WorldWideScience

Sample records for 11-a ctx 11-a

  1. Heterologous expression of chaetomium thermophilum xylanase 11-a (ctx 11-a) gene

    Chaetomium has a potential source of xylanase and cellulase enzymes, both of which are required in the treatment of fibre in the poultry feed. The titre of the enzymes needs to be enhanced by using recombinant DNA technology for fulfilling the requirement of the industries. Efforts are made to construct prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression cassettes that can be cloned under specific strong promoters i.e., T7 and AOX1, respectively, and the enhancer elements to get the maximum gene expression. In the present study BL21 E. coli and GS115 Pichia pastoris strains are used as model organisms to express the CtX 11-A gene in the presence of 1 mM IPTG and 100% methanol upto final concentration of 0.5. In case of BL21 expression, the maximum xylanase activity was observed after 1.5 h in the presence of 1% xylose, which was 2.302 U/ml and after 7 h in the presence of 0.5% lactose, was 1.708 U/ml. However, in Pichia pastoris the maximum production of xylanase was 2.904 and 0.006 U/ml as compared to control 0.484 and 0.06 U/ml, respectively. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  3. 19 CFR 132.11a - Time of presentation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of presentation. 132.11a Section 132.11a... TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.11a Time of presentation. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time of presentation of an entry/entry summary for...

  4. BCL11A expression in acute phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Yin, Jiawei; Zhang, Fan; Tao, Huiquan; Ma, Xiao; Su, Guangsong; Xie, Xiaoli; Xu, Zhongjuan; Zheng, Yanwen; Liu, Hong; He, Chao; Mao, Zhengwei Jenny; Wang, Zhiwei; Chang, Weirong; Gale, Robert Peter; Wu, Depei; Yin, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has chronic and acute phases. In chronic phase myeloid differentiation is preserved whereas in acute phase myeloid differentiation is blocked. Acute phase CML resembles acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic phase CML is caused by BCR-ABL1. What additional mutation(s) cause transition to acute phase is unknown and may differ in different persons with CML. BCL11A encodes a transcription factor and is aberrantly-expressed in several haematological and solid neoplasms. We analyzed BCL11A mRNA levels in subjects with chronic and acute phase CML. BCL11A transcript levels were increased in subjects with CML in acute phase compared with those in normals and in subjects in chronic phase including some subjects studied in both phases. BCL11A mRNA levels were correlated with percent bone marrow blasts and significantly higher in lymphoid versus myeloid blast crisis. Differentiation of K562 with butyric acid, a CML cell line, decreased BCL11A mRNA levels. Cytology and flow cytometry analyses showed that ectopic expression of BCL11A in K562 cells blocked differentiation. These data suggest BCL11A may operate in transformation of CML from chronic to acute phase in some persons. PMID:27285855

  5. Molecular comparison of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    Padiernos, R B C; Mingala, C N

    2016-06-01

    Solute-linked carrier 11a and 11a2 (Slc) have been associated with disease resistance and/or susceptibility across animal species. These genes have an important mechanism in the regulation against intracellular infection. This study analysed the genetic characteristic of Slc 11a and 11a2 in swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes to understand their immunological distinction. Characterization of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 genes from swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was carried out by molecular cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cloned cDNA of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 contained an open reading frame of 1647 and 1723 nucleotides, encoding 549 and 574 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of both Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 had 99% in swamp and riverine type, which gives almost identical polypeptide. However, Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 have substitutions of 5 and 1 amino acid residues, correspondingly. These substitutions suggest as a potential gene markers for resistance and/or susceptibility to intracellular infection. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed the degree of relationship between the bubaline species and justifies the distinctness of each breed by the bootstrap value generated. PMID:27091413

  6. IEEE802.11A STANDARD PERFORMANCE IN MOBILE ENVIRONMENT

    Janis Jansons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we reflect evaluation of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN standard in a vehicular environment. WLAN based on the IEEE802.11a standard in wireless user community is widespread and well known to ensure wireless communication. This standard can be used indoor environment for stationary and slowly move users. Despite this fact we analysed this wireless communication standard to understand basic performance and suitability for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS providing a ubiquitous mobile INTERNET access. A wireless vehicular communication tests in real scenario usually require a large number of vehicles and testers for proper results. To derive an experimental result we used simulation/emulation tool such as National Chiao Tung University- network simulator (NCTUns.

  7. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    2010-04-01

    ..., particularly sections 11(a) and 23(a) thereof, and Rule 11a-1 (17 CFR 240.11a-1) under the Act, deeming it... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation...

  8. Cloning and expression of chaetomium thermophilum xylanase 11-A

    The various thermophilic fungi like Chaetomium thermophile has potential to secrete xylanase and cellulase enzymes. In the present study eukaryotic expression system of Pichia pastoris (yeast) was used to express xylanase gene. The xylanase (Xyn 11-A) gene was isolated from C. thermophile strain NIBGE-1. Primers were designed to amplify the gene, ligated into P. pastoris pPIC3.5K vector, the resultant recombinant clone pSSZ810 was transformed into the genome of P. pastoris GS115 strain through electroporation. Transformants were selected on yeast peptone dextrose medium (YPD) plates containing antibiotic geneticin (100 mg/ml) upto final concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The maximum activity of xylanase 2.04 U/ml after incubation of 2 hours at 50 degree C was observed in the presence of 100% methanol inducer upto final concentration of 30 macro L (0.5%) as compared to control. HPLC analysis represented high peak of xylose as compared to control. SDS-PAGE indicated approx. 28 kDa protein of expressed xylanase gene. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. 610.11a Section 610.11a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety...

  10. HST observations of the LMC compact HII region N11A

    Heydari-Malayeri, M; Deharveng, L; Rosa, M R; Schärer, D; Zinnecker, H

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of the LMC compact HII region N11A using Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations which resolve N11A and reveal its unknown nebular and stellar features. The presence of a sharp ionization front extending over more than 4'' (1 pc) and fine structure filaments as well as larger loops indicate an environment typical of massive star formation regions, in agreement with high [OIII]/Hb line ratios. N11A is a young region, as deduced from its morphology, reddening, and especially high local concentration of dust, as indicated by the Balmer decrement map. Our observations also reveal a cluster of stars lying towards the central part of N11A. Five of the stars are packed in an area less than 2'' (0.5 pc), with the most luminous one being a mid O type star. N11A appears to be the most evolved compact HII region in the Magellanic Clouds so far studied.

  11. Evaluation of SLC11A1 as an inflammatory bowel disease candidate gene

    Petras Robert E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant evidence suggests that a promoter polymorphism withinthe gene SLC11A1 is involved in susceptibility to both autoimmune and infectious disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLC11A1 has a role in the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD by characterizing a promoter polymorphism within the gene and two short tandem repeat (STR markers in genetic proximity to SLC11A1. Methods The studied population consisted of 484 Caucasians with IBD, 144 population controls, and 348 non-IBD-affected first-degree relatives of IBD patients. IBD subjects were re-categorized at the sub-disease phenotypic level to characterize possible SLC11A1 genotype-phenotype correlations. Polymorphic markers were amplified from germline DNA and typed using gel electrophoresis. Genotype-phenotype correlations were defined using case-control, haplotype, and family-based association studies. Results This study did not provide compelling evidence for SLC11A1 disease association; most significantly, there was no apparent evidence of SLC11A1 promoter allele association in the studied Crohn's disease population. Conclusion Our results therefore refute previous studies that have shown SLC11A1 promoter polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to this form of IBD.

  12. Modeling data rate agility in the IEEE 802.11a wireless local area networking protocol

    Braswell, Bryan E.

    2001-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11a high-speed wireless local area networking (WLAN) protocol does not specify a mechanism for dynamically altering network data rates based on changing link conditions. This thesis first presents a baseline software model of the 802.11a protocol developed using the OPNET simulation tool. The model includes both the medium access control (MAC) and physical (PHY) layers of the standard. Two data rate agility mechanisms are then proposed and analyzed using the model. An infrastruct...

  13. OFDM based PHY Performance of IEEE 802.11a Using Various practical channel models

    Narendra Giradkar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today with the advent of wireless communication and need for greater bandwidth and speed requirement with noise free reception, research has opened up a whole new market for wireless solutions. The IEEE 802.11a standards using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM can provide data rates up to 54 Mbps which makes good for high speed communications in wireless local area networks. In this paper, We evaluated the OFDM based PHY performance of IEEE 802.11a using various practical channel models such as Rician Fading, Rayleigh multipath Fading & AWGN. The effects of different transmission modes define in PHY on IEEE 802.11a system performance are studied using MATLAB SIMULINK. The performance is characterized in terms of 802.11a receivers bit error rates and signal to noise ratio for various modulation schemes such as 16 QAM, 64 QAM, BPSK and QPSK for different code rates as defined by the IEEE Standards 802.11a. All the Simulink models were studied using convolutional coder and Viterbi Decoder and standard OFDM format with 48 carriers, 4 pilots and a zero insertion in the middle.

  14. Evidence of association with type 1 diabetes in the SLC11A1 gene region

    Walker Neil M; Stevens Helen E; Nutland Sarah; Howson Joanna MM; Downes Kate; Yang Jennie HM; Todd John A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Linkage and congenic strain analyses using the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model for human type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, including Slc11a1 (formerly known as Nramp1). Genetic variants in the orthologous region encompassing SLC11A1 in human chromosome 2q35 have been reported to be associated with various immune-related diseases including T1D. Here, we have conducted association analysis of th...

  15. BCL11A Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome and Dysregulates Transcription.

    Dias, Cristina; Estruch, Sara B; Graham, Sarah A; McRae, Jeremy; Sawiak, Stephen J; Hurst, Jane A; Joss, Shelagh K; Holder, Susan E; Morton, Jenny E V; Turner, Claire; Thevenon, Julien; Mellul, Kelly; Sánchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Deriziotis, Pelagia; Santos, Rui F; Lee, Song-Choon; Faivre, Laurence; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Liu, Pentao; Hurles, Mathew E; Fisher, Simon E; Logan, Darren W

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common condition with considerable genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing of large cohorts has identified an increasing number of genes implicated in ID, but their roles in neurodevelopment remain largely unexplored. Here we report an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in BCL11A, encoding a transcription factor that is a putative member of the BAF swi/snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Using a comprehensive integrated approach to ID disease modeling, involving human cellular analyses coupled to mouse behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular phenotyping, we provide multiple lines of functional evidence for phenotypic effects. The etiological missense variants cluster in the amino-terminal region of human BCL11A, and we demonstrate that they all disrupt its localization, dimerization, and transcriptional regulatory activity, consistent with a loss of function. We show that Bcl11a haploinsufficiency in mice causes impaired cognition, abnormal social behavior, and microcephaly in accordance with the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify shared aberrant transcriptional profiles in the cortex and hippocampus of these mouse models. Thus, our work implicates BCL11A haploinsufficiency in neurodevelopmental disorders and defines additional targets regulated by this gene, with broad relevance for our understanding of ID and related syndromes. PMID:27453576

  16. Polymorphism of Caprine SLC11A1 Gene and Relationships with Hygienic Characteristics of Milk

    Gianpiera Piras

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1 gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Genetic variability at the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR of this gene is due to the presence of a polymorphic microsatellites that contain a (GT n dinucleotide repeat. The microsatellite variability and relationships with milk yield and composition, somatic cell count (SCC and total microbic count (TMC were investigated in 260 goats of Sarda breed. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn revealed twenty different genotypes and eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14, GT15, GT16, GT17, GT18 and GT19. The present study confirmed the high genetic variability of the Sarda goat and that the genotype of the microsatellite at 3’-UTR SLC11A1 affected many chemical and hygienic characteristics of milk as fat, protein and SCC.

  17. Polymorphism of Caprine SLC11A1 Gene and Relationships with Hygienic Characteristics of Milk

    Gianpiera Piras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1 gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Genetic variability at the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR of this gene is due to the presence of a polymorphic microsatellites that contain a (GT n dinucleotide repeat. The microsatellite variability and relationships with milk yield and composition, somatic cell count (SCC and total microbic count (TMC were investigated in 260 goats of Sarda breed. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn revealed twenty different genotypes and eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14, GT15, GT16, GT17, GT18 and GT19. The present study confirmed the high genetic variability of the Sarda goat and that the genotype of the microsatellite at 3’-UTR SLC11A1 affected many chemical and hygienic characteristics of milk as fat, protein and SCC.

  18. IEEE 802.11a performance for infrastructure-to-train communications in an underground tunnel

    KASSAB, M; Wahl, M; Casanova, M; BERBINEAU, M; Aguado, M.

    2009-01-01

    The deployment of wireless technologies for public transport may imply several constraints due to specific environment, such as tunnels. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of IEEE 802.11a based networks deployed for infrastructure-to-train communications in underground tunnels. The signal attenuation specific to the tunnel propagation is taken into account. We propose an optimization of the handover detection mechanism to minimize the connectivity loss when the train moves between Acc...

  19. Error Probability of Different Modulation Schemes for OFDM based WLAN standard IEEE 802.11a

    sanjeev kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a key technique for achieving high data rates and spectral efficiency requirements for wireless communication systems. This paper presents a modeling and simulation of OFDM based on WLAN standard (IEEE 802.11a. Performance of OFDM is evaluated for different modulation schemes such as PSK, QAM, DQPSK, and OQPSK. The performance of OFDM is compared in terms of BER vs SNR for different modulation formats.

  20. Rab11A Controls the Biogenesis of Birbeck Granules by Regulating Langerin Recycling and Stability

    Uzan-Gafsou, Stéphanie; Bausinger, Huguette; Proamer, Fabienne; Monier, Solange; Lipsker, Dan; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Goud, Bruno; de la Salle, Henri; Hanau, Daniel; Salamero, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which Rab GTPases, Rab-interacting proteins, and cargo molecules cooperate in the dynamic organization of membrane architecture remains to be clarified. Langerin, a recycling protein accumulating in the Rab11-positive compartments of Langerhans cells, induces the formation of Birbeck granules (BGs), which are membrane subdomains of the endosomal recycling network. We investigated the role of Rab11A and two members of the Rab11 family of interacting proteins, Rip11 and RCP, in La...

  1. RAB11A Is Essential for Transport of the Influenza Virus Genome to the Plasma Membrane▿

    Eisfeld, Amie J.; Kawakami, Eiryo; Watanabe, Tokiko; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus assembly is a complex process that requires the intersection of pathways involved in transporting viral glycoproteins, the matrix protein, and viral genomes, incorporated in the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex, to plasma membrane sites of virion formation. Among these virion components, the mechanism of vRNP delivery is the most incompletely understood. Here, we reveal a functional relationship between the cellular Rab11 GTPase isoform, RAB11A, and vRNPs and show that...

  2. Receptor SiGe de conversión directa para WLAN 802.11a

    Hernández García, Leticia; Jato Llano, Yolanda; Herrera Guardado, Amparo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a MMIC direct conversion receiver for WLAN manufactured in SiGe: C BiCMOS technology for the IEEE 802.11a/HiperLAN WLAN standard. Direct conversion architecture was chosen because it eliminates the need for bulky external image reject filters, resulting in a compact, low power and low cost front-end. The direct conversion receiver must incorporate quadrature downconversion as both lateral bands contain different information that will be distorted if they are superimposed.

  3. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae.

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan; Orlando, Ludovic; Horin, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Immunity-related genes are a suitable model for studying effects of selection at the genomic level. Some of them are highly conserved due to functional constraints and purifying selection, while others are variable and change quickly to cope with the variation of pathogens. The SLC11A1 gene encodes a transporter protein mediating antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Little is known about the patterns of selection shaping this gene during evolution. Although it is a typical evolutionarily conserved gene, functionally important polymorphisms associated with various diseases were identified in humans and other species. We analyzed the genomic organization, genetic variation, and evolution of the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae to identify patterns of selection within this important gene. Nucleotide SLC11A1 sequences were shown to be highly conserved in ten equid species, with more than 97 % sequence identity across the family. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the coding and noncoding regions of the gene. Seven codon sites were identified to be under strong purifying selection. Codons located in three regions, including the glycosylated extracellular loop, were shown to be under diversifying selection. A 3-bp indel resulting in a deletion of the amino acid 321 in the predicted protein was observed in all horses, while it has been maintained in all other equid species. This codon comprised in an N-glycosylation site was found to be under positive selection. Interspecific variation in the presence of predicted N-glycosylation sites was observed. PMID:26846480

  4. The oncoprotein BCL11A binds to orphan nuclear receptor TLX and potentiates its transrepressive function.

    Sara B Estruch

    Full Text Available Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1 functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TLX social network of interactors and only few TLX coregulators are described. To identify and characterize novel TLX-binders and possible coregulators, we performed yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H screens of a human adult brain cDNA library using different TLX constructs as baits. Our screens identified multiple clones of Atrophin-1 (ATN1, a previously described TLX interactor. In addition, we identified an interaction with the oncoprotein and zinc finger transcription factor BCL11A (CTIP1/Evi9, a key player in the hematopoietic system and in major blood-related malignancies. This interaction was validated by expression and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. BCL11A potentiated the transrepressive function of TLX in an in vitro reporter gene assay. Our work suggests that BCL11A is a novel TLX coregulator that might be involved in TLX-dependent gene regulation in the brain.

  5. Rab11a Is Essential for Lamellar Body Biogenesis in the Human Epidermis.

    Reynier, Marie; Allart, Sophie; Gaspard, Elise; Moga, Alain; Goudounèche, Dominique; Serre, Guy; Simon, Michel; Leprince, Corinne

    2016-06-01

    Most of the skin barrier function is attributable to the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, which is composed of flattened, anucleated cells called corneocytes surrounded by a lipid-enriched lamellar matrix. The composition of the stratum corneum is directly dependent on the underlying granular keratinocytes, which are the last living cells in the stratified epidermis. Many components present in the intercorneocyte matrix are delivered by the underlying granular keratinocytes through a secretion process dependent on lysosome-related organelles called lamellar bodies. Because of the importance of lamellar bodies in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier, the mechanisms regulating their biogenesis must be better understood. In this study, we show that the Rab11a GTPase is highly expressed in terminally differentiated keratinocytes, where it is partly associated with lamellar bodies. Rab11a silencing in three-dimensional in vitro reconstructed human epidermis induces a barrier defect, a decrease in the amount of lipid found in the stratum corneum, a reduction in lamellar body density and secretion areas in granular keratinocytes, and the mis-sorting of lamellar body cargoes being driven to the lysosomal degradation pathway. Our results highlight the importance of Rab11a-dependent regulation of lamellar body biogenesis in keratinocytes and consequently on epidermal barrier homeostasis. PMID:26872604

  6. Association of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) polymorphisms with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection.

    Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Hijikata, Minako; Matsushita, Ikumi; Tanaka, Goh; Ieki, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Toyota, Emiko; Nagai, Hideaki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Keicho, Naoto

    2012-05-01

    Although genetic variants in SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) have been associated with mycobacterial diseases, these findings have not been extensively validated in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. This study investigated the genomic structure of SLC11A1 and its association with MAC infection. Nineteen polymorphic loci were genotyped in European descendents and the Japanese population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and frequencies of major haplotypes differed between these 2 populations. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from the data set, and 6 polymorphic sites were genotyped in 122 pulmonary MAC cases and 211 controls from Japan. We observed that the T allele of rs2279014 in the 3' untranslated region was associated with protection from MAC disease when comparing allele frequencies with an odds ratio of 0.582 (95% confidence interval 0.379-0.894, p = 0.013). The frequencies of haplotypes constructed with the above 6 variants did not differ between cases and controls. Allele-specific expression imbalance of SLC11A1 mRNA was evaluated in peripheral blood cells from heterozygous individuals, but no difference was observed among haplotypes. Although the significance was modest, rs2279014 is in strong LD with nearby SNPs and further studies are required for conclusive validation. PMID:22387151

  7. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now...... be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden) part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age), the top (exposed) part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian age) and the middle...

  8. WOK : A Simulation Model for DFS and Link Adaptation in IEEE 802.11a WLAN

    Janson, Magnus; Karlsson, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    With the 1999 introduction of IEEE 802.11b, the 2.4 GHz Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standard, the WLAN market finally began to experience the growth levels that had been expected for so long. Now, 5 GHz solutions, with the IEEE 802.11a standard leading the way, offer higher throughput and more efficient use of the spectrum. Just as the 2.4 GHz band, the 5 GHz band is unlicensed. A common concern to all unlicensed bands is interference between devices using the spectrum. Furthermore, in...

  9. Magnetic Logs from the Lopra-1/1A and Vestmanna-1 wells (Faroe Islands)

    Waagstein, R.; Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      Susceptibility results from cores (representing basalt, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs) and magnetic logs from the Lopra-1/1A well are presented. The basalts fall into a high- and a low-susceptibility group with no overlap. The high-susceptibility basalts (7 cores) have susceptibilities between 4 and 85...... high-susceptibility basalts. The susceptibility of 9 volcaniclastites of lapilli-tuff or tuff varies from 0.4 to 4 x 10-3 SI. The cores reveal a bimodal distribution of magnetic susceptibily in the Lopra well. Low susceptibilities ranging from 0.4 to 4 in the well  are characteristic to both altered...... 2381 m and sidewall cores of basalt from the Lopra-1/1A well have a mean susceptibility of 22.1 ± 3.5 ´ 10-3 SI (σ = 23.6, N = 46), while samples of hyaloclastite (lapilli-tuff and tuff) have a mean susceptibility of 0.85 ´ 10-3 SI (σ = 0.39, N = 17). The mean values of the rock magnetic parameters for...

  10. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  11. Cloning and expression of a novel, moderately thermostable xylanase-encoding gene (Cflxyn11A) from Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Vega-Estrada, Jesús; Amelia, Farrés-G-S; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Montes-Horcasitas, María Del Carmen; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia

    2010-07-01

    The Cfl xyn11A gene, encoding the endo-1,4-beta-xylanase Cfl Xyn11A from Cellulomonas flavigena, was isolated from a genomic DNA library. The open reading frame of the Cfl xyn11A gene was 999 base pairs long and encoded a polypeptide (Cfl Xyn11A) of 332 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35,110Da. The Cfl xyn11A gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme, with an estimated molecular weight of 31kDa was purified and xylanase activity was measured. Cfl Xyn11A showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 55 degrees C. The enzyme demonstrated moderate thermal stability as Cfl Xyn11A maintained 50% of its activity when incubated at 55 degrees C for 1h or at 45 degrees C for 6h. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression and functional characterization of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase-encoding gene from C. flavigena. Cfl Xyn11A may be suitable for industrial applications in the food and feed industries, or in the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass required to improve the yields of fermentable sugars for bioethanol production. PMID:20231092

  12. MREG V1.1 : a multi-scale image registration algorithm for SAR applications.

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2013-08-01

    MREG V1.1 is the sixth generation SAR image registration algorithm developed by the Signal Processing&Technology Department for Synthetic Aperture Radar applications. Like its predecessor algorithm REGI, it employs a powerful iterative multi-scale paradigm to achieve the competing goals of sub-pixel registration accuracy and the ability to handle large initial offsets. Since it is not model based, it allows for high fidelity tracking of spatially varying terrain-induced misregistration. Since it does not rely on image domain phase, it is equally adept at coherent and noncoherent image registration. This document provides a brief history of the registration processors developed by Dept. 5962 leading up to MREG V1.1, a full description of the signal processing steps involved in the algorithm, and a user's manual with application specific recommendations for CCD, TwoColor MultiView, and SAR stereoscopy.

  13. Isolation and characterization of DUSP11, a novel p53 target gene

    Caprara, Greta; Zamponi, Raffaella; Melixetian, Marina;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that DUSP11 (Dual Specificity Phosphatase 11), a member of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase family that binds to RNA-RNP complexes and RNA splicing factors, is a p53...... target gene. Consistent with this, the expression of DUSP11 is induced in a p53-dependent manner after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that p53 binds to 2 putative p53 DNA binding sites in the promoter region of DUSP11. Colony formation and proliferation...... (Src-Associated protein in Mitotic cells) binds to DUSP11 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together these results suggest that DUSP11 contributes to p53-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and that it might be involved in regulating RNA splicing through SAM68....

  14. Immobilisation and solidification of cesium on 11 A calcium silicate hydroxy hydrate column

    Calcium silicate hydrate closely resembling silicate mineral 11 A tobermorite has been synthesised by hydrothermal treatment of lime and silica at 175 degC. The synthetic mineral exhibits selectivity for Cs+ in the presence of strong solutions of alkali and alkaline earth cations, viz, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, etc. The Al-substituted form of this mineral effectively separates cesium ion when used as an exchanger in column of size 35x5 mm (hxr). It is possible to remove 98.65±0.5%Cs+ from a mixed solution of cesium and sodium (0.0001N Cs+ + 0.5N Na+). Column separation of cesium from simulated intermediate level waste solution shows that from the first run ∼ 76% Cs+ can be immobilised on a small column, 18x10mm (hxr), having 2.0 g of exchanger. (author)

  15. The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A contributes to virulence with its necrotizing activity, not with its catalytic activity

    González Celedonio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A has been previously shown to be required for full virulence of this organism despite its poor contribution to the secreted xylanase activity and the low xylan content of B. cinerea hosts. Intriguingly, xylanases from other fungi have been shown to have the property, independent of the xylan degrading activity, to induce necrosis when applied to plant tissues, so we decided to test the hypothesis that secreted Xyn11A contributes to virulence by promoting the necrosis of the plant tissue surrounding the infection, therefore facilitating the growth of this necrotroph. Results We show here that Xyn11A has necrotizing activity on plants and that this capacity is conserved in site-directed mutants of the protein lacking the catalytic activity. Besides, Xyn11A contributes to the infection process with the necrotizing and not with the xylan hydrolyzing activity, as the catalytically-impaired Xyn11A variants were able to complement the lower virulence of the xyn11A mutant. The necrotizing activity was mapped to a 30-amino acids peptide in the protein surface, and this region was also shown to mediate binding to tobacco spheroplasts by itself. Conclusions The main contribution of the xylanase Xyn11A to the infection process of B. cinerea is to induce necrosis of the infected plant tissue. A conserved 30-amino acids region on the enzyme surface, away from the xylanase active site, is responsible for this effect and mediates binding to plant cells.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a serotype 11A, ST62 Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive isolate

    Superti Fabiana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sequenced the genome of a serotype 11A, ST62 S. pneumoniae invasive isolate (AP200, that was erythromycin-resistant due to the presence of the erm(TR determinant, and carried out analysis of the genome organization and comparison with other pneumococcal genomes. Results The genome sequence of S. pneumoniae AP200 is 2,130,580 base pair in length. The genome carries 2216 coding sequences (CDS, 56 tRNA, and 12 rRNA genes. Of the CDSs, 72.9% have a predicted biological known function. AP200 contains the pilus islet 2 and, although its phenotype corresponds to serotype 11A, it contains an 11D capsular locus. Chromosomal rearrangements resulting from a large inversion across the replication axis, and horizontal gene transfer events were observed. The chromosomal inversion is likely implicated in the rebalance of the chromosomal architecture affected by the insertions of two large exogenous elements, the erm(TR-carrying Tn1806 and a functional prophage designated ϕSpn_200. Tn1806 is 52,457 bp in size and comprises 49 ORFs. Comparative analysis of Tn1806 revealed the presence of a similar genetic element or part of it in related species such as Streptococcus pyogenes and also in the anaerobic species Finegoldia magna, Anaerococcus prevotii and Clostridium difficile. The genome of ϕSpn_200 is 35,989 bp in size and is organized in 47 ORFs grouped into five functional modules. Prophages similar to ϕSpn_200 were found in pneumococci and in other streptococcal species, showing a high degree of exchange of functional modules. ϕSpn_200 viral particles have morphologic characteristics typical of the Siphoviridae family and are capable of infecting a pneumococcal recipient strain. Conclusions The sequence of S. pneumoniae AP200 chromosome revealed a dynamic genome, characterized by chromosomal rearrangements and

  17. Stickler syndrome and the vitreous phenotype: Mutations in COL2A1 and COL11A1

    Richards, Allan; McNinch, Annie; Martin, Howard; Oakhill, Kim; Rai, Harjeet; WALLER, SARAH; Treacy, Becky; Whittaker, Joanne; Meredith, Sarah; Poulson, Arabella; Snead, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stickler syndrome is a dominantly inherited disorder affecting the fibrillar type II/XI collagen molecules expressed in vitreous and cartilage. Mutations have been found in COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2. It has a highly variable phenotype that can include midline clefting, hearing loss, premature osteoarthritis, congenital high myopia and blindness through retinal detachment. Although the systemic phenotype is highly variable, the vitreous phenotype has been used successfull...

  18. Mechanisms of Nd(III) uptake by 11 A tobermorite and xonotlite

    Mandaliev, P., E-mail: petar.mandaliev@empa.ch [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] [Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Wieland, E.; Daehn, R.; Tits, J.; Churakov, S.V. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zaharko, O. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The uptake of Nd(III) by the crystalline C-S-H phases 11 A tobermorite and xonotlite has been investigated by the combined use of wet chemistry techniques, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with Rietveld refinement. The results from XRD and EXAFS allowed the different modes of Nd-Ca substitution in tobermorite and xonotlite to be distinguished from each other. Wet chemistry and EXAFS data showed that the formation of any Nd solid phase with fixed stoichiometry could be ruled out. XRD studies on the samples with high Nd loading (350 {mu}mol Nd/g solid phase) further showed that Nd was bound in the structure of C-S-H phases. The EXAFS data suggested that Nd could form several species on xonotlite and tobermorite at low loadings (7-35 {mu}mol Nd/g solid phase). Neodymium was predominantly bound on the external surface of both crystalline C-S-H phases after 1 day of reaction time and predominantly incorporated in the Ca layers of the crystalline C-S-H phases in the long run ({>=}60 days reaction time). The latter process was faster at low Nd loadings and was apparently controlled by re-crystallization of the C-S-H phases. Neodymium incorporation was accompanied by the release of 'zeolitic' water (water molecules in the interlayer of C-S-H) and bridging Si tetrahedra, reflected by the formation of more disordered structures in both C-S-H phases. The Nd retention model proposed in this study helps to improve understanding of the immobilization of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in cementitious materials. This knowledge is essential for long-term predictions of radionuclide retention in conjunction with a more detailed assessment of the safe disposal of actinides in the cementitious near field of a repository for radioactive waste.

  19. Linking chronic infection and autoimmune diseases: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, SLC11A1 polymorphisms and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Daniela Paccagnini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.

  20. Human rab11a: transcription, chromosome mapping and effect on the expression levels of host GTP-binding proteins

    Gromov, P S; Celis, J E; Hansen, Claus;

    1998-01-01

    Rab11a is a member of the rab-branch of the ras-like small GTP-binding protein superfamily that is associated with both constitutive and regulated secretory pathways. Using a direct procedure for cDNA cloning of small ras-related GTPases, that is based on the screening of eukaryotic cDNA expression...

  1. PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A expression in rat trigeminovascular pain signalling system

    Kruse, Lars S; Møller, Morten; Tibaek, Maiken; Gammeltoft, Steen; Olesen, Jes; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup

    2009-01-01

    expression of PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A in the trigeminovascular system. The functional implications are yet unknown, but their localisation indicates that they may have a role in the pain pathway of migraine as well as trigeminal neuralgia and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.......Activation of the trigeminovascular pain signalling system, including cerebral arteries, meninges, trigeminal ganglion, and brain stem, is involved in migraine. Furthermore, stimulation of cyclic nucleotide (cAMP and cGMP) production as well as inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) induces...... headache and migraine. In order to investigate the possible role of PDE in the pain pathway of migraine, expression of the most recently discovered PDE subtypes (9A, 10A and 11A) in cerebral arteries, dura mater, and trigeminal ganglion and nucleus was examined. The presence of mRNA and protein in the...

  2. Novel mutations confirm that COL11A2 is responsible for autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB53.

    Chakchouk, Imen; Grati, M'hamed; Bademci, Guney; Bensaid, Mariem; Ma, Qi; Chakroun, Amine; Foster, Joseph; Yan, Denise; Duman, Duygu; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Mittal, Rahul; Farooq, Amjad; Tekin, Mustafa; Masmoudi, Saber; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a major public health issue. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous.The identification of the causal mutation is important for early diagnosis, clinical follow-up, and genetic counseling. HL due to mutations in COL11A2, encoding collagen type XI alpha-2, can be non-syndromic autosomal-dominant or autosomal-recessive, and also syndromic as in Otospondylomegaepiphyseal Dysplasia, Stickler syndrome type III, and Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome. However, thus far only one mutation co-segregating with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a single family has been reported. In this study, whole exome sequencing of two consanguineous families with ARNSHL from Tunisia and Turkey revealed two novel causative COL11A2 mutations, c.109G > T (p.Ala37Ser) and c.2662C > A (p.Pro888Thr). The variants identified co-segregated with deafness in both families. All homozygous individuals in those families had early onset profound hearing loss across all frequencies without syndromic findings. The variants are predicted to be damaging the protein function. The p.Pro888Thr mutation affects a -Gly-X-Y- triplet repeat motif. The novel p.Ala37Ser is the first missense mutation located in the NC4 domain of the COL11A2 protein. Structural model suggests that this mutation will likely obliterate, or at least partially compromise, the ability of NC4 domain to interact with its cognate ligands. In conclusion, we confirm that COL11A2 mutations cause ARNSHL and broaden the mutation spectrum that may shed new light on genotype-phenotype correlation for the associated phenotypes and clinical follow-up. PMID:25633957

  3. Polymorphisms of the coding region of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 gene associated to natural resistance against bovine brucellosis

    T.A. Paixão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucelose bovina causada por Brucella abortus é uma importante doença zoonótica, caracterizada pela ocorrência de aborto durante o último trimestre da gestação, o que resulta em diminuição da fertilidade da produção de leite em vacas. A identificação de genes associados à resistência natural contra brucelose tem sido investigada com o objetivo de selecionar animais resistentes à doença. Em bovinos, é controversa a resistência natural contra B. abortus associada ao polimorfismo da região 3' UTR do gene Slc11A1 (Nramp1. Polimorfismos localizados na sequência codificadora de Slc11A1 têm sido identificados em bovinos, contudo a influência sobre a resistência natural contra brucelose não é conhecida. No presente estudo, três novos polimorfismos do gene Slc11A1 foram genotipados por análise conformacional de fita simples em vacas experimentalmente ou naturalmente infectadas por B. Abortus, e foram avaliadas a frequência de cada genótipo e sua associação com o fenótipo de resistência ou susceptibilidade à brucelose bovina. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que alguns genótipos foram mais frequentes em animais considerados fenotipicamente susceptiveis à brucelose.

  4. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  6. Crystal structure of the I-domain from the CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1, alpha L beta 2) integrin.

    Qu, A; Leahy, D J

    1995-01-01

    We report the 1.8-A crystal structure of the CD11a I-domain with bound manganese ion. The CD11a I-domain contains binding sites for intercellular adhesion molecules 1 and 3 and can exist in both low- and high-affinity states. The metal-bound form reported here is likely to represent a high-affinity state. The CD11a I-domain structure reveals a strained hydrophobic ridge adjacent to the bound metal ion that may serve as a ligand-binding surface and is likely to rearrange in the absence of boun...

  7. hMENA(11a) contributes to HER3-mediated resistance to PI3K inhibitors in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    Trono, P; Di Modugno, F; Circo, R; Spada, S; Di Benedetto, A; Melchionna, R; Palermo, B; Matteoni, S; Soddu, S; Mottolese, M; De Maria, R; Nisticò, P

    2016-02-18

    Human Mena (hMENA), an actin regulatory protein of the ENA/VASP family, cooperates with ErbB receptor family signaling in breast cancer. It is overexpressed in high-risk preneoplastic lesions and in primary breast tumors where it correlates with HER2 overexpression and an activated status of AKT and MAPK. The concomitant overexpression of hMENA and HER2 in breast cancer patients is indicative of a worse prognosis. hMENA is expressed along with alternatively expressed isoforms, hMENA(11a) and hMENAΔv6 with opposite functions. A novel role for the epithelial-associated hMENA(11a) isoform in sustaining HER3 activation and pro-survival pathways in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells has been identified by reverse phase protein array and validated in vivo in a series of breast cancer tissues. As HER3 activation is crucial in mechanisms of cell resistance to PI3K inhibitors, we explored whether hMENA(11a) is involved in these resistance mechanisms. The specific hMENA(11a) depletion switched off the HER3-related pathway activated by PI3K inhibitors and impaired the nuclear accumulation of HER3 transcription factor FOXO3a induced by PI3K inhibitors, whereas PI3K inhibitors activated hMENA(11a) phosphorylation and affected its localization. At the functional level, we found that hMENA(11a) sustains cell proliferation and survival in response to PI3K inhibitor treatment, whereas hMENA(11a) silencing increases molecules involved in cancer cell apoptosis. As shown in three-dimensional cultures, hMENA(11a) contributes to resistance to PI3K inhibition because its depletion drastically reduced cell viability upon treatment with PI3K inhibitor BEZ235. Altogether, these results indicate that hMENA(11a) in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells sustains HER3/AKT axis activation and contributes to HER3-mediated resistance mechanisms to PI3K inhibitors. Thus, hMENA(11a) expression can be proposed as a marker of HER3 activation and resistance to PI3K inhibition therapies, to

  8. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein–Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    Zöllner A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 μM CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  9. Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri to disease.

    Amy J Osborne

    Full Text Available The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1 plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance.

  10. Examining the Role of Components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the Susceptibility of New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to Disease

    Osborne, Amy J.; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B. Louise; Kennedy, Martin A.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i) a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii) putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii) a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance. PMID:25874773

  11. RFX1 regulates CD70 and CD11a expression in lupus T cells by recruiting the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1

    Zhao, Ming; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Luo, Shuangyan; Liang, Gongping; Su, Yuwen; Tan, Yixin; Lu, Qianjin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Regulatory factor X-box 1 (RFX1) can interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and RFX1 down-regulation contributes to DNA hypomethylation and histone H3 hyperacetylation at the cluster of differentiation (CD) 11a and CD70 promoters in CD4+ T cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This leads to CD11a and CD70 overexpression, thereby triggering autoimmune responses. In order to provide more insight into the epigenetic mech...

  12. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: peretz@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3211 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3223 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible.

  13. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible

  14. Effects of whole body γ irradiation on skin wound cells and the repaired-promoting action of W11-a12

    Objective: To study the effects of 6 Gy whole body γ irradiation on components of wound cells and the repair-promoting action of W11-a12, an extract from Periplaneta americana. Methods: After mice were received 6 Gy gamma ray irradiation, the area of healing range in wound cross section, the cellular infiltration of wound and the content of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in wound epithelial cells were observed and the healing-promoting effect of W11-a12 on the radiation-impaired wound was investigated. Results: The area of healing range in cross section was decreased, various infiltrated cells were all inhibited by radiation, but the range of inhibition was more or less different, and the descending order of severity was as follows: macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The content of bFGF in epithelial cells was decreased. W11-a12 had beneficial heal-promoting effect on radiation-impaired wound: it increased cellular infiltration and promoted synthesis and secretion of bFGF in epithelial cells. Conclusion: The depletion of wound cells is mainly responsible for the healing deficits of radiation-impaired skin wound and W11-a12 enhances cell migration and proliferation and promotes synthesis and secretion of bFGF in epithelial cells

  15. First case report of rare congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by mutations in the CYP11A1 gene in the Czech Republic.

    Pomahačová, Renata; Sýkora, Josef; Zamboryová, Jana; Paterová, Petra; Varvařovská, Jana; Šubrt, Ivan; Dort, Jiří; Dortová, Eva

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a case of congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency. The patient presented after birth with cardiopulmonary instability, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. We confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency. There were no signs of the external genitalia virilism. The replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids led to normal laboratory results. At the age of 12 years, we confirmed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which revealed disorder of steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands and in the gonads. The enzymatic block was found at the beginning of steroidogenesis. The mutation was confirmed in the CYP11A1 gene. The patient is compound heterozygote for the novel CYP11A1 missense mutation c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) in exon 2 and frameshift mutation c.508_509delCT (p.Leu170Valfs*30) in exon 3. The CYP11A1: c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) was predicted as pathogenic by in silico analysis. So far, only 19 patients with CYP11A1 mutations causing P450scc deficiency have been reported worldwide. There are no related reports in the Czech Republic. PMID:27008691

  16. Pristane-induced arthritis loci interact with the Slc11a1 gene to determine susceptibility in mice selected for high inflammation.

    De Franco, Marcelo; Peters, Luciana C; Correa, Mara A; Galvan, Antonella; Canhamero, Tatiane; Borrego, Andrea; Jensen, José R; Gonçalves, Jussara; Cabrera, Wafa H K; Starobinas, Nancy; Ribeiro, Orlando G; Dragani, Tommaso A; Dragani, Tommaso; Ibañez, Olga M

    2014-01-01

    AIRmax (maximal inflammation) and AIRmin (minimal inflammation) mice show distinct susceptibilities to pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). The Slc11a1 gene, which regulates macrophage and neutrophil activity, is involved in this infirmity. AIRmax (SS) mice homozygous for the non-functional Slc11a1 S (gly169asp) allele obtained by genotype-assisted crosses from AIRmax and AIRmin mice are more susceptible than mice homozygous for the Slc11a1 resistant (R) allele. The present work sought to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulating PIA and to examine the interactions of these QTL with Slc11a1 alleles in modulating PIA. Mice were given two ip injections of 0.5 mL pristane at 60 day intervals, and the incidence and severity of PIA was scored up to 160 days. Genome-wide linkage studies were performed to search for arthritis QTL in an F2 (AIRmax × AIRmin, n = 290) population. Significant arthritis QTL (LODscore>4) were detected on chromosomes 5 and 8, and suggestive QTL on chromosomes 7, 17 and 19. Global gene expression analyses performed on Affymetrix mouse 1.0 ST bioarrays (27k genes) using RNA from arthritic or control mice paws showed 419 differentially expressed genes between AIRmax and AIRmin mice and demonstrated significantly (P<0.001) over-represented genes related to inflammatory responses and chemotaxis. Up-regulation of the chemokine genes Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Cxcl5, Cxcl13 on chromosome 5 was higher in AIRmax(SS) than in the other lines. Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 and hemeoxigenase (decycling) 1 genes on chromosome 8 were also expressed at higher levels in AIRmax(SS) mice. Our results show that the gene expression profiles of the two arthritis QTL (on chromosomes 5 and 8) correlate with Slc11a1 alleles, resulting in enhanced AIRmax(SS) mice susceptibility to PIA. PMID:24505471

  17. Adaptación y validación española de la Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt en adolescentes tempranos (BIS-11-A

    Víctor Martínez-Loredo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La impulsividad ha sido relacionada con multitud de trastornos psiquiátricos como el abuso de sustancias. La Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt (BIS-11 es uno de los autoinformes más comúnmente administrados para la evaluación de la impulsividad, tanto en el ámbito clínico como de investigación. Hay una versión para adolescentes llamada BIS- 11-A, que aún no ha sido convenientemente adaptada a población española. El objetivo de este estudio es ofrecer una versión española alternativa y más adecuada del BIS-11-A, así como la evaluación de sus características psicométricas tales como estructura factorial, fiabilidad y validez predictiva sobre el uso de sustancias (uso en el último mes de alcohol, tabaco y cánnabis, presencia de borracheras en el último mes, consumo intensivo y problemático de alcohol. El BIS-11-A e ítems de la Encuesta Escolar Europea sobre Alcohol y otras Drogas (ESPAD fueron aplicados a 1.183 estudiantes (edad 12-14 años en 16 institutos españoles de educación secundaria. El BIS-11-A ha mostrado una estructura bidimensional, alta fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach = 0,87 y buena capacidad para identificar el uso de sustancias, consumo intensivo y problemático de alcohol (sensibilidad = 67,3-75%; especificidad = 83,4-85,4%. La versión española del BIS-11-A es un instrumento fiable y válido para su uso con adolescentes tempranos.

  18. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation.

    Anita Kloss-Brandstätter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6. Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineous parents with three of four children presenting with IRIDA not responding to oral but to intravenous iron supplementation. After excluding all known causes responsible for iron deficiency anaemia we searched for mutations in SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 that could explain the severe anaemia in these children. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in all six family members. Thereby, we found seven known and fairly common SNPs, but no new mutation. We then genotyped these seven SNPs in the population-based SAPHIR study (n = 1,726 and performed genetic association analysis on iron and ferritin levels. Only two SNPs, which were top-hits from recent GWAS on iron and ferritin, exhibited an effect on iron and ferritin levels in SAPHIR. Six SAPHIR participants carrying the same TMPRSS6 genotypes and haplotype-pairs as one anaemic son showed lower ferritin and iron levels than the average. One individual exhibiting the joint SLC11A2/TMPRSS6 profile of the anaemic son had iron and ferritin levels lying below the 5(th percentile of the population's iron and ferritin level distribution. We then checked the genotype constellations in the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (n = 1,832, but the profile of the anaemic son did not occur in this population. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot exclude a gene-gene interaction between SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6, but we can also not confirm it. As in this case candidate gene sequencing did not reveal causative rare mutations, the samples will be subjected to whole exome sequencing.

  19. A high-linearity InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier for IEEE 802.11a/n

    A three-stage 4.8–6 GHz monolithic power amplifier (PA) compatible with IEEE 802.11a/n designed based on an advanced 2 μm InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT) process is presented. The PA integrates input matching and closed-loop power control circuits on chip. Under 3.3 V DC bias, the amplifier achieves a ∼31 dB small signal gain, excellent wide band input and output matching among overall 1.2 GHz bandwidth, and up to 24.5 dBm linear output power below EVM 3% with IEEE 802.11a 64QAM OFDM input signal. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. COL11A2 mutation associated with autosomal recessive Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome: molecular and clinical overlap with otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED).

    Harel, Tamar; Rabinowitz, Ronen; Hendler, Netta; Galil, Aharon; Flusser, Hagit; Chemke, Juan; Gradstein, Libe; Lifshitz, Tova; Ofir, Rivka; Elbedour, Khalil; Birk, Ohad S

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome (WZS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism and severe hearing loss. Mutations in the COL11A2 gene have been implicated in causing the autosomal dominant form of this syndrome as well as non-ocular Stickler syndrome and the autosomal recessive syndrome otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED). In a consanguineous Bedouin tribe living in Southern Israel, five individuals affected by autosomal recessive WZS were available for genetic analysis. Homozygosity of a mutation in the COL11A2 gene was found in all affected individuals. This finding lends molecular support to the clinical notion that autosomal recessive WZS and OSMED are a single entity. PMID:15558753

  1. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex s...

  2. Risk-Association of CYP11A1 Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Among Han Chinese Women in Southern China

    Minying Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endogenous sex hormones has been reported as a risk factor for breast cancer. The CYP11A1 gene encodes the key enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. In this study, the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CYP11A1 and breast cancer susceptibility were examined. Six SNPs in CYP11A1 were genotyped using the MassARRAY IPLEX platform in 530 breast cancer patients and 546 healthy controls. Association analyses based on a χ2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI for each SNP. Two loci (rs2959008 and rs2279357 showed evidence of associations with breast cancer risk. The variant genotype C/T-C/C of rs2959008 was significantly associated with a decreased risk (age-adjusted OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58–0.96; P = 0.023 compared with the wild-type TT. However, the homozygous TT variant of rs2279357 exhibited increased susceptibility to breast cancer (age-adjusted OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05–1.98; P = 0.022. The locus rs2959003 also showed an appreciable effect, but no associations were observed for three other SNPs. Our results suggest that polymorphisms of CYP11A1 are related to breast cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese women of South China.

