrid" or "mixed" forms of academic writing while at the same time igniting…

  1. Determinants of poor 6-min walking distance in patients with COPD: the ECLIPSE cohort

    Spruit, Martijn A; Watkins, Michael L; Edwards, Lisa D;


    identify clinical determinants of a poor 6-min walking distance (<350 m) in patients with COPD. METHODS: 1795 individuals with a diagnosis of COPD underwent spirometry; bio-electrical impedance analysis; low-dose computed tomography scans of the chest; 6MWT; ATS-DLD co-morbidity questionnaire; Center for...

  2. Climate Change and the Irreversibility Effect. Combining Expected Utility and MaxiMin

    Lange, A. [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), P.O.Box 103443, D-68034 Mannheim (Germany)


    This paper analyzes decisions on emissions of a stock pollutant under uncertainty in a two period model. Decisions are based on a weighted average of expected utility (EU) and the MaxiMin criterion. I first show that more weight on the worst case (less weight on EU) may lead to increased first period emissions. The effect of learning possibilities on emissions is not clear in general, but depends qualitatively on the weight given to MaxiMin: For the quadratic utility case, considering prospective learning increases today's abatement effort, i.e. the ``irreversibility effect'' holds, if the weight on EU is small. This contrasts standard results on the irreversibility effect for EU which translates to small weights on MaxiMin. There is, however, the possibility of a negative value of learning. It is shown that the irreversibility effect holds if and only if the value of learning is negative. Consequences for the applicability of generalized EU-MaxiMin are discussed.

  3. ApcMin, A Mutation in the Murine Apc Gene, Predisposes to Mammary Carcinomas and Focal Alveolar Hyperplasias

    Moser, Amy Rapaich; Mattes, Ellen M.; Dove, William F.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Haag, Jill D.; Gould, Michael N.


    ApcMin (Min, multiple intestinal neoplasia) is a point mutation in the murine homolog of the APC gene. Min/+ mice develop multiple intestinal adenomas, as do humans carrying germ-line mutations in APC. Female mice carrying Min are also prone to develop mammary tumors. Min/+ mammary glands are more sensitive to chemical carcinogenesis than are +/+ mammary glands. Transplantation of mammary cells from Min/+ or +/+ donors into +/+ hosts demonstrates that the propensity to develop mammary tumors is intrinsic to the Min/+ mammary cells. Long-term grafts of Min/+ mammary glands also gave rise to focal alveolar hyperplasias, indicating that the presence of the Min mutation also has a role in the development of these lesions.

  4. Intestinal tumor suppression in ApcMin/+ mice by prostaglandin D2 receptor PTGDR

    Our earlier work showed that knockout of hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS, an enzyme that produces prostaglandin D2) caused more adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice. Conversely, highly expressed transgenic HPGDS allowed fewer tumors. Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) binds to the prostaglandin D2 receptor known as PTGDR (or DP1). PGD2 metabolites bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG). We hypothesized that Ptgdr or Pparg knockouts may raise numbers of tumors, if these receptors take part in tumor suppression by PGD2. To assess, we produced ApcMin/+ mice with and without Ptgdr knockouts (147 mice). In separate experiments, we produced ApcMin/+ mice expressing transgenic lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS), with and without heterozygous Pparg knockouts (104 mice). Homozygous Ptgdr knockouts raised total numbers of tumors by 30–40% at 6 and 14 weeks. Colon tumors were not affected. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts alone did not affect tumor numbers in ApcMin/+ mice. As mentioned above, our Pparg knockout assessment also included mice with highly expressed PTGDS transgenes. ApcMin/+ mice with transgenic PTGDS had fewer large adenomas (63% of control) and lower levels of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) mRNA in the colon. Heterozygous Pparg knockouts appeared to blunt the tumor-suppressing effect of transgenic PTGDS. However, tumor suppression by PGD2 was more clearly mediated by receptor PTGDR in our experiments. The suppression mechanism did not appear to involve changes in microvessel density or slower proliferation of tumor cells. The data support a role for PGD2 signals acting through PTGDR in suppression of intestinal tumors

  5. Structural and functional studies of MinD ATPase: implications for the molecular recognition of the bacterial cell division apparatus

    Hayashi, Ikuko; Oyama, Takuji; Morikawa, Kosuke


    Proper placement of the bacterial cell division site requires the site-specific inactivation of other potential division sites. In Escherichia coli, selection of the correct mid-cell site is mediated by the MinC, MinD and MinE proteins. To clarify the functional role of the bacterial cell division inhibitor MinD, which is a membrane-associated ATPase that works as an activator of MinC, we determined the crystal structure of a Pyrococcus furiosus MinD homologue complexed with a substrate analo...

  6. Nuclear decay scheme studies of 30-h 131Te/sup m/, 25-min 131Te/sup g/, and 55.5-min 105Cd

    High-resolution Ge(Li) detectors have been used to observe γ-ray singles and coincidence spectra of 30-h 11/2-, /sup 131m/Te, 25-min 3/2+, and 55.5-min 5/2+105Cd. Sources of /sup 131m/Te and /sup 131g/Te were produced by neutron irradiation of enriched 130Te metal, and, in the case of /sup 131m/Te, were chemically purified to remove the 131I daughter. A total of 190 and 80 γ-rays are attributed to the decays of /sup 131m/Te and /sup 131g/Te, respectively; and 174 and 77 of these transitions have been placed in a 131I level scheme involving 52 excited states. Absolute β group intensities were determined for the transitions to 131I levels. Spin and parity assignments were made for all observed levels. The β feeding from the 11/2- /sup 131m/Te to the 7/2+131I ground state was determined to be (5.2 +- 3.0) percent (log ft = 10.5). The isomeric transition of 11/2- /sup 131m/Te to 3/2+ /sup 131g/Te was determined to be (22.2 +- 1.6) percent. The 6-nsec isomer in 131I at 1797 keV has been assigned as 15/2- and interpreted as a πν1ν2 three quasi-particle state. Sources of 105Cd were produced via the 106Cd(n,2n) reaction on enriched 106CdO using 14 MeV neutrons. A total of 274 γ-rays are attributed to the decay of 105Cd, and 248 of these have been placed in a 105Ag level scheme involving 50 excited states. Absolute values for the β+/EC transition intensities to 105Ag levels were determined. The β+/EC feeding from the 5/2+105Cd to the 7/2+ 25.5-keV isomeric state in 105Ag was determined to be (51.4 +- 4.0) percent (log ft = 5.4). The experimentally determined level structures of 131I and 105Cd are interpreted in terms of the shell model and core excitation considerations with emphasis placed on the core coupling model and the three-particle models. (U.S.)

  7. An information-theoretic derivation of min-cut based clustering

    Raj, Anil; Wiggins, Chris H.


    Min-cut clustering, based on minimizing one of two heuristic cost-functions proposed by Shi and Malik nearly a decade ago, has spawned tremendous research, both analytic and algorithmic, in the graph partitioning and image segmentation communities over the last decade. It is however unclear if these heuristics can be derived from a more general principle facilitating generalization to new problem settings. Motivated by an existing graph partitioning framework, we derive relationships between ...

  8. Comparison between DSm and MinC Combination Rules. Chapter 10

    Daniel, Milan

    Rehoboth : American Research Press, 2004 - (Smarandache, F.; Dezert, J.), s. 223-241 ISBN 1-931233-82-9 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 274.001 Grant ostatní: COST(XE) Action 274 TARSKI Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : belief functions * combination of belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * Dezert-Smarandache theory * minC combination Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. The effect of exercise on IL-6-induced cachexia in the Apc Min /+ mouse

    Puppa, Melissa J.; White, James P.; Kandy T Velázquez; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Sato, Shuichi; Baynes, John W.; Carson, James A.


    Background Cachexia involves unintentional body weight loss including diminished muscle and adipose tissue mass and is associated with an underlying disease. Systemic overexpression of IL-6 accelerates cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mouse, but does not induce wasting in control C57BL/6 mice. With many chronic diseases, chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction can be improved with moderate exercise. A direct effect of regular moderate exercise on the prevention of IL-6-induced cachexia in the ...

  10. Comprehensive Evaluation on Ecological Security in the Upper Min River Basin

    Shang-chun, Xie; Hui, Liu; Ze-hong, Zhang


    Related literatures about ecological fragile is reviewed; the current status of ecological environment in the upper Min River basin is summarized. Equations for calculating the ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity, as well as the standards of evaluating the status of ecological security are introduced. When ecological carrying capacity is greater than ecological footprint, ecosystem in this region is in safe state, and vice verse. According to the research data about five cou...

  11. Human Connectome Module Pattern Detection Using A New Multi-Graph MinMax Cut Model

    Wang; Wang, Yang; Nie, Feiping; Yan, Jingwen; Cai, Weidong; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Huang, Heng


    Many recent scientific efforts have been devoted to constructing the human connectome using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data for understanding the large-scale brain networks that underlie higher-level cognition in human. However, suitable computational network analysis tools are still lacking in human connectome research. To address this problem, we propose a novel multi-graph min-max cut model to detect the consistent network modules from the brain connectivity networks of all studied sub...

  12. A Generalization of the minC Combination to DSm Hyper-Power Sets

    Daniel, Milan

    Paris: Editions EDK, 2006 - (Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.), s. 420-427 ISBN 2-84254-112-X. [IPMU 2006 /11./. Paris (FR), 02.07.2006-07.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : belief fuction * combination of belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * conflict * minC combination * DSm theory * DSm combination rule Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Sampled Weighted Min-Hashing for Large-Scale Topic Mining

    Fuentes-Pineda, Gibran; Meza-Ruiz, Ivan Vladimir


    We present Sampled Weighted Min-Hashing (SWMH), a randomized approach to automatically mine topics from large-scale corpora. SWMH generates multiple random partitions of the corpus vocabulary based on term co-occurrence and agglomerates highly overlapping inter-partition cells to produce the mined topics. While other approaches define a topic as a probabilistic distribution over a vocabulary, SWMH topics are ordered subsets of such vocabulary. Interestingly, the topics mined by SWMH underlie ...

  14. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules

    R. Vijaya Prakash


    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  15. Chemopreventive Effects of RXR-Selective Rexinoid Bexarotene on Intestinal Neoplasia of ApcMin/+ Mice

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Altaf Mohammed; Li Qian; Chang-In Choi; Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.


    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) has been implicated in several neoplastic diseases. Previously, we have shown that RXR-α is downregulated in human and rodent colonic tumors, suggesting a potential target for colon cancer prevention ( Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of the selective RXR agonist bexarotene for the suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. ...

  16. Syntheses, structures, and optical properties of Ba4MInSe6 (M=Cu, Ag)

    Two new quaternary chalcogenides, namely Ba4MInSe6 (M=Cu, Ag), were synthesized by solid state reactions. These two isostructural compounds adopt the Ba2MnS3 structure type in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. In the structure, the M and In atoms randomly occupy one crystallographic unique metal position with the molar ratio of 1:1 The (M/In)Se4 tetrahedra are connected to each other by corner-sharing to form one-dimensional chains along the b direction, which are separated by mono-capped trigonal prismatically coordinated Ba atoms. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectrum, the optical band gaps were determined to be 2.23(2) and 2.41(2) eV for Ba4CuInSe6 and Ba4AgInSe6, respectively. - Graphical abstract: In the structure of Ba4MInSe6 (M=Cu, Ag), the (M/In)Se4 tetrahedra are connected by corner-sharing to form chains along the b direction, which are separated by Ba atoms. Highlights: ► Two new quaternary chalcogenides, Ba4MInSe6 (M=Cu, Ag), were synthesized. ► Ba4MInSe6 (M=Cu, Ag) are isostructural and crystallize in the Ba2MnS3 structure type ► The (M/In)Se4 tetrahedra are connected by corner-sharing to form chains along the b direction. ► The chains are separated by mono-capped trigonal prismatically coordinated Ba atoms. ► The optical band gaps are 2.23(2) and 2.41(2) eV for Ba4CuInSe6 and Ba4AgInSe6, respectively.

  17. The new 157Tm isotope, Tsub(1/2)=(3.6+-0.3) min

    The new isotope 157Tm was discovered, and its half-life Tsub(1/2) (3.6+-0.3)min was measured. On the basis of the balance of energies and intensities of γ-transitions occurring in the 157Tm decay a number of excited states of the 157Er nucleus with energies of 110.2; 241.3; 357.3 and 457.1 keV were found. (author)

  18. KoBaMIN: a knowledge-based minimization web server for protein structure refinement.

    Rodrigues, João P G L M; Levitt, Michael; Chopra, Gaurav


    The KoBaMIN web server provides an online interface to a simple, consistent and computationally efficient protein structure refinement protocol based on minimization of a knowledge-based potential of mean force. The server can be used to refine either a single protein structure or an ensemble of proteins starting from their unrefined coordinates in PDB format. The refinement method is particularly fast and accurate due to the underlying knowledge-based potential derived from structures deposited in the PDB; as such, the energy function implicitly includes the effects of solvent and the crystal environment. Our server allows for an optional but recommended step that optimizes stereochemistry using the MESHI software. The KoBaMIN server also allows comparison of the refined structures with a provided reference structure to assess the changes brought about by the refinement protocol. The performance of KoBaMIN has been benchmarked widely on a large set of decoys, all models generated at the seventh worldwide experiments on critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP7) and it was also shown to produce top-ranking predictions in the refinement category at both CASP8 and CASP9, yielding consistently good results across a broad range of model quality values. The web server is fully functional and freely available at PMID:22564897

  19. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine


    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice. PMID:27288931

  20. Viability of adhered bacterial cells: tracking MinD protein oscillations

    Barrett, Matt; Colville, Keegan; Schultz-Nielsen, Chris; Jericho, Manfred; Dutcher, John


    To study bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy, it is necessary to immobilize the cells on a substrate. Because bacterial cells and common substrates such as glass and mica have a net negative charge, positively charged polymers such as poly-L-lysine (PLL) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) are commonly used as adhesion layers. However, the use of adhesion polymers could stress the cell and even render it inviable. Viable E. coli cells use oscillations of Min proteins along the axis of the rod-shaped cells to ensure accurate cell division. By tagging MinD proteins with GFP, oscillations can be observed using fluorescence microscopy. For a healthy cell in an ideal environment, the oscillation period is measured to be ˜40 s. Prior experiments have shown that PLL increases the oscillation period significantly (up to 80%). In the present study, we have used epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) to track MinD protein oscillations in E. coli bacteria adhered to a variety of positively charged polymers on mica as a function of polymer surface coverage.

