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Calibración del separador magnético de alta intensidad magnet-lift mlh (13) 111-5 para su uso en el laboratorio de termocronología de la UCV  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta la calibración del separador magnético de alta intensidad Magnet-lift MLH (13) 111-5 existente en el Laboratorio de Termocronología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela con la finalidad de separar magnéticamente minerales pertenecientes a areniscas y muestras granítica [...] s para su posterior fechado por el método de huellas de fisión. Los resultados obtenidos de esta calibración fueron aplicados a una muestra de 10 kilogramos pertenecientes a unaconcentración inicial de minerales de la Formación Betijoque del flanco norte de Los Andes Venezolanos. Se concluye que el Magnet-lift presenta amplias ventajas con respecto a los separadores magnéticos convencionales y además optimiza el tiempo de procesamiento de rocas detríticas que posteriormente serán fechadas por el método de datación empleado eneste laboratorio con el fin de discriminar la edad del último evento tecto-térmico ocurrido en la zona de estudio. Abstract in english In this article we present the calibration of a high intensity Magnet-lift MLH (13) 111-5 magnetic separator located in the Thermochronology Laboratory of the Universidad Central de Venezuela with the purpose of magnetically separating minerals of sandstone and granite samples to be subsequently sub [...] jected to the fission track dating method (FTDM). The results of this calibration were applied to 10 kilogram sample belonging to an initial concentration of minerals of Betijoque´s Formation on the north flank of Venezuelans Andes. We conclude that the Magnet-lift presents a number of advantages with regard to conventional magnetic separators as well as optimizing the preparation time of detritic rocks for their dating by the fission track method.

A, MAURICIO; CELLA, BERMÚDEZ; RAQUEL C, ANAYA.

2

Multistage magnetic particle separator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Significant motion of a particle suspended in a fluid in a magnetic field requires steep gradients and hence short migration distances. Recognizing this constraint a magnetic particle separator was designed to classify particles on the basis of magnetophoretic mobility. Multiple short migration paths were achieved by using a multistage extractor, which draws particles out of a feed cuvette using an increasing magnetic driving force at each stage.

Todd, Paul E-mail: ptodd@shot.com; Cooper, Ryan P.; Doyle, John F.; Dunn, Scott; Vellinger, John; Deuser, Mark S

2001-07-01

3

Multistage magnetic particle separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant motion of a particle suspended in a fluid in a magnetic field requires steep gradients and hence short migration distances. Recognizing this constraint a magnetic particle separator was designed to classify particles on the basis of magnetophoretic mobility. Multiple short migration paths were achieved by using a multistage extractor, which draws particles out of a feed cuvette using an increasing magnetic driving force at each stage

4

Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This Ph.D. thesis presents theory, modeling, design, fabrication, experiments and results for microfluidic magnetic separators. A model for magnetic bead movement in a microfluidic channel is presented, and the limits of the model are discussed. The effective magnetic field gradient is defined, and it is argued that it is a good measure, when comparing the performance of magnetic bead separators. It is described how numeric modelling is used to aid the design of microfluidic magnetic separation systems. An example of a design optimization study is given. A robust fabrication scheme has been developed for fabrication of silicon based systems. This fabrication scheme is explained, and it is shown how, it is applied with variations for several designs of magnetic separators. An experimental setup for magnetic separation experiments has been developed. It has been coupled with an image analysis program to facilitate real-time monitoring of the experiments. The set-up and experimental protocol are described in detail. Results are presented for ’active’ magnetic bead separators, where on-chip microfabricated electromagnets supply the magnetic field and field gradients necessary for magnetic bead separation. It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside a microfluidic channel. Systems with the elements placed beside the microfluidic channel is combined with hydrodynamic focusing to demonstrate a magnetic bead microarray inside a microfluidic channel. Systems where the on-chip magnetic material is placed underneath the microfluidic channel are also presented. One of these designs feature multiple magnetic length scales, and it is shown that this enhances bead capture ability. A ’hybrid’ magnetic separator design, where the magnetic field from on-chip current lines couples with an externally applied homogenous field to create strong fields and gradients is demonstrated. This gives extra magnetic bead manipulation possibilities compared to the passive designs. It is demonstrated how this can be used for magnetic bead microarrays. Finally, it is discussed, based on the research presented in this thesis, how to further develop magnetic separation systems in microfluidic systems, and recommendations are given for the choice of magnetic design based on the desired application.

Smistrup, Kristian

2007-01-01

5

Magnetic separation for soil decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology

6

Continuous magnetic separator and process  

Science.gov (United States)

A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

Oder, Robin R. (Export, PA); Jamison, Russell E. (Lower Burrell, PA)

2008-04-22

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Magnetic separation for environmental remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO2, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS

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Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

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Magnetic separations: From steel plants to biotechnology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic separations have for decades been essential processes in diverse industries ranging from steel production to coal desulfurization. In such settings magnetic fields are used in continuous flow processes as filters to remove magnetic impurities. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) has found even broader use in wastewater treatment and food processing. Batch scale magnetic separations are also relevant in industry, particularly biotechnology where fixed magnetic separators are used to purify complex mixtures for protein isolation, cell separation, drug delivery, and biocatalysis. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts behind magnetic separations and summarize a few examples of its large scale application. HGMS systems and batch systems for magnetic separations have been developed largely in parallel by different communities. However, in this work we compare and contrast each approach so that investigators can approach both key areas. Finally, we discuss how new advances in magnetic materials, particularly on the nanoscale, as well as magnetic filter design offer new opportunities for industries that have challenging separation problems.

Cafer T. Yavuz; Arjun Prakash; J.T. Mayo; Vicki L. Colvin [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemistry

2009-05-15

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Wide Aperture Multipole Magnets of Separator COMBAS  

CERN Document Server

The high-resolving wide aperture separator COMBAS has been designed and commissioned at the FLNR, JINR. Its magneto-optical structure is based on strong focusing principle. The magnetic fields of analysing magnets M_1, M_2, M_7, M_8, contain quadrupole components of alternating sign that provide necessary beam focusing. Besides, all the magnets M_1-M_8, contain sextupole and octupole field components, which minimizes the 2nd and 3rd order aberrations. All this allowed one to increase their apertures, to effectively form a beam of the required sizes, and to decrease the channel length. This implementation of wide aperture magnets with combined functions is unique for the separation technology. Three-components magnetic measurements of all the magnets were performed. The measured data allow reconstructing the 3D-distributions of the fields in all the magnets. 3D-maps are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator.

Artukh, A G; Gridnev, G F; Gruszecki, M; Koscielniak, F; Semchenkova, O V; Sereda, Yu M; Shchepunov, V A; Szmider, J; Teterev, Yu G; Severgin, Yu P; Rozhdestvensky, B V; Myasnikov, Yu A; Shilkin, N F; Lamzin, E A; Nagaenko, M G; Sytchevsky, S E; Vishnevski, I N

2000-01-01

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Microfabricated Passive Magnetic Bead separators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use and manipulation of functionalized magnetic beads for bioanalysis in lab-on-a-chip systems is receiving growing interest. We have developed microfluidic systems with integrated magnetic structures for the capture and release of magnetic beads. The systems are fabricated in silicon by deep reactive ion etching combined with a number of metal deposition and etching steps followed by anodic bonding of a pyrex lid.

Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Lund-Olesen, Torsten

2006-01-01

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Particle acceleration at a reconnecting magnetic separator  

CERN Document Server

While the exact acceleration mechanism of energetic particles during solar flares is (as yet) unknown, magnetic reconnection plays a key role both in the release of stored magnetic energy of the solar corona and the magnetic restructuring during a flare. Recent work has shown that special field lines, called separators, are common sites of reconnection in 3D numerical experiments. To date, 3D separator reconnection sites have received little attention as particle accelerators. We investigate the effectiveness of separator reconnection as a particle acceleration mechanism for electrons and protons. We study the particle acceleration using a relativistic guiding-centre particle code in a time-dependent kinematic model of magnetic reconnection at a separator. The effect upon particle behaviour of initial position, pitch angle and initial kinetic energy are examined in detail, both for specific (single) particle examples and for large distributions of initial conditions. The separator reconnection model contains ...

Threlfall, J; Parnell, C E; Oskoui, S Eradat

2014-01-01

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A PURPOSE ORIENTED MAGNETIC SEPARATOR: SKIMMER  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A magnetic separator was designed to selectively separate fine-liberated magnetite. The conceptual design was simulated using CFD techniques. A separator tank was fabricated and a magnetic drum was used to capture magnetic particles. The initial tank design was modified to eliminate application oriented problems. The new separator was able to produce a fine product as a concentrate at relatively high feed rates. A plant simulation showed that such a device could lower circulating loads around ball mills by 16%, thereby creating room for a 5-8% increase in throughput at the same energy level. However, it was concluded that further improvements in terms of both size and mineral selectivity are needed to have a marketable product.

Salih Ersayin

2005-08-09

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Microfluidic magnetic separator using an array of soft magnetic elements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present the design, fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of a new passive magnetic bead separator. The device operates in an effective state when magnetized by an external magnetic field of only 50 mT, which is available from a tabletop electromagnet. We demonstrate the complete capture of 1.0 mu m fluorescent magnetic beads from a 7.5 mu L sample volume traveling at an average linear fluid velocity of 5 mm/s.

Smistrup, Kristian; Lund-Olesen, Torsten

2006-01-01

15

Magnetically induced separation of stable emulsions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of recovering oil from fine, stable oil-in- water emulsions by magnetic means. Emulsions in which the oil phase was rendered magnetically responsive by the addition of a ferrofluid were passed through packed beds (containing magnetic particles and/or screens) placed in a magnetic field. The oil content of the effluent stream was typically 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the oil content of the feed emulsion. The influence of various operating parameters including bed height, flow rate, oil magnetization, and magnetic field strength were systematically evaluated. The results demonstrated that it is possible to attain virtually complete removal of particles of the order of one micron in diameter with a static separation device (magnetic demulsifier) using residence times of the order of a fraction of a minute.

Kaiser, R.; Miskolczy, G.; Mir, L.; Colton, C.K.

1972-01-01

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Magnetic separation of uranium from waste materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in a deflective mode with dry particulate samples or a matrix-gradient mode with either dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both wet and dry systems and could be an important application of the technology. 13 figs., 6 tabs

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HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L. [and others

1996-09-01

18

Magnetic phase separation in ordered alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a lattice model to study the equilibrium phase diagram of ordered alloys with one magnetic component that exhibits a low temperature phase separation between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases. The model is constructed from the experimental facts observed in Cu$_{3-x}$AlMn$_{x}$ and it includes coupling between configurational and magnetic degrees of freedom which are appropriated for reproducing the low temperature miscibility gap. The essential ingredient for...

Marcos, Jordi; Vives I Santa-eula?lia, Eduard; Casta?n I Vidal, Maria Teresa

2001-01-01

19

Multistage Magnetic Separator of Cells and Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

The multistage electromagnetic separator for purifying cells and magnetic particles (MAGSEP) is a laboratory apparatus for separating and/or purifying particles (especially biological cells) on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility and magnetophoretic mobility. Whereas a typical prior apparatus based on similar principles offers only a single stage of separation, the MAGSEP, as its full name indicates, offers multiple stages of separation; this makes it possible to refine a sample population of particles to a higher level of purity or to categorize multiple portions of the sample on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and/or magnetophoretic mobility. The MAGSEP includes a processing unit and an electronic unit coupled to a personal computer. The processing unit includes upper and lower plates, a plate-rotation system, an electromagnet, an electromagnet-translation system, and a capture-magnet assembly. The plates are bolted together through a roller bearing that allows the plates to rotate with respect to each other. An interface between the plates acts as a seal for separating fluids. A lower cuvette can be aligned with as many as 15 upper cuvette stations for fraction collection during processing. A two-phase stepping motor drives the rotation system, causing the upper plate to rotate for the collection of each fraction of the sample material. The electromagnet generates a magnetic field across the lower cuvette, while the translation system translates the electromagnet upward along the lower cuvette. The current supplied to the electromagnet, and thus the magnetic flux density at the pole face of the electromagnet, can be set at a programmed value between 0 and 1,400 gauss (0.14 T). The rate of translation can be programmed between 5 and 2,000 m/s so as to align all sample particles in the same position in the cuvette. The capture magnet can be a permanent magnet. It is mounted on an arm connected to a stepping motor. The stepping motor rotates the arm to position the capture magnet above the upper cuvette into which a fraction of the sample is collected. The electronic unit includes a power switch, power-supply circuitry that accepts 110-Vac input power, an RS-232 interface, and status lights. The personal computer runs the MAGSEP software and controls the operation of the MAGSEP through the RS-232 interface. The status of the power, the translating electromagnet, the capture magnet, and the rotation of the upper plate are indicated in a graphical user interface on the computer screen.

Barton, Ken; Ainsworth, Mark; Daily, Bruce; Dunn, Scott; Metz, Bill; Vellinger, John; Taylor, Brock; Meador, Bruce

2005-01-01

20

Dual magnetic separator for TRI?P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The TRI?P facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. Direct reactions, fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions in normal and inverse kinematics are foreseen to produce nuclides of interest with a variety of heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an ion catcher, i.e., gas-filled stopper/cooler or thermal ionizer, from which a low energy radioactive beam will be extracted. The separator performance was tested with the production and clean separation of 21Na ions, where a beam purity of 99.5% could be achieved. For fusion-evaporation products, some of the features of its operation as a gas-filled recoil separator were tested

 
 
 
 
21

Isotope separation utilizing Zeeman compensated magnetic extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method and apparatus are described for creating a plasma of ions of one isotope type and magnetically extracting the ions from the plasma without impairing the ionization selectivity and efficiency. In a particle flow of plural isotope types, radiant energy is applied to selectively excite and ionize ions of at least one isotope type without corresponding ionization of particles of other isotope types. A magnetic field is applied to divert the ions of the one isotope type sufficiently to permit separate collection of those ions without the other particle constituents of the flow. The system of the invention balances the requirements for a high magnetic field to provide sufficient diversion before charge exchange with the requirement for a limited magnetic field to prevent interference with the selective ionization process due to Zeeman broadening of the isotope absorption lines. 25 claims, 8 drawing figures

22

Medical protein separation system using high gradient magnetic separation by superconducting magnet  

Science.gov (United States)

A high gradient magnetic separation system for medical protein using affinity magnetic nano-beads has been developed. Medical protein such as monoclonal antibody or immunoglobulin is an important substance as a medicine for cancer etc. However; the separation system of these medical protein has very low separation rate and the cost of product is extremely high. The developed system shows very high separation efficiency and can achieve low cost by large production rate compared to the system now using in this field. The system consists of a 3T superconducting magnet cooled by a cryo-cooler, a filter made of fine magnetic metal wires of about 30?m diameter and a demagnetization circuit and a liquid circulation pump for solvent containing medical protein. Affinity magnetic nano-beads is covered with the medical protein after agitation of solvent containing the protein and nano-beads, then the solvent flows through the system and the beads are trapped in the filters by high gradient magnetic field. The beads are released and flow out of the system by the AC demagnetization of the filters using LC resonance circuits after discharge of the magnet. The test results shows 97.8% of the magnetic nano-beads in pure water were captured and 94.1% of total beads were collected.

Kamioka, Y.; Agatsuma, K.; Kajikawa, K.; Ueda, H.; Furuse, M.; Fuchino, S.; Iitsuka, T.; Nakamura, S.

2014-01-01

23

Environmental clean-up by magnetic separation. Volume reduction of contaminated soil by superconducting magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants released radioactive materials in the environment. For the decontamination of the Cs 137 contaminated soils, the present author proposes to use the magnetic separation method to classify the contaminated soils into clay or silt stones and the gravel sands while it is known that most radioactive cesium combines tightly with finer particulates (clay stones) to be stored or repositioned and the rest to be back-filled. Molecular mechanism for cesium ion adsorption with clay minerals is discussed. It is confirmed that the present superconducting magnetic separation method is useful and efficient for reducing the volume of decontaminated soils. (S. Ohno)

24

Wet high-intensity magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10-6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration

25

Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

26

MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments. PMID:21306886

De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

2011-07-01

27

Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 10(8) particles/hr. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3275577

Bruus, Henrik

2009-01-01

28

Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

Nakai, Y., E-mail: y-nakai@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Division of Suitable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Division of Suitable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-11-01

29

Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

30

Magnetic separation of micro-spheres from viscous biological fluids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A magnetically based detoxification system is being developed as a therapeutic tool for selective and rapid removal of biohazards, i.e. chemicals and radioactive substances, from human blood. One of the key components of this system is a portable magnetic separator capable of separating polymer-based magnetic nano/micro-spheres from arterial blood flow in an ex vivo unit. The magnetic separator consists of an array of alternating and parallel capillary tubing and magnetizable wires, which is exposed to an applied magnetic field created by two parallel permanent magnets such that the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the wires and the fluid flow. In this paper, the performance of this separator was evaluated via preliminary in vitro flow experiments using a separator unit consisting of single capillary glass tubing and two metal wires. Pure water, ethylene glycol-water solution (v:v = 39:61 and v:v = 49:51) and human whole blood were used as the fluids. The results showed that when the viscosity increased from 1.0 cp to 3.0 cp, the capture efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 56%. However, it is still feasible to obtain >90% CE in blood flow if the separator design is optimized to create higher magnetic gradients and magnetic fields in the separation area.

Chen Haitao [Department of Neurology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kaminski, Michael D [Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Caviness, Patricia L [Department of Neurology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Liu Xianqiao [Department of Neurology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Dhar, Promila [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Torno, Michael [Department of Neurology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rosengart, Axel J [Department of Neurology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2007-02-21

31

Magnetic separation of micro-spheres from viscous biological fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetically based detoxification system is being developed as a therapeutic tool for selective and rapid removal of biohazards, i.e. chemicals and radioactive substances, from human blood. One of the key components of this system is a portable magnetic separator capable of separating polymer-based magnetic nano/micro-spheres from arterial blood flow in an ex vivo unit. The magnetic separator consists of an array of alternating and parallel capillary tubing and magnetizable wires, which is exposed to an applied magnetic field created by two parallel permanent magnets such that the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the wires and the fluid flow. In this paper, the performance of this separator was evaluated via preliminary in vitro flow experiments using a separator unit consisting of single capillary glass tubing and two metal wires. Pure water, ethylene glycol-water solution (v:v = 39:61 and v:v = 49:51) and human whole blood were used as the fluids. The results showed that when the viscosity increased from 1.0 cp to 3.0 cp, the capture efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 56%. However, it is still feasible to obtain >90% CE in blood flow if the separator design is optimized to create higher magnetic gradients and magnetic fields in the separation area.

Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D.; Caviness, Patricia L.; Xianqiao, Liu; Dhar, Promila; Torno, Michael; Rosengart, Axel J.

2007-02-01

32

Feasibility of magnetic chromatography for ultra-fine particle separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new technique that uses magnetic chromatography for continuous separation of ultrafine particles (i.e. -3 and a diameter of about 100 to 150 A. Our magnetic chromatography can be done by applying flow fractionation to the concentration distribution in a channel from 5 to 50 ?m thick and using embedded ferromagnetic wires from 2 to 20 ?m in diameter. A simplified numerical simulation of our magnetic chromatography technique suggests the potential of separating very weak paramagnetic materials (e.g., a nuclear fuel element and Nd) which we have not been able to deal with through the conventional high-gradient magnetic separation techniques. (author)

33

Characteristics of magnetic field induction inside a module of a magnetic separator ?????????????? ???????? ???? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characteristics of magnetic separators are analyzed in the article. Magnetic separators are used to treat various construction materials. Unfortunately, the nature of the magnetic field, generated in their operating zone, is generally not taken into account by their designers. Academic publications fail to provide any detailed basic characteristics of the field induction emitted by magnetic separators in the course of their operation.Magnetic systems of any magnetic separator have a modular structure; they consist of several modules. Single and opposite magnetic elements are usually integrated into one module within a system having permanent magnets. If opposite magnetic elements are used, magnetic field intensity inside the module increases.In this study, characteristics of magnetic induction for single magnetic elements inside various modules of magnetic separators were assessed in a laboratory experiment. Similar characteristics of magnetic induction for single and twin (opposite magnetic elements were compared. In the module consisting of two opposed magnetic elements, the magnetic field becomes stronger compared to the field of a single magnetic element. Magnetic induction in the module recedes as the distance between magnetic elements increases, because of the isolation of the field generated by the opposed magnetic elements.The authors have proven the feasibility and expediency of employment of the superposition principle used to obtain the resulting characteristics. It may be employed to substitute modeling by calculations.???????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????. ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ? ??????, ????????? ? ???? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????, ???? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ???? ?? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? «??????????» ????????? ?????, ??????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????.???????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ???? ????? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????.

Sandulyak Anna Aleksandrovna

2013-05-01

34

Separation characteristics for fine coal of the magnetically fluidized bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dry beneficiation technology with an air dense medium fluidized bed is briefly introduced. Systems for the dry separation of fine coal consisting of a magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) as separation medium are described. The magnetic stabilization produces homogeneity and stability of the fluidized bed and thus enhances the separation efficiency by preventing remixing of the feedstock to be separated. Experiments have been conducted in a 100-mm inner diameter cylinder and results show that a uniform and stable MFB can be formed and fine coal (<6 mm size) can be separated efficiently.

Luo, Zhenfu; Zhao, Yaomin; Chen, Qingru; Fan, Maoming; Tao, Xiuxiang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu 221008 Xuzhou (China)

2002-08-20

35

The separation of magnetite from dilute slurries by a magnetic separator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetite, which is used in heavy media separation, can be regenerated to almost original conditions. The method of recovery is generally by using a magnetic separator. This paper discusses the investigation in a pilot plant in which the separation of magnetite from dilute slurries was studied. 1 fig.

Bonapace, A.C.; Segvic, T.M.; du Toit, P.

1988-12-01

36

Remediation of Hanford tank waste using magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large volumes of high-level radioactive waste are stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. Magnetic separation, a physical separation, process, can be used to segregate actinides and certain fission products from the waste. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) tests have been performed successfully using a simulated, nonradioactive underground storage tank (UST) waste. Variations in HGMS test parameters included separator matrix material, magnetic field strength, slurry surfactant, and slurry solids loading. Cerium was added to the simulated tank waste to act as a uranium surrogate. Results show that over 77% of the uranium surrogate can be captured and concentrated from the original bulk with a simple procedure. The results of these tests and the feasibility of magnetic separation for pretreatment of UST waste are discussed

37

A High-Throughput SU-8Microfluidic Magnetic Bead Separator  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a novel microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on SU-8 fabrication technique for high through-put applications. The experimental results show that magnetic beads can be captured at an efficiency of 91 % and 54 % at flow rates of 1 mL/min and 4 mL/min, respectively. Integration of soft magnetic elements in the chip leads to a slightly higher capturing efficiency and a more uniform distribution of captured beads over the separation chamber than the system without soft magnetic elements.

Bu, Minqiang; Smistrup, Kristian

2007-01-01

38

Electron spin separation without magnetic field.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nanodevice capable of separating spins of two electrons confined in a quantum dot formed in a gated semiconductor nanowire is proposed. Two electrons confined initially in a single quantum dot in the singlet state are transformed into the system of two electrons confined in two spatially separated quantum dots with opposite spins. In order to separate the electrons' spins we exploit transitions between the singlet and the triplet state, which are induced by resonantly oscillating Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength. The proposed device is all electrically controlled and the electron spin separation can be realized within tens of picoseconds. The results are supported by solving numerically the quasi-one-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for two electrons, where the electron-electron correlations are taken into account in the exact manner. PMID:25106038

Paw?owski, J; Szumniak, P; Skubis, A; Bednarek, S

2014-08-27

39

Application of HTS bulk magnet system to the magnetic separation techniques for water purification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the application of the HTS bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques for the waste water drained from the university laboratories. The study has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. A superconducting bulk magnet has the highest value of the trapped magnetic fields at the centre of the sample surface, showing a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface. Magnetic force acting on magnetic particles in magnetic fields is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field. The HTS bulk is superior to a solenoid magnet which has a poor gradient in magnetic fields in a bore. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method which requires iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without any filters. The magnetic separation using HTS bulk magnet is substantially effective for the practical water purification

40

Magnetically activated micromixers for separation membranes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented here is a radically novel approach to reduce concentration polarization and, potentially, also fouling by colloids present in aqueous feeds: magnetically responsive micromixing membranes. Hydrophilic polymer chains, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), were grafted via controlled surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on the surface of polyamide composite nanofiltration (NF) membranes and then end-capped with superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles. The results of all functionalization steps, that is, bromide ATRP initiator immobilization, SI-ATRP, conversion of PHEMA end groups from bromide to amine, and carboxyl-functional Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle immobilization via peptide coupling, have been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). These nanoparticles experience a magnetic force as well as a torque under an oscillating external magnetic field. It has been shown, using particle image velocimetry (PIV), that the resulting movement of the polymer brushes at certain magnetic field frequencies induces mixing directly above the membrane surface. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that with such membranes the NF performance could significantly be improved (increase of flux and salt rejection) by an oscillating magnetic field, which can be explained by a reduced concentration polarization in the boundary layer. However, the proof-of-concept presented here for the active alteration of macroscopic flow via surface-anchored micromixers based on polymer-nanoparticle conjugates has much broader implications. PMID:21462955

Himstedt, Heath H; Yang, Qian; Dasi, L Prasad; Qian, Xianghong; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Ulbricht, Mathias

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic separator vessel (1) for separating magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluid includes a separation chamber having an interior and exterior wall, a top and bottom portion; a magnet (3) having first and second poles (2) positioned adjacent to the exterior wall, wherein the first pole is substantially diametrically opposed to the second pole; a inlet port (5) is directed into the top portion of the separation chamber, wherein the inlet port (5) is positioned adjacent to one of the first and second poles (2), wherein the inlet port (5) is adapted to transfer a mixture into the separation chamber; an underflow port (6) in communication with the bottom portion, wherein the underflow port (6) is adapted to receive the magnetic particles; and an overflow port (9) in communication with the separation chamber, wherein the overflow port (9) is adapted to receive the non-magnetic fluid.

Oder, Robin R. (Export, PA); Jamison, Russell E. (Lower Burrell, PA)

2010-02-09

42

Separation and acceleration of magnetic monopole analogs in semiconductor microcavities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Half-integer topological defects in polariton condensates can be regarded as magnetic charges, with respect to built-in effective magnetic fields present in microcavities. We show how an integer topological defect can be separated into a pair of half-integer ones, paving the way for flows of magnetic charges: spin currents or magnetricity. We discuss the corresponding experimental implementation within microwires (with half-solitons) and planar microcavities (with half-vortices). (paper)

43

Study on magnetic separation system using high Tc superconducting bulk magnets for water purification technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of superconducting bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques has been investigated for the Mn-bearing waste water drained from the university laboratories. The research has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates including Mn element in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with ferromagnetic iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without them. As the magnetic force acting on the particles is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field, and a superconducting bulk magnet shows a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface, the performances of the bulk magnet system were almost equivalent to those of the superconducting solenoid magnet with wide bore with respect to the magnetic separation ratios. The separation ratios for Mn have reached over 80 % for HGMS and 10 % for OGMS under the flow rates less than 3 liter/min.

44

Superconducting magnetic separation device and operation method thereof  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention is useful as a technique for purifying liquid from a reprocessing step for spent nuclear fuels. That is, taking advantages of superconducting magnetic separation technique, desorption operation of fine particles in the liquid to be processed is facilitated. Superconducting magnetic shields which can be inserted/withdrawn are disposed in a space between magnetic filters and superconducting electromagnets. The liquid to be processed is passed through the magnetic filters disposed in strong magnetic fields of the superconducting electromagnets. Fine particles in the liquid to be processed are separated by deposition onto the filter materials and separated. Accordingly, the liquid to be processed can be purified. Upon cleaning the filters, the superconducting magnetic shields are inserted and moved so as to surround the magnetic filters, to prevent the magnetic fields from exerting the filters. With such a constitution, excitation and demagnetization relative to the magnetic filters can be switched efficiently with no ON/OFF operation to electric current for superconducting coils. (I.S.)

45

Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The magnetic separation was operated for recycling the electroless plating waste. ? The HTS bulk magnet effectively attracted the ferromagnetic precipitates with Ni. ? The separation ratios over 90% were reported under flow rates up to 1.35 L/min. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni–P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min

46

Use of high gradient magnetic separation for actinide application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination of materials such as soils or waste water that contain radioactive isotopes, heavy metals, or hazardous components is a subject of great interest. Magnetic separation is a physical separation process that segregates materials on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Because the process relies on physical properties, separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Most traditional physical separation processes effectively treat particles larger than 70 microns. In many situations, the radioactive contaminants are found concentrated in the fine particle size fraction of less than 20 microns. For effective decontamination of the fine particle size fraction most current operations resort to chemical dissolution methods for treatment. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is able to effectively treat particles from 90 to ?0.1 micron in diameter. The technology is currently used on the 60 ton per hour scale in the kaolin clay industry. When the field gradient is of sufficiently high intensity, paramagnetic particles can be physically captured and separated from extraneous nonmagnetic material. Because all actinide compounds are paramagnetic, magnetic separation of actinide containing mixtures is feasible. The advent of reliable superconducting magnets also makes magnetic separation of weakly paramagnetic species attractive. HGMS work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is being developed for soil remediation, waste water treatment and treatment of actinide chemical processing residues. LANL and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) have worked on a co-operative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop HGMS for radioactive soil decontamination. The program is designed to transfer HGMS from the laboratory and other industries for the commercial treatment of radioactive contaminated materials. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

47

Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

2011-06-01

48

Iso-geometric shape optimization of magnetic density separators  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose The waste recycling industry increasingly relies on magnetic density separators. These devices generate an upward magnetic force in ferro-fluids allowing to separate the immersed particles according to their mass density. Recently, a new separator design has been proposed that significantly reduces the required amount of permanent magnet material. The purpose of this paper is to alleviate the undesired end-effects in this design by altering the shape of the ferromagnetic covers of the individual poles. Design/methodology/approach The paper represents the shape of the ferromagnetic pole covers with B-splines and defines a cost functional that measures the non-uniformity of the magnetic field in an area above the poles. The authors apply an iso-geometric shape optimization procedure, which allows us to accurately represent, analyze and optimize the geometry using only a few design variables. The design problem is regularized by imposing constraints that enforce the convexity of the pole cover shapes and is solved by a non-linear optimization procedure. The paper validates the implementation of the algorithm using a simplified variant of the design problem with a known analytical solution. The algorithm is subsequently applied to the problem posed. Findings The shape optimization attains its target and yields pole cover shapes that give rise to a magnetic field that is uniform over a larger domain. Research limitations/implications This increased magnetic field uniformity is obtained at the cost of a pole cover shape that differs per pole. This limitation has negligible impact on the manufacturing of the separator. The new pole cover shapes therefore lead to improved performance of the density separation. Practical implications Due to the larger uniformity the generated field, these shapes should enable larger amounts of waste to be processed than the previous design. Originality/value This paper treats the shapes optimization of magnetic density separators systematically and presents new shapes for the ferromagnetic poles covers.

Dang Manh, Nguyen; Evgrafov, Anton

2014-01-01

49

Process to remove actinides from soil using magnetic separation  

Science.gov (United States)

A process of separating actinide-containing components from an admixture including forming a slurry including actinide-containing components within an admixture, said slurry including a dispersion-promoting surfactant, adjusting the pH of the slurry to within a desired range, and, passing said slurry through a pretreated matrix material, said matrix material adapted to generate high magnetic field gradients upon the application of a strong magnetic field exceeding about 0.1 Tesla whereupon a portion of said actinide-containing components are separated from said slurry and remain adhered upon said matrix material is provided.

Avens, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Hill, Dallas D. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, F. Coyne (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, Walter F. (Las Cruces, NM); Tolt, Thomas L. (Los Alamos, NM); Worl, Laura A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

50

On heteroclinic separators of magnetic fields in electrically conducting fluids  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we partly solve the problem of existence of separators of a magnetic field in plasma. We single out in plasma a 3-body with a boundary in which the movement of plasma is of special kind which we call an (a-d)-motion. We prove that if the body is the 3-annulus or the "fat" orientable surface with two holes the magnetic field necessarily have a heteroclinic separator. The statement of the problem and the suggested method for its solution lead to some theoretical problems from Dynamical Systems Theory which are of interest of their own.

Grines, V; Pochinka, O; Zhuzhoma, E

2014-01-01

51

On heteroclinic separators of magnetic fields in electrically conducting fluids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we partly solve the problem of existence of separators of a magnetic field in plasma. We single out in plasma a 3-body with a boundary in which the movement of plasma is of special kind which we call an (a-d)-motion. We prove that if the body is the 3-annulus or the "fat" orientable surface with two holes the magnetic field necessarily have a heteroclinic separator. The statement of the problem and the suggested method for its solution lead to some theoretical ...

Grines, V.; Medvedev, T.; Pochinka, O.; Zhuzhoma, E.

2014-01-01

52

Dual Magnetic Separator for TRI$\\mu$P  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The TRI$\\mu$P facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. Direct reactions, fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions in normal and inverse kinematics are foreseen to produce nuclides of interest with a variety of heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an i...

Berg, G. P. A.; Dermois, O. C.; Dammalapati, U.; Harakeh, P. Dendooven M. N.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sohani, M.; Traykov, E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

2005-01-01

53

An experimental investigation of the effect of preliminary magnetization in magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of preliminary magnetization on the high-gradient magnetic separation of hematite and uranium-gold leach residues were studied. It is shown that the pre-magnetization of anti-ferromagnetic hematite can enhance the recovery of iron and the grade of the magnetic product. The effect of pre-magnetization was found to increase with decreasing particle size, the recovery from the fraction -12 ?m increasing by 11% and the grade of the magnetic concentrate by 30%. The pre-magnetization of paramagnetic uranium-gold leach residues, however, reduced the recovery of uranium. It is suggested that the behaviour of a mineral with an ordered magnetic structure is related to magnetic viscosity. The capital and operating costs of the magnet required for pre-magnetization are assessed. (orig.)

54

The study on optimization issues for magnetic separation by magnetic chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnetic chromatography is a very useful system for an ion and/or fine magnetic particle separation because it has strong magnetic field gradients even in a very narrow flow channel. We have not only developed the magnetic chromatography system to separate the fine particles and ions, but also the numerical analysis code based on the fluid dynamics and electromagnetism to investigate the separating characteristics and to optimize design of magnetic column. In this study, the simple experiments using a superconducting magnet with a large room-temperature-bore and a micro-scale magnetic column consisting of ferromagnetic wires were carried out to understand the ions separation. The cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) and the nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) were used as ions, and the magnetic field and length of magnetic column were used as a parameter in an experiment and an analysis. It can be expected that the ion mobility of a single and complex are quite different, and the ability of the separation will be improved by increasing the column length without external magnetic field.

Kim, S.B., E-mail: kim@elec.okayama-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Iwamoto, R.; Kataoka, K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1, Tsushima Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Noguchi, S. [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita14jyo, Nishi9chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Okada, H. [National Institute of Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba Magnet Laboratory, 3-13, Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan)

2010-11-01

55

Photocatalytic magnetic separable beads for chromium (VI) reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetically separable photocatalyst beads containing nano-sized iron oxide in alginate polymer were prepared. This magnetic photocatalyst beads are used in slurry-type reactors. The magnetism of the catalyst arises from the nanostructured particles gamma-Fe(2)O(3), by which the catalyst can be easily recovered by the application of an external magnetic field. These synthesized beads are sunlight-driven photocatalyst. In the system without magnetic photocatalyst beads, no chromium reduction was observed under sunlight irradiation due to the stability of the chromium (VI). Upon the addition of magnetic photocatalyst beads, the photo-reduction of Cr(VI) was completed in just after only 50min under sunlight irradiation due to the photocatalytic activity of the beads. However when placed away from sunlight, the reduction rate of the chromium is just about 10%. These observations were explained in terms of absorption occurrence of chromium (VI) onto the catalyst surface which took place in this reaction. In addition, photo-reduction rate of chromium (VI) was more significant at lower pH. The results suggest that the use of magnetic separable photocatalyst beads is a feasible strategy for eliminating Cr(VI). PMID:19963234

Idris, Ani; Hassan, Nursia; Mohd Ismail, Nur Suriani; Misran, Effaliza; Yusof, Noordin Mohd; Ngomsik, Audrey-Flore; Bee, Agnes

2010-03-01

56

Magnetic separation of iron and heavy metals from water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic separation device is being developed for removal of iron and heavy metals from water. The device consists of a column of supported magnetite surrounded by a movable permanent magnet. The mineral magnetite, or synthetically prepared iron ferrite (FeO x Fe2O3), is typically supported on various materials to permit adequate water passage through the column. In the presence of an external magnetic field, enhanced capacity was observed in using supported magnetite for removal of actinides and heavy metals from wastewater. The enhanced capacity is primarily due to magnetic filtration of colloidal and nanoscale particles along with some complex and ion exchange sorption mechanisms. This paper will review some previous work on the use of magnetite for wastewater treatment and discuss the development and potential of the magnetic nanoscale filtration/sorption process for water treatment. Recent research results are also presented on preliminary experimental studies using the process with water samples containing iron. PMID:12578170

Navratil, J D; Shing Tsair, M T

2003-01-01

57

Dual magnetic separator for TRI{mu}P  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TRI{mu}P facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. Direct reactions, fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions in normal and inverse kinematics are foreseen to produce nuclides of interest with a variety of heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an ion catcher, i.e., gas-filled stopper/cooler or thermal ionizer, from which a low energy radioactive beam will be extracted. The separator performance was tested with the production and clean separation of {sup 21}Na ions, where a beam purity of 99.5% could be achieved. For fusion-evaporation products, some of the features of its operation as a gas-filled recoil separator were tested.

Berg, G.P.A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: gpberg@bergs.com; Dermois, O.C. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dammalapati, U. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dendooven, P. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Jungmann, K. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Onderwater, C.J.G. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Rogachevskiy, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Sohani, M. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Traykov, E. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Willmann, L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

2006-05-10

58

Dual Magnetic Separator for TRI$\\mu$P  

CERN Document Server

The TRI$\\mu$P facility, under construction at KVI, requires the production and separation of short-lived and rare isotopes. Direct reactions, fragmentation and fusion-evaporation reactions in normal and inverse kinematics are foreseen to produce nuclides of interest with a variety of heavy-ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. For this purpose, we have designed, constructed and commissioned a versatile magnetic separator that allows efficient injection into an ion catcher, i.e., gas-filled stopper/cooler or thermal ionizer, from which a low energy radioactive beam will be extracted. The separator performance was tested with the production and clean separation of $^{21}$Na isotopes, where a beam purity of 99.5% could be achieved. For fusion-evaporation products, some of the features of its operation as a gas-filled recoil separator were tested.