  3. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Nytoft, H. Peter; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m), may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been repo...

  4. The CD11a partner in Sus scrofa lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1: mRNA cloning, structure analysis and comparison with mammalian homologues

    Thomas Anne VT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, the most abundant and widely expressed beta2-integrin, is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Many studies have shown that LFA-1 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by Repeats-in-toxin (RTX -producing bacteria. Results The porcine-LFA-1 CD11a (alpha subunit coding sequence was cloned, sequenced and compared with the available mammalian homologues in this study. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of these latter. Interestingly, as in sheep and humans, an allelic variant with a triplet insertion resulting in an additional Gln-744 was consistently identified, which suggests an allelic polymorphism that might be biologically relevant. Conclusion Together with the pig CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of porcine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Sus scrofa beta2-integrin LFA-1 in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the porcine species.

  5. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  6. Association of leishmaniasis with TNF alpha promoter and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients of two endemic areas in Mexico.

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin; De la Rosa-López, Gabriela; Zavaleta-Villa, Beatriz; Chávez-López, Susana; Pastor-Santiago, Jorge; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2015-05-01

    Some Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukins and other modulatory molecules of the immune response play an important role in susceptibility to infectious diseases, particularly those involving intracellular parasites. In this study, we evaluated allele, genotype and haplotype associations of two SNPs of the TNF-α promoter and seven of the SLC11A1 gene in 79 patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 15 with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), compared with 127 and 89 locality paired controls, respectively, from two endemic areas of Chiapas State, Mexico. None of the TNF-α alleles and genotypes was associated either to CL or to VL. Alleles rs2276631-C (P = 0.02; OR [95%CI] = 2.11 [1.16-3.86]) and rs2279015-G (P = 0.005; OR [95%CI] = 2.42 [1.33-4.41]) of SLC11A1, were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas genotypes rs2276631 C/C (P = 0.003; OR [95%CI] = 2.65 [1.41-5.00]) and rs2279015 G/G (P = 0.018; OR [95%CI] = 2.05 [1.15-3.64]) were significantly increased in CL and VL patients, respectively. Complete haplotypes involved in susceptibility were CGCCGDins with VL and CGCCADins with CL. CGCCA was the minimal susceptibility haplotype for CL and CCG for VL. Our data suggest that SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms might have a relevant role in the pathology of leishmaniasis, directing towards susceptibility outcome of this disease in residents of an endemic area. PMID:25603101

  7. A FORTRAN-compatible program package for the control of CAMAC-systems by a PDP-11 (CA11-A/DEC, Type 1533A/BORER)

    The described software serves for the control of CAMAC-systems by a PDP-11 Computer with one DEC CA11-A Branch-Driver, respectively up to ten BORER Type 1533A Single-Crate-Controllers under the Operating System DOS V08. The software consists of three parts: 1) a subroutine library for programming in FORTRAN, 2) a macro library for programming in Assembler (for time-critical problems), 3) a loadable CAMAC-Driver for controlling the system by input of single CAMAC-commands at the terminal. Programs which apply the first two parts can be written independently of the CAMAC-Controller used at runtime. (orig.)

  8. Structure of Na+,K+-ATPase at 11-A resolution: comparison with Ca2+-ATPase in E1 and E2 states.

    Rice, W J; Young, H S; Martin, D W; Sachs, J R; Stokes, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits and a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps. Here we present an 11-A structure of the heterodimer determined from electron micrographs of unstained frozen-hydrated tubular crystals. For this reconstruction, the enzyme was isolated from supraorbital glands of salt-adapted ducks and was crystallized within the native membranes. Crystallization conditions fixed Na+,K+-ATPase in the vanadate-inhibited E2 conformation, and the cry...

  9. Two WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX genes, PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b, are involved in adventitious root formation of poplar.

    Xu, Meng; Xie, Wenfan; Huang, Minren

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX (WOX) transcription factors play important roles in key developmental processes, but knowledge regarding functional characterization of WOX genes in poplar remains limited. To reveal genes and signaling pathways associated with adventitious rooting in poplar, here we isolated and characterized two WOX genes through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), sequence aligning, expression profiling, protoplast transfection and poplar transformation. Detailed information about the sequence similarity, structural features, evolutionary relationships, expression patterns and subcellular localization of the two genes were revealed. Overexpression of either PeWOX11a or PeWOX11b not only increased the number of adventitious roots on the cuttings but also induced ectopic roots in the aerial parts of transgenic poplars. Meanwhile, their overexpression in transgenic poplars affected axillary bud and leaf development. These results suggest that PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b were involved in multiple developmental processes of poplar, especially in adventitious root formation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation of poplar. PMID:25998748

  10. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1.

    Grieco, Amanda J; Billett, Henny H; Green, Nancy S; Driscoll, M Catherine; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF) expressing red blood cells (F-cells) and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es) derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fetal hemoglobin production in F-cells negatively correlates with expression of BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1. We then examined the effects of hydroxyurea on these three transcription factors and conclude that a successful induction of γ-globin includes a reduction in BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1 expression. These data suggests that expression changes in this transcription factor network modulate γ-globin expression in F-cells during steady state erythropoiesis and after induction with hydroxyurea. PMID:26053062

  11. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    Zhou Yun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4 was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no.AF325503. ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Methods In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and transmembrane protease, serine 11A (TMPRSS11A, also known as ECRG1, GenBank accession no. AF 071882. Then, p21 protein expression, cell cycle and cell proliferation regulations were examined after ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-transfection in ESCC cells. Results We revealed for the first time that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 phase block in ESCC. Binding affinity and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 in ESCC cells. Furthermore, the ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-expression remarkably upregulatd p21 protein level by Western blot (P Conclusions ECRG4 interacts directly with ECRG1 to upregulate p21 protein expression, induce cell cycle G1 phase block and inhibit cancer cells proliferation in ESCC.

  12. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1) to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4) was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no. AF325503). ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and transmembrane protease, serine 11A (TMPRSS11A, also known as ECRG1, GenBank accession no. AF071882). Then, p21 protein expression, cell cycle and cell proliferation regulations were examined after ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-transfection in ESCC cells. We revealed for the first time that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 phase block in ESCC. Binding affinity and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 in ESCC cells. Furthermore, the ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-expression remarkably upregulatd p21 protein level by Western blot (P < 0.001), induced cell cycle G1 phase block by flow cytometric analysis (P < 0.001) and suppressed cell proliferation by MTT and BrdU assay (both P < 0.01) in ESCC cells. ECRG4 interacts directly with ECRG1 to upregulate p21 protein expression, induce cell cycle G1 phase block and inhibit cancer cells proliferation in ESCC

  13. Relationship between Crohn's disease, infection with Mycobacterium a vium subspecies paratuberculosis and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in Sardinian patients

    Leonardo A Sechi; Maria Gazouli; Lee E Sieswerda; Paola Molicotti; Niyaz Ahmed; John Ikonomopoulos; Antonio M Scanu; Daniela Paccagnini; Stefania Zanetti

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between Crohn's disease (CD),Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), and genetic factors by examining the role of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene polymorphisms (now SLC11A1) in Sardinian patients with CD and controls.METHODS: Thirty-seven CD patients and 34 controls with no inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were recruited at the University of Sassari after giving written consent. Six SCL11A1 polymorphisms previously reported to be the most significantly associated with IBD were searched.M. paratuberculosis was identified by IS900PCR and sequencing. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the associations among CD,presence of MAP, and 6 loci described above.RESULTS: For the first time, a strong association was observed between polymorphisms at NRAMP1 locus 823C/T and CD. While CD was strongly associated with both NRAMP1 and MAP, NRAMP1 polymorphisms and MAP themselves were not correlated.CONCLUSION: Combined with previous work on the NOD2/CARD15 gene, it is clear that the interplay of genetic, infectious, and immunologic factors in the etiologyof CD is complex.

  14. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can provide a substantial benefit in spacecraft systems, reducing launch weight and providing unprecedented flexibility by allowing instrumentation capabilities to grow and change over time. Achieving data transport reliability on par with that of wired systems, however, can prove extremely challenging in practice. Fortunately, much progress has been made in developing standard WSN radio protocols for applications from non-critical home automation to mission-critical industrial process control. The relative performances of candidate protocols must be compared in representative aerospace environments, however, to determine their suitability for spaceflight applications. In this paper, we will present the results of a rigorous laboratory analysis of the performance of two standards-based, low power, low data rate WSN protocols: ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a. Both are based on IEEE 802.15.4 and augment that standard's specifications to build complete, multi-hop networking stacks. ZigBee Pro targets primarily the home and office automation markets, providing an ad-hoc protocol that is computationally lightweight and easy to implement in inexpensive system-on-a-chip components. As a result of this simplicity, however, ZigBee Pro can be susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference. ISA100.11a, on the other hand, targets the industrial process control market, providing a robust, centrally-managed protocol capable of tolerating a significant amount of RF interference. To achieve these gains, a coordinated channel hopping mechanism is employed, which entails a greater computational complexity than ZigBee and requires more sophisticated and costly hardware. To guide future aerospace deployments, we must understand how well these standards relatively perform in analog environments under expected operating conditions. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating goodput -- application level throughput -- in a representative crewed environment

  15. Association of variants at BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB with hemoglobin F and hospitalization rates among sickle cell patients in Cameroon.

    Ambroise Wonkam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at loci influencing adult levels of HbF have been shown to modify the clinical course of sickle cell disease (SCD. Data on this important aspect of SCD have not yet been reported from West Africa. We investigated the relationship between HbF levels and the relevant genetic loci in 610 patients with SCD (98% HbSS homozygotes from Cameroon, and compared the results to a well-characterized African-American cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Socio-demographic and clinical features were collected and medical records reviewed. Only patients >5 years old, who had not received a blood transfusion or treatment with hydroxyurea were included. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and a full blood count were conducted upon arrival at the hospital. RFLP-PCR was used to describe the HBB gene haplotypes. SNaPshot PCR, Capillary electrophoresis and cycle sequencing were used for the genotyping of 10 selected SNPs. Genetic analysis was performed with PLINK software and statistical models in the statistical package R. Allele frequencies of relevant variants at BCL11A were similar to those detected in African Americans; although the relationships with Hb F were significant (p <.001, they explained substantially less of the variance in HbF than was observed among African Americans (∼ 2% vs 10%. SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region (HMIP likewise had a significant impact on HbF, however, we did not find an association between HbF and the variations in HBB cluster and OR51B5/6 locus on chromosome 11p, due in part to the virtual absence of the Senegal and Indian Arab haplotypes. We also found evidence that selected SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region (HMIP and BCL11A affect both other hematological indices and rates of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This study has confirmed the associations of SNPs in BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB and fetal haemoglobin in Cameroonian SCA patients; hematological indices and hospitalization rates were also associated with specific allelic variants.

  16. (6aS,11aR,11cS-8-Sulfanylidene-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracen-3a-ium chloride hemihydrate

    Liang Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H23N2S+·Cl−·0.5H2O, was prepared from (6aS,11aR,11cS-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracene-8-one (sophocarpine and Lawesson's reagent. The thione-substituted ring is in an envelope conformation and the three other six-membered rings are in chair conformations. In the crystal, anions and cations are linked by N—H...Cl and weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. One 0.5-occupancy solvent water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis and another 0.25-occupancy solvent water molecule is in a general position. The H atoms of these water molecules were not located or included in the refinement.

  17. The use of retardion 11A8 amphoteric ion exchange resin for separation and determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis

    In this work the ion exchange separation scheme with the use of amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 underlying the method for the determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis has been devised. The accuracy of the elaborated method was tested by determining Cd and Zn content in two reference materials: Lake Sediment (SL-1) of environmental and Zinnwaldite ZW-C of geological origin. The results of quantitative determinations show good agreement with the certified values. Gamma ray spectra of zinc and cadmium fractions are practically free from other activities apart from those, which are normally observed in the background. Analytical results were corrected for the blank resulting from using reagents, glassware and contact with atmosphere when isolation of analytes before neutron activation is accomplished. Considerable minimization and good reproducibility of the blank was finally achieved.(authors)

  18. A high-linearity InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier for IEEE 802.11a/n

    Cui Jie; Chen Lei; Kang Chunlei; Shi Jia; Zhang Xuguang; Ai Baoli; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A three-stage 4.8-6 GHz monolithic power amplifier (PA) compatible with IEEE 802.11 a/n designed based on an advanced 2 μm InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT) process is presented.The PA integrates input matching and closed-loop power control circuits on chip.Under 3.3 V DC bias,the amplifier achieves a ~31 dB small signal gain,excellent wide band input and output matching among overall 1.2 GHz bandwidth,and up to 24.5 dBm linear output power below EVM 3% with IEEE 802.1 la 64QAM OFDM input signal.

  19. Performance Comparison of AODV and OLSR Using 802.11A And DSRC (802.11P Protocols in Urban Vanets

    Ederval Pablo Ferreira da Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is a network formed purely among vehicles without presence of anycommunication infrastructure as base stations and/or access point. Frequent topological changes due tohigh mobility is one of the main issues in VANETs. In this paper we evaluate Ad-hoc On-Demand DistanceVector (AODV and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR routing protocols using 802.11a and 802.11p ina realistic urban scenario. For this comparison, we chose five performance metrics: Path Availability, Endto-End Delay, Number of Created Paths, Path Length and Path Duration. Simulation results show, that formost of the metrics evaluated, OLSR outperforms AODV when 802.11p and that 802.11p is more efficientin urban VANETs.

  20. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Palaeomagnetic results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Abrahamsen, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of thec. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden part of thelower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age, the top (exposed part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian ageand the middle and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian. Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from mostPalaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence of 20 specimens from one solid core (1½ m in length and 26 sidewall cores from the well between –2219 and –3531 m below sea level (b.s.l. suggest that the volcanic materials can be divided into two characteristic groups: solid unaltered basalts and altered basalts and tuffs. The magnetic properties are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at 2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented as all specimens appear to be from one flow. Magnetic logging (magnetic susceptibility and field intensity down to 3515 m b.s.l. was made in Lopra-1/1A together with other geophysical logs but did not yield conclusive inclination data.

  1. Influence of the solar radiation on the WI-FI networks performance in the 5 ghz band (802.11a

    Carlos Orlando Chávez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental intention of this investigation was the analysis of the influence of the solar radiation on the Wi-Fi networks performance that operate in the 5 GHz band (802.11a, with the purpose of determining to what extent the incident solar radiation affects the performance of these networks in terms of throughput and the percentage of lost packages. For the data collection of performance a test Wi-Fi network was designed and implemented operating in the 5 GHz band formed in Ad-Hoc mode and, with the aid of a wireless sniffer, throughput and loss of package were obtained; at the same time the data of solar radiation provided by the weather station of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of the University of Zulia was analyzed. The obtained results indicate that the solar radiation exerts a significant influence on the performance of the Wi-Fi networks that operate in the 5 GHz band. In order to reach this conclusion, a performance index was created based on throughput and the loss of packages that, once quantified, was tabulated together with the values solar radiation values later to make a statistical analysis of regression and correlation of variables. The obtained finding serves as reference to companies as to network professionals, in order that they take in consideration this meteorological parameter at the moment of implementing networks that operate in the 5 GHz bands in geographical areas with the climatic characteristics of the Maracaibo.Key words: Solar radiation, WiFi Networks 802.11a, performance, throughput, loss of packages, to sniffer.

  2. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Thermal structure of the deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands

    Breiner, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available nformation on temperature, temperature gradients, thermal conductivity and heat flow from the c. 3.5 km deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands is presented and analysed. The upper 2450 m of the drilled sequence consists of thick tholeiitic basalt flows and the deeper parts of hyaloclastites and thin beds of basalt. Temperature data originate from high precision temperature logging a long time after drilling to a depth of 2175 m (the original Lopra-1 borehole and from commercial temperature logs measured a short time after drilling to a depth of 3430 m (Lopra-1/1A. The high-precision temperature log determines accurately levels of inflow of groundwater to the borehole and significantthermal disturbances to a depth of c. 1250 m. Below 1300 m, no significant disturbances are seen and interval temperature gradients for large depth intervals show only small variations between 28 and 33°C/km. The mean least-squares gradient for the depth interval of 1400–3430 m is 31.4°C/ km. In clear contrast to these overall very homogeneous, large-interval, mean temperature gradients, great local variability, between gradients of 20–25°C/km and 45°C/km, was observed between about 1300 and 2175 m (maximum depth of the high-resolution temperature log. These gradient variations are interpreted to be due to thermal conductivity variations and to reflect varying secondary mineralisation and mineral alterations.A preliminary analysis of the Lopra-1/1A temperature–depth function in terms of long-term palaeoclimatic signals indicates subsurface temperatures below about 1300 m to be in equilibrium with mean surface temperatures significantly below zero during the last glacial period. A subsequent temperature increase of 12–16°C occurred at around the termination of the last glaciation. The measured temperatures (some after correction and the thermal regime below 1300 m seem to represent conductive equilibrium conditions without significant disturbances from the effect of drilling, groundwater flow or long-term palaeoclimatic surface temperature variations.Thermal conductivity measured on samples of basalt taken from drill cores and surface outcrops in the area of the borehole shows values within a rather narrow range and a well-defined mean value forlow porosity basalts of about 1.8 W/m°C , while a few samples of lapilli-tuff/tuff from the borehole gave values around 1.9 W/m°C . Lapilli-tuff and tuff seem to have higher matrix (grain conductivitythan basalt. Heat flow is estimated at 60 ± 5 mW/m2. A heat flow of this magnitude is consistent with the Faroe Islands being underlain by continental crust.

  3. Annotated definition of BCL11A and HMIP-2 haplotypes through the analysis of sicilian β-thalassemia patients with high levels of fetal hemoglobin.

    Buccheri, Maria A; Spina, Sonia; Ruberto, Concetta; Lombardo, Turi; Labie, Dominique; Ragusa, And Angela

    2013-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) is the principal ameliorating factor of β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell disease. Persistent production in adult life is a quantitative trait regulated by loci inside or outside the β-globin gene cluster. From genome-wide association studies, principal quantitative trait loci (QTL) (accounting for 50.0% of Hb F variability in different populations) have been identified in the BCL11A gene, HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphism and the β-globin gene cluster itself. In this study, we analyzed quantitative trait haplotypes in two Sicilian families with extremely mild β-thal and unusually high Hb F expression, in order to examine possible genetic background variations in a similar β-thalassemic phenotype. This study redefines the linkage disequilibrium blocks at these loci, but also shows slight differences between probands in haplotype combinations which could reflect different mechanisms of high Hb F production in patients with β-thal. We proposed a haplotype-based approach as a useful tool for the understanding of β-thal phenotype variation in patients with similar β-thalassemic backgrounds in an attempt to answer the recurring question of why patients with the same β-thalassemic genotype show different phenotypes. PMID:23777413

  4. 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier and power amplifier driver for WLAN IEEE 802.11a transmitter front-end

    Zhang Xuelian; Yan Jun; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Foster, Dai Fa, E-mail: xlzhang@semi.ac.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier (VGA) and a power amplifier (PA) driver are designed for WLAN IEEE 802.11a monolithic RFIC. The VGA and the PA driver are implemented in a 50 GHz 0.35 mum SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupy 1.12 x 1.25 mm{sup 2} die area. The VGA with effective temperature compensation is controlled by 5 bits and has a gain range of 34 dB. The PA driver with tuned loads utilizes a differential input, single-ended output topology, and the tuned loads resonate at 5.2 GHz. The maximum overall gain of the VGA and the PA driver is 29 dB with the output third-order intercept point (OIP3) of 11 dBm. The gain drift over the temperature varying from -30 to 85 deg. C converges within +-3 dB. The total current consumption is 45 mA under a 2.85 V power supply.

  5. 8.64-11.62 GHz CMOS VCO and divider in a zero-IF 802.11a/b/g WLAN and Bluetooth application

    Sun Yu; Mei Niansong; Lu Bo; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yumeihuang@fudan.edu.c [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-10-15

    A fully integrated VCO and divider implemented in SMIC 0.13-{mu}m RFCMOS 1P8M technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage is presented. The frequency of the VCO is tuning from 8.64 to 11.62 GHz while the quadrature LO signals for 802.11a WLAN in 5.8 GHz band or for 802.11b/g WLAN and Bluetooth in 2.4 GHz band can be obtained by a frequency division by 2 or 4, respectively. A 6 bit switched capacitor array is applied for precise tuning of all necessary frequency bands. The testing results show that the VCO has a phase noise of-113 dBc - 1 MHz offset from the carrier of 5.5 GHz by dividing VCO output by two and the VCO core consumes 3.72 mW. The figure-of-merit for the tuning-range (FOM{sub T}) of the VCO is -192.6 dBc/Hz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CMAB001, an anti-CD11a antibody, in Chinese healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients

    Xian-ping LI; Ya-jun GUO; Jing LI; Heng YAN; BO ZHOU; Bo-hua LI; Wei-zhu QIAN; Sheng HOU; Hao WANG; Fei HAO

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK),pharmacodynamics (PD) and primary tolerability of an anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody (CMAB001) in Chinese healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients.Methods:Two open-label studies were conducted.One was a parallel-group,single-center,dose-escalation test,including 24 healthy adult volunteers from 18 to 45 years in age.All subjects randomly received a single subcutaneous injection dose of 0.5,1.0,or 2.0 mg/kg.The other was a multiple-dose study:10 adult psoriatic patients were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of 1.0 mg/kg for 7 weeks.Results:CMAB001 was well tolerated in the single- and multiple-dose studies.Slow absorption was observed in both studies.In the single-dose study,the concentration of CMAB001 reached its highest level 2 d later after the injection,and the Cmax increased in an approximate dose-proportionate manner,while the area under curve (AUC) showed much greater than dose-proportionate increase.In the multiple-dose study,the steady-state serum concentration level was attained following the 4th injection.Conclusion:CMAB001 exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile over the dose range from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/kg,and was well tolerated in healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients.

  7. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  8. 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier and power amplifier driver for WLAN IEEE 802.11a transmitter front-end

    A 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier (VGA) and a power amplifier (PA) driver are designed for WLAN IEEE 802.11a monolithic RFIC. The VGA and the PA driver are implemented in a 50 GHz 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupy 1.12 x 1.25 mm2 die area. The VGA with effective temperature compensation is controlled by 5 bits and has a gain range of 34 dB. The PA driver with tuned loads utilizes a differential input, single-ended output topology, and the tuned loads resonate at 5.2 GHz. The maximum overall gain of the VGA and the PA driver is 29 dB with the output third-order intercept point (OIP3) of 11 dBm. The gain drift over the temperature varying from -30 to 85 deg. C converges within ±3 dB. The total current consumption is 45 mA under a 2.85 V power supply.

  9. 8.64-11.62 GHz CMOS VCO and divider in a zero-IF 802.11a/b/g WLAN and Bluetooth application

    A fully integrated VCO and divider implemented in SMIC 0.13-μm RFCMOS 1P8M technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage is presented. The frequency of the VCO is tuning from 8.64 to 11.62 GHz while the quadrature LO signals for 802.11a WLAN in 5.8 GHz band or for 802.11b/g WLAN and Bluetooth in 2.4 GHz band can be obtained by a frequency division by 2 or 4, respectively. A 6 bit switched capacitor array is applied for precise tuning of all necessary frequency bands. The testing results show that the VCO has a phase noise of-113 dBc - 1 MHz offset from the carrier of 5.5 GHz by dividing VCO output by two and the VCO core consumes 3.72 mW. The figure-of-merit for the tuning-range (FOMT) of the VCO is -192.6 dBc/Hz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Analyses of the Temporal Development and Yield Losses due to Sheath Blight of Rice (Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a)

    2007-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a, has become the most important disease and caused serious yield losses in some major rice-growing regions in China in recent years. In the present study, field plot experiment was conducted to examine the relationships between disease intensity and inoculum density (ID), the seasonal disease epidemic dynamics, and yield reductions due to disease damages. Results from the experiment demonstrated that the areas under progress curves of disease severity and those of percent rice tillers diseased were positively and closely related to the relative initial ID of the pathogen. The inoculum density-disease (IDD) relationships were simulated and the impractical linear models were obtained. Both logistic and Gompertz functions could be used to simulate the disease progress dynamics in time, but the progress curves of the disease severity were modeled better by the Gompertz than by logistic function. However, the Richards function was found to be the best in simulating the disease progress curves when a most appropriate value was chosen for the shape parameter m by using the computer software Epitimulator(R).Sheath blight infection decreased rice yield very significantly and a yield reduction of 40% was recorded in rice crop with the highest inoculum density. Rice yield was linearly and negatively correlated with the disease severity and the percent tillers affected. The simulated models for all these relationships were computed through executing Epitimulator(R) software and were presented in this paper.

  11. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 9 a 11 años del estado de Aguascalientes, México

    Virginia Hernández Montoya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aguascalientes presenta contenido de fluoruros superior a 1.5 mg/L. A pesar de que existe una exposición crónica a los fluoruros a través del agua para consumo humano en este estado, se han realizado pocos estudios para establecer los daños en la salud pública ocasionados por la ingesta de fluoruros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer las prevalencias de fluorosis y caries dental en 445 niños con una edad entre 9 y 11 años que residían en diferentes zonas de exposición a fluoruros del estado de Aguascalientes. Se encontraron prevalencias de fluorosis dental cercanas al 100 % en aquellas regiones donde el agua para consumo presentó concentración de fluoruros superior a 5.0 mg/L. Inclusive en las zonas donde el contenido de fluoruros en el agua para consumo era inferior a 1.5 mg/L, las prevalencias de fluorosis dental fueron superiores al 50 %. Se encontró que el 76 % de los niños que participaron en este estudio presentaron caries dental. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio confirman la presencia de un problema de salud pública de fluorosis dental en esta entidad mexicana.

  12. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years Bruxismo y funcionamiento familiar en escolares de 5 a 11 años

    Jeny Fernández Martínez

    2009-01-01

    >Fundamento: El bruxismo, hábito perjudicial muy frecuente en niños, se asocia a menudo con conflictos emocionales, ansiedad, estrés o frustración, que bien pueden darse en el entorno familiar Objetivo: Caracterizar el funcionamiento de familias con niños de 5 a 11 años que padecen de bruxismo. Métodos: Estudio con diseño analítico de caso y control, desarrollado de marzo a junio del 2007, que incluyó niños de 5 a 11 años de 3 escuelas primarias urbanas del Área II del municipio de Cienfuegos. Se seleccionó la totalidad de niños con bruxismo como casos y los controles por pareamiento de 2 a 1. Mediante la prueba FF–SIL se percibió el funcionamiento familiar. Resultados: El bruxismo en la muestra de estudio no dependió del sexo, se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de caso y control respecto al comportamiento de los componentes del funcionamiento familiar, en los que resultaron la afectividad y la cohesión las de mayor resultado y en menor grado la armonía. En las familias estudiadas predominaron las funcionales y las moderadamente funcionales. La mayor cantidad de niños con bruxismo proceden de familias en las cuales no existe un funcionamiento familiar adecuado, además las familias disfuncionales y severamente disfuncionales son mayores en el grupo de niños con bruxismo. Conclusiones: En la muestra estudiada el bruxismo estuvo relacionado, en gran medida, con el funcionamiento familiar inadecuado.

  13. ANÁLISIS DE MÁXIMO DESEMPEÑO PARA WLAN OPERANDO A TASAS FIJAS O ADAPTIVAS USANDO EL ESTÁNDAR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g FIXED OR ADAPTIVE RATE MAXIMUM THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS FOR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g WLAN'S

    Walter Grote H; Claudio Ávila C; Alexis Molina B

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un análisis simple, pero efectivo, de desempeño (throughput) de redes de área local inalámbricas (WLAN: Wireless Local Area Networks) operando bajo la familia de estándares IEEE 802.11 a/b/g. El análisis considera la influencia del tamaño de los paquetes, parámetros de configuración de los dispositivos (uso del protocolo RTS/CTS o acceso básico, tamaño de la ventana de contienda inicial, tasas de transmisión) como el efecto del número de dispositivos que conforman ...

  14. ANÁLISIS DE MÁXIMO DESEMPEÑO PARA WLAN OPERANDO A TASAS FIJAS O ADAPTIVAS USANDO EL ESTÁNDAR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g FIXED OR ADAPTIVE RATE MAXIMUM THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS FOR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g WLAN'S

    Walter Grote H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis simple, pero efectivo, de desempeño (throughput de redes de área local inalámbricas (WLAN: Wireless Local Area Networks operando bajo la familia de estándares IEEE 802.11 a/b/g. El análisis considera la influencia del tamaño de los paquetes, parámetros de configuración de los dispositivos (uso del protocolo RTS/CTS o acceso básico, tamaño de la ventana de contienda inicial, tasas de transmisión como el efecto del número de dispositivos que conforman la red. El objetivo de este estudio es que los administradores de este tipo de redes puedan estimar los efectos que tiene sobre el desempeño la configuración de los dispositivos de la red. Los resultados obtenidos mediante este análisis constituyen una cota máxima del desempeño de la red, ya que, con el objetivo de evitar un análisis estocástico, se asume ausencia de colisiones e interferencia electromagnética en el canalIn this publication a simple, but effective, throughput analysis for WLANs (Wireless Local Area Networks operating according to the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g family of standards is presented. The influence of data packet sizes, device configuration parameters (RTS/CTS or basic access protocol, initial contention window, transmission rate and the effect of the number of devices of the network are considered. The purpose of this study is to provide network administrators an insight of how network configuration parameters affect network performance. Results of this kind of analysis will provide an upper bound on network performance, since they do not consider the effect of collisions and electromagnetic interference

  15. Features of Terra MOD11A2DAY in Operational Forecastof Grain Crops Yield in Kazakhstan with AN 8 Day Renewal

    Terekhov, A.

    2011-08-01

    The Kazakhstan, with export capacity of 6-8 million tons, is one of the largest wheat exporter in the world. About 16 million hectares of unirrigated land is used for monocultural cultivation of cereals (wheat and barley). Most of the cropland is located in the steppe and forest steppe zone. The moisture deficit limits the crop productivity and creates a strong dependency of its state of the moisture conditions during vegetation season. In Kazakhstan, the average grain yield variations are sufficiently large, from 0.9 (2010) to 1.4 tonha (2007). Given the high volatility of the gross grain harvest and export potential, respectively, methods of early satellite forecast of grain yield with high frequency of the renewal are of the great interest. In Kazakhstan, the variations in the weather growing season determine the yield of grain crops. By significant weather parameters include: the spring soil moisture, humidity and air temperature, rainfall, and several others. Plants respond to the sum of all parameters through the volume of green biomass. The regional cereal state can be estimated from satellite vegetation indices, which are particularly informative in the period of its seasonal peak. Another satellite parameter closely related to humidity conditions may be the land surface temperature (LST). Product USGS: TERRA MOD11A2DAY represents the 8-days LST composite was tested in the task of estimating of arable lands temperature in Northern Kazakhstan. The description of the temperature conditions of the growing season based on the temperature calibrated index (TCI), which was introduced by Kogan. TCI provides a weighted assessment of the current LST on a scale of 0-100, where 0 - the lowest, respectively, 100 as a high temperature, recorded during the observation period at a given location at a given time window. The monitoring period included 2004-2010 years. During the beginning of the growing season was taken on April 15, season end on 20 August - ripeness stage

  16. Determination of CTX equilibria

    The method by which we determine the magnetic field equilibrium for CTX in a nonperturbing manner is presented. Measurements of flux conserver image currents are combined with calculations from a numerical model of the equilibrium. Results give equilibria which differ significantly from the minimum energy state, but the equilibria data are well-described by a model where j/B has a linear dependence on the poloidal flux function. The observation of non-disruptive rotating internal kink distortions (with toroidal mode numbers n = 1, 2 and 3) within the equilibria and theoretical MHD thresholds for the onset of these modes corroborate the inferred equilibria

  17. CTX-M Enzymes: Origin and Diffusion

    Cantón, Rafael; González-Alba, José María; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases are considered a paradigm in the evolution of a resistance mechanism. Incorporation of different chromosomal bla CTX-M related genes from different species of Kluyvera has derived in different CTX-M clusters. In silico analyses have shown that this event has occurred at least nine times; in CTX-M-1 cluster (3), CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 clusters (2 each), and CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 clusters (1 each). This has been mainly produced by the participation of genetic mobilization units s...

  18. CTX-M enzymes: origin and diffusion

    RafaelCanton

    2012-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases are considered a paradigm in the evolution of a resistance mechanism. Incorporation of different chromosomal blaCTX-M related genes from different species of Kluyvera has derived in different CTX-M clusters. In silico analyses have shown that this event has occurred at least nine times; in CTX-M-1 cluster (3), CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 clusters (2 each), and CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 clusters (1 each). This has been mainly produced by the participation of genetic mobilization units su...

  19. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: A reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions in fracture-filling quartz and calcite from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Fracture-filling calcite and quartz from the Lopra-1/1A well (at 2380 m and 3543 m depth contains both aqueous low-salinity fluid inclusions and hydrocarbon-dominated fluid inclusions. Microthermometry indicates that the aqueous fluids contain 0.2 to 1.4 equivalent weight% NaCl and occasionally contain traces of hydrocarbons. Homogenisation to liquid occurred between 90°C and 150°C. Modelling based on these fluid inclusion observations indicates that during burial the basaltic section was subjected to temperatures of 160°C and 170°C, occasional pressures of 600–700 bars and the simultaneous percolation of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. These fluid conditions may also be relevant to the formation of zeolite observed in the Lopra-1/1A well.

  20. Positively selected Leu-11a (CD16+) cells require the presence of accessory cells or factors for the lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected fibroblasts but not herpes simplex virus-infected Raji.

    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P; Feldman, M; Curl, S; Schnell, J; Denny, T

    1989-08-15

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that human NK activity against HSV-infected fibroblasts (HSV-Fs) but not K562 targets was sensitive to treatment with anti-HLA-DR plus C. In the current study, we have selected Leu-11a+ (CD-16) cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting and found that although Leu-11a enriched populations lysed K562 targets in 14-h 51Cr-release assays, they were unable to kill HSV-Fs targets unless a Leu-11a-depleted population was added back to the effectors or unless known activators of NK cells (IFN-alpha or IL-2) were added to the assays. In contrast, Leu-11a-enriched populations were able to mediate ADCC against HSV-Fs in the presence of sera from HSV-seropositive individuals without the requirement for accessory cells. We have begun preliminary characterization of the accessory cells which allow lysis of HSV-Fs by NK cells: they are HLA-DR+ cells which enrich in the light density fractions of Metrizamide density gradients. They need be present in very small numbers for lysis to take place and are not MHC restricted in that heterologous add-backs between anti-HLA-DR plus C and anti-Leu-11b plus C-treated populations are capable of target cell lysis at levels similar to those achieved with the autologous add-backs. Further, the levels of lysis in heterologous add-back experiments reflected the lytic potential of the effector rather than the accessory cell donor. Finally, although the requirement for accessory cells for NK lysis has been demonstrated for fibroblasts infected with HSV-1, CMV, and VZV, lysis of HSV-infected Raji lymphoblastoid cells is relatively accessory-cell independent, indicating that the requirement for accessory cells for lysis by NK cells is not a property of all herpesvirus-infected targets. PMID:2526183

  1. Estudo do crescimento e desenvolvimento em escolares de 11 a 16 anos de idade de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Estudo do crescimento e desenvolvimento em escolares de 11 a 16 anos de idade de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Determinação das características do crescimento e desenvolvimento em escolares de diferentes níveis sócio-econômicos. Avaliação de 360 crianças do sexo masculino, de 11 a 16 anos, que estudam na rede de escolas públicas no município de Londrina, Paraná. Foram realizadas medidas de altura, peso corporal, peso de gordura e massa corporal magra. Para determinar o peso de gordura utilizou-se a medida dos valores de dobras cutâneas, segundo padronização de Yuhasz. A população mensurada foi dividida em dois grupos, classificados pelo nível sócio-econômico determinado pela profissão dos pais, atendendo aos critérios da tabela de Glass, modificada por Hutchinson. Comparando-se os resultados obtidos entre o grupo considerado de baixo nível e o de alto nível sócio-econômico, foram verificadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes (P Determination of the characteristics of the growth and development of students of different socio-economic levels. Evaluation of 360 male children, from 11 to 16 years of age, who attend the public schools of the municipality of Londrina, Parana. Measurements of height, bodily weight, weight of fat and lean corporal mass, were taken. To determine the weight of fat, the measurement of the values of the cutaneous folds, following the standardization of Yuhasz, was utilized. The measured population was divided in two groups, classified according to socio-economic level as determined by the father's occupation, considering the criteria of Glass's table, as modified by Hutchinson. Comparing the results obtained in the group considered of low level and in that of high socio-economic level, statistically significant differences (P < 0,01 were verified for all of the variables studied. It was concluded, by the data obtained in this study, that the socio-economic aspect, together with other factors, can influence significantly the pattern of growth and physical development in children between the ages of

  2. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-14 β-Lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae Isolated in France

    Dutour, C.; Bonnet, R.; H. Marchandin; Boyer, M.; Chanal, C; Sirot, D; Sirot, J

    2002-01-01

    Six clinical CTX-M-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were detected between 1999 and 2000 in different French hospitals. Two strains produced CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-3 and four strains produced CTX-M-14, a mutant Ala-231→Val of CTX-M-9. A putative transposable element, ISEcp-1, was located 43 bp upstream of all the blaCTX-M genes. Two CTX-M-14-encoding plasmids exhibited similar restriction patterns. The CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-3-encoding plasmids were related to the CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-...

  3. Congenital insensitivity to pain: Fracturing without apparent skeletal pathobiology caused by an autosomal dominant, second mutation in SCN11A encoding voltage-gated sodium channel 1.9.

    Phatarakijnirund, Voraluck; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Wenkert, Deborah; Clements, Karen L; Whyte, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) comprises the rare heritable disorders without peripheral neuropathy that feature inability to feel pain. Fracturing and joint destruction are common complications, but lack detailed studies of mineral and skeletal homeostasis and bone histology. In 2013, discovery of a heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in SCN11A encoding voltage-gated sodium channel 1.9 (Nav1.9) established a distinctive CIP in three unrelated patients who suffered multiple painless fractures, self-inflicted mutilation, chronic diarrhea, and hyperhidrosis. Here, we studied a mother and two children with CIP by physical examination, biochemical testing, radiological imaging including DXA, iliac crest histology, and mutation analysis. She suffered fractures primarily of her lower extremities beginning at age two years, and had Charcot deformity of both ankles and joint hypermobility. Nerve conduction velocity together with electromyography were normal. Her children had recurrent major fractures beginning in early childhood, joint hypermobility, and chronic diarrhea. She had an excoriated external nare, and both children had hypertrophic scars from scratching. Skin collagen studies were normal. Radiographs revealed fractures and deformities. However, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores, biochemical parameters of mineral and skeletal homeostasis, and iliac crest histology of the mother (after in vivo tetracycline labeling) were normal. Genomic DNA from the children revealed a unique heterozygous missense mutation in exon 23 (c.3904C>T, p.Leu1302Phe) of SCN11A that is absent in SNP databases and alters an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. This autosomal dominant CIP reflects the second gain-of-function mutation of SCN11A. Perhaps joint hypermobility is an unreported feature. How mutation of Nav1.9 causes fracturing remains unexplained. Lack of injury awareness is typically offered as the reason, and was supported by our unremarkable biochemical

  4. The Impact of XmnI-HBG2, BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Hb F Variation of Hematologically Normal Iranian Individuals.

    Keyhani, Elaheh; Jafari Vesiehsari, Mahjoobeh; Talebi Kakroodi, Setareh; Darabi, Elham; Zamani, Fahimeh; Karimlou, Masoud; Kamali, Koorosh; Neishabury, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    The impact of Hb F on severity of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia (β-thal) is well documented. The XmnI-HBG2, BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been introduced as the most important factors causing variation in fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in different population studies. However, the extent of their effect could be population-specific. In this study, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of Hb F with age, sex, and eight SNPs, including XmnI-HBG2, four BCL11A, two HBS1L-MYB SNPs and the polymorphic palindromic 5' hypersensitive 4-locus control region (5'HS4-LCR). One hundred and twenty-two hematologically normal individuals, from a previous study cohort, constituted our study population. In multivariate regression analyses, no association of Hb F was observed with age or sex of the individuals and SNPs in this study. We conducted a univariate regression analysis to further investigate the results, which among all the factors only detected XmnI-HBG2 and 5'HS4 SNPs as significant modifiers of Hb F. The significance of these two factors disappeared in a bivariate analysis. These results suggest that either XmnI-HBG2 or 5'HS4-LCR have a stronger contribution in Hb F variations of the Iranian population than BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB SNPs. Furthermore, the effect of low population size and technical limitations on obtained results could not be ruled out. PMID:27117569

  5. Primer molar permanente: historia de caries en un grupo de niños entre los 5 y 11 años frente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres.

    Jorge Tascón; Liliana Aranzazu; Tania Velasco; Karol Trujillo; Mónica Paz

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir la historia de caries del primer molar permanente en niños entre 5 y 11 años y los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres. INTRODUCCIÓN: La caries es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, se inicia tras la erupción dental y determina un reblandecimiento de los tejidos duros del diente. El primer molar permanente erupciona entre los 5 y 7 años de edad, no tiene predecesor y es uno de los dientes más afectados por esta enfermedad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS:...

  6. Primer molar permanente: historia de caries en un grupo de niños entre los 5 y 11 años frente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón; Liliana Aranzazu; Tania Velasco; Karol Trujillo; Mónica Paz

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir la historia de caries del primer molar permanente en niños entre 5 y 11 años y los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres. Introducción: La caries es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, se inicia tras la erupción dental y determina un reblandecimiento de los tejidos duros del diente. El primer molar permanente erupciona entre los 5 y 7 años de edad, no tiene predecesor y es uno de los dientes más afectados por esta enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: Para es...

  7. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona

    M. Castells Cuixart; C. Capdevila Prim; T. Girbau Solà; C. Rodríguez Caba

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como...

  8. An alternative pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1)-mediated conversion to 20-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Wortsman, Jacobo; Zjawiony, Jordan; Li, Wei; Zbytek, Blazej; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    We report an alternative, hydroxylating pathway for the metabolism of vitamin D2 in a cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc; CYP11A1) reconstituted system. NMR analyses identified solely 20-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2 derivatives. 20-Hydroxyvitamin D2 was produced at a rate of 0.34 mol·min−1·mol−1 P450scc, and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2 was produced at a rate of 0.13 mol·min−1·mol−1. In adrenal mitochondria, vitamin D2 was metabolized to six monohydroxy products. Nev...

  9. Dyspraxia 5-11: A Practical Guide.

    Macintyre, Christine

    This book attempts to explain dyspraxia, a coordination disorder, and how the condition affects children of primary school age. The first chapter defines dyspraxia and answers common questions concerning what the condition is, difficulties these children experience, reasons for these difficulties, the prevalence of dyspraxia, and ways to help.…

  10. Spain: Project control. Annex 11A

    This annex deals with project control. This annex presents some details of the suspension program manual as prepared at a Spanish NPP. The manual is a pre-requisite for orderly transformation from construction to extended suspension phase. Table of content of the manual is given. (author)

  11. INFLUENCIA DE LA RADIACIÓN SOLAR SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO DE LAS REDES WI-FI EN LA BANDA DE LOS 5 GHZ (802.11A)

    Carlos Orlando Chávez

    2007-01-01

    El propósito fundamental de esta investigación fue el análisis de la influencia de la radiación solar sobre el desempeño de las redes WI-FI que operan en la banda de los 5 GHz (802.11a), con el fin de determinar en qué medida la radiación solar incidente afecta el desempeño de estas redes en términos de throughput y porcentaje de paquetes perdidos. Para la recolección de datos de desempeño se diseñó e implementó una red WI-FI de prueba operando en la banda de 5 GHz configurada en modo Ad-Hoc ...

  12. NMR analysis of (1S,1aR,6aR-2’,3’,6,6a-tetrahydro-spiro[cycloprop[a]indene-1(1aH,1’-[1H]indene

    PETER SPITELLER

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aldol condensation product of 1H-indan-1-one, (2E-2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one, subjected to Huang–Minlon reduction conditions was shown, via 1D and 2DNMRanalysis, to be amixture of (1S,1aR,6aR-2’,3’,6,6a-tetrahydro-spiro[cycloprop[a]indene-1(1aH,1’-[1H]indene] and its 1R,1aS,6aS enantiomerand not 2,3,1’,3’-tetrahydro-[1,2’]-biindenylidene as originally expected. The full NMR assignment, the coupling constants in the proton NMR, and the couplings in the HMBC and NOESY of the title compound are summarized in the Table.

  13. Extracciones e indicaciones de extracciones dentales en población rural chilena de 11 a 30 años Extractions and indications of dental extractions in rural chilean population give 11 to 30 years

    S. Olate; JP Alister; Soto, M.; R Alveal; J. Fuentes; D. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: A pesar de la creciente tecnología odontológica y el progresivo aumento de la cantidad de odontólogos, el precario estándar de salud oral de la población rural se ha mantenido a lo largo del tiempo. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir y cuantificar las exodoncias de piezas dentarias permanentes en población rural. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo seleccionando el 100% de los sujetos atendidos en el Consultorio Chol-Chol, (IX Región) de 11 a 30 añ...

  14. The interaction domain of the redox protein adrenodoxin is mandatory for binding of the electron acceptor CYP11A1, but is not required for binding of the electron donor adrenodoxin reductase

    Adrenodoxin (Adx) is a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin involved in electron transfer reactions in the steroid hormone biosynthesis of mammals. In this study, we deleted the sequence coding for the complete interaction domain in the Adx cDNA. The expressed recombinant protein consists of the amino acids 1-60, followed by the residues 89-128, and represents only the core domain of Adx (Adx-cd) but still incorporates the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Adx-cd accepts electrons from its natural redox partner, adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), and forms an individual complex with this NADPH-dependent flavoprotein. In contrast, formation of a complex with the natural electron acceptor, CYP11A1, as well as electron transfer to this steroid hydroxylase is prevented. By an electrostatic and van der Waals energy minimization procedure, complexes between AdR and Adx-cd have been proposed which have binding areas different from the native complex. Electron transport remains possible, despite longer electron transfer pathways

  15. CTX-M-93, a CTX-M Variant Lacking Penicillin Hydrolytic Activity

    Djamdjian, L.; Naas, T; Tande, D.; Cuzon, G.; Hanrotel-Saliou, C.; Nordmann, P

    2011-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type are increasingly being reported worldwide, with more than 90 known variants. Clinical Escherichia coli isolate Bre-1 was isolated in 2009 and displayed an unusual ESBL phenotype, made of a synergy image between expanded cephalosporins and clavulanic acid discs and susceptibility to penicillins. E. coli Bre-1 harbored a novel CTX-M-encoding gene, designated blaCTX-M-93. CTX-M-93 differed from CTX-M-27 by only a single L169Q substitution....