  1. Character recognition using min-max classifiers designed via an LMS algorithm

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros


    In this paper we propose a Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm for the practical training of the class of min-max classifiers. These are lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to feed-forward neural networks and morphological signal operators. We applied the LMS algorithm to the problem of handwritten character recognition. The database consists of segmented and cleaned digits. Features that were extracted from the digits include Fourier descriptors and morphological shape-size histograms. Experimental results using the LMS algorithm for handwritten character recognition are promising. In our initial experimentation, we applied the min-max classifier to binary classification of '0' and '1' digits. By preprocessing the feature vectors, we were able to achieve an error rate of 1.75% for a training set of size 1200 (600 of each digit); and an error rate of 4.5% on a test set of size 400 (200 of each). These figures are comparable to those obtained by 2-layer neural nets trained using back propagation. The major advantage of min-max classifiers compared to neural networks is their simplicity and the faster convergence of their training algorithm.

  2. The max–min ant system and tabu search for pressurized water reactor loading pattern design

    Highlights: • An automatic loading pattern design tool for a pressurized water reactor is developed. • The design method consists of max–min ant system and tabu search. • The heuristic rules are developed to generate the candidates for tabu search. • The initial solution of tabu search is provided by max–min ant system. • The new algorithm shows very satisfactory results compared to the old one. - Abstract: An automatic loading pattern (LP) design tool for a pressurized water reactor is developed. The design procedure consists of two steps: first, a LP is generated using max–min ant system (MMAS) and then tabu search (TS) is adopted to search the satisfactory LP. The MMAS is previously developed and the TS process is newly-developed. The heuristic rules are implemented to generate the candidate LP in TS process. The heuristic rules are comprised of two kinds of action, i.e., a single swap in the location of two fuel assemblies and rotation of fuel assembly. Since developed TS process is a local search algorithm, it is efficient for the minor change of LP. It means that a proper initial LP should be provided by the first step, i.e., by MMAS. The design requirements such as hot channel factor, the hot zero power moderator temperature coefficient, and cycle length are formulated in the objective function. The results show that the developed tool can obtain the satisfactory LP and dramatically reduce the computation time compared with previous tool using ant system alone

  3. Effect of 30-min +3 Gz centrifugation on vestibular and autonomic cardiovascular function

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.


    INTRODUCTION: Repeated exposure to increased +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, it is not known whether such enhancements might also result from a single, more prolonged exposure to increased +Gz. Our study was designed to investigate whether baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz, and moreover, whether changes in autonomic cardiovascular function resulting from exposure to increased +Gz are correlated with changes in otolith function. METHODS: We exposed 15 healthy human subjects to +3 Gz centrifugation for up to 30 min or until symptoms of incipient G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC) ensued. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after centrifugation included: 1) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; 2) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; 3) Valsalva tests; and 4) 30-min head-up tilt tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: Of the 15 subjects who underwent prolonged +3 Gz, 4 were intolerant to 30 min of head-up tilt before centrifugation but became tolerant to such tilt after centrifugation. The Valsalva-related baroreflex as well as a measure of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex were also enhanced after centrifugation. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected beyond a vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported earlier in a subset of seven participants. CONCLUSIONS: A single prolonged exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance.

  4. Min-Max Theorems Related to Geometric Representations of Graphs and their SDPs

    Silva, Marcel K Carli


    We prove a simple nonlinear identity relating the Lov{\\'a}sz theta number of a graph to its smallest radius hypersphere embedding where each edge has unit length. We use this identity and its generalizations to establish min-max theorems and to translate results related to one of the graph invariants above to the other. Classical concepts in tensegrity theory allow good interpretations of the dual SDP for the problem of finding an optimal hypersphere embedding as above. We generate a spectrum of structured SDPs on which extensions of such interpretations are possible.

  5. PMMA mPOF Bragg gratings written in less than 10 min

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos;


    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) writing in PMMA microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers (mPOFs) using the UV Phase Mask technique is a time consuming process requiring about 40 minutes to inscribe a grating in an undoped fiber. Here we demonstrate the FBG inscription with the writing times shorter than 10...... min. By careful alligning and increasing the beam intensity in the core of the fiber, writing times as short as 6 minutes and 50 second were achieved. The FBGs were written in a 125 μm PMMA mPOF having 3-rings of holes, the reflection peaks were centred at 632.6 nm and have a reflectivity as high as...

  6. Constrained Multi-user Multi-server Max-Min Fair Queuing

    Khamse-Ashari, Jalal; Lambadaris, Ioannis; Zhao, Yiqiang


    In this paper, a multi-user multi-server queuing system is studied in which each user is constrained to get service from a subset of servers. In the studied system, rate allocation in the sense of max-min fairness results in multi-level fair rates. To achieve such fair rates, we propose $CM^4FQ$ algorithm. In this algorithm users are chosen for service on a packet by packet basis. The priority of each user $i$ to be chosen at time $t$ is determined based on a parameter known as service tag (r...

  7. Permutation Min-Entropy and Statistical Complexity Analysis of Electricity Spot Price

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan


    In this study, we investigate the subtle temporal dynamics of California 1999-2000 spot price series based on permutation min-entropy (PME) and complexity-entropy causality plane. The dynamical transitions of price series are captured and the temporal correlations of price series are also discriminated by the recently introduced PME. Moreover, utilizing the CECP, we provide a refined classification of the monthly price dynamics and obtain an insight into the stochastic nature of price series. The results uncover that the spot price signal presents diverse temporal correlations and exhibits a higher stochastic behavior during the periods of crisis.

  8. Intestinal Peyer’s patches prevent tumorigenesis in Apc Min/+ mice

    Fujimoto, Kyoko; Fujii, Gen; Sakurai, Hitomi; Yoshitome, Hiroko; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wada, Morimasa


    Peyer’s patches are nodules that play a central role in intestinal immunity. Few studies demonstrate the relationship between the number of Peyer’s patches and intestinal polyps. Here we identify a statistically significant inverse correlation between the quantity of Peyer’s patches and of the development of intestinal polyps in Apc Min/+ mice, which are a useful model to clarify the role of Peyer’s patches in intestinal tumorigenesis. Using this model, we increased the number of Peyer’s patc...

  9. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella


    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets. PMID:27277576

  10. The Ets dominant repressor En/Erm enhances intestinal epithelial tumorigenesis in ApcMin mice

    Ets transcription factors have been widely implicated in the control of tumorigenesis, with most studies suggesting tumor-promoting roles. However, few studies have examined Ets tumorigenesis-modifying functions in vivo using model genetic systems. Using mice expressing a previously characterized Ets dominant repressor transgene in the intestinal epithelium (Villin-En/Erm), we examined the consequences of blocking endogenous Ets-mediated transcriptional activation on tumorigenesis in the ApcMin model of intestinal carcinoma. En/Erm expression in the intestine, at levels not associated with overt crypt-villus dysmorphogenesis, results in a marked increase in tumor number in ApcMin animals. Moreover, when examined histologically, tumors from En/Erm-expressing animals show a trend toward greater stromal invasiveness. Detailed analysis of crypt-villus homeostasis in these En/Erm transgenic animals suggests increased epithelial turnover as one possible mechanism for the enhanced tumorigenesis. Our findings provide in vivo evidence for a tumor-restricting function of endogenous Ets factors in the intestinal epithelium

  11. Liang Shu-min and Buddhism%梁漱溟与佛学



    Liang Shu-min was a celebrated figure in modern Chine se history,famous for his life principle “upright and independent, honest and frank". Speaking from his academic thought, he considered the essence of his thought was Confucianism and Buddhism. From the reasons why he believed in Buddhism, his contributions to Buddhism in India and his comparisons between the Buddhism and Confucianism, one can see that Liang Shu-min's Buddhism thought was not only an ideology he accepted but also the essential motive that he practiced all his life.%梁漱溟是中国现代史上一位著名人物。他以“特立独行、一代直声”饮誉后世。在学术思想上,他自认思想的根本是儒家和佛家。从他为什么会信佛和他对印度佛学研究的贡献及对于儒佛异同的比较等几个方面,可以看出梁漱溟佛学思想不只是他终身服膺的一种思想学说,也是他一生践履的根本动力。

  12. Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method

    Ralf Möller


    Full Text Available Holistic visual navigation methods are an emerging alternative to the ubiquitous feature-based methods. Holistic methods match entire images pixel-wise instead of extracting and comparing local feature descriptors. In this paper we investigate which pixel-wise distance measures are most suitable for the holistic min-warping method with respect to illumination invariance. Two novel approaches are presented: tunable distance measures—weighted combinations of illumination-invariant and illumination-sensitive terms—and two novel forms of “sequential” correlation which are only invariant against intensity shifts but not against multiplicative changes. Navigation experiments on indoor image databases collected at the same locations but under different conditions of illumination demonstrate that tunable distance measures perform optimally by mixing their two portions instead of using the illumination-invariant term alone. Sequential correlation performs best among all tested methods, and as well but much faster in an approximated form. Mixing with an additional illumination-sensitive term is not necessary for sequential correlation. We show that min-warping with approximated sequential correlation can successfully be applied to visual navigation of cleaning robots.

  13. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation in newborn infants in the first 15 min of life after vaginal delivery

    The objective of this study was to evaluate regional oxygen saturation of the brain during immediate transition after birth, and to correlate it with pre-ductal arterial oxygen saturation in newborn infants. The prospective observational study including newborn infants in the first 15 min after spontaneous vaginal delivery and uncomplicated transitional period was undertaken. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2brain) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured on the right wrist by pulse oximetry. rSO2brain, SpO2 and HR measurements were started immediately after birth and were performed in the first 15 min of life. Cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) was calculated for each minute. Of 145 newborn infants, 16 were included and the gender allocation was 31 females (49.2%) and 32 males (50.8%). rSO2brain increased rapidly from 39% (2 min) to 69% (5 min), SpO2 increased from 72% (2 min) to 96% (14 min) and FTOE showed a significant decrease from minute 2 (0.47) until minute 4 (0.30) and an increase between 8 to 13 min. rSO2brain increased rapidly after vaginal delivery. Although SpO2 increased within the first 14 min after delivery, rSO2brain showed no further significant changes after 5 min. FTOE decreased in the first 4 min and reached standard values subsequently. (paper)

  14. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; Yen, Albert; Bish, David; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Farmer, Jack; Grotzinger, John; Stolper, Edward; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Sarrazin, Philippe


    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each <2 wt% of the crystalline component) include sanidine, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite and ilmenite. Significantly, about a third of the sample is amorphous or poorly ordered in XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to

  15. Identification of the Modifier of Min 2 (Mom2) Locus, a New Mutation That Influences Apc-Induced Intestinal Neoplasia

    Silverman, Karen A.; Koratkar, Revati; Linda D. Siracusa; Buchberg, Arthur M.


    Min (Multiple intestinal neoplasia) mice carry a dominant mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene and develop multiple adenomas throughout their intestinal tract (Moser et al. 1990; Su et al. 1992). Polyp multiplicity in Min mice is greatly influenced by genetic background. A modifier locus, Mom1 (Modifier of Min 1), was identified and localized to distal mouse chromosome 4 (Moser et al. 1992; Dietrich et al. 1993), and accounts for some of the genetic variance in polyp multipli...

  16. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals the Min System of Escherichia coli Modulates Reversible Protein Association with the Inner Membrane.