Berg, G P A; Dammalapati, U; Harakeh, M N; Jungmann, Klaus; Onderwater, Gerco; Rogachevskiy, A; Sohani, M; Traykov, E; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

2006-01-01

59

Pair separation of magnetic elements in the quiet Sun  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic properties of the quiet Sun photosphere can be investigated by analyzing the pair dispersion of small-scale magnetic fields (i.e., magnetic elements). By using 25 h-long Hinode magnetograms at high spatial resolution (0.3 arcsec), we tracked 68 490 magnetic element pairs within a supergranular cell near the disk center. The computed pair separation spectrum, calculated on the whole set of particle pairs independently of their initial separation, points out what is known as a super-diffusive regime with spectral index ? = 1.55 ± 0.05, in agreement with the most recent literature, but extended to unprecedented spatial and temporal scales (from granular to supergranular). Furthermore, for the first time, we investigated here the spectrum of the mean square displacement of pairs of magnetic elements, depending on their initial separation r0. We found that there is a typical initial distance above (below) which the pair separation is faster (slower) than the average. A possible physical interpretation of such a typical spatial scale is also provided.

Giannattasio, F.; Berrilli, F.; Biferale, L.; Del Moro, D.; Sbragaglia, M.; Bellot Rubio, L.; Goši?, M.; Orozco Suárez, D.

2014-09-01

60

Pair separation of magnetic elements in the quiet Sun  

CERN Document Server

The dynamic properties of the quiet Sun photosphere can be investigated by analyzing the pair dispersion of small-scale magnetic fields (i.e., magnetic elements). By using $25$ hr-long Hinode magnetograms at high spatial resolution ($0".3$), we tracked $68,490$ magnetic element pairs within a supergranular cell near the disk center. The computed pair separation spectrum, calculated on the whole set of particle pairs independently of their initial separation, points out what is known as a super-diffusive regime with spectral index $\\gamma=1.55\\pm0.05$, in agreement with the most recent literature, but extended to unprecedented spatial and temporal scales (from granular to supergranular). Furthermore, for the first time, we investigated here the spectrum of the mean square displacement of pairs of magnetic elements, depending on their initial separation $r_0$. We found that there is a typical initial distance above (below) which the pair separation is faster (slower) than the average. A possible physical interp...

Giannattasio, F; Biferale, L; Del Moro, D; Sbragaglia, M; Rubio, L Bellot; Gosic, M; Suarez, D Orozco

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Optimization of T-shaped magnetic separator filtering abilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computer simulation was used to study influence of design parameters of T-shaped magnetic filter (separator) baffles on degree of plasma cleaning from macroparticles. Baffle system design for such filter was developed. Evaluation and development of highly effective conceptual baffle system was performed. Recommendations for designing of baffle systems of macroparticle filters were made.

62

Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

G. B. Cotten

2000-08-01

63

Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable

64

Feasibility study of iron mineral separation from red mud by high gradient superconducting magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Red mud residues (RM) were disposed in alumina production. ? Utilization of Red mud residues was affected by its iron content. ? Superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) was used in iron separation from RM. ? RM with high and low iron contents were separated in HGSMS. - Abstract: The disposal of bayer red mud tailings now seriously threats the environment safety. Reduction and recycling of red mud is now an urgent work in aluminum industry. High gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) system was applied to separate the extreme fine RM particles (<100 ?m) into high iron content part and low iron content part. Two sorts of RM were fed in the HGSMS. The iron oxide contents in concentrates were about 65% and 45% when RM 1 and RM 2 were fed respectively. Meanwhile, the residues contained 52.0% or 14.1% iron oxide in residues after eight separation stages when RM 1 and RM 2 were fed respectively. The mass recovery of iron concentrates was about 10% after once separation process regardless of RM 1 or RM 2 was fed. Extreme fine particles (<10 ?m) could be captured in the HGSMS. Intergrowth of Fe and other elements is disadvantages for iron mineral separation from RM by HGSMS. Some improvement should be studied to enhance the efficiency of iron separation. It is possible for HGSMS to separate RM into high iron content part and low iron content part, the former part could be used in iron-making furnace and the later part could benace and the later part could be recycling to sintering process for alumina production or used as construction material.

65

Dispersion and Aggregation of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Nuclear Waste Separation  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel method of nuclear waste separation using conjugates of actinide chelators and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is developed. The fast separation can be facilitated by the high magnetic moments of core-shell MNPs. Highly uniform dispersion of MNPs in solutions is required for the efficient conjugation. However, stabilization of well dispersed MNPs hinders fast magnetic collection of the conjugates. To address this dilemma, the dispersion and aggregation of the MNPs has been investigated in both mechanical and chemical approaches. In the mechanical approach, continuous ultrasonic dispersed the MNPs, whereas they re-aggregated after up to 20 minutes treatment. Bead beating method improved the MNPs' suspension time by up to two factors. Nevertheless, the magnetization of MNPs dropped sharply due to the generation of non-magnetic beads' residual. Chemical method using electrolyte and agents with different polarizations had significant effects on the suspension and aggregation of the various sized MNPs. The fine balance of Van de Waals, Brownian forces, magnetic dipole and Coulomb interactions are discussed.

Han, H.; Singh, M. Kaur T.; Qiang, Y.; Johnson, A.; Paszczynski, A.

2009-05-01

66

Maximizing the recovery of fine iron ore using magnetic separation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The beneficiation of fine iron ore will increase in importance in the future because most new iron ore resources will be in the form of lower grade ore deposits that will require liberation of iron ore minerals at finer sizes. Generally this fine iron ore will be benefi-ciated to produce a pelletizi [...] ng concentrate with very strict chemical and physical specifications. In addition, because of the increasing demand for iron ore there are now more opportunities to produce by-product iron ore from mining operations producing other commodities. In the past the associated iron ore minerals would report to final tailings but now there is potential value to be realised from by-product revenue. These by-product iron ore opportunities are almost all centred on producing pelletizing concentrate. Currently pelletizing concentrates are produced mainly by various combinations of flotation and magnetic separation. The selection of the beneficiation route will depend on ore mineralogy and considerations around plant capacity and final concentrate quality. The main economic iron minerals are magnetic, haematite being paramagnetic and magnetite being ferromagnetic. This, therefore, means that magnetic separation can be applied, in principle, to all fine iron-ore beneficiation plants. While flotation has a considerable capacity advantage over magnetic separation, the real advantage of magnetic separation over flotation in fine iron-ore beneficiation is that treatment of -10 µm iron ore is possible-in flotation, the feed is deslimed at 10 µm and the -10 µm stream is considered to be final tailings, even though there is often a significant amount of contained iron ore. This paper describes a study around the recovery of fine magnetite in the form of a pelletizing concentrate. The study is based on an evaluation of an iron ore by-product opportunity from an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposit. Experiments were conducted to quantify the differences in magnetic separation performance with decrease in particle size treated. A mineralogical evaluation of all the test work products was undertaken to facilitate the interpretation of the test work results. These results were then used to propose an economically viable flowsheet for maximizing fine magnetite recovery using magnetic separation.

M, Dworzanowski.

2012-03-01

67

Maximizing the recovery of fine iron ore using magnetic separation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The beneficiation of fine iron ore will increase in importance in the future because most new iron ore resources will be in the form of lower grade ore deposits that will require liberation of iron ore minerals at finer sizes. Generally this fine iron ore will be benefi-ciated to produce a pelletizi [...] ng concentrate with very strict chemical and physical specifications. In addition, because of the increasing demand for iron ore there are now more opportunities to produce by-product iron ore from mining operations producing other commodities. In the past the associated iron ore minerals would report to final tailings but now there is potential value to be realised from by-product revenue. These by-product iron ore opportunities are almost all centred on producing pelletizing concentrate. Currently pelletizing concentrates are produced mainly by various combinations of flotation and magnetic separation. The selection of the beneficiation route will depend on ore mineralogy and considerations around plant capacity and final concentrate quality. The main economic iron minerals are magnetic, haematite being paramagnetic and magnetite being ferromagnetic. This, therefore, means that magnetic separation can be applied, in principle, to all fine iron-ore beneficiation plants. While flotation has a considerable capacity advantage over magnetic separation, the real advantage of magnetic separation over flotation in fine iron-ore beneficiation is that treatment of -10 µm iron ore is possible-in flotation, the feed is deslimed at 10 µm and the -10 µm stream is considered to be final tailings, even though there is often a significant amount of contained iron ore. This paper describes a study around the recovery of fine magnetite in the form of a pelletizing concentrate. The study is based on an evaluation of an iron ore by-product opportunity from an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposit. Experiments were conducted to quantify the differences in magnetic separation performance with decrease in particle size treated. A mineralogical evaluation of all the test work products was undertaken to facilitate the interpretation of the test work results. These results were then used to propose an economically viable flowsheet for maximizing fine magnetite recovery using magnetic separation.

M, Dworzanowski.

68

Experimental investigation of magnetically actuated separation using tangential microfluidic channels and magnetic nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel continuous switching/separation scheme of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a sub-microlitre fluid volume surrounded by neodymium permanent magnet is studied in this work using tangential microfluidic channels. Polydimethylsiloxane tangential microchannels are fabricated using a novel micromoulding technique that can be done without a clean room and at much lower cost and time. Negligible switching of MNPs is seen in the absence of magnetic field, whereas 90% of switching is observed in the presence of magnetic field. The flow rate of MNPs solution had dramatic impact on separation performance. An optimum value of the flow rate is found that resulted in providing effective MNP separation at much faster rate. Separation performance is also investigated for a mixture containing non-magnetic polystyrene particles and MNPs. It is found that MNPs preferentially moved from lower microchannel to upper microchannel resulting in efficient separation. The proof-of-concept experiments performed in this work demonstrates that microfluidic bioseparation can be efficiently achieved using functionalised MNPs, together with tangential microchannels, appropriate magnetic field strength and optimum flow rates. This work verifies that a simple low-cost magnetic switching scheme can be potentially of great utility for the separation and detection of biomolecules in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. PMID:25014081

Munir, Ahsan; Zhu, Zanzan; Wang, Jianlong; Zhou, Hong Susan

2014-06-01

69

The electromagnetic design of a permanent magnet based separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to design a permanent magnet based device that can selectively transport paramagnetic particles. Using specialised electromagnetic design software various arrangements of permanent magnets have been investigated. Each test geometry had to be constructively simple and able to produce highly non-uniform magnetic fields before being considered further in any more detail. The main parameter to indicate that the test geometry might be a suitable device has been ascribed to the ratio ? between the highest (ON) and lowest (OFF) magnetic fields that were measured. A linear arrangement of permanent magnets has been considered first. This device produced a ratio ? ? 2. Further, the cylindrical and the tubular arrangements may be considered as substantial improvements over the first geometry. The OFF magnetic fields have been substantially reduced by the method of magnetic shielding. Intensive research and modelling has been spent on addressing the problem of finding the optimal geometry for such arrangements. An experimental system has been also built, and the experimental values were compared against the theory. However, the results produced evidence that the manufacturing of any improved geometry (an estimated ? ? 100) in this direction might be very difficult, for the tolerances involved were very strict. The disk arrangement was the latest device to be investigated. Particularly, a magnetic dipole model developed earlier for the ring arrangement suggested the way in which to arrange the magnets in the ON position. Moreover, the use of the magnetic symmetry of the device forced the OFF magnetic fields to negligible values. Detailed computer simulations of the dynamics of the particles in the applied magnetic field of the tubular and disk arrangements have been earned out. The adopted models could show realistic phenomena, e.g. particle clustering, chaining, block movement, etc. The separation efficiency proved to be nearly 100%. For the disk arrangement the minimum paramagnetic susceptibility of the particle that could be transported has been ? ? 10-4. In addition, the particle radii had little influence on the functioning of this magnetic separation device. (author)

70

Waste water purification by magnetic separation technique using HTS bulk magnet system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the feasibility of strong magnetic field generators composed of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet systems to the magnetic separation techniques for the waste water including thin emulsion bearing the cutting oil. Two types of the strong field generators were prepared by the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet systems, which emit the magnetic field density of 1 and 2 T in the open spaces between the magnetic poles activated by the pulsed field magnetization and the field cooling methods, respectively. A couple of water channels containing iron balls were settled in the strong field to trap the magnetized flocks in the waste water. The separation ratios of flocks containing 200 ppm magnetite powder were evaluated with respect to the flow rates of the waste water. The performances of bulk magnet system have kept showing values of around 100% until the flowing rate reached up to 18 l/min. This suggests that the magnetic separation by using bulk magnets is effective for the practical water purification systems.

71

Magnetic nano-sorbents for fast separation of radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to find a cost effective and environmentally benign technology to treat the liquid radioactive waste into a safe and stable form for resource recycling or ultimate disposal, this study investigates the separation of radioactive elements from aqueous systems using magnetic nano-sorbents. Our current study focuses on novel magnetic nano-sorbents by attaching DTPA molecules onto the surface of double coated magnetic nanoparticles (dMNPs), and performed preliminary sorption tests using heavy metal ions as surrogates for radionuclides. The results showed that the sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) onto the dMNP-DTPA conjugates was fast, the equilibrium was reached in 30 min. The calculated sorption capacities were 8.06 mg/g for Cd and 12.09 mg/g for Pb. After sorption, the complex of heavy elements captured by nano-sorbents can be easily manipulated and separated from solution in less than 1 min by applying a small external magnetic field. In addition, the sorption results demonstrate that dMNP-DTPA conjugates have a very strong chelating power in highly diluted Cd and Pb solutions (1-10 ?g/L). Therefore, as a simple, fast, and compact process, this separation method has a great potential in the treatment of high level waste with low concentration of transuranic elements compared to tradition nuclear waste treatment. (authors)

72

Upgrading mixed polyolefin waste with magnetic density separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyolefin fractions are often end fractions resulting from the recycling of end-of-life consumer products. Polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) are present in such fractions as a mixture. For instance, the ratio of PP and PE in car scrap is 70:30 on average. However, the grade of the PP and PE should typically be better than 97% to be reused again as a high quality product. Density separation of the different polyolefins can be a solution. A promising separation technique is the inverse magnetic density separator (IMDS). This paper discusses the potential of shredder residue, one of the possible polyolefin's waste stream sources for the IMDS, in detail. Experiments with the separation of polyolefins with an IMDS prototype show both high grade and high recovery. The paper concludes with the economic opportunities of the IMDS in the recycling of polyolefins. PMID:19128952

Bakker, E J; Rem, P C; Fraunholcz, N

2009-05-01

73

Separation of magnetization precession in 3He-B into two magnetic domains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The precession of magnetization in 3He-B after excitation by a radio frequency field is found to be separated in an inhomogeneous stationary magnetic field into two homogenous magnetic domains. In one of the domains the magnetization processes spatially homogeneously whereas in the other it is at rest. The effect is due to spin supercurrents which carry the longitudinal magnetization to the region of strong magnetic fields and rotate the magnetization through an angle approximately 104 deg in the region of weaker magnetic fields. In this region the NMR frequency shift, which is of a dipole nature, compensates the magnetic field gradient. Results are presented of experimental studies of the formation and processes of relaxation of a dynamic domain with a spatially homogenous magnetizatoion precession

74

Application of magnetic separation to steelmaking slags for reclamation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrated iron and steel plants generate large amounts of metallurgical slag, which usually contains some quantity of metals or mixtures of oxides that could be treated to be recycled in various applications. The conventional method for disposal of slags is dumping. However, it is possible to process the slags to be used in the production of metallic iron, or as an additive in cement making. In this study, a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelwork slag obtained from the Kardemir integrated iron and steel works, Karabuk, Turkey is used. A drum magnetic separator system with pre-engineered crucial processing parameters of drum revolution speed, drum radius, drum flesh thickness, and magnitude of the magnetic field applied is utilized, as these parameters have a competing influence on the results. Subsequently, the effects of slag grain size and the drum-blade gap are investigated in the separation efficiency of magnetic grains. It is found that collection of magnetic grains is improved by decreasing the grain size of slags and moreover, the collection of magnetic grains fraction is increased with an increase in the gap between the blades and drum. PMID:16545952

Alanyali, H; Cöl, M; Yilmaz, M; Karagöz, S

2006-01-01

75

[Development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes the development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument. The main application of the instrument is to capture tubercle bacillus from sputum. It is a pretreatment instrument and provides a new platform to help doctors to diagnose bacillary phthisis. Not only could it be used for tubercle bacillus capturing, but also for gene, protein and cell separating and purification. Because the controller of the instrument is 16-bit single chip microcomputer, the cost could be greatly reduced and it will be widely used in China. PMID:25241516

Xu, Yingyuan; Chen, Yi

2014-05-01

76

Dynamics of magnetic particles in cylindrical Halbach array: implications for magnetic cell separation and drug targeting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic nanoparticles for therapy and diagnosis are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. In this study, we have theoretically studied motion of magnetic nano- as well as micro-particles in the field of cylindrical Halbach array of permanent magnets. Magnetic flux density was modeled as magnetostatic problem by finite element method and particle motion was described using system of ordinary differential equations--Newton law. Computations were done for nanoparticles Nanomag-D with radius 65 nm, which are often used in magnetic drug targeting, as well as microparticles DynaBeads-M280 with radius 1.4 microm, which can be used for magnetic separation. Analyzing snapshots of trajectories of hundred magnetite particles of each size in the water as well as in the air, we have found that optimally designed magnetic circuits of permanent magnets in quadrupolar Halbach array have substantially shorter capture time than simple blocks of permanent magnets commonly used in experiments, therefore, such a Halbach array may be useful as a potential source of magnetic field for magnetic separation and targeting of magnetic nanoparticles as well as microparticles for delivery of drugs, genes, and cells in various biomedical applications. PMID:20517710

Babinec, Peter; Krafcík, Andrej; Babincová, Melánia; Rosenecker, Joseph

2010-08-01

77

Oil-field wastewater purification by magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, oil-field wastewater purification through superconducting magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle, which has a multi-shell structure with ferroferric oxide as core, dense nonporous silica as inter layer and mesoporous silica as outer layer, was synthesized by co-precipitation method. To functionalize the magnetic nanoparticle, plasma polymerization technique was adopted and poly methyl acrylate (PMA) was formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. The multi-shell structure of the nanoparticle was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the characteristic is measurable by FTIR. It is found that most of the pollutants (85% by turbidity or 84% by COD value) in the oil-field wastewater are removed through the superconducting magnetic separation technique using this novel magnetic nanoparticle.

Liu, Zhuonan; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

2012-12-01

78

Magnetic Separation for Nuclear Material Detection and Surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A high performance superconducting magnet is being developed for particle retrieval from field collected samples. Results show that maximum separation effectiveness is obtained when the matrix fiber diameter approaches the diameter of the particles to be captured. Experimentally, the authors obtained a single particle capture limit with 0.8{micro}m PuO{sub 2} particles with dodecane as a carrier fluid. The development of new matrix materials is being pursued through the controlled corrosion of stainless steel wool, or the deposition of nickel dendrites on the existing stainless steel matrix material. They have also derived a model from a continuity equation that uses empirically determined capture cross section values. This enables the prediction of high gradient magnetic separator performance for a variety of materials and applications. The model can be used to optimize the capture cross section and thus increase the capture efficiency.

Worl, L.A.; Devlin, D.; Hill, D.; Padilla, D.; Prenger, F.C.

1998-08-01

79

Radiolysis and hydrolysis of magnetically assisted chemical separation particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process is designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements out of high-level waste (HLW) or TRU waste. Magnetic microparticles (1--25 ?m) were coated with octyl (phenyl)N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP) and tested for removing TRU elements from acidic nitrate solutions. The particles were contacted with nitric acid solutions and Hanford plutonium finishing plant (PFP) simulant, irradiated with a high intensity 60Co ?-ray source, and evaluated for effectiveness in removing TRU elements from 2m HNO3 solutions. The resistance of the coatings and magnetic cores to radiolytic damage and hydrolytic degradation was investigated by irradiating samples of particles suspended in a variety of solutions with doses of up to 5 Mrad. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and physical observations of the particles and suspension solutions were used to assess physical changes to the particles. Processes that affect the surface of the particles dramatically alter the binding sites for TRU in solution. Hydrolysis played a larger role than radiolysis in the degradation of the extraction capacity of the particles

80

Radiolysis and hydrolysis of magnetically assisted chemical separation particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process is designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements out of high-level waste (HLW) or TRU waste. Magnetic microparticles (1--25 {mu}m) were coated with octyl (phenyl)N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP) and tested for removing TRU elements from acidic nitrate solutions. The particles were contacted with nitric acid solutions and Hanford plutonium finishing plant (PFP) simulant, irradiated with a high intensity {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source, and evaluated for effectiveness in removing TRU elements from 2m HNO{sub 3} solutions. The resistance of the coatings and magnetic cores to radiolytic damage and hydrolytic degradation was investigated by irradiating samples of particles suspended in a variety of solutions with doses of up to 5 Mrad. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and physical observations of the particles and suspension solutions were used to assess physical changes to the particles. Processes that affect the surface of the particles dramatically alter the binding sites for TRU in solution. Hydrolysis played a larger role than radiolysis in the degradation of the extraction capacity of the particles.

Buchholz, B.A.; Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

1995-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Feasibility study of iron mineral separation from red mud by high gradient superconducting magnetic separation  

Science.gov (United States)

The disposal of bayer red mud tailings now seriously threats the environment safety. Reduction and recycling of red mud is now an urgent work in aluminum industry. High gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) system was applied to separate the extreme fine RM particles (high iron content part and low iron content part. Two sorts of RM were fed in the HGSMS. The iron oxide contents in concentrates were about 65% and 45% when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. Meanwhile, the residues contained 52.0% or 14.1% iron oxide in residues after eight separation stages when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. The mass recovery of iron concentrates was about 10% after once separation process regardless of RM 1# or RM 2# was fed. Extreme fine particles (efficiency of iron separation. It is possible for HGSMS to separate RM into high iron content part and low iron content part, the former part could be used in iron-making furnace and the later part could be recycling to sintering process for alumina production or used as construction material.

Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Baoqiang; Luan, Zhaokun

2011-02-01

82

Loss separation for dynamic hysteresis in magnetic thin films  

CERN Document Server

We develop a theory for dynamic hysteresis in ferromagnetic thin films, on the basis of the phenomenological principle of loss separation. We observe that, remarkably, the theory of loss separation, originally derived for bulk metallic materials, is applicable to disordered magnetic systems under fairly general conditions regardless of the particular damping mechanism. We confirm our theory both by numerical simulations of a driven random--field Ising model, and by re--examining several experimental data reported in the literature on dynamic hysteresis in thin films. All the experiments examined and the simulations find a natural interpretation in terms of loss separation. The power losses dependence on the driving field rate predicted by our theory fits satisfactorily all the data in the entire frequency range, thus reconciling the apparent lack of universality observed in different materials.

Colaiori, F; Zapperi, S; Colaiori, Francesca; Durin, Gianfranco; Zapperi, Stefano

2006-01-01

83

Magnetically separable titania-coated nickel ferrite photocatalyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A magnetically separable photocatalyst was prepared by a continuous multi-step spray pyrolysis process. In the first step, nickel ferrite core particles were prepared by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. In the second step, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) were sequentially injected and coated on the surface of the core particles. The sequentially coated layers were decomposed to form silica and titania layers in a final furnace reactor. The titania-silica layered particles displayed higher photoactivity than particles coated only with titania and titania-silica mixture-coated particles. The photoactivity of the titania-silica layered particles remained unchanged after magnetic separation and washing. This confirms that the adhesion between the core particles and the coated layer is strong enough to withstand vigorous mixing. It also implies that the formation of free particles of silica or titania is negligible in the second reactor. The strong adhesion between the coated layer and the nickel ferrite core is attributed to the features of the multi-step process, wherein the core particles are exposed to high temperate in the second reactor for only a few seconds and transformation of the core particles into non-magnetic particles is prohibited.

Chung, Yun Seup; Park, Seung Bin; Kang, Duk-Won

2004-08-15

84

"On-chip magnetic bead microarray using hydrodynamic focusing in a passive magnetic separator"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Implementing DNA and protein microarrays into lab-on-a-chip systems can be problematic since these are sensitive to heat and strong chemicals. Here, we describe the functionalization of a microchannel with two types of magnetic beads using hydrodynamic focusing combined with a passive magnetic separator with arrays of soft magnetic elements. The soft magnetic elements placed on both sides of the channel are magnetized by a relatively weak applied external magnetic field ( 21 mT) and provide magnetic field gradients attracting magnetic beads. Flows with two differently functionalized magnetic beads and a separating barrier flow are introduced simultaneously at the two channel sides and the centre of the microfluidic channel, respectively. On-chip experiments with fluorescence labeled beads demonstrate that the two types of beads are captured at each of the channel sidewalls. On-chip hybridization experiments show that the microfluidic systems can be functionalized with two sets of beads carrying different probes that selectively recognize a single base pair mismatch in target DNA. By switching the places of the two types of beads it is shown that the microsystem can be cleaned and functionalized repeatedly with different beads with no cross-talk between experiments.

Smistrup, Kristian; Dufva, Hans Martin

2005-01-01

85

Research on the magnetic separation technology for the treatment of radioactive waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The literature survey for the synthesis technology of magnetic compounds for the magnetic separation of radioactive waste water was performed. The cryocooler with high power of 10 K and closed cycle cryostat for magnetic field trap were designed and fabricated. The superconductor bulks of single crystals (3 cm size) for permanent magnet were fabricated successfully. The experiments of magnetic trapping and magnetic separation for Fe contaminated water were performed using cryocooler, cryostat and the superconductors.

Jun, Byung Hyuk; Kim, Chan Joong; Park, Soon Dong; Lee, D. G.; Kim, K. M.

2012-07-15

86

Passive magnetic separator integrated with microfluidic mixer: Demonstration of enhanced capture efficiency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present two results: (1) a new method for quantifying the efficiency of magnetic bead separators by magnetic measurements, and (2) a new idea for designing efficient magnetic bead separators. For microfluidic magnetic separators, a limiting factor for the capture of magnetic beads is the steep decrease of the magnetic force on the beads as a function of their distance to the magnetic structures. Our idea is to integrate the magnetic separator with a microfluidic mixer to ensure that all beads are brought close to the magnetic structures. We have fabricated a magnetic separator consisting of permalloy elements adjacent to a microfluidic channel. The performance of a system with an integrated surface structured (staggered herringbone) microfluidic mixer is compared to that of an equivalent system without the mixer. It is quantitatively demonstrated that the mixer significantly enhances the bead capture-and-release efficiency.

Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik

2006-01-01

87

Development of a mobile-type magnetic separator using high-T{sub c} bulk superconductors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have devised an advanced, mobile-type water treatment system consisting of a membrane separator and a magnetic separator, which uses long high-T{sub c} bulk superconductors (SCs), to quickly remove phytoplankton multiplying in highly eutrophic lakes and dams. The prototype magnetic separator system was designed and fabricated. The fabricated system consists of three components; a pre-process unit, a rotating membrane separator and a magnetic separator. The capacity of the magnetic separator is 100 t/day. The water cleaning test using kaolin was conducted, displaying water cleaning power of 90% or higher. Further, most chlorophyll A and phosphorus were successfully removed in another test.

Hayashi, Hidemi; Nagabuchi, Naoshi; Saho, Norihide; Mizumori, Takashi; Asano, Katsuhiko

2004-10-01

88

Development of a mobile-type magnetic separator using high-Tc bulk superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have devised an advanced, mobile-type water treatment system consisting of a membrane separator and a magnetic separator, which uses long high-Tc bulk superconductors (SCs), to quickly remove phytoplankton multiplying in highly eutrophic lakes and dams. The prototype magnetic separator system was designed and fabricated. The fabricated system consists of three components; a pre-process unit, a rotating membrane separator and a magnetic separator. The capacity of the magnetic separator is 100 t/day. The water cleaning test using kaolin was conducted, displaying water cleaning power of 90% or higher. Further, most chlorophyll A and phosphorus were successfully removed in another test

89

Thorium-uranium processing with gravity, magnetic and electrical separation in zarigan ore deposit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because of low grade of thorium and uranium in the Zarigan mineral deposit, the pre-concentration operation prior to leaching is necessary. From X-ray diffraction analysis results, it was clear that this ore has large amount of other minerals such as Feldespat, Quartz, Hematite, Titanomagnetite, and rare earths. In this paper the thorium enhancement grade in Zarigan deposit by using gravity, magnetic and electrical separations methods is reported. The output of a Jaw crusher was ground to 85 micron by using ball mill. Then about 95% of SiO2 was separated by using shaking table separation. The heavy concentrate of shaking table was processed by a high intensity magnetic separator and then the magnetic concentrate separated by a low intensity magnetic separator. Finally, the non magnetic concentrate of low magnetic separator was processed with the electrical separation. The grades of thorium and uranium in the non magnetic concentrate of low magnetic separator were increased to 4000 and 5000 ppm, respectively where only 15% of the initial feed (ore) was transferred to this concentrate. Therefore, this resulted in a decrease of acid consumption in the leaching processes and the efficiency enhancement of the process. The pre-treatment circuit of this ore was designed as Jaw crusher/ball mill/shaking table/high-magnetic separator/low-magnetic separator/electrical separator, respectively.

90

Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet  

Science.gov (United States)

The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

Igarashi, Susumu; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko

2014-09-01

91

Magnetic separation - Advanced nanotechnology for future nuclear fuel recycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as their extremely small size and high surface area to volume ratio, provide better kinetics for the adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this work, we demonstrated the separation of minor actinides using complex conjugates of MNPs with diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator. The sorption results show the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am (III) and Pu (IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. It is shown that the extraction process is highly dependent on the pH of the solution. If these long-term heat generating actinides can be efficiently removed from the used fuel raffinates, the volume of material that can be placed in a given amount of repository space can be significantly increased. (authors)

92

Demonstration of magnetically activated and guided isotope separation  

Science.gov (United States)

Enriched isotopes are widely used in medicine, basic science and energy production, and the need will only grow in the future. The main method for enriching stable isotopes today, the calutron, dates back over eighty years and has an uncertain future, creating an urgent need, especially in nuclear medicine. We report here the experimental realization of a general and efficient method for isotope separation that presents a viable alternative to the calutron. Combining optical pumping and a unique magnet geometry, we observe substantial depletion of Li-6 throughput in a lithium atomic beam produced by an evaporation source over a range of flux. These results demonstrate the viability of our method to yield large degrees of enrichment in a manner that is amenable to industrial scale-up and the production of commercially relevant quantities.

Mazur, Thomas R.; Klappauf, Bruce; Raizen, Mark G.

2014-08-01

93

Magnetic separation - Advanced nanotechnology for future nuclear fuel recycle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as their extremely small size and high surface area to volume ratio, provide better kinetics for the adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this work, we demonstrated the separation of minor actinides using complex conjugates of MNPs with diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator. The sorption results show the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am (III) and Pu (IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. It is shown that the extraction process is highly dependent on the pH of the solution. If these long-term heat generating actinides can be efficiently removed from the used fuel raffinates, the volume of material that can be placed in a given amount of repository space can be significantly increased. (authors)

Kaur, M.; Zhang, H.; Qiang, Y. [Department of Physics and Environmental Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Martin, L.; Todd, T. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-07-01

94

Titania deposited on soft magnetic activated carbon as a magnetically separable photocatalyst with enhanced activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetically separable composite photocatalysts, TiO2 deposited on soft magnetic ferrite activated carbon (TFAC), were prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating technique. The prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), optical absorption spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and nitrogen adsorption. These photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to Degussa P25 for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution. The kinetics of MO degradation was well fitted to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The samples showed good magnetic response and could be completely recovered by an external magnet. Furthermore, the photocatalysts could maintain high photocatalytic activity after five cycles, and the degradation rate of MO was still close to 90%.

95

Magnetic separation technique for groundwater by five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets arranged in a line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A magnetic separation was practically conducted by 10-pole HTS bulk magnets. The HTS bulk magnets were activated to 2.5 T by feeding pulsed fields of 6 T. The separation ratio of actual groundwater exceeded 70% at less than 4.8 l/min. The flocks without magnetite powder were obviously attracted to the magnetic poles. A magnetic separation study for groundwater purification has been practically conducted by using the multi-pole magnet system. The magnetic pole was composed of 10 open magnetic spaces by arranging five HTS melt-processed bulk magnets in a line in a vacuum sheath. The individual bulk magnets were activated by feeding intense pulsed magnetic fields up to 6 T. The magnetic field distribution was estimated with respect to various pole arrangements. The actual groundwater samples of Sanjo City were processed so as to form large precipitates by adding the coagulant and pH controlling. The maximum separation ratio of the iron-bearing precipitates has exceeded over 70% when slurry water was exposed to 10 magnetic poles of up to 2.5 T at a flowing rate of less than 4.8 l/min. An obvious attraction of flocks to the magnetic poles was observed even when the water contains no magnetite powder at the flow rate of 1.01 l/min. This implies the validity of the multi-pole magnet system with respect to the actual application to water purification.

96

Influences of separate position to radial direction between bulk superconductor and permanent magnetic ring about magnetic levitation and rotating characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The segmental structure of bulk superconductor will be needed designing ultra-large scale high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing for MWh class superconducting flywheel. The N-S poles of permanent magnetic ring assembly were arranged alternately to radial direction and the influences to magnetic levitation and rotating characteristics of the separate position of bulk superconductor to radial direction were tested. It was found when the separate position of bulk superconductor was coincided with the joint of the N-S poles of permanent magnets, both the magnetic levitation and the rotating characteristics were the same as the case of non-separate superconductor. When its position was the center of one side pole of permanent magnets, the levitation was the same as the case of non-separate superconductor, but the behavior of rotating characteristics changed and the loss increased as compared with the case of non-separate type

97

Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for highly viscous fluid for practical use  

Science.gov (United States)

In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial products, it is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris originating from pipe in manufacturing line which triggers quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system which consists of superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The magnetic separation experiment and the particle trajectory simulation were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a model material (viscosity coefficient was 10 Pa s, which is 10,000 times higher than that in water). In order to develop a magnetic separation system for practical use, the particle trajectory simulation by using solenoidal superconducting magnet was conducted, and the possibility of the magnetic separation for removing ferromagnetic stainless steel (SUS) particles in highly viscous fluid of 10 Pa s was indicated. Based on the results, the number of filters to obtain required separation efficiency was examined to design the practical separation system.

Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2011-11-01

98

Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ? The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ? Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Aichi Giken Co., 50-1 Takeshita, Hitotugi-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-0003 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan)

2014-01-15

99

Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ? The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ? Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow

100

SUPERCONDUCTING OPEN-GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE OR MIXED WASTE VITRIFICATION FEEDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists need to gain a better understanding of the magnetic separation processes that can be used to separate deleterious constituents (crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal) in vitrification feed streams for borosilicate glass production without adding chemicals or generating...

 
 
 
 
101

Efficient in-droplet separation of magnetic particles for digital microfluidics  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a new efficient in-droplet magnetic particle concentration and separation method, where magnetic particles are concentrated and separated into a split droplet by using a permanent magnet and EWOD (electrowetting on dielectric) droplet manipulation. To evaluate the method, testing devices are fabricated by the micro fabrication technology. First, this method is examined for magnetic particle concentration, showing that over 91% of magnetic particles can be concentrated into a split daughter droplet. Then, separation between magnetic and non-magnetic particles is examined for two different cases of particle mixture, showing in both cases that over 91% of the magnetic particles can be concentrated into split daughter droplets. However, a significant number of the non-magnetic particles (over 35%) co-exist with the magnetic particles in the same daughter droplets. This problem is circumvented by adding a droplet-merging step prior to applying the magnetic field. Finally, over 94% of the total magnetic particles are separated into a one split daughter droplet while 92% of the non-magnetic particles into the other split daughter droplet. This integrated in-droplet separation method may bridge many existing magnetic particle assays to digital microfluidics and extend their application scope.

Wang, Yizhong; Zhao, Yuejun; Cho, Sung Kwon

2007-10-01

102

A time-dependent model for magnetic reconnection in the presence of a separator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a model for separator reconnection due to an isolated reconnection process. Separator reconnection is a process which occurs in the neighbourhood of a distinguished field line (the separator) connecting two null points of a magnetic field. It is, for example, important for the dynamics of magnetic flux at the dayside magnetopause and in the solar corona. We find that, above a certain threshold, such a reconnection process generates new separators which leads to a ...

Wilmot-smith, A. L.; Hornig, G.

2011-01-01

103

Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation  

Science.gov (United States)

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material, This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. As the name implies, HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the bore which contains a fine-structured, ferromagnetic matrix material. The matrix material locally distorts the magnetic field and creates large field gradients in the vicinity of the matrix elements. These elements then become trapping sites for magnetic particles and are the basis for the magnetic separation. In this paper, we discuss the design and construction of a prototype HGMS unit using a magnet made with high temperature superconductors (HTS). The prototype consists of an outer vacuum vessel which contains the HTS solenoid magnet. The magnet is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield and multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets. The magnet, thermal shield, and current leads all operate in a vacuum and are cooled by a cryocooler. High temperature superconducting current leads are used to reduce the heat leak from the ambient environment to the HTS magnet.

Daugherty, M. A.; Prenger, F. C.; Hill, D. D.; Daney, D. E.; Worl, L. W.; Schake, A. R.; Padilla, D. D.

104

Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material, This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids or gases. As the name implies HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the bore of which contains a fine-structured, ferromagnetic matrix material. The matrix material locally distorts the magnetic field and creates large field gradients in the vicinity of the matrix elements. These elements then become trapping sites for magnetic particles and are the basis for the magnetic separation. In this paper we discuss the design and construction of a prototype HGMS unit using a magnet made with high temperature superconductors (HTS). The prototype consists of an outer vacuum vessel which contains the HTS solenoid magnet The magnet is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield and multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets. The magnet, thermal shield and current leads all operate in a vacuum and are cooled by a cryocooler. High temperature superconducting current leads are used to reduce the heat leak from the ambient environment to the HTS magnet.

Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Worl, L.W.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.

1994-06-01

105

Application of high temperature superconductors to high-gradient magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a powerful technique which can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material. This technology can separate magnetic solids from other solids, liquids or gases. As the name implies HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. HGMS separators usually consist of a high-field solenoid magnet, the bore of which contains a fine-structured, ferromagnetic matrix material. The matrix material locally distorts the magnetic field and creates large field gradients in the vicinity of the matrix elements. These elements then become trapping sites for magnetic particles and are the basis for the magnetic separation. In this paper the authors discuss the design and construction of a prototype HGMS unit using a magnet made with high temperature superconductors (HTS). The prototype consists of an outer vacuum vessel which contains the HTS solenoid magnet. The magnet is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield and multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets. The magnet, thermal shield and current leads all operate in a vacuum and are cooled by a cryocooler. High temperature superconducting current leads are used to reduce the heat leak from the ambient environment to the HTS magnet

106

Theoretical analysis of a new, efficient microfluidic magnetic bead separator based on magnetic structures on multiple length scales  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a theoretical analysis of a new design for microfluidic magnetic bead separation. It combines an external array of mm-sized permanent magnets with magnetization directions alternating between up and down with mu m-sized soft magnetic structures integrated in the bottom of the separation channel. The concept is studied analytically for simple representative geometries and by numerical simulation of an experimentally realistic system geometry. The array of permanent magnets provides long-range magnetic forces that attract the beads to the channel bottom, while the soft magnetic elements provide strong local retaining forces that prevent captured beads from being torn loose by the fluid drag. The addition of the soft magnetic elements increases the maximum retaining force by two orders of magnitude. The design is scalable and provides an efficient and simple solution to the capture of large amounts of magnetic beads on a microsystem platform.