  16. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

    Maureen Janette Más García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 children from three clinics of the quarter “Junco Sur” in Cienfuegos developed from June 2005 to June 2006. The clinical examination was performed in children, and their parents or tutors were interviewed. The frequency of buccal deforming habits was determined, as well as the presence of dental maxillofacial defects. Results: Deforming habits were identified in 60, 2% of the children; the most frequent were baby bottle suction (48%, finger suction (24% at six years old and lingual protraction at eight years (36,1% in girls. The dental maxillary-facial defects occurred in the 42,6% and there was a prevalence of vestibule-version at eight years (44,4%, augmented ridge at 10 years (35,4% and bilabial incompetence at 11 years (13,3%, all of them in girls. There was prevalence in Angle´s Class I with 60, 1%. Conclusion: Buccal deforming habits are a health problem in the studied universe.Fundamento: Para tratar malos hábitos, el primer paso es la detección del agente causal. Muchos se derivan de situaciones comunes que al ser detectadas y adecuadamente tratadas pueden contribuir a la desaparición espontánea del mal hábito. Objetivo: Caracterizar un grupo de niños de 5 a 11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional que incluyó 176 niños de tres consultorios del Consejo Popular “Junco Sur” de Cienfuegos, desarrollado de junio de 2005 a

  17. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Wire-line log-based stratigraphy of flood basalts from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Boldreel, Lars O.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows that it is possible to use conventional borehole logs to perform a detailed lithological/stratigraphical division of a column of subaerially extruded basalt. A stratigraphical division of the subaerial flood basalts penetrated by the Lopra-1/1A well has been carried out using new wire-line logging data measured in 1996 in the interval 200–2489 m depth. Resistivity data acquired in the interval 200–2178 m depth during 1981 after the initial drilling of the Lopra-1 well have also been incorporated. Eighty-six individual flow units, 18 compound flows and two dolerite dykes have been identified by combining the NPHI porosity, RHOB density, P-, S- and Stonely-sonic transit time, calliper and resistivity logs. Fifty-two sedimentary/tuffaceous layers have also been identified using the CGR and SGR gamma ray and potassium logs in combination with the aforementioned logs. Within the flow units, sonic velocity, density and resistivity are highest in the core where porosity is lowest. This relation is reversed in the uppermost and basal zones of the flow units. The sonic velocity in the core seems to be independent of the thickness of the flow unit. Porous zones seem abundant in some cores and the total section of cores containing porous zones constitutes more than 70% of the thickness of its flow unit, but where porous zones are absent the core makes up only roughly 50% of the thickness of the flow. It is suggested that the flow units with porous cores represent aa flows (88% of the flow units and the others pahoehoe flows (12% of the flow units.The log pattern of the flow units (crust, core and basal zone is similar to log patterns reported from other basalt plateaux. However the patterns in Lopra-1/1A show a larger variation than elsewhere,suggesting that the flow units are more complex vertically than previously thought. Statistical analysis of P-, S- and Stonely-waves, RHOB, NPHI, resistivity, gamma and calliper logs has beencarried out. Cross-plots based on the lithological divisions have been produced that show a pronounced reduction in scattering versus P-sonic transit time and P- and S-sonic, RHOB and NPHI logs correlate with depth. The geochemical logs do not reflect the cyclic structure of the flow units and probably represent the primary composition of the basalt. The thorium log especially indicatesflow units with high and low radioactivity and it is suggested that a minimum of 36 flow fields form the logged part of the lower basalt series. Dolerite units described in previous works have been confirmed based on the combined interpretation of wire-line logs. The log data suggest that the subaerially extruded basalt has its base at a depth of approximately 2490 m and that a hyaloclastite succession is found below that depth. The transition from subaerially extruded basalt to hyaloclastite produces a negative acoustic impedance and it is found that the transition corresponds to a negative reflection interpreted on VSP surveys from 1988 and 1994.

  18. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  19. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  20. Forsmark site investigation. Microorganisms in groundwater from boreholes KFM10A, KFM11A and KFM08D - numbers, viability, and metabolic diversity. Results from five sections 298.0-305.1 m and 478.0-487.5 m in KFM10A, 447.5-454.6 m in KFM11A, and 669.7-676.8 m and 828.4-835.5 m in KFM08D

    Microorganisms and their characteristic features were investigated while geochemically characterizing the groundwater, as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark. The investigation consists of determining the total numbers of microorganisms, the concentration of adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP), and the number of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB); also included is a method for determining the numbers of organisms belonging to different physiological groups, the most probable number (MPN) method. This investigation covered eight different groups, namely, nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria, auto- and heterotrophic acetogens, and auto- and heterotrophic methanogens. The reproducibility of the MPN method was tested using groundwater from a depth of 450 m at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and was found to be excellent. Samples were taken from boreholes KFM10A at 298.305 m and 478.487 m, KFM11A at 447.454 m, and KFM08D at 669.676 m and 828.835 m; the sampling dates were 2006-11-28, 2006-10-31, 2007-03-13, 2007-06-19, and 2007-05-02, respectively. The total number of cells (TNC) found in KFM10A groundwater was the highest so far found in a total of 19 analysed sections in the Forsmark area. In contrast, KFM08D-828 m and KFM11A-447 m had among the lowest numbers of cells found thus far. A large amount of ATP per cell indicates large, active cells. The average of all previous ATP/TNC ratios (n ≅ 100) in deep groundwater was determined to be 0.43. The analysed groundwater samples from KFM10A-478 m and KFM08D-669 m had ATP/TNC ratios exceeding the overall average of 0.43 for deep groundwater. This suggests that the microorganisms in these groundwaters possessed viability and activity levels above the average for deep groundwater microorganisms. The ratios between the CHAB and NRB numbers found here suggest that there was no surface water contamination. The percentages of TNC culturable using the MPN method were in the 1

  1. Occurrence of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-9 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Korea

    Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Young-Sook; Seol, Sung-Yong

    2005-01-01

    Among 603 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between June and November 2003 from three university hospitals within Korea, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-9 were detected in 41 isolates of species from five different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens.

  2. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  3. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DEFNAT (Tunisia) and the BIPM February to March 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Ben Salah, B.; Mallat, A.; Abene, L.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Laboratoire de Métrologie Electrique, DEFNAT (Tunisia), was carried out from February to March 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMC (ZC) and BIPM6 (Z6), were transported by freight to DEFNAT and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a BIPM in-house voltage stabiliser was connected in parallel to the internal battery. The voltage stabiliser consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for 10 consecutive days. At DEFNAT, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DEFNAT, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DEFNAT, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DEFNAT, UDEFNAT, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 26th of February 2016. UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.04 μV, at 1.018 V UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.38 μV uc = 0.10 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  4. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DMDM (Serbia) and the BIPM, January to March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Pantelic-Babic, J.; Sofranac, Z.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM), Beograd, Serbia, was carried out from January to March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMA (ZA), were transported by freight to DMDM. At DMDM, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output electromotive force of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DMDM, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DMDM, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DMDM, UDMDM, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 13 February 2014. UDMDM - UBIPM = 0.094 µV uc = 0.072 µV, at 1 V UDMDM - UBIPM = 0.39 µV uc = 0.12 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at DMDM, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The results at the 10 V level are not covered by the uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. After the distribution of the Draft A, the DMDM discovered that the pressure gauge was defective. Some considerations on the correction to apply on the comparison result and the corresponding uncertainties are presented in the report. Nevertheless, the above results fully cover the CMCs of DMDM which are significantly larger. No corrections for temperature and pressure are applied in calibrations for

  5. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y bajo desempeño escolar, en estudiantes de 11 a 24 años de edad del estado de Morelos, México

    Arillo-Santillán Edna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la asociación entre desempeño escolar autorreportado, y la experimentación y consumo de tabaco actual en estudiantes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio poblacional transversal en el ámbito escolar, de 72 zonas administrativas de los 33 municipios del estado de Morelos, en áreas urbana, semiurbana y rural. De un marco muestral de escuelas públicas se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 13 293 estudiantes, de entre 11 a 24 años, que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multinomial, donde la variable dependiente fue el hábito tabáquico en tres categorías (no fumadores, fumadores experimentadores y fumadores actuales. Resultados. La prevalencia de experimentación de consumo de tabaco fue 14.9% (IC 95%: 14.1-15.7 en mujeres y 27.3% (IC 95%: 26.1-28.4 en hombres; la prevalencia de consumo actual fue 6.1% (IC 95%: 5.6-6.6 y 13.1% (IC 95%: 12.2-13.9, respectivamente. En ambos géneros, conforme se incrementa la prevalencia tanto en experimentación como en consumo de tabaco actual, decrece el desempeño escolar. La asociación entre consumo de tabaco actual fue 5.1 veces mayor en mujeres (IC 95%:2.5-10.4, con promedio anual de calificaciones de seis respecto de quienes reportaron un promedio con valores de 10 y de nueve; en hombres se observó el mismo fenómeno (RM=4.2;IC 95%:2.7-6.7, con una tendencia lineal positiva y significativa en mujeres y hombres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados brindan evidencia de la posible relación entre el incremento de consumo de tabaco y el bajo desempeño escolar. Dicha asociación está determinada por complejas prácticas cotidianas de estilos y condiciones de vida de los adolescentes.

  6. Deforming buccal habits in children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos. 2005. Hábitos bucales deformantes en niños de 5 a 11 años. Cienfuegos, 2005.

    Elsie María Padilla Gómez

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are very complex neuromuscular patterns. Deforming buccal habits can obstruct the normal growth and development of stomatognathic system. Objective: To characterize subjects with deforming habits. Method: An observational, descriptive and correlacional study was developed in 341 children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos from December 2004 to September 2005. In addition to the clinical examination, an interview was performed to parents/tutors and teachers. Data was collected in a data formulary and variables as age, sex, deforming buccal habits and dentomaxillofacial anomalies were analyzed. Findings: Deforming buccal habits frequency was 79%. The most common habits were lingual protraction (47, 2%, baby bottle suction (32, 6% and onychophagia (23, 5%, all of them predominant in girls. 75% of the children with these habits developed anomalies; being vestibule-version (21, 1%, increased over bite (20,2% and bilabial incompetence (17,9% the most frequent. Conclusions: It was confirmed that deforming Buccal habits are a health problem that affects the stomatognathic system. This should be treated by the General Integral Dentist in a systematic and direct way.
    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza muy compleja. La práctica de los hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático. Objetivo: Caracterizar los portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional, en 341 niños de 5 a 11 años, del municipio Cienfuegos, en el período de diciembre 2004 a septiembre 2005. Además del examen clínico, se realizó entrevista a padres/tutores y maestros de cada niño. La información fue almacenada en un formulario de datos

  7. Effectiveness of an educational intervention in schoolchildren from 8 to 11 presenting deforming Efectividad de una intervención educativa en escolares de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes

    Clara Rosa Rosell Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The practice of deforming oral habits may interfere with normal growth and development of the stomatognathic system and, consequently, cause dentomaxillofacial abnormalities. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children from 8 to 11 presenting deforming oral habits. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted before and after the intervention. The sample consisted of 67 children from the "Roberto Fleites" primary school in Cienfuegos, from January to September 2008. Different types of patterns and anomalies were identified for each child. The special program "Take Care of Your Smile" was applied weekly. A survey was applied to children, parents and educators before and after the application of educative and prevention actions and treatment. Results: deforming habits were eliminated in 66 % of cases (more frequent deforming habits were tongue protraction, bottle suction and nail biting and dentomaxillofacial abnormalities were reduced. The knowledge level of children, parents and educators was raised. Conclusions: deforming habits constitute a health problem that can be prevented in early stages in order to improve the harmony of the stomatognathic system components. An educational intervention can be effective for prevention in these cases.Fundamento: la práctica de hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático y como consecuencia anomalías dentomaxilofaciales. Objetivo: analizar la efectividad de una intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: estudio cuasiexperimental con intervención antes y después, realizado en una muestra de 67 niños de la escuela primaria “Roberto Fleites”, de Cienfuegos, desde

  8. blaCTX-M Genes in Escherichia coli Strains from Croatian Hospitals Are Located in New (blaCTX-M-3a) and Widely Spread (blaCTX-M-3a and blaCTX-M-15) Genetic Structures▿

    Literacka, Elżbieta; Bedenic, Branka; Baraniak, Anna; Fiett, Janusz; Tonkic, Marija; Jajic-Bencic, Ines; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from three Croatian hospitals were analyzed. All blaCTX-M-15 genes and one blaCTX-M-3a gene resided in widely spread ISEcp1 transposition modules, but other blaCTX-M-3a genes were in a new configuration with two IS26 copies, indicating a new event of gene mobilization from a Kluyvera ascorbata genome. The study confirmed the role of the E. coli ST131 clonal group with IncFII-type plasmids in the spread of blaCTX-M-15 and of IncL/M pCTX-M3-type plasmid...

  9. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona

    M. Castells Cuixart

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como el visionado de la televisión y la actividad física. Resultados: El estudio muestra que la unidad familiar formada por dos hijos y los padres es la más habitual. Solo el 12% de los adolescentes encuestados viven con los abuelos. Se observa poca presencia de toda la familia durante las principales comidas en los días laborables mientras que se produce un incremento en los días festivos de un 26% en desayuno, un 44% en la comida y de un 11% en la cena. El 24% de los escolares desayunan sin compañía y el 46% comen lo que quieren. En cuanto a la merienda el 25% lo hacen solos y el 55% comen lo que quieren. Un 60% nunca o casi nunca participan en la decisión de compra de los alimentos. El 70% realizan alguna otra actividad mientras comen. Concretamente, el 40, 39 y 59% de los adolescentes manifiestan que ven la televisión durante el desayuno, la merienda y la cena, respectivamente. La frecuencia de consumo de horas de televisión, chucherías y refrescos es significativamente menor en los adolescentes de los centros privados que en los de los públicos. Conclusiones: El estudio revela que mayoritariamente los padres deciden los alimentos que compran, pero los adolescentes tienen un papel importante en la decisión de los alimentos que consumen principalmente en el desayuno y en la merienda así como en las actividades que realizan mientras comen. Por ello, el farmacéutico, como profesional de la salud, debe intervenir en la educaci

  10. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y bajo desempeño escolar, en estudiantes de 11 a 24 años de edad del estado de Morelos, México

    Edna Arillo-Santillán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la asociación entre desempeño escolar autorreportado, y la experimentación y consumo de tabaco actual en estudiantes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio poblacional transversal en el ámbito escolar, de 72 zonas administrativas de los 33 municipios del estado de Morelos, en áreas urbana, semiurbana y rural. De un marco muestral de escuelas públicas se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 13 293 estudiantes, de entre 11 a 24 años, que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multinomial, donde la variable dependiente fue el hábito tabáquico en tres categorías (no fumadores, fumadores experimentadores y fumadores actuales. Resultados. La prevalencia de experimentación de consumo de tabaco fue 14.9% (IC 95%: 14.1-15.7 en mujeres y 27.3% (IC 95%: 26.1-28.4 en hombres; la prevalencia de consumo actual fue 6.1% (IC 95%: 5.6-6.6 y 13.1% (IC 95%: 12.2-13.9, respectivamente. En ambos géneros, conforme se incrementa la prevalencia tanto en experimentación como en consumo de tabaco actual, decrece el desempeño escolar. La asociación entre consumo de tabaco actual fue 5.1 veces mayor en mujeres (IC 95%:2.5-10.4, con promedio anual de calificaciones de seis respecto de quienes reportaron un promedio con valores de 10 y de nueve; en hombres se observó el mismo fenómeno (RM=4.2;IC 95%:2.7-6.7, con una tendencia lineal positiva y significativa en mujeres y hombres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados brindan evidencia de la posible relación entre el incremento de consumo de tabaco y el bajo desempeño escolar. Dicha asociación está determinada por complejas prácticas cotidianas de estilos y condiciones de vida de los adolescentes.Objective. To assess the association between self-reported academic performance and tobacco experimentation and established tobacco use among adolescents and young adults in Morelos State

  11. CTX-M-123, a Novel Hybrid of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 Group β-Lactamases Recovered from Escherichia coli Isolates in China

    He, Dandan; Partridge, Sally R.; Shen, Jianzhong; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Lanping; Rao, Lili; Lv, Luchao; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The chimeric blaCTX-M-123 gene was identified in two ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from animals in different Chinese provinces. Like other CTX-M-1/9 group hybrids (CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-132), the ends (amino acids 1 to 135 and 234 to 291) of CTX-M-123 match CTX-M-15 while the central part (122 to 241) matches CTX-M-14. blaCTX-M-123 is carried on related, but not identical, ∼90-kb IncI1 plasmids in the two isolates, and one isolate simultaneously carries the group 1 blaCTX-M-55 ...

  12. blaCTX-M-1/9/1 Hybrid Genes May Have Been Generated from blaCTX-M-15 on an IncI2 Plasmid

    Liu, Lanping; He, Dandan; Lv, Luchao; Liu, Wuling; Chen, Xiaojie; Zeng, Zhenling; Partridge, Sally R.; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three hybrid CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-64, CTX-M-123, and CTX-M-132, with N and C termini matching CTX-M-1 group enzymes and centers matching CTX-M-9 group enzymes, have been identified. The hybrid gene sequences suggested recombination between blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14, the two most common blaCTX-M variants worldwide. However, blaCTX-M-64 and blaCTX-M-123 are found in an ISEcp1-blaCTX-M transposition unit with a 45-bp “spacer,” rather than the 48 bp usually associated with blaCTX-M-15, and...

  13. MRO CTX-based Digital Terrain Models

    Dumke, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    In planetary surface sciences, digital terrain models (DTM) are paramount when it comes to understanding and quantifying processes. In this contribution an approach for the derivation of digital terrain models from stereo images of the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) are described. CTX consists of a 350 mm focal length telescope and 5000 CCD sensor elements and is operated as pushbroom camera. It acquires images with ~6 m/px over a swath width of ~30 km of the Mars surface [1]. Today, several approaches for the derivation of CTX DTMs exist [e. g. 2, 3, 4]. The discussed approach here is based on established software and combines them with proprietary software as described below. The main processing task for the derivation of CTX stereo DTMs is based on six steps: (1) First, CTX images are radiometrically corrected using the ISIS software package [5]. (2) For selected CTX stereo images, exterior orientation data from reconstructed NAIF SPICE data are extracted [6]. (3) In the next step High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) DTMs [7, 8, 9] are used for the rectification of CTX stereo images to reduce the search area during the image matching. Here, HRSC DTMs are used due to their higher spatial resolution when compared to MOLA DTMs. (4) The determination of coordinates of homologous points between stereo images, i.e. the stereo image matching process, consists of two steps: first, a cross-correlation to obtain approximate values and secondly, their use in a least-square matching (LSM) process in order to obtain subpixel positions. (5) The stereo matching results are then used to generate object points from forward ray intersections. (6) As a last step, the DTM-raster generation is performed using software developed at the German Aerospace Center, Berlin. Whereby only object points are used that have a smaller error than a threshold value. References: [1] Malin, M. C. et al., 2007, JGR 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002808 [2] Broxton, M. J. et al

  14. Desarrollo y validación preliminar de escalas para la evaluación de la competencia motriz acuática en escolares de 4 a 11 años. Development and preliminary validation of an aquatic competence scale for children 4 to 11 years old.

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2005-01-01

    ResumenEl objeto de este trabajo es la creación y validación de unas escalas para medir la competencia motriz acuática de los 4 a los 11 años. Para ello se utiliza una muestra de 645 niños con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 11 años. Se aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio, quedando constituida por cuatro escalas, compuestas a su vez por dos factores cada una de ellas, una referida a la familiarización con el medio acuático, y otro factor referido a las acciones donde es necesario ...

  15. Practical route to the left wing of CTX1B and total syntheses of CTX1B and 54-deoxyCTX1B.

    Yamashita, Shuji; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Koyama, Takuya; Inoue, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative agents of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are extremely large polycyclic ethers. We report herein a reliable route for constructing the left wing of CTX1B, which possesses the acid/base/oxidant-sensitive bisallylic ether moiety, by a 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing metathesis strategy. This new route enabled us to achieve the second-generation total synthesis of CTX1B and the first synthesis of 54-deoxyCTX1B. PMID:25529606

  16. Emergence and Dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Producing CTX-M-1-Like Enzymes in Spain Are Associated with IncFII (CTX-M-15) and Broad-Host-Range (CTX-M-1, -3, and -32) Plasmids▿

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Moreira, Raquel; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2006-01-01

    The spread of CTX-M-1-like enzymes in Spain is associated with particular plasmids of broad-host-range IncN (blaCTX-M-32, blaCTX-M-1), IncL/M (blaCTX-M-1), and IncA/C2 (blaCTX-M-3) or narrow-host-range IncFII (blaCTX-M-15). The identical genetic surroundings of blaCTX-M-32 and blaCTX-M-1 and their locations on related 40-kb IncN plasmids indicate the in vivo evolution of this element.

  17. Relacion entre capacidades físicas, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la discriminación dentro de la clase de Educación Física en alumnos de 10 y 11 años, en cuatro colegios de Chillan, Chile

    Portes Júnior, Moacyr; Avendaño R., Macarena; Baeza, Daniela G.; Castillo E., Gabriela; Cifuentes A., Claudio; Moraga M., Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: verificar relación entre IMC, capacidades físicas y discriminación en clase de Educación Física, alumnos entre 10 a 11 años, 4 colegios de Chillán, Chile. Metodología: medir flexibilidad, velocidad y resistencia; calcular IMC; posteriormente contestar cuestionario de auto percepción frente a sus pares en relación a discriminación en clases de Educación Física. Población: 178 sujetos; muestra: 44 indicaron discriminación. Resultados: IMC: 72,6% de la muestra, que sienten discriminaci...

  18. Three Cefotaximases, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, and CTX-M-14, among Enterobacteriaceae in the People's Republic of China

    Chanawong, Aroonwadee; M'Zali, Fatima Hannachi; Heritage, John; Xiong, Jian-Hui; Hawkey, Peter Michael

    2002-01-01

    Of 15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying blaCTX-M genes revealed that they harbored three diffe...

  19. The Novel CTX-M-116 β-Lactamase Gene Discovered in Proteus mirabilis Is Composed of Parts of the CTX-M-22 and CTX-M-23 Genes

    Fursova, N.; Pryamchuk, S.; Kruglov, A; Abaev, I.; Pecherskikh, E.; Kartsev, N.; Svetoch, E.; Dyatlov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The novel β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-116 was identified in a Proteus mirabilis nosocomial isolate recovered from the urine of a patient in Moscow in 2005. DNA sequence analysis showed blaCTX-M-116 to be a hybrid gene consisting of 5′ blaCTX-M-23 (nucleotides 1 to 278) and 3′ blaCTX-M-22 (nucleotides 286 to 876) moieties separated by an intervening putative site of recombination (GTTAAAT). A retrospective analysis of available blaCTX-M genes in the GenBank database revealed 19 blaCTX-M genes th...

  20. CTX-M Expression and Selection of Ertapenem Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli▿

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    In vitro selection of mutants with decreased susceptibility to ertapenem was performed using Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains producing either the blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-9, or blaCTX-M-15 gene. Frequencies of mutants with decreased susceptibilities to ertapenem were similar for all β-lactamases expressed.

  1. A Novel CTX-M β-Lactamase (CTX-M-8) in Cefotaxime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated in Brazil

    Bonnet, R.; Sampaio, J. L. M.; Labia, R; De Champs, C; Sirot, D; Chanal, C; Sirot, J

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Brazil, 18 strains from different species of the family Enterobacteriaceae exhibiting a positive double-disk synergy test were collected by a clinical laboratory from several hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1996 and 1997. Four strains (Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Citrobacter amalonaticus) hybridized with a 550-bp CTX-M probe. The P. mirabilis strain produced a CTX-M-2 enzyme. The E....

  2. Effects of irradiation and W11-a12 on anion-selective channel of mouse peritoneal macrophage%电离辐射对小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞阴离子通道活动的影响及康复新对其的作用

    舒崇湘; 叶本兰; 程天民; 萧家思

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨电离辐射对小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞阴离子通道活动的影响及康复新对其的作用。方法 采用电生理膜片钳离子单通道记录方法。结果 用调理的zymosan刺激腹腔巨噬细胞后,阴离子通道开放的阳性率在受照射组显著减少,且受刺激至通道开放的时间间隔显著延长。受照射组较正常对照组通道开放概率显著降低、开放时间常数缩短而关闭时间常数延长,康复新对正常对照组离子通道活动的影响不显著,但可使照射组的通道开放有一定程度的加强。结论 电离辐射抑制巨噬细胞膜上阴离子通道的开放可能是其抑制巨噬细胞功能的一个重要途径。康复新可减弱电离辐射的这一抑制作用。%Objective To study the effects of irradiation and W11-a12,a kind of repair-promoting drug,on anion-selective channel in membranes of mouse peritoneal macrophage. Methods The activity of anion-selective channel was recorded from cell-attached patches with patch clamp techniques. Results The effects of irradiation on anion-selective channel in membranes of peritoneal macrophage included:①decreasing the mean number of activated channels by the presence of zymosan; ②prolonging the mean time from stimulus to the opening of channels; ③depressing the opening of channels by decreasing open-state probability,shortening open-time and prolonging close-time. The effects of irradiation could partly be depressed by W11-a12. Conclusion Irradiation will depress the anion-selective channel of peritoneal macrophage, which may be an important way to depress the function of macrophage.

  3. Molecular and Kinetic Comparison of the Novel Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-26

    Munday, Craig J.; Boyd, David A.; Brenwald, Nigel; Miller, Mark; Andrews, Jennifer M.; Wise, Richard; Mulvey, Michael R; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    CTX-M-25 is a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase isolated from a single Canadian Escherichia coli isolate. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that this enzyme confers resistance to both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, but the level of resistance was reduced with the addition of β-lactamase inhibitors. The blaCTX-M-25 gene was detected on a 111-kb plasmid. It is a member of the CTX-M-8 group and has the closest amino acid identity (99%; three amino acid substitutions) with CTX-M-26. The blaCTX-M...

  4. CTX-M-14, CTX-M-24 and resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates

    2006-01-01

    @@ Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the main cause of resistance to the third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae, which are mediated by plasmids and can hydrolyze oxyiminoaminothiazolyl cephalosporins and mono- bactams.1 Most of ESBLs are mutants of the classical TEM and SHV types, with one or more amino-acid substitution(s) in the active site. β-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, can inhibit their activities. Recently, The cefotaximases (CTX-M) group, a new family of plasmid-mediated ESBLs, reported from many countries increasingly, preferentially hydrolyzes cefotaxime.2 So far, CTX-M-3 has been the most prevalent type of ESBL in China and widespread in Enterobacteriaceae, while other CTX-M type ESBLs are few reported.3 In this study, we identified the CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-24 in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) clinical isolates from patients in Shanghai Huashan Hospital in 1999.

  5. CTX-M–producing Non-Typhi Salmonella spp. Isolated from Humans, United States

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca; Krueger, Amy; Rickert, Regan; Pecic, Gary; Lupoli, Kathryn; Folster, Jason P.; Whichard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    CTX-M–type β-lactamases are increasing among US Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Of 2,165 non-Typhi Salmonella isolates submitted in 2007 to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, 100 (4.6%) displayed elevated MICs (>2 mg/L) of ceftriaxone or ceftiofur. Three isolates (serotypes Typhimurium, Concord, and I 4,5,12:i:–) contained bla CTX-M-5, bla CTX-M-15, and bla CTX-M-55/57, respectively.

  6. Novel Chimeric β-Lactamase CTX-M-64, a Hybrid of CTX-M-15-Like and CTX-M-14 β-Lactamases, Found in a Shigella sonnei Strain Resistant to Various Oxyimino-Cephalosporins, Including Ceftazidime▿

    Nagano, Yukiko; Nagano, Noriyuki; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2008-01-01

    The plasmid-mediated novel β-lactamase CTX-M-64 was first identified in Shigella sonnei strain UIH-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 1,024 μg/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC, 32 μg/ml). The amino acid sequence of CTX-M-64 showed a chimeric structure of a CTX-M-15-like β-lactamase (N- and C-terminal moieties) and a CTX-M-14-like β-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. The introduct...

  7. Acesso anterior para pacientes com fraturas traumáticas do tipo compressão do segmento toracolombar (T11 a L2 da coluna vertebral Anterior approach in patients with traumatic compression fracture type of thoracolumbar spine (T11-L2

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com o acesso anterior em fraturas traumáticas do tipo compressão no segmento toracolombar (T11 a L2 que foram submetidos à cirurgia pelo acesso anterior. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de janeiro de 1994 a janeiro de 2004 envolvendo 32 pacientes. A presença da fusão óssea e do alinhamento foram analisadas 6 e 12 meses após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 36,53 anos, sendo 23 do sexo masculino. A vértebra mais atingida foi L1 (n=12. A maioria dos casos que internaram em ASIA/IMSOP C (n=10 e D (n=13 evoluiram para ASIA/IMSOP E. A média da deformidade angular pré-operatória foi 14,9°±7,5°, com diferença estatística (pOBJECTIVE: To describe experience with anterior access in compression fractures of thoracolumbar segment (T11 to L2 traumatic fractures that undergone anterior access surgery. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted between January 1994 and January 2004 with 32 patients. The bone fusion and thoracolumbar alignment were analyzed 6 months and 12 months after the surgery. RESULTS:The average age was 36.53 years old with 23 male patients. The most compromised vertebrae was L1 (n=12. The 23 patients that was ASIA/IMSOP C and ASIA/IMSOP D turned to ASIA/IMSOP E after 1 month (n=12 and 12 months (n=5 of surgery. The preoperative angular deformity average was 14.9°±7.5°. Statistical significance was found (p<0.0001 when compared to the 30 days postoperative value. CONCLUSION: The anterior access permits a better spinal canal decompression and angular deformity correction when compared with the posterior access alone.

  8. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    Claudia García Salazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio epidemiológico radiográfico sobre la prevalencia de las anomalías dentarias en niños de una determinada población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así mismo para preparar al paciente a convivir con las posibles anomalías de forma definitiva, llevando una vida normal e integrándose a la sociedad. La radiografía panorámica, por sus características topográficas y por permitir la observación de todo el complejo maxilofacial, es reconocida como la mejor imagen convencional para visualizar las anomalías dentomaxilo-mandibulares. Se observaron, las radiografías panorámicas seleccionadas y se registraron los hallazgos en un formato previa-mente validado, previa consulta bibliográfica y la construcción de un marco conceptual, se realizó la interpretación y análisis, iluminados por las categorías conceptuales y reales surgidas dentro de la observación e interpretación de la radiografía panorámica y se logró el propósito de establecer los índices de las anomalías más frecuentes de crecimiento y desarrollo dentario, observables en radiografía panorámica entre pacientes de ambos sexos de 4 a 11 años de edad, generando un impacto entre los profesionales y estudiantes de odontología sobre el uso de la radiografía panorámica en la población infantil como complemento necesario de la historia clínica, de otro tipo de radiografías (periapicales para un fomento de la práctica de una odontología basada en la evidencia. (Duazary 2006; 1: 45 - 54

  9. Prevalência, necessidade de tratamento e fatores predisponentes do traumatismo na dentição permanente de escolares de 11 a 13 anos de idade Prevalence, treatment needs, and predisposing factors for traumatic injuries to permanent dentition in 11-13-year-old schoolchildren

    J. Traebert

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência do traumatismo dentário na dentição permanente e observar associações com fatores predisponentes. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com escolares de 11 a 13 anos de Biguaçu, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os exames foram realizados por um cirurgião-dentista utilizando os mesmos critérios do Children's Dental Health Survey do Reino Unido. Foram observados tipo de dano, tratamento providenciado e necessidade, overjet incisal, adequabilidade da cobertura labial, idade, sexo e nível de educação dos pais. Foram examinadas 2.260 crianças e as prevalências encontradas foram: 10,4%, 10,6% e 11,2% aos 11, 12 e 13 anos, respectivamente. A necessidade de tratamento foi de 6,3 incisivos por mil examinados. Escolares do sexo masculino e com overjetmaior que 5mm tiveram mais traumatismo dentário do que escolares do sexo feminino e com overjetincisal até 5mm. Cobertura labial inadequada e nível de educação dos pais não estiveram estatisticamente associados com o traumatismo dentário. Concluiu-se que ser do sexo masculino ou ter um overjetincisal maior do que 5mm aumenta a chance de sofrer traumatismo dentário.The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors and the association with clinical predisposing factors and parents' schooling. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with schoolchildren aged 11 to 13 years in Biguaçu, Brazil. Dental examinations were conducted by a dentist, and the criteria for traumatic dental injuries used in the children's dental health survey in the United Kingdom were adopted. the study recorded the type of damage sustained, treatment performed or needed, the size of incisal overjet, and whether lip coverage was adequate. Socio-demographic data included sex, age, and parents' level of schooling. a total of 2,260 children were examined, and prevalence rates were 10.4%, 10.6%, and 11.2% in 11, 12, and 13-year

  10. Community-Onset Disease Caused by Citrobacter freundii Producing a Novel CTX-M β-Lactamase, CTX-M-30, in Canada

    Abdalhamid, Baha; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Moland, Ellen S.; Hanson, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    Strains of Citrobacter freundii intermediate to cefotaxime but sensitive to ceftazidime were isolated from four different patients in Canada. Sequencing of PCR products by use of CTX-M-specific primers revealed a new combination of four amino acid substitutions. This new gene was designated blaCTX-M-30 and was encoded on a 3-kb plasmid. The pI of CTX-M-30 was 8.0.

  11. Emergence of CTX-M-15-Producing Enterobacteria in Cameroon and Characterization of a blaCTX-M-15-Carrying Element

    Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Miriagou, V.; Vourli, S.; Tzelepi, E.; Ngassam, P.; Tzouvelekis, L S

    2005-01-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli emerged recently in Cameroon. CTX-M-15 was encoded by two different multiresistance plasmids, of which one carried an ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15) element flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and inserted within a Tn2-derived sequence. A truncated form of this element in the second plasmid was identified.

  12. High-Level Resistance to Ceftazidime Conferred by a Novel Enzyme, CTX-M-32, Derived from CTX-M-1 through a Single Asp240-Gly Substitution

    Cartelle, Monica; del Mar Tomas, Maria; Molina, Francisca; Moure, Rita; Villanueva, Rosa; Bou, German

    2004-01-01

    A clinical strain of Escherichia coli isolated from pleural liquid with high levels of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam harbors a novel CTX-M gene (blaCTX-M-32) whose amino acid sequence differs from that of CTX-M-1 by a single Asp240-Gly substitution. Moreover, by site-directed mutagenesis we demonstrated that this replacement is a key event in ceftazidime hydrolysis

  13. Epidemic Plasmid Carrying bla CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella penumoniae in China

    Zhuo, Chao; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zong, Zhi-yong; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the local epidemiology of Klebsiella penumoniae carrying bla CTX-M-15 in southern China and to characterize the genetic environment of bla CTX-M-15. Methods PCR and DNA sequencing were used to detect and characterize the genetic contexts of bla CTX-M-15. The clonal relatedness of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15 was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Conjugative plasmids carrying bla CTX-M-15 were obtained by mating and were further subject to restriction an...

  14. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates were determined using the agar diffusion method according to the CLSI. Screening for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes and class 1 integron was performed by PCR amplification. To determine the genomic diversity of CTX-M-producers, isolates were analyzed by macrorestriction profile analysis following PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-one K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL-producing. PCR and sequencing experiments detected 38 CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to groups CTX-M 1, CTX-M 2, CTX-M 8 and CTX-M 9. The association of different types ESBL (CTX-M, SHV and TEM was frequent. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried class 1 integron. PFGE analysis revealed thirty-one clonal types among CTX-M-producing isolates. The data presented herein illustrate the diversity of genotypes of CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae among Brazilians hospitals.

  15. Characterization of CTX-M-Type Extend-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella spp. in Kashan, Iran

    2015-01-01

    Context: The CTX-M family consists of more than 50 β-lactamases, which are grouped on the basis of sequences into five subtypes including CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25. Objectives: The current study aimed to detect subtypes of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among ESBL positive Klebsiella isolates from patients in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 clinical isolates of Klebsiella were collected and the isolates, which showed resistance or reduce...

  16. β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者血红蛋白F表达与BCL11A基因rs11886868位点单核苷酸多态性的关系%Correlation Between Hemoglobin F Levels and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism at BCL11A Gene rs11886868 Locus in β-thalassemia Patients

    陈群蓉; 孙顺昌; 彭运生; 王清; 莫宝妹

    2012-01-01

    本研究通过分析β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者的血红蛋白F(HbF)表达及BCL11A基因rs11886868位点的单核苷酸多态性,探讨二者之间的关系.选取89例已知基因突变类型的轻型β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者,通过毛细管电泳分析患者的红细胞HbF含量;提取患者基因组DNA,通过聚合酶链反应扩增含rs11886868位点的BCL11A基因片段,用DNA测序法确定rs11886868位点的单核苷酸多态性.结果显示,在89例深圳地区β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者的BCL11A基因rs11886868位点中发现C和T两种单核苷酸多态性;携带C/C单倍型患者的红细胞HbF含量为(4.47±3.42)%,高于携带C/T单倍型患者的(2.79±2.21)%.结论:β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者BCL11A基因rs11886868位点存在C和T两种单核苷酸多态性,其中C多态性可能与红细胞内HbF高表达存在相关性.%This study was aimed to analyze hemoglobin F (HbF) level and single nucleotide polymorphisms at rsl 1886868 locus of BCUIA gene in p-thalassemia patients, and to explore correlation between them. 89 mild β-thalassemia patients with known mutations were registered, and HbF levels were determined by capillary elcctrophoresis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes, fragment including rsll886868 locus in BCL11A gene was amplified by PCR, and polymorphism was determined by DNA sequencing. The results showed that 2 polymorphisms including C and T were found at rsl 1886868 locus in BCUIA gene among 89 mild β-thalassemia patients. HbF levels in red blood cells were (4. 47 ± 3. 42)% and (2. 79 ± 2. 21)% for β-thalassemia patients carrying C/C and C/T haplotypes, respectively. There was difference between 2 haplotype groups. It is concluded that the C and T polymorphisms are found at rsl 1886868 locus in the BCUIA gene for β-thalassemia patients. C polymorphism may be related to high HbF expression in red blood cells.

  17. Variaciones del clima terrestre y rayos cósmicos galácticos durante el ciclo solar de 11 años: Revisión teórica Earth climate and galactic cosmic rays variations during 11 year solar cicle: Theoretical review

    Eduardo Andrés Agosta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, han sido numerosos los estudios en torno a la interacción entre los rayos cósmicos galácticos (RCGs y el clima de la Tierra con una gran variedad de resultados, algunos de ellos controversiales. Parece haberse dado un gran avance en el aspecto teórico de la posible interacción, siendo dos los principales mecanismos físicos candidatos: la nucleación mediada-por-el-ión (ion-mediated nucleation, IMN y la electrocolección. En una y otra teoría, el papel fundamental de los RCGs es la ionización en la atmósfera. La teoría del IMN prescribe cambios en las propiedades de la microfísica de la nube (vida de la nube, albedo, espesor óptico, concentración de núcleos de condensación, entre otros y consecuentes cambios en la cobertura nubosa baja global. La electrocolección añade a la anterior, modificaciones en la dinámica de la nube que, en mayor escala, produce modificaciones en la circulación atmosférica. Hay algunas evidencias observacionales de relación consistente con las teorías propuestas a lo largo del ciclo solar de 11 años entre RCGs y variables climáticas (cobertura nubosa global, circulación atmosférica, precipitación. No obstante, la complejidad del sistema deja entrever otros posibles mecanismos; por ejemplo, la interacción estratosfera-troposfera por la relación UV-ozono. A su vez, la existencia de tendencias seculares en el flujo de RCGs, que se asociarían al calentamiento global, sugiere incorporar otra variable a evaluar en la problemática del cambio global.In recent years, a number of studies are concerned on the relationship between the Earth climate and the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs. A variety of results are found and some are controversial. Theoretical advance seems to be reached through two main candidate theories: the ion-mediated nucleation (IMN and the electro-scavenging. In both theories, the main role of GCRs is ionization in the Atmosphere. The IMN theory prescribes

  18. Identification of the discrepancy bone-teeth in children between 5 and 11 years with oral breathing Determinación de la discrepancia hueso diente en niños de 5 a 11 años respiradores bucales

    María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The correct proportion between teeth arches and size is crucial, thus there are different methods to measure dental size. Objective: To apply the method Moyer-Jenkin and its modification in mixed dentition. Method: Analytical, cross-sectional design, developed in the period January-April, 2007. The sample included 60 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years with oral breathing and Angle Class II and mixed dentition from the primary school "Guerrillero Heroico", Health Area II in Cienfuegos. Microsoft Word and SPSS 15.0 in English were used to process data. The studied variables were: measures and time. Results: The measurements of bone-teeth discrepancies for both maxillas were similar for both methods, without statistical significant differences. Regarding the discrepancy level, there was a moderated discrepancy in the studied group, with a marked increase in the mandible. There was a prevalence of normal incisive index and a reduction of macrodontism in negative discrepancies. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the modified method was proved, related with the reduction of the application time compared with Moyers-Jenkin method.

    Fundamento: Es estrictamente necesario que exista una adecuada proporción entre los tamaños de los dientes y sus arcos, por lo que existen diferentes métodos para proceder a la medición de los tamaños dentarios. Objetivo: Aplicar el método de Moyer-Jenkin y su modificación en dentición mixta para la comparación de los resultados en los pacientes respiradores bucales con maloclusiones de clase II. Método: El estudio tiene un diseño analítico. La muestra estuvo constituida por 60 niños entre las edades de 5 a 11 años respiradores bucales con clase II de Angle y dentición mixta, de la escuela primaria Guerrillero Heroico del área II de salud del

  19. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Kesavaram Padmavathy; Krishnan Padma; Sikhamani Rajasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients fro...

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of the blaCTX-M-2 Gene in Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis

    Di Conza, José A.; Gutkind, Gabriel O.; Mollerach, Marta E.; Ayala, Juan A.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional organization of blaCTX-M-2 present in a multiresistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis suggests the presence of more than one promoter involved in the expression of the β-lactamase gene. At least two blaCTX-M-2-specific mRNAs (near to 1 kb and 5 kb) were evidenced. Two +1 signals were detected at −22 bp and −59 bp of blaCTX-M-2 defining two putative promoters.

  1. Emergence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14)-Producing Nontyphoid Salmonella with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Food Animals and Humans in Korea ▿

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Tae-Sun; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Twenty of 1,279 nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and humans produced CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase. All expressed CTX-M-15, except two which coexpressed CTX-M-14 and TEM-1. Insertion sequence ISEcp1 was identified upstream of blaCTX-M genes. The blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 genes were disseminated by large conjugative IncFIIs and IncI1-Iγ plasmids, respectively.

  2. CTX-M-9 group extended-spectrum β-lactamases in neonatal stool isolates: Emergence in India

    Roy, S.; Mukherjee, S.; A.K. Singh; Basu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports for the first time the identification of CTX-M-14-like and CTX-M-27-like extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) belonging to the CTX-M-9 group in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolated from the neonatal stool in India. The plasmid carrying the blaCTX-M-9 group in both the isolates was transferable. Till date, no other CTX-M group, except the CTX-M-1 group, has been reported from India. A total of 77% of the neonates had ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli in...

  3. Comparative Analysis of IncHI2 Plasmids Carrying blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-9 from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry and Humans▿

    Fernández, Aurora García; Cloeckaert, Axel; Bertini, Alessia; Praud, Karine; Doublet, Benoît; Weill, François-Xavier; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-9 plasmid backbones from isolates from Belgium and France were analyzed. The blaCTX-M-2-plasmids from both human and poultry isolates were related to the IncHI2 pAPEC-O1-R plasmid, previously identified in the United States in avian Escherichia coli strains; the blaCTX-M-9 plasmids were closely related to the IncHI2 R478 plasmid.

  4. Strain diversity of CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae in individual pigs

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Bortolaia, Valeria; Damborg, Peter Panduro;

    2014-01-01

    of CTX-M-2/97-producing Proteus mirabilis or Providencia rettgeri was observed in two sows and two offspring. At least two genetically unrelated CTX-M-producing E. coli strains were isolated from approximately one fourth of the samples with remarkable differences between isolates obtained by enrichment...

  5. Prevalence of bla CTX M extended spectrum beta lactamase gene in enterobacteriaceae from critical care patients

    R Indra Priyadharsini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Early detection of CTX M producing Enterobacteriaceae by continuous surveillance and thereby reducing their spread and restricted use of third generation Cephalosporins (3GC antibiotics could be the possible routes to prevent the emergence and spread of CTX M ESBL producing organisms.

  6. ISEcp1B-Mediated Transposition of blaCTX-M in Escherichia coli

    Poirel, Laurent; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Several expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes are associated with ISEcp1-like elements in Enterobacteriaceae. We found that ISEcp1B was able to mobilize the adjacent blaCTX-M-19 gene by a transpositional mechanism in Escherichia coli by recognizing a variety of DNA sequences as right inverted repeats.

  7. ISEcp1B-Mediated Transposition of blaCTX-M in Escherichia coli

    Poirel, Laurent; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Several expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes are associated with ISEcp1-like elements in Enterobacteriaceae. We found that ISEcp1B was able to mobilize the adjacent blaCTX-M-19 gene by a transpositional mechanism in Escherichia coli by recognizing a variety of DNA sequences as right inverted repeats. PMID:15616333

  8. Chromosome-Encoded CTX-M-3 from Kluyvera ascorbata: a Possible Origin of Plasmid-Borne CTX-M-1-Derived Cefotaximases

    Rodríguez, María Margarita; Power, Pablo; Radice, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A.; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    A gene identical to plasmid-borne blaCTX-M-3 is present in the chromosome of one Kluyvera ascorbata strain. It is associated with a structure including an inverted repeat right and an open reading frame 477-like gene probably involved in the mobilization of blaCTX-M-3. Two other K. ascorbata strains rendered the previously described blaKLUA-9 gene.

  9. Intercontinental emergence of Escherichia coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

    Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Blanco, Jorge; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Demarty, Raphael; Alonso, Maria Pilar; Caniça, Maria Manuela; Park, Yeon-Joon; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Pitout, Johann; Johnson, James,

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concomitant with the recent emergence of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), Escherichia coli has become the enterobacterial species most affected by ESBLs. Multiple locales are encountering CTX-M-positive E. coli, including specifically CTX-M-15. To gain insights into the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we assessed clonality and diversity of virulence profiles within an international collection of CTX-M-15-positive E. coli. METHODS: Forty-one ESBL-positive...

  10. Clonal spread of highly successful ST15-CTX-M-15 Klebsiella pneumoniae in companion animals and horses

    Ewers, Christa; Stamm, Ivonne; Pfeifer, Yvonne;

    2014-01-01

    (CTX-M-1) (5.6%), bla(CTX-M-3), bla(CTX-M-9), bla(SHV-2) and bla(SHV-12) (1.1% each), were also detected. Additional resistances, e.g. to fluoroquinolones (89.9%), were frequently present. ST15-CTX-M-15, a clonal group that recently emerged in humans, accounted for 75.8% of the strains analysed by MLST and...