    Lee, Hsiao-Lin; Chiang, I-Chen; Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong; Wang, Kwan-Yu; Lin, Shu-Yu; Shih, Yu-Ling


    The Min system of Escherichia coli mediates placement of the division septum at the midcell. It oscillates from pole to pole to establish a concentration gradient of the division inhibition that is high at the poles but low at the midcell; the cell middle thereby becomes the most favorable site for division. Although Min oscillation is well studied from molecular and biophysical perspectives, it is still an enigma as to whether such a continuous, energy-consuming, and organized movement of the Min proteins would affect cellular processes other than the division site selection. To tackle this question, we compared the inner membrane proteome of the wild-type and Δmin strains using a quantitative approach. Forty proteins that showed differential abundance on the inner membrane of the mutant cells were identified and defined as proteins of interest (POIs). More than half of the POIs were peripheral membrane proteins, suggesting that the Min system affects mainly reversible protein association with the inner membrane. In addition, 6 out of 10 selected POIs directly interacted with at least one of the Min proteins, confirming the correlation between POIs and the Min system.Further analysis revealed a functional relationship between metabolism and the Min system. Metabolic enzymes accounted for 45% of the POIs, and there was a change of metabolites in the related reactions. We hypothesize that the Min system could alter the membrane location of proteins to modulate their enzymatic activity. Thus, the metabolic modulation in the Δmin mutant is likely an adaptive phenotype in cells of abnormal size and chromosome number due to an imbalanced abundance of proteins on the inner membrane. Taken together, the current work reports novel interactions of the Min system and reveals a global physiological impact of the Min system in addition to the division site placement. PMID:26889046

  17. Min Bei Irradiation Center. Food and Agriculture organization project experience, Jianou, Fujian Province, China

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), a United Nations Organization, in an effort to increase food supplies by post harvest irradiation treatment, participated in the development of the Min Bei Irradiation Center (MBIC) located in Fujian Province, China. FAO in conjunction with Shanghai Nuclear Energy Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), MBIC staff, and the Ministry of Agriculture completed Project TCP CPR 6763/8961 culminating in the recent commissioning of one of China's newest irradiation facilities. From the feasibility phase initiated in 1986, through the construction period and the eventual commissioning in 1991, FAO participated in the technical overview of the irradiation center. MBIC was developed both as a research and development center as well as a production irradiation facility for the primary purpose of reduction of post harvest food loss in Fujian Province. This retrospective review of the project provides a hindsight view for the development of MBIC. (author)

  18. Mash: fast genome and metagenome distance estimation using MinHash.

    Ondov, Brian D; Treangen, Todd J; Melsted, Páll; Mallonee, Adam B; Bergman, Nicholas H; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam M


    Mash extends the MinHash dimensionality-reduction technique to include a pairwise mutation distance and P value significance test, enabling the efficient clustering and search of massive sequence collections. Mash reduces large sequences and sequence sets to small, representative sketches, from which global mutation distances can be rapidly estimated. We demonstrate several use cases, including the clustering of all 54,118 NCBI RefSeq genomes in 33 CPU h; real-time database search using assembled or unassembled Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, and Oxford Nanopore data; and the scalable clustering of hundreds of metagenomic samples by composition. Mash is freely released under a BSD license ( ). PMID:27323842

  19. Avancées dans le domaine de la thermodynamique des minéraux argileux

    Blanc, Philippe; Vieillard, Philippe; Gailhanou, Hélène; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Tournassat, Christophe; Madé, Benoit; Giffaut, Eric; Bergaya, Faiza


    La connaissance des propriétés thermodynamiques des minéraux argileux représente un enjeu important pour la mise en oeuvre et la sécurité à long terme des installations de stockage sous-terrain, pour le stockage de déchets nucléaire, de CO2 ou de toute autre substance dangereuse. Ces propriétés, issues pour la plupart d'expériences de mise à l'équilibre plus ou moins bien contrôlées ou de méthodes d'estimation souffrant d'un déficit de données pour leur calibration, étaient considérées comme ...

  20. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hatta, Mitsutoki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamagata, Kazuya, E-mail: [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)


    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  1. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten


    k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence......Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said to be...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  2. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N;


    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination...... distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium...... bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine....

  3. PWRs in UK and China use 3000r/min turbines

    The new steam turbine design by GEC Turbine Generators Ltd. are 3 to 5 percentage points more efficient than previous turbine designs. They also require fewer manufacturing manhours to make. GEC has won the contracts for the steam turbine at the Daya Bay power station in China and Sizewell-B in the UK. Both are pressurized water reactors. The main parameters for these 300r/min steam turbines are listed. The existing and new GEC turbines for water cooled reactors are listed and the operation of the new turbines is explained. The high pressure stop and governing valves and the arrangement of spring-supported horizontal high pressure valve chests are illustrated. (UK)

  4. A Randomized Load Balancing Algorithm In Grid using Max Min PSO Algorithm



    Full Text Available Grid computing is a new paradigm for next generation computing, it enables the sharing and selection of geographically distributed heterogeneous resources for solving large scale problems in science and engineering. Grid computing does require special software that is unique to the computing project for which the grid is being used. In this paper the proposed algorithm namely dynamic load balancing algorithm is created for job scheduling in Grid computing. Particle Swarm Intelligence (PSO is the latest evolutionary optimization techniques in Swarm Intelligence. It has the better performance of global searching and has been successfully applied to many areas. The performance measure used for scheduling is done by Quality of service (QoS such as makespan, cost and deadline. Max PSO and Min PSO algorithm has been partially integrated with PSO and finally load on the resources has been balanced.

  5. Simple Max-Min Ant Systems and the Optimization of Linear Pseudo-Boolean Functions

    Kötzing, Timo; Sudholt, Dirk; Wagner, Markus


    With this paper, we contribute to the understanding of ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms by formally analyzing their runtime behavior. We study simple MAX-MIN ant systems on the class of linear pseudo-Boolean functions defined on binary strings of length 'n'. Our investigations point out how the progress according to function values is stored in pheromone. We provide a general upper bound of O((n^3 \\log n)/ \\rho) for two ACO variants on all linear functions, where (\\rho) determines the pheromone update strength. Furthermore, we show improved bounds for two well-known linear pseudo-Boolean functions called OneMax and BinVal and give additional insights using an experimental study.

  6. Minerals detection for hyperspectral images using adapted linear unmixing: LinMin

    Frederic, Schmidt; Stephane, Le Mouelic


    Minerals detection over large volume of spectra is the challenge addressed by current hyperspectral imaging spectrometer in Planetary Science. Instruments such OMEGA (Mars Express), CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), M^{3} (Chandrayaan-1), VIRTIS (Rosetta) and many more, have been producing very large datasets since one decade. We propose here a fast supervised detection algorithm called LinMin, in the framework of linear unmixing, with innovative arrangement in order to treat non-linear cases due to radiative transfer in both atmosphere and surface. We use reference laboratory and synthetic spectral library. Additional spectra are used in order to mimic the effect of Martian aerosols, grain size, and observation geometry discrepancies between reference and observed spectra. The proposed algorithm estimates the uncertainty on mixing coefficient from the uncertainty of observed spectra. Both numerical and observational tests validate the approach. Fast parallel implementation of the best algorithm (IPLS) on ...

  7. 基于QoS Guided Min-min改进后的网格调度算法

    徐益强; 王志坚; 许峰


    在对网格调度现有算法的研究基础之上,对QoS Guided Min-min算法进行了分析,介绍了在任务对资源有特殊要求时算法的不足,并对其进行了改进.最后,使用GridSim模拟任务调度,对Min-min算法、QoS Guided Min-min算法和改进后的QoS Guided Min-min算法进行对比分析,验证了改进后算法的高效性.

  8. Evaluation of 20-min and Annual Radiation Budget Components and Cloudiness in a Mountainous Valley

    Malek, E.


    Logan, Utah (USA) is among cities located in the mountainous valley in the western portion of Rocky Mountains in North America. It is the county seat of Cache Valley, a metropolitan area with a population of about 100,000. The valley had the polluted air in the USA during January 2004. To evaluate the daily and annual radiation budget and cloudiness in this mountainous valley, we set up a radiation station in the middle of the valley to measure the 20- min radiation budget components namely: incoming (Rso) and outgoing (Rso) solar or shortwave radiation, using to CM21 Kipp and Zonen (one inverted) and incoming (Rli) (or atmospheric) and outgoing (Rlo) or terrestrial) longwave radiation using two CG1 Kipp and Zonen Pyrgeometers (one inverted) during the year of 2003. All pyranometers and Pyrgeometers were ventilated with four CV2 Kipp and Zonen ventilation systems throughout the year to prevent deposition of dew, frost and snow, which otherwise would disturb the measurements. We also measured the 2-m air temperature and relative humidity along with surface temperature. All measurements were taken every 2 s, averaged to 20 min, continuously throughout the year 2000. A Met One heated rain gauge measured precipitation. Comparison of the annual radiation budget components indicates that about 25% of the annual Rsi (5848.6 MJ/ (squared m-y)) was reflected back to sky as Rso. Rli and Rlo amounted to 9968.7 and 13303.5 MJ/ (squared m-y)), respectively. This yielded about 1364.9 MJ/ (squared m- y)) available energy (Rn). Having the 2-m air temperature and moisture data and comparison between the theoretical and the measured longwave radiation, we evaluated the 20-m cloudy conditions throughout the year of 2003. The average cloud base height was 587 m (ranged from zero for foggy conditions to about 3000 m). Annual cloudiness contributed about 139.1 MJ/ (squared m-y)) more energy in this valley.


    Miao-Hsia Chang


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the diachrony of the verbs of volition ai and beh in Southern Min (SM. The data include historical SM texts (16th-19th century, folk songs in the late 19th to early 20th century, and contemporary natural Taiwanese Southern Min conversations. The results mainly mark two stages of the development of ai and beh: historical (before 1900 and contemporary SM. Since the 16th century (Ming Dynasty, ai has been used as a verb of volition indicating love, intention or hope. As for historical ai, it marked future, specialized however for predicting an adverse future. In contemporary SM, a sense of necessity emerged with the use of ai denoting general agreement among people. Seven senses are attributed to historical beh: want/intention/hope, future, excessiveness, necessity, proximity and conditionality. In contemporary SM, the indication of the want of an entity has become a less preferred use, and necessity is only preserved when indicating puzzlement and helplessness. The diachronic developments of ai and beh demonstrate an interplay of metaphorization and metonymization (Traugott and Dasher 2002:27. Metaphorization contributes first to the semantic shift of ai and beh from “to want; to love” to “to intend to” and a concurrent categorical change from lexical verb into auxiliary, and second, to the evolution of future. Metonymization activates an even wider range of uses and meaning change, including the pragmatic strengthening of interpretations such as excessiveness (beh, necessity (ai, beh, proximity (beh and conditional (beh, and prediction of an undesirable future (ai.

  10. Chemopreventive Effects of RXR-Selective Rexinoid Bexarotene on Intestinal Neoplasia of ApcMin/+ Mice

    Naveena B. Janakiram


    Full Text Available Retinoid X receptor (RXR has been implicated in several neoplastic diseases. Previously, we have shown that RXR-α is downregulated in human and rodent colonic tumors, suggesting a potential target for colon cancer prevention ( Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of the selective RXR agonist bexarotene for the suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Before the efficacy studies, we determined that the maximal tolerated dose in C57BL/6J mice was less than 400 ppm. For the efficacy study, 6-week-old male and female C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ mice (nine mice per group were fed diets containing 0, 30, and 60 ppm of bexarotene or 200 ppm of bexarotene for 80 days before intestinal tumors were evaluated. Dietary administration of 30 and 60 ppm of bexarotene suppressed the intestinal polyp formation by 38% (P < .015 and 60% (P < .0001 in males, respectively, and by 8.5% and 37% (P < .007 in females, respectively. Also, significant inhibition (50%–100% of colonic tumor formation was observed in both male and female mice with bexarotene treatment. Administration of 200 ppm of bexarotene showed significant suppression of tumor formation (66%, P < .0001; however, it had significant toxicity. Intestinal tumors of bexarotene-fed mice showed significantly reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (60%, P < .0001, cyclin D1, and cyclooxygenase 2 and increased RXR-α messenger RNA and uptake of oleate (34%, P < .01. Also, bexarotene-fed mice showed dose-dependent suppression of serum triglycerides (25%–72%, P < .0001 and inflammatory cytokines.

  11. MicroPET/CT Colonoscopy in long-lived Min mouse using NM404

    Christensen, Matthew B.; Halberg, Richard B.; Schutten, Melissa M.; Weichert, Jamey P.


    Colon cancer is a leading cause of death in the US, even though many cases are preventable if tumors are detected early. One technique to promote screening is Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC). NM404 is a second generation phospholipid ether analogue which has demonstrated selective uptake and prolonged retention in 43/43 types of malignant tumors but not inflammatory sites or premalignant lesions. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate (SWR x B6 )F1.Min mice as a preclinical model to test MicroPET/CT dual modality virtual colonoscopy. Each animal was given an IV injection of 124I-NM404 (100 uCi) 24, 48 and 96 hours prior to scanning on a dedicated microPET/CT system. Forty million counts were histogrammed in 3D and reconstructed using an OSEM 2D algorithm. Immediately after PET acquisition, a 93 m volumetric CT was acquired at 80 kVp, 800 uA and 350 ms exposures. Following CT, the mouse was sacrificed. The entire intestinal tract was excised, washed, insufflated, and scanned ex vivo A total of eight tissue samples from the small intestine were harvested: 5 were benign adenomas, 2 were malignant adenocarcinomas, and 1 was a Peyer's patch (lymph tissue) . The sites of these samples were positioned on CT and PET images based on morphological cues and the distance from the anus. Only 1/8 samples showed tracer uptake. several hot spots in the microPET image were not chosen for histology. (SWR x B6)F1.Min mice develop benign and malignant tumors, making this animal model a strong candidate for future dual modality microPET/CT virtual colonography studies.

  12. Effect of an Antimicrobial Compound on Different Processes within the Oscillation of Min Proteins in E. coli Bacterial Cells

    Giuliani, Maximiliano; Dutcher, John


    A key step in the life of a bacterium is its division into two daughter cells of equal size. This process is carefully controlled and regulated so that equal partitioning of the cellular machinery is obtained. In E. coli, this regulation is accomplished, in part, by the Min protein system. The Min proteins undergo an oscillation between the poles of rod-shaped E. coli bacteria. We use high magnification, time-resolved total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to characterize the temporal distributions of different processes within the oscillation: the MinD-MinE interaction time, the residence time for membrane bound MinD, and the recruitment time for MinD to be observed at the opposite pole. We also characterize the change in each of these processes in the presence of the antimicrobial compound polymyxin B (PMB). We show that the times corresponding to the removal of MinD from one pole and the recruitment of MinD at the opposite pole are correlated. We explain this correlation through the existence of a concentration threshold. The effect of PMB on the concentration threshold is used to identify which process within the oscillation is most affected.