Smistrup, Kristian; Bu, Minqiang

2008-01-01

107

Magnetic separation as a method to assist mineralogical characterization of rocks by X-ray diffraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) corresponds to one of the main techniques for characterization of structures in crystalline materials widely used in the identification of minerals in samples of geological materials such as rocks. However, the large number of mineral phases present in a rock sample can generate excess peaks in the diffractogram, and it can promote overlapping peaks and induce erroneous identification. The purpose of this study was to perform magnetic separation of minerals from rock samples in order to enable the identification of the minerals by XRD. For this magnetic separation, two samples of rock were selected: a sample of high silica content and a sample with low silica content. The magnetic separation of minerals from each sample was performed using the magnetic separator isodynamic Frantz. Posteriorly, the fractions obtained in magnetic separations were analyzed by XRD. In the sample with high silica content, it was obtained a fraction where was identified the accessory mineral epidote, which had not been identified in the total sample diffractogram. In the sample with low silica content, the magnetic separation into several mineral fractions made possible to obtain diffraction patterns with fewer peaks and peaks with higher relative intensities, which allowed its mineralogical characterization. The results showed that the mineral separation by the magnetic separator Frantz made the identification of accessory minerals by XRD and the characterization of samples which have many mineral phases possible, which proves that magnetic separation by Frantz is a method which can assist analyses by XRD. (author)

108

Conjugates of Actinide Chelator-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Used Fuel Separation Technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The actinide separation method using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with actinide specific chelators utilizes the separation capability of ligand and the ease of magnetic separation. This separation method eliminated the need of large quantity organic solutions used in the liquid-liquid extraction process. The MNPs could also be recycled for repeated separation, thus this separation method greatly reduces the generation of secondary waste compared to traditional liquid extraction technology. The high diffusivity of MNPs and the large surface area also facilitate high efficiency of actinide sorption by the ligands. This method could help in solving the nuclear waste remediation problem.

Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Rao, Linfeng

2011-10-30

109

Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems using microfabricated electromagnets - Experiments and simulations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present experiments and simulations of magnetic separation of magnetic beads in a microfluidic channel. The separation is obtained by microfabricated electromagnets. The results of our simulations using FEMLAB and Mathematica are compared with experimental results obtained using our own microfabricated systems. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Smistrup, Kristian; Hansen, Ole

2005-01-01

110

The electromagnetic design of a permanent magnet based separator  

CERN Document Server

The aim of this work was to design a permanent magnet based device that can selectively transport paramagnetic particles. Using specialised electromagnetic design software various arrangements of permanent magnets have been investigated. Each test geometry had to be constructively simple and able to produce highly non-uniform magnetic fields before being considered further in any more detail. The main parameter to indicate that the test geometry might be a suitable device has been ascribed to the ratio eta between the highest (ON) and lowest (OFF) magnetic fields that were measured. A linear arrangement of permanent magnets has been considered first. This device produced a ratio eta approx 2. Further, the cylindrical and the tubular arrangements may be considered as substantial improvements over the first geometry. The OFF magnetic fields have been substantially reduced by the method of magnetic shielding. Intensive research and modelling has been spent on addressing the problem of finding the optimal geometr...

Nedelcu, S

2002-01-01

111

Phase separation in degenerate magnetic semiconductor and high-temperature superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review on the electronic phase separation covers the following topics: model and heterophase self-trapping in the s-d model and t-J model, single charge carrier and ferron trapping, phase separation in degenerate magnetic semiconductors, phase transitions in EuSe and EuTe, impurity phase separation and in high-temperature superconductors. (WL)

112

Magnetite/CdTe magnetic-fluorescent composite nanosystem for magnetic separation and bio-imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new synthesis protocol is described to obtain a CdTe decorated magnetite bifunctional nanosystem via dodecylamine (DDA) as cross linker. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence microscopy are used to characterize the constitution, size, composition and physical properties of these superparamagnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles. These CdTe decorated magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to specifically target cells expressing this receptor. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on tumor cells from different tissue origins including human leukemic cell line Molt-4 cells. The magnetite-CdTe composite nanosystem is shown to perform excellently for specific selection, magnetic separation and fluorescent detection of EGFR positive Molt-4 cells from a mixed population. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy results show that this composite nanosystem has great potential in antibody functionalized magnetic separation and imaging of cells using cell surface receptor antibody.

113

Glassy magnetic behavior in the phase-separated perovskite cobaltites  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we demonstrate that the origin of the glassy behaviors (memory, aging, etc.) in the phase-separated perovskite cobaltites cannot be simply ascribed to intercluster interactions as the phase-separated manganites can. Instead, our study indicates that both the intercluster interactions and a spin glasslike phase contribute to the glassy behaviors. Thus, this study distinguishes the picture of phase separation between manganites and cobaltites.

Tang, Yan-Kun; Sun, Young; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

2006-01-01

114

Proposal for implanting a magnetic stable isotope separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The implantation of an electromagnetic isotope separator able to separate elements of mass from 20 to 250 a.m.u., with an enrichment factor from 10 to 200 times the initial concentration, depending on the elements, is proposed. The most suitable separator type for Brazilian CNEN, considering building installations and minimum conditions for the equipment facilities, the retinue chronogram, the infrastructure, and the personnel training for operation is defined. (M.C.K.)

115

Purification of condenser water in thermal power station by superconducting magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic separation using cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet was applied for the purification of condenser water. Iron oxides in condenser water were effectively removed by superconducting magnetic separation. The effect of magnetic field strength and filter size was determined. Thermal power station is made up of a steam turbine and a steam condenser which need a lot of water. The water of steam condenser should be replaced, since scales consisting of iron oxide mainly are accumulated on the surface of condenser pipes as it goes. Superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system has merits to remove paramagnetic substance like iron oxides because it can generate higher magnetic field strength than electromagnet or permanent magnet. In this paper, cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet that can generate up to 6 T was used for HGMS systems. Magnetic filters were designed by the analysis of magnetic field distribution at superconducting magnets. The result of X-ray analysis showed contaminants were mostly ?-Fe2O3 (hematite) and ?-Fe2O3 (maghemite). The higher magnetic field was applied up to 6 T, the more iron oxides were removed. As the wire diameter of magnetic filter decreased, the turbidity removal of the sample was enhanced.

116

Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

Oka, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Tsujimura, M.; Yokoyama, K.

2014-01-01

117

Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

2013-12-16

118

Highly Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Based on Magnetic Enrichment and Magnetic Separation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method for highly sensitive and rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on magnetic enrichment and magnetic separation, is described in this paper. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs were applied to adsorb genome DNA after the sample was lysed. The DNA binding MNPs were directly subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify gyrB specific sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The biotin labeled PCR products were detected by chemiluminescence when they were successively incubated with the probes-modified MNPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP labeled streptavidin (SA. Agarose gel electrophoresis analyses approved the method of in situ PCR to be highly reliable. The factors which could affect the chemiluminiscence were studied in detail. The results showed that the MNPs of 400 nm in diameter are beneficial to the detection. The sequence length and the binding site of the probe with a target sequence have obvious effects on the detection. The optimal concentration of the probes, hybridization temperature and hybridization time were 10 ?M, 60 ºC and 60 mins, respectively. The method of in situ PCR based on MNPs can greatly improve the utilization rate of the DNA template ultimately enhancing the detection sensitivity. Experiment results proved that the primer and probe had high specificity, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was successfully detected with detection limits as low as 10 cfu/mL by this method, while the detection of a single Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also be achieved.

Yongjun Tang, Jun Zou, Chao Ma, Zeeshan Ali, Zhiyang Li, Xiaolong Li, Ninging Ma, Xianbo Mou, Yan Deng, Liming Zhang, Kai Li, Guangming Lu, Haowen Yang, Nongyue He

2013-01-01

119

Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.007832 =1.4058) in comparison with other samples

120

Phase separation in high-temperature superconductors and related magnetic materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and experimental results are presented on spontaneous phase separation in nonsuperconducting degenerate magnetic semiconductors and high-temperature cuprate superconductors related to them. The following phenomena are considered: 1) the electronic phase separation, occurring at frozen impurity positions as a results of charge carrier concentration in regions with a changed magnetic ordering, 2) impurity (chemical phase separation when a nonuniform impurity distribution is simultaneously driven by interaction between impurity atoms and their tendency to concentrate in regions with a changed magnetic ordering. 137 refs., 15 figs

 
 
 
 
121

Colossal magnetoresistance and phase separation in magnetic semiconductors  

CERN Document Server

Colossal magnetoresistance materials, to which manganites and conventional ferromagnetic semiconductors belong, draw great attention because of their intriguing physical properties and the excellent prospects for their practical applications in electronic devices. In addition, magnetic semiconductors are basic materials for high-temperature conductors, and it is impossible to construct a theory of the latter without elucidating properties of the former.This book presents theoretical and experimental results on manganites and conventional magnetic semiconductors, with emphasis on the former. It

Nagaev, Eduard L

2002-01-01

122

High resolution separations of nanoparticles with improved electrical and magnetic field flow fractionation  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical and Magnetic Field Flow Fractionation (ElFFF, MFFF) methods are two rapidly developing separation and characterization techniques using electrical and magnetic fields that have not been regularly applied to nanoparticle fractionation, separation, and characterization. Currently, several limitations characteristic of both techniques prevent them from being widely used tools in the separation of nanoparticles. In this work, we address the main limitations of both techniques and develop methods to enhance their separation abilities, and particularly their application to nanoparticles. Specifically, one order of magnitude improvement is obtained in the separation capability of the Cyclical ElFFF systems. It is shown that high resolution separations of 15 and 40 nm gold nanoparticles can be achieved by Cyclical ElFFF, for which the separation of particles smaller than 100 nanometers was not demonstrated before. In addition, the first particle based modeling of Electrical Field Flow Fractionation (ElFFF) systems is demonstrated for the first time. The developed particle based simulation code allows visualization of individual particles inside the separation channel, which leads to a better understanding of ElFFF operation and mechanisms. The outputs of the simulation code show good agreement with the experimental results. We have also fabricated a new ElFFF system and tested it with four different channel heights to investigate the effect of channel height on the separation performance of the ElFFF systems. It is also shown for the first time that ElFFF can be used for the separation of magnetic nanoparticles. In previously reported studies, magnetic field driven techniques were used for the separation of magnetic particles. However, in this study, it is revealed that an electrical field driven technique can also be used for the separation of these nanoparticles. A new magnetic field flow fractionation (MFFF) system was designed and modeled using both finite element and particle based simulations. As a change from current magnetic FFF systems, which use static magnetic fields, the new system uses cyclical magnetic fields for the separation of the particles. Finally, a novel passive magnetic microfluidic mixer is designed and fabricated which produces high efficiency mixing at the microscale, without need of an active actuation mechanism.

Tasci, Tonguc Onur

123

Preparation of magnetic immobilized metal affinity separation media and its use in the isolation of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method of pseudobiospecific protein isolation is developed and tested, which employs both metal affinity and magnetism as the basis for isolation. The chelating group iminodiacetic acid (IDA) has been coupled to the surface of magnetic agarose, and when charged with metal ions (Cu2+ or Zn2+) is capable of binding model proteins which display metal affinity, and of separating protein mixtures. Magnetic properties of the medium facilitated the batch recovery of the adsorbent, as losses are minimized by concentrating and retaining the separation medium with the aid of a magnet. Model proteins were used to characterize protein adsorption, capacity, and stability of IDA magnetic agarose. Recovery from a cell lysate was demonstrated by protein isolation from extracts of E. coli containing a target protein. Overall, this study effectively illustrates the engineering of separation media which combine several desired properties for the development of a new branch of metal affinity-based bioseparation. PMID:9528099

Abudiab, T; Beitle, R R

1998-02-01

124

Parametric instabilities with well separated frequencies in magnetized plasmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nonlinear dispersion relation is derived for a homogeneous, magnetized plasma by the conventional 'ponderomotive force' method. By using this dispersion relation, various parametric instabilities (stimulated anomalous absorptions and scatterings) are discussed. The results are compared in detail with those obtained by other authors. In the validity region of this model the results derived by previous authors can be recovered. In addition to obtaining a few instabilities which have not been published in the literature, we also find that in general (i) the 'dipole approximation' can give the right results for the stimulated anomalous absorption problems and (ii) the ambient magnetic field may enhance the plasma stability. (author)

125

Simultaneous study of local magnetization and resistivity in phase-separated manganites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed magneto-optical imaging on Pr1-xCaxMn1-yCryO3 (x=0.35, y=0.03) concomitantly with transport measurements. Non-uniform distribution of magnetization due to phase-separation is visualized. Temporal evolution of the images revealed much faster relaxation in highly magnetized region than the average over the sample. In the inhomogeneous phase-separated state, we observed telegraph noise in resistivity which suggests the existence of switcher domains

126

A study on separation method of radioactive materials using superconducting magnetic technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on superconducting magnetic separation method is being carried out in view of applying to nuclear fuel cycle technique with least emission of high-level radioactive wastes. After conceptual study on superconducting magnets and magnetic filters, the present authors constructed a component which can be employed in the experimental setup. This was to study separation mechanism and to evaluate the feasibility of gradient magnetic separation of powders of varying size (0.5 - 2 ?m) composed of Eu2O3, NiO and CeO2. The magnetic filter was made of SUS 430 and covar (Ni 29%, Co 17%, Fe 8%) and examined using electrostatic corrosion test. The mixed powders suspended in water were passed through the filter above mentioned repetitively and the effluent were analyzed for obtained mutual-separation efficiency as a function of applied magnetic field strength and repetition time. Computer simulation was also done to clarify the phenomenon leading to mutual separation which may called magnetic chromatography. (S. Ohno)

127

Successive component-separated magnetic transition in TbCoGa{sub 5}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We grew single crystals of TbCoGa{sub 5} and measured the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization curves, specific heat and ultrasonic properties. The results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements suggest that TbCoGa{sub 5} shows successive component-separated magnetic transition and the degeneracy of quadrupolar degrees of freedom is not fully lifted in intermediate phase. The softening of the elastic constant C{sub 44} indicates that the degeneracy of electric-quadrupolar (orbital) degrees of freedom exists in spite of the formation of magnetic order. We have considered that the degeneracy of quadrupolar degrees of freedom is important for the occurrence of successive component-separated magnetic transition.

Sanada, Naoyuki; Muneoka, Takatoshi; Watanuki, Ryuta; Suzuki, Kazuya [Department of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Yokohama National University, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Akatsu, Mitsuhiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Nishi-ku, Niigata (Japan); Sakakibara, Toshiro [The Institute for Solid State Physics, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa (Japan)

2009-03-01

128

Optimized high gradient magnetic separation for isolation of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Highly purified infected red blood cells (irbc), or highly synchronized parasite cultures, are regularly required in malaria research. Conventional isolation and synchronization rely on density and osmotic fragility of irbc, respectively. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) offers an alternative based on intrinsic magnetic properties of irbc, avoiding exposure to chemicals and osmotic stress. Successful HGMS concentration in malaria research was previ...

Chimma Pattamawan; Pannadaporn Peeranad; Sratongno Panudda; Somsri Sangdao; Ottinger Annette; Bhakdi Sebastian C; Malasit Prida; Pattanapanyasat Kovit; Ph, Neumann Hartmut

2010-01-01

129

ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN CORONAL LOOPS: THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPONENTIAL SEPARATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations by the TRACE spacecraft have shown that coronal emission in the extreme ultraviolet is characterized by filamentary structures within coronal loops, with transverse sizes close to the instrumental resolution. Starting from the observed filament widths and using the concepts of braided magnetic fields, an estimate of the turbulence level in the coronal loops can be obtained. Magnetic turbulence in the presence of a background magnetic field can be strongly anisotropic, and such anisotropy influences the separation of magnetic field lines, as well as the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient. Careful computations of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient Dm and of the rate of exponential separation of magnetic field lines h, also allowing for the possibility of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, enable computation of the effective perpendicular diffusion coefficient for electrons. When compared with observations this yields magnetic turbulence levels on the order of ?B/B 0 = 0.05-0.7, which are larger than previous estimates. These values of the magnetic fluctuation level support the idea that magnetic turbulence can contribute to coronal heating by means of MHD turbulence dissipation. It is also found that field line transport is not governed by the quasilinear regime, but by a nonlinear regime which includes an intermediate and the percolation regimes.

130

Fluctuations of the Solitary Bubble at the Separation from the Air Cavity, Compressed by the Magnetic Field in Magnetic Liquid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article, on the basis of the concept of "display" of geometry of a free surface of the "low-magnetic" environment by the topography of isolines of the module of intensity of a magnetic field, it is studied a form of a free surface of magnetic fluid in a static condition at the initial stage of rapprochement of a ring magnet with a surface of a column of magnetic fluid in a tube and at a stage of pressing of a cavity to a bottom. It is shown that the separation of bubbles from an air cavity occurs in close proximity to the plane of symmetry of a ring magnet on its axis. It is described the method and experimental installation for studying the possibility of electromagnetic indication of sizes of the air bubbles, being in magnetic fluid. It is discussed the results of experimental research on process of a separation of solitary air bubble from a cavity, contained in magnetic fluid and squeezed by ponderomotive forces of a magnetic field which are of interest for creation of essentially new technique of the dosed supply of small amount of gas in the reactor.

M.L. Boev

2013-12-01

131

A novel blind separation method in magnetic resonance images.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel global search algorithm based method is proposed to separate MR images blindly in this paper. The key point of the method is the formulation of the new matrix which forms a generalized permutation of the original mixing matrix. Since the lowest entropy is closely associated with the smooth degree of source images, blind image separation can be formulated to an entropy minimization problem by using the property that most of neighbor pixels are smooth. A new dataset can be obtained by multiplying the mixed matrix by the inverse of the new matrix. Thus, the search technique is used to searching for the lowest entropy values of the new data. Accordingly, the separation weight vector associated with the lowest entropy values can be obtained. Compared with the conventional independent component analysis (ICA), the original signals in the proposed algorithm are not required to be independent. Simulation results on MR images are employed to further show the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:24707318

Gao, Jianbin; Xia, Qi; Yin, Lixue; Zhou, Ji; Du, Li; Fan, Yunfeng

2014-01-01

132

A Novel Blind Separation Method in Magnetic Resonance Images  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel global search algorithm based method is proposed to separate MR images blindly in this paper. The key point of the method is the formulation of the new matrix which forms a generalized permutation of the original mixing matrix. Since the lowest entropy is closely associated with the smooth degree of source images, blind image separation can be formulated to an entropy minimization problem by using the property that most of neighbor pixels are smooth. A new dataset can be obtained by multiplying the mixed matrix by the inverse of the new matrix. Thus, the search technique is used to searching for the lowest entropy values of the new data. Accordingly, the separation weight vector associated with the lowest entropy values can be obtained. Compared with the conventional independent component analysis (ICA), the original signals in the proposed algorithm are not required to be independent. Simulation results on MR images are employed to further show the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:24707318

Gao, Jianbin; Xia, Qi; Yin, Lixue; Zhou, Ji; Du, Li

2014-01-01

133

Magnetic resonance separation imaging using a divided inversion recovery technique (DIRT).  

Science.gov (United States)

The divided inversion recovery technique is an MRI separation method based on tissue T(1) relaxation differences. When tissue T(1) relaxation times are longer than the time between inversion pulses in a segmented inversion recovery pulse sequence, longitudinal magnetization does not pass through the null point. Prior to additional inversion pulses, longitudinal magnetization may have an opposite polarity. Spatial displacement of tissues in inversion recovery balanced steady-state free-precession imaging has been shown to be due to this magnetization phase change resulting from incomplete magnetization recovery. In this paper, it is shown how this phase change can be used to provide image separation. A pulse sequence parameter, the time between inversion pulses (T180), can be adjusted to provide water-fat or fluid separation. Example water-fat and fluid separation images of the head, heart, and abdomen are presented. The water-fat separation performance was investigated by comparing image intensities in short-axis divided inversion recovery technique images of the heart. Fat, blood, and fluid signal was suppressed to the background noise level. Additionally, the separation performance was not affected by main magnetic field inhomogeneities. PMID:20373401

Goldfarb, James W

2010-04-01

134

Aligning effect of magnetic field on PDLC films during the phase separation  

Science.gov (United States)

The results ofthe study ofthe uniaxially oriented PDLC films prepared by solvent induced phase separation (SIPS) method are presented. The samples were obtained applying a longitudinal magnetic field while the phase separation of the liquid crystal and polymer occurs due to the evaporation of common solvent from the uniform solution. In the presence of magnetic field the nematic liquid crystals 4-n-pentyl-4' -cyanophenylcyclohexane (5PCH), the 4-n-pentyl-4'- cyanobiphenyl (SCB) and nematic mixture LN-394 form the separate droplets in polyvinylbutyral (PVB) matrix. At that, the nematics 5PCH and LN-394 form always the stable bipolar structures with the order parameter of the droplet axes depending on the value of the applied field. In 5CB droplets the bipolar structure is realized only in a weak magnetic field and the radial one is formed in a strong magnetic field. At intermediate field the non-equilibrium structures are appeared that are characterized by the flickering textures.

Nazarov, V. G.; Parshin, A. M.; Zyryanov, V. Y.; Shabanov, V. F.; Lapanik, V. I.; Bezborodov, V. S.

2007-05-01

135

Probing magnetic phase separation in manganites by nonlinear susceptibility  

Science.gov (United States)

At low frequencies ??300 Hz, nonlinear magnetic susceptibility of polycrystalline La0.7Pb0.3Mn0.8(Co, Ni)0.2O3 samples near the ferromagnetic (FM)-paramagnetic (PM) phase transition reinforces the earlier observation, based on linear ac susceptibility, that these systems behave as a three-dimensional isotropic dipolar ferromagnet in the asymptotic critical regime and exhibit an isotropic dipolar to isotropic Heisenberg crossover. In addition, the nonlinear susceptibility results reveal the phase segregation of the conducting and insulating FM phases (clusters) within the conducting FM regime and existence of conducting FM clusters in the insulating PM matrix at high frequencies.

Bitla, Y.; Kaul, S. N.; Fernández Barquín, L.

2014-09-01

136

High Temperature Superconducting Reciprocating Magnetic Separator Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2001, under DOE's Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Dupont) was awarded a cost-share contract to build a fully functional full-scale model high temperature superconducting reciprocating magnet unit specifically designed for the koalin clay industry. After competitive bidding, American Superconductor (AMSC) was selected to provide the coil for the magnet. Dupont performed the statement of work until September 2004, when it stopped work, with the concurrence of DOE, due to lack of federal funds. DOE had paid all invoices to that point, and Dupont had provided all cost share. At this same time, Dupont determined that this program did not fit with its corporate strategies and notified DOE that it was not interesting in resuming the program when funding became available. AMSC expressed interest in assuming performance of the Agreement to Dupont and DOE, and in March 2005, this project was transferred to AMSC by DOE amendment to the original contract and Novation Agreement between AMSC and Dupont. Design drawings and some hardware components and subassemblies were transferred to AMSC. However, no funding was obligated by DOE and AMSC never performed work on the project. This report contains a summary of the work performed by Dupont up to the September 04 timeframe.

James F. Maguire

2008-06-05

137

Removal of freshwater microalgae by a magnetic separation method  

Science.gov (United States)

Some species of microalgae, with high growth rate and high lipid content, appear to be attractive alternatives as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The high-energy input for harvesting biomass and removing the water from the algae makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production cost expensive. The major techniques currently employed in microalgae harvesting and recovery include centrifugation, coagulation-flocculation, bio-flocculation, filtration and screening, gravity sedimentation, and flotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the harvesting of microalgae cells by coagulation using magnetic activated carbon, magnetite (FeO4) nanoparticles, and common chemical coagulants. Scenedesmus rubescens was selected and cultivated in 10 L flasks under continuous artificial light. Samples were taken at different operation intervals. Jar tests were conducted to investigate the effect of adsorption of microalgae on the magnetic material. The removal efficiency of microalgae was affected by the coagulants dose, stirring time and speed, and the initial microalgae concentration. The recovery of microalgae was greater in cultures with high initial microalgae concentration compared to cultures with low microalgae concentrations.

Vergini, Sofia S.; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

2013-04-01

138

Influence of a magnetic field on separation processes in a beam-plasma discharge in crossed electric and magnetic fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lowering the magnetic-field strength improves the conditions for sustaining a volume beam-plasma discharge and also leads to an increase in the radial current. In the process the energy consumption for separation decreases by more than order of magnitude and the separation factor grows; a value of ? = 1.4 was obtained for a natural mixture of neon isotopes in this case

139

Metalizing reduction and magnetic separation of vanadium titano-magnetite based on hot briquetting  

Science.gov (United States)

To achieve high efficiency utilization of Panzhihua vanadium titano-magnetite, a new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting is proposed, and factors that affect the cold strength of the hot-briquetting products and the efficiency of reduction and magnetic separation are successively investigated through laboratory experiments. The relevant mechanisms are elucidated on the basis of microstructural observations. Experimental results show that the optimal process parameters for hot briquetting include a hot briquetting temperature of 475°C, a carbon ratio of 1.2, ore and coal particle sizes of less than 74 ?m. Additionally, with respect to metalizing reduction and magnetic separation, the rational parameters include a magnetic field intensity of 50 mT, a reduction temperature of 1350°C, a reduction time of 60 min, and a carbon ratio of 1.2. Under these above conditions, the crushing strength of the hot-briquetting agglomerates is 1480 N, and the recovery ratios of iron, vanadium, and titanium are as high as 91.19%, 61.82%, and 85.31%, respectively. The new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting demonstrates the evident technological advantages of high efficiency separation of iron from other valuable elements in the vanadium titano-magnetite.

Chen, Shuang-yin; Chu, Man-sheng

2014-03-01

140

High gradient magnetic separation versus expanded bed adsorption: a first principle comparison  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A robust new adsorptive separation technique specifically designed for direct product capture from crude bioprocess feedstreams is introduced and compared with the current bench mark technique, expanded bed adsorption. The method employs product adsorption onto sub-micron sized non-porous superparamagnetic supports followed by rapid separation of the `loaded' adsorbents from the feedstock using high gradient magnetic separation technology. For the recovery of Savinase(R) from a cell-free Bacillus clausii fermentation liquor using bacitracin-linked adsorbents, the integrated magnetic separation system exhibited substantially enhanced productivity over expanded bed adsorption when operated at processing velocities greater than 48 m h(-1). Use of the bacitracin- linked magnetic supports for a single cycle of batch adsorption and subsequent capture by high gradient magnetic separation at a processing rate of 12 m h(-1) resulted in a 2.2-fold higher productivity relative to expanded bed adsorption, while an increase in adsorbent collection rate to 72 m h(-1) raised the productivity to 10.7 times that of expanded bed adsorption. When the number of batch adsorption cycles was then increased to three, significant drops in both magnetic adsorbent consumption (3.6 fold) and filter volume required (1.3 fold) could be achieved at the expense of a reduction in productivity from 10.7 to 4.4 times that of expanded bed adsorption.

Hubbuch, Jürgen; Hobley, Timothy John

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Research on red mud treatment by a circulating superconducting magnetic separator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Red mud (RM) accumulated over the years and caused a serious environmental problem. Iron-rich fraction separation is a cost-effective way to reduce the amount of disposal RM. A circulating high-gradient superconducting magnetic separator was produced in this work. Steel wool was filled in the circulating boxes. The boxes were connected by two chains, which moved in and out the magnetic field by a drive motor. The efficiency of iron-rich RM separation by the superconducting magnetic separator was investigated. An amount of 25% (w/w) iron-rich RM fractions with a grade of 65% were separated from the 56% iron content raw RM. The parameters of the steel wool matrix were important in controlling the iron-rich RM magnetic separation. Finer steel wool increased the iron recovery ratio, but decreased the grade of the iron-rich RM concentrates. Microscopic photographs of the RM particles showed that opaque mineral particles were enriched in the collected RM. The particle size distributions of raw, concentrate and residue RM were measured. The increased particle size of concentrate RM implied that large particles were entrapped in the steel wool matrix. PMID:24701921

Li, Yiran; Chen, Haoshu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Fengyu; Zhang, Weimin

2014-01-01

142

Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-05-01

143

Experiments with a magnetic separator for heavy recoil ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using a triple-focusing (position and momentum), crescent-shaped separator for heavy recoil-ions different experiments were performed. The improvement consists in the enhancement of the transmission from 8% to 25% for 500 keV recoil ions from the reaction 238U(?, 3n)sup(239m)Pu. For sup(237m)Pu the electromagnetic decay of the 1.1 ?s shape isomer into the 82 ns shape isomer was searched for. The upper limit for gamma decay is 1.25 +- 1.25% for Esub(?) = 200 keV and for electron decay 0.29 +- 0.29% in comparison to isomeric fission. The upper limit for interband transitions is 2.5% (2 delta), from which the upper limit of the partial half-life for the electromagnetic decay of the 1.1 ?s isomer is calculated to 44 ?s. Due to the performed interpretation the spin difference between both isomers extends at least to ?I = 3. For sup(238m)U the back-decay into the 1. minimum by the EO-transition and the converted 2+ ? 0+ transition in the first decay and the decay by alpha articles was looked for both in single measurements as in a coincidence measurement to L-X-ray quanta. The upper limits are GAMMAsub(EO) = 2.0, GAMMAsub(?)/GAMMAsub(F) = 0.4 and GAMMA(back-decay)/GAMMAsub(F) approx. equal to 100. (orig./HSI)

144

Identification of the Structure Model of the Si(111)-(5×2)-Au Surface  

Science.gov (United States)

The atomic structure of the Si(111)-(5×2)-Au surface, a periodic gold chain on the silicon surface, has been a long-debated issue in surface science. The recent three candidates, the so-called Erwin-Barke-Himpsel (EBH) model [S. C. Erwin, I. Barke, and F. J. Himpsel, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155409 (2009)], the Abukawa-Nishigaya (AN) model [T. Abukawa and Y. Nishigaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 036102 (2013)], and the Kwon-Kang (KK) model [S. G. Kwon and M. H. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 086101 (2014)] that has one additional Au atom than the EBH model are tested by surface x-ray diffraction data. A two-dimensional Patterson map constructed from the in-plane diffraction intensities rejects the AN model and prefers the KK model over the EBH model. On the basis of the arrangement of Au obtained from the Patterson map, all the reconstructed Si atoms, such as the so-called honeycomb chain structure, are directly imaged out by utilizing a holographic method. The KK model reproduces out-of-plane diffraction data as well.

Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Voegeli, Wolfgang; Nojima, Takehiro; Iwasawa, Yusaku; Yamaguchi, Yudai; Takahashi, Toshio

2014-10-01

145

Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting-water leaching followed by magnetic separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using reduction roasting-water leaching-magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting-water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 Degree-Sign C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 Degree-Sign C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei [College of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, 255081, Zibo, Shandong (China); Yu, Xianjin, E-mail: xjy@sdut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, 255081, Zibo, Shandong (China)

2012-04-30

146

Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting–water leaching followed by magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Using reduction roasting–water leaching–magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. ? The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. ? The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting–water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

147

Ferromagnetic Ni decorated ordered mesoporous carbons as magnetically separable adsorbents for methyl orange  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Magnetically separable Ni-decorated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was successfully synthesized. ? The adsorption capacities for MO dyes on ordered mesoporous carbons, Ni-OMC and activated carbon powder were comparatively investigated. ? The effects of surface area, pore structure, and Ni deposition on the absorption capacities for MO were investigated. ? The ferromagnetic Ni decorated OMC can be easily dispersed in aqueous solution and removed by an external magnetic field. - Abstract: Magnetic ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with Ni nanoparticle (average size: 10 nm) homogeneously modified on surfaces of OMCs were successfully fabricated via a facile casting route. The microstructure, pore size distribution, pore structure, and surface area of the synthesized OMCs and Ni decorated OMCs (Ni-OMCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and N2 sorption. The characterization by magnetic hysteresis loops suggests a ferromagnetic behavior for the Ni-OMCs samples with a magnetization saturation of 2.34 emu g?1 at 300 K, high enough for magnetic separation. The ferromagnetic Ni-OMCs were used as magnetically separable high-performance adsorbents for methyl orange (MO). The adsorption capacities for MO on the Ni-OMCs as magnetically separable adsorbents were investigated comparatively with pristine OMCs and activated carbon powder (Cs and activated carbon powder (ACP). The results show that the adsorption capacities for MO on the OMCs and Ni-OMCs adsorbents could be well described according to Langmuir isotherm with MO molecule preferentially adsorbed in the structured mesopores, suggesting the adsorption type of monolayer coverage of MO dye onto the mesoporous samples. The effects of surface area, pore structure, and the Ni deposition on the adsorption capacities for MO were systematically investigated. The effects of several important parameters such as contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration on the adsorption capabilities were studied in detail. The ferromagnetic Ni decorated OMCs as adsorbents for MO, were easily dispersed, separated and removed in an external applied magnet field, and can be more convenient for large scale applications than filtration or centrifugation separation route.

148

Ferromagnetic Ni decorated ordered mesoporous carbons as magnetically separable adsorbents for methyl orange  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetically separable Ni-decorated ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was successfully synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption capacities for MO dyes on ordered mesoporous carbons, Ni-OMC and activated carbon powder were comparatively investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of surface area, pore structure, and Ni deposition on the absorption capacities for MO were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferromagnetic Ni decorated OMC can be easily dispersed in aqueous solution and removed by an external magnetic field. - Abstract: Magnetic ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) with Ni nanoparticle (average size: 10 nm) homogeneously modified on surfaces of OMCs were successfully fabricated via a facile casting route. The microstructure, pore size distribution, pore structure, and surface area of the synthesized OMCs and Ni decorated OMCs (Ni-OMCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and N{sub 2} sorption. The characterization by magnetic hysteresis loops suggests a ferromagnetic behavior for the Ni-OMCs samples with a magnetization saturation of 2.34 emu g{sup -1} at 300 K, high enough for magnetic separation. The ferromagnetic Ni-OMCs were used as magnetically separable high-performance adsorbents for methyl orange (MO). The adsorption capacities for MO on the Ni-OMCs as magnetically separable adsorbents were investigated comparatively with pristine OMCs and activated carbon powder (ACP). The results show that the adsorption capacities for MO on the OMCs and Ni-OMCs adsorbents could be well described according to Langmuir isotherm with MO molecule preferentially adsorbed in the structured mesopores, suggesting the adsorption type of monolayer coverage of MO dye onto the mesoporous samples. The effects of surface area, pore structure, and the Ni deposition on the adsorption capacities for MO were systematically investigated. The effects of several important parameters such as contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration on the adsorption capabilities were studied in detail. The ferromagnetic Ni decorated OMCs as adsorbents for MO, were easily dispersed, separated and removed in an external applied magnet field, and can be more convenient for large scale applications than filtration or centrifugation separation route.

Liu Ningning [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Yin Longwei, E-mail: yinlw@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Luyuan; Wang Changbin; Lun Ning; Qi Yongxin; Wang Chengxiang [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

2011-12-15

149

Enrichment and separation of isotopes utilizing a novel magnetic isotope effect. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented of a study undertaken to find a suitable isotope separation process for the 13C-12C system that could be adapted to a multi-stage process for the commercial enrichment and separation of isotopes. Experiments reveal that solid porous silica provides an appropriate medium for the efficient enrichment of 13C via the photolysis of dibenzyl ketones (and related ketones). It is concluded that a system can be designed for the practical separation of 13C from 12C based on the photolysis in a magnetic field of ketones absorbed on solid porous silica

150

Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-29

151

Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting-water leaching followed by magnetic separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting-water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism. PMID:22333161

Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

2012-04-30

152

Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed

153

Investigation for Magnetic Separation of Oxygen from Supercritical Air Near the Maxcondentherm Point  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to develop a highly effective separation technology for oxygen operating in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) temperature range, the magnetic separation of oxygen from supercritical air was investigated using a laser holography interferometer. The experiment was carried out near the maxcondentherm (MC) point. For purposes of comparison, the same operation was carried out using supercritical nitrogen. Here, a neodymium magnet was used and the magnetic force was conducted into the experimental cell through a magnetic alloy rod. Density variation caused by the magnetic force was observed in this study. In the case of supercritical air, the density gradient was formed around the tip of the rod, whereas in the case of supercritical nitrogen, no density gradient was observed. This fact strongly suggested that oxygen was attracted by the magnetic force and highly condensed on the surface at the tip of the rod, leading us to suppose that it might be exploited in a new purification system of gaseous oxygen using magnetic force.

Nakano, A.; Shiraishi, M.

2004-06-01

154

Purification of condenser water in thermal power station by superconducting magnetic separation  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal power station is made up of a steam turbine and a steam condenser which need a lot of water. The water of steam condenser should be replaced, since scales consisting of iron oxide mainly are accumulated on the surface of condenser pipes as it goes. Superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system has merits to remove paramagnetic substance like iron oxides because it can generate higher magnetic field strength than electromagnet or permanent magnet. In this paper, cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet that can generate up to 6 T was used for HGMS systems. Magnetic filters were designed by the analysis of magnetic field distribution at superconducting magnets. The result of X-ray analysis showed contaminants were mostly ?-Fe 2O 3 (hematite) and ?-Fe 2O 3 (maghemite). The higher magnetic field was applied up to 6 T, the more iron oxides were removed. As the wire diameter of magnetic filter decreased, the turbidity removal of the sample was enhanced.

Ha, D. W.; Kwon, J. M.; Baik, S. K.; Lee, Y. J.; Han, K. S.; Ko, R. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Seong, K. C.

2011-11-01

155

Separation and enrichment of enantiopure from racemic compounds using magnetic levitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crystallization of a solution with high enantiomeric excess can generate a mixture of crystals of the desired enantiomer and the racemic compound. Using a mixture of S-/RS-ibuprofen crystals as a model, we demonstrated that magnetic levitation (MagLev) is a useful technique for analysis, separation and enantioenrichment of chiral/racemic products. PMID:24875274

Yang, Xiaochuan; Wong, Shin Yee; Bwambok, David K; Atkinson, Manza B J; Zhang, Xi; Whitesides, George M; Myerson, Allan S

2014-07-18

156

A 4.4 K refrigeration system for an industrial magnetic separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a small capacity refrigerator for an industrial superconducting magnetic separator and the small capacity turbine specially developed for the plant. The refrigeration capacity is 25 W at about 4.4 K without the need for liquid nitrogen precooling. Descriptions are included of the refrigeration cycle and of the major plant components. (author)

157

Removal of less biodegradable dissolved organic matters in water by superconducting magnetic separation with magnetic mesoporous carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Less biodegradable dissolved organic matters in water as typified by humic substances are known as precursors of carcinogenic trihalomethanes, and are removed about 60% by current advanced water treatments. However, further increase of the removal ratio is demand. In this study, magnetic mesoporous carbon (MMPC), which can adsorb the substances physically and be efficiently collected by using superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS), has been synthesized with coconut-shell-based activated carbon and ferric nitrate solution by the gas activation method. The MMPC has the maximum magnetization value of 30.7 emu/g and an adsorption ability of 87% to 10 mg/L humic acid in a short time. The standard MMPC having a magnetization of 6.43 emu/g was able to be separated at magnetic field of 2 T. Used MMPC regained the adsorption ability to 93.1% by N{sub 2} reactivation heat treatment. These results show promise for application of current water treatments by superconducting HGMS, which is suitable for high-speed water treatment without secondary wastes.