  11. Identification of CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Genes Using Real-Time PCR and Pyrosequencing▿

    Naas, Thierry; Oxacelay, Cynthia; Nordmann, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasingly prevalent worldwide among Escherichia coli bacteria, mostly in community-acquired urinary tract infections. Finding a fast and reliable technique for identification of CTX-M enzymes is becoming a challenge for the microbiology laboratory. A fast real-time PCR amplification technique, using degenerated primers specific for all the blaCTX-M alleles, coupled to real-time pyrosequencing was developed. The five CTX-M groups were unambig...

  12. Molecular characterization of CTX-M β-lactamases among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients at Tehran hospitals

    N Shoeib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Plasmid-encoded CTX-M-group of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs represent a significant and rapidly emerging problem in most part of the world. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of CTX-M producing Klebsiella pneumoniae at Tehran hospitals. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (n=250 were collected from 10 hospitals of Tehran. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, MIC of cefotaxime and ESBLs production of collected isolates were detected. All ESBL-producing isolates were screened for bla CTX-M genes using PCR and DNA sequencing. Molecular typing of bla CTX-M harboring isolates was performed by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay. Results: Of 250 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, 102 isolates revealed ESBLs - phenotype. PCR assay and sequencing detected bla CTX-M genes in 71.5% (n= 73 of ESBL-producing isolates. The prevalence of CTX-M -I and CTX-M-III clusters among these isolates was 35.61% (n=26 and 21.9 % (n=16 respectively. Coexistence of CTX-M -I and CTX-M-III clusters was found among 42.5% (n= 31 of isolates. Of 102 isolates that were positive in the phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT, 29 isolates (28.4% did not produce any amplicons in PCR for bla CTX-M gene. The results of PCR for CTX-M -II and CTX-M-IV clusters were also negative. Analysis of the 31 CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae isolates by PFGE typing showed 26 distinct patterns. Conclusions: The bla CTX-M genes are widespread among Iranian isolates of K. pneumoniae. PFGE demonstrated the high diversity of K. pneumoniae harboring bla CTX-M in our study.

  13. Comparison and Co-Registration of Dems Generated from HiRISE and Ctx Images

    Wang, Yiran; Wu, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Images from two sensors, the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the Context Camera (CTX), both on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), were used to generate high-quality DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of the Martian surface. However, there were discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the images acquired by these two sensors due to various reasons, such as variations in boresight alignment between the two sensors during the flight in the complex environment. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the HiRISE and CTX images. A combined adjustment algorithm is presented for the co-registration of HiRISE and CTX DEMs. Experimental analysis was carried out using the HiRISE and CTX images collected at the Mars Rover landing site and several other typical regions. The results indicated that there were systematic offsets between the HiRISE and CTX DEMs in the longitude and latitude directions. However, the offset in the altitude was less obvious. After combined adjustment, the offsets were eliminated and the HiRISE and CTX DEMs were co-registered to each other. The presented research is of significance for the synergistic use of HiRISE and CTX images for precision Mars topographic mapping.

  14. Genotyping and characterization of CTX-M-15 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from an Iranian hospital.

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to describe the genetic characterization of blaCTX-M-1 group gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae and to investigate the relationship between isolates by MLVA and PFGE. We analyzed 36 CTX-M group 1-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. rmpA and wcaG virulence genes were identified by PCR. The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-1 was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid replicons were determined using PCR-based replicon typing. The isolates were typed by MLVA and PFGE. All blaCTX-M-1 were blaCTX-M-15. The wcaG and rmpA were detected in 1 and 2 isolates, respectively. IncF were the most frequently detected replicons (63.88%). In all isolates, ISEcp1 was found upstream and orf477 downstream of blaCTX-M-15, IS26 was found in two isolates. MLVA identified 20 MLVA types, whereas PFGE identified 25 different profiles. The dissemination of CTX-M-15 in our isolates was due to the clonal spread of isolates and to the genetic transfer of mobile elements among unrelated strains. PMID:25734924

  15. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Kesavaram Padmavathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for blaCTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs, fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2% of the ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIPRSXTRGENR was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%. However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India.

    Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Padma, Krishnan; Rajasekaran, Sikhamani

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for bla CTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs), fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2%) of the ESBL producers harbored bla CTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIP(R)SXT(R)GEN(R)) was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%). However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27123344

  17. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Padma, Krishnan; Rajasekaran, Sikhamani

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for blaCTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs), fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2%) of the ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIPRSXTRGENR) was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%). However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27123344

  18. High prevalence ofblaCTX-M inEnterobacteriaceae isolates from the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Khalid M Bindayna; Mariam Murtadha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) by testing a cohort of clinicalESBL-producing bacterial isolates that were isolated in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods:ESBLproducingEnterobacteriaceae isolates (based on phenotypic tests) were collected from Microbiology Laboratory of the Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain between January-June2006. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics was performed andblaCTX-M genes were detected by multiplexPCR.Results: A total of230 isolates (Escherichia coli,n=180;Klebsiella pneumoniae,n=50) were studied,98% were CTX-M type. ForEscherichia coli isolates,65 (36.1%)harboredCTXM+TEMcombination and68(37.8%) had CTX-M alone. In contrast, forKlebsiella pneumoniae isolates only 5 (10.0%) harbored the CTX-M combination, and none had CTX-M only. The blaCTX-Mgene was found predominantly in urine isolates (n=145/230; 63.0%). Sensitivity to imipenem and nitrofurantoin was100% and 60%, respectively.CTX-M carriage was associated with the resistance to fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides.Conclusions: Our study documentes high prevalence ofCTX-M ESBL type amongEscherichia coliandKlebsiella from the Kingdom of Bahrain. The apparent dissemination of CTX-Mproducers could represent a substantial barrier in the treatment of community-acquired infections. The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides is compromised, leaving carbapenems as the therapeutic option for severe infections caused byESBL producers.

  19. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Liao, Xiao-Ping; Xia, Jing; YANG, Lei; Liang LI; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya-Hong; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of bla CTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in Escherichia coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for bla CTX-M-14 and then the bla CTX-M-14 -positive i...

  20. Characterisation of CTX-M-β-lactamases in enterobacteriaceaeae in hospitals in Kuwait

    Almaraghi, Norya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this decade, the CTX-M family of enzymes are considered to be the most common type of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The production of these Class A β-lactamases are noted to be most prevalent in the Enterobacteriaceaeae family. Many global reports indicated that CTX-M-15, of the CTX-M-1 group, is a growing concern, causing resistance to different classes of antibiotics. Worrisome trends of the spread of this enzyme have been indicated in nosocomial...

  1. Molecular Characterization of CTX-M β-Lactamase and Associated Addiction Systems in Escherichia coli Circulating among Cattle, Farm Workers, and the Farm Environment

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Gurung, Mamata; Jang, Geum-Chan; Kim, Su-Ran; JUNG, SUK-CHAN; Park, Yong Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, farm workers, and the farm environment isolated from February to September 2008 in the Republic of Korea were investigated. All 84 ESBL-producing isolates carried blaCTX-M genes that belonged to the CTX-M-1 (n = 35) or CTX-M-9 (n = 49) family. The most predominant CTX-M type identified was CTX-M-14 (n = 49), followed by CTX-M-32 (n = 26). The blaCTX-M genes were identified most commonly in E. c...

  2. PCR Classification of CTX-M-Type β-Lactamase Genes Identified in Clinically Isolated Gram-Negative Bacilli in Japan

    Shibata, Naohiro; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yohei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Yamane, Kunikazu; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Satowa; Kimura, Kouji; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kato, Haru; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Shibayama, Keigo; Kai, Kumiko; Konda, Toshifumi; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Of 1,456 strains isolated from 2001 to 2003 demonstrating resistance to either oxyimino-cephalosporin, 317 strains, isolated in 57 of 132 clinical facilities, were found to harbor blaCTX-M genes by PCR. Fifty-seven, 161, and 99 strains harbored blaCTX-M genes belonging to the blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, and blaCTX-M-9 clusters, respectively.

  3. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases of the CTX-M Type Now in Switzerland▿

    Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Zinsius, Catherine; Wenger, Aline; Bille, Jacques; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiology of clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was investigated among infection-associated enterobacterial isolates at the University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland, from January 2004 to June 2005. Out of 57 nonrepetitive ESBL producers (prevalence rate of 0.7%), 45 produced CTX-M-like ESBLs. CTX-M enzymes were mostly from clonally nonrelated Escherichia coli isolates, from urinary infections and community-acquired infections. Pediatric patients (20 ou...

  4. Identification of two novel Chlorotoxin derivatives CA4 and CTX-23 with chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic potential.

    Xu, Tengfei; Fan, Zheng; Li, Wenxin; Dietel, Barbara; Wu, Yingliang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wrosch, Jana K; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Cao, Zhijian; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors are fast proliferating and destructive within the brain microenvironment. Effective chemotherapeutic strategies are currently lacking which combat this deadly disease curatively. The glioma-specific chloride ion channel represents a specific target for therapy. Chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide derived from scorpion venom, has been shown to be specific and efficacious in blocking glioma Cl(-) channel activity. Here, we report on two new derivatives (termed CA4 and CTX-23) designed and generated on the basis of the peptide sequence alignments of CTX and BmKCT. The novel peptides CA4 and CTX-23 are both effective in reducing glioma cell proliferation. In addition, CTX, CA4 and CTX-23 impact on cell migration and spheroid migration. These effects are accompanied by diminished cell extensions and increased nuclear sizes. Furthermore, we found that CA4 and CTX-23 are selective with low toxicity against primary neurons and astrocytes. In the ex vivo VOGiM, which maintain the entire brain tumor microenvironment, both CTX and CA4 display anti-tumor activity and reduce tumor volume. Hence, CTX and CA4 reveal anti-angiogenic properties with endothelial and angiogenic hotspots disrupting activities. These data report on the identification of two novel CTX derivatives with multiple anti-glioma properties including anti-angiogenesis. PMID:26831010

  5. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Lithuania: associations between sites of infection, coresistance, and phylogenetic groups.

    Giedraitienė, Agnė; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Ašmonienė, Virginija; Plančiūnienė, Rita; Simonytė, Sandrita; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Arlet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Increasing resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to antibiotics, especially to the third-generation cephalosporins, has prompted studies on widespread resistance genes such as blaCTX-M and differentiation of E. coli to phylogenetic groups. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between the CTX-M type and the phylogenetic group, the site of infection, and coresistance in Lithuanian E. coli isolates producing β-lactamases. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 90 E. coli ESBL strains were recovered from the lower respiratory tract, the urinary tract, sterile body sites, wounds, and other body sites between 2008 and 2012. The E. coli isolates resistant to at least 2 antibiotics with different modes of action along with resistance to cefotaxime were considered as multiresistant. The blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV genes, the phylogenetic groups, and the resistance profiles were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 90 isolates, 84 (93.3%) were classified as multiresistant and 6 (6.6%) as resistant. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the most prevalent gene followed by the blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-92 genes. The logistic regression analysis revealed the associations between CTX-M-15 and resistance to ceftriaxone, between CTX-M-14 and resistance to cefoxitin, aztreonam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, and between CTX-M-92 and resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study showed a significant association between CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-92 β-lactamases and resistance to some antibiotics as well as CTX‑M-14 β-lactamase and phylogenetic group A in the Lithuanian population. The associations between the CTX-M type and the site of infection were not determined. PMID:24589574

  6. Characterization of CTX-M ESBLs in Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from Cairo, Egypt

    Khalaf Noha G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high rate of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Egypt has been previously reported. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanism (s to extended spectrum cephalosporins among resistant clinical isolates at a medical institute in Cairo, Egypt. Methods Nonconsecutive Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp, Enterobacter cloacae (ENT and Escherichia coli (EC isolates were obtained from the clinical laboratory at the medical institute. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by CLSI disk diffusion and ESBL confirmatory tests. MICs were determined using broth microdilution. Isoelectric focusing (IEF was used to determine the pI values, inhibitor profiles, and cefotaxime (CTX hydrolysis by the β-lactamases. PCR and sequencing were performed using blaCTX-M and ISEcp1-specific primers, with DNA obtained from the clinical isolates. Conjugation experiments were done to determine the mobility of blaCTX-M. Results All five clinical isolates were resistant to CTX, and were positive for ESBL screening. IEF revealed multiple β-lactamases produced by each isolate, including a β-lactamase with a pI of 8.0 in Kp and ENT and a β-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 in EC. Both β-lactamases were inhibited by clavulanic acid and hydrolyzed CTX. PCR and sequence analysis identified blaCTX-M-14 in Kp and ENT and a blaCTX-M-15 in EC. Both blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 were preceded by ISEcp1 elements as revealed by partial sequence analysis of the upstream region of the blaCTX-M genes. blaCTX-M-15 was transferable but not blaCTX-M-14. Conclusion This is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Kp and ENT isolates from Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa.

  7. Multiclonal Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase CTX-M-2 and Novel Variant CTX-M-59 in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Brazil▿

    de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti; Doi, Yohei; Szabo, Dora; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Vaz, TÂnia M. I.; Leite, Daniela; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Maristela P. Freire; Silveira, Fernanda P.; Paterson, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 10 pulsotypes identified during the outbreak and follow-up periods, nine produced CTX-M-2 or its new variant CTX-M-59 and one produced SHV-5. blaCTX-M-2/59 genes were located on closely related plasmids that were transferable.

  8. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of CTX-M-131, a Natural Asp240Gly Variant Derived from CTX-M-2, Produced by a Providencia rettgeri Clinical Strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Dropa, Milena; Ghiglione, Barbara; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; Balsalobre, Livia Carminato; Lincopan, Nilton; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Gutkind, Gabriel; Power, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    CTX-M-131 is a natural Asp240Gly variant from the CTX-M-2 group detected in a Providencia rettgeri clinical strain from Brazil. Molecular analysis showed that blaCTX-M-131 was inserted in a complex class 1 integron harbored by a 112-kb plasmid, which has not been previously described as a platform for CTX-M-encoding genes with the Asp240Gly mutation. Steady-state kinetic parameters showed that the enzyme has a typical cefotaximase catalytic profile and an enhanced activity against ceftazidime.

  9. Calls for help after september 11: a community mental health hot line

    Wunsch-Hitzig, Robin; Plapinger, Jane; Draper, John; Campo, Elsie del

    2002-01-01

    Although unprepared for a disaster of the magnitude of September 11th, New York City's mental health system responded immediately. Within weeks, Project Liberty, a recovery program funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), was in operation. The program provided free education, outreach, and crisis counseling services for those affected by the disaster and its aftermath. LifeNet, a 24-bour, 7-day-a-week mental health information and referral botline, is a key component of Proje...

  10. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  11. SU-E-J-11: A New Optical Method to Register Patient External Motion

    Purpose: To devise and implement a new system to measure and register the patient motion during radiotherapy treatments. Methods: The system can obtain the position of several points in the 3D-space, through their projections in the 2D-images recorded by two cameras. The algorithm needs a series of constants, that are obtained using the images of a calibrated phantom.To test the system, some adhesive labels were placed on the surface of an object. Two cameras recorded the moving object over time. An in-house developed software localized the labels in each image. In the first pair of images, the program used a first approximation given by the user. In the subsequent images, it used the last position as an approximate location. The final exact coordinates of the point were obtained in a two-step process using the contrast of the images. From the 2D-positions of the point in each frame, the 3D-trajectories of each of these marks were obtained.The system was tested with linear displacements, oscillations of a mechanical oscillator, circular trajectories of a rotating disk, and with respiratory motion of a volunteer. Results: Trajectories of several points were reproduced with sub-millimeter accuracy in the three directions of the space. The system was able to follow periodic motion with amplitudes lower than 0.5mm; and trajectories of rotating points at speeds up to 200mm/s. The software could also track accurately the respiration motion of a person. Conclusion: A new, inexpensive optical tracking system for patient motion has been demonstrated. The system detects motion with high accuracy. Installation and calibration of the system is simple and quick. Data collection is not expected to involve any discomfort for the patient, nor any delay for the treatment. The system could be also used as a method of warning for patient movements, and for gating. We acknowledge financial support from Fundacion Mutua Madrilena, Madrid, Spain

  12. Endocrine abnormalities in ring chromosome 11: a case report and review of the literature

    Lange, Renata; Von Linsingen, Caoê; Mata, Fernanda; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; Arruda, Mariana; Vieira Neto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ring chromosomes (RCs) are uncommon cytogenetic findings, and RC11 has only been described in 19 cases in the literature. Endocrine abnormalities associated with RC11 were reported for two of these cases. The clinical features of RC11 can result from an alteration in the structure of the genetic material, ring instability, mosaicism, and various extents of genetic material loss. We herein describe a case of RC11 with clinical features of 11q-syndrome and endocrine abnormalities that h...

  13. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan; Orlando, Ludovic; Horin, Petr

    2016-01-01

    a transporter protein mediating antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Little is known about the patterns of selection shaping this gene during evolution. Although it is a typical evolutionarily conserved gene, functionally important polymorphisms associated with various diseases were identified in...

  14. X11---A graphic interface in the OS-9 real-time environment

    X11 is a graphic window manager developed as a joint project of the Masschusetts Institute of Technology and Digital Equipment Corporation. It represents a widely available platform to develop distributed graphic applications using TCP/IP and DECNET. Microware's OS-9 is a real-time operating system widely used inside the physics community. The marriage between OS-9 and X11 should be seen as an attempt to stabilize a wise, open and accepted platform in the physics world to do real-time programming as well as line graphic output. Choosing X11 as our graphic environment should allow applications to run virtually without changes for several years but still be able to use the latest and fastest CPUs/architectures

  15. Aquaporin-11: A channel protein lacking apparent transport function expressed in brain

    Tsunenari Takashi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aquaporins are a family of integral membrane proteins composed of two subfamilies: the orthodox aquaporins, which transport only water, and the aquaglyceroporins, which transport glycerol, urea, or other small solutes. Two recently described aquaporins, numbers 11 and 12, appear to be more distantly related to the other mammalian aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Results We report on the characterization of Aquaporin-11 (AQP11. AQP11 RNA and protein is found in multiple rat tissues, including kidney, liver, testes and brain. AQP11 has a unique distribution in brain, appearing in Purkinje cell dendrites, hippocampal neurons of CA1 and CA2, and cerebral cortical neurons. Immunofluorescent staining of Purkinje cells indicates that AQP11 is intracellular. Unlike other aquaporins, Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP11 in the plasma membrane failed to transport water, glycerol, urea, or ions. Conclusion AQP11 is functionally distinct from other proteins of the aquaporin superfamily and could represent a new aquaporin subfamily. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of AQP11 in the brain.

  16. PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN FOR LANSCE INTEGRATED FLIGHT PATHS 11A, 11B, 12, and 13

    D. H. BULTMAN; D. WEINACHT - AIRES CORP.

    2000-08-01

    This Preliminary Project Plan Summarizes the Technical, Cost, and Schedule baselines for an integrated approach to developing several flight paths at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. For example, the cost estimate is intended to serve only as a rough order of magnitude assessment of the cost that might be incurred as the flight paths are developed. Further refinement of the requirements and interfaces for each beamline will permit additional refinement and confidence in the accuracy of all three baselines (Technical, Cost, Schedule).

  17. Is the stellar system WR 11 a gamma-ray source?

    Benaglia, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Many early-type stars are in systems; some of them have been indicated as putative high-energy emitters. The radiation is expected to be produced at the region where two stellar winds collide. Compelling evidence of such emission was found only for the colliding-wind binary (CWB) Eta Car, which was associated to a GeV source. Very recently, the closest CWB, WR 11, was proposed as a counterpart of a 6sigma emission excess, measured with the Fermi LAT satellite. We looked for evidence to support or reject the hypothesis that WR 11 is responsible of the gamma-ray excess. Archive radio interferometric data at 1.4 and 2.5 GHz taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array along sixteen different dates were reduced. The sizes of the field-of-view at 2.5 GHz and of the central region of the Fermi LAT excess are alike. We analyzed the emission of the field of WR 11, characterized the radio sources detected and derived their spectral indices, to investigate their nature. Eight sources with fluxes above 10 mJy were d...

  18. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet;

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family......, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional...... individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in...

  19. MtSWEET11, a Nodule-Specific Sucrose Transporter of Medicago truncatula.

    Kryvoruchko, Igor S; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Sosso, Davide; Pislariu, Catalina I; Guan, Dian; Murray, Jeremy; Benedito, Vagner A; Frommer, Wolf B; Udvardi, Michael K

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legumes is a key area of research for sustainable agriculture. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) occurs in specialized organs called nodules and depends on a steady supply of carbon to both plant and bacterial cells. Here we report the functional characterization of a nodule-specific Suc transporter, MtSWEET11 from Medicago truncatula MtSWEET11 belongs to a clade of plant SWEET proteins that are capable of transporting Suc and play critical roles in pathogen susceptibility. When expressed in mammalian cells, MtSWEET11 transported sucrose (Suc) but not glucose (Glc). The MtSWEET11 gene was found to be expressed in infected root hair cells, and in the meristem, invasion zone, and vasculature of nodules. Expression of an MtSWEET11-GFP fusion protein in nodules resulted in green fluorescence associated with the plasma membrane of uninfected cells and infection thread and symbiosome membranes of infected cells. Two independent Tnt1-insertion sweet11 mutants were uncompromised in SNF Therefore, although MtSWEET11 appears to be involved in Suc distribution within nodules, it is not crucial for SNF, probably because other Suc transporters can fulfill its role(s). PMID:27021190

  20. PSR B1828-11: a precession pulsar torqued by a quark planet?

    Liu, K.; Y. L. YUE; Xu, R. X.

    2006-01-01

    The pulsar PSR B1828-11 has long-term, highly periodic and correlated variations in both pulse shape and the rate of slow-down. This phenomenon may provide evidence for precession of the pulsar as suggested previously within the framework of free precession as well as forced one. On a presumption of forced precession, we propose a quark planet model to this precession henomenon instead, in which the pulsar is torqued by a quark planet. We construct this model by constraining mass of the pulsa...

  1. The Design and Construction of K11: A Novel α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptide

    Huang Jin-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptides comprise a class of broad-spectrum agents that are used against pathogens. We designed a series of antimicrobial peptides, CP-P (KWKSFIKKLTSKFLHLAKKF and its derivatives, and determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, their minimum hemolytic concentrations (MHCs for human erythrocytes, and the Therapeutic Index (MHC/MIC ratio. We selected the derivative peptide K11, which had the highest therapeutic index (320 among the tested peptides, to determine the MICs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and 22 clinical isolates including Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Klebsiella pneumonia. K11 exhibited low MICs (less than 10 μg/mL and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, especially against clinically isolated drug-resistant pathogens. Therefore, these results indicate that K11 is a promising candidate antimicrobial peptide for further studies.

  2. The Disappearing Solar Filament of 2003 June 11: A Three-body Problem

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Cliver, E. W.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region—a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate (~11° day-1) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed (~5º-6° day-1) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the "broadside" (versus ''end-on") angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  3. SU-E-I-11: A New Cone-Beam CT System for Bedside Head Imaging

    Purpose: To design and develop a new mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for head imaging with good soft-tissue visibility, to be used bedside in ICU and neurosurgery department to monitor treatment and operation outcome in brain patients. Methods: The imaging chain consists of a 30cmx25cm amorphous silicon flat panel detector and a pulsed, stationary anode monoblock x-ray source of 100kVp at a maximal tube current of 10mA. The detector and source are supported on motorized mechanisms to provide detector lateral shift and source angular tilt, enabling a centered digital radiographic imaging mode and half-fan CBCT, while maximizing the use of the x-ray field and keep the source to detector distance short. A focused linear anti-scatter grid is mounted on the detector, and commercial software with scatter and other corrective algorithms is used for data processing and image reconstruction. The gantry rotates around a horizontal axis, and is able to adjust its height for different patient table positions. Cables are routed through a custom protective sleeve over a large bore with an in-plane twister band, facilitating single 360-degree rotation without a slip-ring at a speed up to 5 seconds per rotation. A UPS provides about 10 minutes of operation off the battery when unplugged. The gantry is on locked casters, whose brake is control by two push handles on both sides for easy reposition. The entire system is designed to have a light weight and a compact size for excellent maneuverability. Results: System design is complete and main imaging components are tested. Initial results will be presented and discussed later in the presentation. Conclusion: A new mobile CBCT system for head imaging is being developed. With its compact size, a large bore, and quality design, it is expected to be a useful imaging tool for bedside uses. The work is supported by a grant from Chinese Academy of Sciences

  4. PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN FOR LANSCE INTEGRATED FLIGHT PATHS 11A, 11B, 12, and 13

    This Preliminary Project Plan Summarizes the Technical, Cost, and Schedule baselines for an integrated approach to developing several flight paths at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. For example, the cost estimate is intended to serve only as a rough order of magnitude assessment of the cost that might be incurred as the flight paths are developed. Further refinement of the requirements and interfaces for each beamline will permit additional refinement and confidence in the accuracy of all three baselines (Technical, Cost, Schedule)

  5. Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function

    Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John J.; Chen, Jie; Deng, Susan L.; Cheng, Fengdong; Distler, Allison; Woods, David M.; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Laino, Andressa Sodre'; Youn, Je-In; Woan, Karrune V.; Villagra, Alejandro; Gabrilovich, Dmitry,; Sotomayor, Eduardo M.; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC's), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting ...

  6. Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function.

    Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John J; Chen, Jie; Deng, Susan L; Cheng, Fengdong; Distler, Allison; Woods, David M; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sodre, Andressa L; Youn, Je-In; Woan, Karrune V; Villagra, Alejandro; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting that this may represent an important targetable axis through which to dampen MDSC formation. Using a murine transgenic reporter model system where eGFP expression is controlled by the HDAC11 promoter (Tg-HDAC11-eGFP), we provide evidence that HDAC11 appears to function as a negative regulator of MDSC expansion/function in vivo. MDSCs isolated from EL4 tumor-bearing Tg-HDAC11-eGFP display high expression of eGFP, indicative of HDAC11 transcriptional activation at steady state. In striking contrast, immature myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice display a diminished eGFP expression, implying that the transition of IMC to MDSC's require a decrease in the expression of HDAC11, where we postulate that it acts as a gate-keeper of myeloid differentiation. Indeed, tumor-bearing HDAC11-knockout mice (HDAC11-KO) demonstrate a more suppressive MDSC population as compared to wild-type (WT) tumor-bearing control. Notably, the HDAC11-KO tumor-bearing mice exhibit enhanced tumor growth kinetics when compare to the WT control mice. Thus, through a better understanding of this previously unknown role of HDAC11 in MDSC expansion and function, rational development of targeted epigenetic modifiers may allow us to thwart a powerful barrier to efficacious immunotherapies. PMID:25155994

  7. Importin-11, a nuclear import receptor for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcM2.

    Plafker, S M; Macara, I G

    2000-10-16

    Importins are members of a family of transport receptors (karyopherins) that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargoes. We identified importin-11 as a potential new human member of this family, on the basis of limited similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, Lph2p, and cloned the complete open reading frame. Importin-11 interacts with the Ran GTPase, and constitutively shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. A yeast dihybrid screen identified UbcM2, an E2-type ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, as a binding partner and potential transport cargo for importin-11. Importin-11 and UbcM2 interact directly, and the complex is disassembled by Ran:GTP but not by Ran:GDP. UbcM2 is constitutively nuclear and shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Nuclear import of UbcM2 requires Ran and importin-11, and is inhibited by wheatgerm agglutinin, energy depletion or dominant interfering mutants of Ran and importin-beta. These data establish importin-11 as a new member of the karyopherin family of transport receptors, and identify UbcM2 as a nuclear member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. PMID:11032817

  8. Importin-11, a nuclear import receptor for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcM2

    Plafker, Scott M.; Macara, Ian G.

    2000-01-01

    Importins are members of a family of transport receptors (karyopherins) that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargoes. We identified importin-11 as a potential new human member of this family, on the basis of limited similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, Lph2p, and cloned the complete open reading frame. Importin-11 interacts with the Ran GTPase, and constitutively shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. A yeast dihybrid screen identi...

  9. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  10. The Oncoprotein BCL11A Binds to Orphan Nuclear Receptor TLX and Potentiates its Transrepressive Function

    Sara B. Estruch; Víctor Buzón; Carbó, Laia R.; Lenka Schorova; Jens Lüders; Eva Estébanez-Perpiñá

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1) functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TL...

  11. SU-E-I-11: A New Cone-Beam CT System for Bedside Head Imaging

    Sun, H; Zeng, W; Xu, P; Wang, Z; Xing, X; Sun, M [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a new mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for head imaging with good soft-tissue visibility, to be used bedside in ICU and neurosurgery department to monitor treatment and operation outcome in brain patients. Methods: The imaging chain consists of a 30cmx25cm amorphous silicon flat panel detector and a pulsed, stationary anode monoblock x-ray source of 100kVp at a maximal tube current of 10mA. The detector and source are supported on motorized mechanisms to provide detector lateral shift and source angular tilt, enabling a centered digital radiographic imaging mode and half-fan CBCT, while maximizing the use of the x-ray field and keep the source to detector distance short. A focused linear anti-scatter grid is mounted on the detector, and commercial software with scatter and other corrective algorithms is used for data processing and image reconstruction. The gantry rotates around a horizontal axis, and is able to adjust its height for different patient table positions. Cables are routed through a custom protective sleeve over a large bore with an in-plane twister band, facilitating single 360-degree rotation without a slip-ring at a speed up to 5 seconds per rotation. A UPS provides about 10 minutes of operation off the battery when unplugged. The gantry is on locked casters, whose brake is control by two push handles on both sides for easy reposition. The entire system is designed to have a light weight and a compact size for excellent maneuverability. Results: System design is complete and main imaging components are tested. Initial results will be presented and discussed later in the presentation. Conclusion: A new mobile CBCT system for head imaging is being developed. With its compact size, a large bore, and quality design, it is expected to be a useful imaging tool for bedside uses. The work is supported by a grant from Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Structure of a HIV-1 Protease-Inhibitor Complex determined at 1.1A resolution

    Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Štouračová, Renata; Fábry, Milan; Hradilek, Martin; Souček, Milan; Konvalinka, Jan; Sedláček, Juraj

    Jena : Jena, 2002, s. -. [International Conference on the crystal lization of Biological Macromolecules /9./. Jena, Německo (DE), 23.03.2002-28.03.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Structure of a HIV-1 * protease * Inhibitor complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Mutations in C10orf11, a Melanocyte-Differentiation Gene, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Albinism

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M.; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N.; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L.; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2–q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that...

  14. Molecular epidemiology of hybrid CTX-M type beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates from human and animals

    Liu, Chunjiao; 刘春娇

    2014-01-01

    A novel and effective mechanism of forming resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by producing hybrid CTX-M-type beta-lactamases through genetic recombination was reported recently, albeit sporadically. Its primary introductory factor is the horizontal resistant gene transfer that occurs within the 876 bp 〖bla〗_(CTX-M) gene in Escherichia coli isolates, followed by the extensive application of beta-lactam antimicrobials. 〖bla〗_(CTX-M) originated from the nonpathogenic commensal Kluyvera spp., ...

  15. Dominance of blaCTX-M within an Australian Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Gene Pool▿

    Zong, Zhiyong; Partridge, Sally R.; Thomas, Lee; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2008-01-01

    blaCTX-M genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, are the dominant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Sydney, Australia, where we also found one example of blaCTX-M-62, encoding a novel enzyme conferring ceftazidime resistance. ESBL genes were present in diverse community isolates and in a variety of associated conjugative plasmids.

  16. CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Italy: Molecular Epidemiology of an Emerging Countrywide Problem

    Mugnaioli, Claudia; Luzzaro, Francesco; De Luca, Filomena; Brigante, Gioconda; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Stefani, Stefania; Toniolo, Antonio; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    A nationwide survey of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production among Enterobacteriaceae, carried out in 2003, showed that CTX-M-type enzymes have achieved a sizeable prevalence among ESBL producers in Italy, mostly in Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this work, we report on the molecular epidemiology of the CTX-M-producing isolates from that survey and on the mechanisms of dissemination of these emerging resistance determinants. The CTX-M-producin...

  17. Phenotypic and Molecular Detection of CTX-M-β-Lactamases Produced by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Hossain, Ashfaque; Hanson, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms producing CTX-M-β-lactamases are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to oxyiminocephalosporins such as cefotaxime (CTX). However, the laboratory detection of these strains is not well defined. In this study, a molecular detection assay for the identification of CTX-M-β-lactamase genes was developed and used to investigate the prevalence of these enzymes among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in the Calgary Health Region during 2000 to 2002...

  18. Co-expression and Immunity of Legionella pneumophila mip Gene and Immunoadjuvant ctxB Gene

    Tao WANG; Jian-Ping CHEN; Hong LI; Ke-Qian ZHI; Lei ZHANG; Chun-Lei YANG; Da-Chang TAO

    2005-01-01

    The nip gene of Legionella pneumophila and the ctxB gene of Vibrio cholerae were amplified by PCR respectively. The amplified cDNA was ligated to the pcDNA3.1 (+) vector. The recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB were identified by restriction analysis and PCR, and further confirmed by sequencing analysis. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB according to the Lipofection method. Transient and stable products of the co-expression of the nip gene and ctxB gene were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results showed that NIH3T3 cells were successfully transfected, and that the transiently and stably co-expressed products can be detected in the transfected cells. To detect the humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice induced by the coimmunization of the mip and ctxB genes, female BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB. The results showed that the specific antibody titer and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for pcDNA3.1-mip immunization and co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1 (+) immunization. Furthermore, the specific antibody titer and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1-mip immunization. Statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant difference between the groups (P<0.01). The results indicated that the ctxB gene enhanced the humoral and cellular immune response to the mip gene immunization. These findings provide experimental evidence to support the development of the L. pneumophila DNA vaccine.

  19. Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli Isolates That Produce CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Kevin B Laupland; Church, Deirdre L; Menard, Megan L.; Johnson, James R.

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the phylogenetic groups and virulence factors of 37 Escherichia coli isolates producing types of CTX-M compared with those of 19 isolates producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in a well-defined North American population. Most CTX-M-14 producers (97%) were from phylogenic group D; 67% of the CTX-M-15 producers were from group B2. A single CTX-M-14-producing strain belonged to clonal group A. There were significant prevalence differences for i...

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates at a Tertiary Medical Center in Western Pennsylvania▿

    Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Paterson, David L.; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Ewan, Lindsay; Pasculle, Anthony W.; Muto, Carlene A.; Tian, Guo-Bao; Doi, Yohei

    2009-01-01

    A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods was used to investigate 70 unique Escherichia coli clinical isolates identified as producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) at a medical center in Pittsburgh, PA, between 2007 and 2008. Fifty-seven isolates (81%) produced CTX-M-type ESBLs, among which CTX-M-15 was predominant (n = 46). Isolates producing CTX-M-2, -9, -14, and -65 were also identified. One CTX-M-producing isolate coproduced CMY-2 cephalosporinase. Ten isolates (14%) pro...

  1. CTX-M β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Suburban New York City, New York, USA

    Wang, Guiqing; Huang, Tiangui; Surendraiah, Pavan Kumar Makam; Wang, Kemeng; Komal, Rashida; Zhuge, Jian; Chern, Chian-Ru; Kryszuk, Alexander A.; King, Cassidy; Wormser, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are infrequently reported in the United States. In this study, we analyzed nonduplicate ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates collected during 2005–2012 at a tertiary care medical center in suburban New York City, USA, for the presence of bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla TEM, and bla KPC genes. Despite a high prevalence of bla CTX-M genes in ESBL-producing E. coli since 2005, bla CTX-M gen...

  2. Recent Emergence of Escherichia coli with Cephalosporin Resistance Conferred by blaCTX-M on Washington State Dairy Farms

    Davis, Margaret A.; Sischo, William M.; Jones, Lisa P.; Moore, Dale A; Ahmed, Sara; Short, Diana M.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae-associated blaCTX-M genes have become globally widespread within the past 30 years. Among isolates from Washington State cattle, Escherichia coli strains carrying blaCTX-M (CTX-M E. coli strains) were absent from a set of 2008 isolates but present in a set of isolates from 2011. On 30 Washington State dairy farms sampled in 2012, CTX-M E. coli prevalence was significantly higher on eastern than on northwestern Washington farms, on farms with more than 3,000 adult cows, and ...

  3. Prevalence of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Isolated from Chicken in Korea.

    Kim, Sara; Kang, Hyun-Wol; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2015-08-01

    A total of 162 Salmonella isolates were isolated in samples from poultry farms, slaughterhouses, retail chicken meats, and human feces between 2012 and 2013. All extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates had bla(CTX-M-15) gene sequence in their plasmids. This genotype may be related to multidrug resistance. Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction patterns among CTX-M-15 isolates were classified into 12 indistinguishable groups. CTX-M-15 isolates had various plasmid replicon types; however, the most frequent type was FIIS. This result suggests that bla(CTX-M-15) could be propagated via plasmid transfer. PMID:26258260

  4. Novel Cefotaximase (CTX-M-16) with Increased Catalytic Efficiency Due to Substitution Asp-240→Gly

    Bonnet, R.; Dutour, C.; Sampaio, J. L. M.; Chanal, C; Sirot, D; Labia, R; De Champs, C; Sirot, J

    2001-01-01

    Three clinical strains (Escherichia coli Rio-6, E. coli Rio-7, and Enterobacter cloacae Rio-9) collected in 1996 and 1999 from hospitals in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and gave a positive double-disk synergy test. Two blaCTX-M genes encoding β-lactamases of pl 7.9 and 8.2 were implicated in this resistance: the blaCTX-M-9 gene observed in E. coli Rio-7 and E. cloacae Rio-9 and a novel CTX-M-encoding gene, designated blaCTX-M-16, observed in E. coli ...

  5. Nationwide Survey of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Strains Producing CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Croatia.

    Fiolić, Zlatko; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Mareković, Ivana; Cetkovic, Helena; Kalenić, Smilja

    2015-12-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported in both hospital and community patients. Production of ESBLs is the major mechanism of resistance to oxymino-cephalosporins and aztreonam in Gram-negative bacteria. Recently a new family of ESBLs with predominant activity against cefotaxime (CTX-M β-lactamases) has been reported. Over 80 CTX-M enzymes have been described so far, which can be grouped into five main subgroups according to amino acid sequence identity (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25). In some countries, CTX-M β-lactamases are the most prevalent types of ESBLs, for instance in Russia, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Japan, Taiwan, China and Argentina. These enzymes have been identified in countries near Croatia such is Italy, Hungary and Austria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the types of CTX-M β lactamases produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from October 2006 to January 2007 from both community- and hospital-based isolates were included (Figure 1.). 128 ESBL isolates were subjected to further analysis: screening with double disc diffusion test and confirmed by ESBL E test. PMID:26987165

  6. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Xiao-Ping eLiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of blaCTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in E. coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for blaCTX-M-14 and then the blaCTX-M-14 –positive isolates were detected by other resistance determinants (ESBLs, PMQR, rmtB and floR and analyzed by phylogenetic grouping analysis, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing, multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analysis. The genetic environments of blaCTX-M-14 were also determined by PCR. The results showed that fourteen CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were identified, belonging to groups A (7/14, B1 (4/14 and D (3/14. The most predominant resistance gene was blaTEM (n= 8, followed by floR (n=7, oqxA (n=3, aac(6’-1b-cr (n=2 and rmtB (n=1. Plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14 were classified to IncK, IncHI2, IncHI1, IncN, IncFIB, IncF or IncI1, ranged from about 30kb to 200kb, and with insertion sequence of ISEcp1, IS26 or ORF513 located upstream and IS903 downstream of blaCTX-M-14. The result of MLST showed that 14 isolates had 11 STs, and the 11 STs belonged to 5 groups. Many of the identified STs are reported to be common in E. coli isolates associated with extraintestinal infections in humans, suggesting possible transmission of blaCTX-M-14 between animals and humans. The difference in the flanking sequences of blaCTX-M-14 between the 2009 isolates and the early ones suggests that the resistance gene context continues to evolve in E. coli of food producing animals.

  7. Community-Wide Outbreaks of Clonally Related CTX-M-14 β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in the Calgary Health Region

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Gregson, Daniel B.; Church, Deirdre L; Elsayed, Sameer; Kevin B Laupland

    2005-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) typically cause nosocomial infections. Previous surveillance in the Calgary Health Region showed that Escherichia coli strains producing ESBLs were common among community patients. During the period (2000 to 2002): 23 of 157 (15%) of the strains were positive for blaCTX-M genes from the CTX-M-I group (CTX-M-1-like) and 87 of 157 (55%) of the strains were positive for blaCTX-M genes from the CTX-M-III group (CTX-M-14-like). Th...

  8. Synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C induces a rapid imbalance in neuronal excitability.

    Martín, Victor; Vale, Carmen; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Rubiolo, Juan Andrés; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatera is a human global disease caused by the consumption of contaminated fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs), sodium channel activator toxins. Symptoms of ciguatera include neurological alterations such as paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, depression, and heightened nociperception, among others. An important issue to understand these long-term neurological alterations is to establish the role that changes in activity produced by CTX 3C represent to neurons. Here, the effects of synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on membrane potential, spontaneous spiking, and properties of synaptic transmission in cultured cortical neurons of 11-18 days in vitro (DIV) were evaluated using electrophysiological approaches. CTX 3C induced a large depolarization that decreased neuronal firing and caused a rapid inward tonic current that was primarily GABAergic. Moreover, the toxin enhanced the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic inhibitory currents (mIPSCs), whereas it decreased the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic excitatory currents (mEPSCs). The frequency of mIPSCs increased, whereas the frequency of mEPSCs remained unaltered. We describe, for the first time, that a rapid membrane depolarization caused by CTX 3C in cortical neurons activates mechanisms that tend to suppress electrical activity by shifting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission toward inhibition. Indeed, these results suggest that the acute effects of CTX on synaptic transmission could underlie some of the neurological symptoms caused by ciguatera in humans. PMID:25945403

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  10. Characterization of two new CTX-M-25-group extended-spectrum β-lactamase variants identified in Escherichia coli isolates from Israel.

    Jascha Vervoort

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We characterized two new CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL variants in Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of two elderly patients admitted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Both patients underwent treatment with cephalosporins prior to isolation of the E. coli strains. METHODS: ESBLs were detected by the double-disk synergy test and PCR-sequencing of β-lactamase genes. The bla(CTX-M genes were cloned into the pCR-BluntII-TOPO vector in E. coli TOP10. The role of amino-acid substitutions V77A and D240G was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of the bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 genes and comparative characterization of the resulting E. coli recombinants. MICs of β-lactams were determined by Etest. Plasmid profiling, mating experiments, replicon typing and sequencing of bla(CTX-M flanking regions were performed to identify the genetic background of the new CTX-M variants. RESULTS: The novel CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-94 and -100, belonged to the CTX-M-25-group. Both variants differed from CTX-M-25 by the substitution V77A, and from CTX-M-39 by D240G. CTX-M-94 differed from all CTX-M-25-group enzymes by the substitution F119L. Glycine-240 was associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and leucine-119 with increased resistance to ceftriaxone. bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 were located within ISEcp1 transposition units inserted into ∼93 kb non-conjugative IncFI and ∼130 kb conjugative IncA/C plasmids, respectively. The plasmids carried also different class 1 integrons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on CTX-M-94 and -100 ESBLs, novel members of the CTX-M-25-group.

  11. JavaCtx: Seamless Toolchain Integration for Context-Oriented Programming

    Salvaneschi, Guido; Pradella, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Context-oriented programming is an emerging paradigm addressing at the language level the issue of dynamic software adaptation and modularization of context-specific concerns. In this paper we propose JavaCtx, a tool which employs coding conventions to generate the context-aware semantics for Java programs and subsequently weave it into the application. The contribution of JavaCtx is twofold: the design of a set of coding conventions which allow to write context-oriented software in plain Java and the concept of context-oriented semantics injection, which allows to introduce the context-aware semantics without a source-to-source compilations process which disrupts the structure of the code. Both these points allow to seamless integrate JavaCtx in the existing industrial-strength appliances and by far ease the development of context-oriented software.

  12. Evolutionary trajectories of beta-lactamase CTX-M-1 cluster enzymes: predicting antibiotic resistance.

    Angela Novais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type beta-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of specific mutations enhancing protein efficiency and fitness concomitantly. The existence of driver antibiotic molecules favoring protein divergence has been investigated by combining evolutionary analyses and experimental site-specific mutagenesis. Phylogenetic reconstruction with all the CTX-M variants described so far provided a hypothetical evolutionary scenario showing at least three diversification events. CTX-M-3 was likely the enzyme at the origin of the diversification in the CTX-M-1 cluster, which was coincident with positive selection acting on several amino acid positions. Sixty-three CTX-M-3 derivatives containing all combinations of mutations under positively selected positions were constructed, and their phenotypic efficiency was evaluated. The CTX-M-3 diversification process can only be explained in a complex selective landscape with at least two antibiotics (cefotaxime and ceftazidime, indicating the need to invoke mixtures of selective drivers in order to understand the final evolutionary outcome. Under this hypothesis, we found congruent results between the in silico and in vitro analyses of evolutionary trajectories. Three pathways driving the diversification of CTX-M-3 towards the most complex and efficient variants were identified. Whereas the P167S pathway has limited possibilities of further diversification, the D240G route shows a robust diversification network. In the third route, drift may have played a role in the early stages of

  13. JavaCtx: Seamless Toolchain Integration for Context-Oriented Programming

    Salvaneschi, Guido; Ghezzi, Carlo; Pradella, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Context-oriented programming is an emerging paradigm addressing at the language level the issue of dynamic software adaptation and modularization of context-specific concerns. In this paper we propose JavaCtx, a tool which employs coding conventions to generate the context-aware semantics for Java programs and subsequently weave it into the application. The contribution of JavaCtx is twofold: the design of a set of coding conventions which allow to write context-oriented software in plain Jav...

  14. Molecular characterization of nosocomial CTX-M type β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in south India

    Jemima S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M group of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs represents a rapidly emerging problem in many countries. The prevalence of nosocomial bla CTX-M-1 producing Enterobacteriaceae strains has not been reported earlier in Indian hospitals. This study describes molecular subtyping of nosocomial bla CTX-M producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae . Polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for bla CTX-M-1 coding genes was used to identify 95 Enterobacteriaceae strains producing bla CTX-M positive isolates. Of the 95 bla CTX-M producing isolates, 45 strains were positive for bla CTX-M-1 . bla CTX-M-1 was found to be most prevalent in Klebsiella strains.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli in the Calgary Health Region: Emergence of CTX-M-15-Producing Isolates▿

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Church, Deirdre L; Gregson, Daniel B.; Chow, Barbara L.; McCracken, Melissa; Mulvey, Michael R; Kevin B Laupland

    2007-01-01

    A study was designed to describe the molecular epidemiology of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli over a 6-year period (2000 to 2005) in a large well-defined Canadian region with a centralized laboratory system. Molecular characterization was done by isoelectric focusing, PCR, and automated sequencing, while genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI. Of the 552 viable extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates isolated, 354 (64%) were positiv...

  16. Comparative Study of Genotype and Virulence in CTX-M-Producing and Non-Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular and virulence characteristics of CTX-M-producing and non-extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (non-ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were compared. Lack of shared characteristics between the two groups suggested that most CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in South Korea did not occur by transfer of blaCTX-M into susceptible strains. Conjugation assays confirmed that the plasmid with the blaCTX-M-15 gene confers virulence as well as antimicrobial resistance, suggesting tha...