  13. The intronic minisatellite OsMin1 within a serine protease gene in the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Hou, Jun-Xiu; Zhang, Shu; Hausner, Georg; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Li, Wen-Jia


    Repetitive DNA sequences make up a significant portion of all genomes and may occur in intergenic, regulatory, coding, or even intronic regions. Partial sequences of a serine protease gene csp1 was previously used as a population genetic marker of the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, but its first intron region was excluded due to ambiguous alignment. Here in this study, we report the presence of a minisatellite OsMin1 within this intron, where a 20(19)-bp repeat motif is duplicated two to six times in different isolates. Fourteen intron alleles and 13 OsMin1 alleles were identified among 125 O. sinensis samples distributed broadly on the Tibetan Plateau. Two OsMin1 alleles were prevalent, corresponding to either two or five repeats of the core sequence motif. OsMin1 appears to be a single locus marker in the O. sinensis genome, but its origin is undetermined. Abundant recombination signals were detected between upstream and downstream flanking regions of OsMin1, suggesting that OsMin1 mutate by unequal crossing over. Geographic distribution, fungal phylogeny, and host insect phylogeny all significantly affected intron distribution patterns but with the greatest influence noted for fungal genotypes and the least for geography. As far as we know, OsMin1 is the first minisatellite found in O. sinensis and the second found in fungal introns. OsMin1 may be useful in designing an efficient protocol to discriminate authentic O. sinensis from counterfeits. PMID:26754819

  14. Different responses of mouse islets and MIN6 pseudo-islets to metabolic stimulation: a note of caution.

    Schulze, Torben; Morsi, Mai; Brüning, Dennis; Schumacher, Kirstin; Rustenbeck, Ingo


    MIN6 cells and MIN6 pseudo-islets are popular surrogates for the use of primary beta cells and islets. Even though it is generally agreed that the stimulus-secretion coupling may deviate from that of beta cells or islets, direct comparisons are rare. The present side-by-side comparison of insulin secretion, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)] i ) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) points out where similarities and differences exist between MIN6 cells and normal mouse beta cells. In mouse islets and MIN6 pseudo-islets depolarization by 40 mM KCl was a more robust insulinotropic stimulus than 30 mM glucose. In MIN6 pseudo-islets, but not in mouse islets, the response to 30 mM glucose was much lower than to 40 mM KCl and could be suppressed by a preceding stimulation with 40 mM KCl. In MIN6 pseudo-islets, glucose was less effective to raise [Ca(2+)] i than in primary islets. In marked contrast to islets, the OCR response of MIN6 pseudo-islets to 30 mM glucose was smaller than to 40 mM KCl and was further diminished by a preceding stimulation with 40 mM KCl. The same pattern was observed when MIN6 pseudo-islets were cultured in 5 mM glucose. As with insulin secretion memory effects on the OCR remained after wash-out of a stimulus. The differences between MIN6 cells and primary beta cells were generally larger in the responses to glucose than to depolarization by KCl. Thus, the use of MIN6 cells in investigations on metabolic signalling requires particular caution. PMID:26227244

  15. Analysis of the spectra of geomagnetic variations having periods from 5 min to 4 hours

    The geomagnetic field variation spectra for the period range of 5 min to 4 hours were analyzed at 64 world observatories to discover systematic behavior in the spectral composition that could be associated with the time of day, season, solar cycle, activity level, component direction, and geographical location of the station. There was found no consistent frequency location for peaks in the spectral composition. Rather, the displays of spectral amplitudes A were mostly ''linear'' in form, often obeying A approximately T/sup m/, where T is the period. The spectral slope m was usually close to 1.0 but varied at times from 0.5 to 2.0. The amplitudes always showed a maximum at the auroral zone latitudes, a minimum near 20 to 400, and a minor maximum near the equator. The positions shifted equatorward with increasing activity. The relative growth in amplitude with rising activity varied with latitude. Seasonal peaks in activity were found at equinoctil months. A summertime minimum occurred at auroral zone stations; elsewhere a summertime enhancement occurred. General findings emphasizing the North American hemisphere and the year 1965 are presented in a number of tables and graphs

  16. Max-Min Optimality of Service Rate Control in Closed Queueing Networks

    Xia, Li


    In this technical note, we discuss the optimality properties of service rate control in closed Jackson networks. We prove that when the cost function is linear to a particular service rate, the system performance is monotonic w.r.t. (with respect to) that service rate and the optimal value of that service rate can be either maximum or minimum (we call it Max-Min optimality); When the second-order derivative of the cost function w.r.t. a particular service rate is always positive (negative), which makes the cost function strictly convex (concave), the optimal value of such service rate for the performance maximization (minimization) problem can be either maximum or minimum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most general result for the optimality of service rates in closed Jackson networks and all the previous works only involve the first conclusion. Moreover, our result is also valid for both the state-dependent and load-dependent service rates, under both the time-average and customer-average performance criteria.

  17. Examination of spatiotemporal gait parameters during the 6-min walk in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Socie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J


    This investigation examined spatiotemporal parameters of gait during the 6-min walk (6MW) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in healthy controls. Eighteen individuals with MS [divided into those who were independently ambulatory (n=10) and those who were ambulatory with assistance (n=8)] and 10 healthy controls performed a 6MW while recording spatiotemporal gait parameters using a pressure-sensitive walkway. Parameters recorded were walking velocity, cadence, step length and width, step time, percent of the gait cycle in double support, and variability of step length and width, step time, and double support. The ambulatory with assistance MS group had a significantly greater reduction in walking velocity (P=0.000) over the course of the 6MW, which coincided with a significantly greater increase in step time and double support (P=0.029) than in the other groups. Only the ambulatory with assistance MS group showed an increase in step-time variability and double-support variability during the 6MW (P's<0.05). The novel results indicate that the reduction in velocity over prolonged walking occurs through a greater change in the temporal parameters of gait in persons with MS who require assistance while walking. In addition, the increase in gait variability in the individuals with MS who require assistance while walking indicates that the control over walking further deteriorates over the course of the 6MW. PMID:25117855

  18. Development of 160 m3/min large capacity sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump

    A large capacity sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump (LEMP) was developed for application to the main circulation pumps of FBR. This advanced LEMP is a submergible annular linear induction pump designed to be self-cooled by immersing into sodium and applying high temperature electrical insulation. Almost all the internal electrical losses were transferred to the surrounding sodium, which can be recovered as electricity by turbine generators. The LEPM having specifications of 160m3/min flow rate, 0.28 MPa head and more than 40% efficiency at the rating was designed, fabricated and tested in the sodium pump test facility. The test involves magnetic field measurement in the air and a variety of sodium tests during 2.550h, which demonstrated good pump performance and flow controllability, and satisfied the design target. The boundary between flow stability and instability of the LEMP operation could be defined by peak position of the Q-H curve, which was specified by Rem x S (magnetic Reynolds' number times slip) of 1.4 to 1.5 at 335degC. Based on the test results, the applicability of the LEMP for the FBR was confirmed. (author)

  19. Monitoring the informational efficiency of European corporate bond markets with dynamical permutation min-entropy

    Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.


    In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.

  20. A 210-min solid phase cytometry test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J


    A 210-min-test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water is described, based on solid phase cytometry (SPC) and a two-step enzymatic procedure for fluorescence labelling of single cells and small microcolonies. The test involves membrane filtration through a 25-mm black polyester filter, induction of beta-glucuronidase in the retained target cells, fluorescence labelling with fluorescein-di-beta-Dglucuronide as an enzyme substrate and laser scanning of the membrane filter. Scan results can be confirmed on-line by epifluorescence microscopy. Application to 149 naturally contaminated and uncontaminated well, tap, out-of-pump centre (distribution), surface and sewage-spiked water samples indicated > or =90% agreement and equivalence with plate count methods, including Chromocult Coliform agar and m FC agar. In 5.4% of all samples examined, SPC detected between 1 and 11 E. coli per 100 ml, while the two plate methods yielded negative results. Cases of a negative SPC result but a positive E. coli count on both reference media were not observed. This test would primarily be useful for 'emergency' monitoring of drinking water when rapid results are crucial. PMID:11021570

  1. A Study of Min Gui, a Native of Huzhou%闵珪考略



    闵珪乃明代湖州籍名臣,一生屡按数省,四任刑官,平叛抚民。政绩卓著。为人刚直,治狱严正,为人所称道。依据相关典籍,勾勒闵珪的生平事迹,有助于更深入、更全面了解这位明代湖州籍名臣。%Min Gui, a native of Huzhou, was a famous official in the Ming Dynasty. In his life he was appointed as an official in several provinces and he was made an official in charge of penalty four times, suppressing rebels and helping the people with eminent achievements. He was upright and outspoken, and strict and just in governing the jail, so he was greatly respected and admired. This article, based on relative books and historical literatures, briefly tells about his life and deeds, which contributes to understand this famous official of Huzhou origin in a more profound and all round way.

  2. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations.

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis


    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  3. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis


    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules. PMID:27554526

  4. Dopamine Receptor Signaling in MIN6 β-Cells Revealed by Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy.

    Caldwell, Brittany; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W


    Insulin secretion defects are central to the development of type II diabetes mellitus. Glucose stimulation of insulin secretion has been extensively studied, but its regulation by other stimuli such as incretins and neurotransmitters is not as well understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of insulin secretion by dopamine, which is synthesized in pancreatic β-cells from circulating L-dopa. Previous research has shown that this inhibition is mediated primarily by activation of the dopamine receptor D3 subtype (DRD3), even though both DRD2 and DRD3 are expressed in β-cells. To understand this dichotomy, we investigated the dynamic interactions between the dopamine receptor subtypes and their G-proteins using two-color fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) of mouse MIN6 β-cells. We show that proper membrane localization of exogenous G-proteins depends on both the Gβ and Gγ subunits being overexpressed in the cell. Triple transfections of the dopamine receptor subtype and Gβ and Gγ subunits, each labeled with a different-colored fluorescent protein (FP), yielded plasma membrane expression of all three FPs and permitted an FFS evaluation of interactions between the dopamine receptors and the Gβγ complex. Upon dopamine stimulation, we measured a significant decrease in interactions between DRD3 and the Gβγ complex, which is consistent with receptor activation. In contrast, dopamine stimulation did not cause significant changes in the interactions between DRD2 and the Gβγ complex. These results demonstrate that two-color FFS is a powerful tool for measuring dynamic protein interactions in living cells, and show that preferential DRD3 signaling in β-cells occurs at the level of G-protein release. PMID:27508444

  5. Oxygen desaturation in 6-min walk test is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in COPD.

    Waatevik, Marie; Johannessen, Ane; Gomez Real, Francisco; Aanerud, Marianne; Hardie, Jon Andrew; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Lind Eagan, Tomas Mikal


    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is an exercise test that measures functional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and provides information on oxygen desaturation. We investigated oxygen desaturation during 6MWT as a risk factor for important COPD outcomes: mortality, frequency of exacerbations, decline in lung function and decline in lean body mass.433 COPD patients were included in the Bergen COPD Cohort Study 2006-2009, and followed-up for 3 years. Patients were characterised using spirometry, bioelectrical impedance measurements, Charlson comorbidity score, exacerbation history, smoking and arterial blood gases. 370 patients completed the 6MWT at the baseline of the study. Information on all-cause mortality was collected in 2011.Patients who experienced oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT had an approximately twofold increased risk of death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-5.1), a 50% increased risk for experiencing later COPD exacerbations (incidence rate ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2), double the yearly rate of decline in both forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (3.2% and 1.7% versus 1.7% and 0.9%, respectively) and manifold increased yearly rate of loss of lean body mass (0.18 kg·m(-2) versus 0.03 kg·m(-2) among those who did not desaturate).Desaturating COPD patients had a significantly worse prognosis than non-desaturating COPD patients, for multiple important disease outcomes. PMID:27076586

  6. Toward Spatially Regulated Division of Protocells: Insights into the E. coli Min System from in Vitro Studies.

    Kretschmer, Simon; Schwille, Petra


    For reconstruction of controlled cell division in a minimal cell model, or protocell, a positioning mechanism that spatially regulates division is indispensable. In Escherichia coli, the Min proteins oscillate from pole to pole to determine the division site by inhibition of the primary divisome protein FtsZ anywhere but in the cell middle. Remarkably, when reconstituted under defined conditions in vitro, the Min proteins self-organize into spatiotemporal patterns in the presence of a lipid membrane and ATP. We review recent progress made in studying the Min system in vitro, particularly focusing on the effects of various physicochemical parameters and boundary conditions on pattern formation. Furthermore, we discuss implications and challenges for utilizing the Min system for division site placement in protocells. PMID:25513760

  7. Toward Spatially Regulated Division of Protocells: Insights into the E. coli Min System from in Vitro Studies

    Simon Kretschmer


    Full Text Available For reconstruction of controlled cell division in a minimal cell model, or protocell, a positioning mechanism that spatially regulates division is indispensable. In Escherichia coli, the Min proteins oscillate from pole to pole to determine the division site by inhibition of the primary divisome protein FtsZ anywhere but in the cell middle. Remarkably, when reconstituted under defined conditions in vitro, the Min proteins self-organize into spatiotemporal patterns in the presence of a lipid membrane and ATP. We review recent progress made in studying the Min system in vitro, particularly focusing on the effects of various physicochemical parameters and boundary conditions on pattern formation. Furthermore, we discuss implications and challenges for utilizing the Min system for division site placement in protocells.