Kondo, K., E-mail: kondokay@gmail.co [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Jin, T.; Miura, O. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

2010-11-01

158

Mass-separation of impurities in the ion beam systems with reversed magnetic beam focusing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the intrinsic capability of ion systems with reversed magnetic beam focusing for impurities mass-separation. Numerical calculation of the ion trajectory deviation with taking into account the experimental ion energy distribution function for hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture was carried out. It is demonstrated that O+ impurities which are present in the beam are separated and form the circle with a diameter of ?6 mm. Therefore, the central part of the spot is free of impurities due to magnetic separation. As a result, the source generates steady-state hydrogen ion beam, which irradiates the surface with high heat and particle fluxes, which approach the upper limit for the flux range expected in a fusion reactor.

159

Gravitational and magnetic separation in self-assembled clay-ferrofluid nanocomposites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report on experimental observations of self-assemblies in colloidal dispersions of clay nanoplatelets and magnetic nanoparticles. Visual observations have been combined with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in the study of several composites at a fixed clay concentration in the dilute regime, [...] and varying ferrofluid concentrations. Our visual observations which encompass macroscopic separation in gravitational- and magnetic field, indicate that all samples present a concentrated phase and a diluted one. SAXS data obtained from each phase are consistent with the interpretation that the scattering contribution from the clay nano-platelets in the samples can be neglected in comparison with the magnetic particle contribution. The analysis of the scattered intensity is performed combining two models, one based on the global scattering function and the other allowing the extraction of the structure factor of the mixtures. The parameters of the size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles determined by both methods are in good agreement. The structure factor of the mixtures shows that on a local scale, the mixtures behave like a gas of isolated magnetic nanoparticles. It also indicates the presence of interactions between magnetic nanoparticles mediated by the presence of Laponite platelets. Such interactions could be attributed with a progressive partial phase separation between spheres and discs rather than to the formation of dense aggregates.

F.L.O., Paula; G.J. da, Silva; R., Aquino; J., Depeyrot; J.O., Fossum; K.D., Knudsen; G., Helgesen; F.A., Tourinho.

160

Gravitational and magnetic separation in self-assembled clay-ferrofluid nanocomposites  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report on experimental observations of self-assemblies in colloidal dispersions of clay nanoplatelets and magnetic nanoparticles. Visual observations have been combined with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in the study of several composites at a fixed clay concentration in the dilute regime, [...] and varying ferrofluid concentrations. Our visual observations which encompass macroscopic separation in gravitational- and magnetic field, indicate that all samples present a concentrated phase and a diluted one. SAXS data obtained from each phase are consistent with the interpretation that the scattering contribution from the clay nano-platelets in the samples can be neglected in comparison with the magnetic particle contribution. The analysis of the scattered intensity is performed combining two models, one based on the global scattering function and the other allowing the extraction of the structure factor of the mixtures. The parameters of the size distribution of magnetic nanoparticles determined by both methods are in good agreement. The structure factor of the mixtures shows that on a local scale, the mixtures behave like a gas of isolated magnetic nanoparticles. It also indicates the presence of interactions between magnetic nanoparticles mediated by the presence of Laponite platelets. Such interactions could be attributed with a progressive partial phase separation between spheres and discs rather than to the formation of dense aggregates.

F.L.O., Paula; G.J. da, Silva; R., Aquino; J., Depeyrot; J.O., Fossum; K.D., Knudsen; G., Helgesen; F.A., Tourinho.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

High-gradient magnetic affinity separation of trypsin from porcine pancreatin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce a robust and scale-flexible approach to macromolecule purification employing tailor-made magnetic adsorbents and high-gradient magnetic separation technology adapted from the mineral processing industries. Detailed procedures for the synthesis of large quantities of low-cost defined submicron-sized magnetic supports are presented. These support materials exhibit unique features, which facilitate their large-scale processing using high magnetic field gradients, namely sufficiently high magnetization, a relatively narrow particle size distribution and ideal superparamagnetism. Following systematic optimization with respect to activation chemistry, spacer length and ligand density, conditions for preparation of effective high capacity (Q(max) = 120 mg g(-1)) strongly interacting (K-d <0.3 mum) trypsin-binding adsorbents based on immobilized benzamidine were established. In small-scale studies approximate to95% of the endogenous trypsin present in a crude porcine pancreatin feedstock was recovered with a purification factor of approximate to4.1 at the expense of only a 4% loss in a-amylase activity. Efficient recovery of trypsin from the same feedstock was demonstrated at a vastly increased scale using a high-gradient magnetic separation system to capture loaded benzamidine-linked adsorbents following batch adsorption. With the aid of a simple recycle loop over 80% of the initially adsorbed trypsin was recovered in-line with an overall purification factor of approximate to3.5.

Hubbuch, Jürgen; Thomas, Owen R. T.

2002-01-01

162

High gradient magnetic separation of upconverting lanthanide nanophosphors based on their intrinsic paramagnetism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photon upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) have the unique luminescent property of converting low-energy infrared light into visible emission which can be widely utilized in nanoreporter and imaging applications. For the use as reporters in these applications, the UCNPs must undergo a series of surface modification and bioconjugation reactions. Efficient purification methods are required to remove the excess reagents and biomolecules from the nanophosphor solution after each step to yield highly responsive reporters for sensitive bioanalytical assays. However, as the particle size of the UCNPs approaches the size of biomolecules, the handling of these reporters becomes cumbersome with traditional purification methods such as centrifugation. Here we introduce a novel approach for purification of bioconjugated 32-nm NaYF{sub 4}: Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}-nanophosphors from excess unbound biomolecules utilizing high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS)-system constructed from permanent super magnets which produce magnetic gradients in a magnetizable steel wool matrix amplifying the magnetic field. The non-magnetic biomolecules flowed straight through the magnetized HGMS-column while the UCNPs were eluted only after the magnetic field was removed. In the UCNPs the luminescent centers, i.e., lanthanide-ion dopants are responsible for the strong upconversion luminescence, but in addition they are also paramagnetic. In this study we have shown that the presence of these weakly paramagnetic luminescent lanthanides actually also enables the use of HGMS to capture the UCNPs without incorporating additional optically inactive magnetic core into them.

Arppe, Riikka, E-mail: riikka.arppe@utu.fi; Salovaara, Oskari; Mattsson, Leena; Lahtinen, Satu; Valta, Timo; Riuttamaeki, Terhi; Soukka, Tero [University of Turku, Department of Biotechnology (Finland)

2013-09-15

163

Separation of magnetization precession in 3He-B into two magnetic domains. Theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that even small deviations of the magnetic field from uniformity can substantially modify the magnetization precession in 3He-B. Specifically, a two-domain structure forms if the magnetic-field non-uniformity is linear. The magnetization makes an angle approx.1040 with the field in one of the domains and is parallel to it in the other. These domains can explain the anomalously long persistence of the induction signal in 3He-B; moreover, the change in the induction-signal frequency with time discovered and investigated by Borovik-Romanov et al. [JETP Lett. 40, 1033 (1984)] is a consequence of the relaxation of the domain structure

164

Measurement of the adhesion force between particles for high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products  

Science.gov (United States)

In the industrial plants such as foods, medicines or industrial materials, there are big amount of issues on contamination by metallic wear debris originated from pipes of manufacturing lines. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under the dry process by using superconducting magnet to remove the ferromagnetic particles. One of the major problems of dry HGMS systems is, however, the blockage of magnetic filter caused by particle coagulation or deposition. In order to actualize the magnetic separation without blockage, we introduced pneumatic conveyance system as a new method to feed the powder. It is important to increase the drag force acting on the sufficiently dispersed particles, which require strong magnetic fields. To generate the strong magnetic fields, HGMS technique was examined which consists of a magnetic filter and a superconducting solenoid magnet. As a result of the magnetic separation experiment, it was shown that the separation efficiency changes due to the difference of the cohesive property of the particles. On the basis of the result, the adhesion force which acts between the ferromagnetic particles and the medium particles used for the magnetic separation was measured by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and cohesion of particles was studied from the aspect of interparticle interaction. We assessed a suitable flow velocity for magnetic separation according to the cohesive property of each particle based on the result.

Senkawa, K.; Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2011-11-01

165

Magnetic separation of proteins by a self-assembled supramolecular ternary complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

The easy and effective separation of proteins from a mixture is crucial in proteomics. A supramolecular method is described to selectively capture and precipitate one protein from a protein mixture upon application of a magnetic field. A multivalent complex self-assembles in a dilute aqueous solution of three components: magnetic nanoparticles capped with cyclodextrin, non-covalent cross-linkers with an adamantane and a carbohydrate moiety, and lectins. The self-assembled ternary complex is precipitated in a magnetic field and readily redispersed with the aid of a non-ionic surfactant and competitive binding agents. This strategy to purify proteins by supramolecular magnetic precipitation is highly selective and efficient. PMID:25250697

Samanta, Avik; Ravoo, Bart Jan

2014-11-17

166

Magnetic solid sulfonic acid decorated with hydrophobic regulators: a combinatorial and magnetically separable catalyst for the synthesis of ?-aminonitriles.  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-component, Strecker reaction of a series of aldehydes or ketones, amines, and trimethylsilyl cyanide for the synthesis of ?-aminonitriles in the presence of a catalytic amount of a magnetic solid sulfonic acid catalyst, Fe3O4@SiO2@Me&Et-PhSO3H under solvent-free conditions have been investigated. This catalyst, with a combination of hydrophobicity and acidity on the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell of the magnetic nanobeads, as well as its water-resistant property, enabled easy mass transfer and catalytic activity in the Strecker reaction. The catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and the recovered catalyst was reused in 6 successive reaction cycles without any significant loss of activity. PMID:24932543

Mobaraki, Akbar; Movassagh, Barahman; Karimi, Babak

2014-07-14

167

Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

2013-01-15

168

Challenge to the volume reduction of contaminated soil based on magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great amount of radioactive substances were released in the neighborhood of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station following the accident of this plant. In particular, damage from radioactive cesium (134 or 137) has become the main case of trouble, incurring the necessity of decontamination of soil in the contaminated territory. In addition, a large amount of contaminated soil was generated due to the decontamination work, and its volume reduction has become a large challenge for the management and storage. This paper takes up magnetic separation technology as one of the technologies of volume reduction, and introduces its development condition. In this method, soil is firstly classified by size, and clay (or silt) with small particles, which adsorbs about 80% of radioactive cesium in soil, is separated from sand gravel. Furthermore, this clay portion is separated based on magnetic separation to 1:1 type and 1:2 type clay minerals with different magnetic susceptibilities, for the purpose of volume reduction. This paper describes the principle of the above method, as well as the development history to date. (A.O.)

169

Separating Effect of a Novel Combined Magnetic Field on Inclusions in Molten Aluminum Alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility and effectiveness of a novel combined magnetic field (CMF) on the removal of inclusions with a density smaller than the surrounding melt were investigated. The experiment of the separating effect of CMF was conducted on a laboratory-scale apparatus by the simultaneous application of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) and a downward traveling magnetic field (TMF). Primary silicon particles precipitating from the solidification process of Al-Si-Cu alloy were regarded as the inclusions in a molten aluminum alloy. It was found that a CMF consisting of both a RMF and a downward TMF was able to separate silicon particles from the molten Al-Si-Cu alloy by making these particles migrate vertically toward the upper part of the samples. Compared with downward TMF or RMF, CMF improved the separating effectiveness substantially. It was proposed that this type of CMF was approved to be highly effective at eliminating the inclusions with a density smaller than the surrounding molten alloy. A tentative mechanism for the high separating effect of CMF was discussed.

He, Yanjie; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

2012-10-01

170

Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

171

2D modeling and preliminary in vitro investigation of a prototype high gradient magnetic separator for biomedical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) of magnetic materials from fluids or waste products has many established industrial applications. However, there is currently no technology employing HGMS for ex-vivo biomedical applications, such as for the removal of magnetic drug- or toxin-loaded spheres from the human blood stream. Importantly, human HGMS applications require special design modifications as, in contrast to conventional use where magnetic elements are permanently imbedded within the separation chambers, medical separators need to avoid direct contact between the magnetic materials and blood to reduce the risk of blood clotting and to facilitate convenient and safe treatment access for many individuals. We describe and investigate the performance of a magnetic separator prototype designed for biomedical applications. First, the capture efficiency of a prototype HGMS separator unit consisting of a short tubing segment and two opposing magnetizable fine wires along the outside of the tubing was investigated using 2D mathematical modeling. Second, the first-pass effectiveness to remove commercially available, magnetic polystyrene spheres from human blood using a single separator unit was experimentally verified. The theoretical and experimental data correlated well at low flow velocities (0.05 T). This prototype separator unit removed >90% in a single pass of the magnetic spheres from water at mean flow velocity ethylene glycol-water solutions) at mean flow velocity < or =2.0 cm/s. In summary, we describe and prove the feasibility of a HGMS separator for biomedical applications. PMID:17400018

Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

2008-01-01

172

On-chip micro-electromagnets for magnetic-based bio-molecules separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports a comprehensive theoretical, finite element and measurement analysis of different designs of planar micro-electromagnets for bio-molecular manipulation. The magnetic field due to current flowing in complex shapes of current-carrying conductors have been calculated analytically, simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA), and measured using the superconducting quantum interference device technique (SQUID). A comparison of the theoretical and measured magnetic field strength and patterns is presented. The planar electromagnets have been fabricated using patterned Al 2 ?m thick. The aim of the study is to explore and optimize the geometrical and structural parameters of planar electromagnets that give rise to the highest magnetic fields and forces for magnetic micro-beads manipulation. Magnetic beads are often used in biochemical assays for separation of bio-molecules. Typical beads are 0.2-10 ?m in diameter and have superparamagnetic properties. Increasing the intensity of the magnetic field generated by a coil by injection a larger current is not the most suitable solution as the maximum current is limited by Joule heating. Consequently, in order to maximize the field for a given current, one should optimize the geometry of the coil, as this is an extremely significant factor in determining the magnetic field intensity in 2D planar designs. The theoretical and measured results of this work show that the meander micro-electromagnet with mesh-shaped winding profile produces the strongest magnetic field (about 2.7 ?T for a current intensity of 6 mA) compared with other meander designs, such as the serpentine and rosette-shaped ones. The magnetic fields of these three types of meander-shaped micro-electromagnets were compared theoretically with that produced by a spiral micro-electromagnet whose technological realization is more complicated and costly due to the fact that it requires an additional insulation layer with a contact window and a second patterned metal layer as a via. Nevertheless, the spiral design produces a much stronger magnetic field up to five times larger than that of the mesh-shaped micro-electromagnet for the same current and electromagnet area. The measured results strongly agree with these conclusions resulted from the theoretical analysis. The results presented in this paper provide a solid and useful basis for the design of a micro-fluidic bio-molecule separation and detection system using magnetic fields and magnetic beads

173

Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two 88Sr+ ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d-3.0(4) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law.

Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

2014-06-01

174

Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two (88)Sr(+) ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d(-3.0(4)) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law. PMID:24943952

Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

2014-06-19

175

Integrated processing and multiple re-use of immobilised lipase by magnetic separation technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-gradient magnetic separation based processing is demonstrated for the semi-continuous multicycle re-use of a lipase immobilised on magnetic microparticles. The lipase of Candida antarctica A-type (CALA) was immobilised on polyvinyl alcohol coated magnetic particles (1-2mum diameter) with epoxy functionalisation. The immobilised CALA was used to hydrolyse a model oil-water 2-phase-system composed of a phosphate buffer with tributyrin at up to 3l scale. The immobilised enzyme was subsequently recovered in a magnetic filter using high-gradient magnetic separation and reapplied in repeated cycles of hydrolysis and recovery. Two different temperatures of 30 and 50 degrees C, tributyrin concentrations (0.12 and 35gl(-1)) and reaction times were tested. In each case the reaction was followed by pH titration using NaOH, as well as by HPLC analysis. Consecutive cycles were conducted for each reaction condition and in total the immobilised CALA was subjected to 20 recovery and re-use cycles, after which approximately 14% of the initial specific activity still remained. PMID:17631974

Schultz, Nadja; Syldatk, Christoph; Franzreb, Matthias; Hobley, Timothy John

2007-10-31

176

Beta-NMR magnetic moment measurement using on-line mass separation and tilted foil polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tilted foil polarization and on-line mass separation have been successfully applied to a ?-NMR technique for measuring nuclear moments. Nuclei are polarized using tilted carbon foils (multifoil array) and implanted in a catcher. Nuclear polarization, monitored by detection of anisotropic ?-emission, is destroyed via resonant rf excitation to locate the NMR. Tests were performed using 12B (T1/2 = 20.4 ms, I? = 1+) and the ground-state magnetic moment of 33Cl (T1/2 = 2.51 s, I? = 3/2+) was measured using this arrangement. The 33Cl magnetic moment, corrected for diamagnetism, is ? = +0.7523(16) nm. (orig.)

177

Preparation of thermosensitive polymer magnetic particles and their application in protein separations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a kind of thermoresponsive polymeric magnetic particles for protein separations. The magnetofluids were directly encapsulated in hollow particles constructed by self-assembly of rod-coil poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/?-cyclodextrin (PEG-PNIPAM/?-CD) complexes. The resulting particles showed reversible protein absorption/desorption capacity because the reversible thermo-sensitivity of PNIPAM. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, these particles showed high absorptive capacities and adsorption was done at lower temperature. The protein-laden particles are readily removed from the feed solution in a magnetic field. PMID:25222511

Luo, Ling; Zhang, Hong-Su; Liu, Yan; Ha, Wei; Li, Luo-Hao; Gong, Xiao-Lei; Li, Bang-Jing; Zhang, Sheng

2014-12-01

178

Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (Kd) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles

179

Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-11-01

180

Separation of true fat and water images by correcting magnetic field inhomogeneity in-situ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dixon's method of chemical shift imaging of a two-component system is modified and extended without requiring additional imaging time. The modified method allows one to obtain truly segregated fat and water images of animal tissues. This is accomplished by acquiring additional image data from which information about in situ magnetic field inhomogeneity and bulk magnetic susceptibility can be derived. Applications to various anatomic sections of the normal human body are illustrated. The method is compared with the standard Dixon technique of chemical shift image separation

 
 
 
 
181

Just in Time-Selection: A Rapid Semiautomated SELEX of DNA Aptamers Using Magnetic Separation and BEAMing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A semiautomated two-step method for in vitro selection of DNA aptamers using magnetic separation and solid-phase emulsion polymerase chain reaction has been developed. The application of a magnetic separator allows the simultaneous processing of up to 12 SELEXs (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) with different targets or buffer conditions. Using a magnetic separator and covalent target immobilization on magnetic beads, the selection process was simplified and the substeps of aptamer/target incubation, washing, and elution of the aptamers were merged into one automated procedure called "FISHing". Without further processing the resulting FISHing eluates are suitable for BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics), which includes the amplification by emPCR (emulsion polymerase chain reaction) and strand separation by the implementation of covalently immobilized reverse primers on magnetic beads. The novel selection process has been proved and validated by selecting and characterization of aptamers to the wine fining agent lysozyme. PMID:25286022

Hünniger, Tim; Wessels, Hauke; Fischer, Christin; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Fischer, Markus

2014-11-01

182

Local magneto-electric effects from separate areas of magnetic domains of yttrium iron garnets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magneto-electric properties (electromagneto-optical effect (EMOE)) of separate magnetic domains of yttrium iron garnets (YIGs) are investigated with using an optical polarimetry method. This local effect depends on the chosen point of optical scanning and changes essentially at scanning of various points of the domain. We have revealed separate sites of YIG sample where sharp changes of the electromagneto-optical (EMO) signal concerning average value in the domain are registered. We assume that the defect area (or its vicinity) on a surface or in volume of the investigated YIG sample causes the specified changes of EMO effect value. When probing by thin laser beam various sites of the magnetic domain, it is possible to define the defects positions by EMO signal value and it can matter for applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Koronovskyy, Vadim; Gorchinskii, Nikolai [Department of Radiophysics, Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, 2, Prospekt Glushkova Street, 03127 Kiev (Ukraine)

2011-12-15

183

Chemical separation of primordial Li$^+$ during structure formation caused by nanogauss magnetic field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the structure formation, charged and neutral chemical species may have separated from each other at the gravitational contraction in primordial magnetic field (PMF). A gradient in the PMF in a direction perpendicular to the field direction leads to the Lorentz force on the charged species. Resultantly, an ambipolar diffusion occurs, and charged species can move differently from neutral species, which collapses gravitationally during the structure formation. We assume ...

Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro

2014-01-01

184

Vertically coupled non-uniform quantum rings with two separated electrons in threading magnetic field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a simple method for calculating the energy spectrum of two separated electrons in vertically coupled narrow quantum rings with non-uniform cross-sections heights. We present numerical results for energies of some low-lying levels as a function of the magnetic flux for a particular case, in which one of two rings is uniform and other has a locally distorted height. The effect of the distortion on the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations is studied.

MarIn, J H [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin, Colombia A.A. 3840 (Colombia); Rodriguez-Prada, F A; Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jhmarca65@gmail.co, E-mail: jhmarin@unal.edu.c [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia A.A. 678 (Colombia)

2010-09-01

185

The global mapping of the lunar crustal magnetic field using new external internal separation field techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. In this work we report a global mapping of vector lunar magnetic field based on new method of separation of internal and external fields. The magnetic measurements collected during the lifetime of Lunar Prospector (LP) extended mission during 1999 were strongly disturbed by the solar wind, a period which coincided with a maximum of the 23 cycle activity. The multi scale wavelength external fields were analyzed using spherical harmonic transform. The external field determined by inversion was then removed from each magnetic field component for each half orbit. To map the vector magnetic crustal anomalies, all LP magnetometer data collected at low altitudes in the three different lunar environments: (1) geomagnetic tail (2) solar wind (3) geomagnetic sheath, were processed using this new approach. The results obtained using this method allow us to derive at, variable spacecraft altitudes, a high spatial resolution crustal magnetic anomalies fields. This global mapping clearly shows that the strongest anomalies are located antipodal to large young basins. Moreover, high albedo features, such as Reiner Gamma or Descartes Formations, are associated with similar magnitude anomalies. The modeling of some of these strongest anomalies shows a clustered paleomagnetic pole positions within a radius of 35 degrees centered at (30S, 225E). This result strengthens the hypothesis of a now extincted paleo lunar dynamo that may have probably magnetlunar dynamo that may have probably magnetized rocks of lunar crust.

186

Preparation and application of novel magnetically separable ?-Fe2O3/activated carbon sphere adsorbent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Magnetic ?-Fe2O3 particles have been successfully in situ fabricated in the FexOy/C composites. ? The as-prepared ?-Fe2O3/C microspheres were the composite of single-phase ?-Fe2O3 and activated carbon material ? The porous ?-Fe2O3/C microspheres as sorbent exhibited high adsorption efficiency and high capacity towards methyl orange. - Abstract: Magnetic ?-Fe2O3/activated carbon microspheres have been synthesized by an activation process of carbon microspheres containing iron oxides, which were prepared by hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the magnetic porous carbon microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The results showed that the as-prepared activated carbon spheres were the composite of single-phase ?-Fe2O3 and activated carbon material, and the content of carbon was about 3.87%. Using methyl orange as model pollutant, the magnetic porous carbon microspheres showed good adsorption capacities of 44.65 mg/g. The isotherm evaluations revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the experimental equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. These magnetic porous cmodel. These magnetic porous carbon microspheres could potentially be applied in separation processes.

187

SERS-Fluorescence Joint Spectral Encoded Magnetic Nanoprobes for Multiplex Cancer Cell Separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new kind of cancer cell separation method is demonstrated, using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence dual-encoded magnetic nanoprobes. The designed nanoprobes can realize SERS-fluorescence joint spectral encoding (SFJSE) and greatly improve the multiplexing ability. The nanoprobes have four main components, that is, the magnetic core, SERS generator, fluorescent agent, and targeting antibody. These components are assembled with a multi-layered structure to form the nanoprobes. Specifically, silica-coated magnetic nanobeads (MBs) are used as the inner core. Au core-Ag shell nanorods (Au@Ag NRs) are employed as the SERS generators and attached on the silica-coated MBs. After burying these Au@Ag NRs with another silica layer, CdTe quantum dots (QDs), that is, the fluorescent agent, are anchored onto the silica layer. Finally, antibodies are covalently linked to CdTe QDs. SFJSE is fulfilled by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. By utilizing four human cancer cell lines and one normal cell line as the model cells, the nanoprobes can specifically and simultaneously separate target cancer cells from the normal ones. This SFJSE-based method greatly facilitates the multiplex, rapid, and accurate cancer cell separation, and has a prosperous potential in high-throughput analysis and cancer diagnosis. PMID:24862088

Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Cui, Yiping

2014-11-01

188

Reduction of the magnetic signal from unbound magnetic markers for magnetic immunoassay without bound/free separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the effect of adding magnetic shielding and applying of a compensation field to reduce the magnetic signal from unbound free markers. When the initial immunoassay system was used without the additional shielding box, the signal intensity of the liquid markers normalized by the weight of the Fe3O4 was 1/2700 of the dried markers. By installing the additional shielding box, the reduction factor was improved to 1/10,000. We successfully reduced the magnetic signal of the liquid marker further by applying a compensation field. The magnetic signal of the free marker obtained by applying a compensation field of -18 nT was 1.4 m?0, which was close to the system noise level. Field compensation at the very local area just around the SQUID is sufficient for reducing of the magnetic signal from the free marker

189

Reduction of the magnetic signal from unbound magnetic markers for magnetic immunoassay without bound/free separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigated the effect of adding magnetic shielding and applying of a compensation field to reduce the magnetic signal from unbound free markers. When the initial immunoassay system was used without the additional shielding box, the signal intensity of the liquid markers normalized by the weight of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was 1/2700 of the dried markers. By installing the additional shielding box, the reduction factor was improved to 1/10,000. We successfully reduced the magnetic signal of the liquid marker further by applying a compensation field. The magnetic signal of the free marker obtained by applying a compensation field of -18 nT was 1.4 m{phi}{sub 0}, which was close to the system noise level. Field compensation at the very local area just around the SQUID is sufficient for reducing of the magnetic signal from the free marker.

Tsukamoto, A. [Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan)], E-mail: akira.tsukamoto.tw@hitachi.com; Kuma, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki International University, 2825-7 Huis Ten Bosch-cho, Sasebo-shi, Nagasaki 859-3298 (Japan); Saitoh, K.; Kandori, A. [Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Sugiura, Y. [Plastic products division, INOAC Corporation, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 456-0054 (Japan); Hamasaki, N. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki International University, 2825-7 Huis Ten Bosch-cho, Sasebo-shi, Nagasaki 859-3298 (Japan); Enpuku, K. [Research Institute of Superconductor Science and Systems, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

2007-10-01

190

Detection of Cronobacter species in powdered infant formula by probe-magnetic separation PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cronobacter species are opportunistic foodborne pathogens associated with serious infections in preterm neonates and infants. Based on the epidemiological research, infant formula products are considered to be the main source of infections from this organism. Therefore, accurate methods are required for detection of Cronobacter species. In this study, the specific probe and primers for detection of this organism were designed and verified. The probe-magnetic beads were prepared for sequence capture, followed by PCR assay to detect the target gene. This probe-magnetic separation PCR assay could detect as few as 10(3) cfu/mL of Cronobacter in artificially contaminated infant formulas in less than 4h. The combination of magnetic beads and PCR showed the potential for the detection of Cronobacter in infant formulas and may have applications in the dairy industry. PMID:25108865

Xu, Feng; Li, Peng; Ming, Xing; Yang, Dong; Xu, Hengyi; Wu, Xiaoli; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

2014-10-01

191

Recovery of iron from vanadium tailings with coal-based direct reduction followed by magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique with coal-based direct reduction followed by magnetic separation is presented in this study for recovering and reusing iron otherwise wasted in vanadium tailings. Process parameters such as usage of additives, tailings/reductant/additives ratio, reduction temperature and time, as well as particle size were experimentally determined. The optimum process parameters were proposed as follows: using lime as the additive, lignite as the reductant, weight ratios of vanadium tailings/lignite/lime at 100:30:10, reduction roasting at 1200 deg. C for 60 min, and particle size of 98% less than 30 ?m in the final roasted product feeding to magnetic separation. Under these conditions, a magnetic concentrate containing 90.31% total iron and 89.76% metallization iron with a total iron recovery rate of 83.88% was obtained. In addition, mineralography of vanadium tailings, coal-based reduction product and magnetic concentrate were studied by X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD). The microstructures of above products were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to help understand the mechanism.

192

Separation of uranium from nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions with extractant-coated magnetic microparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process utilizes selective magnetic microparticle composites to separate dissolved metals from solution. In this study, MACS particles were coated with neutral and acidic organophosphorus extractants,octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO), tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and bis(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA or HDEHP) and were evaluated for the separation of uranyl ions from nitric- and hydrochloric-acid solutions. The results suggest that a synergistic interaction between the particle surface and solvent coating may explain why the particles display, in some cases, orders of magnitude of higher partitioning coefficients than are estimated from solvent-extraction measurements. Particles coated with TBP and those coated with a combination of TOPO and D2EHPA displayed the most desirable characteristics for removing uranium from dilute acid environments typical of contaminated groundwater. Uranium separation from moderate to highly acidic waste streams typical of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear wastes is best accomplished using particles coated with a combination of CMPO and TBP

193

Conjugates of Magnetic Nanoparticle -- Actinide Specific Chelator for Radioactive Waste Separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel nanotechnology for the separation of radioactive waste that uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with actinide specific chelators (MNP-Che) is reviewed with a focus on design and process development. The MNP-Che separation process is an effective way of separating heat generating minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) from spent nuclear fuel solution to reduce the radiological hazard. It utilizes coated MNPs to selectively adsorb the contaminants onto their surfaces, after which the loaded particles are collected using a magnetic field. The MNP-Che conjugates can be recycled by stripping contaminates into a separate, smaller volume of solution, and then become the final waste form for disposal after reusing number of times. Due to the highly selective chelators, this remediation method could be both simple and versatile while allowing the valuable actinides to be recovered and recycled. Key issues standing in the way of large-scale application are stability of the conjugates and their dispersion in solution to maintain their unique properties, especially large surface area, of MNPs. With substantial research progress made on MNPs and their surface functionalization, as well as development of environmentally benign chelators, this method could become very flexible and cost-effective for recycling used fuel. Finally, the development of this nanotechnology is summarized and its future direction is discussed.

Maninder Kaur; Huijin Zhang; Leigh Martin; Terry Todd; You Qiang

2013-11-01

194

The gas-filled magnet: An isobar separator for accelerator mass spectrometry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most difficult problem for accelerator mass spectrometry is the rejection of stable atomic isobars. The intensity of isobaric interference is expected to become a problem for /sup 36/Cl measurements with the use of new high-intensity ion sources. Although better chemical separation may be possible through improved sample preparation, the device expected to help most with this problem is the gas-filled magnet. We tested a gas-filled Enge split-pole spectrograph combined with a multi-plate gas ionization detector for the separation of /sup 36/S from /sup 36/Cl and obtained an isobar separation of about two orders of magnitude better than that possible with the detector alone. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kubik, P.W.; Elmore, D.; Hemmick, T.K.; Kutschera, W.

1988-01-01

195

The gas-filled magnet: An isobar separator for accelerator mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most difficult problem for accelerator mass spectrometry is the rejection of stable atomic isobars. The intensity of isobaric interference is expected to become a problem for 36Cl measurements with the use of new high-intensity ion sources. Although better chemical separation may be possible through improved sample preparation, the device expected to help most with this problem is the gas-filled magnet. We tested a gas-filled Enge split-pole spectrograph combined with a multi-plate gas ionization detector for the separation of 36S from 36Cl and obtained an isobar separation of about two orders of magnitude better than that possible with the detector alone. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

196

Nanomagnetism of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles and Application in Spent Nuclear Fuel Separation  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation presents the study on novel core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with unique magnetic properties. Understanding the fundamental physics of antiferromagnetic - ferromagnetic interactions is essential to apply in different applications. Chromium (Cr) doped and undoped core-shell iron/iron-oxide NPs have been synthesized using cluster deposition system and studied with respect to their nanostructures, morphologies, sizes, chemical composition and magnetic properties. The room-temperature magnetic properties of Fe based NPs shows the strong dependence of intra/inter-particle interaction on NP size. The Cr-doped Fe NP shows the origin of sigma-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at.%) unlike others reported at high Cr content and interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction. A theoretical model of watermelon is constructed based on the experimental results and core-shell NP system in order to explain the physics of exchange interaction in Cr-doped Fe particles. The magnetic nanoparticle---chelator separation nanotechnology is investigated for spent nuclear fuel recycling and is reported 97% and 80% of extraction for Am(III) and Pu(IV) actinides respectively. If the long-term heat generating actinides such as Am(III) can be efficiently removed from the used fuel raffinates, the volume of material that can be placed in a given amount of repository space can be significantly increased. As it is a simple, versatile, compact, and cost efficient process that minimizes secondary waste and improves storage performance.

Tarsem Singh, Maninder Kaur

197

Quantitative characterization of magnetic separators: Comparison of systems with and without integrated microfluidic mixers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present two new types of microfluidic passive magnetic bead separator systems as well as methods for performing quantitative characterizations of them. Both systems consist of a microfluidic channel with long rectangular magnetic elements of permalloy that are placed by the sides of the channel and magnetized by an external magnetic field. In one of the systems, a staggered herringbone microfluidic mixer is integrated in the channel. The characterization of the systems includes magnetic measurements of the capture-and-release efficiencies, estimates of distributions of captured beads in a channel from micrographs, and simulations and analytical models of bead trajectories, capture efficiencies, and capture distributions. We show that the efficiencies of both systems compare favorably to those in the literature. For the studied geometries, the mixer is demonstrated to increase the bead capture-and-release efficiency for a fixed flow rate by up to a factor of two. Moreover, high capture efficiencies can be achieved in the system with mixer at up to ten times higher flow rates than in the system without mixer.

Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Bruus, Henrik

2006-01-01

198

Removal and recycle of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with zirconium ferrite adsorbent by high gradient magnetic separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zirconium ferrite particles are good adsorbent for phosphate ions. Magnetic separation characteristics for removal of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with the adsorbent have been studied to prevent eutrophication of semi-enclosed bay, e.g. the bay of Tokyo. Based on the adsorption for the phosphate ions and ferromagnetic properties of the zirconium ferrite adsorbent, high gradient magnetic separation characteristics with using superconducting magnet was discussed. Very rapid magnetic filtration velocity, i.e. 1m/s, and regeneration properties of the adsorbent indicate that the zirconium ferrite is the excellent adsorbent for phosphorus removal and recycle from treated water of large scale sewage plants.

Ito, D; Nishimura, K; Miura, O [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0397 (Japan)], E-mail: dai@eei.metro-u.ac.jp

2009-03-01

199

Affinity adsorption and separation behaviors of avidin on biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles binding to iminobiotin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowing the adsorption behavior of target proteins on biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles is of great importance for the separation and purification of proteins. Adsorption behaviors of avidin on biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles binding to iminobiotin were investigated under different conditions of temperature, pH, ionic strength, and feed avidin concentration. Biofunctionalization of the non-functional nanoparticles was performed, coupled with iminobiotin. Characterization of the particles was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed the avidin adsorption behaviors were mainly dependent on affinity interaction between avidin and iminobiotin coupled with the nanoparticles, which exhibited temperature, pH, ionic strength, and feed avidin concentration sensitivity. Maximum avidin adsorption capacity was achieved as 225 mg avidin/g biofunctional nanoparticles. Results were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with the feed avidin concentration of less than 45 ?g/ml. Based on the experiments above, the biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles were used to separate avidin from treated egg-white solution containing large amounts of other proteins. The avidin was isolated in 92% yield with an optical purity of more than 98.5% according to the HPSEC data. The regeneration of these nanoparticles was also studied and almost 87.3% of avidin could still be recovered by these regenerated nanoparticles. PMID:21798727

Sun, Shuguo; Ma, Meihu; Qiu, Ning; Huang, Xi; Cai, Zhaoxia; Huang, Qun; Hu, Xin

2011-11-01

200

Effective antifouling using quorum-quenching acylase stabilized in magnetically-separable mesoporous silica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly effective antifouling was achieved by immobilizing and stabilizing an acylase, disrupting bacterial cell-to-cell communication, in the form of cross-linked enzymes in magnetically separable mesoporous silica. This so-called "quorum-quenching" acylase (AC) was adsorbed into spherical mesoporous silica (S-MPS) with magnetic nanoparticles (Mag-S-MPS), and further cross-linked for the preparation of nanoscale enzyme reactors of AC in Mag-S-MPS (NER-AC/Mag-S-MPS). NER-AC effectively stabilized the AC activity under rigorous shaking at 200 rpm for 1 month, while free and adsorbed AC lost more than 90% of their initial activities in the same condition within 1 and 10 days, respectively. When applied to the membrane filtration for advanced water treatment, NER-AC efficiently alleviated the biofilm maturation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on the membrane surface, thereby enhancing the filtration performance by preventing membrane fouling. Highly stable and magnetically separable NER-AC, as an effective and sustainable antifouling material, has a great potential to be used in the membrane filtration for water reclamation. PMID:24601563

Lee, Byoungsoo; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Shim, Jongmin; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Jungbae

2014-04-14

 
 
 
 
201

Cocaine detection via rolling circle amplification of short DNA strand separated by magnetic beads.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel and sensitive fluorescence biosensor based on aptamer and rolling circle amplification for the determination of cocaine was developed in the present work. Here cocaine aptamers immobilized onto Au nanoparticles modified magnetic beads hybridized with short DNA strand. In the presence of cocaine, the short DNA strand was displaced from aptamer owing to cocaine specially binding with aptamer. Next, the short DNA strand was separated by magnetic beads and used to originate rolling circle amplification as primer. The end products of rolling circle amplification were detected by fluorescence signal generation upon molecular beacons hybridizing with the end products of rolling circle amplification. With rolling circle amplification and the separation by magnetic beads reducing the background signal, the new strategy was suitable for the detection of as low as 0.48 nM cocaine. Compared with reported cocaine sensors, our method exhibited excellent sensitivity. Our new strategy may provide a platform for numerous proteins and low molecular weight analytes to highly sensitively detect by DNA amplification. PMID:21277763

Ma, Cuiping; Wang, Wenshuo; Yang, Qing; Shi, Chao; Cao, Lijie

2011-03-15

202

Magnetic particle separation technique: a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five types of magnetic particles without or with aldehyde, amino and carboxyl functional groups, respectively were used to immobilize first or second antibody by three models, i. e. physical adsorption, chemical coupling and immuno-affinity, forming four types of magnetic particle antibodies. The second antibody immobilized on polyacrolein magnetic particles through aldehyde functional groups and the first antibodies immobilized on carboxylic polystyrene magnetic particles through carboxyl functional groups were recommended to apply to RIAs and/or IRMAs. Streptavidin immobilized on commercial magnetic particles through amino functional groups was successfully applied to separating specific PCR product for quantification of human cytomegalovirus. In the paper typical data on reliability of these magnetic particle ligands were reported and simplicity of the magnetic particle separation technique was discussed. The results showed that the technique was a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay. (author)

203

THE DETECTION OF NUMEROUS MAGNETIC SEPARATORS IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF SOLAR EMERGING FLUX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic separators in three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields are believed to be often associated with locations of magnetic reconnection. In this preliminary study, we investigate this relationship using data from a numerical resistive 3D MHD experiment of a solar flux emergence event. For the first time separators are detected in complex magnetic fields resulting from a 3D resistive MHD model of flux emergence. Two snapshots of the model, taken from different stages of its evolution, are analyzed. Numerous separators are found in both snapshots, and their properties, including their geometry, length, relationship to the magnetic null points, and integrated parallel electric field are studied. The separators reside at the junctions between the emerging flux, the overlying field, and two other flux domains that are newly formed by reconnection. The long separators, which connect clusters of nulls that lie either side of the emerging flux, pass through spatially localized regions of high parallel electric field and correspond to local maxima in integrated parallel electric field. These factors indicate that strong magnetic reconnection takes place along many of the separators, and that separators play a key role during the interaction of emerging and overlying flux.