  17. Characterisation of the CTX-M-15-encoding gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from the Barcelona metropolitan area: plasmid diversity and chromosomal integration

    Coelho, Alicia; González-López, Juan José; Miró, Elisenda; Alonso-Tarrés, Carles; Mirelis, Beatriz; Larrosa, María Nieves; Bartolomé, Rosa María; Andreu, Antonia; Navarro, Ferran; Johnson, James R.; Prats, Guillem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The localisation and genetic organisation of blaCTX-M-15 were studied in 37 CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from 2005 to 2008 within the Barcelona metropolitan area. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based replicon typing and Southern hybridisations were used to identify the blaCTX-M-15 location. The genetic environment was analysed by PCR mapping and sequencing, and transferability of blaCTX-M-15 was evaluated by conjugation and transformation as...

  18. Molecular characterization of nosocomial CTX-M type β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in south India

    Jemima S; Verghese S

    2008-01-01

    CTX-M group of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs) represents a rapidly emerging problem in many countries. The prevalence of nosocomial bla CTX-M-1 producing Enterobacteriaceae strains has not been reported earlier in Indian hospitals. This study describes molecular subtyping of nosocomial bla CTX-M producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae . Polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for bla CTX-M-1 coding genes was used to identify 95 Enterobacteriaceae strains produci...

  19. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jelsbak, Lotte; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Guardabassi, Luca; Olsen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between...

  20. Vliv motorických schopností a antropometrických měr na úspěšnost v závodech u 11 a 12letých hráček tenisu The influence of tennis motor abilities and anthropometric measures on the competition successfulness of 11 and 12 year-old female tennis players

    Tjaša Filipčič

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Soubor 75 mladých hráček tenisu ve věku 11 a 12 let byl zahrnut do výzkumného projektu s cílem zjistit vliv vybraných antropometrických údajů a tenisových motorických dovedností na úspěšnost v soutěžích mladých tenisových hráčů. Vybrané tenisové motorické proměnné zahrnují: sílu svalů paží a ramen, sílu nohou, opakovanou sílu trupu, rychlost pohybu, rychlost střídavého pohybu rukou, ohebnost zad, hbitost a koordinaci ruka – oko. Výsledky regresní analýzy antropometrických měr odhalují statisticky významné spojení s kritérii proměnných (0,36. Skupina predikčních proměnných může vysvětlit 13% rozdílnost kritérií proměnných. To stejné se aplikuje na tenisové motorické proměnné, u kterých je důležitá hodnota poněkud bližší, dosahuje 0,64, zatímco systém prediktorů vysvětluje 41% rozdílnost kritérií proměnných. Tři proměnné z antropometrických měr (obvod lýtka, tělesná váha, břišní kožní řasa vysvětlují kritérium proměnné se statistickou významností. Mezi již výše zmíněné tenisové motorické proměnné patří běh na 2 400 metrů, který se používá pro měření vytrvalosti v běhu, a běh na 5 metrů, který se používá pro meření rychlosti pohybu. A sample of 75 young female tennis players, aged 11 and 12, was included in a research project aimed at establishing the influence of selected anthropometric measures and tennis motor abilities on the competition successfulness of young tennis players. The selected tennis motor variables include: the muscular power of arms and shoulders, elastic power of the legs, repetitive strength of the trunk, speed of movement, speed of alternative movements with the arm, flexibility of the back, agility, and hand-eye coordination. The results of regression analysis of anthropometric measures reveal a statistically significant connection with the criterion variable (0.36. The system of

  1. Successful treatment of ctx-m ESBL producing Escherichia coli relapsing pyelonephritis with long term pivmecillinam.

    Nicolle, Lindsay E; Mulvey, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Oral therapy options for pyelonephritis caused by ESBL producing E. coli are limited. We describe a woman with relapsing pyelonephritis due to a CTX-M ESBL E. coli who was cured with a prolonged course of pivmecillinam. This suggests pivmecillinam may be effective treatment for selected patients with pyelonephritis with these organisms. PMID:17654359

  2. Bioavailability and intravenous toxicokinetic parameters for Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats.

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Ramsdell, John S

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channel activator toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning. In this study, we determined the toxicokinetic parameters of the Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats after an intravenous (iv) dose of 0.13 ng P-CTX-1 per g of body weight. The ciguatoxin activity was assessed over time in blood using the sensitive functional Neuro2a assay. The data were analyzed with a two-compartmental model. After exposure, the ciguatoxin activity exhibited a rapid (alpha half-life of 6 min) and extensive distribution into tissues (apparent steady state volume of distribution of 7.8 L). Ciguatoxin elimination from blood was slower with a beta half-life estimated at 35.5 h. The toxicokinetic parameters determined from this study were compared to data previously obtained after oral and intraperitoneal exposure of rats to 0.26 ng P-CTX-1 per g of body weight. Maximal bioavailability was determined by the area under the concentration curve, and was used to calculate the absolute P-CTX-1 bioavailabilities for oral and intraperitoneal routes of exposures of 39% and 75%, respectively. PMID:23319077

  3. Convergent synthesis of the HIJKLM ring system of ciguatoxin CTX3C.

    Takamura, Hiroyoshi; Nishiuma, Naoki; Abe, Takashi; Kadota, Isao

    2011-09-01

    The HIJKLM ring system of ciguatoxin CTX3C was synthesized in a convergent manner. The key steps were a conjugate addition/alkylation sequence, spiroacetalization, intramolecular allylation, ring-closing metathesis, and hydrogenation to form the 36-α-methyl substituent. PMID:21805971

  4. CTX-M-27 Producing Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhimurium and Indiana Are Prevalent among Food-Producing Animals in China

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella isolates from chickens and pigs in China. Salmonella isolates were identified by API20E system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; serotypes were determined using slide agglutination with hyperimmune sera; antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the ager dilution method; the prevalence of ESBLs and PMQR genes were screened by PCR; CTX-M-producing isolates were further characterized by conjugation along with genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type. In total, 159 Salmonella strains were identified, among which 95 strains were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 63 strains were S. enterica serovar Indiana, and 1 strain was S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. All of these isolates presented multi-drug resistant phenotypes. Forty-five isolates carried blaCTX-M genes, the most common subtype was CTX-M-27(34), followed by CTX-M-65(7) and CTX-M-14(4). Most blaCTX-M genes were transmitted by non-typeable or IncN/IncFIB/IncP/IncA/C/IncHI2 plasmids with sizes ranging from 80 to 280 kb. In particular, all the 14 non-typeable plasmids were carrying blaCTX-M-27 gene and had a similar size. PFGE profiles indicated that CTX-M-positive isolates were clonally related among the same serotype, whilst the isolates of different serotypes were genetically divergent. This suggested that both clonal spread of resistant strains and horizontal transmission of the resistance plasmids contributed to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-9G-positive Salmonella isolates. The presence and spread

  5. CTX-M-27 Producing Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhimurium and Indiana Are Prevalent among Food-Producing Animals in China.

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella isolates from chickens and pigs in China. Salmonella isolates were identified by API20E system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; serotypes were determined using slide agglutination with hyperimmune sera; antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the ager dilution method; the prevalence of ESBLs and PMQR genes were screened by PCR; CTX-M-producing isolates were further characterized by conjugation along with genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type. In total, 159 Salmonella strains were identified, among which 95 strains were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 63 strains were S. enterica serovar Indiana, and 1 strain was S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. All of these isolates presented multi-drug resistant phenotypes. Forty-five isolates carried bla CTX-M genes, the most common subtype was CTX-M-27(34), followed by CTX-M-65(7) and CTX-M-14(4). Most bla CTX-M genes were transmitted by non-typeable or IncN/IncFIB/IncP/IncA/C/IncHI2 plasmids with sizes ranging from 80 to 280 kb. In particular, all the 14 non-typeable plasmids were carrying bla CTX-M-27 gene and had a similar size. PFGE profiles indicated that CTX-M-positive isolates were clonally related among the same serotype, whilst the isolates of different serotypes were genetically divergent. This suggested that both clonal spread of resistant strains and horizontal transmission of the resistance plasmids contributed to the dissemination of bla CTX-M-9G-positive Salmonella isolates. The presence and

  6. XML Determination of Phylogenetic Group and Prevalence of blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 Genes in Escherichia Coli Isolates from Intestinal and Urinary Tract Infections in under Five- Year- Old Children

    Momeni, F. (MSc); Ghanbarpour, R. (PhD); Dolatshah, L. (MSc); Alizade, H. (MSc)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases is a rapidly expanding group of enzymes encountered with increasing fre‌quency, especially, in Escherichia coli (E. coli). There are a few reports on phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from clinical sources of under five-year- old children in Iran. The purpose of this study was phylotyping of E. coli isolates having blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes from under five-year- old children with diarrhea and urinary tract i...

  7. Occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli in soils, cattle and farm environment in France (Burgundy region.

    AlainHartmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M (extended spectrum beta-lactamase- ESBL producing Escherichia coli are increasingly involved in human infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate potential reservoirs for such strains: soils, cattle and farm environment. The prevalence of blaCTX-M genes was determined directly from soil DNA extracts obtained from 120 sites in Burgundy (France using real time PCR. blaCTX-M targets were found in 20% of the DNA extracts tested. Samples of cattle feces (n=271 were collected from 182 farms in Burgundy. Thirteen ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from 12 farms and further characterized for the presence of bla genes. Of the 13 strains, five and eight strains carried blaTEM-71 genes and blaCTX-M-1 genes respectively. Ten strains of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli were isolated from cultivated and pasture soils as well as from composted manure within 2 of these farms. The genotypic analysis revealed that environmental and animal strains were clonally related. Our study confirms the occurrence of CTX-M producing E. coli in cattle and reports for the first time the occurrence of such strains in cultivated soils. The environmental competence of such strains has to be determined and might explain their long term survival since CTX-M isolates were recovered from a soil that was last amended with manure one year before sampling.

  8. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Isolation of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in a Large U.S. Medical Center

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Gattu, Sureka; Marchaim, Dror; Bhargava, Ashish; Palla, Mohan; Alshabani, Khaled; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Sarkar, Moumita; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Ramasamy, Balaji; Nanjireddy, Priyanka; Mohin, Shah

    2013-01-01

    A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs ...

  9. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates.

    Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-08-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids harboring the blaCTX-M genes may undergo cross-species migration among potential bacterial pathogens, with E. coli as the major source of such elements. PMID:26014934

  10. blaCTX-M Genes in Clinical Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Humans in England and Wales from 1992 to 2003

    Batchelor, M.; Hopkins, K.; Threlfall, E. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.; Stallwood, A. D.; Davies, R. H.; Liebana, E.

    2005-01-01

    Cefotaximases (CTX-M) are a rapidly growing class A β-lactamase family that has been found among a wide range of clinical bacteria. One hundred and six isolates were selected from 278,308 Salmonella isolates based on resistance to ampicillin and cephalosporins and subjected to further characterization. Fourteen isolates were blaCTX-M PCR positive, and cefotaxime MICs for these isolates were ≥16 mg/liter. Furthermore, sequence analysis revealed the presence of type CTX-M9, -15, or -17 to -18. ...

  11. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    Luvsansharav UO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav,1 Itaru Hirai,1 Marie Niki,1 Arisa Nakata,1 Aya Yoshinaga,1 Akira Yamamoto,2 Mayumi Yamamoto,3 Hiroyuki Toyoshima,4,† Fusao Kawakami,5 Nariaki Matsuura,6 Yoshimasa Yamamoto1,7,8 1Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 2Blueberry, Amagasaki Health Care Facilities for the Elderly, Hyogo, 3Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, 4Nursing home Minoh, Osaka, 5Nursing home Itami, Hyogo, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 7Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, 8Osaka University Global Collaboration Center, Osaka, Japan†Hiroyuki Toyoshima passed away on February 21, 2013Abstract: The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples. Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates. Genotyping of blaCTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%, 13 (29.5%, and 1 (2.3% of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression

  12. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2008-01-01

    amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome according to the instructions on the product label was initiated immediately after bacterial inoculation. Feces were collected from the rectum before inoculation and on days 4, 8, 15, 22, and 25 after the start of treatment. The total and resistant coliforms were counted...... on MacConkey agar with and without cefotaxime (CTX). Furthermore, MacConkey agar with CTX and NAL was used to count the number of CFU of the inoculated strain. Significantly higher counts of CTX-resistant coliforms were observed in the three treatment groups than in the control group for up to 22...... number of CTX-resistant coliforms was mainly due to the proliferation of indigenous CTX-M-producing strains and the possible emergence of strains that acquired CTX-M genes by horizontal transfer. The study provides evidence that the cephalosporins used in pig production select for CTX-M-producing E. coli...

  13. blaCTX-M-152, a Novel Variant of CTX-M-group-25, Identified in a Study Performed on the Prevalence of Multidrug Resistance among Natural Inhabitants of River Yamuna, India

    Azam, Mudsser; Jan, Arif T.; Haq, Qazi M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Natural environment influenced by anthropogenic activities creates selective pressure for acquisition and spread of resistance genes. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases producing gram negative bacteria from the River Yamuna, India, and report the identification and characterization of a novel CTX-M gene variant bla CTX-M-152 . Of the total 230 non-duplicate isolates obtained from collected water samples, 40 isolates were found positive for ESBL produ...

  14. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples, 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ''A'' and ''B'' portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information

  15. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (Pbrucellosis. PMID:27109135

  16. CTX-M-14 β-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii isolated in Venezuela

    Gutkind Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A clinical isolate of C. freundii with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum β-lactams from a woman with cystocele associated with recurrent urinary tract infection was analyzed. Susceptibility tests, double disk synergy tests (DDST and enzymatic activity by the agar iodometric method suggested the presence of ESBLs. Conjugation experiments revealed the presence of a large conjugative plasmid (pLM07/20 with an exclusive FrepB replicon type (IncF/FIB. PCR analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of the blaCTX-M-14 gene in the pLM07/20 from C. freundii.LM07/10. Although this is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Venezuela, we alert the medical community that future increase of these β-lactamases in our city could be due to dissemination of plasmids into bacterial populations.

  17. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates

    Wong, Marcus Ho-yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids ...

  18. Rapid Emergence and Clonal Dissemination of CTX-M-15-Producing Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow, South Korea.

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yun, Young-Sun; Kim, Soo Jin; Jeon, Se-Eun; Lee, Deog-yong; Chung, Gyung Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Kim, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow has dramatically increased in South Korea since the first isolation in 2011. Of 68 isolates collected over 10 years, 28 cefotaxime-resistant isolates harbored the bla(CTX-M-15) extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene and were closely related genetically, demonstrating the clonal dissemination of CTX-M-15-producing Salmonella Virchow in South Korea. PMID:26674083

  19. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    Luvsansharav, Ulzii-Orshikh; Hirai, Itaru; Niki, Marie; Nakata, Arisa; Yoshinaga, Aya; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Toyoshima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Fusao; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing En...

  20. Replicon Typing of Plasmids Carrying CTX-M or CMY β-Lactamases Circulating among Salmonella and Escherichia coli Isolates†

    Hopkins, Katie L.; Liebana, Ernesto; Villa, Laura; Batchelor, Miranda; Threlfall, E. John; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M or blaCMY β-lactamase genes indicates a predominance of I1 and A/C replicons among blaCMY-carrying plasmids and five different plasmid scaffolds associated with the different types of blaCTX-M genes (I1, FII, HI2, K, and N). These results demonstrate the association of certain β-lactamase genes with specific plasmid backbones.

  1. CTX-M-27 Producing Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhimurium and Indiana Are Prevalent among Food-Producing Animals in China

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella ...

  2. Molecular characterization of CTX-M β-lactamases among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients at Tehran hospitals

    N Shoeib; S Fereshteh; F M Mehdi; N V Sadat; N Leila

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Plasmid-encoded CTX-M-group of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) represent a significant and rapidly emerging problem in most part of the world. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of CTX-M producing Klebsiella pneumoniae at Tehran hospitals. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (n=250) were collected from 10 hospitals of Tehran. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, MIC of cefotaxime and ESBLs production of collected isolates were ...

  3. Evolutionary Trajectories of Beta-Lactamase CTX-M-1 Cluster Enzymes: Predicting Antibiotic Resistance

    Angela Novais; Iñaki Comas; Fernando Baquero; Rafael Cantón; Coque, Teresa M.; Andrés Moya; Fernando González-Candelas; Juan-Carlos Galán

    2010-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type beta-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of...

  4. Evaluation and characterization of plasmids carrying CTX-M genes in a non-clonal population of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from poultry in Brazil.

    Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Andrade, Leonardo Neves; Berchieri Junior, Angelo; Darini, Ana Lúcia Costa

    2016-08-01

    The increasing presence of ESBL-producing bacteria in food-producing animals might impact on public health. In this study, ESBL-producing enterobacteria were investigated in the microbiota of chickens produced in Brazil. We detected blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8 and blaCTX-M-15 in 13 Escherichia coli isolates, within 9 different PFGE-types. Escherichia fergusonii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found carrying blaCTX-M-2. Plasmid Inc groups found included repF, FIB, FIC, I1, Y, B/O, A/C, K and HI1. F plasmids were present in 87.5% of the isolates, however, no resistance gene was harbored in this replicon. The pMLST for IncI1 showed ST113 and the novel ST130, ST131 and ST132 harboring blaCTX-M-8. IncK plasmids carried blaCTX-M-2 in one E. coli isolate. Non-typeable plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-15 had up to 260kb. blaCTX-M-2 was also associated with class I integron and ISCR1 and blaCTX-M-8 with IS10. Overall, similar resistance elements were disseminated among a diverse population of ESBL-producing enterobacteria. PMID:27312692

  5. blaCTX-M-152, a Novel Variant of CTX-M-group-25, Identified in a Study Performed on the Prevalence of Multidrug Resistance among Natural Inhabitants of River Yamuna, India

    Azam, Mudsser; Jan, Arif T.; Haq, Qazi M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Natural environment influenced by anthropogenic activities creates selective pressure for acquisition and spread of resistance genes. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases producing gram negative bacteria from the River Yamuna, India, and report the identification and characterization of a novel CTX-M gene variant blaCTX-M-152. Of the total 230 non-duplicate isolates obtained from collected water samples, 40 isolates were found positive for ESBL production through Inhibitor-Potentiation Disc Diffusion test. Based on their resistance profile, 3% were found exhibiting pandrug resistance (PDR), 47% extensively drug resistance (XDR), and remaining 50% showing multidrug resistant (MDR). Following screening and antimicrobial profiling, characterization of ESBLs (blaTEM and blaCTX-M), and mercury tolerance determinants (merP, merT, and merB) were performed. In addition to abundance of blaTEM-116 (57.5%) and blaCTX-M-15 (37.5%), bacteria were also found to harbor other variants of ESBLs like blaCTX-M-71 (5%), blaCTX-M-3 (7.5%), blaCTX-M-32 (2.5%), blaCTX-M-152 (7.5%), blaCTX-M-55 (2.5%), along with some non-ESBLs; blaTEM-1 (25%) and blaOXY (5%). Additionally, co-occurrence of mercury tolerance genes were observed among 40% of isolates. In silico studies of the new variant, blaCTX-M-152were conducted through modeling for the generation of structure followed by docking to determine its catalytic profile. CTX-M-152 was found to be an out-member of CTX-M-group-25 due to Q26H, T154A, G89D, P99S, and D146G substitutions. Five residues Ser70, Asn132, Ser237, Gly238, and Arg273 were found responsible for positioning of cefotaxime into the active site through seven H-bonds with binding energy of -7.6 Kcal/mol. Despite small active site, co-operative interactions of Ser237 and Arg276 were found actively contributing to its high catalytic efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of blaCTX-M-152 of CTX-M-group-25 from

  6. bla CTX-M-152, a Novel Variant of CTX-M-group-25, Identified in a Study Performed on the Prevalence of Multidrug Resistance among Natural Inhabitants of River Yamuna, India.

    Azam, Mudsser; Jan, Arif T; Haq, Qazi M R

    2016-01-01

    Natural environment influenced by anthropogenic activities creates selective pressure for acquisition and spread of resistance genes. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases producing gram negative bacteria from the River Yamuna, India, and report the identification and characterization of a novel CTX-M gene variant bla CTX-M-152 . Of the total 230 non-duplicate isolates obtained from collected water samples, 40 isolates were found positive for ESBL production through Inhibitor-Potentiation Disc Diffusion test. Based on their resistance profile, 3% were found exhibiting pandrug resistance (PDR), 47% extensively drug resistance (XDR), and remaining 50% showing multidrug resistant (MDR). Following screening and antimicrobial profiling, characterization of ESBLs (bla TEM and bla CTX-M ), and mercury tolerance determinants (merP, merT, and merB) were performed. In addition to abundance of bla TEM-116 (57.5%) and bla CTX-M-15 (37.5%), bacteria were also found to harbor other variants of ESBLs like bla CTX-M-71 (5%), bla CTX-M-3 (7.5%), bla CTX-M-32 (2.5%), bla CTX-M-152 (7.5%), bla CTX-M-55 (2.5%), along with some non-ESBLs; bla TEM-1 (25%) and bla OXY (5%). Additionally, co-occurrence of mercury tolerance genes were observed among 40% of isolates. In silico studies of the new variant, bla CTX-M-152 were conducted through modeling for the generation of structure followed by docking to determine its catalytic profile. CTX-M-152 was found to be an out-member of CTX-M-group-25 due to Q26H, T154A, G89D, P99S, and D146G substitutions. Five residues Ser70, Asn132, Ser237, Gly238, and Arg273 were found responsible for positioning of cefotaxime into the active site through seven H-bonds with binding energy of -7.6 Kcal/mol. Despite small active site, co-operative interactions of Ser237 and Arg276 were found actively contributing to its high catalytic efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bla CTX-M-152 of CTX

  7. Genetic background of novel sequence types of CTX-M-8- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from public wastewater treatment plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Dropa, Milena; Lincopan, Nilton; Balsalobre, Livia C; Oliveira, Danielle E; Moura, Rodrigo A; Fernandes, Miriam Rodriguez; da Silva, Quézia Moura; Matté, Glavur R; Sato, Maria I Z; Matté, Maria H

    2016-03-01

    The release of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae to the environment is a public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of genes encoding ESBLs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In 2009, during a local surveillance study, seven ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were recovered from five WWTPs and screened for ESBL genes and mobile genetic elements. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out, and wild plasmids were transformed into electrocompetent Escherichia coli. S1-PFGE technique was used to verify the presence of high molecular weight plasmids in wild-type strains and in bla ESBL-containing E. coli transformants. Strains harbored bla CTX-M-8, bla CTX-M-15, and/or bla SHV-28. Sequencing results showed that bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-15 genes were associated with IS26. MLST revealed new sequence types for E. coli (ST4401, ST4402, ST4403, and ST4445) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST1574), except for one K. pneumoniae from ST307 and Enterobacter cloacae from ST131. PCR and S1-PFGE results showed CTX-M-producing E. coli transformants carried heavy plasmids sizing 48.5-209 kb, which belonged to IncI1, IncF, and IncM1 incompatibility groups. This is the first report of CTX-M-8 and SHV-28 enzymes in environmental samples, and the present results demonstrate the plasmid-mediated spread of CTX-M-encoding genes through five WWTPs in São Paulo, Brazil, suggesting WWTPs are hotspots for the transfer of ESBL genes and confirming the urgent need to improve the management of sewage in order to minimize the dissemination of resistance genes to the environment. PMID:26782324

  8. [Detection of bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing gram-negative bacteria].

    Bayraktar, Banu; Toksoy, Buket; Bulut, Emin

    2010-04-01

    Widespread production of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae strains which are resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is the most remarkable example for rapid and global spread of plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Consecutive 200 ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae strains out of 1640 isolates that were obtained from clinical samples (167 urine, 11 wound, 7 bronchoalveolar lavage, 3 peritoneal fluid, 2 cerebrospinal fluid, 2 biopsy, 2 tracheal aspirate, 2 conjunctiva, 1 abscess, 1 catheter) between February to July 2009 in our laboratory were included to this study. Among the 200 ESBL positive isolates 141 (70.5%) were Escherichia coli, 51 (26%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 5 (2.5%) were Enterobacter spp. and one of each (0.5%) Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis. ESBL positivity was 11% among the 123 community-acquired strains and 13% among the 77 hospital acquired strains, the statistical difference being insignificant (p > 0.05). The prevalence of bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction with the use of two general primer sets: CTX-MA1 and CTX-MA2 primers for the amplification of CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 enzymes group, and CTX825-F and CTX825-R primers for the amplification of CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 enzymes group. bla(CTX-M) genes were detected in 167 out of 200 strains (83.5%). CTX-M production rates in community and hospital acquired strains were found as 86.2% and 79.2%, respectively and no statistically significant difference was detected (p > 0.05). CTX-M producing strains were either E. coli (n = 132) or Klebsiella spp. (n = 35) and were expressing one of the enzymes from CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2 or CTX-M-9 groups. No strains carrying CTX-M-8 or CTX-M-25 group enzymes were detected. CTX-M production rates in ESBL producing E. coli strains in community and hospital were found as 92.5% and 95.7%, respectively, whereas the same rates

  9. Chromosome-Encoded AmpC and CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Proteus mirabilis from Korea▿

    Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Juwon; Bae, Il Kwon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Seo, Young Hee; Shin, Jong Hee; Jang, Sook Jin; Uh, Young; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Among 222 Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates collected from 17 hospitals in Korea in 2008, 28 (12.6%) and 8 (3.6%) isolates exhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC phenotypes, respectively. The most common type of ESBL gene identified by PCR and sequencing experiments was blaCTX-M-14a (n = 12). The blaCTX-M-90 (n = 4), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-12 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-2 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-14b (n = 1), blaTEM-52 (n = 5), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1) genes were also detected. Eight is...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance to Third Generation Cephalosporins Due to CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    M Mirzaee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Organisms producing CTX-M-β-lactamase are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to oxyiminocephalosporins such as cefotaxime. However, the laboratory detection of these strains is not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of known CTX-M-β-lactamases genes in clinical isolates of  Escherichia coli from hospitals of Tehran."nMethods: During six months (September to February, 2006, 160 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from three university hospitals of Tehran.  Phenotypic screening and confirmation tests for ESBL detection was according to CLSI advised. All of the ESBL-producing isolates were examined by PCR for presence of bla CTX-M genes."nResults: Primary phenptypic tests revealed that %56.69 (n=89 of E. coli isolates produced ESBLs. In confirmatory tests by use of clavulanic acid, ESBL production were confirmed (P+C+ in %96.7 (n=86 of isolates with primary positive test. The presence of an ESBL was not confirmed (P+C- in 3.3% (n=3 of the screen positive. Of all screen positive isolates, 34 (35.78% were positive for bla CTX-M genes from the CTX-M-I group, indicating CTX-M-1-like β-lactamases and Two (2.1% were positive for bla CTX-M genes from the CTX-M-III group, indicating CTX-M-3-like β-lactamases. The remainder 59 (62.2% were negative for bla CTX-M genes."nConclusions: The levels of resistance to ceftazidim were remarkably varible among CTX-M producers. This study provides futher evidence of the global dissemination of  CTX-M type ESBLs and emphasize the need for their epidemiological monitoring.

  11. Emergence and Outbreaks of CTX-M β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains in a Tunisian Hospital▿

    Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Gautier, Valérie; Vimont, Sophie; Picard, Bertrand; Ben Redjeb, Saida; Arlet, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (35 Escherichia coli and 27 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates) producing CTX-M-type β-lactamases were collected between March 2000 and June 2003 in different wards of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis (Tunisia). Sequencing identified the blaCTX-M-15 determinant in 55 isolates and blaCTX-M-16 in 7 isolates. The CTX-M-15-producing strains were isolated in several wards and consisted mainly of two successive clonal groups of E. coli and a major clonal group ...

  12. Entorno genético de CTX-M-2 en aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados en Uruguay

    Vignoli, Rafael; Cordeiro, Nicolás F.; Seija, V.; Schelotto, Felipe; Radice, M.; Ayala, Juan Alfonso; Power, P; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains, K96005 and K13, isolated from hospitalized patients in Uruguay, during 1996 and 2003, respectively. The genomic surroundings of blaCTX-M-2 were characterized by PCR-mapping and DNA sequencing. Our results show that blaCTX-M-2 is included in a complex class-1 integron (InK13), associated with an orf513 in both isolates. The genetic array of the integron, aac(6’)-Ib, blaCTX-M-2, orfD (gene cassette region), associated with an orf513-blaCTX-M-2, seems to b...

  13. Convergent In Vivo and In Vitro Selection of Ceftazidime Resistance Mutations at Position 167 of CTX-M-3 β-Lactamase in Hypermutable Escherichia coli Strains▿

    Stepanova, Marina N.; Pimkin, Maxim; Nikulin, Anatoly A.; Kozyreva, Varvara K.; Agapova, Elena D.; Edelstein, Mikhail V.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a novel CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), designated CTX-M-42, with enhanced activity toward ceftazidime. CTX-M-42 was identified in a hypermutable Escherichia coli nosocomial isolate (isolate Irk2320) and is a Pro167Thr amino acid substitution variant of CTX-M-3. By molecular typing of ESBL-producing E. coli strains previously isolated in the same hospital ward, we were able to identify a putative progenitor (strain Irk1224) of Irk2320, which had a mutator phenotype an...

  14. In Vitro Analysis of ISEcp1B-Mediated Mobilization of Naturally Occurring β-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M of Kluyvera ascorbata

    Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent; Aubert, Daniel; Nordmann, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    ISEcp1B has been reported to be associated with and to mobilize the emerging expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Thus, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the blaCTX-M-2 gene was tested from its progenitor, Kluyvera ascorbata. Insertions of ISEcp1B upstream of the blaCTX-M-2 gene in K. ascorbata reference strain CIP7953 were first selected with cefotaxime (0.5 and 2 μg/ml). In those cases, ISEcp1B brought promoter sequences enhancing blaCTX-M-2 e...

  15. The emergence of bla CTX-M-15-carrying Escherichia coli of ST131 and new sequence types in Western China

    Zhang, Lei; Lü, Xiaoju; Zong, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Background bla CTX-M-15, the most widely distributed gene encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases globally, was not common in China. This study was performed to characterize bla CTX-M-15-carrying Escherichia coli in western China. Findings Out of 144 Escherichia coli isolates from 20 hospitals in western China, 8 were found carrying bla CTX-M-15. bla CTX-M-15 was carried by isolates of ST131and 5 new STs (ST3342, ST3513, ST3516, ST3517 and ST3518). The 5 new STs shared 5 identical alleles out...

  16. Ambiente genético del Gen blaCTX-M-12 en aislamientos hospitalarios de Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Yamile Adriana Celis Bustos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The blaCTX-M-12 gene’s genetic environmnt in Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital isolates Resumen: En Colombia se han detectado genes del grupo CTX-M-1 con alta frecuencia en aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae causantes de infección intrahospitalaria. El conocimiento de los factores genéticos que pueden favorecer la diseminación de estos genes entre especies bacterianas es un aspecto importante para el control de la resistencia. En este estudio se identificaron los plásmidos portadores del gen blaCTX-M-12 en 21 aislamientos clínicos de K. pneumoniae. Se evaluó por conjugación la transferencia de resistencia a antibióticos. Integrones, secuencias de inserción y otros elementos genéticos fueron detectados por amplificación del ADN plasmídico con la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Mediante análisis por PCR se determinó la relación entre el gen blaCTX-M-12 y los elementos genéticos detectados. En todos los aislamientos, el gen blaCTX-M-12 se encontró en plásmidos conjugativos de tamaños entre 65 y 106 kpb. La transferencia por conjugación de estos elementos móviles puede explicar la amplia diseminación de este gen entre enterobacterias causantes de infección nosocomial en hospitales de Bogotá, Colombia. El gen blaCTX-M-12 se encontró corriente abajo de ISEcp1, secuencia de inserción que se ha asociado con la movilización de determinantes genéticos de resistencia. Los promotores de ISEcp1, detectados por análisis de secuencia, pueden facilitar la expresión de la cefotaximasa codificada por este gen.Palabras clave: resistencia a antibióticos; elementos genéticos móviles; gen blaCTX-M-12; plásmidos conjugativos;  Klebsiella pneumoniae. Abstract: Genes from CTX-M-1 group have been detected with great frequency in Colombia in intrahospital infection-causing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Knowledge regarding the genetic factors favouring such genes’ dissemination amongst bacterial species is an

  17. Toxicokinetics of the ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats after intraperitoneal or oral administration.

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Wang, Zhihong; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-18

    Ciguatoxins are voltage-gated selective algal toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning. In this study we evaluate the toxicokinetics of one of the most common ciguatoxins found in the Pacific, the P-CTX-1, in rat after an oral or intraperitoneal (ip) dose of 0.26 μg/kg body weight. We report levels of ciguatoxin activity assessed over time in blood, urine and feces, and at 4 days in liver, muscle and brain, using the functional in vitro N2A cytotoxicity assay. Following exposure, the ciguatoxin activity exhibited a rapid systemic absorption that was followed by a bi-exponential decline, and data best fit a two-compartment model analysis. Maximum blood concentrations were reached at 1.97 and 0.43 h after the oral and ip dose, respectively. Ciguatoxin elimination from blood was slow with terminal half lives (t(½)β) estimated at 82 h for oral and 112 h for ip dosing. Ciguatoxin activity remained in liver, muscle and brain 96 h after ip and oral administration. While smaller amounts appeared in the urine, the main excretion route was feces, with peak rates reaching > 10 pg P-CTX-1 equivalents/h in both routes of administration. Assay guided fractionation showed the presence in the feces and liver of peaks of activity corresponding to the P-CTX-1 and to other less polar metabolites. In conclusion, biologically active ciguatoxins are detectable in blood, liver, muscle and brain, and continued to be excreted in urine and feces 4 days following exposure. Blood, as well as urine and feces may be useful matrices for low-invasive testing methods for ciguatera clinical cases. PMID:21349314

  18. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas; Ronaldo Mendes Alves; Deyse Christina Vallim; Liliane Miyuki Seki; Leila Carvalho Campos; Marise Dutra Asensi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The a...

  19. Cefotaxime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from a Hospital in Warsaw, Poland: Identification of a New CTX-M-3 Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase That Is Closely Related to the CTX-M-1/MEN-1 Enzyme

    Gniadkowski, Marek; Schneider, Ines; Pałucha, Andrzej; Jungwirth, Renate; Mikiewicz, Barbara; Bauernfeind, Adolf

    1998-01-01

    A group of cefotaxime-resistant Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli isolates were collected by a clinical laboratory in a hospital in Warsaw, Poland, in July 1996. Detailed analysis has shown that all of these produced a β-lactamase (pI, 8.4) belonging to the CTX-M family, one of the minor extended-spectrum β-lactamase families with a strong cefotaxime-hydrolyzing activity. Sequencing has revealed that C. freundii isolates produced a new CTX-M-3 enzyme which is very closely related to t...

  20. Ambiente genético del Gen blaCTX-M-12 en aislamientos hospitalarios de Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Yamile Adriana Celis Bustos; Ingrid Yamile Pulido Manrique; Emilia María Valenzuela de Silva; María Teresa Reguero Reza; José Ramón Mantilla Anaya

    2009-01-01

    The blaCTX-M-12 gene’s genetic environmnt in Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital isolates Resumen: En Colombia se han detectado genes del grupo CTX-M-1 con alta frecuencia en aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae causantes de infección intrahospitalaria. El conocimiento de los factores genéticos que pueden favorecer la diseminación de estos genes entre especies bacterianas es un aspecto importante para el control de la resistencia. En este estudio se identificaron los plásmidos portadores del ge...

  1. First Human Isolate of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Harboring blaCTX-M-14 in South America

    Bado, I; Garcia-Fulgueiras, V.; Cordeiro, N F; Betancor, L.; Caiata, L.; Seija, V.; Robino, L.; Algorta, G.; Chabalgoity, J. A.; Ayala, J. A.; Gutkind, G. O.; Vignoli, R

    2012-01-01

    We studied a clinical isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis showing resistance to oxyiminocephalosporins. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of bla CTX-M-14 linked to IS903 in a 95-kb IncI1 conjugative plasmid. Such a plasmid is maintained on account of the presence of a pndAC addiction system. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis indicated that the strain belongs to ST11. This is the first report of bla CTX-M-14 in Salmonella Enteritidis of human origin in South America....

  2. Rapid Genotyping of CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography▿

    Xu, Li; Evans, Jason; Ling, Thomas; Nye, Kathy; Hawkey, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) is a powerful technique which has been used extensively to detect genetic variation. This is the first report of the application of dHPLC for rapid genotyping of bacterial β-lactamase genes. The technique was specifically developed to genotype members of all blaCTX-M DNA homology groups. Thirteen well-defined blaCTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains were used to develop and optimize the dHPLC genotyping assay. Fu...

  3. Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Retail Meat That Harbor blaCTX-M and fosA3 Genes.

    Xie, Miaomiao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    A total of 55 cefotaxime-resistantEscherichia coliisolates were obtained from retail meat products purchased in Shenzhen, China, during the period November 2012 to May 2013. Thirty-seven of these 55 isolates were found to harbor ablaCTX-Mgene, with theblaCTX-M-1group being the most common type.blaCMY-2was detected in 16 isolates, alone or in combination with other extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) determinants. Importantly, thefosA3gene, which encodes fosfomycin resistance, was detected in 12 isolates, with several being found to reside in the conjugative plasmid that harbored theblaCTX-Mgene. The insertion sequence IS26was observed upstream of some of theblaCTX-M-55andfosA3genes. Conjugation experiments showed thatblaCTX-Mgenes from 15 isolates were transferrable, with Inc I1 and Inc FII being the most prevalent replicons. High clonal diversity was observed among theblaCTX-Mproducers, suggesting that horizontal transfer of theblaCTX-Mgenes amongE. colistrains in retail meats is a common event and that such strains may constitute an important reservoir ofblaCTX-Mgenes, which may be readily disseminated to other potential human pathogens. PMID:26856843

  4. (11aS-7-Bromo-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-3,11-dione

    Chao Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H11BrN2O2, was prepared by an intra-cyclization reaction of (S-1-(5-bromo-2-nitrobenzyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester in the presence of EtOH/Fe. The five-membered pyrrolidinone ring adopts an approximate envelope conformation, while the seven-membered diazepanone ring displays a twisted boat conformation. Intermolecular classical N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions help to stabilize the crystal structure.

  5. 7-Chloro-11a-phenyl-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexa­hydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    Vahan Martirosyan; Gohar Harutyunyan; Ashot Martirosyan; Armen Ayvazyan; Rafael Tamazyan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C18H15ClN2O2, is a potential human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope and the diazepine ring a boat conformation. In the crystal structure, two isomers (R and S) form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. 7-Chloro-11a-phenyl-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    Vahan Martirosyan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H15ClN2O2, is a potential human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope and the diazepine ring a boat conformation. In the crystal structure, two isomers (R and S form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. 7-Chloro-11a-phenyl-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexa­hydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    Tamazyan, Rafael; Ayvazyan, Armen; Martirosyan, Ashot; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Martirosyan, Vahan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C18H15ClN2O2, is a potential human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope and the diazepine ring a boat conformation. In the crystal structure, two isomers (R and S) form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21201925

  8. Sequence analysis of bla CTX-M-28 , an ESBL responsible for third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, for the first time in India

    Kingsley Jemima

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common group of ESBLs not belonging to the bla TEM or bla SHV families were termed bla CTX-M , to highlight their ESBLs′ greater activity against cefotaxime than against ceftazidime. The presence of nosocomial bla CTX-M-28 -producing Enterobacteriaceae strains has not been reported earlier in Indian hospitals. The sequences of bla CTX-M-28 gene from cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were analyzed. The structural gene encodes a 290 amino-acid protein, which is most related to the bla CTX-M β-lactamases. The conserved K-T-G was identified in the bla CTX-M-28 protein sequence, but significantly, two point mutations (N→T and (F→S were identified in the Y-G-N- and S-T-F-K-conserved motifs respectively. These point mutations were seen in all the three sequenced isolates

  9. Prevalence and molecular characterization of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from 2000 to 2010 in Japan.

    Hara, Takafumi; Sato, Takafumi; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Kanazawa, Sachi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Maki, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from 2000 to 2010 in Japan, and to characterize the sequence type (ST) and antimicrobial susceptibility of the bla(CTX-M)-carrying strains. The genes for β-lactamases were determined by conventional PCR and sequencing, and the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the broth microdilution method. Among the 948 strains, 35 were judged as ESBL-positive strains. The positive rates ranged from 0.6% to 3.9% until 2008, but surged to 10.3% in 2010. Thirty-three of them carried bla(CTX-M), but all were negative for ESBL-type bla(TEM) and bla(SHV). bla(CTX-M-14) was the most prevalent (18/33) among bla(CTX-M)-carrying strains, followed by bla(CTX-M-15) (7/33) of which five were isolated in 2008 and 2010. Additionally, bla(CTX-M-27) appeared in 2010 for the first time in this study and accounted for more than a third of the bla(CTX-M)-carrying strains. From the MLST analysis, ST131 known as a world pandemic clone, has been predominantly isolated since 2006. The major types of ESBLs carried by ST131 strains clearly shifted from bla(CTX-M-14) to bla(CTX-M-15) and/or bla(CTX-M-27) between 2006 and 2010. Most of these isolates were still susceptible to doripenem, latamoxef (moxalactam), flomoxef and cefmetazole. Our results suggest that a change of the dominant type of ESBL among Enterobacteriaceae is currently in progress in Japan, and therefore further periodic surveillance is needed. PMID:26182812

  10. blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV inEnterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital:high occurrence of combination genes

    Mohammed Shahid; Anuradha Singh; Farrukh Sobia; Mohammad Rashid; Abida Malik; Indu Shukla; Haris Manzoor Khan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To delineate the frequency of occurrence ofblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV in Enterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital.Methods: A random collection of a subset of45Escherichia coli (E. coli) and28Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) that was resistant to a third generation cephalosporin and obtained during2007-2008 was selected for detailed screening forblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV by monoplexPCRs. The isolates demonstrating the presence of blaCTX-M alleles were characterized for the specificCTX-M-genogroup by using a multiplexPCR.Results:Resistance to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and piperacillin was 100% each inK. pneumoniae isolates, whereas these resistance-rates forE. coli isolates were93.1%, 83.8%, 91.9%, 93.6%, 97.3% and97.1%, respectively. Concomitant resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and aztreonam was also noticed. Presence of any of the bla genes (blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV) was noticed in a total of28 (38.4%) isolates of the73isolates studied. Many isolates demonstrated occurrence of these genes in various combinations.blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV were noticed in 28.8%,10.9% and13.7% isolates, respectively. MultiplexPCR inblaCTX-Mharboring isolates demonstrated the presence ofCTX-M-Genogroup-1 and sequencing for the specificCTX-M-type revealed presence ofCTX-M-15 type. RAPD typing showed wide diversity in isolates.Conclusions:This is amongst the premier report describing the simultaneous occurrence ofblaTEM,blaSHV, andblaampC in IndianEnterobacteriaceae and that wider dissemination of these genes, as demonstrated by diversity of isolates, raises concern and emphasizes a need for extensive search for the presence of these gene pools in Indian subcontinent.

  11. MODIS/TERRA MOD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  12. Design and Noise Optimization of RF Low Noise Amplifier for IEEE Standard 802.11A WLAN

    Munish Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Low noise amplifier is the front end block of radio-frequency receiver system. Its design required various characteristics such as power gain, noise figure, insertion losses and power consumption. In this paper we have proposed a single stage low noise amplifier design with high gain and low noise using inductive source degeneration topology for frequency range of 3 GHz to 7 GHz and also use the active biasing devices. A range of devices like inductors and capacitors are used to achieve 50 Ω input impedance with a low noise factor. The design process is simulated process is using Advance Design System (ADS and implemented in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology. A single stage low noise amplifier has a measured forward gain 25.4 dB and noise figure 2.2 dB at frequency 5.0 GHz.

  13. Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, a potential new probiotic, alleviates symptoms of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats.

    Geier, Mark S; Butler, Ross N; Giffard, Philip M; Howarth, Gordon S

    2007-03-20

    Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively ineffective. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a potential treatment modality for numerous gastrointestinal disorders, including IBD. Few probiotics, however, have undergone appropriate preclinical screening in vivo. The current study compared the effects of four candidate probiotics on development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged 1 mL of the potential probiotic (1 x 10(10) CFU/mL), or vehicle, twice daily for 14 days. Strains tested were Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) and Lactobacillus fermentum BR11 (BR11). Colitis was induced from day 7 to 14 via administration of 2% DSS in drinking water. Disease activity index (DAI) was monitored daily until rats were killed at day 14. DAI decreased in DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 compared to DSS+Vehicle. Colon length increased in DSS+BR11 (10%) and DSS+LGG (10%) compared to DSS+Vehicle. DSS+Bb12 and DSS+BR11 prevented the distal colon crypt hyperplasia evident in DSS+Vehicle, DSS+LGG and DSS+TH-4. BR11 was most effective at reducing colitic symptoms. Bb12 had minimal effects, whilst TH-4 did not prevent DSS-colitis and LGG actually exacerbated some indicators of colitis. Further studies into the potential benefits of L. fermentum BR11 are indicated. PMID:17150273

  14. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  15. MODIS/TERRA MOD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Version 6

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  16. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 11a: giant sequoias

    York, Robert A.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Meyer, Marc; Hanna, Steve; Tadashi, Moody; Caprio, Anthony C.; Battles, John J.

    2013-01-01

    For natural resource managers in the southern Sierra Nevada, giant sequoia requires very little introduction. It receives great attention as an icon of western forests and as a common namesake with the areas where it occurs. While it is a single component of a very complex system, its attention in this assessment and in general is well deserved. Giant sequoia is one of the few "destination species" that attracts a wide swath of the public by nature of it simply being present. It draws people, who otherwise may not travel, to a natural environment. The result is an expansion of the public’s sense of natural resource stewardship. Because park managers could not achieve their mission without public support, this fostering role of giant sequoia is critical for park natural resources and is important for natural resources in general. Despite its social relevance and physical size, we re-emphasize here that the giant sequoia resource is a relatively small component of the ecosystems of the southern Sierra Nevada. As is the case with all of the resources assessed in the NRCA, we focus on giant sequoia with the understanding that other resources will be considered simultaneously when evaluating management decisions that impact giant sequoia. While we attempt to explicitly address the interaction of giant sequoia with other resources and stressors, we also realize that ultimately managers will integrate much more information than is presented here when making decisions that influence giant sequoia. The autecology and management issues surrounding giant sequoia have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Harvey et al. 1980, Aune 1994, Stephenson 1996). Stephenson (1996), in particular, should be reviewed when considering any management decisions that potentially impact giant sequoia. For those who may not be familiar with giant sequoia ecology, a summary of basic information is provided in a table below. In some parts of this assessment, we reproduce text from Stephenson’s review because it is still relatively current for addressing some of the

  17. PA01.11. A retrospective case study of ayurvedic treatment of ashmaräª (renal calculi)

    Jangid, Chhagan; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Now a day's occurrence & recurrence of Ashmara (Renal Calculus) are very common & its rate of incidence is alarmingly increasing. Some acute cases require immediate attention to relieve from severe pain. Even surgery is recommended if a calculus is larger in size because it can cause many complications. Conservative line of treatment is recommended if calculi are small in size, non obstructive, post operative and in the cases of recurrence. For the conservative treatment of Renal Cal...