  8. Toward Spatially Regulated Division of Protocells: Insights into the E. coli Min System from in Vitro Studies

    Simon Kretschmer; Petra Schwille


    For reconstruction of controlled cell division in a minimal cell model, or protocell , a positioning mechanism that spatially regulates division is indispensable. In Escherichia coli , the Min protein s oscillate from pole to pole to determine the division site by inhibition of the primary divisome protein FtsZ anywhere but in the cell middle. Remarkably, when reconstituted under defined conditions in vitro , the Min proteins self - organize into spatiotem poral patterns in the presence of a ...

  9. Promotion of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium

    Xin-Yu Li


    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on titanium (Ti surface.METHODS:The chimeric peptide RKLPDAPRGDN (minTBP-1-PRGDN was synthesized by connecting RKLPDA (minTBP-1 to the N-terminal of PRGDN , the influence of minTBP-1-PRGDN on the attachment, proliferation and collagen I synthesis of human keratocyte on Ti surface were tested using PRGDN and minTBP-1as controls. The keratocytes attached to the surface of Ti were either stained with FITC-labeled phalloidin and viewed with fluorescence microscope or quantified with alamar Blue method. The proliferation of keratocytes on Ti were quantified with 3-(4,5-dim- ethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide up-taking methods. The secretion of type I collagen were determined using an ELISA kit.RESULTS:The results showed that minTBP-1-PRGDN at a concentration of 100ng/mL was the most potent peptide to enhance the attachment of human keratocytes to the surface of Ti (1.40±0.03 folds, P=0.003, to promote the proliferation (1.26±0.05 folds, P=0.014 and the synthesis of type I collagen (1.530±0.128, P=0.008. MinTBP-1 at the same concentration could only promote the attachment (1.13±0.04 folds, P=0.020 and proliferation(1.15±0.06 folds, P=0.021, while PRGDN had no significant influence (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:Our data shows that the novel chimeric peptide minTBP-1-PRGDN could promote the attachment, proliferation and type I collagen synthesis of human keratocytes on the surface of Ti.

  10. New cross section data and review of production routes of medically used {sup 110m}In

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ditrói, F., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mohsena, B.M.A. [Nuclear Research Center – Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: •{sup 110m}In production cross sections and yields. •Stacked foil irradiation technique. •Comparison of experimental results with the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS theoretical model codes. •Proton, deuteron, {sup 3}He and alpha activations. -- Abstract: Evaluation of nuclear data for production routes of {sup 110m}In is in progress in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). New experimental cross section data for the indirect {sup nat}In(p,x){sup 110}Sn-{sup 110m}In and for the direct {sup 107}Ag(α,n){sup 110m}In and {sup 109}Ag({sup 3}He,2n){sup 110m}In production routes and for the satellite impurity reactions {sup 107}Ag(α,xn){sup 110g,109}In and {sup 109}Ag({sup 3}He,xn){sup 110g,111,109}In have been measured by using the activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. Additional data are reported for production of the {sup 111}In diagnostic gamma-emitter via the {sup 109}Ag(α,2n){sup 111}In reaction. The earlier experimental data were critically reviewed in order to prepare recommended data and optimal production parameters for the different routes.

  11. Inhibitory effects of low-dose aloe-emodin on the development of colorectal tumors in min mice.

    Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Shinzato, Masanori; Yukitake, Jun; Sonoda, Shigeru


    Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone compound, has been reported to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of AE in an Apc-deficient Min mouse model. In the first experiment, male Min mice were fed a basal diet or diets containing 5 ppm AE and 10 ppm AE for 12 weeks. The dietary administration of 5 ppm AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. In a second experiment, we investigated the effects of AE on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in Min mouse treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Female Min mice were administered 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. AE was given to mice in their diet at a dose of 5 or 50 ppm for 5 weeks. Feeding with AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. When proliferation of cells in normal-appearing colonic mucosa was assessed by monoclonal anti-rat Ki-67 antibody (MIB-5) immunohistochemistry in experiments 1 and 2, the AE treatment significantly decreased the mean MIB-5-labeling index. These results suggest that the dietary administration of low-dose AE may have chemopreventive effects against development of colorectal tumors in Min mice, possibly in part by reducing cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa. PMID:25081669

  12. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction with ionic sup(113m)In and a cardiac probe

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with a cardiac probe (Nuclear Stethoscope. Bios Inc., Valhalla, New York) and sup(113m)In in 28 normal subjects and 86 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 20 normal subjects sup(99m)TC-RBCs were compared with sup(113m)In, which binds to transferrin after IV injection. With sup(99m)Tc-RBCs average LVEF was 57+-7% (1 SD); with sup(113m)In, average LEVF was 55+-8% (N.S.). Sequential measurements at different times over 60 min revealed good reproducibility. Comparison of LVEF's obtained using sup(99m)Tc-RBCs with a gamma camera and cardiac probe revealed a good correlation. The correlation coefficients were 0.92 in 25 patients with CAD and 0.95 in 10 patients with LV wall motion abnormalities. The LVEF obtained using a cardiac probe and sup(113m)In increased in 28 normals from 57+-9% to 64+-13% (P<0.001) during handgrip exercise, while the LVEF decreased from 45+-9% to 41+-10% (P<0.01) in patients with acute myocardial infarction 4-7 weeks after episode, from 48+-11 to 40+-12% (P<0.001) in patients with old myocardial infarction, and from 52+-9 to 42+-9% (P<0.001) in patients with angina pectoris. The cardiac probe and sup(113m)In provide a useful alternate means of determining left ventricular dysfunction in facilities where sup(99m)Tc and a gamma camera computer system are not readily available. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction with ionic sup(113m)In and a cardiac probe

    Liu, X.; Harrison, K.S.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.


    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with a cardiac probe (Nuclear Stethoscope. Bios Inc., Valhalla, New York) and sup(113m)In in 28 normal subjects and 86 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 20 normal subjects sup(99m)TC-RBCs were compared with sup(113m)In, which binds to transferrin after IV injection. With sup(99m)Tc-RBCs average LVEF was 57+-7% (1 SD); with sup(113m)In, average LEVF was 55+-8% (N.S.). Sequential measurements at different times over 60 min revealed good reproducibility. Comparison of LVEF's obtained using sup(99m)Tc-RBCs with a gamma camera and cardiac probe revealed a good correlation. The correlation coefficients were 0.92 in 25 patients with CAD and 0.95 in 10 patients with LV wall motion abnormalities. The LVEF obtained using a cardiac probe and sup(113m)In increased in 28 normals from 57+-9% to 64+-13% (P<0.001) during handgrip exercise, while the LVEF decreased from 45+-9% to 41+-10% (P<0.01) in patients with acute myocardial infarction 4-7 weeks after episode, from 48+-11 to 40+-12% (P<0.001) in patients with old myocardial infarction, and from 52+-9 to 42+-9% (P<0.001) in patients with angina pectoris. The cardiac probe and sup(113m)In provide a useful alternate means of determining left ventricular dysfunction in facilities where sup(99m)Tc and a gamma camera computer system are not readily available.

  14. Mécanismes et verrous de la carbonatation minérale du CO2 en voie aqueuse

    Bonfils, Benjamin


    La carbonatation minérale est une technique alternative de capture et stockage du CO2 anthropique. L'abondance des matériaux carbonatables sur terre en fait une solution à fort potentiel. En particulier, la carbonatation directe en voie aqueuse a été présentée dans la littérature comme la voie la plus intéressante d'un point de vue énergétique pour la carbonatation minérale ex-situ, à la condition que les cinétiques naturellement lentes de dissolution des silicates magnésiens en phase aqueuse...

  15. Influence of min-a-zel plus and maize meal addition on the quality of lucerne silage

    Đorđević Nenad 1


    Full Text Available The influence of mineral adsorbent Min-A-Zel Plus (5 g/kg and maize meal (25 and 50 g/kg used alone or combined, on chemical composition, biochemical changes and quality of lucerne silage was investigated. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that addition of Min-A-Zel Plus reduces aminogenesis, while the use of maize meal alone or with zeolite favorable conditions are achieved for lactic acid fermentation, so that the quality of obtained silages is better by one quality class. To achieve better effects of silage quality, the use of combination of mineral adsorbent with carbohydrate additives is recommended.

  16. Gynekologisen syövän sairastaneiden kokemuksia sairauden vaikutuksista seksuaalisuuteen ja minäkuvaan

    Liimatainen, Sanja; Hämäläinen, Tiia


    Gynekologinen syöpä ja sen hoidot vaikuttavat useimmiten merkittävästi naisen minäkuvaan ja seksuaalisuuteen. Sijainniltaan gynekologinen syöpä on lähellä seksuaalisuuteen liittyviä elimiä ja seksitoimintoja, jolloin sen merkitys seksuaalisuudelle korostuu. Sairauden tuomat mahdolliset muutokset vaikuttavat myös minäkuvaan, jolloin käsitykset itsestä useimmiten muokkaantuvat. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa sairauden merkityksellisyyttä ja sen mahdollisesti aiheuttamia vaikutuk...

  17. Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) - A Science-Oriented, University 3U CubeSat

    Mason, James P.; Woods, Thomas N.; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). Over 40 students contributed to the project with professional mentorship and technical contributions from professors in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at CU and from LASP scientists and engineers. The scientific objective of MinXSS is to study processes in the dynamic Sun, from quiet-Sun to sol...

  18. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian


    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science students were…

  19. Establishment of clonal MIN-O transplant lines for molecular imaging via lentiviral transduction & in vitro culture.

    David L Boucher

    Full Text Available As the field of molecular imaging evolves and increasingly is asked to fill the discovery and validation space between basic science and clinical applications, careful consideration should be given to the models in which studies are conducted. The MIN-O mouse model series is an established in vivo model of human mammary precancer ductal carcinoma in situ with progression to invasive carcinoma. This series of transplant lines is propagated in vivo and experiments utilizing this model can be completed in non-engineered immune intact FVB/n wild type mice thereby modeling the tumor microenvironment with biological relevance superior to traditional tumor cell xenografts. Unfortunately, the same qualities that make this and many other transplant lines more biologically relevant than standard cell lines for molecular imaging studies present a significant obstacle as somatic genetic re-engineering modifications common to many imaging applications can be technically challenging. Here, we describe a protocol for the efficient lentiviral transduction of cell slurries derived from precancerous MIN-O lesions, in vitro culture of "MIN-O-spheres" derived from single cell clones, and the subsequent transplantation of these spheres to produce transduced sublines suitable for optical imaging applications. These lines retain the physiologic and pathologic properties, including multilineage differentiation, and complex microanatomic interaction with the host stroma characteristic of the MIN-O model. We also present the in vivo imaging and immunohistochemical analysis of serial transplantation of one such subline and detail the progressive multifocal loss of the transgene in successive generations.

  20. Theoretical study on superconductivity in CeMIn{sub 5} (M = Co, Rh, Ir): pairing symmetry and pressure dependence

    Tanaka, Kazunori [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510, Chiba (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Kyoto (Japan); Nisikawa, Yunori [Department of Material Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Osaka (Japan); Yamada, Kosaku [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu 525-8577, Siga (Japan)


    We study theoretically heavy fermion superconductors CeMIn{sub 5} (M = Co, Rh, Ir). CeCoIn{sub 5} and CeIrIn{sub 5} that become superconducting at ambient pressure with T{sub c} = 2.3 K and 0.4 K, respectively. On the other hand, CeRhIn{sub 5} is an antiferromagnet at ambient pressure and becomes superconducting under pressures greater than 1.6 GPa. With regards to the superconductivity, the existence of line nodes is indicated by nuclear-quadrupole-resonance (NQR), thermal conductivity, specific heat and electrical resistivity measurements. However, the pairing symmetry between d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} and d{sub xy} is controversial. Therefore, we investigate the gap structure of CeMIn{sub 5} by a detailed calculation. We introduce a three-dimensional periodic Anderson model (3D-PAM) in order to reproduce the band characteristics of CeMIn{sub 5}. Thus, we identify the gap structure of CeMIn{sub 5} as the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} symmetry by solving the Eliashberg equations. In addition, we discuss the pressure dependence of T{sub c} and show that two factors determine T{sub c}. One factor is the momentum dependence of quasi-particle interaction and the other factor is the wavefunction renormalization factor. Thus, we have explained the superconductivity in CeMIn{sub 5} using the Fermi liquid theory.

  1. Voluntary exercise inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice

    Epidemiological studies suggest that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer in humans. Results from animal studies, however, are inconclusive. The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on intestinal tumor formation in two different animal models, ApcMin/+ mice and azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. In Experiments 1 and 2, five-week old female ApcMin/+ mice were either housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 6 weeks (for mice maintained on the AIN93G diet; Experiment 1) or 9 weeks (for mice on a high-fat diet; Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, male CF-1 mice at 6 weeks of age were given a dose of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) and, 12 days later, 1.5% DSS in drinking fluid for 1 week. The mice were then maintained on a high-fat diet and housed in regular cages or cages equipped with a running wheel for 16 weeks. In the ApcMin/+ mice maintained on either the AIN93G or the high-fat diet, voluntary exercise decreased the number of small intestinal tumors. In the AOM/DSS-treated mice maintained on a high-fat diet, voluntary exercise also decreased the number of colon tumors. In ApcMin/+ mice, voluntary exercise decreased the ratio of serum insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 to IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels. It also decreased prostaglandin E2 and nuclear β-catenin levels, but increased E-cadherin levels in the tumors. These results indicate hat voluntary exercise inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice and AOM/DSS-treated mice, and the inhibitory effect is associated with decreased IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, aberrant β-catenin signaling, and arachidonic acid metabolism

  2. Helicobacter hepaticus Infection Promotes Colon Tumorigenesis in the BALB/c-Rag2−/− ApcMin/+ Mouse ▿

    Nagamine, Claude M; Sohn, Jane J.; Rickman, Barry H.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Fox, James G.; Schauer, David B.