204

Upgrading of Low-Grade Manganese Ore by Selective Reduction of Iron Oxide and Magnetic Separation  

Science.gov (United States)

The utilization of low-grade manganese ores has become necessary due to the intensive mining of high-grade ores for a long time. In this study, calcined ferruginous low-grade manganese ore was selectively reduced by CO, which converted hematite to magnetite, while manganese oxide was reduced to MnO. The iron-rich component was then separated by magnetic separation. The effects of the various reduction parameters such as particle size, reduction time, temperature, and CO content on the efficiency of magnetic separation were studied by single-factor experiments and by a comprehensive full factorial experiment. Under the best experimental conditions tested, the manganese content in the ore increased from around 36 wt pct to more than 44 wt pct, and almost 50 wt pct of iron was removed at a Mn loss of around 5 pct. The results of the full factorial experiments allowed the identification of the significant effects and yielded regression equations for pct Fe removed, Mn/Fe, and pct Mn loss that characterize the efficiency of the upgrading process.

Gao, Yubo; Olivas-Martinez, M.; Sohn, H. Y.; Kim, Hang Goo; Kim, Chan Wook

2012-12-01

205

Eddy current and total power loss separation in the iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work investigates the magnetic properties of iron-phosphate-polyepoxy soft magnetic composite materials. FTIR spectra, EDX analysis, distribution maps, X-ray diffraction pattern and density measurements show that the particles surface layer contains a thin layer of nanocrystalline/amorphous phosphate with high coverage of powders surface. In this paper, a formula for calculating the eddy current loss and total loss components by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of power losses are calculated. The results show that, the contribution of eddy current in the bulk material for single coating layer (kb = 0.18) is higher in comparison with double coating layer (kb = 0.09). Moreover, iron-phosphate-polyepoxy composites (P = 0.000004f2) have lower power loss in comparison with iron-phosphate composites (P = 0.00002f2).

206

Rapid detection and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins using magnetic separation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the rapid identification and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins based on magnetic separation is presented. This method was applied to confirm the binding of the human recombinant USF1 protein to its putative binding site (E-box within the human SOX3 protomer. It has been shown that biotinylated DNA attached to streptavidin magnetic particles specifically binds the USF1 protein in the presence of competitor DNA. It has also been demonstrated that the protein could be successfully eluted from the beads, in high yield and with restored DNA binding activity. The advantage of these procedures is that they could be applied for the identification and purification of any high-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding protein with only minor modifications.

TIJANA SAVIC

2006-02-01

207

Simultaneous determination of ten organophosphate pesticide residues in fruits by gas chromatography coupled with magnetic separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, ?-Fe2 O3 /chitosan magnetic microspheres were synthesized and evaluated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, and static and kinetic adsorption experiments. Results showed that the magnetic microspheres exhibited good adsorption ability, and offered fast kinetics for the adsorption of trichlorfon, methamidophos, malathion, methyl parathion, dimethoate, omethoate, phosphamidon, phorate, isocarbophos, and chlorpyrifos. Based on magnetic separation, a simple method of magnetic SPE coupled to GC for the simultaneous determination of ten trace organophosphate pesticide residues was developed. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factor for ten organophosphorus pesticides was 10.1-364.7 and linear range was 0.001-10.0 mg/L. The LOD (S/N = 3) of the method for the ten pesticides was 0.31-3.59 ?g/kg. The RSD for three replicate extractions of spiked samples was between 2.5 and 6.3%. The pear and apple samples spiked with ten organophosphate pesticides at 20 and 200 ?g/kg levels were extracted and determined by this method with good recoveries ranging from 79.9 to 98.7%. Moreover, the method has been successfully applied for the determination of the ten organophosphate pesticide residues in peach samples. PMID:24470377

Tang, Qinghua; Wang, Xilong; Yu, Fan; Qiao, Xuguang; Xu, Zhixiang

2014-04-01

208

Magnetically Separable Base Catalysts: Heterogeneous Catalysis vs. Quasi-Homogeneous Catalysis  

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Full Text Available The synthesis of magnetically separable quasi-homogeneous base catalyst and heterogeneous base catalyst is described. The quasi-homogeneous catalyst is achieved by supporting silane monomers functionalized with different amine groups directly on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles. The heterogeneous catalyst is prepared via a sol-gel process in which silane monomers containing different amine groups are copolymerized with tetraethoxysilane in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with ionic liquid moieties. The reactivity of the quasi-homogeneous and the heterogeneous base catalysts is compared in the nitroaldol condensation.

Raed Abu-Reziq

2012-03-01

209

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01

210

A novel bubbling-assisted exfoliating method preparation of magnetically separable ?-Fe2O3/graphene recyclable photocatalysts  

Science.gov (United States)

A facile and novel bubbling-assisted exfoliating method was developed for the preparation of ?-Fe2O3/graphene composite, which showed desirable photocatalytic activity toward methyl orange with excellent cycling abilities and the possible growth mechanism was discussed. Photocatalytic and magnetic properties measurements show that the composite has excellent recyclable degradation efficiency and soft magnetic parameters, which makes the composite magnetically separable in a suspension system and can be recycled without significant loss of catalytic activity.

Zhang, Lili; Hu, Hongrui; Wu, Mingzai; Yu, Xinxin; Sun, Zhaoqi; Li, Guang; Liu, Xiansong; Zheng, Xiuwen

2014-06-01

211

Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic particles (MAG*SEPSM) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEPSM particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEPSM particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEPSM particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective

212

Synthesis of teicoplanin-modified hybrid magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application in chiral separation of racemic compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teicoplanin-conjugated mesoporous silica magnetic nanoparticles (TE-MSMNPs) were fabricated as novel chiral magnetic nano-selectors. Successful preparation of the functional magnetic mesoporous materials was achieved by grafting teicoplanin on N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-modified mesoporous silica Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (AEAPTMS-MSMNPs), and this was confirmed by various characterization techniques. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were regularly spherical and uniformly mesoporous with an average diameter of around 600 nm and a mean pore size of about 3.9 nm, respectively. These versatile magnetic nanoparticles were effective in a direct chiral separation of five racemic compounds in phosphate buffer. Much stronger interactions were observed with the (+)-enantiomers than with the (-)-enantiomers. After washing with water and ethanol by sonication, TE-MSMNPs could be reused at least three times with little efficiency loss. The functional magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles were easily separated from the racemic solutions using an external magnetic field. These magnetic nano-materials are suitable for enantiomer separations. PMID:23541694

Wu, Jingwei; Su, Ping; Huang, Jun; Wang, Siming; Yang, Yi

2013-06-01

213

Kinetic and regeneration studies of photocatalytic magnetic separable beads for chromium (VI) reduction under sunlight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical adsorption and photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) in magnetic separable beads were investigated. In order to elucidate the kinetics of photocatalytic process, operating parameters such as catalyst dosage and the initial concentration were examined in detail. It was observed that the reduction rate of Cr(VI) increased with an increase in the catalyst loading, as this translated into an increase in the number of available active sites. Critical scrutiny of the percentage of the initial reduction rate versus time at various initial concentration of Cr(VI) revealed that the rate of substrate conversion decreased as the initial concentration increased. The kinetic analysis of the photoreduction showed that the removal of Cr(VI) satisfactory obeyed the pseudo first-order kinetic according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model and the absorption of Cr(VI) on the magnetic beads surfaces was the controlling step in the entire reduction process. Furthermore, desorption experiments by elution of the loaded gels with sodium hydroxide indicated that the magnetic photocatalyst beads could be reused without significant losses of their initial properties even after 3 adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:21168966

Idris, Ani; Hassan, Nursia; Rashid, Roslina; Ngomsik, Audrey-Flore

2011-02-15

214

Development of high gradient magnetic separation system for removing the metallic wear debris to be present in highly viscous fluid  

Science.gov (United States)

In the industrial plants processing highly viscous fluid such as foods or industrial materials, there is an issue of contamination by metallic wear debris originating from pipe of manufacturing line. It is necessary to remove the metallic wear debris in highly viscous fluid, since these debris causes quality loss. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation system by using superconducting magnet to remove the metallic wear debris. The particle trajectory simulation and the magnetic separation experiment were conducted with polyvinyl alcohol as a model material. As a result, ca. 100% and 92.2% of the separation efficiency was achieved respectively for the highly viscous fluid of 1 Pa s and 6 Pa s in viscosity, with 14 and 30 mesh magnetic filters.

Hayashi, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

2010-11-01

215

Function of the demagnetization factor in respect of a quasi-solid filtermatrix of a magnetic separator ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????-??????? ?????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author presents the prospects for the use of a magnetic separator, equipped with a filter matrix, in the treatment of ceramic suspensions and minerals. Particles of ferromagnetic impurities are captured by matrix pores, when purified media is transmitted through the magnetized filter matrix. The particle capture efficiency depends on the level of the filter matrix magnetization. The intensity of demagnetization influences the filter matrix magnetization intensity. Unfortunately, many researchers frequently ignore the demagnetization factor of a filter matrix as a specific (granulated magnet.The effect of self-demagnetization is studied in terms of homogeneous (solid magnets. The effect of self-demagnetization means that poles emerge on the borders of magnetized “short” magnets. Thus, a strong inner demagnetization field emerges. The main parameter of this physical characteristic of sample-magnets is the coefficient of demagnetization, which relates the intensity of the demagnetization field and the magnetization intensity of a sample body. The author considers the relevant issue of influence of the demagnetization intensity on the average values of the magnetic permeability of porous (quasi-solid magnets, for example, a filter matrix. This dependence is relevant for the calculation of magnetic permeability values.??????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????? N ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? (??????-??????. ????????? ???????? N ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????? L ????? ?????????? ? ?? ???????? D . ????????, ??? ?????? N ????? ????????? ???????????????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ???????? (? L/D . ????????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????? «????????» ??????-??????? ? ??? ????? ?????? ? ?? ??????????????? ?????????????????.

Sandulyak Anna Aleksandrovna

2013-07-01

216

First-principles calculations of energetics and electronic structure for reconstructed Si (111)-(5×n)-Au surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

We report results of ab initio calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals for the Si(111) surface with a 0.6-monolayer Au decoration. Seven different variations of the recently developed Erwin-Barke-Himpsel and Abukawa-Nishigaya models are studied in detail. Atomic geometries are determined by total-energy minimizations. We find the Erwin-Barke-Himpsel model of the Si (111)-(5×4)-Au surface with one Si adatom per unit cell to be the most favorable structure. Seven-member rings and undercoordinated Si atoms of the Abukawa-Nishigaya model are unstable. Scanning tunneling images and band structures are calculated for the controversial geometries. For the (5×4) adatom geometry the resulting electronic structure agrees with the available experimental data.

Seino, K.; Bechstedt, F.

2014-10-01

217

Wave-driven rotation and mass separation in rotating magnetic mirrors  

Science.gov (United States)

Axisymmetric mirrors are attractive for fusion because of their simplicity, high plasma pressure at a given magnetic pressure, and steady state operation. Their subclass, rotating mirrors, are particularly interesting because they have increased parallel confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and a natural heating mechanism. This thesis finds and explores an unusual effect in supersonically rotating plasmas: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. Extending the alpha channeling concept to rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field is a particularly simple way to achieve the latter effect. In the rotating frame, this perturbation is seen as a wave near the alpha particle cyclotron harmonic, and can break the azimuthal symmetry and magnetic moment conservation without changing the particles total energy. The particle may exit if it reduces its kinetic energy and becomes more trapped if it gains kinetic energy, leading to a steady state current that maintains the field. Simulations of single particles in rotating mirrors show that a stationary wave can extract enough energy from alpha particles for a reactor to be self-sustaining. In the same way, rotation can be produced in non-fusion plasmas. Waves are identified to produce rotation in plasma centrifuges, which separate isotopes based on their mass difference. Finally, a new high throughput mass filter which is well suited to separating nuclear waste is presented. The new filter, the magnetic centrifugal mass filter (MCMF), has well confined output streams and less potential for nuclear proliferation than competing technologies. To assess the usefulness of the MCMF, a metric for comparing mass filters is developed. With this metric, the MCMF is compared with other mass filters such as the Ohkawa filter and the conventional plasma centrifuge.

Fetterman, Abraham J.

218

Research on high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products: Investigation from the viewpoint of interparticle interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? We separated SUS particle from the mixture of alumina/silica and SUS particle. ? The high separation efficiencies were obtained both in two samples. ? The separation efficiency of the sample using alumina did not reach to 100%. ? The adhesion forces between particles were measured when changing the humidity. ? Based on these data, the conditions of the separation experiment were examined. -- Abstract: The separation and removal of the metallic debris originating from pipe of manufacturing line are required in the manufacturing process of the fine particle products. In this study, we develop a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under a dry process by using a superconducting magnet to remove ferromagnetic particles such as the material stainless steel (SUS). To avoid the obstruction of the separation part by aggregation of the processed material, we develop a magnetic separation system using a pneumatic conveying as a new transportation method of the particles. The magnetic separations were experimented under the same conditions on different days, but the results were different. The reason is considered to be the difference in adhesion force between the particles due to a change of humidity, we have measured the adhesion forces between the ferromagnetic particles and the paramagnetic medium particles using AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) while changing the humidity. As a result, the adhesion force between the particles increased with the increasing of humidity. Furthermore, we saw that the effect of relative humidity was larger in the adhesion force of alumina with larger cohesive property. Based on these results, an appropriate condition of the separation experiment was clarified. And a dehumidification mechanism was introduced.

Senkawa, Kohei, E-mail: senkawa@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, A1 Bldg., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakai, Yuki; Mishima, Fumihito [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, A1 Bldg., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, A1 Bldg., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishijima, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, A1 Bldg., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2013-01-15

219

Removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by magnetically separable polyaniline: adsorption behavior and mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetically separable polyaniline (Fe3O4@SiO2-PANI) was prepared by in situ chemical polymerization of aniline on the surface of silica-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Characterization results showed that Fe3O4@SiO2-PANI with amino groups of 1.78 mmol/g and the average diameter of 21.6 nm are superparamagnetic. Adsorption behavior of Fe3O4@SiO2-PANI nanoparticles for humic acid (HA) was investigated by batch experiments and adsorption kinetic tests. HA adsorption amount on the adsorbent decreased with increasing solution pH and the presence of Ca(2+) resulted in the enhanced HA adsorption. HA adsorption on Fe3O4@SiO2-PANI could be well described by Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption amount of the adsorbent for HA at 25°C was 36.36 mg/g. HA adsorption process on the adsorbent obey pseudo-second-order kinetics and the adsorption rates decrease with increasing initial HA concentration. The XPS analysis verified that HA adsorption over the adsorbent could be attributed to the surface complexation between the disassociated HA molecules and the protonated nitrogen of polyaniline on the adsorbent. HA loaded adsorbent could be magnetically separated and easily desorbed in 0.01 mol/L NaOH solution. Regeneration tests indicated that Fe3O4@SiO2-PANI could be used repeatedly. PMID:24998066

Wang, Jiahong; Bi, Lijuan; Ji, Yanfen; Ma, Hongrui; Yin, Xiaolong

2014-09-15

220

Preparation and characterization of a magnetically separated photocatalyst and its catalytic properties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A kind of loaded photocatalyst of TiO2/?-Fe2O3 (TF) that can photodegrade organic pollutants in the dispersion system effectively and can be recycled easily by a magnetic field is reported in this paper. The structural features of TF catalyst sintered at different temperatures (in the range 200-900 deg. C) have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope studies. Phase composition and crystallinity change with the increasing sintering temperature of the specimens. The TF photocatalyst is composed of two parts: (1) TiO2 shell used for photocatalysis; (2) ?-Fe2O3 core for separation by the magnetic field. Due to the strong light absorption by ?-Fe2O3, when the amount of the loaded TiO2 content was under 30% in the catalyst, the photocatalytic activity of TF was significantly lower than that of the pure TiO2. On the other hand, the photocatalytic activity of TF reduced to a large extent at high sintering temperature (900 deg. C) owing to the presence of inactive (Fe2TiO5) pseudobrokite phase. The sample sintered at 500 deg. C showed the highest activity for the degradation of aqueous solution of acridine dye

 
 
 
 
221

Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease productionmodeling and experimental validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) constitutes an excellent adsorptive method for efficient extracellular protease removal during cultivation. In this work, the impact of semi?continuous ISMS on the overall protease yield has been investigated. Results reveal significant removal of the protease from Bacillus licheniformis cultivations. Bacitracin?functionalized magnetic particles were successfully applied, regenerated and reused up to 30 times. Immediate reproduction of the protease after ISMS proved the biocompatibility of this integrated approach. Six subsequent ISMS steps significantly increased the overall protease yield up to 98% because proteolytic degradation and potential inhibition of the protease in the medium could be minimized. Furthermore, integration of semi?continuous ISMS increased the overall process efficiency due to reduction of the medium consumption. Process simulation revealed a deeper insight into protease production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 2161–2172. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ottow, Kim Ekelund; Hobley, Timothy John

2013-01-01

222

Comparison of the in vitro invasive capabilities of Plasmodium falciparum schizonts isolated by Percoll gradient or using magnetic based separation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Percoll gradient centrifugation is often used for synchronization, enrichment, or isolation of a particular stage of Plasmodium falciparum. However, Percoll, a hyperosmotic agent, may have harmful effects on the parasites. Magnetic bead column (MBC separation has been used as an alternative. This is a report of a head-to-head comparison of the in vitro invasive capabilities of parasites isolated by either of the two methods. Methods The P. falciparum laboratory strain isolate 7G8 was grown in vitro using standard procedures and synchronized using 5% sorbitol. On separate days when the schizont parasitaemia was >1%, the culture was split and half was processed by Percoll gradient centrifugation and the other half by magnetic bead column separation. Both processed parasites were placed back in culture and allowed to invade new uninfected erythrocytes. Results In 10 paired assays, the mean efficiency of invasion of 7G8 parasites treated by Percoll gradient centrifugation was 35.8% that of those treated by magnetic bead column separation (95% CI, p = 0.00067 A paired t test with two tails was used for these comparisons. Conclusions In this comparison, magnetic bead column separation of 7G8 schizonts resulted in higher viability and efficiency of invasion than utilizing Percoll gradient centrifugation.

Gerena Lucia

2011-04-01

223

Analytical description of the coefficient of demagnetization for chains of cores of granulesin the filter matrix of a magnetic separator ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????-??????? ?????????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particle capturing efficiency inside the filter matrix of a magnetic separator used in the treatment of ceramic suspensions, minerals, condensates, other liquids and gas depends immediately on the intensity of its magnetization capacity. Chains of granules of a filter matrix represent effective magnetization channels. Demagnetization intensity influences the magnetization intensity of the whole filter matrix and its separate chains that are also considered as magnetization channels. The pattern of calculation of demagnetization factor N (coefficient of demagnetization for such channel magnets is of utmost academic interest, and this pattern is provided in this article. The author provides values for demagnetization factor N for quasi solid cores ofchains of granules having with various lengths L and diameters d (metal concentra-tion 0.78—0.99, if magnetized by the field having the intensity of ? =18–175 k?/m. It isproven that the values of N and ? L / d have an exponential relation.Earlier, the author identified that the values of N for the porous media having a cylindrical form depend on the ratio of the length of magnet L to its diameter D . It is proven that the values of N and those of ? L / D also have an exponential relation. Therefore, this reciprocal conformity of relations in respect of the demagnetization factor for samples of the granulated medium (consisting of chains of magnets-channels and for cores of magnets-channels (having different porosity values has confirmed the similarity of the demagnetization factor for magnets having substantial and high concentration of the ferromagnetic material. The analytical description (the formula of the coefficient of demagnetization of channel cores is provided in the article.?????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????? ????, ? ??????? ???????????? ???????????-???????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????, ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????????????? ??????? N ????? ???????. ????????? ???????? N ??? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ???? L ? ????????? d , ? ????? ????????? ??? N ? ?????????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? L / d , ??? ????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????????????? ????? (????????? ?? ????? ???????.

Sandulyak Anna Aleksandrovna

2013-09-01

224

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study of Si(111)-5×2-Au and Au-induced Si Step  

Science.gov (United States)

Si(111)-5×2-Au is a self-organized one-dimensional nanostructure which includes two kinds of one dimensional chains. One is the two rows of dimerized substitutional Au chains along [1bar 10], which have been the subject of many recent studies using UPS, LEED, RHEED, STM and TED etc. However, the adatom short chain structure, which is the other type of chain found on this surface and composed of several adatoms spaced out in units of four lattice constants of Si(111) surface, have received less attention. In this study, we have investigated Au-5×2 on 4^o vicinal Si(111) surface using a scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature and low temperature. Spatially resolved images obtained at various biases exhibit a novel electronic feature that the height of adatoms in a chain is changed according to their positions due to the interaction among adatoms. Our STS results show the change of electronic states is consistent with the charge transfer mechanism and shed some light upon the underlying structure. The atomic and electronic structure including comparison between 5×2 terrace and Au-induced step will be also discussed in detail.

Yoon, H.-S.; Pak, S.-J.; Han, K.-H.; Lee, J.-E.; Lyo, I.-W.

2002-03-01

225

Fabrication of anisotropic porous silica monoliths by means of magnetically controlled phase separation in sol-gel processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sol-gel accompanied by phase separation is an established method for the preparation of porous silica monoliths with well-defined macroporosity, which find numerous applications. In this work, we demonstrate how the addition of (superpara)magnetic nanocolloids as templates to a system undergoing a sol-gel transition with phase separation leads to the creation of monoliths with a strongly anisotropic structure. It is known that magnetic nanocolloids respond to the application of an external magnetic field by self-assembling into columnar structures. The application of a magnetic field during the chemically driven spinodal decomposition induced by the sol-gel transition allows one to break the symmetry of the system and promote the growth of elongated needle-like silica domains incorporating the magnetic nanocolloids, aligned in the direction of the field. It is found that this microstructure imparts a strong mechanical anisotropy to the materials, with a ratio between the Young's modulus values measured in a direction parallel and perpendicular to the one of the field as high as 150, and an overall smaller average macropores size as compared to isotropic monoliths. The microstructure and properties of the porous monoliths can be controlled by changing both the system composition and the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our monoliths represent the first example of materials prepared by magnetically controlling a phase transition occurring via spinodal decomposition. PMID:22849804

Furlan, Marco; Lattuada, Marco

2012-08-28

226

Ultrasensitive detection of deltamethrin by immune magnetic nanoparticles separation coupled with surface plasmon resonance sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small molecules or analytes present in trace level are difficult to be detected directly using conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, due to its small changes in the refractive index induced by the binding of these analytes on the sensor surface. In this paper, a new approach that combines SPR sensor technology with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) assays is developed for directly detecting of deltamethrin in soybean. The Fe3O4 MNPs conjugated with antibodies specific to antigen serves as both labels for enhancing refractive index change due to the capture of target analyte, and "vehicles" for the rapid delivery of analyte from a sample solution to the sensor surface. Meanwhile, SPR direct detection format without Fe3O4 MNPs and gas chromatography (GC) analysis were conducted for detection of deltamethrin in soybean to demonstrate the amplification effect of Fe3O4 MNPs. A good linear relationship was obtained between SPR responses and deltamethrin concentrations over a range of 0.01-1 ng/mL with the lowest measurable concentration of 0.01 ng/mL. The results reveal that the detection sensitivity for deltamethrin was improved by 4 orders of magnitude compared with SPR direct detection format. The recovery of 95.5-119.8% was obtained in soybean. The excellent selectivity of the present biosensor is also confirmed by two kinds of pesticides (fenvalerate and atrazine) as controls. This magnetic separation and amplification strategy has great potential for detection of other small analytes in trace level concentration, with high selectivity and sensitivity by altering the target-analyte-capture agent labeled to the carboxyl-coated Fe3O4 MNPs. PMID:24747571

Liu, Xia; Li, Lei; Liu, You-Qian; Shi, Xing-Bo; Li, Wen-Jin; Yang, Yang; Mao, Lu-Gang

2014-09-15

227

MAGNETIC DRUM SEPARATOR PERFORMANCE SCALPING TROMMEL UNDERFLOW AT NOMINAL DESIGN CONDITIONS. TEST NO. 4.01, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the first test of the magnetic drum separator that was designed to scalp the underflow of the trommel, or rotary screen, at the New Orleans, Louisiana, resource recovery facility. The objective of the test was to document the performance of the trommel-under...

228

Magnetically separable nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity under visible light for the selective transformation of biomass-derived platform molecules  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel magnetically separable TiO2-guanidine-(Ni,Co)Fe2O4 nanomaterials were prepared and characterised by a series of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, N2 physisorption as well as XPS and subsequently tested for their photocatalytic activities in the selective transformation of...

229

Templated synthesis of monodisperse mesoporous maghemite/silica microspheres for magnetic separation of genomic DNA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method is described for the preparation of superparamagnetic mesoporous maghemite (gamma-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3})/silica (SiO{sub 2}) composite microspheres to allow rapid magnetic separation of DNA from biological samples. With magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and silica nanoparticles as starting materials, such microspheres were synthesized by the following two consecutive steps: (1) formation of monodispersed organic/inorganic hybrid microspheres through urea-formaldedyde (UF) polymerization and (2) removal of the organic template and phase transformation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to gamma-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by calcination at elevated temperatures. The as-synthesized particles obtained by heating at temperature 300 deg. C feature spherical shape and uniform particle size (d{sub particle}=1.72 mum), high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}=17.22 emu/g), superparamagnetism (M{sub r}/M{sub s}=0.023), high surface area (S{sub BET}=240 m{sup 2}/g), and mesoporosity (d{sub pore}=6.62 nm). The composite microsphere consists of interlocked amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, in which cubic gamma-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals are homogeneously dispersed and thermally stable against gamma- to alpha-phase transformation at temperatures up to 600 deg. C. With the exposed iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of silica shell, the magnetic microspheres were used as a solid-phase adsorbent for rapid extraction of genomic DNA from plant samples. The results show that the DNA templates isolated from pea and green pepper displayed single bands with molecular weights greater than 8 kb and A{sub 260}/A{sub 280} values of 1.60-1.72. The PCR amplification of a fragment encoding the endogenous chloroplast ndhB gene confirmed that the DNA templates obtained were inhibitor-free and amenable to sensitive amplification-based DNA technologies.

Chen Feng; Shi Ruobing; Xue Yun; Chen Lei [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan Qianhong, E-mail: qhwan@tju.edu.c [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

2010-08-15

230

Novel magnetically separable AgCl/iron oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity driven by visible light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •The AgCl/iron oxide composites were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. •The composites exhibited improved performances in the photodegradation of pollutants. •The visible light photocatalysts could be recycled easily by a magnet. -- Abstract: In this work, AgCl/iron oxide composites were synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method and calcining process. The composition of the material and magnetic and optical properties of the composites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating specimen magnetometer (VSM) techniques, which confirms the high crystalline and magnetic behavior of the composites. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectral (DRS) studies showed that the AgCl/iron oxide composites were of much higher absorption in longer wavelength region compared to bare iron oxide. The AgCl/iron oxide composites showed better performance in the photodegradation of organic dyes Rhodamin B (RhB) under the fluorescent lamp irradiation, which is remarkably superior to the N-TiO{sub 2}. The degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenol was also found to be good owing to its effective electron-hole separation at AgCl/iron oxide interface. The separation of AgCl/iron oxide composites from the treated water was achieved by an external magnetic field as ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits enough magnetic power to facilitate the separation.

Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Yanrong, E-mail: yanrong_zhang@hust.edu.cn; Tan, Jue

2013-10-15

231

Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 ?m) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated

232

Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 {mu}m) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

Shaibu, B.S. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India); Reddy, M.L.P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India)]. E-mail: mlpreddy@yahoo.co.uk; Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2006-06-15

233

Determination of nanoparticle force balance in an electrical magnetic separation system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analytical expressions for magnetic force gradient computation are given. FEM simulation of the matrix core in the working gap of a magnetic system is conducted. The magnetic force distribution is presented as a relative ratio. A force balance equation taking into account the magnetic force pattern is derived.

E.E. Volkanin

2014-04-01

234

Separation of Sudan dyes from chilli powder by magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for the separation of Sudan dyes from chilli powder samples has been developed. The MMIPs were synthesized as follows: the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were encapsulated with a SiO(2) shell and functionalized with -CH=CH(2), then the polymers were further fabricated by surface-imprinted polymerization using Sudan IV as template molecule, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent. The prepared MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and physical property measurement system. The isothermal absorption experiment, kinetics absorption experiment and selectivity of MMIPs were tested. The analytes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection of the four Sudan dyes are 6.2, 1.6, 4.3 and 4.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation ranging from 4.8% to 9.1% was obtained. In all three fortified levels (25, 250 and 2500 ng g(-1)), recoveries of Sudan dyes were in the range of 79.9-87.8%. PMID:23141623

Piao, Chunying; Chen, Ligang

2012-12-14

235

The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized for the enhanced detection of uranium in environmental matrices. By relying on alpha-particle detection in well-formed and dense nMAG films, it was possible to improve soil detection of uranium by more than ten-thousand-fold. Central for this work was a detailed understanding of the chemistry at the iron oxide interface, and the role of the organic coatings in mediating the sorption process.

Mayo, John Thomas

236

Enhanced magnetic separation and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped titania photocatalyst supported on strontium ferrite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A improved ferromagnetic property, visible light absorption N–TiO2 was prepared by strontium ferrite as support. ? The supported N–TiO2 had a strong ferromagnetic properties with coercivity 4187.2G, mass recovery ?98%. ? The supported N–TiO2 resulted in a lower band gap energy (?2.8 eV). ? Complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved in shorter duration under both bright, diffused sunlight irradiation. - Abstract: An enhanced ferromagnetic property, visible light active TiO2 photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by supporting strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19) onto TiO2 doped with nitrogen (N) and compared with N-doped TiO2. The synthesized catalysts were further characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), BET surface area analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and visible light spectroscopy analysis for their respective properties. The XRD and EDS revealed the structural and inorganic composition of N–TiO2 supported on SrFe12O19. The supported N–TiO2 exhibited a strong ferromagnetic property with tremendous stability against magnetic property losses. It also resulted in reduced band gap (2.8 eV) and better visible light absorption between 400 and 800 nm compared to N-doped TiO2. The photocatalytic activity was investigated with a recalcitrant phenolic compound namely 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a model pollutant under direct bright and diffuse sunlight exposure. A complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved with an initial concentration of 50 mg/L for both photocatalysts in 180 min and 270 min respectively under bright sunlight. Similarly the diffuse sunlight study resulted in complete degradation for supported N–TiO2 and >85% degradation N–TiO2, respectively. Finally the supported photocatalyst was separated under permanent magnetic field with a mass recovery ?98% for further reuse.

237

Enhanced magnetic separation and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped titania photocatalyst supported on strontium ferrite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A improved ferromagnetic property, visible light absorption N-TiO{sub 2} was prepared by strontium ferrite as support. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supported N-TiO{sub 2} had a strong ferromagnetic properties with coercivity 4187.2G, mass recovery {approx}98%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supported N-TiO{sub 2} resulted in a lower band gap energy ({approx}2.8 eV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved in shorter duration under both bright, diffused sunlight irradiation. - Abstract: An enhanced ferromagnetic property, visible light active TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by supporting strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) onto TiO{sub 2} doped with nitrogen (N) and compared with N-doped TiO{sub 2}. The synthesized catalysts were further characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), BET surface area analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and visible light spectroscopy analysis for their respective properties. The XRD and EDS revealed the structural and inorganic composition of N-TiO{sub 2} supported on SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. The supported N-TiO{sub 2} exhibited a strong ferromagnetic property with tremendous stability against magnetic property losses. It also resulted in reduced band gap (2.8 eV) and better visible light absorption between 400 and 800 nm compared to N-doped TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activity was investigated with a recalcitrant phenolic compound namely 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a model pollutant under direct bright and diffuse sunlight exposure. A complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved with an initial concentration of 50 mg/L for both photocatalysts in 180 min and 270 min respectively under bright sunlight. Similarly the diffuse sunlight study resulted in complete degradation for supported N-TiO{sub 2} and >85% degradation N-TiO{sub 2}, respectively. Finally the supported photocatalyst was separated under permanent magnetic field with a mass recovery {approx}98% for further reuse.

Aziz, Azrina Abd; Yong, Kok Soon; Ibrahim, Shaliza [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Pichiah, Saravanan, E-mail: pichiahsaravanan@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-01-15

238

Innovative methodology for comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings: part 1. The recovery of iron from iron ore tailings using magnetic separation after magnetizing roasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron ore tailings have become one kind of the most hazardous solid waste. In order to recycle iron in the tailings, we present a technique using magnetizing roasting process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, according to experimental mechanism, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of coal: iron ore tailings as 1:100, roasting at 800 degrees C for 30 min, and milling 15 min of roasted samples. With these optimum parameters, the grade of magnetic concentrate was 61.3% Fe and recovery rate of 88.2%. With this method, a great amount of iron can be reused. In addition, the microstructure and phase transformation of the process of magnetizing roasting were studied. PMID:19782467

Li, Chao; Sun, Henghu; Bai, Jing; Li, Longtu

2010-02-15

239

Beta-NMR magnetic moment measurements using on-line mass separation and tilted-foil polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods of tilted foil nuclear polarization and on-line mass separation have for the first time been successfully applied to a Beta-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (?-NMR) technique for measuring multipole moments of ?-unstable nuclei. The magnetic moment of 33Cl (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.51 s, I/sup ?/ = 3/2+), the mirror nucleus of 33S, was successfully measured using this arrangement. Following production by nuclear reaction, recoiling nuclei were mass separated by the Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) after which they were polarized by passage through an array of tilted carbon foils, and implanted in a catcher. Nuclear polarization, monitored by detection of asymmetric ?-emission, was destroyed via resonant rf excitation to locate the nuclear magnetic resonance, which was marked by a disappearance of the decay anisotropy. Tests were performed with 12B (T/sub 1/2/ = 20.4 ms, I/sup ?/ = 1+) which were produced via the d(11B,12B)p reaction, and implanted in Au. The 33Cl nuclei were produced via the d(32S,33Cl)n reaction, and implanted in a NaCl single crystal. The ground-state magnetic moment of 33Cl, corrected for diamagnetism, is ? = +0.7523(16) ?/sub n/. The results for the mass 33 mirror shell pair are discussed in terms of three separate theoretical analyses of sd-shell mirror nuclei

240

Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe3O4 and FeCrO4, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

 
 
 
 
241

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of magnetically separable hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure  

Science.gov (United States)

The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face centered cubic Ni and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO without any traces of impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles under solvothermal conditions. These nickel nanoparticles, when subjected to reflux, formed the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel nanostructure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the hybrid nanostructure. The growth mechanism for the development of the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure has also been proposed. The appearance of the hysteresis loop, in the as-prepared Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure, demonstrated its ferromagnetic character at room temperature. The hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure also acts as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid nanocatalyst is better compared to pure zinc oxide. Most importantly, the Ni/ZnO catalyst could also be easily separated, simply by applying an external magnetic field, and reused.The hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure photocatalyst has successfully been prepared by the reduction of nickel chloride hexahydrate using hydrazine hydrate through the solvothermal process at 140 °C followed by surface modification of the product by the reflux method at 110 °C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the `as prepared' sample consists of face centered cubic Ni and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO without any traces of impurity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles under solvothermal conditions. These nickel nanoparticles, when subjected to reflux, formed the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel nanostructure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies also confirmed the presence of zinc oxide in the hybrid nanostructure. The growth mechanism for the development of the hexagonal zinc oxide coated nickel (Ni/ZnO) nanostructure has also been proposed. The appearance of the hysteresis loop, in the as-prepared Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure, demonstrated its ferromagnetic character at room temperature. The hexagonal Ni/ZnO nanostructure also acts as an efficient photocatalyst in the degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is observed that the catalytic efficiency of the hybrid nanocatalyst is better compared to pure zinc oxide. Most importantly, the Ni/ZnO catalyst could also be easily separated, simply by applying an external magnetic field, and reused. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1 Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure prepared using (a) 0.195 and (b) 0.25 M [Zn2+] at 90 °C Fig. S2 FTIR spectra of nickel nanoparticles prepared at 140 °C (a), and Ni/ZnO hybrid nanostructure prepared using (b) 0.063, (c) 0.125, (d) 0.195 and (e) 0.25 M [Zn2+]; Fig. S3 Raman spectra of Ni/ZnO nanostructure prepared using (a) 0.063, (b) 0.125, (c) 0.195 and (d) 0.25 M [Zn2+]; Fig. S4 Room temperature PL spectra of (a) ZnO and (b) Ni/ZnO nanostructure prepared using 0.25 M [Zn2+]. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31831h

Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel K.; Singh, Shiv B.

2012-09-01

242

Separation Anxiety  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners discover the primary physical properties used to separate pure substances from mixtures. Learners use test tubes, beakers, magnets, and other tools to separate a mixture of sand, iron filings, salt, popcorn kernels, and poppyseeds. This activity introduces learners to the basic properties of size, magnetism, density and solubility while emphasizing that chemistry involves separating out substances either to understand what they are or to use the pure components to create new substances.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

243

Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC  

CERN Document Server

Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect (CME). The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this paper, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39 and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy, and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. The implications of these results for the CME will be discussed.

Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

2014-01-01

244

Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes

245

Separation of species of a binary fluid mixture confined in a channel in presence of a strong transverse magnetic field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effects of a transverse magnetic field on separation of a binary mixture of incompressible viscous thermally and electrically conducting fluids confined between two stationary parallel plates are examined. Both the plates are maintained at constant temperatures. It is assumed that one of the components, which is rarer and lighter, is present in the mixture in a very small quantity. The equations governing the motion, temperature and concentration in Cartesian coordinate are solved analy...

Sharma Bishwaram; Sing Niroj Ram; Kr, Gogoi Rupam; Nath Kabita

2012-01-01

246

The Vlasov equation with strong magnetic field and oscillating electric field as a model of isotope resonant separation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study qualitative behavior of the Vlasov equation with strong external magnetic field and oscillating electric field. This model is relevant in order to understand isotop resonant separation. We show that the effective equation is a kinetic equation with a memory term. This memory term involves a pseudo-differential operator whose kernel is characterized by an integral equation involving Bessel functions. In some particular cases, the kernel is explicitly given.

Frenod, Emmanuel; Watbled, Frederique

2002-01-01

247

The Vlasov equation with strong magnetic field and oscillating electric field as a model for isotop resonant separation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We study the qualitative behavior of solutions to the Vlasov equation with strong external magnetic field and oscillating electric field. This model is relevant to the understanding of isotop resonant separation. We show that the effective equation is a kinetic equation with a memory term. This memory term involves a pseudo-differential operator whose kernel is characterized by an integral equation involving Bessel functions. The kernel is explicitly given in some particular cases.

Emmanuel Frenod

2002-01-01

248

The Vlasov equation with strong magnetic field and oscillating electric field as a model of isotope resonant separation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study qualitative behavior of the Vlasov equation with strong external magnetic field and oscillating electric field. This model is relevant in order to understand isotop resonant separation. We show that the effective equation is a kinetic equation with a memory term. This memory term involves a pseudo-differential operator whose kernel is characterized by an integral equation involving Bessel functions. In some particular cases, the kernel is explicitly given.

Frenod, Emmanuel; Watbled, Frederique

2007-01-01

249

The Vlasov equation with strong magnetic field and oscillating electric field as a model for isotop resonant separation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the qualitative behavior of solutions to the Vlasov equation with strong external magnetic field and oscillating electric field. This model is relevant to the understanding of isotop resonant separation. We show that the effective equation is a kinetic equation with a memory term. This memory term involves a pseudo-differential operator whose kernel is characterized by an integral equation involving Bessel functions. The kernel is explicitly given in some particular cases.

Emmanuel Frenod; Frederique Watbled

2002-01-01

250

“Doubling” of local photon emissions when two simultaneous, spatially-separated, chemiluminescent reactions share the same magnetic field configurations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present experiments was to discern if the “entanglement”-like photon emissions from pairs of cell cultures or human brains separated by significant distances but sharing the same circling magnetic field could be demonstrated with a classic chemiluminescent reaction produced by hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite. Simultaneous injection of the same amount of peroxide into a local dish (above a photomultiplier tube and a dish 10 m away in a closed chamber produced a “doubling” of the durations of the photon spikes only when the two reactions were placed in the center of separate spaces around each of which magnetic fields were generated as accelerating group velocities containing decreasing phase modulations followed by decelerating group velocities embedded with increasing phase modulations. The duration of this “entanglement” was about 8 min. These results suggest that separate distances behave as if they were “the same space” if they are exposed to the same precise temporal configuration of magnetic fields with specific angular velocities.

Blake T. Dotta

2012-02-01

251

Correlation between electrical and magnetic properties of phase-separated manganites studied with a general effective medium model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have performed electrical resistivity and DC magnetization measurements as a function of temperature, on polycrystalline samples of phase-separated La{sub 5/8-} {sub y} Pr {sub y} Ca{sub 3/8}MnO{sub 3} (y=0.3). We have used the general effective medium theory to obtain theoretical resistivity vs. temperature curves corresponding to different fixed ferromagnetic (FM) volume fraction values, assuming that the sample is a mixture of typical metallic-like and insulating manganites. By comparing this data with our experimental resistivity curves we have obtained the relative FM volume fraction of our sample as a function of temperature. This result matches with the corresponding magnetization data in excellent agreement, showing that a mixed-phase scenario is the key element to explain both the magnetic and transport properties in the present compound.

Sacanell, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: sacanell@cnea.gov.ar; Quintero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Parisi, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ghivelder, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Leyva, A.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Levy, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-09-01

252

Synthesis and performance of novel magnetically separable nanospheres of titanium dioxide photocatalyst with egg-like structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A magnetically separable photocatalyst TiO2/SiO2/NiFe2O4 (TSN) nanosphere with egg-like structure was prepared by a unique process that combined a liquid catalytic phase transformation method, reverse micelle technique and chemical precipitation means. The prepared photocatalyst shows high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water. The magnetic property measurements indicate that the photocatalyst possesses a superparamagnetic nature. It can be separated from water when an external magnetic field is added and redispersed into water solution after the external magnetic field is eliminated. It is one of the promising photocatalysts for wastewater treatment. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the TSN photocatalyst. The results indicate that nickel ferrite core nanoparticles were completely encapsulated into monodisperse silica nanospheres as carrier, and titania nanoparticle aggregates were coated onto the surface of SN nanospheres, forming an imperfect TiO2 shell for photocatalysis. The SiO2 layer between the NiFe2O4 core and the TiO2 shell effectively prevents the injection of charges from TiO2 particles to NiFe2O4, which gives rise to an increase in photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the recycled TSN exhibits good repeatability orecycled TSN exhibits good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity

253

Optimization of human corneal endothelial cells for culture: the removal of corneal stromal fibroblast contamination using magnetic cell separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The culture of human corneal endothelial cells (CECs) is critical for the development of suitable graft alternative on biodegradable material, specifically for endothelial keratoplasty, which can potentially alleviate the global shortage of transplant-grade donor corneas available. However, the propagation of slow proliferative CECs in vitro can be hindered by rapid growing stromal corneal fibroblasts (CSFs) that may be coisolated in some cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a strategy using magnetic cell separation (MACS) technique to deplete the contaminating CSFs from CEC cultures using antifibroblast magnetic microbeads. Separated "labeled" and "flow-through" cell fractions were collected separately, cultured, and morphologically assessed. Cells from the "flow-through" fraction displayed compact polygonal morphology and expressed Na(+)/K(+)ATPase indicative of corneal endothelial cells, whilst cells from the "labeled" fraction were mostly elongated and fibroblastic. A separation efficacy of 96.88% was observed. Hence, MACS technique can be useful in the depletion of contaminating CSFs from within a culture of CECs. PMID:22287967

Peh, Gary S L; Lee, Man-Xin; Wu, Fei-Yi; Toh, Kah-Peng; Balehosur, Deepashree; Mehta, Jodhbir S

2012-01-01

254

Spin transverse separation in a two-dimensional electron-gas using an external magnetic field with a topological chirality  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) system in which an external magnetic field with a small chirality is applied to provide a topological spin gauge field that separates conduction electrons of opposite spins in the transverse direction. Additionally, the vertical electric field in the 2DEG, together with spin-orbit coupling, produces a SU(2) gauge field which reinforces or opposes the effect of the spin gauge. The system thus provides a tunable spin separation effect, where an applied gate voltage on the 2DEG can be used to modulate the transverse spin current. As this method leads to the enhancement or cancellation of spin separation due to the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling effect only, it may naturally distinguish the extrinsic effect from the intrinsic one.

Tan, S. G.; Jalil, M. B. A.; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Fujita, T.

2008-12-01

255

Purification of water systems from tri-n-butyl phosphate by means of magnetic separation and ozonization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made on the process of magnetic separation of water emulsion (MSE) of tributyl phosphate with introduction of dispersed ferromagnetic material into the system as the necessary condition of the process. It is shown that it enables to remove completely the emulsified component of these compound from the system. Flotation model of the process, technique of calculation of phase relations, based on it and a priori evaluation of separation efficiency, suggested for MSE process of hydrocarbons, correspond satisfactorily with experimental data also for the case of TBP emulsion separation. It is shown that ozonization of solutions, treated by MSE method, enables to decrease the TBP concentration in them down to the level of MPC. The total pourification coefficient in the case of cooperative application of both methods achieves ?105

256

The effect of particle size and colloid stability on the wet high-intensity magnetic separation of uranium from cyanidation residues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes an experimental investigation on the magnetic separation of U3O8 from various size fractions of uranium-gold tailings. High recoveries were obtained at high grades, even from the finest fraction (smaller than 25?m), and an increase in magnetic field did not improve the efficiency of separation. The use of theoretical models did not lead to the correct prediction of the limiting particle size recoverable by magnetic separation. It was shown that the presence of coarse fractions enhances the recovery of uranium from a very fine fraction, and that 'piggy-back' magnetic separation plays an important role in the capture of slimes. The results also showed that the use of a dispersant considerably improves the selectivity of the separation

257

Uranium isotope separation by magnetic field gradient and visible light acting in a liquid medium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The literature shows that excited uranyl can assume the ''singlet'' and ''triplet'' states, with different magnetic properties. In an aqueous medium, without organic complexity (to hamper dismutation), the action of light reduces uranyl to U(V), which is a radical -ion that can assume the ''doublet'' and ''quartet'' states, also with different magnetic properties. Due to the different constants of velocity of uranium 235 and 238 in the reduction of excited uranyl and in the oxidation of U(V) to UO22+, there is the probability of forming an isotopic gradient, in the aqueous solution, subjected to a magnetic field gradient, with consequent appropriate extraction. 6 refs

258

Possible Magnetic separation in Ru doped La0.67Ca0.33MnO3  

CERN Document Server

X-ray diffraction, resistivity, ac susceptibility and magnetization studies on La0.67Ca0.33Mn1-xRuxO3 (0 x < 0.1) were carried out. A significant increase in the lattice parameters indicated the presence of mixed valance state of Ru: Ru3+ and Ru4+. The resistivity of the doped compounds exhibited two features: a broad maximum and a relatively sharp peak. While a para to ferromagnetic transition could be observed for the latter peak, no magnetic signal either in ac susceptibility or in magnetization measurements could be observed for the broad maximum. The magnetic moment decreases non linearly from 3.55 to 3 mB over the Ru composition from 0 to 8.5 at.%. Based on the results of the present studies and on existing literature on the Mn-site substituted systems, we argue that a magnetic phase separation occurs in the Ru doped system. While the sharp peak in the resistivity corresponds to Ru4+ enriched region with a ferromagnetic coupling with neighboring Mn ions, the broad peak corresponds to a Ru3+ rich regi...

Lakshmi, L S; Natarajan, D V; Chandra, S; Sastry, V S; Radhakrishnan, T S; Pandian, P; Narayana-Swamy, A; Chandra, Sharat; Pandian, Ponn

2002-01-01

259

Application of magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for immunomagnetic separation of bone marrow cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface-functionalized magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) (PS-GMA) microspheres were prepared and coupled with Sca-1 antibody for cell selection from murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs). Biotinylated Sca-1 antibody could be directly coupled to avidin-bound magnetic microspheres. Alternatively, oxidized goat anti-mouse antibody was covalently bound onto the amino group-containing magnetic microspheres in a site-directed manner, and the resultant conjugate was coupled with non-modified Sca-1 antibody. Using the indirect antibody-bound magnetic microspheres, the purity of isolated Sca-1+ cells increased with bead-to-cell ratio. Using a bead-to-cell ratio of 10 beads/cell, a purity of 85% Sca-1+ cells corresponding to a 17-fold enrichment was achieved.

260

Greek “red mud” residue: A study of microwave reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation for a metallic iron recovery process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Microwave reduction of a red mud. •Measurement of real and imaginary permittivity of red mud–lignite mixture. •Red mud was subjected to reductive roasting and magnetic separation processes. •The optimum concentrate contains 31.6% iron with a 69.3% metallization degree. •226Ra, 228Ra, 238U, 228Th, 232Th, 40K were detected in the magnetic concentrate. -- Abstract: The present research work is focused on the development of an alternative microwave reductive roasting process of red mud using lignite (30.15 wt.% Cfix), followed by wet magnetic separation, in order to produce a raw material suitable for sponge or cast iron production. The reduction degree of iron was controlled by both the reductive agent content and the microwave heating time. The reduction followed the Fe2O3 ? Fe3O4 ? FeO ? Fe sequence. The dielectric constants [real (??) and imaginary (??) permittivities] of red mud–lignite mixture were determined at 2.45 GHz, in the temperature range of 25–1100 °C. The effect of parameters such as temperature, intensity of reducing conditions, intensity of magnetic field and dispersing agent addition rate on the result of both processes was investigated. The phase's transformations in reduction process with microwave heating were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in combination with thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The microstructural and morphological characterization of the produced calcines was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the optimum conditions a magnetic concentrate with total iron concentration of 35.15 and 69.3 wt.% metallization degree was obtained

 
 
 
 
261

Greek “red mud” residue: A study of microwave reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation for a metallic iron recovery process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • Microwave reduction of a red mud. •Measurement of real and imaginary permittivity of red mud–lignite mixture. •Red mud was subjected to reductive roasting and magnetic separation processes. •The optimum concentrate contains 31.6% iron with a 69.3% metallization degree. •{sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K were detected in the magnetic concentrate. -- Abstract: The present research work is focused on the development of an alternative microwave reductive roasting process of red mud using lignite (30.15 wt.% C{sub fix}), followed by wet magnetic separation, in order to produce a raw material suitable for sponge or cast iron production. The reduction degree of iron was controlled by both the reductive agent content and the microwave heating time. The reduction followed the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ? Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ? FeO ? Fe sequence. The dielectric constants [real (??) and imaginary (??) permittivities] of red mud–lignite mixture were determined at 2.45 GHz, in the temperature range of 25–1100 °C. The effect of parameters such as temperature, intensity of reducing conditions, intensity of magnetic field and dispersing agent addition rate on the result of both processes was investigated. The phase's transformations in reduction process with microwave heating were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in combination with thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The microstructural and morphological characterization of the produced calcines was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the optimum conditions a magnetic concentrate with total iron concentration of 35.15 and 69.3 wt.% metallization degree was obtained.

Samouhos, Michail, E-mail: msamouhos@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece); Taxiarchou, Maria; Tsakiridis, Petros E. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Laboratory of Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, 9, Iroon Polytechniou Street, 157 80 Zografou, Athens (Greece); Potiriadis, Konstantinos [Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Patriarxou Grigoriou and Neapoleos, P.O. Box 60092, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

2013-06-15

262

Maximizing haematite recovery within a fine and wide particle-size distribution using wet high-intensity magnetic separation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The physical beneficiation of iron ore that has a wide particle-size distribution is problematic, regardless of the process applied, whether dense medium separation, gravity concentration, magnetic separation, or flotation. The problem of particle size is further compounded when there is a significa [...] nt -10 µm fraction. Generally the approach to a wide particle-size distribution is to split into narrower size ranges and treat each separately. More often than not the -10 µm fraction is not treated but discarded. This approach results in a more complicated and expensive flow sheet and the loss of any potential value in the -10 µm fraction. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) bench-scale test work was conducted on a haematite-rich material with a particle size of -200 µm What made this material different was that it contained a 60% -10 µm fraction, hence discarding the -10 µm material was not an option. The objective of the test work was to determine how to maximize the recovery of the haematite across the full particle size range. Given the unusual particle size distribution, it was concluded that WHIMS would be the only practical beneficiation route. The -200 +10 µm and -10 µm fractions were treated separately and together under varying WHIMS conditions. For a given concentrate grade, the mass yield obtained was greater when the total particle-size distribution was treated. The inferred optimum conditions, using the same material, were tested on a pilot-scale WHIMS and similar results were obtained.

M, Dworzanowski.

263

Maximizing haematite recovery within a fine and wide particle-size distribution using wet high-intensity magnetic separation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The physical beneficiation of iron ore that has a wide particle-size distribution is problematic, regardless of the process applied, whether dense medium separation, gravity concentration, magnetic separation, or flotation. The problem of particle size is further compounded when there is a significa [...] nt -10 µm fraction. Generally the approach to a wide particle-size distribution is to split into narrower size ranges and treat each separately. More often than not the -10 µm fraction is not treated but discarded. This approach results in a more complicated and expensive flow sheet and the loss of any potential value in the -10 µm fraction. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) bench-scale test work was conducted on a haematite-rich material with a particle size of -200 µm What made this material different was that it contained a 60% -10 µm fraction, hence discarding the -10 µm material was not an option. The objective of the test work was to determine how to maximize the recovery of the haematite across the full particle size range. Given the unusual particle size distribution, it was concluded that WHIMS would be the only practical beneficiation route. The -200 +10 µm and -10 µm fractions were treated separately and together under varying WHIMS conditions. For a given concentrate grade, the mass yield obtained was greater when the total particle-size distribution was treated. The inferred optimum conditions, using the same material, were tested on a pilot-scale WHIMS and similar results were obtained.

M, Dworzanowski.

2014-07-01

264

Electronic and magnetic phase separation in EuB6. Fluctuation spectroscopy and nonlinear transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main topics of this thesis are electrical, stationary, and time-resolved transport measurements on EuB6 as well as the further development of measuring methods and analysis procedures of the fluctuation spectroscopy. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the further development of the already known measuring methods under application of a fast data-acquisition card. The second part deals with the electrical transport properties of EuB6 and the understanding of the coupling between charge and magnetic degrees of freedom. By means of resistance and nonlinear-transport measurements as well as fluctuation spectroscopy hypotheses of other scientists were systematically verified as well as new knowledge obtained. The magnetoresistance was studied as function of the temperature in small external magnetic fields between 1 mT and 700 mT. Measurements of the third harmonic resistance as function of the temperature show maxima at TMI and TC. Electrical-resistance fluctuations were measured without external magnetic field between 5 and 100 K as well in presence of a magnetic field between 18 K and 32 K. At constant temperature measurements of the spectral power density in external magnetic fields were performed in the temperature range from 18 K to 32 K. Highly resolving measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient showed a very strong coupling of the magnetic (polaronic) degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice.

265

Capture and separation of biomolecules using magnetic beads in a simple microfluidic channel without an external flow device.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of microfluidic devices and magnetic beads for applications in biotechnology has been extensively explored over the past decade. Many elaborate microfluidic chips have been used in efficient systems for biological assays. However most fail to achieve the ideal point of care (POC) status, as they require larger conventional external devices in conjunction with the microchip. This paper presents a simple technique to capture and separate biomolecules using magnetic bead movement on a microchip without the use of an external flow device. This microchip consisted of two well reservoirs (W1 and W2) connected via a tapered microchannel. Beads were dragged through the microchannel between the two wells at an equivalent speed to a permanent magnet that moved alongside the microchip. More than 95% of beads were transferred from W1 to W2 within 2 min at an average velocity of 0.7 mm s(-1). Enzymatic reactions were employed to test our microchip. Specifically, three assays were performed using the streptavidin coated magnetic beads as a solid support to capture and transfer biomolecules: (1) non-specific adsorption of the substrate, 6-8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP), (2) capture of the enzyme, biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP), and (3) separation of AP from DiFMUP. Our non-specific adsorption assay indicated that the microchip was capable of transferring the beads with less than 0.002% carryover of DiFMUP. Our capture assay indicated efficient capture and transfer of AP with beads to W2 containing DiFMUP, where the transferred AP converted 100% of DiFMUP to DiFMU within 15 minutes. Our separation assay showed effective separation of AP from DiFMUP and elucidated the binding capacity of the beads for AP. The leftover unbound AP in W1 converted 100% of DiFMUP within 10 minutes and samples with less than the full bead capacity of AP (i.e. all AP was transferred) did not convert any of the DiFMUP. The immobilization of AP on the bead surface resulted in 32% reduced enzymatic speed compared to that of free AP in solution, as a result of altered protein conformation and/or steric hindrance of the catalytic site. Overall, this microfluidic platform was established as a simple, efficient and effective approach for separating biomolecules without any flow apparatus. PMID:24051541

Wang, Jingjing; Morabito, Kenneth; Erkers, Tom; Tripathi, Anubhav

2013-11-01

266

On-column capture of a specific protein separated by SDS-CGE using an immunological reaction on magnetic beads.  

Science.gov (United States)

The on-column capture of a specific protein using magnetic beads was applied to SDS-CGE. In a preliminary study, an immunological reaction in the presence of SDS, using a batch method, was attempted. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), alpha-lactalbumin (LA), and HSA were denatured by heating in the presence of SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol, and then reacted with anti-CA that had been immobilized on magnetic beads. Not only native CA, but also the denatured CA reacted with anti-CA, even in the presence of SDS. Therefore, the on-column capture of denatured CA separated by SDS-CGE was attempted using a two-point detection technique. A mixture of proteins, containing LA, CA, and HSA, were separated by SDS-CGE according to their Mr. The CA was then specifically captured on anti-CA-immobilized magnetic beads, which were packed between two detection windows in the capillary column, during the electrophoresis. The results show that the technique leads to information similar to that obtained by Western blotting, i.e., a protein can be identified by its Mr and reaction with its antibody. PMID:17538922

Kaneta, Takashi; Takahashi, Masanori; Imasaka, Totaro

2007-07-01

267

New high performance hybrid magnet plates for DNA separation andbio-technology applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new class of magnet plates for biological and industrial applications has recently been developed at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (JGI/LBNL). These devices utilize hybrid technology that combines linear permanent magnet material and ferromagnetic material to produce significantly higher fields and gradients than currently available commercial magnet plates. These hybrid structures incorporate ferromagnetic poles that can be easily shaped to produce complex field distributions for specialized applications. The higher maximum fields and strong gradients of the hybrid structures result in greater holding forces on magnetized targets that are being processed as well as faster draw-down. Current development versions of these magnet plates have exhibited maximum fields in excess of 9000.0 Gauss. The design of these structures is easily scalable to allow for field increases to significantly above 1.0 tesla (10000.0gauss). Author's note: 11000.0 Gauss peak fields have been achieved as of January 2005.

Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Elkin, Chris; Petermann, Karl; Reiter, Charles; Cepeda, Mario

2004-08-02

268

Concentration and purification by magnetic separation of the erythrocytic stages of all human Plasmodium species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasite concentration methods facilitate molecular, biochemical and immunological research on the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium. In this paper, an adaptation of magnetic MACS® columns for the purification of human Plasmodium species is presented. This method was useful for the concentration/purification of either schizonts or gametocytes. Results and conclusions The magnetic removal of non-parasitized red blood cells (in vivo and in vitro using magnetic columns (MACS was evaluated. This easy-to-use technique enriched schizonts and gametocytes from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro cultures with a very high degree of purity. In addition, all haemozoin-containing stages (schizonts and/or gametocytes from the peripheral blood of infected patients could be concentrated using this method. This method is particularly useful for the concentration of non-falciparum species, which do not grow in culture and are otherwise difficult to obtain in large amounts.

Benoit-Vical Françoise

2008-03-01

269

Inactivation and magnetic separation of bacteria from liquid suspensions using electrosprayed and nonelectrosprayed nZVI particles: observations and mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, nonelectrosprayed nanoscale zerovalent iron (NE-nZVI), electrosprayed nZVI (E-nZVI) and preoxidized nZVI (O-nZVI) particles were applied to inactivating Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli as well as bacteria in various wastewater samples. In addition, magnetic separation was applied to the mixture of 0.2 mL bacterial sample and 1.8 mL E-nZVI or NE-nZVI suspensions. Bacterial concentrations and optical density of the supernatants were analyzed using culturing, optical adsorption and qPCR tests. In general, for wastewater samples the inactivations were shown to range from 1-log to 3-log. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that no gene mutation occurred when bacteria were treated with nZVI. Using magnetic separation, significant physical removals, revealed as a function of nZVI type (NE-,E- and O-nZVI) and bacterial concentration, up to 6-log were obtained. E-nZVI and NE-nZVI were shown to react differently with B. subtilis and E. coli, although exhibiting similar inactivation rates. qPCR tests detected higher amount of DNA in the supernatants from mixing E. coli with NE-nZVI, but less for E-nZVI. However, the opposite was observed with B. subtilis. Our data together with optical adsorption analysis suggested that the inactivation and magnetic separation mainly depend on Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4) shell compositions, the type of bacteria (aerobic and anaerobic) and their concentrations. PMID:22264123

Chen, Qi; Gao, Min; Li, Jing; Shen, Fangxia; Wu, Yan; Xu, Zhenqiang; Yao, Maosheng

2012-02-21

270

Magnetic properties of cuprate superconductors based on a phase separation theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a great debate concerning the hole of the inhomogeneities in high critical temperature superconductors (HTS). Several experiments indicate a possible electronic phase separation (PS). However, there is not a method to quantify how such transition occurs and how it develops. Here we show that the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) theory of phase separation provides a way to trace the phase separation process as a function of temperature. We connect these calculations with the Bogoliubov-deGennes (BdG) approach to an inhomogeneous superconductor and derive many HTS properties of the La2-xSrCuO4 (LSCO) system. The results yield: an onset of superconductivity that follows close the Nernst signal, the leading edge shift is close to the zero temperature average gap, and the superconducting phase is achieved by percolation. Our approach reproduces also the experimental measurements of the Hc2 field

271

Local magnetization and transport properties in phase-separated (La,Pr)1-xCaxMnO3 in the vicinity of the phase transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local magnetization has been studied in a phase-separated manganite (La1-yPry)0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (y=0.7) by a magneto-optical imaging technique simultaneously with resistivity measurements. The observed image demonstrates a region in which magnetization changes corresponding to a telegraph noise in resistive fluctuation. This observation is the first direct evidence for a switching domain in phase-separated manganites

272

A Magnetically Separable, Highly Stable Enzyme System Based on Nanocomposites of Enzymes and Magnetic Nanoparticles Shipped in Hierarchically Ordered, Mesocellular, Mesoporous Silica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Enzymes are versatile nanoscale biocatalysts, and find increasing applications in many areas, including organic synthesis[1-3] and bioremediation.[4-5] However, the application of enzymes is often hampered by the short catalytic lifetime of enzymes and by the difficulty in recovery and recycling. To solve these problems, there have been a lot of efforts to develop effective enzyme immobilization techniques. Recent advances in nanotechnology provide more diverse materials and approaches for enzyme immobilization. For example, mesoporous materials offer potential advantages as a host of enzymes due to their well-controlled porosity and large surface area for the immobilization of enzymes.[6,7] On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that enzymes attached on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be easily recovered using a magnet and recycled for iterative uses.[8] In this paper, we report the development of magnetically-separable and highly-stable enzyme system by the combined use of two different kinds of nanostructured materials: magnetic nanoparticles and mesoporous silica.

Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Jinwoo; Na, Hyon Bin; Kim, Byoung Chan; Youn, Jongkyu; Kwak, Ja Hun; Moon, Karam; Lee, Eunwoong; Kim, Jaeyun; Park, Jongnam; Dohnalkova, Alice; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Gu, Man Bock; Chang, Ho Nam; Grate, Jay W.; Hyeon, Taeghwan

2005-12-01

273

The GSI projectile fragment separator (FRS) - a versatile magnetic system for relativistic heavy ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The projectile fragment separator FRS designed for research and applied studies with relativistic heavy ions was installed at GSI as a part of the new high-energy SIS/ESR accelerator facility. This high-resolution forward spectrometer has been successfully used in first atomic and nuclear physics experiments using neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and gold beams in the energy range from 500 to 2000 MeV/u. For the first time relativistic xenon and gold fragments have been isotopically separated. In this contribution we describe first experiments characterizing the performance of this spectrometer. (orig.)

274

Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism  

Science.gov (United States)

A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

1975-01-01

275

Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt which is driven around drums and wherein said magnet is fixed in the drum distant from the feeding point, wherein a magnet is used which is preferably a dipole magnet having magnetic field lines in the...

Rem, P. C.; Berkhout, S. P. M.; Fraunholcz, O. N.

2008-01-01

276

Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoshells: combining two-photon luminescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and magnetic separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have constructed a novel type of core-shell superparamagnetic nanoshell (Fe3O4@SiO2@Au), composed of a Fe3O4 cluster core, a thin Au shell and a SiO2 layer in between. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles combine the magnetic properties and plasmonic optical properties effectively, which were well investigated by a number of experimental characterization methods and theoretical simulations. We have demonstrated that Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanoparticles can be utilized for two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) and cell collection by magnetic separation. The TPL intensity could be further greatly enhanced through the plasmon coupling effect in the self-assembled nanoparticle chains, which were triggered by an external magnetic field. In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@Au nanoparticles may have great potential applications such as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photo-thermotherapy. Successful combination of multifunctions including magnetic response, biosensing and bioimaging in single nanoparticles allows further manipulation, real-time tracking, and intracellular molecule analysis of live cells at a single-cell level. PMID:25329447

Jin, Xiulong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Shanshan; Kong, Ni; Xu, Hong; Fu, Qihua; Gu, Hongchen; Ye, Jian

2014-11-01

277

Preparation and application of novel magnetically separable {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/activated carbon sphere adsorbent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: > Magnetic {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles have been successfully in situ fabricated in the Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/C composites. > The as-prepared {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C microspheres were the composite of single-phase {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and activated carbon material > The porous {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/C microspheres as sorbent exhibited high adsorption efficiency and high capacity towards methyl orange. - Abstract: Magnetic {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/activated carbon microspheres have been synthesized by an activation process of carbon microspheres containing iron oxides, which were prepared by hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the magnetic porous carbon microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption technique. The results showed that the as-prepared activated carbon spheres were the composite of single-phase {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and activated carbon material, and the content of carbon was about 3.87%. Using methyl orange as model pollutant, the magnetic porous carbon microspheres showed good adsorption capacities of 44.65 mg/g. The isotherm evaluations revealed that the Langmuir model attained better fits to the experimental equilibrium data than the Freundlich model. These magnetic porous carbon microspheres could potentially be applied in separation processes.

Jia Zhigang, E-mail: zjchemyue@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of technology, No. 59 Hudong Road, Ma' anshan 243002, Anhui Province (China); Peng Kuankuan; Li Yanhua; Zhu Rongsun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of technology, No. 59 Hudong Road, Ma' anshan 243002, Anhui Province (China)

2011-06-25

278

Mass separation of a multicomponent plasma flow in a curvilinear magnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The motion of a metal plasma flow of a vacuum-arc discharge in a transportation plasma-optical system with a curvilinear magnetic field is studied experimentally and numerically. The flow position at the output of the system is shown to depend on the cathode material, which determines the mass-to-charge ratio of plasma ions. As a result, the flow with a greater ion mass-to-charge ratio moves along a trajectory with a larger radius. A similar effect is observed in the case of a multicomponent plasma flow generated by a composite cathode. The results of two-fluid MHD simulations of a plasma flow propagating in a curvilinear magnetic field agree qualitatively with the experimental data.

279

Development of an aptamer-based impedimetric bioassay using microfluidic system and magnetic separation for protein detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aptamer-based impedimetric bioassay using the microfluidic system and magnetic separation was developed for the sensitive and rapid detection of protein. The microfluidic impedance device was fabricated through integrating the gold interdigitated array microelectrode into a flow cell made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Aptamer modified magnetic beads were used to capture and separate the target protein, and concentrated into a suitable volume. Then the complexes were injected into the microfluidic flow cell for impedance measurement. To demonstrate the high performance of this novel detection system, thrombin was employed as the target protein. The results showed that the impedance signals at the frequency of 90 kHz have a good linearity with the concentrations of thrombin in a range from 0.1 nM to 10nM and the detection limit is 0.01 nM. Compared with the reported impedimetric aptasensors for thrombin detection, this method possesses several advantages, such as the increasing sensitivity, improving reproducibility, reducing sample volume and assay time. All these demonstrate the proposed detection system is an alternative way to enable sensitive, rapid and specific detection of protein. PMID:24709326

Wang, Yixian; Ye, Zunzhong; Ping, Jianfeng; Jing, Shunru; Ying, Yibin

2014-09-15

280

Calculating Separate Magnetic Free Energy Estimates for Active Regions Producing Multiple Flares: NOAA AR11158  

CERN Document Server

It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The \\emph{Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager} (HMI) onboard the \\emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory} (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C--class, 2 M--class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on February 12th, 2011. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600\\AA\\ chann...

Tarr, Lucas A; Millhouse, Margaret

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Magnetic bead-based separation of sperm from buccal epithelial cells using a monoclonal antibody against MOSPD3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forensic DNA analysis of sexual assault evidence requires unambiguous differentiation of DNA profiles in mixed samples. To investigate the feasibility of magnetic bead-based separation of sperm from cell mixtures using a monoclonal antibody against MOSPD3 (motile sperm domain-containing protein 3), 30 cell samples were prepared by mixing 10(4) female buccal epithelial cells with sperm cells of varying densities (10(3), 10(4), or 10(5) cells/mL). Western blot and immunofluorescence assays showed that MOSPD3 was detectable on the membrane of sperm cells, but not in buccal epithelial cells. After biotinylated MOSPD3 antibody was incubated successively with the prepared cell mixtures and avidin-coated magnetic beads, microscopic observation revealed that each sperm cell was bound by two or more magnetic beads, in the head, neck, mid-piece, or flagellum. A full single-source short tandem repeat profile could be obtained in 80 % of mixed samples containing 10(3) sperm cells/mL and in all samples containing ?10(4) sperm cells/mL. For dried vaginal swab specimens, the rate of successful detection was 100 % in both flocked and cotton swabs preserved for 1 day, 87.5 % in flocked swabs and 40 % in cotton swabs preserved for 3 days, and 40 % in flocked swabs and 16.67 % in cotton swabs preserved for 10 days. Our findings suggest that immunomagnetic bead-based separation is potentially a promising alternative to conventional methods for isolating sperm cells from mixed forensic samples. PMID:24590379

Li, Xue-Bo; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu; Ning, Shu-Hua; Miao, Yuan-Ying; Wang, Ye-Quan; Li, Hong-Wei

2014-11-01

282

Rapid removal and separation of iron(II) and manganese(II) from micropolluted water using magnetic graphene oxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel two-dimensional carbon-based magnetic nanomaterial, magnetic graphene oxide (MGO), was prepared and then used as an efficient adsorbent. MGO showed rapid and complete removal of iron(II) (Fe) and manganese(II) (Mn) from micropolluted water bodies over a wide pH range. After saturated adsorption, MGO could be rapidly separated from water under an external magnetic field. Results of the adsorption equilibrium study indicated that the adsorption of Fe and Mn by MGO took place via monolayer heterogeneous and spontaneous processes resulting from the heterogeneity of the MGO surface as well as from the electrostatic interactions between surface acidic groups of MGO and metal ions. In addition, both the Fe and Mn uptake of MGO was very slightly affected by NaCl, although it decreased with increased humic acid in solutions. In an Fe/Mn binary aqueous system, both metal ions can be efficiently removed at low concentrations, but MGO showed preferential adsorption of Fe in a concentrated aqueous mixture. The adsorption behavior in the binary system was due to different affinities of surface oxygen-containing functional groups on MGO to Fe and Mn. Finally, unlike traditional approaches in recycling and reusing an adsorbent, the Fe- and Mn-loaded MGO can be directly applied as a new adsorbent to achieve the efficient removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions. PMID:24787443

Yan, Han; Li, Haijiang; Tao, Xue; Li, Kun; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin; Xiao, Shoujun; Cheng, Rongshi

2014-06-25

283

Magnetic separation of heavy metal ions and evaluation based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: copper(II) ions as a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach was developed for the magnetic separation of copper(II) ions with easy operation and high efficiency. p-Mercaptobenzoic acid served as the modified tag of Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles both for the chelation ligand and Raman reporter. Through the chelation between the copper(II) ions and carboxyl groups on the gold shell, the Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles aggregated to form networks that were enriched and separated from the solution by a magnet. A significant decrease in the concentration of copper(II) ions in the supernatant solution was observed. An extremely sensitive method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect free copper(II) ions that remained after the magnetic separation, and thus to evaluate the separation efficiency. The results indicated the intensities of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy bands from p-mercaptobenzoic acid were dependent on the concentration of copper(II) ions, and the concentration was decreased by several orders of magnitude after the magnetic separation. The present protocol effectively decreased the total amount of heavy metal ions in the solution. This approach opens a potential application in the magnetic separation and highly sensitive detection of heavy metal ions. PMID:24106161

Yan, Xue; Zhang, Xue-Jiao; Yuan, Ya-Xian; Han, San-Yang; Xu, Min-Min; Gu, Ren'ao; Yao, Jian-Lin

2013-11-01

284

Design of countercurrent separation of Ginkgo biloba terpene lactones by nuclear magnetic resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties. For the purpose of developing an effective and efficient method for both analytical and preparative separation of terpene lactones in G. biloba, an innovative orthogonality-enhanced high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established. Taking advantage of quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) methodology, partition coefficients (K) of individual terpene lactones were calculated directly from crude G. biloba leaf extract, using their H-12 signals as distinguishing feature. The partitioning experiment assisted the design of a two dimensional (2D) HSCCC procedure using a pair of orthogonal HSCCC solvent systems (SSs), ChMWat +4 and HEMSoWat +3/0.05%. It was surprising that the resolution of ginkgolides A and B was improved by 25% in the HEMWat +3 SS modified with 0.5% DMSO. Consequently, all five terpene lactones could be well separated with qHNMR purity>95% from G. biloba leaf extract. The separation was further evaluated by offline qHNMR analysis of HSCCC fractions associated with Gaussian curve fitting. The results showed less than 2% error in HSCCC retention predicted from the partitioning experiment. This compelling consistency demonstrates that qHNMR-derived K determination ("K-by-NMR") can be used to predict CCC fractionation and target purification of analytes from complex mixtures. Furthermore, Gaussian curve fitting enabled an accurate prediction of less than 2% impurity in the CCC fraction, which demonstrates its potential as a powerful tool to study the presence of minor constituents, especially when they are beyond the detection limit of conventional spectroscopic detectors. PMID:22579361

Qiu, Feng; Friesen, J Brent; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F

2012-06-15

285

Classical Functional Bethe Ansatz for $SL(N)$: separation of variables for the magnetic chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Functional Bethe Ansatz (FBA) proposed by Sklyanin is a method which gives separation variables for systems for which an $R$-matrix is known. Previously the FBA was only known for $SL(2)$ and $SL(3)$ (and associated) $R$-matrices. In this paper I advance Sklyanin's program by giving the FBA for certain systems with $SL(N)$ $R$-matrices. This is achieved by constructing rational functions $\\A(u)$ and $\\B(u)$ of the matrix elements of $T(u)$, so that, in the generic case, ...

Scott, D. R. D.