  18. STScI-PRC02-11a FARAWAY GALAXIES PROVIDE A STUNNING 'WALLPAPER' BACKDROP FOR A RUNAWAY GALAXY

    2002-01-01

    Against a stunning backdrop of thousands of galaxies, this odd-looking galaxy with the long streamer of stars appears to be racing through space, like a runaway pinwheel firework. This picture of the galaxy UGC 10214 was taken by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), which was installed aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope in March during Servicing Mission 3B. Dubbed the 'Tadpole,' this spiral galaxy is unlike the textbook images of stately galaxies. Its distorted shape was caused by a small interloper, a very blue, compact galaxy visible in the upper left corner of the more massive Tadpole. The Tadpole resides about 420 million light-years away in the constellation Draco. Seen shining through the Tadpole's disk, the tiny intruder is likely a hit-and-run galaxy that is now leaving the scene of the accident. Strong gravitational forces from the interaction created the long tail of debris, consisting of stars and gas that stretch out more than 280,000 light-years. Numerous young blue stars and star clusters, spawned by the galaxy collision, are seen in the spiral arms, as well as in the long 'tidal' tail of stars. Each of these clusters represents the formation of up to about a million stars. Their color is blue because they contain very massive stars, which are 10 times hotter and 1 million times brighter than our Sun. Once formed, the star clusters become redder with age as the most massive and bluest stars exhaust their fuel and burn out. These clusters will eventually become old globular clusters similar to those found in essentially all halos of galaxies, including our own Milky Way. Two prominent clumps of young bright blue stars in the long tail are separated by a 'gap' -- a section that is fainter than the rest of the tail. These clumps of stars will likely become dwarf galaxies that orbit in the Tadpole's halo. The galactic carnage and torrent of star birth are playing out against a spectacular backdrop: a 'wallpaper pattern' of 6,000 galaxies. These galaxies represent twice the number of those discovered in the legendary Hubble Deep Field, the orbiting observatory's 'deepest' view of the heavens, taken in 1995 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The ACS picture, however, was taken in one-twelfth the time it took to observe the original Hubble Deep Field. In blue light, ACS sees even fainter objects than were seen in the 'deep field.' The galaxies in the ACS picture, like those in the deep field, stretch back to nearly the beginning of time. They are a myriad of shapes and represent fossil samples of the universe's 13-billion-year evolution. The ACS image is so sharp that astronomers can identify distant colliding galaxies, the 'building blocks' of galaxies, an exquisite 'Whitman's Sampler' of galaxies, and many extremely faraway galaxies. ACS made this observation on April 1 and 9, 2002. The color image is constructed from three separate images taken in near-infrared, orange, and blue filters. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M.Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA The ACS Science Team: (H. Ford, G. Illingworth, M. Clampin, G. Hartig, T. Allen, K. Anderson, F. Bartko, N. Benitez, J. Blakeslee, R. Bouwens, T. Broadhurst, R. Brown, C. Burrows, D. Campbell, E. Cheng, N. Cross, P. Feldman, M. Franx, D. Golimowski, C. Gronwall, R. Kimble, J. Krist, M. Lesser, D. Magee, A. Martel, W. J. McCann, G. Meurer, G. Miley, M. Postman, P. Rosati, M. Sirianni, W. Sparks, P. Sullivan, H. Tran, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White, and R. Woodruff)

  19. MODIS/COMBINED MOD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  20. McStas 1.1. A freeware package for neutron Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations

    Neutron simulation is becoming an indispensable tool for neutron instrument design. At Risoe National Laboratory, a user-friendly, versatile, and fast simulation package, McStas has been developed, which may be freely downloaded from our website. An instrument is described in the McStas meta-language and is composed of elements from the McStas component library, which is under constant development and debugging by both the users and us. The McStas front- and back-ends take care of performing the simulations and displaying their results, respectively. McStas 1.1 facilities detailed simulations of complicated triple-axis instruments like the Riso RITA spectrometer, and it is equally well equipped for time-of flight spectrometers. At ECNS'99, a brief tutorial of McStas including a few on-line demonstrations is presented. Further, results from the latest simulation work in the growing McStas user group are presented and the future of this project is discussed. (author)

  1. Design and Noise Optimization of RF Low Noise Amplifier for IEEE Standard 802.11A WLAN

    Ravinder Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Low noise amplifier is the front end block of radio-frequency receiver system. Its design required various characteristics such as power gain, noise figure, insertion losses and power consumption. In this paper we have proposed a single stage low noise amplifier design with high gain and low noise using inductive source degeneration topology for frequency range of 3 GHz to 7 GHz and also use the active biasing devices. A range of devices like inductors and capacitors are used to achieve 50 Ω input impedance with a low noise factor. The design process is simulated process is using Advance Design System (ADS and implemented in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology. A single stage low noise amplifier has a measured forward gain 25.4 dB and noise figure 2.2 dB at frequency 5.0 GHz.

  2. Characterization of Salmonella Isangi possessing a CTX-M15 ESBL associated with an outbreak in a US Hospital.

    Suleyman, Geehan; Perri, Mary; Vager, Dora; Samuel, Linoj; Zervos, Marcos J; Alangaden, George; Tibbetts, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Over an approximately 50-day period in 2015, an outbreak of CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL)-possessing Salmonella Isangi occurred among 19 adult surgical patients and one healthcare worker (HCW) at a large urban tertiary care hospital in the United States. A total of 45 S. Isangi isolates were isolated from stool (35), blood (4), urine (3), respiratory (2), and wound (1) cultures. Phenotypically, all but three isolates demonstrated resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftriaxone, and cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to ertapenem. Genotypically, a single CTX-M-15 ESBL was identified in all but three isolates by real-time PCR. Interestingly, two of the CTX-M-15 negative, susceptible isolates were isolated from a single patient who initially had a CTX-M positive, resistant strain. Isolates were clonally related, including both resistant and susceptible strains, as confirmed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This is the first case of a novel Salmonella outbreak at this hospital, and we believe it to be the first case of an S. Isangi serotype outbreak in the United States. PMID:27130476

  3. Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S.; Teisner, Børge; Garnero, Patrick; Price, Paul A.; Iversen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the prognostic value of markers of bone metabolism (serum PINP, BAP, and CTX-I) and serum YKL-40 in metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC). METHODS: The biomarkers were determined by ELISAs in 153 metastatic PC patients before treatment with parenteral estrogen or total androge...

  4. Use of the plasma CTX for assessing the bone activity of the mandible among osteopenic and osteoporotic patients

    Glacio Avolio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the plasma CTX bone remodeling marker is useful for indicating the bone metabolic activity level of the mandible. Thirty-six patients were selected; all were postmenopausal and aged 50 years or over. In accordance with the WHO criteria for osteoporosis, a control group was set up (n = 10 in which the T-score was greater than -1 and a diseased group with T-score less than -1. Using MDP-99mTc samples, the radioisotope uptake in the femoral neck (R2 and mandibular body (R1 was analyzed. A third examination was performed using the plasma CTX biochemical bone-modeling marker. The inferential results for the diseased group showed that Ln(R1 presented a statistically significant linear relationship with Ln(CTx (p = 0.067 and with the T-score (p = 0.018. The plasma CTX bone remodeling marker is useful for monitoring the bone metabolic activity of the mandible.

  5. Relation between blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes and acute urinary tract infections

    Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi; Mehdi Goudarzi; Fattaneh Sabzehali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey the frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genotypes in extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection and the determination of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods: During 11-month study, 100 ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from 330 patients who met the definition of urinary tract infection. The phenotypic identification of ESBL was confirmed by double disk synergy test and combined disk diffusion test. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL isolates than 14 antimicrobial agents was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli was assessed by PCR method. Results: The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli was 40.8%. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL-producing E. coli showed that the majority of isolates were highly susceptible to amikacin (74%) and imipenem (91%). The rates of resistance to other antibiotics varied from 33% to 96%. Through 100 tested isolates, the prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was determined to be 67%, 45% and 74% respectively. In comparison with other bla genes, the frequency of blaCTX-M was strikingly high. Conclusions: Due to the increase of E. coli with multiple ESBL genes, continuous sur-veillance in order to use appropriate antibiotics and the control of infections is necessary.

  6. Stereoselective 6-exo radical cyclization using cis-vinyl sulfoxide: practical total synthesis of CTX3C.

    Yamashita, Shuji; Ishihara, Yuuki; Morita, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Junichi; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Masayuki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2011-03-25

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are large ladder-like polycyclic ethers. We report a highly stereoselective 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing olefin metathesis sequence to construct the syn/trans-fused polyether system. The new method was applied to the practical synthesis of ciguatoxin CTX3C. PMID:21250701

  7. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  8. The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam.

    Nhu Thi Khanh Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. The rise of CTX-M class extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs has been well documented in industrialized countries. Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges. METHODOLOGY: We collected hospital admission data from the pediatric population attending the hospital for tropical diseases in Ho Chi Minh City with Shigella infections. Organisms were cultured from all enrolled patients and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Those that were ESBL positive were subjected to further investigation. These investigations included PCR amplification for common ESBL genes, plasmid investigation, conjugation, microarray hybridization and DNA sequencing of a bla(CTX-M encoding plasmid. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that two different bla(CTX-M genes are circulating in this bacterial population in this location. Sequence of one of the ESBL plasmids shows that rather than the gene being integrated into a preexisting MDR plasmid, the bla(CTX-M gene is located on relatively simple conjugative plasmid. The sequenced plasmid (pEG356 carried the bla(CTX-M-24 gene on an ISEcp1 element and demonstrated considerable sequence homology with other IncFI plasmids. SIGNIFICANCE: The rapid dissemination, spread of antimicrobial resistance and changing population of Shigella spp. concurrent with economic growth are pertinent to many other countries undergoing similar development. Third generation cephalosporins are commonly used empiric antibiotics in Ho Chi Minh City. We recommend that these agents should not be considered for therapy of dysentery in this setting.

  9. Identification and characterization of CTX-M-15 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST101 in a Hungarian university teaching hospital.

    Melegh, Szilvia; Schneider, György; Horváth, Marianna; Jakab, Ferenc; Emődy, Levente; Tigyi, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates derived from the teaching hospitals of University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary in the time period 2004-2008. Molecular typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of common β-lactamase genes (bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)) and virulence associated traits (hypermucoviscosity, magA, k2a, rmpA, siderophores, type 1 and 3 fimbria, biofilm formation, serum resistance) were performed for 102 isolates. The results showed the presence of three major ciprofloxacin resistant CTX-M-15 producing clones (ST15 n = 69, ST101 n = 10, and ST147 n = 9), of which ST15 was predominant and universally widespread. Considering distribution in time and place, ST101 and ST147 were detected at fewer inpatient units and within a narrower time frame, as compared to ST15. Beside major clones, eleven minor clones were identified, and were shown to harbour the following β-lactamase genes: six clones carried bla(CTX-M), four clones harboured bla(SHV-5) and one clone possessed both bla(CTX-M) and ESBL type bla(SHV). Among the SHV-5 producing K. pneumoniae clones a novel sequence type was found, namely ST1193, which harboured a unique infB allele. Different virulence factor content and peculiar antimicrobial susceptibility profile were characteristic for each clone. In contrast to major clone isolates, which showed high level resistance to ciprofloxacin, minor clone isolates displayed significantly lower MIC values for ciprofloxacin suggesting a role for fluoroquinolones in the dissemination of the major K. pneumoniae clones. This is the first description of the CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae clone ST101 in Hungary. PMID:26551567

  10. Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat

    Larissa Alvarenga Batista Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences of blaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampC and qnr genes were investigated in Escherichia coli from 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands tested, three were exporters, including one of organic chicken. Our study assessed 136 E. coli isolates that were grouped into 77 distinct biotypes defined by their origin, resistance profiling, the presence of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polimerase chain reaction typing. The blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-8 genes were detected in one, 17 and eight different biotypes, respectively (45 isolates. Twenty-one biotypes (46 isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Additionally, blaCMY-2 was identified in isolates that also carried either blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-8. The qnrB and/or qnrS genes occurred in isolates carrying each of the four types of β-lactamase determinants detected and also in oxyimino-cephalosporin-susceptible strains. Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and AmpC determinants were identified in carcasses from the four brands tested. Notably, this is the first description of blaCTX-M-15 genes in meat or food-producing animals from South America. The blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were transferable in conjugation experiments. The findings of the present study indicate that plasmid-mediated ESBL and AmpC-encoding genes are widely distributed in Brazilian chicken meat.

  11. Beta-lactam induction of ISEcp1B-mediated mobilization of the naturally occurring bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase gene of Kluyvera ascorbata

    Nordmann, Patrice; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    ISEcp1B is an insertion element associated with the emerging expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Because ISEcp1B-blaCTX-M positive strains may be identified from humans and animals, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the blaCTX-M-2 gene was tested from its progenitor Kluyvera ascorbata to study the effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic and cefquinome as enhancers of transposition. These β-lactam molecules are administered parenterally to treat infec...

  12. Beta-lactam induction of ISEcp1B-mediated mobilization of the naturally occurring bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase gene of Kluyvera ascorbata.

    Nordmann, Patrice; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    ISEcp1B is an insertion element associated with the emerging expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase bla(CTX-M) genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Because ISEcp1B-bla(CTX-M)positive strains may be identified from humans and animals, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the bla(CTX-M-2) gene was tested from its progenitor Kluyvera ascorbata to study the effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic and cefquinome as enhancers of transposition. These beta-lactam molecules are administered parenterally to ...

  13. Dissemination and characterization of plasmids carrying oqxAB-bla CTX-M genes in Escherichia coli isolates from food-producing animals.

    Bao-Tao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of PMQR and ESBLs in negative-bacteria isolates has been of great concern. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of co-transferability of oqxAB and bla CTX-M genes among the 696 Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates from food-producing animals in South China, and to characterize these plasmids. METHODS: The ESBL-encoding genes (bla(CTX-M, bla(TEM and bla(SHV, and PMQR (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, aac(6'-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB of these 696 isolates were determined by PCR and sequenced directionally. Conjugation, S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and Southern blotting experiments were performed to investigate the co-transferability and location of oqxAB and bla(CTX-M. The EcoRI digestion profiles of the plasmids with oqxAB-bla(CTX-M were also analyzed. The clonal relatedness was investigated by PFGE. RESULTS: Of the 696 isolates, 429 harbored at least one PMQR gene, with oqxAB (328 being the most common type; 191 carried bla(CTX-M, with bla(CTX-M-14 the most common. We observed a significant higher prevalence of bla(CTX-M among the oqxAB-positive isolates (38.7% than that (17.4% in the oqxAB-negative isolates. Co-transferability of oqxAB and bla(CTX-M was found in 18 of the 127 isolates carrying oqxAB-bla(CTX-M. These two genes were located on the same plasmid in all the 18 isolates, with floR being on these plasmids in 13 isolates. The co-dissemination of these genes was mainly mediated by F33:A-: B- and HI2 plasmids with highly similar EcoRI digestion profiles. Diverse PFGE patterns indicated the high prevalence of oqxAB was not caused by clonal dissemination. CONCLUSION: bla(CTX-M was highly prevalent among the oqxAB-positive isolates. The co-dissemination of oqxAB-bla(CTX-M genes in E. coli isolates from food-producing animals is mediated mainly by similar F33:A-: B- and HI2 plasmids. This is the first report of the co-existence of oqxAB, bla(CTX-M, and floR on the same

  14. A Plasmid Bearing the bla(CTX-M-15) Gene and Phage P1-Like Sequences from a Sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate.

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-10-01

    Plasmid pKP12226 was extracted and analyzed from a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 (ST11) isolate collected in South Korea. The plasmid represents chimeric characteristics consisting of a pIP1206-like backbone and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. It bears a resistance region that includes resistance genes to several antibiotics and is different from previously characterized plasmids from South Korea bearing blaCTX-M-15. It may have resulted from recombination between an Escherichia coli plasmid backbone, a blaCTX-M-15-bearing resistance region, and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. PMID:26195513

  15. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates in Shiraz, Iran

    Khosrow Zamani; Amir Emami; Abdollah Bazargani; Afagh Moattari

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTIONThe aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-encoding CTX-M gene in Escherichia coliisolates.METHODS:Phenotypic screening of 376 E. coli isolates for ESBL was conducted using disk diffusion. ESBL-producing isolates were tested using PCR and specific primers. The blaCTX-M cluster was identified using the RFLP method, and its genotype was sequenced.RESULTS:From 202 ESBL-producing E. coli , 185 (91.5%) possessed CTX-M genes...

  16. Prevalence of blaCTX-M gene in multi-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Urinary Tract Infections, Tehran, Iran

    Mehdi Goudarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:The emergence and increase in the incidence of Extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli has become an emerging challenge especially in hospitalized patients with UTI. The aim of the present study was to survey the frequency of bla CTX-M genotype in ESBL producing E. coli isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI and determination of their antibiotic resistance pattern.Material and methodsA total of 135 E. coli isolates were collected from isolated from patients with UTI. The isolates were subjected to confirmatory phenotype tests for the presence of ESBL. 75 E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL-positive by means of the Double disc synergy test. In vitro susceptibility of ESBL isolates to 15 antimicrobial agents amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, cefixime, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofourantoin, amikacin and imipenem was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s Disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012 guideline. PCR method was used to identify bla CTX-M gene in 75 ESBL positive strains.Results:PCR and sequence analysis showed that 75 (55.5% isolates produced bla CTX-M genes. In vitro susceptibility of ESBL producing E. coli showed that all of them were resistant to amoxicillin and penicillin and The rates of resistance to the majority of tested antibiotics varied between 61% to 100 %, with the exception of amikacin (14.7% and imipenem (2.7%. Our results showed that the frequency of bla CTX-M was strikingly high (93.3%.Conclusion:These data confirmed that the frequency of bla CTX-M genes were high among E. coli isolated from patients with UTI. The trend of multidrug-resistant profile has been associated with bla CTX-M gene is alarming. Therefore, it is very important to establish a routine screening of ESBL in clinical isolates to prevent dissemination of resistant isolates in health

  17. The type II collagen fragments Helix-II and CTX-II reveal different enzymatic pathways of human cartilage collagen degradation

    Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Desmarais, S; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA) generates the type II collagen fragments, Helix-II and CTX-II that can be used as clinical biological markers. Helix-II and C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) levels are associated independently with progression of OA suggesting that...... they may be generated through different collagenolytic pathways. In this study we analyzed the release of Helix-II and CTX-II from human cartilage collagen by the proteinases reported to play a role in cartilage degradation. METHODS: In vitro, human articular cartilage extract was incubated with...... enzymatic pathways. Helix-II and CTX-II alone reflect only partially overall cartilage collagen degradation. These findings may explain why these two biological markers could provide complementary information on disease progression in OA....

  18. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The urinary level of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to estrogen holds true for other type...... II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...... rats receiving estrogen or not. Levels of PIIANP, a marker of type II collagen synthesis, were also measured in rats. Rat knee cartilage was analyzed for immunoreactivity of CTX-II and PIIANP and for type II collagen expression. RESULTS: As expected, urinary levels of CTX-II are significantly increased...

  19. An updated ciguatoxin extraction method and silica cleanup for use with HPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of P-CTX-1, PCTX-2 and P-CTX-3.

    Meyer, Lauren; Carter, Steve; Capper, Angela

    2015-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a debilitating human neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of tropical marine organisms, contaminated with bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). The growing number of cases coupled with the high toxicity of CTXs makes their reliable detection and quantification of paramount importance. Three commonly occurring ciguatoxins, P-CTX-1, 2 and 3 from five different ciguatoxic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), were used to assess the effectiveness of different extraction techniques: homogenization (high powered blending vs. ultrasonication); C-18 column sizes (500 mg vs. 900 mg); and a novel HILIC SPE cleanup. Despite minor differences, blending and sonication proved equally effective. Larger 900 mg columns offered a greater extraction efficiency, increasing detected P-CTX-1 by 37% (P ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) and current best practice extraction method employed by Queensland Health (QH). Overall, the QH protocol proved more effective, especially when paired with the newly adapted cleanup, as this increased the amount of extracted P-CTX-1 by 46% (P ciguatoxin congener of concern due to its extremely high potency and an ability to cause CFP at 0.1 μg/kg following consumption of carnivorous fish flesh. Despite being more time intensive (an additional 85 min per batch of 12 samples), this will be especially effective for assessing lower toxin burdens, which may be near the limit of detection. PMID:26541571

  20. Surface group modification and carrier transport properties of layered transition metal carbides (Ti2CTx, T: -OH, -F and -O)

    Lai, Shen; Jeon, Jaeho; Jang, Sung Kyu; Xu, Jiao; Choi, Young Jin; Park, Jin-Hong; Hwang, Euyheon; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-11-01

    In spite of recent significant research into various two-dimensional (2D) materials after the emergence of graphene, the development of a new 2D material that provides both high mobility and an appropriate energy band gap (which are crucial for various device applications) remains elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that the carrier transport behaviour of 2D Ti2CTx, which belongs to the family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides, can be tuned by modifying the surface group Tx (-OH, -F, and -O). Our results show that 2D Ti2C(OH)xFy and Ti2COx films can be obtained via simple chemical treatment, thermal annealing, and mechanical exfoliation processes. For the first time, we study the carrier transport properties of 2D Ti2CTx field effect transistors (FETs), obtaining the high field effect carrier mobilities of 104 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. The temperature dependent resistivity of the Ti2COx film exhibits semiconductor like Arrhenius behaviour at zero gate voltage, from which we estimate the energy gap of 80 meV. One interesting feature of the FETs based on transition metal carbides is that the field effect mobility at room temperature is less sensitive to the measured transport gaps, which may arise from the dominant charge transport of activated carriers over the narrow energy gaps of the transition metal carbides. Our results open up the possibility that new 2D materials with high mobilities and appropriate band gaps can be achieved, and broaden the range of electronic device applications of Ti2CTx films.In spite of recent significant research into various two-dimensional (2D) materials after the emergence of graphene, the development of a new 2D material that provides both high mobility and an appropriate energy band gap (which are crucial for various device applications) remains elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that the carrier transport behaviour of 2D Ti2CTx, which belongs to the family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides

  1. Spread of CTX-M-type ESßLs in isolates of E. coli from long-term care and rehabilitation facilities in Northern Italy

    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period March 2003 – May 2004 at the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology “Redaelli” LTCRF in Milan, Italy, a total of 529 E. coli, obtained from inpatients of 3 different Long Term Care Rehabilitation Facilities (LTCRFs in Northern Italy, were processed and 77 ESßLs producers (14.5% were identified by Vitek System. The results were confirmed by double-disk synergy test with tazobactam (TZP. 61/77 isolates were characterized by higher levels of resistance to cefotaxime (CTX than to ceftazidime (CAZ. (ß-lactamase production was investigated by analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF coupled with a bioassay and showed multiple (ß-lactamase bands including one enzyme with pI 8.4 that, in a bioassay, was more active on CTX,ATM than on CAZ. The presence of (ß-lactamase genes was investigated by colony blot hybridization and by PCR amplification of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M alleles. 43/61 isolates produced both TEM-1 and CTX-M-type enzymes, 14/61 expressed only CTX-M-type while in 4 cases were found blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes.The remainders (16/77, characterized by high levels of resistance to both CTX and CAZ, produced TEM-1 and SHV-5 enzymes (1/16 and TEM type ESßLs (15/16. Conjugation experiments, performed in liquid medium, confermed that the ESßLs determinants were transferable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of genomic DNA, digested with NotI, were analysed and revealed clonal heterogeneity. Our work confirms the emergence of CTX-M-type enzymes and their spread in Northern Italy also in longterm care and rehabilitation facilities that may be an important reservoir of ES?L producing E. coli.

  2. Possibility of CTX-M-14 Gene Transfer from Shigella sonnei to a Commensal Escherichia coli Strain of the Gastroenteritis Microbiome

    Cho, Seung-Hak; Han, Soon Young; Kang, Yeon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigated whether the CTX-M-14 gene could be transferred from a clinical Shigella sonnei strain to commensal Escherichia coli strain in the gastroenteritis microbiome. Methods E. coli strains were isolated from 30 stool samples of S. sonnei infected students in a gastroenteritis outbreak in 2004 and were characterized by antibiotic resistance analysis, in vitro conjugation and in vivo transfer of CTX-M-14 gene and molecular assays. Results One strain of Escherichia coli that ...

  3. PrognosticValue of PINP,BoneAlkaline Phosphatase, CTX-I, andYKL-40 in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S; Teisner, Børge; Garnero, Patrick; Price, Paul A; Iversen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006 Apr 1;66(5):503-13. PMID: 16372331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]......Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006 Apr 1;66(5):503-13. PMID: 16372331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]...

  4. Novel Complex Class 1 Integron Bearing an ISCR1 Element in an Escherichia coli Isolate Carrying the blaCTX-M-14 Gene▿

    Bae, Il Kwon; Lee, You-Nae; Lee, Wee Gyo; Lee, Sang Hee; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2007-01-01

    This work identifies an ISCR1-related blaCTX-M-14 gene, which has never been reported before, from a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. The blaCTX-M-14 gene was preceded by an ISCR1 element that was followed by a class 1 integron containing three different insert gene cassettes, i.e., dfrA12, orfF, and aadA2.

  5. PER, CTX-M, TEM and SHV Beta-lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Tehran, Iran

    Leila Nasehi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDifferent types of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs are encountered in the clinical settings worldwide. There are a few studies regarding the prevalence of ESBL genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates at Tehran especially those of blaPER and blaCTX. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of blaSHV, blaTEM ,blaPER and blaCTX genes among clinical K. pneumoniae of different hospitals in Tehran.Materials and MethodsTwo hundred isolates of K. pneumoniae were received from different clinical specimens. The susceptibility of the isolates to 10 different antibiotics was examined by disk diffusion test. The MICs for ceftazidime were also determined using micro-broth dilution assay. Isolates showing MIC 4 μg/ml for ceftazidime were screened for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT and subjected to PCR for studied genes. Variation among four amplified genes was evaluated using PCR-RFLP.ResultsBy disk diffusion test, resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime were 34.7% and 33.5% respectively. However, all strains were susceptible to imipenem. Eighty isolates showed MICs≥ 4 μg/ml for ceftazidime of which 77 (96% were positive for ESBL in PCT. The prevalence of blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaPER among these isolates were 26%, 24.5%, 18% and 7.5%, respectively. No variation was detected in the genes by PCR-RFLP.ConclusionAs far as we know this is the first report of the blaPER-1 in K. pneumoniae in Iran. The blaCTX-M was the second most common gene detected among the ESBL positive isolates of K. pneumoniae. For rapid identification of ESBL producing isolates it was recommended that clinical laboratories adopt simple test based on CLSI recommendation for confirming ESBL production in enterobacterial species.

  6. Dissemination of CTX-M-Type β-Lactamases among Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Paris, France

    Eckert, C.; Gautier, V.; Saladin-Allard, M.; Hidri, N.; Verdet, C.; Ould-Hocine, Z.; Barnaud, G.; Delisle, F.; Rossier, A.; Lambert, T; Philippon, A; Arlet, G

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed 19 clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae (16 Escherichia coli isolates and 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates) collected from four different hospitals in Paris, France, from 2000 to 2002. These strains had a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance profile characterized by a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam than to ceftazidime. The blaCTX-M genes encoding these β-lactamases were involved in this resistance, with a predominance of blaCT...

  7. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.

    Das, Moon Moon; Bhotra, Tilothama; Zala, Dolatsinh; Singh, Durg Vijai

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and ctxB gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical ctxB in four strains and Haitian ctxB in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, Vibrio seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to tcpAET and rstRET, the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian ctxB and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination. PMID:27255911

  8. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Ligand-Efficient Inhibitors of CTX-M Class A [beta]-Lactamase

    Nichols, Derek A.; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Larson, Wayne; Smith, Emmanuel; Liu, Guoqing; Beyrouthy, Racha; Bonnet, Richard; Renslo, Adam R.; Chen, Yu (USF); (UCSF); (Clermont)

    2012-07-11

    The emergence of CTX-M class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases poses a serious health threat to the public. We have applied structure-based design to improve the potency of a novel noncovalent tetrazole-containing CTX-M inhibitor (K{sub i} = 21 {mu}M) more than 200-fold via structural modifications targeting two binding hot spots, a hydrophobic shelf formed by Pro167 and a polar site anchored by Asp240. Functional groups contacting each binding hot spot independently in initial designs were later combined to produce analogues with submicromolar potencies, including 6-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid [3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-amide, which had a K{sub i} value of 89 nM and reduced the MIC of cefotaxime by 64-fold in CTX-M-9 expressing Escherichia coli. The in vitro potency gains were accompanied by improvements in ligand efficiency (from 0.30 to 0.39) and LipE (from 1.37 to 3.86). These new analogues represent the first nM-affinity noncovalent inhibitors of a class A {beta}-lactamase. Their complex crystal structures provide valuable information about ligand binding for future inhibitor design.

  9. Nursing Care and Observation of Two Treatment Programs of CTX in Refractory Nephritic Syndrome%环磷酰胺二种方案治疗难治性肾病综合征的观察及护理

    张孝林; 陈学兰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effects of the two treament programs of Cyclophos-phamide (CTX) in refractory nephrotic syndrome. Methods Refractory nephritic syndrome patients weredivided into two groups in random. Group 1 were treated with oral CTX while group 2 were treated with inintravenous infusion CTX.Results Group 2 showed the better therapeutic effects. The time before it 1,the dose of CTX to show effects and the effective time are both shorter than group lower than group 1, sodid the side effect of CTX. Conclusion Intravenous infusion of CTX on addition to hydration therapy im-prove refractory nephotic syndrome significantly. The obseration and nursing care before and after treat-ment are very important to decrease and alleviate the complication.

  10. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant and emergence of Haitian ctxB variant in the strains isolated from South India.

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Parande, Mahantesh V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Roy, Subarna

    2016-04-01

    Cholera still continues to be an important cause of human infection, especially in developing countries that lack access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. In the present study, we report the emergence of new variant form of V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype with a novel mutation in ctxB in strains isolated from various outbreaks during 2010-2014 in Belgaum situated in north-west Karnataka, India. A total of 14 occurrences of cholera were documented from Belgaum Division of North Karnataka during the 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. All the V. cholerae O1 isolates were subjected to DAMA PCR to detect the three different allelic subtypes of ctxB and PCR-based detection of virulent genes, and subsequently, 14 strains (one strain from each outbreak or sporadic case) were subjected to ctxB gene sequence and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 54 V. cholerae O1 strains were obtained of which 21 strains isolated during 2010-2011 had classical ctxB and remaining 33 strains isolated during 2012-2014 belonged to Haitian variant. In the cluster analysis, the PFGE profiles were divided into clades A with and B. Clade A contained eight strains with 94 % similarity and Haitian type of ctxB. Clade B contained six strains and had Haitian type of ctxB except one with classical ctxB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the Haitian variant of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of cholera in South India. PMID:26337047

  11. Translational Inhibition of CTX-M Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase in Clinical Strains of Escherichia coli by Synthetic Antisense Oligonucleotides Partially Restores Sensitivity to Cefotaxime.

    Readman, John B; Dickson, George; Coldham, Nick G

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson-Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25-mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) and a 13-mer polyamide (peptide) nucleic acid (PNA) were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and -17 to -5, respectively) close to the translational initiation site of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase resistance genes of CTX-M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β-lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell-free translation-transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a bla CTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up-regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime (CTX) in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0-40 nM). The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (CPP; (KFF)3K) and both significantly (P < 0.05) increased sensitivity to CTX in a dose dependent manner (0-40 nM) in field and clinical isolates harboring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine-Dalgarno region of bla CTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates. PMID:27047482

  12. Prevalence of the bla CTX-M group and their transferability in resistant clinical isolates of Salmonella serogroups from several hospitals of Tehran

    Kobra Salimian Rizi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen in humans. Strains of Salmonella spp. That producing extended-spectrum β-Lactamases have become a concern in medicine regarding both antimicrobial treatment and infection control program. The objective of this study was to describe the antibiotic susceptibility, ESBL production and determining the prevalence of the blaCTX-M-1 group among clinical isolates of Salmonella spp.Materials and Methods: A total of 110 Salmonella isolates collected from four Tehran hospitals during May 2012 and April 2013. The specific monovalan Salmonella antisera were used for serogrouping of Salmonella isolates. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and ESBL phenotype was confirmed by combination disk method. The blaCTX-M-1 group was identified by PCR with specific primers. The transferability of the blaCTX-1 group was tested by conjugation with broth matting method.Results: The prevalence of Salmonella serogroups consist of 56.4% serogroup D, 13.6 % serogroup C, 10 % serogroup B, and 1.8 % serogroup A and 18.2% other serogroups. Maximal resistance in Salmonella isolates was noticed against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63.6% and nalidixic-acid (47/3%. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem and ciprofloxacin. Four isolates (3.6% showed ESBLs phenotype. All Salmonella spp. that produce ESBls have blaCTX-1 genes group. A conjugative plasmid containing blaCTX-1 group was found in one Salmonella isolate.Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predominant presence of the gene encoding CTX-M-1 group among ESBLs producing of Salmonella spp. They can transmit to bacteria of this genus or even other genera of enteric bacteria.Keywords: Salmonella spp., blaCTX-M-1 group, antibiotic resistance, conjugation, broth matting

  13. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  14. Different IncI1 plasmids from Escherichia coli carry ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15 associated with different Tn2-derived elements.

    Zong, Zhiyong; Ginn, Andrew N; Dobiasova, Hana; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2015-07-01

    The bla(CTX-M-15) gene, encoding the globally dominant CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase, has generally been found in a 2.971-kb ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ transposition unit, with ISEcp1 providing a promoter. In available IncF plasmid sequences from Escherichia coli, this transposition unit interrupts a truncated copy of transposon Tn2 that lies within larger multiresistance regions. In E. coli, bla(CTX-M-15) is also commonly associated with IncI1 plasmids and here three such plasmids from E. coli clinical isolates from western Sydney 2006-2007 have been sequenced. The plasmid backbones are organised similarly to those of other IncI1 plasmids, but have insertions and/or deletions and sequence differences. Each plasmid also has a different insertion carrying bla(CTX-M-15). pJIE113 (IncI1 sequence type ST31) is almost identical to plasmids isolated from the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Europe, where the typical bla(CTX-M-15) transposition unit interrupts a complete Tn2 inserted directly in the plasmid backbone. In the novel plasmid pJIE139 (ST88), ISEcp1-blaC(TX-M-15)-orf477Δ lies within a Tn2/3 hybrid transposon. Homologous recombination could explain movement of ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15)-orf477Δ between copies of Tn2 on IncF and IncI1 plasmids and generation of the Tn2/3 hybrid. pJIE174 (ST37) is almost identical to pESBL-12 from the Netherlands and in these plasmids bla(CTX-M-15) is flanked by two copies of IS26 that truncate the transposition unit within a larger region bounded by the ends of Tn2. bla(CTX-M-15) and the associated ISEcp1-derived promoter may be able to move from this structure by the actions of IS26, independently of both ISEcp1 and Tn2. PMID:25929173

  15. Limited similarity between plasmids encoding CTX-M-1 β-lactamase in Escherichia coli from humans, pigs, cattle, organic poultry layers and horses in Denmark

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Bortolaia, Valeria; Bielak, Eliza Maria;

    2015-01-01

    CTX-M-1 is a common extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Escherichia coli from animals and is often detected among human clinical isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological relationship between CTX-M-1-producing E. coli isolated from patients and animals in...... typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing. Human and animal strains were unrelated based on PFGE. IncI1 was more common in human isolates (13/22) than in animal isolates (7/43), whereas the opposite trend was observed for IncN (5/22 human...... isolates and 24/43 animal isolates). Full characterisation of the plasmids harbouring blaCTX-M-1 revealed host-specific patterns in the distribution of plasmid types, with specific IncI1, IncN and IncH1 plasmid subtypes being predominant in humans, livestock and horses, respectively. Three...

  16. Multidrug resistance and transferability of blaCTX-M among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria in biofilm.

    Maheshwari, Meenu; Ahmad, Iqbal; Althubiani, Abdullah Safar

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of biofilm-forming extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteric bacteria in hospital wastewater and to evaluate their antibiotic resistance behaviour and transferability of the plasmid-encoded blaCTX-M gene in biofilm. ESBL production was confirmed using the combined disc test and Etest. Amplification of blaCTX-M was performed by PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method. Transfer of blaCTX-M in planktonic and biofilm state was performed by broth mating and filter mating experiments, respectively. Among 110 enteric bacteria, 24 (21.8%) isolates belonging to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were found to produce ESBL and formed varying levels of biofilm in vitro. Presence of blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (75%) ESBL-producing isolates. A many fold increase in resistance to antibiotics was observed in biofilm. Among ESBL-producers, seven isolates could transfer the blaCTX-M gene by conjugation, with transfer frequencies ranging from 2.22×10(-4) to 7.14×10(-2) transconjugants/recipient cell in the planktonic state and from 3.04×10(-3) to 9.15×10(-1) in biofilm. The transfer frequency of blaCTX-M was significantly higher in biofilm compared with the planktonic state, and co-transfer of ciprofloxacin resistance was also detected in five isolates. This study demonstrates that biofilm-forming ESBL-producing enteric bacteria with a greater transfer frequency of resistance genes will lead to frequent dissemination of β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance genes in environmental settings. The emergence and spread of such multidrug resistance is a serious threat to animal and public health. PMID:27530857

  17. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals.

    Hamdy Mohammed, El Sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El Sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said Abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M-1, and bla CTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried bla VIM, 24(72.7%) had bla TEM, and 5(15%) showed bla SHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-9, and bla CTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  18. Dissemination of multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 and CTX-M-15 in a Spanish hospital.

    Fernández, Javier; Montero, Ignacio; Martínez, Óscar; Fleites, Ana; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 (n=10), CTX-M-15 (n=7) or both (n=4) β-lactamases were detected in a Spanish hospital during a 1-year period (June 2013 to June 2014). The isolates were also resistant to non-β-lactam antimicrobials, further complicating the therapeutic options. Genotyping of the isolates identified two major clones (ST74 and ST66) that caused prolonged outbreaks in different buildings of the hospital as well as some sporadic isolates (ST78, ST45 and ST295). Isolates belonging to clone 1 (n=7) were carbapenem-resistant and carried the bla(OXA-48) gene on a conjugative IncL/M plasmid of ca. 65 kb. Clone 2 isolates (n=11) were resistant to cefepime and harboured the bla(CTX-M-15) gene on an ca. 150-kb, non-conjugative plasmid of the IncF group, co-harbouring the qnrB and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes encoding quinolone resistance. Four clone 2 isolates were also resistant to carbapenems owing to the co-production of OXA-48. Most of the isolates were recovered from critically ill patients and were admitted to intensive care units; a single patient was transferred from another Spanish hospital. Intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of multiresistant E. cloacae isolates is of major clinical concern as it could lead to endemic nosocomial situations. PMID:26307466

  19. Extended-Spectrum  -Lactamase CTX-M-15-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae of Sequence Type ST274 in Companion Animals

    Poirel, L.; Nordmann, P.; Ducroz, S.; Boulouis, H.-J.; Arne, P.; Millemann, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Screening of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria in companion animals living in the Paris area in France identified a high rate of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Those isolates were recovered during the 2010-2011 period from both infections and asymptomatic colonizations. Sequence typing revealed that most of these isolates belonged to sequence type ST274. Interestingly, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was located on a specific and novel plasmid scaffold. The...

  20. The IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of a Escherichia coli strain from broilers

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van, A.; Roermund, van, C.W.T.; Mevius, D.J.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal bacteria are a reservoir for antimicrobial-resistance genes. In the Netherlands, bacteria producing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) are found on chicken-meat and in the gut of broilers at a high prevalence and the predominant ESBL-gene is the blaCTX-M-1 located on IncI1 plasmids. We aim to determine the fitness costs of this plasmid for the bacterium. We investigated the conjugation dynamics of IncI1 plasmids carrying the blaCTX-M-1 gene in a batch culture and its impact on...

  1. Characterization of Two New CTX-M-25-Group Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase Variants Identified in Escherichia coli Isolates from Israel

    Vervoort, Jascha; Baraniak, Anna; Gazin, Muriel; Sabirova, Julia; Lammens, Christine; Kazma, Meital; Grabowska, Anna; Izdebski, Radosław; Carmeli, Yehuda; Kumar-Singh, Samir; Gniadkowski, Marek; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Objectives We characterized two new CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) variants in Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of two elderly patients admitted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Both patients underwent treatment with cephalosporins prior to isolation of the E. coli strains. Methods ESBLs were detected by the double-disk synergy test and PCR-sequencing of β-lactamase genes. The blaCTX-M genes were cloned into the pCR-BluntII-TOPO vector in...

  2. Dissemination and Characterization of Plasmids Carrying oqxAB-bla CTX-M Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food-Producing Animals

    Liu, Bao-Tao; Yang, Qiu-E.; Li, Liang; Sun, Jian; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Fang, Liang-Xing; Yang, Shou-Shen; Deng, Hui; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of PMQR and ESBLs in negative-bacteria isolates has been of great concern. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of co-transferability of oqxAB and bla CTX-M genes among the 696 Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) isolates from food-producing animals in South China, and to characterize these plasmids. Methods The ESBL-encoding genes (bla CTX-M, bla TEM and bla SHV), and PMQR (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, aac(6’)-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB) of these 696...

  3. Analysis of blaCTX-M-Carrying Plasmids from Escherichia coli Isolates Collected in the BfT-GermVet Study ▿

    Schink, Anne-Kathrin; Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 417 Escherichia coli isolates from defined disease conditions of companion and farm animals collected in the BfT-GermVet study were investigated for the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Three ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were identified among the 100 ampicillin-resistant isolates. The E. coli isolates 168 and 246, of canine and porcine origins, respectively, harbored blaCTX-M-1, and the canine isolate 913 harbored blaCTX-M-15, as confirmed by PCR and s...

  4. Insertion Sequence ISEcp1B Is Involved in Expression and Mobilization of a blaCTX-M β-Lactamase Gene

    Poirel, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Nordmann, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structures (ca. 10-kb DNA fragment) surrounding the plasmid-borne extended-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M-19 gene in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate were determined. This β-lactamase gene was part of a 4,797-bp transposon inserted inside orf1 of Tn1721. Inside this transposon, blaCTX-M-19 was bracketed upstream and downstream by insertion sequences ISE cp1B and IS903D, respectively, and further downstream by a truncated gene encoding an outer membrane protein for iron tran...

  5. The IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of a Escherichia coli strain from broilers

    Fischer, E. A. J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van, A.; Roermund, van, AHM Arthur; Mevius, D.J.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Commensal bacteria are a reservoir for antimicrobial-resistance genes. In the Netherlands, bacteria producing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) are found on chicken-meat and in the gut of broilers at a high prevalence and the predominant ESBL-gene is the bla CTX-M-1 located on IncI1 plasmids. We aim to determine the fitness costs of this plasmid for the bacterium. We investigated the conjugation dynamics of IncI1 plasmids carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene in a batch culture and ...

  6. The study of ctx B and rstR variations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from 1961 to 2010 in China

    梁未丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the ctx B and rstR variations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae(V.cholerae)O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China from1961 to 2010.Methods All 385 toxigenic V.cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains were selected,which were isolated in China between year 1961 and 2010.ctx B gene was amplified by PCR method and sequenced for further analysis.rstR was detected with PCR by using the genotype

  7. Epigenetic regulation of L1CAM in endometrial carcinoma: comparison to cancer–testis (CT-X) antigens

    L1CAM was originally identified as an adhesion molecule involved in neural development. In many human carcinomas L1CAM is over-expressed and is associated with a bad prognosis. We previously reported that L1CAM was absent in the vast majority of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (ECs) (type 1) but was strongly expressed in the more aggressive serous and clear-cell ECs (termed type 2). The differential regulation of L1CAM in ECs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that it can be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Here we investigated the role of DNA-methylation of the L1CAM promoter for expression. We also studied the relationship to cancer testis (CT-X) antigens that co-localize with L1CAM on chromosome Xq28, a region that is often activated in human tumors. We used EC cell lines and primary tumor tissues for our analysis. For expression analysis we employed RT-PCR and Western blotting. DNA-Methylation of the L1CAM promoter was determined after bisulfite conversation and DNA sequencing. Tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. We demonstrate that the treatment of L1CAM low/negative expressing EC cell lines with 5′-Azacytidine (5-AzaC) or knock-down of DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) as well as the HDAC (histone deacetylase) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) up-regulated L1CAM at the mRNA and protein level. The L1CAM gene has two promoter regions with two distinct CpG islands. We observed that the expression of L1CAM correlated with hypermethylation in promoter 1 and 5-AzaC treatment affected the DNA-methylation pattern in this region. The CT-X antigens NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4 were also strongly up-regulated by 5-AzaC or knock-down of DNMT1 but did not respond to treatment with TSA. Primary EC tumor tissues showed a variable methylation pattern of the L1CAM promoter. No striking differences in promoter methylation were observed between tumor areas with L1CAM expression and those without expression. L1CAM expression

  8. The IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of a Escherichia coli strain from broilers

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Mevius, D.J.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal bacteria are a reservoir for antimicrobial-resistance genes. In the Netherlands, bacteria producing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) are found on chicken-meat and in the gut of broilers at a high prevalence and the predominant ESBL-gene is the blaCTX-M-1 located on IncI1 plasmids.

  9. Spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates in Swedish broilers mediated by an incI plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-1

    Börjesson Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The already high and increasing occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL producing Escherichia coli in European broiler populations is of concern due to the fact that third and fourth generation cephalosporins are deemed critically important in human medicine. In Sweden 34% of the broilers carry ESBL/pAmpC producing E. coli in their gut, despite the absence of a known selection pressure such as antimicrobial usages. The aim of the current study was to characterise a selection of E. coli strains carrying the blaCTX-M-1, to determine if the spread was due to a specific clone. Findings Ten isolates carrying blaCTX-M-1 from Swedish broilers belonged to eight different multi-locus sequence types with three isolates belonging to ST155. The ST155 isolates were identical as assessed by PFGE. The blaCTX-M-1 was in all isolates carried on a plasmid of replicon type incI, which also transferred resistance to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. Conclusion The occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the Swedish broilers is not due to the emergence of a single clone, but rather the spread of a specific incI plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-1.

  10. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal.

    Amadou Diop

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants' stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL. blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella.