    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations are linked to human and mouse colorectal cancers. The Apc multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse mutation causes adenomas to develop throughout the small and large intestines. The BALB-Min (C.B6-ApcMin/+) congenic strain was generated by backcrossing into BALB/c the ApcMin allele from C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ mice. BALB-Min mice have a low tumor multiplicity (27.4 small intestine tumors/mouse) and a relatively long life span (>1 year) that makes them ame...

  3. A facile synthesis of MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) via low temperature pyrolysis of single source molecular precursors, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4

    Shamik Ghoshal; Liladhar B Kumbhare; Vimal K Jain; Gautam K Dey


    The reaction of KSeCOAr with InCl3 and [MCl(PR3)2] in benzene afforded bimetallic complexes, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4] (PR3 = PEt3 or PPh3; M = Cu or Ag; Ar = –C6H5 (phenyl) or 4-MeC6H4 (tolyl)). The triethylphosphine complexes decomposed rapidly when M = Ag while slowly when M = Cu. All these complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS, NMR (1H, 31P) spectral data. Pyrolysis in a furnace at 300°C gave tetragonal MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) structure. Solvothermal decomposition of [(PPh3)2CuIn(SeCOAr)4] in boiling ethylene glycol gave nanorods of CuInSe2 which were characterized by XRD, EDAX, SEM and TEM.

  4. Science Goals and First Light Analysis from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Mason, James; McTiernan, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat with deployment from the ISS planned in Q2 2016. Its goal is to measure the solar soft X-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance, an observational signature of hot plasma in the solar corona. Over the last few decades, there have been very few spectrally resolved observations from ~0.2 to ~4 keV (~0.3-6 nm). This range is sensitive to high-temperature plasma and contains many spectral lines (e.g., Mg, Si, Fe, S, Ar), the abundances of which probe plasma transport and provide valuable constraints on plasma heating mechanisms during both flares and quiescence. This solar SXR emission is primarily absorbed in the E-region of Earth's ionosphere, and the subsequently driven dynamical processes are still poorly understood, in large part because the energy distribution of the incident SXRs is not yet well characterized.MinXSS flies a miniature commercial off-the-shelf soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD. The silicon drift detector has 0.5 mm fully depleted thickness and a 25 mm^2 physical area, with a ~16 micron Be entrance window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar SXRs from ~0.5 to 30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. MinXSS also includes a broadband SXR photometer, providing an integrated intensity over a similar energy range for comparison, cross-calibration, and additional data, especially useful during more intense flares at the upper end of the X123 dynamic range.We present the MinXSS science goals for studying hot plasma in the solar corona, including impulsive flare heating and quiescent coronal heating, and the impact of the resultant SXR emission on Earth's ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. We present analysis of MinXSS first light results (depending on deployment date from the ISS), as well as modeling and predictions of future observations over the MinXSS 6-12 month mission lifetime.

  5. Quantitative inner membrane proteome datasets of the wild-type and the Δmin mutant of Escherichia coli.

    Liang, Suh-Yuen; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chiang, I-Chen; Shih, Yu-Ling


    This article presents data that were obtained through measuring the impact of the Min oscillation on membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by quantitative protemoics analysis. We isolated inner membranes from the wild-type and mutant strains to generate proteomics datasets based on NanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. The datasets included the raw spectral files from four sample replicates and the processed files using Proteome Discoverer that contained a total of 40,072 MS/MS spectra with confident peptide identifier (FDRmembrane proteome of unique proteins with quantitation. Proteins of interest, that show significant difference in protein abundance of the mutant membrane, were isolated through statistical filtering. The data is related to "Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals the Min system of Escherichia coli modulates reversible protein association with the inner membrane" (Lee et al., 2016 [1]). PMID:27331106

  6. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Jaroslav Janáček


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  7. Iterative l1-min algorithm for fixed pattern noise removal in fiber-bundle-based endoscopic imaging.

    Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Lijun; Kirby, Mitchell; Becker, Richard; Qi, Shaohai; Zhao, Feng


    In this study, we developed a signal processing method for fixed pattern noise removal in fiber-bundle-based endoscopic imaging. We physically acquired the fixed pattern of the fiber bundle and used it as a prior image in an l1 norm minimization (l1-min) algorithm. We chose an iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm for l1 norm minimization. In addition to fixed pattern noise removal, this method also improved image contrast while preserving spatial resolution. The effectiveness of this method was demonstrated on images obtained from a dark-field illuminated reflectance fiber-optic microscope (DRFM). The iterative l1-min algorithm presented in this paper, in combination with the DRFM system that we previously developed, enables high-resolution, high-sensitivity, intrinsic-contrast, and in situ cellular imaging which has great potential in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. PMID:27140773


    Camila C. Greco; Pelarigo, Jailton G.; Figueira, Tiago R.; Benedito S. Denadai


    Our objective was to analyze the effect of gender on the relationship between stroke rates corresponding to critical speed (SRCS) and maximal speed of 30 min (SRS30) in young swimmers. Twenty two males (GM1) (Age = 15.4 ± 2.1 yr., Body mass = 63.7 ± 12.9 kg, Stature = 1.73 ± 0.09 m) and fourteen female (GF) swimmers (Age = 15.1 ± 1.6 yr., Body mass = 58.3 ± 8.8 kg, Stature = 1.65 ± 0.06 m) were studied. A subset of males (GM2) was matched to the GF by their velocity for a 30 min swim (S30). T...

  9. Polynomial Time Algorithm for Determining Max-Min Paths in Networks and Solving Zero Value Cyclic Games

    Dmitrii D. Lozovanu


    Full Text Available We study the max-min paths problem, which represents a game version of the shortest and the longest paths problem in a weighted directed graph. In this problem the vertex set V of the weighted directed graph G=(V,E is divided into two disjoint subsets VA and VB which are regarded as positional sets of two players. The players are seeking for a directed path from the given starting position ν 0 to the final position ν f , where the first player intends to maximize the integral cost of the path while the second one has aim to minimize it. Polynomial-time algorithm for determining max-min path in networks is proposed and its application for solving zero value cyclic games is developed. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90B10, 90C35, 90C27.

  10. Downregulation of Bcl-2 Expression by miR-34a Mediates Palmitate-Induced Min6 Cells Apoptosis

    Lin, Xiaojie; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Juan; Li, Hai; Wei, Guohong; Cao, Xiaopei; Li, Yanbing


    Recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of miR-34a is significantly upregulated and associated with cell apoptosis in pancreatic β-cell treated with palmitate. Nevertheless, the underlying detailed mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we showed that miR-34a was significantly induced in Min6 pancreatic β-cell upon palmitate treatment. Elevated miR-34a promoted Min6 cell apoptosis. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of miR-34a lowered the expression of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein. Luciferase reporter assay indicated the direct interaction of miR-34a with the Bcl-2 3′-UTR. Moreover, downregulated expression of Bcl-2 induced by palmitate could be restored by inhibition of miR-34a. We conclude that direct suppression of Bcl-2 by miR-34a accounts for palmitate-induced increased apoptosis rate in pancreatic β-cell. PMID:24829923

  11. Experimental and Monte Carlo study on production of 110mIn via natCd(p,xn) reaction

    110mIn with 69.1 min half-life was produced by proton bombardment on natural cadmium. The target was prepared by electroplating technique. To reach a high activity product, the optimum energy range of the irradiation was selected to be 15-5 MeV via theoretical calculation. Radiochemical separation of cadmium and indium was carried out by extraction method. It yielded 44.3 ± 8.8 GBq C-1 after 1 hour irradiation by 100 μA current. On the other hand, the production route was simulated using MCNPX and the production yield was estimated with a reasonable agreement compared to the measured and literature data. (author)

  12. Min Morfars Film

    Juel, Henrik


    Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film.......Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film....

  13. Se min pizzabolle!

    Hoffmeyer, Mikkeline; Brandt, Karen Merete


    Emne: Hvordan kan vi udvikle digitale læringsdesigns, der styrker visuelle, sproglige, æstetiske og kommunikative kompetencer i fagene dansk og billedkunst? Metode og baggrund: Ovenstående har været omdrejningspunkt i vores udviklingsarbejde, som har haft afsæt i sociosemiotisk forskning omkring ...

  14. Se min kropsholder

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Staunsager, Sara


    Også kønnet kan være en forandringsagent. Med stolen Hustruen som konkret metafor diskuterer artiklen, hvordan den kvindelige designforening Rundkant tager strategisk og kunstnerisk afsæt i kvindekampens og kvindekønnets historie og samtid, når medlemmerne søger at mestre kunsten som ung (kvindel...

  15. A Comparison of the Generalized minC Combination and the Hybrid DSm Combination Rules. Chapter 4

    Daniel, Milan

    Rehoboth : American Research Press, 2006 - (Smarandache, F.; Dezert, J.), s. 113-129 ISBN 1-59973-000-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : belief function * combination of belief functions * Dempster-Shafer theory * conflict * minC combination * DSm theory * DSm combination rule Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Jaroslav Janáček; Marek Kvet


    The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enor...

  17. Chemopreventive Effects of RXR-Selective Rexinoid Bexarotene on Intestinal Neoplasia of ApcMin/+ Mice1

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Qian, Li; Choi, Chang-In; Steele, Vernon E.; Rao, Chinthalapally V.


    Retinoid X receptor (RXR) has been implicated in several neoplastic diseases. Previously, we have shown that RXR-α is downregulated in human and rodent colonic tumors, suggesting a potential target for colon cancer prevention ( Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of the selective RXR agonist bexarotene for the suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. ...

  18. Assessment of aortitis by semiquantitative analysis of 180-min 18F-FDG PET/CT acquisition images

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of semiquantitative analysis of 180-min 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images for the assessment of aortitis in cases of suspected large vessel vasculitis (LVV) and to establish a threshold index for application in the clinical setting. This prospective study included 43 patients (mean age 67.5 ± 12.9 years) with suspicion of LVV (25 with a final diagnosis of aortitis). 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was acquired 180 min after injection of 7 MBq/kg of 18F-FDG. A semiquantitative analysis was performed calculating the aortic wall maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (T), the lumen SUVmax (B) and the target to background ratio (TBR). These results were also compared with those obtained in a control population. The mean aortic wall SUVmax was 2.00 ± 0.62 for patients with aortitis and 1.45 ± 0.31 for patients without aortitis (p max (0.997 vs 0.871). The highest sensitivity and specificity was obtained for a TBR of 1.34 (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94.4 %). Semiquantitative analysis of PET/CT images acquired 180 min after 18F-FDG injection and the TBR index of 1.34 show very high accuracy and, therefore, are strongly recommended for the diagnosis of aortitis in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  19. Assessing the utility of the Oxford Nanopore MinION for snake venom gland cDNA sequencing.

    Hargreaves, Adam D; Mulley, John F


    Portable DNA sequencers such as the Oxford Nanopore MinION device have the potential to be truly disruptive technologies, facilitating new approaches and analyses and, in some cases, taking sequencing out of the lab and into the field. However, the capabilities of these technologies are still being revealed. Here we show that single-molecule cDNA sequencing using the MinION accurately characterises venom toxin-encoding genes in the painted saw-scaled viper, Echis coloratus. We find the raw sequencing error rate to be around 12%, improved to 0-2% with hybrid error correction and 3% with de novo error correction. Our corrected data provides full coding sequences and 5' and 3' UTRs for 29 of 33 candidate venom toxins detected, far superior to Illumina data (13/40 complete) and Sanger-based ESTs (15/29). We suggest that, should the current pace of improvement continue, the MinION will become the default approach for cDNA sequencing in a variety of species. PMID:26623194

  20. Transfer of a eubacteria-type cell division site-determining factor CrMinD gene to the nucleus from the chloroplast genome in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    LIU WeiZhong; HU Yong; ZHANG RunJie; ZHOU WeiWei; ZHU JiaYing; LIU XiangLin; HE YiKun


    MinD is a ubiquitous ATPase that plays a crucial role in selection of the division site in eubacteria, chloroplasts, and probably Archaea. In four green algae, Mesostigma viride, Nephroselmis olivacea, Chlorella vulgaris and Prototheca wickerhamii, MinD homologues are encoded in the plastid genome. However, in Arabidopsis, MinD is a nucleus-encoded, chloroplast-targeted protein involved in chloroplast division, which suggests that MinD has been transferred to the nucleus in higher land plants. Yet the lateral gene transfer (LGT) of MinD from plastid to nucleus during plastid evolution remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a nucleus-encoded MinD homologue from unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a basal species in the green plant lineage. Overexpression of CrMinD in wild type E. coli inhibited cell division and resulted in the filamentous cell formation, clearly demonstrated the conservation of the MinD protein during the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. The transient expression of CrMinD-egfp confirmed the role of CrMinD protein in the regulation of plastid division. Searching all the published plastid genomic sequences of land plants, no MinD homologues were found, which suggests that the transfer of MinD from plastid to nucleus might have occurred before the evolution of land plants.

  1. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc


    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilu...