1994-01-01

286

Improvement of the separation of tumour cells from peripheral blood cells using magnetic nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Circulating tumour cells are a key challenge in tumour therapy. Numerous approaches are on the way to achieving the elimination of these potential sources of metastasis formation. Antibody-directed magnetic cell sorting is supposed to enrich tumour cells with high selectivity, but low efficiency. The short term application of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) coated magnetit/maghemit nanoparticles allows the discrimination of tumour cells from leukocytes. In the present work we show that the interaction of CMD nanoparticles is cell-type specific and time dependent. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the CML cell line K-562 are characterized by a rapid and high interaction rate, whereas leukocytes exhibit a decelerated behaviour. The addition of carboxymethyl dextran or glucose stimulated the magnetic labelling of leukocytes. The variation of the degree of substitution of dextran with carboxymethyl groups did not affect the labelling profile of leukocytes and MCF-7 cells. In order to verify the in vitro results, whole blood samples from 13 cancer patients were analysed ex vivo. Incubation of the purified leukocyte fraction with CMD nanoparticles in the presence of low amounts of plasma reduced the overall cell content in the positive fraction. In contrast, the absolute number of residual tumour cells in the positive fraction was 90% of the initial amount.

Schwalbe, M.; Pachmann, K.; Höffken, K.; Clement, J. H.

2006-09-01

287

Phase separation, thermal history and magnetic behaviour of Sr doped LaCoO3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations and magnetic ac susceptibility measurements have been carried out to study the changes in the magnetic properties of La1-xSrxCoO3 samples (x?0.3) processed at different annealing temperatures, ranging from 1273 to 1573 K. Although neutron diffraction excludes the coexistence of distinct phases with different chemical composition, room temperature micrographs taken along the [0,-1,1] rhombohedral zone-axis show bright fringes of different widths, extending over regions with sizes ranging from 8 to 40 nm. These regions are detected in all the samples, whatever the Sr content or the annealing temperature Ta. However, their number depends strongly on the processing conditions and becomes smaller and smaller as Ta increases. The periodicity of the bright fringes cannot be accounted for, either by variations in the sample thickness or by crystallographic defects, but it can be simulated if the presence of aperiodically alternate Sr-rich and La-rich (0,1,1) planes is assumed. On the other hand, the susceptibility measurements show that the amount of ferromagnetic phase present in each specimen depends on its thermal history. This suggests that the segregation of a second electronic phase takes place, the nucleation of which is influenced by the spatial homogeneity of the dopant distribution. (author)

288

Magnetic phase separation in LaMn1-xFexO3+y  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the LaMn1-xFexO3+y system in the whole range of 0<=x<=1, for polycrystalline samples prepared by solid state reaction in air. All samples show orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma). For x=0 the oxygen excess, estimated to be y ˜ 0.1, produces vacancies in the La and Mn sites and generates a fraction around 20% of Mn^4+ ions (3t2g) and 80% of the usual Mn^3+ ions (3t2g, 1eg), with possible double exchange interaction between them. The Fe-doping in this system is known to produce only stable Fe^3+ ions (3t2g, 2eg). We find an evolution from a fairly strong ferromagnetic (FM) behavior, with saturation magnetization (T=2K) mS ˜ 4 ?B and Curie temperature Tc ˜ 160 K, for x=0, to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) behavior, with TN=790 K, for x=1. For intermediate Fe contents a mixed phase scenario occurs, with a gradual decrease (increase) of the FM (AFM) phase, accompanied by a systematic transition broadening for 0.2magnetic-ion types, accounts very well for the mS dependence on Fe doping.

de Lima, O. F.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; de Almeida, R. L.; de Carvalho, L. B.; Malik, S. K.

2008-03-01

289

Phase-separated alloys for bulk exchange-biased permanent magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Explorations in the metallurgical synthesis from the melt of bulk permanent magnets with coercivity conferred by the exchange bias mechanism were carried out in a two-phase materials system composed of ferromagnetic FeCo and antiferromagnetic, nominally equiatomic AuMn. Rapid solidification synthesis of composite alloys of nominal composition (Fe65Co35)100-x(AuMn)x (x=5, 10, and 15) was carried out. The ribbons possess AuMn and Au2Mn spherical phases in a bcc (Fe,Co) matrix with a bimodal size distribution of nanoscaled and micron sizes. Magnetization measurements of the composite confirm an exchange bias effect correlated with a coercivity increase over that of the (Fe,Co) melt-spun base alloy. While the exchange bias effect is small, the enhanced coercivity and shifted hysteresis loop observed in a single sample create a strong argument for coercivity enhancement conferred by the exchange bias interaction between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic phases in a bulk melt-spun nanocomposite material

290

Phase separation and magnetic transitions in manganites as studied by perturbed-angular-correlation spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variation of hyperfine parameters at Mn sites, across the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 and La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 has been studied by 181Hf/ Ta time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC). Presence of two distinct hyperfine components is deduced which are identified with the probe nuclei occupying two distinct Mn sites that are hole-rich and hole-deficient respectively. From a study of the temperature dependence of hyperfine parameters and the fractions, it is observed that phase separation occurs in the vicinity of bulk Curie temperature in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 while such effects are not present in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3. However, in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3, phase separation is seen below 250 K, concomitant with the change of canted weak anti ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in hole deficient zone. (author)

291

Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors  

Science.gov (United States)

In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

2013-01-01

292

The effect of charge separation on nonlinear electrostatic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with two-temperature ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the observations of parallel (to Earth's magnetic field) spiky electric field structures by the FAST satellite, a theoretical study is conducted using a dusty plasma model comprising Boltzmann distributed hot and cool ions, Boltzmann electrons and a negatively charged cold dust fluid to investigate the existence of similar low frequency nonlinear electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma which could have a similar appearance as the observed waveforms. Charge separation effects are incorporated into our model by the inclusion of Poisson's equation as opposed to assuming quasineutrality. The system of nonlinear equations is then numerically solved. The resulting electric field structure is examined as a function of various plasma parameters such as Mach number, driving electric field amplitude, bulk dust drift speed, particle densities and particle temperatures.

293

Spin-charge separation in the t-J model magnetic and transport anomalies  

CERN Document Server

A real spin-charge separation scheme is found based on a saddle-point state of the t-J model. In one-dimensional (1D) case, such a saddle-point reproduces the correct asymptotic correlations at the strong-coupling fixed-point of the model. In two-dimensional (2D) case, the transverse gauge field confining spinon and holon is shown to be gapped at {\\em finite doping} so that a spin-charge deconfinement is obtained for its first time in 2D. The gap in the gauge fluctuation disappears at half-filling limit, where a long-range antiferromagnetic order is recovered at zero temperature and spinons become confined. The most interesting features of spin dynamics and transport are exhibited at finite doping where exotic {\\em residual} couplings between spin and charge degrees of freedom lead to systematic anomalies with regard to a Fermi-liquid system. In spin dynamics, a commensurate antiferromagnetic fluctuation with a small, doping-dependent energy scale is found, which is characterized in momentum space by a Gaussi...

Weng, Z Y; Ting, C S; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, D N; Ting, C S

1995-01-01

294

Separation of quadrupolar and magnetic contributions to spin-lattice relaxation in the case of a single isotope  

CERN Document Server

We present a NMR pulse double-irradiation method which allows one to separate magnetic from quadrupolar contributions in the spin-lattice relaxation. The pulse sequence fully saturates one transition while another is observed. In the presence of a Delta m = 2 quadrupolar contribution, the intensity of the observed line is altered compared to a standard spin-echo experiment. We calculated analytically this intensity change for spins I=1, 3/2, 5/2, thus providing a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. Since the pulse sequence we used takes care of the absorbed radio-frequency power, no problems due to heating arise. The method is especially suited when only one NMR sensitive isotope is available. Different cross-checks were performed to prove the reliability of the obtained results. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by a study of the plane oxygen 17O (I = 5/2) in the high-temperature superconductor YBa_2Cu_4O_8: the 17O spin-lattice relaxation rate consists of magnetic as well as qu...

Suter, A; Ross, J; Brinkmann, D

1999-01-01

295

Incorporation of magnetic resonance water-fat separation into MR-guided near-infrared spectroscopy in the breast  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance (MR) guided diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) has shown promise in several case studies in aiding the characterization of breast lesions[1, 2]. It has been proposed that the increased quantification and resolution with a priori structural guidance yields higher diagnostic value in characterizing tumors. To date, these systems have merged MR anatomical recovery with optical contrast recovery. However, the MR has a wealth of spectral and functional data that may aid in further improving lesion characterization by appending both new and overlapping physiological information to optical methods. It has been well documented that spectral recovery of water and lipids is inaccurate with few wavelengths. Yet, recovery of these chromophores is important both because of the possible importance of these as indicators of breast cancer, adema, and inflammation. In addition, crosstalk between water and oxyhemoglobin may lead to erroneous tissue properties, which may affect lesion diagnosis. The use of multiple MR sequences with DOS enables the separation of water and lipids via MRI, and improves recovery of tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin content. However, in most cases, MRI is not a quantitative device; this paper investigates the best reconstruction methods to incorporate this data into the optical reconstruction for quantitatively accurate chromophore recovery in the presence of imperfect MR water/fat separation. Specifically, it investigates whether incorporating water/fat information directly or through a maximum likelihood algorithm yields the optimal solution both in terms of reduced crosstalk between oxyhemoglobin and water, and compares results to having no priori knowledge of water and fat.

Carpenter, C. M.; Pogue, B. W.; Paulsen, K. D.

2009-02-01

296

Separation and purification of Si from solidification of hypereutectic Al-Si melt under rotating magnetic field  

Science.gov (United States)

A low-cost and high-efficiency method to purify Si directly from cheap MG-Si at low temperature was proposed and demonstrated in this paper, which used power frequency rotating magnetic field (RMF) to separate the primary Si from a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy and was followed by the acid peeling. The separation mechanism was based on the flow characteristic of melt under RMF and the cooling condition of the liquid metal. A Si-rich layer with Si content of 65-59 wt% was formed in the periphery of alloy, while the inner microstructure of the alloy was mainly the Al-Si eutectic structure. The refined silicon was collected after aqua regia leaching, and had much fewer typical impurities (Fe, Ti, Ca, B, P) than those in MG-Si, and the metallic impurities besides Al had removal fraction higher than 98%, which is mainly ascribed to the segregation effect of Al-30Si alloy during solidification under RMF.

Jie, J. C.; Zou, Q. C.; Wang, H. W.; Sun, J. L.; Lu, Y. P.; Wang, T. M.; Li, T. J.

2014-08-01

297

Evidence for Two Separate but Interlaced Components of the Chromospheric Magnetic Field  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromospheric fibrils are generally thought to trace out horizontal magnetic fields that fan out from flux concentrations in the photosphere. A high-resolution (0.2") image taken in the core of the Ca IJ854.2 nm line shows the dark fibrils within an active region remnant as fine, loop-like features that are aligned parallel to each other and have lengths on the order of a supergranular diameter (approx.30 Mm). Comparison with a line-of-sight magnetogram confirms that the fibrils are centered above intranetwork areas, with one end rooted just inside the neighboring plage or strong unipolar network but the other endpoint less clearly defined. Focusing on a particular arcade-like structure lying entirely on one side of a filament channel (large-scale polarity inversion), we find that the total amount of positive-polarity flux underlying this "fibril arcade' is 50 times greater than the total amount of negative-polarity flux. Thus, if the fibrils represent closed loops, they must consist of very weak fields (in terms of flux density), which are interpenetrated by a more vertical field that contains most of the flux. This surprising result suggests that the fibrils in unipolar regions connect the network to the nearby intranetwork flux, while the bulk of the network flux is diverted upward into the corona and connects to remote regions of the opposite polarity. We conclude that the chromospheric field near the edge of the network has an interlaced structure resembling that in sunspot penumbrae, with the fibrils representing the low-lying horizontal flux that remains trapped within the highly nonpotential chromospheric layer.

Muglach, K.; Reardon, K. P.; Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P.

2012-01-01

298

Evidence for Two Separate But Interlaced Components of the Chromospheric Magnetic Field  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromospheric fibrils are generally thought to trace out horizontal magnetic fields that fan out from flux concentrations in the photosphere. A high-resolution (0.2") image taken in the core of the Ca II 854.2 nm line shows the dark fibrils within an active region remnant as fine, looplike features that are aligned parallel to each other and have lengths on the order of a supergranular diameter ( 30 Mm). Comparison with a line-of-sight magnetogram confirms that the fibrils are centered above intranetwork areas, with one end rooted just inside the neighboring plage or strong unipolar network but the other endpoint less clearly defined. Focusing on a particular arcade-like structure lying entirely on one side of a filament channel (large-scale polarity inversion), we find that the total amount of positive-polarity flux underlying this ``fibril arcade'' is 50 times greater than the total amount of negative-polarity flux. Thus, if the fibrils represent closed loops, they must consist of very weak fields (in terms of flux density), which are interpenetrated by a more vertical field that contains most of the flux. This surprising result suggests that the fibrils in unipolar regions connect the network to the nearby intranetwork flux, while the bulk of the network flux is diverted upward into the corona and connects to remote regions of the opposite polarity. We conclude that the chromospheric field near the edge of the network has an interlaced structure resembling that in sunspot penumbrae, with the fibrils representing the low-lying horizontal flux that remains trapped within the highly nonpotential chromospheric layer.

Muglach, Karin; Reardon, K.; Wang, Y.; Warren, H.

2012-05-01

299

Separation and characterization of alkyl phenol formaldehyde resins demulsifier by adsorption chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, infrared spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the separation and characterization of alkyl phenol formaldehyde resins demulsifier by infrared spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after separation of the different surfactants and low molecular additives by adsorption chromatography. Firstly, the types of surfactants are identified by methylene blue chloride-chloroform test method and the elemental analysis such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, S and N. Then, the different surfactants and low molecular components are separated by adsorption chromatography after parts of low molecular components are dried in an oven, and the molecular weight distribution is measured by gel permeation chromatography also. Finally, the separated surfactants are determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT), H, C correlated spectroscopy (H, C-COSY), H, H correlated spectroscopy (H, H-COSY) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectroscopy are applied to determine the molecular structures

300

The XYZ-difference method with polarized neutrons and the separation of coherent, spin incoherent, and magnetic scattering cross sections in a multidetector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Equations are derived for the polarization analysis in a multidetector to separate coherent, spin incoherent, and magnetic scattering using three-dimensional analysis or the xyz-difference method. Then the conditions for the magnetic guide fields to rotate the polarization into the three directions x, y, and z are discussed on the basis of the existing instrument D7 at the ILL in Grenoble. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
301

Dynamical effects in magnetic and transport properties of phase separated La 0.5Ca 0.5Mn 0.95Fe 0.05O 3  

Science.gov (United States)

We have measured transport and magnetic properties of polycrystalline La 0.5Ca 0.5Mn 0.95Fe 0.05O 3, a phase separated manganite with ferromagnetic ground state. Cooling rate dependences and time relaxation were found; the coexistence of ferromagnetic and charge ordered regions determines a dynamics which influences physical properties. We show that a dynamical contribution to the resistivity can account for the observed cooling rate dependence and ageing effects on this phase separated manganite.

Granja, L.; Indelicato, E.; Levy, P.; Polla, G.; Vega, D.; Parisi, F.

2002-07-01

302

Silence of magnetic layers to magnetoresistive process and electronic separation at low temperatures in $(La,Sm)Mn_{2}Ge_{2}$  

CERN Document Server

A closer look at the temperature (T) dependence of magnetoresistance (MR) oftwo polycrystalline magnetic compounds, LaMn$_2$Ge$_2$ and SmMn$_2$Ge$_2$,previously reported by us, is made. A common feature for both these compoundsis that the low temperature MR is positive (say, below, 30 K) in spite of thefact that both are ferromagnetic at such low temperatures; in addition, MR as afunction of magnetic field (H) does not track magnetization (M) in the sensethat M saturates at low fields, while MR varies linearly with H. Theseobservations suggest that the magnetic layers interestingly do not dominate lowtemperature magnetotransport process. Interestingly enough, as the T isincreased, say around 100 K, these magnetic layers dominate MR process asevidenced by the tracking of M and MR in SmMn$_2$Ge$_2$. These results temptsus to propose that there is an unusual "electronic separation" for MR processas the T is lowered in this class of compounds.

Sampathkumaran, E V; Paulose, P L; Majumdar, S N; Majumdar, Subham

2000-01-01

303

Synthesis and characterization of magnetic hexacyanoferrate (II) polymeric nanocomposite for separation of cesium from radioactive waste solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanocrystalline potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate loaded on nanoscale magnetite substrate was successfully synthesized for significantly enhanced removal of cesium from low-level radioactive wastes. A description was given for preparation and properties of these precursors. The physicochemical properties of these nanocomposites were determined using different techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data clarified that supporting potassium zinc hexacyanoferrates on iron ferrite nanoparticles increased their thermal stability. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that the nanocomposites were well coordinated and incorporated in the polymer matrix. The average particle sizes, of these nanoparticles, determined by SEM had a good agreement with XRD results. Based on characterization data, the prepared zinc hexacyanoferrates were proposed to have a zeolitic rhombohedral structure with cavities can host alkali metal ions and water molecules. The magnetic analysis showed a super-paramagnetic behavior. Batch technique was applied to evaluate the influences of initial pH value, contact time, and competing cations on the efficiency of cesium removal. The sorption process was fast initially, and maximum separation was attained within 2h of contact. Cesium exchange was independent from pH value and deviate from ideal exchange phenomena. In neutral solutions, Cs(+) was retained through exchange with K(+); however, in acidic solution, phase transformation was proposed. Sorption capacity of these materials attained values amounted 1965 mg g(-1). The synthesized nanocomposites exhibited different affinities toward Cs(I), Co(II), and Eu(III) elements and showed a good ability to separate them from each other. PMID:23000210

Sheha, Reda R

2012-12-15

304

Phase separation and oxygen diffusion in electrochemically oxidized La2CuO4+?: A static magnetic susceptibility study  

Science.gov (United States)

The compound La2CuO4+? is known to phase separate for 0.01La2CuO4.01-4.02 with Néel temperature TN~250 K, and a metallic oxygen-rich phase La2CuO~=4.06 with superconducting transition temperature Tc~=34 K. We report studies of the superconducting and normal-state static magnetic susceptibility ? of La2CuO4+? samples with 0La2CuO4+?. The upper limit to the miscibility gap at low T is found be ?~100 K/s and favored by slow cooling at ~0.5 K/min. A large thermal hysteresis of both the normal and superconducting state ?(T) was observed between data obtained after quenching to 5 K and then warming, and data obtained while or after slowly cooling from 300 K, for samples of La2CuO4+? (?~=0.030, 0.044) within the miscibility gap. Quenching reduces Tc by ~=5 K relative to the value (34 K) obtained after slow cooling. A similar decrease is found for La2CuO4.065 which does not phase separate, indicating the importance of oxygen-ordering effects within this single phase. A model for the excess oxygen diffusion is presented, from which the data yield a nearly T-independent activation energy for excess oxygen diffusion of (0.24+/-0.03) eV from 150 to 220 K apart from a possible anomaly near 210 K.

Chou, F. C.; Johnston, D. C.

1996-07-01

305

MAGNETIC DRUM SEPARATOR PERFORMANCE SCALPING SHREDDED TROMMEL OVERFLOW AT NOMINAL DESIGN CONDITIONS. TEST NO. 4.03, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the first test of the shredded trommel overs magnetic drum separator at the New Orleans, Louisiana, resource recovery facility. Shredded trommel overs refers to waste which reports to the oversize discharge from the trommel and is subsequently shredded. For ...

306

Design of a core-shell type immuno-magnetic separation system and multiplex PCR for rapid detection of pathogens from food samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report an immuno-magnetic separation system developed by the immobilization of pathogen-specific antibodies on the core-shell magnetic beads. The magnetic beads were grafted with glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). For immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) of target bacterial cells from others, antibodies for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells were immobilized on the magnetic beads via glutaraldehyde coupling reaction. Our IMS system successfully separated Salmonella cells when the concentrations of target (i.e., Salmonella) and interfering (i.e., E. coli) cells were at the same level. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays amplifying the rfb/rfbE region of the E. coli genome and a 647-bp fragment of the invA region of Salmonella were performed as the specific selection to accurately confirm the presence of E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. IMS and multiplex PCR methods can be used for specific and quantitative detection of pathogens from food samples. Thus, this study developed a reliable and direct system for rapid detection of Salmonella and E. coli in food samples. In addition, IMS method could be easily adapted to detect other pathogens by selecting the pertinent antibody. PMID:24048640

Ozalp, V Cengiz; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Oktem, H Avni

2013-11-01

307

Preparation of magnetically separable Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites and its visible photocatalytic activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel magnetic Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites with visible light response were successfully fabricated through a facile and economical method at low temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), respectively. The Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites were further employed in photodegrading rhodamine B (RhB). After 40 min, RhB removal rate reached to 90.1%, which was superior to the pure BiOI (50.3%). The enhanced photocatalytic performance of Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites may be attributed to the separation efficiency of the carriers. After five recycles for the photodegradation of RhB, the Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites did not exhibit any significant loss of activity, confirming the photocatalyst was essentially stable. Moreover, direct hole transfers and rad O2- are proved to be the dominant reactive species in the photodegradation of RhB over Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites.

Li, Xiangwei; Niu, Chenggang; Huang, Dawei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xuegang; Zeng, Guangming; Niu, Qiuya

2013-12-01

308

Quantum dynamics of charged and neutral magnetic solitons: Spin-charge separation in the one-dimensional Hubbard model  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate that the configuration interaction (CI) approximation recaptures essential features of the exact (Bethe-ansatz) solution to the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model. As such, it provides a valuable route for describing effects that go beyond mean-field theory for strongly correlated electron systems in higher dimensions. The CI method systematically describes fluctuation and quantum tunneling corrections to the Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA). HFA predicts that doping a half-filled Hubbard chain leads to the appearance of charged spin polarons or charged domain-wall solitons in the antiferromagnetic background. The CI method, on the other hand, describes the quantum dynamics of these charged magnetic solitons and quantum tunneling effects between various mean-field configurations. In this paper, we test the accuracy of the CI method against the exact solution of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. We find remarkable agreement between the energy of the mobile charged bosonic domain wall (as given by the CI method) and the exact energy of the doping hole (as given by the Bethe ansatz) for the entire U/t range. The CI method also leads to a clear demonstration of the spin-charge separation in one dimension. Addition of one doping hole to the half-filled antiferromagnetic chain results in the appearance of two different carriers: a charged bosonic domain wall (which carries the charge but no spin) and a neutral spin-1/2 domain wall (which carries the spin but no charge).

Berciu, Mona; John, Sajeev

2000-04-01

309

Material processing in high static magnetic field. A review of an experimental study on levitation, phase separation, convection and texturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An inhomogeneous magnetic field exerts a force on magnetic materials and can be used either to compensate gravity, control convection in a magnetic liquid or modify the microstructure of a solidified multiphased system where the phases exhibit dilferent magnetic susceptibilities. A homogeneous field may produce a preferred crystallographic alignment in systems which exhibit an anisotropy of their magnetic susceptibility near their melting point. We present an experimental study of those ef[ e...

Beaugnon, E.; Bourgault, D.; Braithwaite, D.; Rango, P.; Perrier La Bathie, R.; Sulpice, Andre?; Tournier, R.

1993-01-01

310

Phase separation and suppression of critical dynamics at quantum transitions of itinerant magnets: MnSi and (Sr$_{1-x}$Ca$_{x}$)RuO$_{3}$  

CERN Document Server

Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) have been studied extensively in correlated electron systems. Characterization of magnetism at QPTs has, however, been limited by the volume-integrated feature of neutron and magnetization measurements and by pressure uncertainties in NMR studies using powderized specimens. Overcoming these limitations, we performed muon spin relaxation ($\\mu$SR) measurements which have a unique sensitivity to volume fractions of magnetically ordered and paramagnetic regions, and studied QPTs from itinerant heli/ferro magnet to paramagnet in MnSi (single-crystal; varying pressure) and (Sr$_{1-x}$Ca$_{x}$)RuO$_{3}$ (ceramic specimens; varying $x$). Our results provide the first clear evidence that both cases are associated with spontaneous phase separation and suppression of dynamic critical behavior, revealed a slow but dynamic character of the ``partial order'' diffuse spin correlations in MnSi above the critical pressure, and, combined with other known results in heavy-fermion and cuprate sy...

Uemura, Y J; Gat-Malureanu, I M; Carlo, J P; Russo, P L; Savici, A T; Aczel, A; MacDougall, G J; Rdoriguez, J A; Luke, G M; Dunsiger, S R; McCollam, A; Arai, J; Pfleiderer, C; Böni, P; Yoshimura, K; Baggio-Saitovitch, E; Fontes, M B; Sushko, Y V; Sereni, J; Pfleiderer, Ch.

2006-01-01

311

Magnetically separable hybrid CdS-TiO2-Fe3O4 nanomaterial: Enhanced photocatalystic activity under UV and visible irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetically separable photocatalyst of TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a microwave heating method. The products exhibit enhanced photocatalystic activity which is more efficient than that of pure CdS and Degussa P25 TiO2 toward the degradation of RhB under both UV and visible irradiation. This is attributed to the charge separation and transformation from CdS to TiO2. The hysteresis loop of TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite indicates an excellent magnetic property with the saturated magnetization of 9 emu/g. We also show the fast magnetic separation behaviour of the TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite to remove and recycle the photocatalyst from the solution. These indicate TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite is an effective and convenient recyclable photocatalyst.

Bian, Xiaofang; Hong, Kunquan; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

2013-09-01

312

Separation of species of a binary fluid mixture confined between two concentric rotating circular cylinders in presence of a strong radial magnetic field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a radial magnetic field on separation of a binary mixture of incompressible viscous thermally and electrically conducting fluids confined between two concentric rotating circular cylinders with different angular velocity is examined. The equations governing the motion, temperature and concentration in cylindrical polar coordinate are solved analytically. The solution obtained in closed form for concentration distribution is plotted against the radial distances from the surface of the inner circular cylinder for various values of non-dimensional parameters. It is found that the non-dimensional parameters viz. the Hartmann number, thermal diffusion number, baro diffusion number, rotational Reynolds number, the product of Prandtl number and Eckert number, magnetic Prandtl number and the ratio of the angular velocities of inner and outer cylinders affects the species separation of rarer and lighter component significantly. The problem discussed here derives its application in the basic fluid dynamics separation processes to separate the rarer component of the different isotopes of heavier molecules where electromagnetic method of separation does not work. (orig.)

Sharma, B.R. [Dibrugarh University, Department of Mathematics, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Singh, R.N. [Marwari Hindi High School, Dibrugarh (India)

2010-08-15

313

Low-frequency resistance fluctuations in a single nanowire (diameter ? 45 nm) of a complex oxide and its relation to magnetic transitions and phase separation  

Science.gov (United States)

We report measurement of low frequency resistance noise spectroscopy in a single strand of a nanowire (NW) (diameter ? 45 nm) of a complex oxide manganite La0.5Sr0.5MnO3, that showed ferromagnetic transition (TC ? 315 K), an antiferromagnetic transition (TN ? 210 K) and a phase-separated region below TN. We demonstrated that noise spectroscopy in a single NW can cleanly detect the magnetic transitions including the phase-coexistence that may not be possible to do by magnetic measurements. The normalized noise in the single NW is an order less than that reported in ultralow-noise Si Junction Field Effect Transistor.

Datta, Subarna; Samanta, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Barnali; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

2014-08-01

314

Effective separation of Am(iii) and Eu(iii) from HNO3 solutions using CyMe4-BTPhen-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that CyMe4-BTPhen-functionalized silica-coated maghemite (?-Fe2O3) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are capable of quantitative separation of Am(iii) from Eu(iii) from HNO3 solutions. These MNPs also show a small but significant selectivity for Am(iii) over Cm(iii) with a separation factor of around 2 in 4 M HNO3. The water molecule in the cavity of the BTPhen may also play an important part in the selectivity. PMID:25331990

Afsar, Ashfaq; Harwood, Laurence M; Hudson, Michael J; Distler, Petr; John, Jan

2014-11-01

315

Isolation of prostate cancer cell subpopulations of functional interest by use of an on-chip magnetic bead-based cell separator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a modular magnetic bead-based cell separation device developed for the sequential sorting of a heterogeneous prostate cancer (CaP) cell population. The chief aim is cell sorting carried out on the basis of surface marker expression, serially selecting cellular subpopulations for capture by the use of antibody-coated magnetic beads. The markers of interest, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and CD10 were selected for their relevance to ongoing CaP development research. The separation device was fabricated out of plastic, by the use of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) injection molding, nickel–iron electroplating and thermoplastic fusion bonding. Effective depletion and enrichment of cell subsets based on multiple surface markers was achieved. Various flow rates and incubation times were tested for optimizing the sorting procedure

316

Anomalous phase separation in La0.225Pr0.4Ca0.375MnO3: consequence of temperature and magnetic-field cycles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolutions of electronic phase separation in manganites La0.225Pr0.4Ca0.375MnO3 are studied by the specific temperature and magnetic-field cycling experiments. It is found that the electronic phase separation state at low temperature can be tuned substantially by temperature and/or magnetic-field cycles. Surprisingly, the initial more ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) nuclei can impede the growth of these nuclei during the cooling process. It implies that there must coexist more than two phases which take part in the complex first-order phase transitions, and the charge-disordered insulating phase is possible, one of the parent phases transiting into the FMM phase at low temperature. In addition, the accommodation strain is suggested to control the nucleation and growth of FMM domains. (orig.)

317

Application of a Peptide-Mediated Magnetic Separation-Phage Assay for Detection of Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to Bovine Bulk Tank Milk and Feces Samples?†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Naturally contaminated bovine bulk tank milk (n = 44) and feces (n = 39) were tested for the presence of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a novel peptide-mediated magnetic separation-phage (PMS-phage) assay. Counts of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells ranging from 1 to 110 PFU/50 ml of milk and 6 to 41,111 PFU/g of feces were indicated by the PMS-phage assay.

Foddai, Antonio; Strain, Samuel; Whitlock, Robert H.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Grant, Irene R.

2011-01-01

318

Electric field within Io s ionosphere caused by charge separation and its role in background magnetic field depression and particle acceleration  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of Jovian magnetic field near Io by the Galileo spacecraft discover its large depression at the Io's wake. The field decrease is of nearly 40% of the Jovian background field. Recent Galileo's flights near Io's poles show that Io has not internal magnetic field. It means that the field depression is caused by current generated by Io's interaction with its torus. However, modeling of the Io-plasma interaction performed in [1] shows that plasma effects can account for only a part of the observed depression. In this report weconsider the simple case when a 2D slab of weak ionized plasma, modeling the Io's ionosphere, moves across the Jovian magnetic field. We show that there is a possibility for the total Io ionosphere current to flow in direction required by the magnetic observations and to provide the observed magnetic perturbation. The former is due to the electric field created within the ionosphere by the charge separation. We show also that the electric field can accelerate charges moving outwards the Io's ionosphere along the planetary magnetic field. [1] Kivelson, M.C., K.K. Khurana, R.J. Walker et al., Science 274, 396, 1996

Shaposhnikov, V.; Zaitsev, V.; Rucker, H.; Litvinenko, G.

319

Improved accuracy of U-Pb zircon dating by selection of more concordant fractions using a high gradient magnetic separation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A loop of soft iron wire or a paper clip or a ferromagnetic grid mounted between the poles of an electromagnet picks up and allows further magnetic separation of zircons previously found to be non-magnetic on a Frantz Isodynamic Separator. Tests on previously analysed samples indicate that most such zircons that are fairly discordant (say approximately 10%) can be picked up and isolated from associated grains that are more concordant. Tests on new samples indicate that even when most grains can be picked up the last few percent of the sample contain less uranium, and are more concordant than the bulk sample. The degree of discordance is the dominant factor affecting the uncertainty of U-Pb zircon ages both because of the error amplification in projections, and because the assumption of a simple two-stage system may not be valid. Only by eliminating or reducing discordance can errors approaching the uncertainty in a single analysis, say +-2m.y. for 2700m.y. rocks, be achieved. Rutile normally concentrated with zircon as non-magnetic has been successfully removed from a small amount of low uranium zircon, using the high intensity separation technique. (author)

320

Improved accuracy of U-Pb zircon dating by selection of more concordant fractions using a high gradient magnetic separation technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A loop of soft iron wire or a paper clip or a ferromagnetic grid mounted between the poles of an electromagnet picks up and allows further magnetic separation of zircons previously found to be non-magnetic on a Frantz Isodynamic Separator. Tests on previously analysed samples indicate that most such zircons that are fairly discordant (say approximately 10%) can be picked up and isolated from associated grains that are more concordant. Tests on new samples indicate that even when most grains can be picked up the last few percent of the sample contain less uranium, and are more concordant than the bulk sample. The degree of discordance is the dominant factor affecting the uncertainty of U-Pb zircon ages both because of the error amplification in projections, and because the assumption of a simple two-stage system may not be valid. Only by eliminating or reducing discordance can errors approaching the uncertainty in a single analysis, say +- 2 m.y. for 2700 m.y. rocks, be achieved. Rutile normally concentrated with zircon as non-magnetic has been successfully removed from a small amount of low uranium zircon, using the high intensity separation technique. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

An integrated passive micromixer-magnetic separation-capillary electrophoresis microdevice for rapid and multiplex pathogen detection at the single-cell level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we report an integrated microdevice consisting of an efficient passive mixer, a magnetic separation chamber, and a capillary electrophoretic microchannel in which DNA barcode assay, target pathogen separation, and barcode DNA capillary electrophoretic analysis were performed sequentially within 30 min for multiplex pathogen detection at the single-cell level. The intestine-shaped serpentine 3D micromixer provides a high mixing rate to generate magnetic particle-pathogenic bacteria-DNA barcode labelled AuNP complexes quantitatively. After magnetic separation and purification of those complexes, the barcode DNA strands were released and analyzed by the microfluidic capillary electrophoresis within 5 min. The size of the barcode DNA strand was controlled depending on the target bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium), and the different elution time of the barcode DNA peak in the electropherogram allows us to recognize the target pathogen with ease in the monoplex as well as in the multiplex analysis. In addition, the quantity of the DNA barcode strand (?10(4)) per AuNP is enough to be observed in the laser-induced confocal fluorescence detector, thereby making single-cell analysis possible. This novel integrated microdevice enables us to perform rapid, sensitive, and multiplex pathogen detection with sample-in-answer-out capability to be applied for biosafety testing, environmental screening, and clinical trials. PMID:21870015

Jung, Jae Hwan; Kim, Gha-Young; Seo, Tae Seok

2011-10-21

322

Simple synthesis of functionalized superparamagnetic magnetite/silica core/shell nanoparticles and their application as magnetically separable high-performance biocatalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report on the facile large-scale synthesis of magnetite@silica core-shell nanoparticles by a simple addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) into reverse micelles during the formation of uniformly-sized magnetite nanoparticles. The size of magnetic core was determined by the ratio of solvent and surfactant in reverse micelle solution while the thickness of silica shell could be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of added TEOS. Amino group functional groups were grafted to the magnetic nanoparticles, and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CEC) were fabricated on the surface of magnetite@silica nanoparticles. The resulting hybrid materials of magnetite and CEC were magnetically separable, highly active, and stable enough to show no decrease of enzyme activity under rigorous shaking for more than 15 days.

Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Youjin; Youn, Jongkyu; Na, Hyon Bin; Yu, Taekyung; Kim, Hwan O.; Lee, Sang-mok; Koo, Yoon-mo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Chang, Ho Nam; Hwang, Misun; Park, Je-Geun; Kim, Jungbae; Hyeon, Taeghwan

2008-01-01

323

Synthesis of a thin-layer MnO? nanosheet-coated Fe?O? nanocomposite as a magnetically separable photocatalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

A facile hydrothermal method combined with a mild ultrasonic means has been developed for the fabrication of a magnetically recyclable thin-layer MnO2 nanosheet-coated Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The photocatalytic studies suggest that the MnO2/Fe3O4 nanocomposite shows excellent photocatalytic efficiency and stability simultaneously for the degradation of methylene blue under UV-vis light irradiation. Moreover, its good acid resistance and stable recyclability are very important for its future practical application as a photocatalyst. Magnetic measurements verify that the MnO2/Fe3O4 nanocomposite possesses a ferromagnetic nature, which can be effectively separated for reuse by simply applying an external magnetic field after the photocatalytic reaction. This novel composite material may have potential applications in water treatment, degradation of dye pollutants, and environmental cleaning. PMID:24856355

Zhang, Lishu; Lian, Jianshe; Wu, Longyun; Duan, Zhenrong; Jiang, Jun; Zhao, Lijun

2014-06-17

324

Electronic phase separation and magnetic order in the cobalt doped RFe2-xCoxAs2 (R=Sr, Eu) iron pnictide superconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the magnetic and superconducting properties of RFe2-xCoxAs2 with R=Sr, Eu and 0?x?0.4 by means of muon spin relaxation (?+SR) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Under ambient pressure the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature, TN of SrFe2-xCoxAs2 decreases with increasing Co-doping. However, TN remains finite even as superconductivity appears as a function of doping. This shows that electronic phase separation plays a role in this system. High pressure experiments show a reduction the magnetic ordering temperature by pressure. On the contrary, EuFe2-xCoxAs2 does not show superconductivity under ambient pressure but a peculiar interplay of the rare earth and iron magnetic order as a function of the Co-doping level.

325

A novel method for isolating specific endocytic vesicles using very fine ferrite particles coated with biological ligands and the high-gradient magnetic separation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel method for isolating specific endocytic vesicles using magnetic ligands and high-gradient magnetic separation. Ligands were prepared by coating extremely fine ferrite particles (10-20 nm) with bovine serum albumin and then conjugating asialoglycopeptides. These ligands were introduced into rat liver by perfusion at 16 or 37 degrees C, or by injection through the tail vein. The ligand particles were observed as electron-dense small grains in membrane-bound vesicles in Kupffer as well as parenchymal cells by electron microscopy. Livers were taken out, homogenized and lightly centrifuged. The supernatant was pumped into a separator glass tube filled with very fine ferritic stainless steel fibers and placed in a magnetic field of 0.9-2 T. Vesicles containing ferrite particles were collected with a high efficiency (ca. 70% of endocytosed magnetic ligands). About 70% of uptake appeared to be mediated by the asialoglycoprotein receptors. The captured vesicles were practically free from marker enzymes for plasma membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. Lysosomal enzyme activity of the vesicles increased with the time of perfusion at 37 degrees C but not at 16 degrees C. Protein composition of the captured vesicles was analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The composition changed characteristically with time on perfusion at 16 and 37 degrees C. The present method provides a powerful tool to collect prelysosomal endocytic vesicles containing specific ligands and lysosomes fused with these specific endocytic vesicles. PMID:3571183

Sato, S B; Sako, Y; Yamashina, S; Ohnishi, S

1986-12-01

326

Study on the Effect of Melt Convection on Phase Separation Structures in Undercooled CuCo Alloys Using an Electromagnetic Levitator Superimposed with a Static Magnetic Field  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the effect of melt convection on phase separation structures in undercooled Cu80Co20 alloys by using an electromagnetic levitator, where a static magnetic field was applied to control convection in the molten alloys. It was found that, when the static magnetic field was relatively small, dispersed structures with relatively fine Co-rich spheres distributed in the matrix of the Cu-rich phase were observed. However, a few large, coalesced Co-rich phases appeared in the Cu-rich matrix when the magnetic field exceeded a certain value, i.e., approximately 1.5 T in this study. The mean diameter of the droplet-shaped Co-rich phases distributed in the matrix of the Cu-rich phase increased gradually with the magnetic field and increased rapidly at approximately 1.5 T. Moreover, it was speculated from the result of periodic laser heating that the marked change in the phase separation structures at approximately 1.5 T might be due to a convective transition from turbulent flow to laminar flow in the molten sample, where the time variation of temperature in the lower part of the electromagnetically levitated molten sample was measured when the upper part of the sample was periodically heated.

Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Takamitsu; Kitahara, Tsubasa; Kurosawa, Ryo; Kubo, Masaki; Tsukada, Takao; Uchikoshi, Masahito; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

2014-08-01

327

Preparations and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in water on magnetically separable Bi12TiO20 supported on nickel ferrite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A magnetically separable photocatalyst Bi12TiO20/SiO2/NiFe2O4 (BSN with a typical ferromagnetic hysteresis was prepared by a simple process: the magnetic 200 wt% SiO2/NiFe2O4 (SN dispersion prepared by a liquid catalytic phase transformation method and the visible-light-active photocatalyst Bi12TiO20 prepared by a simple coprecipitation processing were mixed, sonificated, dried, and calcined at 550 °C. The prepared photocatalyst showed high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water under UV irradiation and visible-light irradiation (?>400 nm, and it was easy to be separated from a slurry-type photoreactor under the application of an external magnetic field, being one of promising photocatalysts for wastewater treatment. Transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffractometer (XRD were used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst, indicating that the magnetic SN particles adhered to the surface of the Bi12TiO20 congeries. SiO2 layer round the surface of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles prevented effectively the injection of charges from TiO2 particles to NiFe2O4, which gave rise to the increase in photocatalytic activity.

Shihong Xu, Wenfeng Shangguan, Jian Yuan, Jianwei Shi and Mingxia Chen

2007-01-01

328

Asymptotic behaviour of the equilibrium nuclear separation for the H+2 molecule in a strong magnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the hydrogen molecular ion H+2 in the fixed nuclear approximation, in the presence of a strong homogeneous magnetic field. We determine the leading asymptotic behaviour for the equilibrium distance between the nuclei of this molecule in the limit when the strength of the magnetic field goes to infinity

329

Studies of sheath characteristics in a double plasma device with a negatively biased separating grid and a magnetic filter field  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A double plasma device has two regions: Source region and target region. These two regions are divided by a magnetic filter field. A grid is placed coplanar to the magnetic filter. To study the sheath structure in the target region, a metallic plate is placed at the center, which can be biased with respect to the chamber (ground) potential. Plasma is created in the source region by filament discharge technique. Plasma diffusing from the source region to the target region is subjected to the magnetic filter field and also an electric field applied on the grid. Plasma thus obtained in the target region forms a sheath on the biased plate. The influence of both the magnetic filter field and the electric field, applied between the grid and the chamber wall, on the sheath structure formed on the biased plate is studied. It is found that the magnetic filter field and the electric field change the sheath structure in different ways.

Das, B. K.; Chakraborty, M. [Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Tepesia, Sonapur, Kamrup, Assam-782402 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat-382428 (India)

2012-09-15

330

Magnetically separable Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-Ag microspheres with well-designed nanostructure and enhanced photocatalytic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: An effective route has been developed to synthesize magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-Ag microspheres with well-defined core–shell nanostructure and enhanced photocatalytic activity. -- Highlights: • Controllable synthesis of core–shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-Ag magnetic nanocomposite. • The unique nanostructure of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-Ag can improve the total photocatalytic performance. • An easy magnetically separable and recoverable process. -- Abstract: Major efforts in modern material chemistry are devoted to the design and fabrication of nanostructured systems with tunable physical–chemical properties for advanced catalytic applications. Here, a novel Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-Ag nanocomposite has been synthesized and characterized by a series of techniques including SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS as well as magnetization measurement and subsequently tested for the photocatalytic activities. The well-designed nanocomposite exhibits significantly superior activity to that of the commercial Degussa P25 thanks to the suppression of electron–hole pairs from recombination by Ag nanoparticles, and can be easily recycled by applying an external magnetic field while maintaining the catalytic activity without significant decrease even after running 10 times. The unique nanostructure makes Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2-Ag a highly efficient, recoverable, stable, and cost-effective photocatalytic system offering broad opportunities in the field of catalyst synthesis and application

331

A Novel Method for Quantitative Analysis of Anti-MUC1 Expressing Ovarian Cancer Cell Surface Based on Magnetic Cell Separation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scope of this study is to describe a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive and easily available in vitro method based on magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic cell separation principle to quantitative analysis the cell surface antigen expression of ovarian cancer cells surface (MUC1. In this work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs attached to monoclonal antibody (mAb C595 that binds to ovarian cancer cells. Conjugation of mAb C595 to commercial SPIONs was achieved using a heterobifunctional linker sulfo-SMCC. The capability of the method was compared with flow cytometry as a gold standard and showed that both methods provide approximately the same results. This demonstrates the high potential of antigen-specific (anti-MUC1 expressing ovarian cancer magnetic cell separation of C595 mAb coated with SPIONs-C595 for quantitative cell surface antigen detection and analysis. Overall, SPIONs-C595 nano-probe is potentially both, a selective ovarian molecular imaging tool as well as a therapeutic agent.

Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

2012-01-01

332

A novel magnetically separable TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber with high photocatalytic activity under UV-vis light  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technique, which can be reclaimed with a magnet, and the decolorizing efficiency of MB solution reached 95.87%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers with diameter of 110 {+-} 28 nm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel method and electrospinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Co{sup 2+} or/and Fe{sup 3+} ions may occupy some of the lattice sites of TiO{sub 2} to form an iron-titanium solid solution and narrow the band gap, which broadens the response region of visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resultant nanofibers not only have high decomposition efficiency with methylene blue (MB) under the UV irradiation, which is close to that of Degussa P25, but also can be separated with a magnet and avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water. -- Abstract: A novel magnetically separable heterogeneous photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technology, followed by heat treatment at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The phase structure, morphology and magnetic property of the composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The photocatalytic studies of TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibers suggested that the presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} not only enhanced the absorbance of UV light, but also broadened the response region to visible light. The decolorizing efficiency of methylene blue (MB) solution reaches 95.87% over TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers under 300 W Hg lamp after 5 h, which is close to that of Degussa P25. Furthermore, these fibers can be collected with a magnet for reuse and effectively avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water.

Li, Cong-Ju, E-mail: congjuli@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Clothing Materials R and D and Assessment, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Jiao-Na; Wang, Bin [Beijing Key Laboratory of Clothing Materials R and D and Assessment, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Gong, Jian Ru, E-mail: gongjr@nanoctr.cn [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, China, 11 Zhongguancun Beiyitiao, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Zhang [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fujian 350002 (China)

2012-02-15

333

A novel magnetically separable TiO2/CoFe2O4 nanofiber with high photocatalytic activity under UV–vis light  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst TiO2/CoFe2O4 nanofiber was prepared by sol–gel method and electrospinning technique, which can be reclaimed with a magnet, and the decolorizing efficiency of MB solution reached 95.87%. Highlights: ? The composite TiO2/CoFe2O4 nanofibers with diameter of 110 ± 28 nm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol–gel method and electrospinning technique. ? The presence of Co2+ or/and Fe3+ ions may occupy some of the lattice sites of TiO2 to form an iron–titanium solid solution and narrow the band gap, which broadens the response region of visible light. ? The resultant nanofibers not only have high decomposition efficiency with methylene blue (MB) under the UV irradiation, which is close to that of Degussa P25, but also can be separated with a magnet and avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water. -- Abstract: A novel magnetically separable heterogeneous photocatalyst TiO2/CoFe2O4 nanofiber was prepared by sol–gel method and electrospinning technology, followed by heat treatment at 550 °C for 2 h. The phase structure, morphology and magnetic property of the composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The photocatalytic studies of TiO2/CoFe2O4 fibers suggested that the presence of CoFe2O4 not only enhanced the absorbance of UV light, but also broadened the response region to visible light. The decolorizing efficiency of methylene blue (MB) solution reaches 95.87% over TiO2/CoFe2O4 nanofibers under 300 W Hg lamp after 5 h, which is close to that of Degussa P25. Furthermore, these fibers can be collected with a magnet for reuse and effectively avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water.

334

Magnetically separable core-shell structural ?-Fe2O3@Cu/Al-MCM-41 nanocomposite and its performance in heterogeneous Fenton catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To target the low catalytic activity and the inconvenient separation of copper loading nanocatalysts in heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, a core-shell structural magnetically separable catalyst, with ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as the core layer and the copper and aluminum containing MCM-41 as the shell layer, has been fabricated. The role of aluminum has been discussed by comparing the copper containing mesoporous silica with various Cu contents. Their physiochemical properties have been characterized by XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, TEM, nitrogen physisorption and magnetite susceptibility measurements. Double content Cu incorporation results in an improved catalytic activity for phenol degradation at the given condition (40°C, initial pH=4), but leads to a declined BET surface area and less ordered mesophase structure. Aluminum incorporation helps to retain the high BET surface area (785.2m(2)/g) and the regular hexagonal mesoporous structure of MCM-41, which make the catalyst possess a lower copper content and even a higher catalytic activity than that with the double copper content in the absence of aluminum. The catalysts can be facilely separated by an external magnetic field for recycle usage. PMID:24295771

Ling, Yuhan; Long, Mingce; Hu, Peidong; Chen, Ya; Huang, Juwei

2014-01-15

335

Reduction of magnetic interaction in CoB/Pd multilayer perpendicular media using a phase-separated Pd-SiO underlayer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To realize CoB15/Pd multilayer perpendicular media with weak intergranular exchange coupling, we utilize PdSi18 (at. %) alloy, which contains elements that have large difference of affinity for oxygen, as the underlayer. It is clarified that introducing oxygen into Ar atmosphere during deposition of the underlayer substantially reduces the intergranular exchange coupling of the multilayer. Microstructural analysis reveals that the introduction of oxygen has separated the PdSi18 underlayer into two phases and enhances the formation of grain boundaries of the multilayer. It is suggested that the two-phase-separated Pd-SiO underlayer becomes a template for the growth of the multilayer and promotes the formation of grain boundaries in the multilayer, which reduces the exchange coupling through isolation of grains of the multilayer. In addition, independent of the oxygen pressure, coercivity and anisotropy energy maintain values of around 3.5 kOe and 2.3x106 erg/cm3, respectively. It is concluded that the two-phase-separated Pd-SiO underlayer, fabricated by introducing oxygen during sputtering of PdSi18 underlayer, is effective for reducing the magnetic exchange coupling without degrading the magnetic properties

336

Popcorn-shaped magnetic core-plasmonic shell multifunctional nanoparticles for the targeted magnetic separation and enrichment, label-free SERS imaging, and photothermal destruction of multidrug-resistant bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few years, one of the most important and complex problems facing our society is treating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB), by using current market-existing antibiotics. Driven by this need, we report for the first time the development of the multifunctional popcorn-shaped iron magnetic core-gold plasmonic shell nanotechnology-driven approach for targeted magnetic separation and enrichment, label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection, and the selective photothermal destruction of MDR Salmonella DT104. Due to the presence of the "lightning-rod effect", the core-shell popcorn-shaped gold-nanoparticle tips provided a huge field of SERS enhancement. The experimental data show that the M3038 antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can be used for targeted separation and SERS imaging of MDR Salmonella DT104. A targeted photothermal-lysis experiment, by using 670 nm light at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 10 min, results in selective and irreparable cellular-damage to MDR Salmonella. We discuss the possible mechanism and operating principle for the targeted separation, label-free SERS imaging, and photothermal destruction of MDRB by using the popcorn-shaped magnetic/plasmonic nanotechnology. PMID:23296491

Fan, Zhen; Senapati, Dulal; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Singh, Anant Kumar; Hamme, Ashton; Yust, Brian; Sardar, Dhiraj; Ray, Paresh Chandra

2013-02-18

337

A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns therein is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients, i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field, and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares

338

A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear  

Science.gov (United States)

A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

1990-01-01

339

Magnetic ordering in electronically phase-separated La2-xSrxCuO4+y: Neutron diffraction experiments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present results of magnetic neutron diffraction experiments on the codoped superoxygenated La2-xSrxCuO4+y (LSCO+O) system with x=0.09. We find that the magnetic phase is long-range ordered incommensurate antiferromagnetic with a Neacuteel temperature T-N coinciding with the superconducting ordering temperature T-c=40 K. The incommensurability value is consistent with a hole doping of n(h)approximate to 1>8 but in contrast to nonsuperoxygenated La2-xSrxCuO4 with hole doping close to n(h)approximate to 18 the magnetic-order parameter is not field dependent. We attribute this to the magnetic order being fully developed in LSCO+O as in the spin and charge ordered "stripe" compounds La1.48Nd0.40Sr0.12CuO4 and La7/8Ba1/8CuO4.

Udby, Linda; Andersen, Niels Hessel

2009-01-01

340

Enantiomeric separation by microchip electrophoresis using bovine serum albumin conjugated magnetic core-shell Fe3 O4 @Au nanocomposites as stationary phase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a novel enantioselective MCE was developed employing BSA-conjugated Fe3 O4 @Au nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 @Au NPs) as stationary phase. Fe3 O4 @Au NPs with high magnetic responsively, excellent solubility, and high dispersibility in water were prepared through a sonochemical synthesis strategy. BSA was then immobilized onto the Fe3 O4 @Au NPs surfaces through the well-developed interaction between Au NPs and amine groups of BSA to form Fe3 O4 @Au NPs-BSA conjugates, which were then locally packed into PDMS microchannels with the help of magnets. The resultant Fe3 O4 @Au NPs-BSA conjugates not only have the magnetism of Fe3 O4 NPs that make them easily manipulated by an external magnetic field, but also have the larger surface and excellent biocompatibility of Au shell, which can incorporate much more biomolecules and well maintain their biological activity. In addition, the successful BSA decorations endowed Fe3 O4 @Au NPs-BSA conjugates with pH-tunable water solubility related to the pI of BSA (pI 4.7) and led to enhanced stability against high ionic strength. Compared with the native PDMS microchannel, the modified surfaces exhibited more stable and suppressed electroosmotic mobility, and less nonspecific adsorption toward analytes. Successful separation of chiral amino acids (tryptophan and threonine) and ofloxacin enantiomers demonstrate that the constructed MCE columns own ideal enantioselectivity. The results are expected to open up a new possibility for high-throughput screening of enantiomers with protein targets as well as a new application of magnetic NPs. PMID:25042461

Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ni; Wang, Li; Qiu, Jian-Ding

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Thermodynamic calculations of phase equilibria of Co-Cr-Pt ternary system and magnetically induced phase separation in the FCC and HCP phases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculations of phase equilibria of the Co-Cr-Pt ternary system have been carried out based on the thermodynamic assessments of Co-Cr, Co-Pt and Cr-Pt binary systems by the calculation of phase diagram technique. The Gibbs energies of the liquid, FCC, BCC and HCP solution phases were approximated by a sub-regular solution model, while those of ? and Cr3Pt phases were approximated by a compound energy model. Almost all the experimental information on each sub-system has been well described by the present set of thermodynamic parameters. A critical calculation of the magnetically induced miscibility gap between the ferromagnetic HCP and the paramagnetic HCP phase has been conducted, where the two-phase separation has been found at the Curie temperature. The Cr content in the ferromagnetic HCP phase increases and the width of the two-phase separation becomes narrower with increasing Pt content. The present calculations would be useful for the design and development of the perpendicular magnetic recording media

342

Supported hydrophobic ionic liquid on magnetic nanoparticles as a new sorbent for separation and preconcentration of lead and cadmium in milk and water samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have prepared a highly selective and efficient sorbent for the simultaneous separation and preconcentration of lead and cadmium ions from milk and water samples. An ionic liquid was deposited on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (IL-MNPs) and used for solid phase extraction of these ions. The IL-MNPs carrying the target metals were then separated from the sample solution by applying an external magnetic field. Lead and cadmium were almost quantitatively retained by the IL-MNPs, and then eluted with nitric acid. The effect of different variables on solid phase extraction was investigated. The calibration curve is linear in the range from 0.3 to 20 ng mL-1 of Cd(II), and from 5 to 330 ng mL-1 of Pb(II) in the initial solution. Under optimum conditions, the detection limits are 1.61 and 0.122 ?g L-1 for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively. Relative standard deviations (n=10) were 2.87 % and 1.45 % for 0.05 ?g mL-1 and 0.2 ?g mL-1 of Cd (II) and Pb (II) respectively. The preconcentration factor is 200 for both of ions. (author)

343

Recovery of metals from Cuban nickel tailings by leaching with organic acids followed by precipitation and magnetic separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The percolation leaching of the Cuban nickel tailings containing 0.34% Ni, 0.08% Co and 44.2% Fe was investigated by using tartaric and oxalic acids at different concentrations. About 70% Ni, 80% Co and 30% Fe were extracted after 5 days of leaching with the mixture of 0.15 mol/L tartaric acid and 0.05 mol/L oxalic acid at ambient temperature and normal pressure. Nickel and cobalt extraction of 80% as well as iron extraction of 50% were achieved from the pregnant solution by means of precipitation at 80 deg. C for 2 h. The precipitation at ambient temperature led to a similar result after 16 days. Cobalt, nickel and iron oxalates were found in the precipitate by using the X-ray diffraction method. The regeneration of acids during the precipitation step made possible the reuse of the raffinate at the leaching step. Heating of the precipitate at 200 deg. C increased the metal concentration to 1.22% Ni and 0.33% Co, which can be fed in the existing nickel plant in Moa, Cuba. The magnetic processing of the leaching residues led to a non-magnetic product containing less than 20% Fe and a magnetic product containing more than 50% Fe

344

Recovery of metals from Cuban nickel tailings by leaching with organic acids followed by precipitation and magnetic separation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The percolation leaching of the Cuban nickel tailings containing 0.34% Ni, 0.08% Co and 44.2% Fe was investigated by using tartaric and oxalic acids at different concentrations. About 70% Ni, 80% Co and 30% Fe were extracted after 5 days of leaching with the mixture of 0.15 mol/L tartaric acid and 0.05 mol/L oxalic acid at ambient temperature and normal pressure. Nickel and cobalt extraction of 80% as well as iron extraction of 50% were achieved from the pregnant solution by means of precipitation at 80 deg. C for 2 h. The precipitation at ambient temperature led to a similar result after 16 days. Cobalt, nickel and iron oxalates were found in the precipitate by using the X-ray diffraction method. The regeneration of acids during the precipitation step made possible the reuse of the raffinate at the leaching step. Heating of the precipitate at 200 deg. C increased the metal concentration to 1.22% Ni and 0.33% Co, which can be fed in the existing nickel plant in Moa, Cuba. The magnetic processing of the leaching residues led to a non-magnetic product containing less than 20% Fe and a magnetic product containing more than 50% Fe.

Hernandez, C.M.F. [High Institute of Mining and Metallurgy ' Dr. Antonio Nunez Jimenez' , Moa (Cuba); Banza, A.N. [Institute of Mineral Processing and Waste Disposal, Clausthal University of Technology, Walther-Nernst-Strasse 9, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)]. E-mail: anbanza@yahoo.com; Gock, E. [Institute of Mineral Processing and Waste Disposal, Clausthal University of Technology, Walther-Nernst-Strasse 9, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

2007-01-02

345

Magnets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

346

Efficient separation and sensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes using an impedance immunosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles, a microfluidic chip, and an interdigitated microelectrode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a major foodborne pathogen that causes food poisoning, and sometimes death, among immunosuppressed people and abortion among pregnant women. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of 30 nm were functionalized with anti-L. monocytogenes antibodies via biotin-streptavidin bonds to become immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMNPs) to capture L. monocytogenes in a sample during a 2-h immunoreaction. A magnetic separator was used to collect and hold the IMNPs-L. monocytogenes complex while the supernatants were removed. After the washing step, the nanoparticle-L. monocytogenes complex was separated from the sample and injected into a microfluidic chip. The impedance change caused by L. monocytogenes was measured by an impedance analyzer through the interdigitated microelectrode in the microfluidic chip. For L. monocytogenes in phosphate-buffered saline solution, up to 75% of the cells in the sample could be separated, and as few as three to five cells in the microfluidic chip could be detected, which is equivalent to 10(3) CFU/ml of cells in the original sample. The detection of L. monocytogenes was not interfered with by other major foodborne bacteria, including E. coli O157:H7, E. coli K-12, L. innocua, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.86) was found between the impedance change and the number of L. monocytogenes in a range of 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the impedance change was mainly due to the decrease in medium resistance when the IMNPs-L. monocytogenes complexes existed in mannitol solution. Finally, the immunosensor was evaluated with food sample tests; the results showed that, without preenrichment and labeling, 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/ml L. monocytogenes in lettuce, milk, and ground beef samples could be detected in 3 h. PMID:23127703

Kanayeva, Damira A; Wang, Ronghui; Rhoads, Douglas; Erf, Gisela F; Slavik, Michael F; Tung, Steve; Li, Yanbin

2012-11-01

347

Solid-solid grinding/templating route to magnetically separable nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for the removal of Cu(2+) ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon materials (NOMC) with 2D hexagonal symmetry structure were synthesized via a facile solid-solid grinding/templating route, in which the ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-cyanoethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and SBA-15 were employed as the precursor and hard template, respectively. The as-synthesized NOMC features with a uniform mesoporous size (3.5nm), ropes-like morphology (0.4-1?m in length) and high surface area (803m(2)/g). The quantitative analysis revealed the nitrogen content on the surface of NOMC is 5.5at%. Magnetic iron nanoparticles were successfully embedded into the carbon matrix by introducing iron chloride to the mixture of SBA-15 and ILs during the synthesis process. The NOMC-Fe composite possessed superior adsorption capacity of Cu(2+) ions (23.6mg/g). Kinetic and isothermal analysis demonstrated the strong interactions between Cu(2+) ion and the adsorbent. Furthermore, the composite was magnetically separable from solution under an external magnetic field and thus displayed a superior reusability in the recycling test. PMID:25072134

Chen, Aibing; Yu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yue; Xing, Tingting; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yexin; Zhang, Jian

2014-08-30

348

Separation and characterization of modified pregabalins in terms of cyclodextrin complexation, using capillary electrophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The (S)-(+)-isomer of 3-isobutyl-GABA (pregabalin), the blockbuster drug in the treatment of neuropathic pain has been separated from its R isomer by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using uncoated fused-silica capillary. Derivatization of the single isomer and the racemate with tosyl- and dansyl-chloride was carried out to introduce strong UV chromophores of different size. CE-pH titrations were performed to determine the dissociation constants for both derivatives. 30 cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives as chiral agents were used at four different pH values to study the enantioseparation of the differently protonated guest molecules. The separation was optimized as a function of CD concentration, buffer type and concentration, pH and applied voltage. For the tosylated derivate the best resolution (R(s)=2.76) was found with 6-monodeoxy-6-mono-(3-hydroxy)-propylamino-beta-cyclodextrin hydrochloride (PA-beta-CD) at pH 6.8, while with the same selector at pH 7.2 enantioseparation with an R(s) value of 4.32 could be achieved for the dansylated pregabalin. At pH 2.5 for the dansylated derivative trimethylated alpha- and beta-CD systems resulted the most significant separation (R(s)=7.38 and R(s)=7.74, respectively). Experiments with dual CD systems were carried out as well. The stoichiometry of the complexes was determined using the Job plot method and resulted in a 1:1 complex in both cases. The structures of the inclusion complexes were elucidated using 2D ROESY NMR experiments. PMID:19914021

Béni, Szabolcs; Sohajda, Tamás; Neumajer, Gábor; Iványi, Róbert; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla

2010-03-11

349

Selective adsorption and separation of chromium (VI) on the magnetic iron-nickel oxide from waste nickel liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The selective adsorption of Cr (VI) from the wastewater of Cr (VI)-Ni (II) by magnetically iron-nickel oxide was investigated in this study. Synthetic iron-nickel oxide magnetic particles in the co-sedimentation method were used as adsorbent to remove hexavalent chromium ions. The characteristic of adsorption was evaluated by Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) equations in the simulation wastewater of Cr (VI)-Ni (II) bi-system. The energy spectra and FT-IR analysis were used to test adsorbent before and after adsorption. The obtained results suggest that the uptake of chromium (VI) effect is obvious from phosphate anions and that from others is unobvious. The maximum adsorption capacity of hexavalent chromium is about 30 mg/g at pH 5.00+/-0.02, and it was reduced by increasing the total dissolved substance (TDS) of system. Adsorption energies E are about 10.310-21.321 kJ/mol which were obtained from DKR equation in difference TDS conditions. The regeneration shows that the iron-nickel oxide has good reuse performance and the hexavalent chromium was recycled. The major adsorption mechanism proposed was the ions exchange; however the surface coordination was a main role in the condition of TDS less than 200mg/L. PMID:18954940

Wei, Linsen; Yang, Gang; Wang, Ren; Ma, Wei

2009-05-30

350

Using shell-tunable mesoporous Fe3O4-HMS and magnetic separation to remove DDT from aqueous media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is of concern in water treatment because of its persistence and health effects. A new concept is proposed to synthesize hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) with magnetic functionalization for DDT removal from aqueous media. Fe3O4 nanocrystals were synthesized by a low-temperature solvothermal process, and then encapsulated in mesoporous silica through a packing approach, forming core-shell structured Fe3O4-HMS microspheres. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The results indicate that the silica shell conserves mesoporous structure after the removal of surfactant templates. Different from previous studies, the thickness, pore volume and surface area of silica shell can be controlled by adjusting the reaction condition. These Fe3O4-HMS materials show high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for DDT. Because of the useful magnetic property and unique mesoporous structure, the synthesized materials provide a fast, convenient and highly efficient means to remove DDT from aqueous media.

351

Selective separation of mercury(II) using magnetic chitosan resin modified with Schiff's base derived from thiourea and glutaraldehyde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic chitosan resin was chemically modified by a Schiff's base cross-linker. The interaction of the resin obtained with Hg(II) was studied and uptake value of 2.8 mmol/g was reported. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were estimated. These data indicated that the adsorption process is exothermic and follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The selectivity of Hg(II) from other different metal ions in solutions using the studied resin was also reported. Breakthrough curves for the recovery of Hg(II) were studied. The critical bed height was found to be 2.05 cm. The adsorbed Hg(II) was eluted from the resin effectively using 0.1 M potassium iodide

352

Quantum dynamics of charged and neutral magnetic solitons Spin-charge separation in the one-dimensional Hubbard model  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate that the Configuration Interaction (CI) Approximation recaptures essential features of the exact (Bethe Ansatz) solution to the 1D Hubbard model. As such, it provides valuable route for describing effects which go beyond mean-field theory for strongly correlated electron systems in higher dimensions. The CI method systematically describes fluctuation and quantum tunneling corrections to the Hartree-Fock Approximation (HFA). HFA predicts that doping a half-filled Hubbard chain leads to the appearance of charged spin-polarons or charged domain-wall solitons in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) background. The CI method, on the other hand, describes the quantum dynamics of these charged magnetic solitons and quantum tunneling effects between various mean-field configurations. In this paper, we test the accuracy of the CI method against the exact solution of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. We find remarkable agreement between the energy of the mobile charged bosonic domain-wall (as given by the CI met...

Berciu, M; Berciu, Mona; John, Sajeev

1999-01-01

353

Systematics of the Electric and Magnetic Dipole Response in N=82 Isotones Below the Neutron Separation Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

In stable and weakly bound neutron-rich nuclei, a resonance-like concentration of dipole states has been observed for excitation energies around the neutron separation energy. This clustering of strong dipole states has been named the pygmy dipole resonance in contrast to the giant dipole resonance that dominates the E1 response. Understanding the pygmy resonance is presently of great interest in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. High-sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 transitions in N=82 nuclei using the quasi monoenergetic and 100% linearly-polarized photon beams from High-Intensity-Gamma-Ray Source facility is presented. The nuclear dipole-strength distribution of the pygmy resonance has been measured and novel information about the character of this mode of excitation has been obtained. The data are compared with predictions from statistical and quasiparticle random-phase approximation models.

Tonchev, A. P.; Kwan, E.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Hammond, S.; Kelley, J. H.; Tsoneva, N.; Lenske, H.

2013-03-01

354

Immuno-magnetic separation and agar layer methods for the isolation of freeze-injured Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 from water.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop an effective method to isolate an injured pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 organism from environmental samples, we compared the isolation of freeze-injured and non-injured Y. enterocolitica O:8 and found that the isolation was more successful when immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) with anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibody was used. Plating onto cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and Virulent Yersinia enterocolitica (VYE) agar by means of the agar layer method was found to be effective in isolating the injured cells. The alkali treatment which is generally used for selective detection of Yersinia organism failed to isolate freeze-injured pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O:8 cells. Recovery methods without using the alkali treatment were superior for detecting freeze-injured Y. enterocolitica O:8. Our results demonstrate that the IMS and the agar layer methods should be used to isolate injured pathogenic Yersinia organisms from environmental samples such as water. PMID:16598160

Koujitani, Eiko; Horisaka, Tomoko; Nomura, Yoshihiro; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Okatani, Alexandre Tomomitsu; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kumagai, Susumu; Hayashidani, Hideki

2006-03-01

355

Potential environmental benefits of improving recycling of polyolefines – LCA of Magnetic density separation (MDS) developed in the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The core of the EU FP7 funded project W2Plastic is development of a magnetic density separation (MDS) of polyolefines in order to improve the sorting efficiency of these polymer types in different waste fractions. As part of the project a life cycle assessment is performed in order to firstly identify eco-design criteria for the development and secondly to document the potential environmental improvement of polyolefin recycling using the MDS technology. A preliminary study focusing solely on the carbon footprint benefits of recycling plastic waste compared to virgin production of polymers showed that there are large benefits to recycling. However, including other uses of the waste illustrates that the benefits to a large extent depend on that the recycled plastic have such high quality that it can actually replace virgin plastic and also to some extent depends on which energy systems e.g. energy recovery from incineration substitutes.

Olsen, Stig Irving; Bonou, Alexandra

2012-01-01

356

Coupling of magnetic field and lattice strain and its impact on electronic phase separation in La0.335Pr0.335Ca0.33MnO3/ferroelectric crystal heterostructures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase-separated La0.335Pr0.335Ca0.33MnO3 films were epitaxially grown on (001)- and (111)-oriented ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001] or [111] direction, dramatic decrease in resistance, up to 99.98%, and complete melting of the charge-ordered phase were observed, caused by poling-induced strain rather than accumulation of electrostatic charge at interface. Such poling-induced strain effects can be effectively tuned by a magnetic field and mediated by electronic phase separation. In particular, our findings show that the evolution of the strength of electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field can be determined by measuring the strain-tunability of resistance [(?R/R)strain] under magnetic fields

357

MAGNET  

CERN Multimedia

The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

by B. Curé

2011-01-01

358

Neptunium separations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two procedures for the separation of Np are presented; the first involves separation of 239Np from irradiated 238U, and the second involves separation of 237Np from a solution representing that from a dissolved fuel element

359

Immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Cronobacter in powdered infant formula in combination with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles separation and 16S rRNA probe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we developed a sensitive, specific, and rapid immunochromatographic strip test for the detection of Cronobacter. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used to separate nucleic acid from Cronobacter lysate and eliminate the interference of food matrices successfully. A couple of 5'-end labeled probes, which was complementary to the 16S ribosomal DNA of Cronobacter, was used to hybridize with the nucleic acid. The hybrid product, labeled with digoxigenin on one side and biotin on the other side, was directly submitted to the immunochromatographic strip test and the anti-digoxigenin monoclonal antibody was immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane in the test line. The visualization was achieved by gold nanoparticles conjugated to streptavidin, and double red bands appearing in both test and control line indicated a positive result of the presence of Cronobacter in testing sample. The detection limit was 10(7) cfu mL(-1) in pure culture. After silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles treatment, the detection limit was 10(5) and 10(6) cfu mL(-1) in pure culture and powdered infant formula, respectively, and maintained stable even under the interference of 10(8) cfu mL(-1)Salmonella typhimurium. Furthermore, 100 positive powdered infant formula samples spiked 10(8) cfu mL(-1)Cronobacter and 20 negative samples with none bacteria were tested by the strip, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test were both as high as 100%. This approach showed promise for microbial detection concerning food safety or clinical diagnosis. PMID:24907538

Chen, Fei; Ming, Xing; Chen, XingXing; Gan, Min; Wang, BaoGui; Xu, Feng; Wei, Hua

2014-11-15

360

Magnetism  

Science.gov (United States)

This overview of magnetism provides a brief history prior to 1600 and continues with the work of William Gilbert, Hans Christian Oersted, and Andre-Marie Ampere in describing and exploring the magnetosphere and learning the role that electric current plays in producing magnetism. Magnetic field lines are then discussed, citing the work of Michael Faraday. The work of James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz is mentioned in a discussion of the relationship of light waves and radio waves as part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Stern, David

 
 
 
 
361

The evaluation of the influence of drying the ore before the dry high - intensity magnetic separation on the efficiency production process of blastfurnace pellets in the Siderit Ni?ná Slaná plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the contribution is described the evaluation of the influence of the parameters on the input to the dry high - intensity magnetic separation (SVIMS, on the technological production process of the blastfurnace pellets in the condition of the company ?elba, a.s., o.z. Siderit Ni?ná Slaná.By the dry high - intensity magnetic separation (SVIMS separates siderite from inherent rock by the activity effect of the strong magnetic field of the electromagnets. The realisation of the dry high - intensity magnetic separation has got the effect on the technical - technological parameters, as well as on the qualitative parameters of the final product - the blastfurnace pellets.The aim of the solution of the author this article is to define the methodics, that it would permit the establishment practice to complex judges of the fall of the racionalization projects. The aim of this project it would be as first of all the total productions costs minimize, the work optimalization and the increase of the economic efficiency work of the organisation.

Kuffnerová Andrea

2001-12-01

362

Magnetically separable Prussian blue analogue Mn?[Co(CN)?]?·nH?O porous nanocubes as excellent absorbents for heavy metal ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of Prussian blue analogue (PBA) Mn(3)[Co(CN)(6)](2)·nH(2)O porous nanocubes as absorbents for heavy metal ions has been demonstrated. The result indicates that Mn(3)[Co(CN)(6)](2)·nH(2)O porous nanocubes with average diameter of 240 nm possess excellent adsorption efficiency for Pb(2+) ions (94.21% at initial Pb(2+) concentration of 10 mg L(-1)). Moreover, Mn(3)[Co(CN)(6)](2)·nH(2)O porous nanocubes can also show high adsorption efficiency on heavy metal ions even in a strong acidic solution due to its chemical stability. Notably, an external magnet could be used to accelerate the separation of Mn(3)[Co(CN)(6)](2)·nH(2)O from the treated solution. It is suggested that the high adsorption efficiency may derive from the large surface area, M(3)(II)[M(III)(CN)(6)](2)·nH(2)O porous framework structure and affinity between polarizable ?-electron clouds of the cyanide bridges and heavy metals ions. PMID:21863190

Hu, Lin; Mei, Ji-Yang; Chen, Qian-Wang; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Nan

2011-10-01

363

MAGNET  

CERN Multimedia

The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

B. Curé

2011-01-01

364

Electromagnetic ion separator  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we study the dynamics of charged particles interacting with a space homogeneous but time oscillating magnetic field of arbitrary amplitude and frequency. We analyze the stability of the particles orbits as functions of the magnetic field parameters and their masses. Based on the fact for a given magnitude field, the particles trajectories may become unstable depending on their masses, that we propose this system as an isotopic separator. (Author)

Calvo, M

2002-01-01

365

MAGNET  

CERN Multimedia

The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

B. Curé

2011-01-01

366

Isotope separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The various methods which can be used for isotope separation are discussed. Attention is given to the application of these methods to specific isotope separation, especially with regard to the industrial production of isotopes

367

Double metal-insulator transitions and MR in La(0.67)Ca(0.33)Mn(1-x)Ru(x)O(3) (xmagnetic phase separation  

CERN Document Server

This paper is in continuation of our previous work on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ru doped La(0.67)Ca(0.33)MnO(3) compounds (Ref.: L.Seetha Lakshmi et.al, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 257, 195 (2003)). Here we report the results of magnetotransport measurements on La(0.67)Ca(0.33)Mn(1-x)Ru(x)O(3) (0magnetic phase separation.

Lakshmi, L S; Natarajan, D V; Rawat, R; Chandra, S; Sastry, V S; Radhakrishnan, T S; Rawat, Rajeev; Chandra, Sharat

2003-01-01

368

MAGNET  

CERN Document Server

MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

B. Curé

369

MAGNET  

CERN Multimedia

The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

B. Curé

2013-01-01

370

MAGNET  

CERN Document Server

The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

Benoit Curé

2010-01-01

371

55Mn NMR Study of the Field-Controlled Magnetic Phase Separation in (La0.25Pr0.75)0.7Ca0.3MnO3 with Different Oxygen Isotope Content  

CERN Document Server

An influence of the 16O-18O isotope substitutions on magnetic state of perovskite-type manganite (La0.25Pr0.75)0.7Ca0.3MnO3 is studied by 55Mn NMR. Successive cycling with an isochronal exposure at different magnetic fields up to H=8T is used to study the field-induced transition from antiferromagnetic insulating (AFI) state to the ferromagnetic metal (FMM) one in the 18O-enriched sample. After exposure at H>H_{cr} \\sim 5.3T the NMR spectrum of the 18O-sample evidences for magnetic phase separation (PS) resulted in the coexisting AFI and FMM domains. Further increase of exposing field leads to a progressive growth of the FMM phase at the expense of AFI domains. Its relative fraction can be controlled by external magnetic field and the resulting magnetic structure in the PS region is discussed. Anomalous T-dependence of the 55Mn nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate is revealed in the FMM state of both 16O-and 18O-enriched samples. The manifestation of the Pr magnetic ordering at T \\sim 40K is considered.

Gerashenko, A P; Kumagai, K; Verkhovskii, S V; Mikhalev, K N; Yakubovskii, A

2002-01-01

372

Chiral Separations  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of chiral separations to researchers who are versed in the area of analytical separations but unfamiliar with chiral separations. To researchers who are not familiar with this area, there is currently a bewildering array of commercially available chiral columns, chiral derivatizing reagents, and chiral selectors for approaches that span the range of analytical separation platforms (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical-fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis). This review begins with a brief discussion of chirality before examining the general strategies and commonalities among all of the chiral separation techniques. Rather than exhaustively listing all the chiral selectors and applications, this review highlights significant issues and differences between chiral and achiral separations, providing salient examples from specific classes of chiral selectors where appropriate.

Stalcup, A. M.

2010-07-01

373

MAGNET  

CERN Multimedia

During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

B. Curé

374

Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticles via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17?-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17?-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figure S1. The hysteresis loop of Fe3O4 (a), Fe3O4@SiO2 (b), and Fe3O4@SiO2-Dye-SiO2 (c). See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00614a

Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

2011-01-01