  11. Insertion Sequence ISEcp1B Is Involved in Expression and Mobilization of a blaCTX-M β-Lactamase Gene

    Poirel, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Nordmann, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structures (ca. 10-kb DNA fragment) surrounding the plasmid-borne extended-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M-19 gene in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate were determined. This β-lactamase gene was part of a 4,797-bp transposon inserted inside orf1 of Tn1721. Inside this transposon, blaCTX-M-19 was bracketed upstream and downstream by insertion sequences ISE cp1B and IS903D, respectively, and further downstream by a truncated gene encoding an outer membrane protein for iron transport. The single-copy ISEcp1B element was probably involved alone in the mobilization process that led to a 5-bp duplication at the target site of the transposed fragment. This mobilization event probably involved one inverted repeat of ISE cp1B and a second sequence farther away, resembling its second inverted repeat. Additionally, ISEcp1B provided −35 and −10 promoter sequences, contributing to the high-level expression of the blaCTX-M-19 gene. Southern blot analysis failed to identify a reservoir of ISEcp1-like sequences among a series of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species usually found in the skin and intestinal human floras. The ability of ISEcp1-like elements to mobilize and to promote the expression of β-lactamase genes may explain, in part, the current spread of CTX-M-type enzymes worldwide. PMID:12936998

  12. The response to oestrogen deprivation of the cartilage collagen degradation marker, CTX-II, is unique compared with other markers of collagen turnover

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine C B; Sondergaard, Lene V;

    2009-01-01

    The urinary level of the type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomised rats, suggesting that oestrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to oestrogen is also true for other type II collagen...

  13. High Prevalence of Escherichia coli-Producing CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Poultry and Human Clinical Isolates in Romania.

    Maciuca, Iuliana E; Williams, Nicola J; Tuchilus, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Guguianu, Eleonora; Carp-Carare, Catalin; Rimbu, Cristina; Timofte, Dorina

    2015-12-01

    Use of antibiotics in food animals may contribute to development and spread of resistant organisms, particularly so in some countries. The aim of this study was two-fold; first, to establish the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in chicken production in a region within Romania. Second, to study the relatedness of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from broilers, abattoir workers where the chickens were slaughtered and from the human clinical specimens from two regional hospitals. The results indicated a very high (69%) rate of carriage of ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli in chickens with 36% CTX-M producers. Sequencing showed that chickens in Romania have the highest worldwide prevalence (53%) of blaCTX-M-15 reported in poultry E. coli isolates. The majority (53%) of the extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli carried plasmid-mediated blaampC genes, mostly blaCMY-2 type, one of the highest prevalences reported in Europe. The predominant CTX-M type found in the human clinical E. coli isolates was blaCTX-M-15 and most isolates coharbored blaOXA-1, blaTEM, and aac(6')-ib-cr. The majority (60%) of the human clinical isolates belonged to the pandemic virulent clone B2-ST131. The clonal relationship between broiler and the human CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates was assessed by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which indicated strain diversity with no common STs found between human and poultry isolates. Moreover, IncI1 was the most prevalent replicon found in broiler ESBL-producing E. coli isolates and also in transconjugants, indicating that plasmids and not clonal spread may play a role in the transfer of blaCTX-M genes. This study identifies a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli from broiler chickens in Romania with a high occurrence incidence of blaCTX-M-15, which reflects the main ESBL type found in human E. coli infections in this

  14. Biochemical characterization of CTX-M-15 from Enterobacter cloacae and designing a novel non-β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor.

    Mohammad Faheem

    Full Text Available The worldwide dissemination of CTX-M type β-lactamases is a threat to human health. Previously, we have reported the spread of bla(CTX-M-15 gene in different clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae from the hospital settings of Aligarh in north India. In view of the varying resistance pattern against cephalosporins and other β-lactam antibiotics, we intended to understand the correlation between MICs and catalytic activity of CTX-M-15. In this study, steady-state kinetic parameters and MICs were determined on E. coli DH5α transformed with bla(CTX-M-15 gene that was cloned from Enterobacter cloacae (EC-15 strain of clinical background. The effect of conventional β-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam on CTX-M-15 was also studied. We have found that tazobactam is the best among these inhibitors against CTX-M-15. The inhibition characteristic of tazobactam is defined by its very low IC(50 value (6 nM, high affinity (K(i = 0.017 µM and better acylation efficiency (k(+2/K' = 0.44 µM(-1s(-1. It forms an acyl-enzyme covalent complex, which is quite stable (k(+3 = 0.0057 s(-1. Since increasing resistance has been reported against conventional β-lactam antibiotic-inhibitor combinations, we aspire to design a non-β-lactam core containing β-lactamase inhibitor. For this, we screened ZINC database and performed molecular docking to identify a potential non-β-lactam based inhibitor (ZINC03787097. The MICs of cephalosporin antibiotics in combination with this inhibitor gave promising results. Steady-state kinetics and molecular docking studies showed that ZINC03787097 is a reversible inhibitor which binds non-covalently to the active site of the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Though, it's IC(50 (180 nM is much higher than tazobactam, it has good affinity for CTX-M-15 (K(i = 0.388 µM. This study concludes that ZINC03787097 compound can be used as seed molecule to design more

  15. Translational inhibition of CTX M extended spectrum β-lactamase in clinical strains of Escherichia coli by synthetic antisense oligonucleotides partially restores sensitivity to cefotaxime.

    John Benedict Readman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25 mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO and a 13 mer polyamide (peptide nucleic acid (PNA were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and –17 to –5 respectively close to the translational initiation site of the extended spectrum β lactamase resistance genes of CTX M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell free translation transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a blaCTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0 - 40 nM. The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (KFF3K and both significantly (P<0.05 increased sensitivity to cefotaxime in a dose dependent manner (0 - 40 nM in field isolates harbouring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine Dalgarno region of blaCTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates.

  16. Increasing secondary bacterial infections with Enterobacteriaceae harboring blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6 in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma:an emerging point of concern

    Mohammed Shahid; Abida Malik; Rakesh Bhargava

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To look for secondary bacterial infections in bronchogenic carcinoma (BCA) with resistant organisms harboring bla genes considering the paucity of relevant studies. Methods:A total of 137 confirmed cases of BCA and 34 healthy volunteers were studied for the occurrence and prevalence of blaCTX-M and and blaAmpC harboring-enterobacteriaceae. A subset of these patients (n=69) was previously reported for the secondary infection with the Aspergillus species. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were subjected for bacterial and fungal cultures and the bacterial isolates were screened by multiplex PCRs for the presence of blaCTX-M and blaAmpC. The isolates were also screened for the association of insertion sequence (IS26) by PCR and characterized by RAPD for any clonal relatedness. Results: A total of 143 bacterial isolates were obtained from 137 BAL specimens of BCA patients. The Enterobacteriaceae-isolates were multidrug-resistant showing concomitant resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Both blaCTX-M and blaAmpC of CIT family were detected in 77.4% and 27.4% isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6. Twenty one percent of the isolates were simultaneously harboring blaampC and blaCTX-M-15. IS26 PCR and RAPD typing revealed the presence of diverse bacterial population but no predominant clone was identified. The present study also suggests strong association of aspergillosis with lung cancer and further strengthens the potential use of non-validated serological tests suggested earlier. Conclusions: We emphasize that all patients of bronchogenic carcinoma should also be screened for secondary bacterial infections, along with secondary fungal infections, so as to introduce early and specific antimicrobial therapy and to prevent unwanted deaths.

  17. Prevalence of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and sequence type 131 in Korean blood, urine, and rectal Escherichia coli isolates.

    Graham, Sarah E; Zhang, Lixin; Ali, Ihsan; Cho, Yong Kyun; Ismail, Miriam D; Carlson, Heather A; Foxman, Betsy

    2016-07-01

    A high proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli are of the ST131 lineage, but there are few estimates of ST131 prevalence among ESBL-negative E. coli. Without this information, it is difficult to evaluate the contribution of the ST131 lineage to the emergence and spread of ESBL E. coli. A total of 1658 E. coli isolates were collected at Gachon University Gil Medical Center in Korea from 2006 to 2008. The antibiotic resistance profile was determined for all isolates, and ESBL-positive isolates were screened for the presence of CTX-M-type ESBLs. All ESBL-positive (n=84) and a representative sample of ESBL-negative (n=100) isolates were screened for O25b-ST131 using a PCR-based assay. The isolates were further classified on the basis of fumC and fimH types, which allowed for a comparison of the two typing methods. 5.7% of isolates were ESBL-positive, 87% of which contained CTX-M-type ESBLs. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ST131 between ESBL-positive and -negative groups; 14% of ESBL-positive isolates and 9% of tested ESBL-negative isolates were ST131 by CH-typing. ST131-positive isolates harbored CTX-M-1-group ESBLs (including CTX-M-15) more frequently than other CTX-M types, and exhibited greater levels of antibiotic resistance than non-ST131 isolates. Furthermore, a number of isolates identified as O25b-ST131 by PCR corresponded to non-ST131 sequence types by CH-typing, emphasizing the need to consider the testing method when comparing reported prevalences of ST131. PMID:27101781

  18. First description of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15- extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL in out-patients from south eastern Nigeria

    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs in 44 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from out-patients in two university teaching hospitals in South-Eastern Nigeria. Species identification was performed by standard microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR followed by sequencing. Transfer of plasmid DNA was carried out by transformation using E. coli DH5 as recipient strain. Phenotypic characterization identified all isolates to be ESBL positive. 77% of strains were from urine, 13.6% from vaginal swabs and 9.0% from wound swabs. 63.6% were from female patients, 68% were from outpatients and 95.5% from patients younger than 30 years. All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for blaCTX-M-1 cluster, in exemplary strains blaCTX-M-15 was found by sequencing. In all strains ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF477 downstream of blaCTX-M. PCR for blaTEM and blaOXA-1 was positive in 93.1% of strains, whereas blaSHV was not detected, aac(6′-Ib-cr was found in 97.7% of strains. RAPD analysis revealed seven different clonal groups named A through G with the majority of the strains (65.9% belonging to clone A. Transfer of an ESBL plasmid with co-resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline and trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole was successful in 19 (43.2% strains. This study showed a high rate of CTX-M-1 cluster - ESBLs in South-Eastern Nigeria and further confirms the worldwide spread of CTX-M ESBL in clinical isolates.

  19. The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and CTX-M-1 producing Escherichia coli in urine samples collected at Tabriz city Hospitals

    Soltan Dallal MM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Numerous use of Beta Lactame in treatment of bacterial infections resulted in increments of drug resistance of such bacteria. One of difficulties in treatment of hospital infections is Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL among isolated clinical strains of E.coli. Since some of ESBL strains shows double reaction in drug sensitivity test at in vitro and in vivo condition, therefore it makes difficulties in selection of right treatment. In the last years, CTX-M enzymes have become the most prevalent ESBLs in worldwide. The prevalence of ESBL types largely remains unknown in many parts of the Iran. This study was made to find the prevalence of ESBL-producing E.coli and molecular detection of CTX-M-1 in Tabriz."n "nMethods: In the present study, 400 urine samples collected between November 2009 and April 2010, from Tabriz Hospitals were studied. Out of the 400 samples, 188 E.coli isolates were detected by standard biochemical tests. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was tested to 10 antibiotics by the disk agar diffusion (DAD method. ESBL production was screened by phenotypic test that included both separate and combined disk agar diffusion techniques. The screened isolates were investigated by PCR assay to detect CTX-M-1 gene."n "nResults: From the total 188 E.coli isolates, 82 (43.6% were shown to produce ESBLs by phenotypic test. During the PCR method on the 82 isolates, 69 (84.1% were confirmed as CTX-M-1 producing group."n "nConclusion: The present study showed that CTX-M-producing isolates were increasing among E.coli strains and indicated the need for adequate susceptibility tests in laboratories for choosing the appropriate antibiotics for treatment.

  20. Emergence of clonal groups O1:HNM-D-ST59; O15:H1-D-ST393; O20:H34/HNM-D-ST354; O25b:H4-B2-ST131 and ONT:H21,42-B1-ST101 among CTX-M-14-producing clinical isolates in Galicia; northwest Spain

    Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; López, Cecilia; Mamani, Rosalia; Blanco, Jesús E.; Alonso, María Pilar; García-Garrote, Fernando; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Herrera, Alexandra; Fernández, Ana; Fernández, Begoña; Agulla, Andrés; Bou, Germán; Blanco, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Abstract CTX-M enzymes, mainly CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15, have emerged as the most prevalent extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) type produced by Escherichia coli in Spain, with successful dissemination of clonal group O25b:H4-B2-ST131 producing CTX-M-15 within the hospital and community settings. However, until now CTX-M-14-producing E. coli in Spain had been shown to belong to a wide variety of serotypes with no predominance of a certain clonal group. In the present study, 654 E. co...

  1. Differential association of the N-propeptide of collagen IIA (PIIANP) and collagen II C-telopeptide (CTX-II) with synovitis and erosions in early and longstanding rheumatoid arthritis

    Christensen, A F; Lottenburger, T; Lindegaard, H;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the N-terminal propeptide of collagen IIA (PIIANP) in early and established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to study the association with collagen II degradation assessed by its C-telopeptide (CTX-II), x-ray status and disease activity measures. METHODS: Two cohorts of RA......-ray progression (p=0.84). There was no correlation between PIIANP and CTX-II. CONCLUSION: Declining PIIANP with increasing RA duration and persistently increased CTX-II indicate that cartilage anabolic and degradative pathways are unbalanced from clinical RA onset. Furthermore, that collagen II depletion in RA is...... both mediated by anti-anabolic effects unassociated with synovitis (decreased PIIANP) and by excess collagen II degradation linked to synovitis (increased CTX-II)....

  2. Characterization of IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnr genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella from animals, the environment and humans

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Hasman, Henrik; Hansen, Lars; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) and hybridization with repN, qnrS1, qnrB19 or blaCTX-M-1 probes. Plasmids pKT58A and pHHA45 were sequenced using the 454-Genome Sequencer FLX platform on a library constructed from plasmid...... DNA purified from the respective E. coli transformants.Results Three types of IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1, qnrS1 and qnrB19 genes were identified in strains isolated from the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands, corresponding to pMLST sequence type (ST) 1, ST3...

  3. Emergence and spread of O16-ST131 and O25b-ST131 clones among faecal CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in healthy individuals in Hunan Province, China

    Zhong, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-En; Liang, Xiang-Hui; Li, Yan-Ming; Jian, Zi-Juan; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli ST131 strain prevalence in stool specimens from healthy subjects in central China and to molecularly characterize clonal groups. Methods From November 2013 to January 2014, stool specimens from healthy individuals in Hunan Province were screened for ESBL-producing E. coli using chromogenic medium and CTX-M genotypes and phylogenetic groups were determined. ST131 clonal groups were detected by PCR and ch...

  4. Dominance of CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Patients with Community-Onset and Hospital-Onset Infection in China

    Xia, Shu; Fan, Xin; Huang, Zengguang; XIA, LIANG; Xiao, Meng; Chen, Rongchang; Xu, Yingchun; Zhuo, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate CTX-M genotypes among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolated from patients with community-onset and hospital-onset infections in China, their clonality and the distribution of CTX-M variants in different specimens of community-onset and hospital-onset infections. Methods ESBL-EC isolates were collected from general hospitals from 2011 to 2012 in China. Broth microdilution method antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 16 antibiotic...

  5. Molecular identification of CTX-M and blaOXY/K1 β-lactamase genes in Enterobacteriaceae by sequencing of universal M13-sequence tagged PCR-amplicons

    Tärnberg Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmid encoded blaCTX-M enzymes represent an important sub-group of class A β-lactamases causing the ESBL phenotype which is increasingly found in Enterobacteriaceae including Klebsiella spp. Molecular typing of clinical ESBL-isolates has become more and more important for prevention of the dissemination of ESBL-producers among nosocomial environment. Methods Multiple displacement amplified DNA derived from 20 K. pneumoniae and 34 K. oxytoca clinical isolates with an ESBL-phenotype was used in a universal CTX-M PCR amplification assay. Identification and differentiation of blaCTX-M and blaOXY/K1 sequences was obtained by DNA sequencing of M13-sequence-tagged CTX-M PCR-amplicons using a M13-specific sequencing primer. Results Nine out of 20 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates had a blaCTX-M genotype. Interestingly, we found that the universal degenerated primers also amplified the chromosomally located K1-gene in all 34 K. oxytoca clinical isolates. Molecular identification and differentiation between blaCTX-M and blaOXY/K1-genes could only been achieved by sequencing of the PCR-amplicons. In silico analysis revealed that the universal degenerated CTX-M primer-pair used here might also amplify the chromosomally located blaOXY and K1-genes in Klebsiella spp. and K1-like genes in other Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion The PCR-based molecular typing method described here enables a rapid and reliable molecular identification of blaCTX-M, and blaOXY/K1-genes. The principles used in this study could also be applied to any situation in which antimicrobial resistance genes would need to be sequenced.

  6. MO-C-17A-11: A Segmentation and Point Matching Enhanced Deformable Image Registration Method for Dose Accumulation Between HDR CT Images

    Purpose: To propose and validate a novel and accurate deformable image registration (DIR) scheme to facilitate dose accumulation among treatment fractions of high-dose-rate (HDR) gynecological brachytherapy. Method: We have developed a method to adapt DIR algorithms to gynecologic anatomies with HDR applicators by incorporating a segmentation step and a point-matching step into an existing DIR framework. In the segmentation step, random walks algorithm is used to accurately segment and remove the applicator region (AR) in the HDR CT image. A semi-automatic seed point generation approach is developed to obtain the incremented foreground and background point sets to feed the random walks algorithm. In the subsequent point-matching step, a feature-based thin-plate spline-robust point matching (TPS-RPM) algorithm is employed for AR surface point matching. With the resulting mapping, a DVF characteristic of the deformation between the two AR surfaces is generated by B-spline approximation, which serves as the initial DVF for the following Demons DIR between the two AR-free HDR CT images. Finally, the calculated DVF via Demons combined with the initial one serve as the final DVF to map doses between HDR fractions. Results: The segmentation and registration accuracy are quantitatively assessed by nine clinical HDR cases from three gynecological cancer patients. The quantitative results as well as the visual inspection of the DIR indicate that our proposed method can suppress the interference of the applicator with the DIR algorithm, and accurately register HDR CT images as well as deform and add interfractional HDR doses. Conclusions: We have developed a novel and robust DIR scheme that can perform registration between HDR gynecological CT images and yield accurate registration results. This new DIR scheme has potential for accurate interfractional HDR dose accumulation. This work is supported in part by the National Natural ScienceFoundation of China (no 30970866 and no 81301940)

  7. MODIS/COMBINED MOD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  8. MATPRO-Version 11: a handbook of materials properties for use in the analysis of light water reactor fuel rod behavior

    Hagrman, D.L.; Reymann, G.A. (comps.)

    1979-02-01

    This handbook describes the materials properties correlations and computer subcodes (MATPRO-Version 11) developed for use with various LWR fuel rod behavior analytical programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Formulations of fuel rod material properties, which are generally semiempirical in nature, are presented for uranium dioxide and mixed uranium--plutonium dioxide fuel, zircaloy cladding, and fill gas mixtures.

  9. Preamble Design Problematic with 802.11a IEEE Standard (Minn’s Training Sequence Approach

    R. R. A. Oni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally OFDM systems use a predefined signal pattern, called preamble [2] [3], which helps the receiver to achieve a better signal detection (coarse, fine time synchronization with the frequency offset and channel estimation. In most of the time having all these conditions fulfilled the receiver achieves relatively a good performance while keeping as low as possible the total consuming power and the BER (Bite Error Rate. This paper presents the results obtained while combining a part of the preamble [2] [3] and the Minn's training sequence. We have got interesting performance results comparable to those results obtained for the relatively new standard 802.16a.

  10. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  11. High-temperature cast steel GS-17 CrMoV 5 11 - a contribution to the behaviour of simulated HAZ structures

    Different heat-affected-zone structures of two creep-resistant cast-steel materials containing 1% CrMoV (spec. according to DIN 17245 or ASTM A 356) are simulated by using the welding simulator GLEEBLE 1500. The conversing attitude in the heat-affected zone was investigated and illustrated by means of a welding time temperature transition curve. The mechanical behaviour of the heat-affected-zone structures was determined by means of thermal tension tests at 5500C and thoughness tests. The material according to the ASTM specifications shows a better toughness behaviour. The influence of different thermal treatments on the toughness behaviour of the coarse grain zone was investigated. Best values of toughness were achieved at annealing temperatures of 700 and 7250C. Tests on stress relief cracking revealed that both materials are susceptible to cracking in the temperature range from 550 to 6500C. The precipitation condition of the coarse grain zone after various thermal treatments was investigated by using the electron microscope. Fine MX and M2C precipitations of the mixed carbides of the type M23C6 M7C3 were detected in dependence on the annealing temperature. (orig./MM)

  12. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  13. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performe...

  14. Structural and bioinformatic analysis of the kiwifruit allergen Act d 11, a member of the family of ripening-related proteins.

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta; Osinski, Tomasz; Majorek, Karolina A; Giangrieco, Ivana; Font, Jose; Breiteneder, Heimo; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Minor, Wladek

    2013-12-01

    The allergen Act d 11, also known as kirola, is a 17 kDa protein expressed in large amounts in ripe green and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit. Ten percent of all kiwifruit-allergic individuals produce IgE specific for the protein. Using X-ray crystallography, we determined the first three-dimensional structures of Act d 11, produced from both recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and from the natural source (kiwifruit). While Act d 11 is immunologically correlated with the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and other members of the pathogenesis-related protein family 10 (PR-10), it has low sequence similarity to PR-10 proteins. By sequence Act d 11 appears instead to belong to the major latex/ripening-related (MLP/RRP) family, but analysis of the crystal structures shows that Act d 11 has a fold very similar to that of Bet v 1 and other PR-10 related allergens regardless of the low sequence identity. The structures of both the natural and recombinant protein include an unidentified ligand, which is relatively small (about 250 Da by mass spectrometry experiments) and most likely contains an aromatic ring. The ligand-binding cavity in Act d 11 is also significantly smaller than those in PR-10 proteins. The binding of the ligand, which we were not able to unambiguously identify, results in conformational changes in the protein that may have physiological and immunological implications. Interestingly, the residue corresponding to Glu45 in Bet v 1 (Glu46), which is important for IgE binding to the birch pollen allergen, is conserved in Act d 11, even though it is not in other allergens with significantly higher sequence identity to Bet v 1. We suggest that the so-called Gly-rich loop (or P-loop), which is conserved in all PR-10 allergens, may be responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between Bet v 1 and Act d 11. PMID:23969108

  15. 11 th fuel reload of the Unit 1, leadership with results; 11a recarga de combustible de la Unidad 1, liderazgo con resultados

    Serrano, R.H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: hsr98581@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-01

    At the moment the companies with world class, the formation of intellectual capital is a strategy to reach the excellence; the Management of Nucleo electric Centrals (GCN), aware of this strategy to achieve the mission commended, it establishes that it is decisive the leadership among their collaborators for the achievement of the goals. The obtained results in the 11 th reload of the Unit 1 are a sample of as how the leaders and collaborators when making work in team they have achieved the best results (collective dose and reload duration), until today in what is the history of the commercial operation of the Unit 1. (Author)

  16. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, a desert isolate with broad-spectrum antagonism against soilborne phytopathogens

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  17. Genome-wide association study shows BCL11A associated with persistent fetal hemoglobin and amelioration of the phenotype of β-thalassemia

    Uda, Manuela; Galanello, Renzo; Sanna, Serena; Lettre, Guillaume; Sankaran, Vijay G.; Chen, Weimin; Usala, Gianluca; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Albai, Giuseppe; Piras, Maria Grazia; Sestu, Natascia; Lai, Sandra; Dei, Mariano; Mulas, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    β-Thalassemia and sickle cell disease both display a great deal of phenotypic heterogeneity, despite being generally thought of as simple Mendelian diseases. The reasons for this are not well understood, although the level of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is one well characterized ameliorating factor in both of these conditions. To better understand the genetic basis of this heterogeneity, we carried out genome-wide scans with 362,129 common SNPs on 4,305 Sardinians to look for genetic linkage and a...

  18. Structural and functional characterization of CalS11, a TDP-rhamnose 3′-O-methyltransferase involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis

    Singh, Shanteri; Chang, Aram; Helmich, Kate E.; Bingman, Craig A.; Wrobel, Russel L.; Beebe, Emily T.; Makino, Shin-ichi; Aceti, David J.; Dyer, Kevin; Hura, Greg L.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar methyltransferases (MTs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes which catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to sugar-based N-, C- and O- nucleophiles. While sugar N- and C-MTs involved in natural product biosynthesis have been found to act on sugar nucleotide substrates prior to a subsequent glycosyltransferase reaction, corresponding sugar O-methylation reactions studied thus far occur after the glycosyltransfer reaction. Herein we report the first i...

  19. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1

    Grieco, Amanda J.; Billett, Henny H.; Green, Nancy S.; Driscoll, M. Catherine; Bouhassira, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF) expressing red blood cells (F-cells) and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es) derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fet...

  20. 99mTc-labelled peptide F11: A new potential ανβ3, integrin antagonist for scintigraphic detection of tumours

    Full text: Integrins are cell surface receptors that are involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. They are heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting α and β chains that are non-covalently linked on the cell surface. The ανβ3 integrin is implicated in many pathological processes, such as osteoporosis, misregulated angiogenesis, tumour growth and tumour metastasis. This receptor is highly expressed on different malignancies such as osteosarcomas, neuroblastomas, glioblastomas, lung carcinomas, breast neoplasms, gastric carcinoma, prostate cancer, bladder carcinomas and invasive melanomas. Many integrins, including ανβ3 receptor, act by recognising the specific tripeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) of their substrates. Targeting of this receptor may provide information about its status on tumour and help specific therapeutic planning. Thus, a variety of radiolabelled RGD derivative peptides have been proposed for the diagnosis and therapy of malignant diseases. The aim of the present work was to develop a peptide with the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser and label it with 99mTc to obtain scintigraphic images in an animal model. Peptide F11 was obtained by solid phase synthesis, containing a linear sequence Arg-Gly-Asp- Ser to recognize ανβ3 receptor and other linear sequence (Ala-Gly-Gly-Gly) at the Nterminal to chelate 99mTc. Peptide was analysed by mass-spectrometry and its purity determined by reverse-phase HPLC. The purity of obtained peptide was higher 95%. Labelling procedure was carried out at neutral pH, employing stannous fluoride as reducing agent. The influence of molar ratio F11: Sn+2 (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2 y 1:4) on radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceutical was assessed. Results were represented by using a chart. Using a 1.3 fold molar excess of stannous floride was attained a 99mTc-labelling yield of 95.2±2.1% and recovery from HPLC was >92%. The stability of the radiolabelled peptide was tested by its incubation in 0.1M PBS pH=7.2, in a solution containing 30 fold molar excess of L-cysteine and in fresh human plasma, at room temperature up to 24 h. Samples were analysed by HPLC. In the absence of cysteine, radiolabelled peptide resulted stable, with more than 90% of the activity remaining bound to the peptide at 24 h. Challenging the label with 30 fold molar excess with L-cysteine was enough to transchelate about 40% of the metal after 24 h incubation. A shift in retention time of 99mTc-F11 was observed when peptide was incubated in plasma suggesting a sensitivity to the action of chelating agents (such as glutathione and cysteine) and peptidases in plasma. A significative binding to plasma proteins was seen by size-exclusion HPLC. One μg (27.5-29.0 MBq) of 99mTc-F11 was injected through ocular plexus of C57BL6 male mice to determine the biokinetics up to 24 h. Scintigraphic images were acquired after administration of 13 μg (67-74 MBq) of 99mTc-F11 to C57BL6 mice bearing B16 melanoma tumours and nude mice with A431 tumours. Renal uptake was from 9.5%ID/g at 1 h to 4.0%ID/g at 24 h, thus it could be main elimination pathway. The rest of the organs showed an uptake lower 2.0%ID/g. Serum pharmacokinetics was fixed to a bicompartmental model with a T1/2α = 43.1±13.5 min and T1/2β=327±149 min. Scintigraphic images showed and intense tumour uptake of the radiopharmaceutical. Conclusion: 99mTc-Labeled peptide F11 could be a promising radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic detection of tumours. (author)

  1. 2-Hydroxy-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    Sarah Ourahou

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The seven-membered ring of the title compound, C12H12N2O3, which is fused with the phenylene ring, adopts a boat-shaped conformation (with the methine C atom as the prow and the phenylene C atoms as the stern; the H atom on the methine linkage exists in an axial position. The five-membered ring that is fused with the seven-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the C atom bearing the hydroxy substituent representing the flap [the deviation from the plane defined by the other four atoms is 0.200 (7 Å in one molecule and 0.627 (5 Å in the other]. The two independent molecules are disposed about a pseudo center of inversion and are connected by a pair of N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Adjacent dimers are linked by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a chain running along the b axis.

  2. Characterization of pMC11, a plasmid with dual origins of replication isolated from Lactobacillus casei MCJ and construction of shuttle vectors with each replicon

    Chen, Zhengjun; Lin, Jinzhong; Ma, Chengjie;

    2014-01-01

    Many lactic acid bacteria carry different plasmids, particularly those that replicate via a theta mechanism. Here we describe Lactobacillus casei MCJ(CCTCC AB20130356), a new isolate that contains pMC11, carrying two distinct theta-type replicons. Each replicon contained an iteron in the origin...... of replication (oriV1 or oriV2) and a gene coding for the replicase (RepA_1 or RepB_1), both of which are essential for plasmid replication. Escherichia coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vectors were constructed with each replicon, yielding pEL5.7 and pEL5.6 that are based on oriV2 and oriV1 replicons, respectively....... These plasmids showed distinct properties: pEL5.7 was capable of replicating in L. casei MCJΔ1 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactic LBCH-1 but failed to do so in two other tested lactobacilli strains whereas pEL5.6 replicated in three different strains, including L. casei MCJΔ1, L. casei NJ, Lactobacillus...

  3. Characterization of A-11, a newly discovered X-chromosomal gene that is under both single-active-X control and tissue-specific control

    The A-11 transcript is present in fibroblasts, but is not normally expressed in B- or T-lymphoblastoid cells. The regulation of the A-11 loci on both the active and inactive X chromosomes is very easily perturbed. The A-11 locus on the fibroblast-derived inactive X in a hybrid cell is reactivated at a very high rate by 5-azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation, while the A-11 locus on the active X in B-lymphoblastoid cells is derepressed at a very high rate after gamma irradiation. The A-11 gene codes for a mature transcript of about 1.9 kb. The A-11 cDNA clone is incomplete, and contains 753 bases from the 3' end of the gene. A genomic clone that contains about 17 kb of human DNA and hybridizes to the A-11 cDNA was isolated. This clone contains at least the last exon of the A-11 gene, as determined by Northern blotting, nuclease protection experiments, and DNA sequencing. When the genomic clone is transferred into mouse cells. A-11 transcripts of both normal and abnormal sizes are produced, indicating that it is possible that the genomic clone contains the entire locus. However, at this time, the 5' end of the gene has not been located

  4. Expression Patterns of OsPIL11, a Phytochrome-Interacting Factor in Rice, and Preliminary Analysis of Its Roles in Light Signal Transduction

    LI Li; PENG Wei-feng; LIU Qian-qian; ZHOU Jin-jun; LIANG Wei-hong; XIE Xian-zhi

    2012-01-01

    The expression patterns of OsPlL11,one of six putative phytochrome-interacting factors,were analyzed in different organs of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).The expression of OsPIL 11 was organ-specific and was regulated by leaf development,abscisic acid (ABA),jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA).To further explore the role of OsPlL 11 in plant light signal transduction,a plant expression vector of OsPIL11 was constructed and introduced into tobacco.When grown under continuous red light,OsPIL11-overexpressed transgenic tobacco exhibited shorter hypocotyls and larger cotyledons and leaves compared to wild-type seedlings.When grown under continuous far-red light,however,transgenic and wild-type seedlings showed similar phenotypes.These results indicate that OsPIL11 is involved in red light induced de-etiolation,but not in far-red light induced de-etiolation in transgenic tobacco,which lays the foundation for dissecting the function of OsPIL 11 in phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in rice.

  5. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1) to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    Zhou Yun; Zhang Chun-peng; Li Xiao-yan; Li Yuan-yuan; Li Lin-wei; Lu Shih-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4) was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no.AF325503). ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and tran...

  6. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Gird SIN Version 6

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  7. Analysis of electromagnetic pollution radiated due to embedded 802.11a/b/g equipments both inside and outside railway vehicles

    MARIAGE,P; DENIAU, V; SEETHARAMDOO,D; Rioult, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the modelling of a railway vehicle to calculate the electromagnetic field distribution inside and outside the vehicle at 2.45 GHz and 5 GHz. Our objective is to evaluate the electromagnetic (EM) pollution induced outside the vehicle due to onboard Wi-Fi networks. Experimentations have been performed on a railway vehicle both with CW and Wi-Fi standard transmitter-receiver systems. A geometrical model has been defined for the numerical simulations of the vehicle body reta...

  8. MATPRO-Version 11: a handbook of materials properties for use in the analysis of light water reactor fuel rod behavior

    This handbook describes the materials properties correlations and computer subcodes (MATPRO-Version 11) developed for use with various LWR fuel rod behavior analytical programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Formulations of fuel rod material properties, which are generally semiempirical in nature, are presented for uranium dioxide and mixed uranium--plutonium dioxide fuel, zircaloy cladding, and fill gas mixtures

  9. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    Gond, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashok; Rajeshwari, PN; Choudhary, PC; Kumar, Jitendra; ,

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra...

  10. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    Gond, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashok; Rajeshwari, PN; Choudhary, PC; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra. Method: The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra. Result: In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra. Conclusion: Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, a Strain Isolated from Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) Feces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Si-Si; Sun, Hao; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a soil-inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used in industrial applications for recombinant protein production and bioremediation. Studies involving Bacillus megaterium isolated from waterfowl are scarce. Here, we report a 6.26-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, which was isolated from feces of a bar-headed goose. PMID:27174262

  12. ZPR-3 Assembly 11: A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average 235U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was 235U or 239Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core 235U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must do this without increasing the total uncertainty far beyond that of the original experiment. Such a transformation is described in Section 3. It was obtained using a pair of continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations. First, the critical configuration was modeled in full detail - every plate, drawer, matrix tube, and air gap was modeled explicitly. Then the regionwise compositions and volumes from the detailed as-built model were used to construct a homogeneous, two-dimensional (RZ) model of ZPR-3/11 that conserved the mass of each nuclide and volume of each region. The simple cylindrical model is the criticality-safety benchmark model. The difference in the calculated keff values between the as-built three-dimensional model and the homogeneous two-dimensional benchmark model was used to adjust the measured excess reactivity of ZPR-3/11 loading 10 to obtain the keff for the benchmark model.

  13. The safe management of sources of radiation: Principles and strategies. INSAG-11. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (Russian Edition)

    The IAEA activities relating to nuclear safety are based upon a number of premises. First and foremost, each Member State bears full responsibility for the safety of its nuclear facilities. States can be advised, but cannot be relieved of this responsibility. Secondly, much can be gained by exchanging experience; lessons learned can prevent accidents. Finally, the image of nuclear safety is international; a serious accident anywhere affects the public view of nuclear power everywhere. With the intention of strengthening its contribution to ensuring safety of nuclear power plants, the IAEA established the International Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), whose duties include serving as a forum for the exchange of information on nuclear safety issues of international significance and formulating commonly shared safety principles. The present report deals with the general principles governing the safety of all sources of radiation and with application of these principles. It intends to show that, at the conceptual level, the distinction traditionally made between nuclear safety and radiation protection is hardly justifiable. It is intended primarily for those non-specialists who need to take decisions about safe management of sources of radiation and who wish to gain a better understanding of the approach followed in managing the safety of these sources

  14. WST11, a novel water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative; cellular uptake, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and vascular-targeted photodynamic activity using melanoma tumors as a model.

    Mazor, Ohad; Brandis, Alexander; Plaks, Vicki; Neumark, Eran; Rosenbach-Belkin, Varda; Salomon, Yoram; Scherz, Avigdor

    2005-01-01

    WST11 is a novel negatively charged water-soluble palladium-bacteriochlorophyll derivative that was developed for vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) in our laboratory. The in vitro results suggest that WST11 cellular uptake, clearance and phototoxicity are mediated by serum albumin trafficking. In vivo, WST11 was found to clear rapidly from the circulation (t1/2=1.65 min) after intravenous bolus injection in the mouse, whereas a longer clearance time (t1/2=7.5 min) was noted in rats after 20 min of infusion. The biodistribution of WST11 in mouse tissues indicates hepatic clearance (t1/2=20 min), with minor (kidney, lung and spleen) or no intermediary accumulation in other tissues. As soon as 1 h after injection, WST11 had nearly cleared from the body of the mouse, except for a temporal accumulation in the lungs from which it cleared within 40 min. On the basis of these results, we set the VTP protocol for a short illumination period (5 min), delivered immediately after WST11 injection. On subjecting M2R melanoma xenografts to WST11-VTP, we achieved 100% tumor flattening at all doses and a 70% cure with 9 mg/kg and a light exposure dose of 100 mW/cm2. These results provide direct evidence that WST11 is an effective agent for VTP and provide guidelines for further development of new candidates. PMID:15623318

  15. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Hydrocarbon gases in Palaeogene volcanic rocks from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Laier, Troels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon gases were monitored in the drilling fluid during deepening of the Lopra-1 well from 2178–3565 m, in which thermogenic, methane-rich gases had been found previously. The mud gas concentration, up to 105 ppm of methane, was generally higher in the hyaloclastite sequence, 2470 m – terminal depth (TD, than in the overlying lavas of the lower basalt formation. The highest concentrations of mud gas in the lower basalt formation were associated with the more porous tuffaceous zones, whereas no simple relationship could be established between measured mud gas concentrations and porosity of the hyaloclastic rocks, which showed less marked porosity variations than the lavas.Chemical (C2+ 104 ppm. No particularly gas-rich zones were indicated, however, by the mud gas, nor was any significant change in lithology noted for this interval. It is possible that the technique of turbo-drilling, that had been attempted over a short interval, 2657–2675 m prior to collection of the high-level methane samples, may have caused enhanced degassingdue to the very fine cuttings produced. Chemical and isotopic composition of headspace gas and mud gas indicated the same type of gas throughout the well, although headspace methane tended to bemore enriched with respect to the 13C isotope.The origin of the Lopra-1 gas is discussed in the light of recent information obtained from source rock studies of central East Greenland and the Faroe–Shetland Basin.

  16. Metabolism of Vitamin D2 to 17,20,24-Trihydroxyvitamin D2 by Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1)

    Nguyen, Minh N.; Slominski, Andrzej; Li, Wei; Ng, Yun Rui; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    As well as catalyzing the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone for steroid synthesis, cytochrome P450scc (P450scc) can also metabolize vitamins D2 (D2) and D3 (D3). Two products of D2 metabolism by P450scc, 20-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2, have been identified and shown to exert biological activity on cultured keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the metabolism of D2 by P450scc, including identifying additional products...

  17. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. PMID:26307136

  18. 胞内感染菌抗性侯选基因SLC11A1研究进展

    徐佳; 丁世才; 王生奎; 柴俊; 刘旭川; 孙绍美; 史宪伟; 张以芳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 20世纪初,研究者发现近交系小鼠中,一种遗传因素可以影响宿主对包括鼠伤寒沙门菌(Salmonella typhimurium),杜氏利什曼原虫 (Leishmania donovani),卡介苗分支杆菌(BCG)等胞内病原体的早期反应.抵抗这些病原体相关的基因分别称为Ity、Lsh、Bcg基因.此后人们发现不同鼠系对结核分支杆菌感染耐受性不同.

  19. Identification of zebrafish FXYD11a protein that is highly expressed in ion-transporting epithelium of the gill and skin and its possible role in ion homeostasis

    Kaori Saito

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available FXYD proteins, small single-transmembrane proteins, have been proposed to be auxiliary regulatory subunits of Na+-K+-ATPase and have recently been implied in ion osmoregulation of teleost fish. In freshwater (FW fish, numerous ions are actively taken up through mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs of the gill and skin epithelia, using the Na+ electrochemical gradient generated by Na+-K+-ATPase. In the present study, to understand the molecular mechanism for the regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase in MRCs of FW fish, we sought to identify FXYD proteins expressed in MRCs of zebrafish. Reverse-transcriptase PCR studies of adult zebrafish tissues revealed that, out of 8 fxyd genes found in zebrafish database, only zebrafish fxyd11 (zfxyd11 mRNA exhibited a gill-specific expression. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that zFxyd11 is abundantly expressed in MRCs rich in Na+-K+-ATPase (NaK-MRCs but not in those rich in vacuolar-type H+-transporting ATPase. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated its close association with Na+-K+-ATPase in NaK-MRCs. The zfxyd11 mRNA expression was detectable at 1 day postfertilization, and its expression levels in the whole larvae and adult gills were regulated in response to changes in environmental ionic concentrations. Furthermore, knockdown of zFxyd11 resulted in a significant increase in the number of Na+-K+-ATPase–positive cells in the larval skin. These results suggest that zFxyd11 may regulate the transport ability of NaK-MRCs by modulating Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and may be involved in the regulation of body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis.

  20. Global behavior of the difference equation xn+1=(xn-l+1)/(1+a0xn+a1xn-1+...+alxn-l+xn-l+1)

    In this paper, we find the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the third order difference equation xn+1=(xn-2)/(1+pxn+qxn-1+xn-2) ,n=0,1,2,... for all admissible non-negative values of the parameters p, q where the initial conditions x-2, x-1, x0 are positive. We show that the solutions do not exhibit a periodic attitude for all parameters of the above mentioned difference equation. It is worth to mention that this difference equation was an open problem introduced by Kulenovic and Ladas. Note that we also generalize and extend the above mentioned equation and we investigate the same arguments as the third difference equation for the zero equilibrium point of the higher case

  1. Emergence of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase (CTX-M-9)-Producing Multiresistant Strains of Salmonella enterica Serotype Virchow in Poultry and Humans in France

    Weill, François-Xavier; Lailler, Renaud; Praud, Karine; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Fabre, Laëtitia; Brisabois, Anne; Grimont, Patrick A. D.; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2004-01-01

    During 2002 to 2003, eight Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow poultry and poultry product isolates from various sources (chicken farms, poultry slaughterhouse, or retail store) and one S. enterica rough strain isolated from human feces were found to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-9. Poultry and poultry product isolates were recovered from different locations in the southwest of France. The human rough isolate had sequences of flagellin genes (fliC and fljB) typical of serotype ...

  2. Prevalence of CTX-M Genes in Bacterial Strain Isolated from Patients Hospitalized in ICUs in The City of Qom, Iran

    Yaser Sharifi; Abbas Morovvati; Azadeh Abedzadeh; Ali Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathogenic bacteria because of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance genes are dangerous to society. This resistance due to ESBL genes, plasmids and transposons that by receiving or mutation occurs. The most important factor beta-lactam antibiotic resistance is beta lactamase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hospital opportunistic pathogenic bacteria producing ESBL and CTX-M genes identified are molecular methods.Methods : In this study, 500 isolates...

  3. Conjugative IncFI plasmids carrying CTX-M-15 among Escherichia coli ESBL producing isolates at a University hospital in Germany

    Hain Torsten

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-drug-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, constitute an emerging public-health concern. Little data on the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing Escherichia coli is available in Germany. Here we describe the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing-Escherichia coli isolates at a German University hospital. Methods We analysed 63 non-duplicate clinical ESBL isolates obtained over an 8-month period using PCR and sequence-based ESBL allele typing, plasmid replicon typing, phylogenetic group typing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE based genotyping and plasmid profiling was performed, as well as confirmatory DNA-based hybridization assays. Results Examination of the 63 Escherichia coli isolates revealed an almost equal distribution among the E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2 and D. High prevalence (36/63 of the CTX-M-15 gene was observed and an analysis of PFGE-based patterns revealed the presence of this CTX-M allele in multiple clones. Resistance to cefotaxime was a transferable trait and a commonly occurring 145.5 kb conjugative IncFI plasmid was detected in 65% of E. coli carrying the CTX-M-15 allele. The rate of transferable antibiotic resistances for GM, SXT, TET, GM-SXT-TET, SXT-TET and GM-TET was 33%, 61%, 61%, 27%, 44% and 11%, respectively. The remaining strains did not have a common IncFI plasmid but harboured transferable IncFI plasmids with sizes that ranged from 97 to 242.5 kb. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the presence of IncFI plasmids within the prevailing E. coli population in a hospital setting and suggest that the dissemination of CTX-M-15 allele is associated to lateral transfer of these well-adapted, conjugative IncFI plasmids among various E. coli genotypes.

  4. Characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring QnrB32, Aac(6’-Ib-cr, GyrA and CTX-M-22 genes

    Lianhua Yu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quinolone resistance in members of the Enterobacteriaceae family is mostly due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of topoisomerase genes. CTX-M-22 is a member of the CTX-M family which can reduce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL production and modulate antibiotic resistance, resulting in low ceftazidime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs. There are four different genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP4707 including qnrB32 (novel qnr allele gene, HQ704413, aac(6’-Ib-cr (novel aac(6’-Ib allele gene, HQ680690, gyrA (novel gyrA allele gene, HQ680691 and CTX-M-22 gene. Five point amino acid mutations Arn(N27 → Leu(L, Val(V129 → Ala(A, Iie(I142 → Met(M, Gly(G188 → Arg(R, Val(V212 → Iie(I were observed in the qnr32 gene when compared to qnrB1. Of all qnrB alleles, a novel variant of the qnrB32 gene, with qnrB31, had the highest amino acid homology. Three point amino acid mutations including Trp(W105 → Arg(R, Asp(D182 → Tyr(Y and Val(V201 → Asp(D were observed in aac(6’-Ib-cr gene, when compared to GenBank number AF479774. New variants of qnr32, aac(6’-Ib-cr, gyrA and CTX-M-22 or other genotype determinants continuously appear in different genomic sites and also outside the Enterobacteriaceae family.

  5. Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics in Aquatic Systems: Anthropogenic Activities Modulate the Dissemination of blaCTX-M-Like Genes

    Tacão, Marta; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    We compared the resistomes within polluted and unpolluted rivers, focusing on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, in particular blaCTX-M. Twelve rivers from a Portuguese hydrographic basin were sampled. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of water quality were determined, and the results showed that 9 rivers were classified as unpolluted (UP) and that 3 were classified as polluted (P). Of the 225 cefotaxime-resistant strains isolated, 39 were identified as ESBL-producing...

  6. Prevalence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Northeast India

    Arijit Bora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 E. coli and 219 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered during the period between August 2009 and July 2010. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Screening and phenotypic confirmatory test for ESBL production were performed using standard disc diffusion methods. Each of the initial ESBL screening test isolate was investigated for the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes via polymerase chain reaction (PCR using gene-specific primers. Results: Phenotypic confirmatory test able to detect ESBL production in 73.58% of E. coli and 67.24% of K. pneumoniae. However, PCR amplification showed the presence of one or more ESBL genes in each of the initial ESBL screening positive isolate. Among three ESBL genotypes, the most prevalent genotype was found to be blaCTX-M in E. coli (88.67% and blaTEM in K. pneumoniae (77.58% ESBL producing isolates. Majority of ESBL producing isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. Conclusion: This study constituted a primer report on high prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae and denotes the need of more extensive studies on these antibiotic genes to determine the magnitude of the problem of antibiotic resistance exiting in this locality.

  7. Occurrence of SHV, TEM and CTX-M β-Lactamase Genes Among Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated From Children With Diarrhea

    Memariani, Mojtaba; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; ZAHRAEI SALEHI, Taghi; Shokouhi Mostafavi, Seyyed Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is widespread among diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in developing countries, where the overuse of antibiotics is common. Information regarding β-lactamases, especially Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) in diarrheagenic pathogens should be considered in clinical management when an optimal treatment is needed. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bla CTX-M , bla SHV and bla TEM β-lactamase genes among enteropatho...