  2. Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Polyps Development in Mice with ApcMin/+ Mutation

    Michele Barone


    Full Text Available We explored the hypothesis that an altered microenvironment (intestinal adenomatous polyp could modify the differentiation program of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs, involving them in colon carcinogenesis. Sublethally irradiated 8-week-old female ApcMin/+ mice were transplanted with bone marrow (BM cells obtained from either male age-matched ApcMin/+ (Apc-Tx-Apc or wild type (WT (WT-Tx-Apc mice. At 4 and 7 weeks after transplantation, BM-derived colonocytes were recognized by colocalization of Y-chromosome and Cdx2 protein (specific colonocyte marker. Polyp number, volume, and grade of dysplasia were not influenced by irradiation/transplantation procedures since they were similar in both untreated female ApcMin/+ and Apc-Tx-Apc mice. At 4 and 7 weeks after transplantation, a progressive significant reduction of polyp number and volume was observed in WT-Tx-Apc mice. Moreover, the number of WT-Tx-Apc mice with a high-grade dysplastic polyps significantly decreased as compared to Apc-Tx-Apc mice. Finally, at 4 and 7 weeks after transplantation, WT-Tx-Apc mice showed a progressive significant increase of Y+/Cdx2+ cells in “normal” mucosa, whereas, in the adenomatous tissue, Y+/Cdx2+ cells remained substantially unvaried. Our findings demonstrate that WT BMSCs do not participate in polyp development but rather inhibit their growth. The substitution of genotypically altered colonocytes with Y+/Cdx2+ cells probably contributes to this process.

  3. The regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during the progression of cancer cachexia in the Apc(Min/+ mouse.

    James P White

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting that occurs with cancer cachexia is caused by an imbalance in the rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The Apc(Min/+ mouse is a model of colorectal cancer that develops cachexia that is dependent on circulating IL-6. However, the IL-6 regulation of muscle protein turnover during the initiation and progression of cachexia in the Apc(Min/+ mouse is not known. Cachexia progression was studied in Apc(Min/+ mice that were either weight stable (WS or had initial (≤5%, intermediate (6-19%, or extreme (≥20% body weight loss. The initiation of cachexia reduced %MPS 19% and a further ∼50% with additional weight loss. Muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression and mTOR targets were suppressed with the progression of body weight loss, while muscle AMPK phosphorylation (Thr 172, AMPK activity, and raptor phosphorylation (Ser 792 were not increased with the initiation of weight loss, but were induced as cachexia progressed. ATP dependent protein degradation increased during the initiation and progression of cachexia. However, ATP independent protein degradation was not increased until cachexia had progressed beyond the initial phase. IL-6 receptor antibody administration prevented body weight loss and suppressed muscle protein degradation, without any effect on muscle %MPS or IGF-1 associated signaling. In summary, the %MPS reduction during the initiation of cachexia is associated with IGF-1/mTOR signaling repression, while muscle AMPK activation and activation of ATP independent protein degradation occur later in the progression of cachexia. IL-6 receptor antibody treatment blocked cachexia progression through the suppression of muscle protein degradation, while not rescuing the suppression of muscle protein synthesis. Attenuation of IL-6 signaling was effective in blocking the progression of cachexia, but not sufficient to reverse the process.

  4. Mechanistic study of the anti-cancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model.

    Tai, William Chi-Shing; Wong, Wing-Yan; Lee, Magnolia Muk-Lan; Chan, Brandon Dow; Lu, Cheng; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy


    Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins (GpS) have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we used the Apc(Min) (/+) colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of GpS and we demonstrated that GpS treatment could significantly reduce the number and size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) (/+) mice. In order to identify the potential targets and mechanisms involved, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed and 40 differentially expressed proteins after GpS treatment were identified. Bioinformatics analyses suggested a majority of these proteins were involved in processes related to cellular redox homeostasis, and predicted Raf-1 as a potential target of GpS. The upregulation of two proteins known to be involved in redox homeostasis, peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1) and peroxiredoxin-2 (Prdx2), and the downregulation of Raf-1 were validated using Western blot analysis. After further investigation of the associated signaling networks, we postulated that the anti-cancer effect of GpS was mediated through the upregulation of Prdx1 and Prdx2, suppression of Ras, RAF/MEK/ERK/STAT, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and modulation of JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. We also examined the potential combinatorial effect of GpS with the chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and found that GpS could enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of 5-FU, further suppressing the number of polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. Our findings highlight the potential of GpS as an anti-cancer agent, the potential mechanisms of its anti-cancer activities, and its effect as an adjuvant of 5-FU in the chemotherapy of CRC. PMID:26970558

  5. Assessment of aortitis by semiquantitative analysis of 180-min {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT acquisition images

    Martinez-Rodriguez, Isabel [University of Cantabria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain); Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, S. Medicina Nuclear, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Amador, N.; Banzo, I.; Quirce, R.; Jimenez-Bonilla, J.; Arcocha-Torres, M. de; Ibanez-Bravo, S.; Lavado-Perez, C.; Bravo-Ferrer, Z.; Carril, J.M. [University of Cantabria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain); Blanco, R.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A. [University of Cantabria, Department of Rheumatology, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of semiquantitative analysis of 180-min {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images for the assessment of aortitis in cases of suspected large vessel vasculitis (LVV) and to establish a threshold index for application in the clinical setting. This prospective study included 43 patients (mean age 67.5 ± 12.9 years) with suspicion of LVV (25 with a final diagnosis of aortitis). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan was acquired 180 min after injection of 7 MBq/kg of {sup 18}F-FDG. A semiquantitative analysis was performed calculating the aortic wall maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) (T), the lumen SUV{sub max} (B) and the target to background ratio (TBR). These results were also compared with those obtained in a control population. The mean aortic wall SUV{sub max} was 2.00 ± 0.62 for patients with aortitis and 1.45 ± 0.31 for patients without aortitis (p < 0.0001). The TBR was 1.66 ± 0.26 for patients with aortitis and 1.24 ± 0.08 for patients without aortitis (p < 0.0001). The differences were also statistically significant when the patients with aortitis and controls were compared. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the area under the curve was greater for the TBR than for the aortic wall SUV{sub max} (0.997 vs 0.871). The highest sensitivity and specificity was obtained for a TBR of 1.34 (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94.4 %). Semiquantitative analysis of PET/CT images acquired 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG injection and the TBR index of 1.34 show very high accuracy and, therefore, are strongly recommended for the diagnosis of aortitis in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  6. Recuperação de lítio de minérios portugueses de lepidolite

    Nogueira, C. A.


    Neste artigo são apresentados de forma sumária alguns resultados dos trabalhos de investigação realizados no LNEG (e ex-INETI) sobre o desenvolvimento de processos de recuperação metalúrgica de lítio de minérios pegmatíticos de lepidolite. Foram estudadas e testadas várias tecnologias como a calcinação seguida de digestão ácida, e a lixiviação carbonatante sob pressão, tendo esta última permitido produzir carbonato de lítio de boa pureza.

  7. Amîra al-mü’minîn: Zubeyde Bint Ja'far

    KAN, Kadir


    This article deals with Zubeyde bint Ja'far who was Harun al-Rashid’s wife and one of the most influential women of Abbasid era, Zubeyde bint Ja'far, and her place in the early Abbasid political life. Zubeyde was the only women who gave birth to a caliph from the Abbasid-Hashemite lineage. Unlike the wives of the other caliphs, she was called “amîra al-mü’minîn” and had an important effect on her husband, Harun al-Rashid and the Abbasid state administration. She had a significant place in the...

  8. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    Redmond, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  9. Introduction of MKZP (Min Ku Zirconium Process) as an alternative to pyroprocessing for used nuclear fuel management

    A new process to co-recover uranium and transuranic nuclides from used nuclear fuels was introduced, which was named 'MKZP' (Min Ku Zirconium Process), as an alternative of widely known pyroprocessing. Instead of an electrochemical reduction of the pyroprocessing, the MKZP employs Zr and ZrCl4 as reactants to chemically convert U3O8 into UCl3, which leads to a significant advantage in total number of processes. An addition of fresh zirconium can be minimized by employing cladding hull waste as a source of zirconium tetrachloride through a chlorination process. (author)

  10. Un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée dans le sud de la France

    Pocholle, E.; Reyes-Gomez, E.; Giacomo, A.; Delaunay, P.; Hasseine, L.; Marty, P.


    Cet article rapporte un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée chez un chat (Felis catus) de 14 ans, séropositif pour le FIV et vivant dans les Alpes-Maritimes (sud de la France). Le chat présente des papules érythémateuses ulcérées sur la face et l’encolure, et une lésion proliférative ulcérée sur l’oreille gauche. C’est l’examen histopathologique des lésions cutanées qui permet le diagnostic d’une leishmaniose disséminée, associée à un carcinome épidermoïde de l’oreille. 100 mg d’allopurinol administrés une fois par jour per os pendant quatre mois ont permis la rémission totale des lésions cutanées. Des prélèvements post mortem ont révélé la persistance du parasite dans l’organisme après six mois de traitement. Cet article discute de la sensibilité du chat à la leishmaniose et de son rôle potentiel de réservoir. PMID:22314243

  11. Estimation of 5-min time-step data of tilted solar global irradiation using ANN (Artificial Neural Network) model

    Converting measured horizontal global solar irradiance in tilted ones is a difficult task, particularly for a small time-step and for not-averaged data. Conventional methods (statistical, correlation, …) are not always efficient with time-step less than one hour; thus, we want to know if an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) is able to realize this conversion with a good accuracy when applied to 5-min solar radiation data of Bouzareah, Algeria. The ANN is developed and optimized using two years of solar data; the nRMSE (relative root means square error) is around 8% for the optimal configuration, which corresponds to a very good accuracy for such a short time-step. - Highlights: • ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methodology applied to 5-min global solar irradiation in order to estimate tilted irradiations. • Model validation with more than 75,000 data. • 8.81% for the RMSE (root means square error) and around 6.63% for the nMAE (normalized mean absolute error). • Solar radiation models with such a fine time step are rare

  12. Analyzing Sub-Threshold Bitcell Topologies and the Effects of Assist Methods on SRAM VMIN

    James Boley


    Full Text Available The need for ultra low power circuits has forced circuit designers to scale voltage supplies into the sub-threshold region where energy per operation is minimized [1]. The problem with this is that the traditional 6T SRAM bitcell, used for data storage, becomes unreliable at voltages below about 700 mV due to process variations and decreased device drive strength [2]. In order to achieve reliable operation, new bitcell topologies and assist methods have been proposed. This paper provides a comparison of four different bitcell topologies using read and write VMIN as the metrics for evaluation. In addition, read and write assist methods were tested using the periphery voltage scaling techniques discussed in [4–13]. Measurements taken from a 180 nm test chip show read functionality (without assist methods down to 500 mV and write functionality down to 600 mV. Using assist methods can reduce both read and write VMIN by 100 mV over the unassisted test case.

  13. Influence of Forecast Accuracy of Photovoltaic Power Output on Capacity Optimization of Microgrid Composition under 30 min Power Balancing Control

    Sone, Akihito; Kato, Takeyoshi; Shimakage, Toyonari; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A microgrid (MG) is one of the measures for enhancing the high penetration of renewable energy (RE)-based distributed generators (DGs). If a number of MGs are controlled to maintain the predetermined electricity demand including RE-based DGs as negative demand, they would contribute to supply-demand balancing of whole electric power system. For constructing a MG economically, the capacity optimization of controllable DGs against RE-based DGs is essential. By using a numerical simulation model developed based on a demonstrative study on a MG using PAFC and NaS battery as controllable DGs and photovoltaic power generation system (PVS) as a RE-based DG, this study discusses the influence of forecast accuracy of PVS output on the capacity optimization. Three forecast cases with different accuracy are compared. The main results are as follows. Even with no forecast error during every 30 min. as the ideal forecast method, the required capacity of NaS battery reaches about 40% of PVS capacity for mitigating the instantaneous forecast error within 30 min. The required capacity to compensate for the forecast error is doubled with the actual forecast method. The influence of forecast error can be reduced by adjusting the scheduled power output of controllable DGs according to the weather forecast. Besides, the required capacity can be reduced significantly if the error of balancing control in a MG is acceptable for a few percentages of periods, because the total periods of large forecast error is not so often.

  14. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.


    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at and for permanent archive at cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) - A Science-Oriented, University 3U CubeSat

    Mason, James P; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). Over 40 students contributed to the project with professional mentorship and technical contributions from professors in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at CU and from LASP scientists and engineers. The scientific objective of MinXSS is to study processes in the dynamic Sun, from quiet-Sun to solar flares, and to further understand how these changes in the Sun influence the Earth's atmosphere by providing unique spectral measurements of solar soft x-rays (SXRs). The enabling technology providing the advanced solar SXR spectral measurements is the Amptek X123, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon drift detector (SDD). The Amptek X123 has a low mass (~324 g after modification), modest power consumption (~2.5 W), and small volume (2.7" x 3.9" x 1.0"), making it ideal for a CubeSat. This paper provides an overvi...

  16. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on the Kepler 1-min cadence data

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari


    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of $10^{32}$ erg to $10^{36}$ erg. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency ($dN/dE$) of superflares as a function of flare energy ($E$) shows the power-law distribution ($dN/dE \\propto E ^{-\\alpha}$) with $\\alpha=1.5$ for $10^{33}

  17. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species disturb Ca(2+) oscillations in insulin-secreting MIN6 β-cells.

    Antonucci, Salvatore; Tagliavini, Alessia; Pedersen, Morten Gram


    Disturbances in pulsatile insulin secretion and Ca(2+) oscillations in pancreatic β-cells are early markers of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are implicated in reduced β-cell function, and ROS/RNS target several Ca(2+) pumps and channels. Thus, we hypothesized that ROS/RNS could disturb Ca(2+) oscillations and downstream insulin pulsatility. We show that ROS/RNS production by photoactivation of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) abolish or accelerate Ca(2+) oscillations in the MIN6 β-cell line, depending on the amount of ROS/RNS. Application of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin modifies the Ca(2+) response to high concentrations of ROS/RNS. Further, thapsigargin produces effects that resemble those elicited by moderate ROS/RNS production. These results indicate that ROS/RNS interfere with endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling. This idea is supported by theoretical studies using a mathematical model of Ca(2+) handling adapted to MIN6 cells. Our results suggest a putative link between ROS/RNS and disturbed pulsatile insulin secretion. PMID:26732126

  18. L'analyse in-situ par fluorescence X : une méthode adaptée à l'estimation de minéralisations en place : application aux minéralisations zincifères

    Eteradossi, Olivier


    La possibilité d'utiliser un spectromètre XRF portable pour décrire et estimer une minéralisation avant abattage est étudiée en laboratoire puis sur des ces pratiques de prospection et d'exploitation. La détermination de le géométrie et l'estimation de la teneur d'un volume en place sont des processus indispensables à la bonne marche d'une exploitation minière. Ces informatlons, qui permettent de mieux gérer l'exploitation, soIt en engageant peu de frais de productIon pour des volumes non ren...

  19. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru


    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  20. Approche métallogénique du "Greenstone Belt" de Bogoin (RCA). Sa minéralisation en or

    Biandja, Jean


    La minéralisation aurifère primaire du secteur de Bogoin se présente sous forme d'un stockwerk quartzeux de direction N-S encaissé dans des roches vertes. Ces dernières appartiennent à une série métamorphique (limite faciès schistes verts-amphibolite) plissée en un synclinorium de direction N-S qui dessine un "doigt de gant" dans un vaste massif granito-gneissique. La foliation principale (SP) est plan axial de cette structure. L'ensemble est réputé archéen. Le synclinal s'ennoie vers le Sud ...

  1. Fine structure of strength function for β+/EC decay of 160gHo (25.6 min)

    A strength function for the β+/EC decay of the deformed 160gHo (25.6 min) nucleus has been obtained from the experimental data. The fine structure of the strength function Sβ(E) is analyzed. It is found to have a pronounced resonant structure for Gamow-Teller transitions. In Sβ(E) with μτ=+1 the Gamow-Teller resonance is observed to split into two components. This splitting is associated with anisotropy of isovector density oscillation in deformed nuclei. The β+/EC strength function for first-forbidden transitions is obtained in the Coulomb (ξ) approximation. It is shown that Sβ(E) for first-forbidden transitions does not have a pronounced resonant structure

  2. Behçet's pulmonary artery aneurysms treated with infliximab and monitored with the 6-min walk test.

    Kotecha, Jalpa; Kamath, Ajay V; Mukhtyar, Chetan


    Pulmonary involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) is uncommon; however, it is potentially fatal due to the risk of massive haemoptysis. We describe the case of a 36-year-old male presenting with a 2-month history of worsening dyspnoea, weight loss, haemoptysis, oral ulceration, erythema nodosum and superficial thrombophlebitis. He was diagnosed with pulmonary vasculitis secondary to BD; however, his symptoms were refractory to initial treatment with cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone. We therefore trialled infliximab alongside methotrexate, which led to a remarkable improvement in his condition, enabling eventual discontinuation of prednisolone. Whilst not being one of the treatments currently recommended for managing pulmonary involvement in BD, infliximab has previously been successfully used in cases refractory to conventional therapy. We used the 6-min walk test (distance covered and lowest oxygen saturations) to monitor his progress, which correlated with his symptoms. This may represent a useful adjunct in monitoring the activity of pulmonary vasculitis. PMID:27123312

  3. On the origin of the conductance asymmetry in CeMIn5 (M=Co, Rh, Ir)

    Asymmetric differential conductance has been frequently observed in heavy fermion point-contact junctions. We report such data obtained from the Ce-based 1-1-5 compounds CeMIn5 (M=Co, Rh, Ir). Apart from characteristics due to superconductivity or antiferromagnetism, a striking common feature is an asymmetry in the background conductance, which shows nontrivial temperature and voltage dependencies. These behaviors cannot be explained by the local heating model combined with large Seebeck effect in heavy fermions. We propose that a Fano-like interference may cause the asymmetry. The interference can occur between two conductance channels, one into the conduction band and the other into the heavy electron band formed by the hybridization of conduction electrons with localized f-electrons.

  4. Professor QIN Min's Acupuncture Holistic Therapies System%秦敏针灸整体疗法体系初探

    曾科学; 李敏; 文希; 姚国新; 孙维正; 史琳琳


    整体观念是中医理论体系的主要特点之一,针灸疗法的核心也是整体观念.秦敏教授系全国第四批名老中医学术经验继承人,在临床实践中总结出针灸整体疗法,文章从理、法、方、术等四个方面对秦敏教授针灸整体疗法理论体系进行了初探和总结.在整体观念的指导下,确定安神醒脑头皮针、调气扶阳腹针、太阳夹督围刺法三大特色针灸方法,以秦氏飞针术调和阴阳,贯通任督,整体调节,达到治疗的目的.%The holism is one of the main characteristics of the theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine,the core concept of acupuncture therapy is holism.Professor QIN Min is the fourth batch of national academic experience of famous Chinese medicine heir,in clinical practice of acupuncture therapy and has summed up the acupuncture holism.This article is to discuss and summary acupuncture holistic theory of Professor QIN Min from four aspects including theory,rule,method,technology.In the overall concept,three characteristics acupuncture,that is Anshenxingnao scalp needle,Tiaoqifuyang abdominal acupuncture,Taiyangjiadu surrounded needling method,are determined.Qinshifeizhenshu can be used to balance Yin and Yang,through Ren and Du meridians,regulating the whole condition,and achieving the purpose of treatment.

  5. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3.0 T MR imaging: quantitative and qualitative comparison of hepatocyte-phase images obtained 10 min and 20 min after injection for the detection of liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    To compare quantitatively and qualitatively hepatocyte-phase images obtained 10 and 20 min (Images-10, and Images-20) after injection of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) to detect liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma on 3.0 T MR imaging. A total of 48 patients (26 men, 22 women; mean age, 64 years) with 88 histopathologically confirmed liver metastases underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Tumour-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal intensity gain (SIG) of liver parenchyma and overall image quality were analysed. Two radiologists independently reviewed two sets of MR images: set 1, unenhanced (T1- and T2-weighted), dynamic images and Images-10; set 2, unenhanced, dynamic and Images-20. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) to detect liver metastases, and diagnostic performance using the alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics (AFROC) method were calculated. The mean tumour-to-liver CNR, SIG of liver parenchyma and overall image quality on Images-20 were significantly higher than those on Images-10. The overall image quality of ''fair to excellent'' was achieved on both images in 93.8% of the patients. Sensitivity, PPV and area under the AFROC curve on set 1 were similar to set 2, including lesions <1 cm. In detecting liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma, Images-10 could replace Images-20 in 3.0 T MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. IL-6 regulation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial remodeling during cancer cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mouse

    White James P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle protein turnover regulation during cancer cachexia is being rapidly defined, and skeletal muscle mitochondria function appears coupled to processes regulating muscle wasting. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and the expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics are disrupted in severely cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. It has not been determined if these changes occur at the onset of cachexia and are necessary for the progression of muscle wasting. Exercise and anti-cytokine therapies have proven effective in preventing cachexia development in tumor bearing mice, while their effect on mitochondrial content, biogenesis and dynamics is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to 1 determine IL-6 regulation on mitochondrial remodeling/dysfunction during the progression of cancer cachexia and 2 to determine if exercise training can attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and the induction of proteolytic pathways during IL-6 induced cancer cachexia. Methods ApcMin/+ mice were examined during the progression of cachexia, after systemic interleukin (IL-6r antibody treatment, or after IL-6 over-expression with or without exercise. Direct effects of IL-6 on mitochondrial remodeling were examined in cultured C2C12 myoblasts. Results Mitochondrial content was not reduced during the initial development of cachexia, while muscle PGC-1α and fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 protein expression was repressed. With progressive weight loss mitochondrial content decreased, PGC-1α and fusion proteins were further suppressed, and fission protein (FIS1 was induced. IL-6 receptor antibody administration after the onset of cachexia improved mitochondrial content, PGC-1α, Mfn1/Mfn2 and FIS1 protein expression. IL-6 over-expression in pre-cachectic mice accelerated body weight loss and muscle wasting, without reducing mitochondrial content, while PGC-1α and Mfn1/Mfn2 protein expression was suppressed and FIS1 protein expression

  7. Lichens as possible agents of sandstone deterioration in Jesuitic ruins of San Ignacio Miní (Misiones Province, Argentina

    Rosato, V. G.


    Full Text Available The ruins of San Ignacio Miní, in NE Argentina, Misiones Province, included by the UNESCO in the list of World Heritage in 1984, were built in the 18th century by the Guarani people under the supervision of the Jesuite Congregation. The ruins are located in a tropical weather zone, exposed to extreme conditions of heat and humidity affecting the rocks used in its construction. These rocks are identified as siliceous sandstones, mainly formed by rounded to subrounded clasts, with scarce angulose particles, containing 96% quartz. Weather characteristics encourage the growth of vascular plants as well as algae and mosses and other organisms that damage materials. Among these, there are 18 lichen species (belonging to 18 genera, 8 foliose, 3 fruticose and 7 crustose. The damaging action of these lichens has been observed through SEM observations and EDAX microanalysis of rock samples colonized by Caloplaca sp. and Buellia sp.

    Incluidas en la lista de Patrimonio Mundial por la UNESCO, las ruinas de San Ignacio Miní, en el NE de Argentina, provincia de Misiones, fueron construidas en el siglo XVIII por pobladores guaraníes supervisados por la Compañía de Jesús. Las ruinas se encuentran en una zona de clima tropical, expuestas a condiciones extremas de calor y humedad que alteran a las rocas empleadas en su construcción. Estas rocas se identifican como areniscas silíceas, formadas por clastos redondeados a sub-redondeados, con escasas partículas angulosas, con un contenido de 96,0% cuarzo. Las características del clima favorecen el desarrollo tanto de plantas vasculares como también de musgos, algas y otros organismos capaces de dañar a los materiales. Entre éstos se incluyen 18 especies de líquenes (pertenecientes a 18 géneros, 8 foliosos, 3 fruticosos y 7 crustosos. Las observaciones con SEM y los microanálisis EDE de muestras de roca colonizadas por Caloplaca sp. y Buellia sp sugieren que estos líquenes ejercen una acci

  8. MicroSISAK. Continuous liquid-liquid extractions of radionuclides at ≥ 0.2 mL/min

    Continuous liquid-liquid extraction of short-lived radionuclides has traditionally been performed with the SISAK system consisting of static mixers and H-centrifuges for phase separation. SISAK operates at flow rates of typically 1 mL/s. Thus, it produces large volumes of radioactive liquid waste that is difficult to dispose of. Therefore, it has been aimed to develop and use a further miniaturised extraction unit based on microtechnology and precision engineering to reduce the flow rate by at least two orders of magnitude. The accordingly developed MicroSISAK device is a micro membrane extractor in which a micromixer element with 2 x 16 feed channels of 30 μm width followed by a 60 μm high mixing chamber is used for intimately contacting the aqueous and organic phase. Subsequent phase separation is achieved via hydrophobic Teflon membranes with a pore size of 1 μm. The MicroSISAK device has been tested and optimized with radiotracers of the group-4 elements Zr and Hf in the system H2SO4/trioctyl amine (TOA) in toluene. At a temperature of 58 C and a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min of both phases, extraction yields of 87 ± 3% were achieved. The transport time from the micromixer to the first Teflon membrane was in this case 3.9s. It can be shortened to 1.56s at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Under similar conditions, the extraction yield of 99mTc milked from a 99Mo generator in the system HNO3/tetraphenyl arsonium chloride (TPAC) in chloroform was 83 ± 3%. In an on-line experiment at the TRIGA Mainz reactor, short-lived Tc isotopes produced in the fission of 235U with thermal neutrons were transported by a He/KCl gas-jet to the chemistry apparatus, deposited by impaction, dissolved in 0.01 mol/L HNO3/KBrO3, and extracted into 10-4 mol/L TPAC in chloroform in MicroSISAK. The separated phases were transported via capillaries to two separate flow-through cells positioned in front of two Ge detectors. The extraction yield determined as the ratio of the Tc γ-ray activities in

  9. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín


    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise. PMID:26307519

  10. Recent fully non-inductive operation results in Tore Supra with 6 min, 1 GJ plasma discharges

    The experimental programme of Tore Supra, the largest superconducting tokamak in the world (a = 0.72 m, R = 2.4 m, Ip T < 4.5 T) was devoted in 2003 to studying the heat removal capability and particle exhaust in steady-state fully non-inductive current drive discharges simultaneously. This required both advanced technology integration and steady-state real-time plasma control. In particular, an improvement of the plasma position to within a range of few millimetres, and new real-time controls of radio frequency power and various actuators built around a shared memory network, have allowed Tore Supra to access a powerful steady-state regime with an improved safety level for the actively cooled plasma facing components. Feedback controlled fully non-inductive plasma discharges have been sustained in a steady-state regime for up to 6 min with a new world record for injected-extracted energy exceeding 1 GJ. Experimental results and an analysis of the physics involved in these discharges are reported and discussed. (author)