  8. Dissemination of the novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase CTX-1, which confers resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, and its inhibition by beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    Kitzis, M D; Billot-Klein, D; Goldstein, F W; Williamson, R.; Tran Van Nhieu, G; Carlet, J; Acar, J F; Gutmann, L

    1988-01-01

    The novel beta-lactamase CTX-1 (pI 6.3) encoded on a transferable 84-kilobase plasmid was found in six different bacterial species. It was responsible for a significant decrease in susceptibility towards most penicillins and cephalosporins, except imipenem, temocillin, and cephalosporins which have a 7-alpha-methoxy substituent. Synergy between either ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or aztreonam and three beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and YTR 830) w...

  9. Absence of co-localization between pathovar-associated virulence factors and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (blaCTX-M) genes on a single plasmid.

    Valat, Charlotte; Forest, Karine; Billet, Méganne; Polizzi, Charlène; Saras, Estelle; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa

    2016-08-30

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were reported in virulent food-borne Escherichia coli clones, and numerous genes encoding ESBLs and virulence factors (VFs) are plasmid-mediated. We investigated the plasmidic co-localization of ESBL genes and pathovar-associated VF genes isolated in 18 E. coli isolates from faecal samples of diseased cattle. From the rare ESBL-producing E. coli among the various pathovars, no plasmid co-localization was found between VF and blaCTX-M genes on a single plasmid. However, a link between replicon types and VFs was highlighted: EspP was associated with IncFIB and ToxB with IncB/O. Associations of IncF alleles to VF or CTX-M-types were also identified: CS31A was linked to the allele FIB38 and CTX-M-14 to IncFII2. Also, as illustrated here, IncFII and IncFIB were carried by two different plasmids in a single cell. PMID:27527778

  10. Characterization of IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnr genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella from animals, the environment and humans

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Hasman, Henrik; Hansen, Lars; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to characterize a collection of Escherichia coli and Salmonella harbouring qnr and blaCTX-M-1 genes on IncN plasmids isolated from humans, food-producing, companion and wild animals, and the environment from six European countries.Methods Nineteen IncN plasmids...... were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) and hybridization with repN, qnrS1, qnrB19 or blaCTX-M-1 probes. Plasmids pKT58A and pHHA45 were sequenced using the 454-Genome Sequencer FLX platform on a library constructed from plasmid...... DNA purified from the respective E. coli transformants.Results Three types of IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1, qnrS1 and qnrB19 genes were identified in strains isolated from the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands, corresponding to pMLST sequence type (ST) 1, ST3...

  11. Successful international clones of blaCTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae with coexpression of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in Tehran hospitals.

    Nematzadeh, Shoeib; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Iversen, Aina; Giske, Christian G

    2015-12-01

    The dissemination of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), 16S rRNA methylases, CTX-M, and acquired AmpC enzymes in ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=40) from Tehran hospitals. Plasmid replicon typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were carried out for typing. CTX-M group 1 (confirmed as bla(CTX-M-15) in selected isolates) was found in 35/40 isolates. Thirty-two isolates hosted PMQR genes. Twenty isolates featured aac(6')-Ib-CR only; 9 isolates had aac(6')-Ib-CR and qnrB; 2 isolates had aac(6')-Ib-CR and qnrS; and 1 isolate had aac(6')-Ib-CR, qnrS, and qepA. The 16S rRNA methylase RmtB was found in 1 isolate; and acquired AmpC enzymes, in 6 isolates. PFGE detected 7 pulsotypes, the largest corresponded to sequence type 16. The successful clone ST101 was also found. The emergence of successful clones of K. pneumoniae in Tehran hospitals is concerning. PMID:26458278

  12. An outbreak of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Kuwait

    N Al Sweih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study reports an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in 14 patients during a 2-month period (August-September, 2008 in the intensive care unit (ICU of a teaching hospital in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: The clinical sources were blood (9, urine (3 and respiratory secretions (2 identified by the automated VITEK-2 ID System. Susceptibility testing was performed by the E-test method. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL production was assessed using the ESBL E-test and confirmed by PCR. Carriage of bla genes was determined by PCR and sequence analysis. The transferability of resistance phenotypes was demonstrated by conjugation experiments and clonal relatedness was determined by PFGE. Results: The isolates were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, and tigecycline and produced ESBL. All isolates yielded an amplicon of 499 bp with universal consensus primers (MA primers. DNA sequence analysis showed that they all harboured blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 genes. The environmental isolate obtained from a suction machine was also CTX-M-15/TEM-1 producer. The resistance phenotypes were transferrable to the Escherichia coli J53 r strain. PFGE, revealed two clones, A and B, related with a Dice coefficient of >94.1%. A mortality rate of 21.4% was recorded. Conclusion: The outbreak was contained by robust and aggressive infection control measures. This study highlights the first outbreak of CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae associated with high mortality in an adult medical ICU in Kuwait.

  13. Presence of CTX gene cluster in environmental non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae and its potential clinical significance

    B Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological linkage of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae and to determine their genotypes and virulence genes content. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 V. cholerae strains obtained from clinical specimens (n = 40 and surface waters (n = 20 were subjected to genotyping using PFGE and determination of their virulence-associated gene clusters. Result: PCR analysis showed the presence of chromosomally located hly and RTX genetic elements in 100% and 90% of the environmental isolates, respectively. The phage-mediated genetic elements such as CTX, TLC and VPI were detected in 5% of the environmental isolates suggesting that the environmental isolates cannot acquire certain mobile gene clusters. A total of 4 and 18 pulsotypes were obtained among the clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolates, respectively. Non-pathogenic environmentally isolated V. cholerae constituted a distinct cluster with one single non-O1, non-O139 strain (EP6 carrying the virulence genes similar to the epidemic strains. This may suggest the possible potential of conversion of non-pathogenic to a pathogenic environmental strain. Conclusions: The emergence of a single environmental isolate in our study containing the pathogenicity genes amongst the diverse non-pathogenic environmental isolates needs to be further studied in the context of V. cholerae pathogenicity sero-coversion.

  14. Automated navigation of Mars rovers using HiRISE-CTX-HRSC co-registered orthorectified images and DTMs

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2014-05-01

    Fusion of orbital and rover imagery is critical to a better understanding of the geological and geomorphological context of current and future rovers on Mars. A critical component of this is to ensure that the most accurate possible co-registration can be achieved between orbital images (co-registered to MOLA tracks) and rover imagery. Currently this is either performed by hand or uses Incremental Bundle Adjustment that does not guarantee compliance of rover and global aerographic co-ordinates. The objective of this work is to produce the most accurate possible Mars rover locations in global aerographic coordinates. The first stage of the work involves automated tie-point/feature based co-registration of high-quality image maps from coarse to fine spatial resolutions, i.e. HRSC ORI (~12.5metre/pixel) and DTM (~75mpp), CTX ORI (~6mpp) and DTM (~6mpp), HiRISE ORI (~0.25mpp) and DTM (~1mpp). The second stage of the work involves stereo reconstruction using ground data captured by Navigation cameras onboard MER-A/-B/MSL rover, bundle adjustment of the NavCam ORI/DTM for wide baseline mosaic, and co-registration of NavCam ORI (0.01mpp) and HiRISE ORI based on combined mutual information and edge feature registration techniques. The registration accuracy achieved is up to the sub pixel level of the coarser layer, e.g. 1.25mpp for HRSC-to-CTX, and the final rover traverse has a resolution of 0.025mpp. The development work is based on previous research/development work on HiRISE/HRSC ORI/DTM co-registration [1], stereo ground reconstruction [2], and multi-resolution data fusion [3] within the EU-FP7-PRoVisG project (http://provisg.eu). The co-registered rover locations and multi-layer map have been partly integrated into the interactive web-GIS system (http://progisweb.eu) developed for scientific data selection and visualisation within the PRoVisG and EU-FP7-PRoViDE project (http://provide-space.eu). Further assessment will be performed within PRoViDE. The final products

  15. Identification of CTX-M15-, SHV-28-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST15 as an epidemic clone in the Copenhagen area using a semi-automated Rep-PCR typing assay

    Nielsen, J B; Skov, M N; Jørgensen, R L; Heltberg, Ole; Hansen, Dennis S; Schønning, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    ), bla (SHV), and bla (CTX-M), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Thirty-five out of 52 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were ST15 and bla (CTX-M15), bla (SHV-28), and bla (TEM-1) positive by PCR. Ten out of 52 were ST16 and tested positive for bla (CTX-M15), bla (SHV-1), and bla (TEM-1......). Isolates from previously recognized hospital outbreaks were also ST15 and PCR positive for bla (CTX-M15), bla (SHV-28), and bla (TEM-1), and typed within the main cluster by both Rep-PCR and PFGE. In conclusion, K. pneumoniae ST15 containing bla (CTX-M15) and bla (SHV-28) constitutes an epidemic clone in...... pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) producing extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and their relation to recognized Danish outbreak strains. PFGE and Rep-PCR produced similar clustering among isolates. Individual isolates from each cluster were further characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of bla (TEM...

  16. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Detection of Isolates harboring blaCTX gene causing infections in hospital and determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics

    Z Rabani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Because of its ubiquitous nature, ability to survive in moist environments, and innate resistance to many antibiotics and antiseptics, P. aeruginosa is a common pathogen in hospitals. The goals of this study were detection of Psudomonas aeruginosa harboring blaCTX gene causing infections in hospitals and determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics and ESBL production. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, clinical samples from hospitalized patients were collected and culture was done on apropriate media. Final identification was performed using biochemical tests and API 20NE system. According to the protocol CLSI 2014 disc diffusion, combination disk, modified hodge test (MHT and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility, ESBL production, carbapenemas production, and MIC values of imipenem respectively. The blaCTX gene was detected in the isolates by PCR molecular method. Results: In the current study, 45 isolates of Pseudomonas aeroginosa were obtained from hospitalized patients, consisting of 19 males (42.2% and 26 females (57.8%. As observed, 57.8% (26 strains of isolates were recovered from sputum. The most effective antibiotics against isolates were amikacin and colistin with 97.8% suseptibility whereas the highest resistance was to cefotaxime (97.8%. As revealed 77.8% of isolates showed response to group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem. All imipenem resistant strains had the MIC more than 32. Seventeen strains (37.7% were  showed resistant to quinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin. The results of PCR on blaCTX gene indicated that 15.5% of the isolates possess the gene. Conclusion: Carbapenem group of antibiotic in 22% of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were ineffective and indiscriminate prescribing of these drugs will increase the ratet of resistance.

  17. The effect of gallic acid on cytotoxicity, Ca(2+) homeostasis and ROS production in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes.

    Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-25

    Gallic acid, a polyhydroxylphenolic compound, is widely distributed in various plants, fruits and foods. It has been shown that gallic acid passes into blood brain barrier and reaches the brain tissue of middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. However, the effect of gallic acid on Ca(2+) signaling in glia cells is unknown. This study explored whether gallic acid affected Ca(2+) homeostasis and induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity in DBTRG-05MG human glioblastoma cells and CTX TNA2 rat astrocytes. Gallic acid (20-40 μM) concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)]i) increases in DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells. In DBTRG-05MG cells, the Ca(2+) response was decreased by half by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In Ca(2+)-containing medium, gallic acid-induced Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by store-operated Ca(2+) channel inhibitors (2-APB, econazole and SKF96365). In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished gallic acid-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Conversely, incubation with gallic acid also abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Inhibition of phospholipase C with U73122 abolished gallic acid-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Gallic acid significantly caused cytotoxicity in DBTRG-05MG cells, which was partially prevented by prechelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with BAPTA-AM. Moreover, gallic acid activated mitochondrial apoptotic pathways that involved ROS production. Together, in DBTRG-05MG cells but not in CTX TNA2 cells, gallic acid induced [Ca(2+)]i increases by causing Ca(2+) entry via 2-APB, econazole and SKF96365-sensitive store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and phospholipase C-dependent release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This Ca(2+) signal subsequently evoked mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis that involved ROS production. PMID:27060209

  18. Clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa of 2009 from Kolkata, India: preponderance of SXT element and presence of Haitian ctxB variant.

    Braj M R N S Kutar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increase in the number of multidrug resistant pathogens and the accompanied rise in case fatality rates has hampered the treatment of many infectious diseases including cholera. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in the clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae would help in understanding evolution of these pathogenic bacteria and their epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify genetic factors responsible for multiple drug resistance in clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor isolated from the patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India, in 2009. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of V. cholerae were analysed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Antibiogram analysis revealed that majority of the isolates showed resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymixin B and streptomycin. In PCR, SXT integrase was detected in 117 isolates and its sequence showed 99% identity notably to ICEVchInd5 from Sevagram, India, ICEVchBan5 from Bangladesh and VC1786ICE sequence from Haiti outbreak among others. Antibiotic resistance traits corresponding to SXT element were transferred from the parent Vibrio isolate to the recipient E. coli XL-1 Blue cells during conjugation. Double-mismatch-amplification mutation assay (DMAMA revealed the presence of Haitian type ctxB allele of genotype 7 in 55 isolates and the classical ctxB allele of genotype 1 in 59 isolates. Analysis of topoisomerase sequences revealed the presence of mutation Ser83 → Ile in gyrA and Ser85→ Leu in parC. This clearly showed the circulation of SXT-containing V. cholerae as causative agent for cholera in Kolkata. CONCLUSIONS: There was predominance of SXT element in these clinical isolates from Kolkata region which also accounted for their antibiotic resistance phenotype typical of this element. DMAMA PCR showed them to be a mixture

  19. Escherichia coli of sequence type 3835 carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12.

    Feng, Yu; Yang, Ping; Xie, Yi; Wang, Xiaohui; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) represents a serious challenge for treatment and public health. A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli clinical strain WCHEC13-8 was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests, whole genome sequencing and conjugation experiments. It was resistant to imipenem (MIC, >256 μg/ml) and meropenem (MIC, 128 μg/ml) and belonged to ST3835. bla NDM-1 was the only carbapenemase gene detected. Strain WCHEC13-8 also had a plasmid-borne AmpC gene (bla CMY-42) and two extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes (bla CTX-M-15 and bla SHV-12). bla NDM-1 and bla SHV-12 were carried by a 54-kb IncX3 self-transmissible plasmid, which is identical to plasmid pNDM-HF727 from Enterobacter cloacae. bla CMY-42 was carried by a 64-kb IncI1 plasmid and bla CTX-M-15 was located on a 141-kb plasmid with multiple F replicons (replicon type: F36:A4:B1). bla CMY-42 was in a complicated context and the mobilisation of bla CMY-42 was due to the transposition of ISEcp1 by misidentifying its right-end boundary. Genetic context of bla NDM-1 in strain WCHEC13-8 was closely related to those on IncX3 plasmids in various Enterobacteriaceae species in China. In conclusion, a multidrug-resistant ST3835 E. coli clinical strain carrying bla NDM-1, bla CTX-M-15, bla CMY-42 and bla SHV-12 was identified. IncX3 plasmids may be making a significant contribution to the dissemination of bla NDM among Enterobacteriaceae in China. PMID:26194736

  20. Correlation of the Levels of the Bone Turnover Markers BAP and β-CTX with Bone Metastasis Progress in Lung Cancer Patients

    Tang, Qiong; Zhao, Hui; JIA, RUI; Liu, Linlin

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Bone metastasis is common in lung cancer patients. The β isomer of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphates (BAP) are regarded as important bone turnover markers in bone resorption and formation. Thus, the aims of this study are to determine the correlation of these bone turnover markers with the extent of bone metastasis of lung cancer. Methods A total of 92 patients with bone metastasis of lung cancer from Tianjin U...

  1. Susceptibilidad de mutantes atoxigénicos de Vibrio cholerae O139 a la infección con los bacteriófagos CTX y VGJ

    Talena Ledón

    2010-01-01

    VGJÓ, utilizando variantes de estos fagos marcadas con el gen de resistencia a kanamicina. Se encontro que ambas cepas fueron resistentes a la infeccion in vitro con VGJ-KanÓ. En cambio, a pesar de expresar TCP in vitro, solo se infectaron con CTX-KanÓ durante el paso por el intestino del raton neonato. Estos resultados sugieren que CRC3222 y CRC3241 son prototipos vacunales mas seguros desde el punto de vista ambiental, por cuanto fueron susceptibles a readquirir los genes de CT solo en las limitadas condiciones de expresion de TCP.

  2. A quantitative and comparative study of the effects of a synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C on the kinetic properties of voltage-dependent sodium channels

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyahara, Hidemichi; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are known to bind to receptor site 5 of the voltage-dependent Na channel, but the toxin's physiological effects are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of a ciguatoxin congener (CTX3C) on three different Na-channel isoforms, rNav1.2, rNav1.4, and rNav1.5, which were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells.The toxin (1.0 μmol l−1) shifted the activation potential (V1/2 of activation curve) in the negative direction by 4–9 mV and increased the slope fa...

  3. Characterization of IncI1 sequence type 71 epidemic plasmid lineage responsible for the recent dissemination of CTX-M-65 extended-spectrum β-lactamase in the Bolivian Chaco region.

    Riccobono, Eleonora; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Di Maggio, Tiziana; Revollo, Carmen; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-09-01

    During the last decade, a significant diffusion of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed in commensal Escherichia coli from healthy children in the Bolivian Chaco region, with initial dissemination of CTX-M-2, which was then replaced by CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-65. In this work, we demonstrate that the widespread dissemination of CTX-M-65 observed in this context was related to the polyclonal spreading of an IncI1 sequence type 71 (ST71) epidemic plasmid lineage. The structure of the epidemic plasmid population was characterized by complete sequencing of four representatives and PCR mapping of the remainder (n = 16). Sequence analysis showed identical plasmid backbones (similar to that of the reference IncI1 plasmid, R64) and a multiresistance region (MRR), which underwent local microevolution. The MRR harbored genes responsible for resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, and fosfomycin (with microevolution mainly consisting of deletion events of resistance modules). The bla CTX-M-65 module harbored by the IncI1 ST71 epidemic plasmid was apparently derived from IncN-type plasmids, likely via IS26-mediated mobilization. The plasmid could be transferred by conjugation to several different enterobacterial species (Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica) and was stably maintained without selective pressure in these species, with the exception of K. oxytoca and S. enterica. Fitness assays performed in E. coli recipients demonstrated that the presence of the epidemic plasmid was apparently not associated with a significant biological cost. PMID:26100713

  4. Development of a monoclonal antibody against the left wing of ciguatoxin CTX1B: thiol strategy and detection using a sandwich ELISA.

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the ingestion of a variety of reef fish that have accumulated trace amounts of ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50,000 people each year. The extremely low level of the causative neurotoxins, ciguatoxins, in fish has hampered the preparation of antibodies for detecting the toxins. In this paper, we describe a thiol strategy for synthesizing a keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugate (20) of the ABCDE-ring fragment of the Pacific ciguatoxins, CTX1B (1) and 54-deoxyCTX1B (4). We succeeded in producing a monoclonal antibody (3G8) against the left wings of these ciguatoxins by immunizing mice with the hapten-KLH conjugate (20) as the synthetic antigen. The most promising mAb, 3G8, does not cross-react with other related marine toxins. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing 3G8 and the previously prepared monoclonal antibody (8H4) enabled us to detect 1 specifically at less than 0.28 ng/mL. PMID:22575284

  5. Betalactamasas de espectro extendido tipo TEM y CTX-M en Klebsiella spp y Escherichia coli aisladas de superficies de ambientes hospitalarios

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el genotipo BLEE de 15 cepas de enterobacterias resistentes a betalactámicos, aisladas de superficies inanimadas y caracterizadas fenotípicamente como productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Previa evaluación y tamizaje de las cepas bacterianas, se hizo un PCR para amplificar fragmentos de 1078 pb y 544 pb correspondientes a BLEE tipo TEM y CTX-M. Once cepas presentaron ambos fragmentos a la vez y tres presentaron solamente blaCTX-M. En conclusión, se demostró la presencia de genes BLEE en cultivos de origen ambiental, algunos de los cuales podrían pertenecer a más de un tipo; esta información podría servir de base para implementar medidas de prevención que eviten la trasmisión de bacterias multirresistentes desde superficies inanimadas a los pacientes, principalmente en áreas hospitalarias críticas

  6. Betalactamasas de espectro extendido tipo TEM y CTX-M en Klebsiella spp y Escherichia coli aisladas de superficies de ambientes hospitalarios

    Marco Rivera-Jacinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el genotipo BLEE de 15 cepas de enterobacterias resistentes a betalactámicos, aisladas de superficies inanimadas y caracterizadas fenotípicamente como productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Previa evaluación y tamizaje de las cepas bacterianas, se hizo un PCR para amplificar fragmentos de 1078 pb y 544 pb correspondientes a BLEE tipo TEM y CTX-M. Once cepas presentaron ambos fragmentos a la vez y tres presentaron solamente blaCTX-M. En conclusión, se demostró la presencia de genes BLEE en cultivos de origen ambiental, algunos de los cuales podrían pertenecer a más de un tipo; esta información podría servir de base para implementar medidas de prevención que eviten la trasmisión de bacterias multirresistentes desde superficies inanimadas a los pacientes, principalmente en áreas hospitalarias críticas

  7. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Escherichia coli Sequence Type ST131 (O25:H4) and blaCTX-M-15 among Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli from the United States, 2000 to 2009

    Johnson, James R.; Urban, Carl; Weissman, Scott J.; Jorgensen, James H.; Lewis, James S.; Hansen, Glen; Edelstein, Paul H.; Robicsek, Ari; Cleary, Timothy; Adachi, Javier; Paterson, David; Quinn, John; Hanson, Nancy D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Clabots, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 (from phylogenetic group B2), often carrying the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-15, is an emerging globally disseminated pathogen that has received comparatively little attention in the United States. Accordingly, a convenience sample of 351 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from 15 U.S. centers (collected in 2000 to 2009) underwent PCR-based phylotyping and detection of ST131 and blaCTX-M-15. A total of 200 isolates, comprising 4 groups ...

  8. Fecal Carriage and Shedding Density of CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Cattle, Chickens, and Pigs: Implications for Environmental Contamination and Food Production▿

    Horton, R. A.; Randall, L.P.; Snary, E. L.; Cockrem, H.; S. Lotz; Wearing, H.; Duncan, D; RABIE, A.; McLaren, I.; Watson, E.; La Ragione, R.M.; Coldham, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    The number and proportion of CTX-M positive Escherichia coli organisms were determined in feces from cattle, chickens, and pigs in the United Kingdom to provide a better understanding of the risk of the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteria to humans from food animal sources. Samples of bovine (n = 35) and swine (n = 20) feces were collected from farms, and chicken cecal contents (n = 32) were collected from abattoirs. There was wide variation in the number of CTX-M-p...

  9. Persistence of a pKPN3-like CTX-M-15-encoding IncFIIK plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumonia ST17 host during two years of intestinal colonization.

    Iren Høyland Löhr

    Full Text Available To characterize the CTX-M-15-encoding plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST17 strain, responsible for an outbreak at a Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit and subsequent colonization of affected children for up to two years. To identify plasmid-mediated features relevant for the outbreak dynamics, and to investigate the plasmids capability of horizontal transfer, its segregational stability and plasmid-mediated fitness costs.Plasmid profiling was performed by S1-nuclease PFGE, PCR-based replicon typing and Southern blot-hybridization. The complete sequence of the CTX-M-15-encoding plasmid was obtained by 454 sequencing. Plasmid self-transferability was investigated by broth- and filter mating, segregational stability was explored by serial passage, and plasmid-conferred fitness costs were examined in pairwise head-to-head competitions and by growth rate comparisons.CTX-M-15 was encoded by a ~180 kb IncFIIK plasmid in K. pneumoniae ST17. S1-nuclease PFGE profiles of the first and the last CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, recovered from the four children colonized the longest, suggested that the plasmid was stably maintained during intestinal carriage of up to two years. The DNA sequence of the pKPN3-like plasmid, pKp848CTX, uncovered a Tn3-like antibiotic resistance region and multiple heavy metal- and thermoresistance determinants. Plasmid pKp848CTX could not be transferred to Escherichia coli in vitro and we found no evidence to support horizontal plasmid transfer in vivo. Segregational plasmid loss ranging from 0.83% to 17.5% was demonstrated in evolved populations in vitro, but only minor fitness costs were associated with plasmid-carriage.Plasmid pKp848CTX encodes phenotypic traits, which may have had an impact on the fitness and survival of the K. pneumoniae ST17 strain in the outbreak setting. The antibiotic resistance plasmid pKp848CTX was stably maintained during two years of intestinal colonization, conferring negligible

  10. Development of a Multiplex PCR and SHV Melting-Curve Mutation Detection System for Detection of Some SHV and CTX-M β-Lactamases of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae in Taiwan

    Chia, Ju-Hsin; Chu, Chishih; Su, Lin-Hui; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Kuo, An-Jing; Sun, Chien-Feng; Wu, Tsu-Lan

    2005-01-01

    Infection by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing in Taiwan. Accurate identification of the ESBL genes is necessary for surveillance and for epidemiological studies of the mode of transmission in the hospital setting. We describe herein the development of a novel system, which consists of a multiplex PCR to identify blaSHV, blaCTX-M-3-like, and blaCTX-M-14-like genes and a modified SHV melting-curve mutation detection method to rapidly distingu...

  11. (6aS*,6bS*,11R*,11aR*-6-(2-Furylmethyl-5,12-dioxo-5,6,6a,6b,7,11,11a,12-octahydrofuro[3′,2′:5,6]isoindolo[2,1-a]quinazoline-11-carboxylic acid

    Mykola D. Obushak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C23H18N2O6, is the product of an intramolecular thermal cycloaddition within 1-malein-2-[(E-2-(2-furylvinyl]-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazoline. The molecule comprises a previously unknown fused pentacyclic system containing two five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone and furan and three six-membered rings (benzene, 2,3-dihydro-4-pyrimidinone and dihydrocyclohexane. The central five-membered pyrrolidinone ring has the usual envelope conformation. The six-membered dihydropyrimidinone and dihydrocyclohexane rings adopt a half-boat and a half-chair conformation, respectively. The dihedral angle between the planes of the terminal benzene and furan rings is 45.99 (7°. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. Weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds consolidate further the crystal packing, which exhibits π–π interactions, with a short distance of 3.556 (3 Å between the centroids of benzene rings of neighbouring molecules.

  12. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-decahydro-3,11b-epoxyazepino[2,1-a]isoindole-4-carboxylate

    Flavien A. A. Toze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The molecule comprises a fused tetracyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetrahydrofuran and dihydrofuran and one seven-membered ring (azepane. The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methylene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxylate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5° with respect to the base plane of the tetrahydrofuran ring. In the crystal, the molecules are bound by weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into puckered layers parallel to (001.

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Juice from Asparagus Officinalis L. on Cyclophosphamide(CTX)-induced Mutagenic Activities in Mice%芦笋汁的抗突变作用

    汤新慧; 高静

    2001-01-01

    用微核(MN)试验、姐妹染色单体交换(SCE)及精子畸形试验探讨芦笋汁对环磷酰胺(CTX)致突变作用的影响.结果表明,单纯芦笋汁对小鼠骨髓细胞MN和SCE及精子畸形均无明显影响,但一定剂量芦笋汁可使CTX诱发的MN率(6.00%)降低(5.00%~2.66%),SCE(29.22次/细胞)减少(26.40~13.37次/细胞),精子畸形率(6.10%)下降(5.12%~2.86%),均呈现剂量-效应关系.

  14. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination. PMID:26279315

  15. Characteristics of CTX-M Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Multiple Rivers in Southern Taiwan.

    Chen, Po-An; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Ping-Chih; Chen, Jung-Ren; Huang, I-Fei; Chen, Wan-Ling; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Hung, Wan-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Cheng, Ming-Fang

    2016-03-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 has emerged as the leading cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections and bacteremia worldwide. Whether environmental water is a potential reservoir of these strains remains unclear. River water samples were collected from 40 stations in southern Taiwan from February to August 2014. PCR assay and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis were conducted to determine the CTX-M group and sequence type, respectively. In addition, we identified the seasonal frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli strains and their geographical relationship with runoffs from livestock and poultry farms between February and August 2014. ESBL-producing E. coli accounted for 30% of the 621 E. coli strains isolated from river water in southern Taiwan. ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 was not detected among the isolates. The most commonly detected strain was E. coli CTX-M group 9. Among the 92 isolates selected for MLST analysis, the most common ESBL-producing clonal complexes were ST10 and ST58. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli was significantly higher in areas with a lower river pollution index (P = 0.025) and regions with a large number of chickens being raised (P = 0.013). ESBL-producing E. coli strains were commonly isolated from river waters in southern Taiwan. The most commonly isolated ESBL-producing clonal complexes were ST10 and ST58, which were geographically related to chicken farms. ESBL-producing E. coli ST131, the major clone causing community-acquired infections in Taiwan and worldwide, was not detected in river waters. PMID:26773082

  16. Persistence of a pKPN3-Like CTX-M-15-Encoding IncFIIK Plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumonia ST17 Host during Two Years of Intestinal Colonization

    Iren Høyland Löhr; Nils Hülter; Eva Bernhoff; Pål Jarle Johnsen; Arnfinn Sundsfjord; Umaer Naseer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the CTX-M-15-encoding plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST17 strain, responsible for an outbreak at a Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit and subsequent colonization of affected children for up to two years. To identify plasmid-mediated features relevant for the outbreak dynamics, and to investigate the plasmids capability of horizontal transfer, its segregational stability and plasmid-mediated fitness costs. Methods Plasmid profiling was pe...

  17. Persistence of a pKPN3-like CTX-M-15-encoding IncFIIK plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumonia ST17 host during two years of intestinal colonization

    Löhr, Iren Høyland; Hülter, Nils Fredrik; Bernhoff, Eva; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Naseer, Mohammed Umaer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the CTX-M-15-encoding plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST17 strain, responsible for an outbreak at a Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit and subsequent colonization of affected children for up to two years. To identify plasmid-mediated features relevant for the outbreak dynamics, and to investigate the plasmids capability of horizontal transfer, its segregational stability and plasmid-mediated fitness costs. Methods Plasmid profiling was pe...

  18. Full-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a Uropathogenic E. coli B2 Sequence Type 127 Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Carried blaCTX-M-15 Gene.

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). PMID:27587831

  19. Curing vector for IncI1 plasmids and its use to provide evidence for a metabolic burden of IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmid pIFM3791 on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Freire Martín, Irene; Thomas, Christopher M; Laing, Emma; AbuOun, Manal; La Ragione, Roberto M; Woodward, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    Using a sequence-based approach we previously identified an IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmid, pIFM3791, on a single pig farm in the UK that was harboured by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:-. To test the hypothesis that the plasmid had spread rapidly into these differing host bacteria we wished to assess whether the plasmid conferred a fitness advantage. To do this an IncI1 curing vector was constructed and used to displace the IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmids from K. pneumoniae strain B3791 and several other unrelated IncI1-harbouring strains indicating the potential wider application of the curing vector. The IncI1 CTX-M-1 plasmid was reintroduced by conjugation into the cured K. pneumoniae strain and also a naturally IncI1 plasmid free S. enterica serotype 4,5,12:i:-, S348/11. Original, cured and complemented strains were tested for metabolic competence using Biolog technology and in competitive growth, association to mammalian cells and biofilm formation experiments. The plasmid-cured K. pneumoniae strain grew more rapidly than either the original plasmid-carrying strain or plasmid-complemented strains in competition experiments. Additionally, the plasmid-cured strain was significantly better at respiring with l-sorbose as a carbon source and putrescine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, l-alanine and l-proline as nitrogen sources. By contrast, no differences in phenotype were found when comparing plasmid-harbouring and plasmid-free S. enterica S348/11. In conclusion, the IncI1 curing vector successfully displaced multiple IncI plasmids. The IncI1 CTX-M1 plasmid conferred a growth disadvantage upon K. pneumoniae, possibly by imposing a metabolic burden, the mechanism of which remains to be determined. PMID:27166141

  20. The Occurrence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM Genes in Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Positive Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis in Poland

    Ojdana, Dominika; Sacha, Paweł; Wieczorek, Piotr; Czaban, Sławomir; Michalska, Anna; Jaworowska, Jadwiga; Jurczak, Anna; Poniatowski, Bogusław; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are important pathogens of infections. Increasing numbers of ESBL-producing bacterial strains exhibiting multidrug resistance have been observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis strains and to examine susceptibility to antibiotics of tested stra...

  1. Evaluation of a DNA microarray (Check-MDR CT102) for rapid detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases and of KPC, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 carbapenemases.

    Naas, T.; Cuzon, G.; Bogaerts, P.; Glupczynski, Y.; Nordmann, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Check-MDR CT102 microarray, aimed at identifying bacteria producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) (SHV, TEM, and CTX-M) and carbapenemase (KPC, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, and NDM-1), was evaluated on a total of 144 Gram-negative strains expressing various β-lactamases. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for most tested genes, suggesting that this assay allows accurate identification of common ESBL and carbapenemase producers from bacterial cultures.

  2. CTX-M-15 in combination with aac(6')-Ib-cr is the most prevalent mechanism of resistance both in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, including K. pneumoniae ST258, in an ICU in Uruguay.

    Bado, Inés; Gutiérrez, Claudia; García-Fulgueiras, Virginia; Cordeiro, Nicolás F; Araújo Pirez, Lucía; Seija, Verónica; Bazet, Cristina; Rieppi, Gloria; Vignoli, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EcKp) clones circulating in an intensive care unit (ICU) in Uruguay between August 2010 and July 2011, (ii) to characterise the ESBL and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes of the studied isolates and (iii) to determine the virulotype of the clinical isolates. Clinical and gut-colonising ESBL-EcKp from ICU patients were studied. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination were performed using a VITEK(®)2 system. Detection of ESBL, KPC and PMQR genes was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 54 ESBL-EcKp isolates (40 K. pneumoniae and 14 E. coli), with or without PMQR genes, were recovered from 30 of 68 inpatients. Forty-seven isolates were CTX-M-15-producers (36 as a single ESBL and 11 together with CTX-M-14). In addition, four isolates produced CTX-M-14, two produced CTX-M-2 and one produced SHV-5. No carbapenemases were detected either in E. coli or K. pneumoniae isolates. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 42 also harboured PMQR genes: 27 aac(6')-Ib-cr; 14 aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB; and a single isolate carrying only qnrB. K. pneumoniae ST258, ST48 and ST16 and E. coli ST10 and ST405 were detected in 46/54 isolates, including 9 clinical isolates. In conclusion, non-KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST258 harbouring different ESBL and PMQR genes was the main clone disseminated in the ICU. Extensive surveillance measures must be implemented to prevent the emergence of acquired plasmid-encoded blaKPC by ST258 K. pneumoniae. PMID:27530831

  3. Full-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a Uropathogenic E. coli B2 Sequence Type 127 Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Carried blaCTX-M-15 Gene

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai

    2016-01-01

    We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). PMID:27587831

  4. Effect of post-etch annealing gas composition on the structural and electrochemical properties of Ti2CTx MXene electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2015-07-08

    Two-dimensional Ti2CTx MXene nanosheets were prepared by the selective etching of Al layer from Ti2AlC MAX phase using HF treatment. The MXene sheets retained the hexagonal symmetry of the parent Ti2AlC MAX phase. Effect of the post-etch annealing ambient (Ar, N2, N2/H2 and Air) on the structure and electrochemical properties of the MXene nanosheets was investigated in detail. After annealing in Air, the MXene sheets exhibited variations in structure, morphology and electrochemical properties as compared to HF treated MAX phase. In contrast, samples annealed in Ar, N2 and N2/H2 ambient retained their original morphology. However, a significant improvement in the supercapacitor performance is observed upon heat treatment in Ar, N2 and N2/H2 ambients. When used in symmetric two-electrode configuration, the MXene sample annealed in N2/H2 atmosphere exhibited the best capacitive performance with specific capacitance value (51 F/g at 1A/g) and high rate performance (86%). This improvement in the electrochemical performance of annealed samples is attributed to highest carbon content, and lowest fluorine content on the surface of the sample upon annealing, while retaining the original 2D layered morphology, and providing maximum access of aqueous electrolyte to the electrodes.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of OP0595, a New Diazabicyclooctane, against CTX-M-15-Positive Escherichia coli and KPC-Positive Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Morinaka, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Yuko; Yamada, Keiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Sakakibara, Shiro; Takata, Toshihiko; Abe, Takao; Furuuchi, Takeshi; Inamura, Seiichi; Sakamaki, Yoshiaki; Tsujii, Nakako; Ida, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are evolving to produce β-lactamases of increasing diversity that challenge antimicrobial chemotherapy. OP0595 is a new diazabicyclooctane serine β-lactamase inhibitor which acts also as an antibiotic and as a β-lactamase-independent β-lactam "enhancer" against Enterobacteriaceae Here we determined the optimal concentration of OP0595 in combination with piperacillin, cefepime, and meropenem, in addition to the antibacterial activity of OP0595 alone and in combination with cefepime, in in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo infection model against five strains of CTX-M-15-positive Escherichia coli and five strains of KPC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae An OP0595 concentration of 4 μg/ml was found to be sufficient for an effective combination with all three β-lactam agents. In both in vitro time-kill studies and an in vivo model of infection, cefepime-OP0595 showed stronger efficacy than cefepime alone against all β-lactamase-positive strains tested, whereas OP0595 alone showed weaker or no efficacy. Taken together, these data indicate that combinational use of OP0595 and a β-lactam agent is important to exert the antimicrobial functions of OP0595. PMID:26953205

  6. Outbreak of Serratia marcescens Coproducing ArmA and CTX-M-15 Mediated High Levels of Resistance to Aminoglycoside and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, Algeria.

    Batah, Rima; Loucif, Lotfi; Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Boutefnouchet, Nafissa; Allag, Hamoudi; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is one of the most important pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we have investigated the molecular support of antibiotic resistance and genetic relationships in a series of 54 S. marcescens clinical isolates collected from Eastern Algeria between December 2011 and July 2013. The 54 isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic transfer of antibiotic resistance was performed by conjugation using azide-resistant Escherichia coli J53 as the recipient strain, and plasmid analysis was done by PCR-based replicon typing. The relatedness of our isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of four protein-encoding genes (gyrB, rpoB, infB, and atpD) and then compared to MALDI-TOF MS clustering. Thirty-five out of 54 isolates yielded an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and carried bla(CTX-M-15) (n=32), bla(TEM-1) (n=26), bla(TEM-71) (n=1), bla(SHV-1a) (n=1), and bla(PER-2) (n=12). Among these isolates, we identified a cluster of 15 isolates from a urology unit that coharbored ESBL and the 16S rRNA methyltransferase armA. Conjugation was successful for five selected strains, demonstrating the transferability of a conjugative plasmid of incompatibility group incL/M type. Phylogenetic analysis along with MALDI-TOF clustering likely suggested an outbreak of such isolates in the urology unit. In this study, we report for the first time the co-occurrence of armA methyltransferase with ESBL in S. marcescens clinical isolates in Eastern Algeria. PMID:25884511

  7. Complete sequences of KPC-2-encoding plasmid p628-KPC and CTX-M-55-encoding p628-CTXM coexisted in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Wang, Li; Fang, Haihong; Feng, Jiao; Yin, Zhe; Xie, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Jie; Chen, Weijun; Yang, Ruisheng; Du, Hong; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 628 was isolated from a human case of intracranial infection in a Chinese teaching hospital. Strain 628 produces KPC-2 and CTX-M-55 encoded by two different conjugative plasmids, i.e., the IncFIIK plasmid p628-KPC and the IncI1 plasmid p628-CTXM respectively. blaKPC−2 is captured by a Tn1722-based unit transposon with a linear structure. ΔTn3-ISKpn27-blaKPC−2-ΔISKpn6-ΔTn1722 and this transposon together with a mercury resistance (mer) gene locus constitutes a 34 kb acquired drug-resistance region. blaKPC−2 has two transcription starts (nucleotides G and C located at 39 and 250 bp upstream of its coding region respectively) which correspond to two promoters, i.e., the intrinsic P1 and the upstream ISKpn27/Tn3-provided P2 with the core −35/−10 elements TAATCC/TTACAT and TTGACA/AATAAT respectively. blaCTX−M−55 is mobilized in an ISEcp1-blaCTX−M−55-Δorf477 transposition unit and appears to be the sole drug-resistant determinant in p628-CTXM. blaCTX−M−55 possesses a single transcription start (nucleotides G located at 116 bp upstream of its coding region) corresponding to the ISEcp1-provided P1 promoter with the core −35/−10 element TTGAAA/TACAAT. All the above detected promoters display a characteristic of constitutive expression. Coexistence of blaKPC and blaCTX−M in K. pneumoniae has been reported many times but this is the first report to gain deep insights into genetic platforms, promoters, and expression of the two coexisting bla genes with determination of entire nucleotide sequences of the two corresponding plasmids. PMID:26347725

  8. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from poultry in North Eastern India

    H. Lalzampuia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to record the association of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing enteric bacteria with diarrhea of poultry birds in Mizoram, India. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds with the history of diarrhea from different parts of Mizoram. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity assays. Phenotypically, ESBLs production ability was determined by double discs synergy test (DDST method. ESBLs producing isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of ESBLs genes. Plasmids were cured by acridine orange. Transfer of resistance from donor to recipient strains was done by in vitro horizontal method. Results: A total of 134 enteric bacteria was isolated, of which 102 (76.12%, 21 (15.67% and 11 (8.21% were E. coli, Salmonella spp. and K. pneumoniae, respectively. By DDST 7 (5.22% isolates (6 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae were ESBLs producer. PCR analysis confirmed 5 (3.73% (4 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae isolates harboured blaCTX-M-1 gene and/or blaTEM gene. All the isolates were carrying plasmids ranging between 0.9 kb and ~30 kb. Of the 4 isolates positive for blaCTX-M-1 and/or blaTEM, 2 (1.84% were confirmed for blaCTX-M-1 gene in their plasmid. No blaTEM gene was detected from plasmid. The resistance plasmid could not be transferred to the recipient by in vitro horizontal gene transfer method. Conclusion: ESBLs producing enteric bacteria are circulating in poultry in North Eastern Region of India. As poultry is one of the most common food animals in this region, these organisms may enter in human population through them.

  9. Multiresistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a Region in India Where Urinary Tract Infections Are Endemic: Genotypic and Phenotypic Characteristics of Sequence Type 131 Isolates of the CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Lineage

    Hussain, Arif; Ewers, Christa; Nandanwar, Nishant; Guenther, Sebastian; Jadhav, Savita; Lothar H Wieler; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (O25b:H4), associated with the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and linked predominantly to the community-onset antimicrobial-resistant infections, has globally emerged as a public health concern. However, scant attention is given to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of these strains in high-burden countries such as India. Of the 100 clinical E. coli isolates obtained by us from a setting where urinary tract infections are end...

  10. IncI1 Plasmid Carrying Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-1 in Salmonella enterica Isolates from Poultry and Humans in France, 2003 to 2008 ▿

    Cloeckaert, Axel; Praud, Karine; Lefevre, Martine; Doublet, Benoît; Pardos, Maria; Granier, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Weill, François-Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We report the dissemination of a conjugative IncI1 plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-1 , conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry and humans in France from 2003 to 2008. By IncI1 plasmid subtyping, this plasmid was shown to be genetically related to that found in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy poultry in France. Food-producing animals are the primary reservoir of zoo-notic pathogens, and the prevalence of resistance to extended-s...

  11. Widespread Dissemination of Aminoglycoside Resistance Genes armA and rmtB in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Taiwan Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases ▿

    Ma, Ling; Lin, Chi-Jan; Chen, Jiun-Han; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Lin, Jung-Chung; Siu, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Among 235 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL) isolates collected from a nationwide surveillance performed in Taiwan, 102 (43.4%) were resistant to amikacin. Ninety-two of these 102 (90.2%) isolates were carrying CTX-M-type β-lactamases individually or concomitantly with SHV-type or CMY-2 β-lactamases. The armA and rmtB alleles were individually detected in 44 and 37 of these 92 isolates, respectively. One isolate contained both armA and rmtB. The coexistence o...

  12. Molecular Characterization and Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum- β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Causing Health Care-Associated Infection in Thailand, Where the CTX-M Family Is Endemic▿ †

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Laesripa, Chaitat; Saifon, Piyawan

    2008-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaVEB, blaOXA, blaPER, and blaGES, among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infe...

  13. Characterization of AmpC, CTX-M and MBLs types of β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing Extended Spectrum β-lactamases in Kerman, Iran

    Mansouri, Shahla; Kalantar Neyestanaki, Davood; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Halimi, Shahnaz; Beigverdi, Reza; Rezagholezadeh, Fereshteh; Hashemi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases enzyme are major sources of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics especially in Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Increasing frequency of the co-existence of ESBLs with AmpC-β-lactamases in bacteria is a serious threat for treating bacterial infections. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AmpC and CTX-M types of β-lactamases in clinical isolates of E. coli ...

  14. Outbreak by Ventilator-Associated ST11 K. pneumoniae with Co-production of CTX-M-24 and KPC-2 in a SICU of a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Central China

    Hu, Longhua; Liu, Yanling; Deng, Linqiang; Zhong, Qiaoshi; Hang, Yaping; Wang, Zengzeng; Zhan, Lingling; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) often responsible for numerous hospital-associated outbreaks has become an important public health problem. From January 2013 to February 2014, a total of 41 non-duplicate K. pneumoniae isolates with carbapenem resistance, were collected at a tertiary teaching hospital in Nanchang, central China. Among 41 K. pneumoniae isolates, 28 were isolated from hospitalized patients including 19 from the patients in surgery intensive care unit (SICU) and 13 were isolated from ventilators. Twenty-four of 28 patients infected by CRKP have been submitted to mechanical ventilation using ventilator. More than 95% of the CRKP isolates were resistant to 13 antimicrobials tested. All CRKP isolates were confirmed as carbapenemase producer and were positive for blaKPC-2, with one positive for both blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1. All carbapenemase-producing isolates harbored at least one of extended spectrum β-lactamase genes tested, among which 95.1% (39/41) of the tested isolates were found to harbor both blaCTX-M-24 and blaKPC-2, Of note, one isolate harbored simultaneously two carbapenemase genes (blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1) and two ESBL genes (blaCTX-M-3 and blaTEM-104). To the best of our knowledge, coexistence of blaKPC-2 and blaCTX-M-24 in one isolate is first reported. MLST results showed that 41 CRKP isolates belonged to four sequence types (STs) including ST11, novel ST1854, novel ST1855, and ST1224. PFGE results displayed three PFGE clusters. Thirty-eight ST11 CRKP isolates (92.7%, 38/41) including all 13 isolates from ventilators and 25 isolates from patients from seven wards (18 from SICU) belonged to same PFGE cluster, indicating these isolates were clonally related. Fifteen isolates have an identical undistinguished pattern (100% similarity) forming a single clonal population. Moreover, this clone was exclusively linked to the cases attended in SICU and linked to the Ventilators. Additionally, the other SICU cases

  15. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Polotto Milena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%, followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST, the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and

  16. Occurrence of blaCTX-M-1, qnrB1 and virulence genes in avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Tunisia

    Mohamed Salah eAbbassi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates have been increasingly reported worldwide. Animal to human dissemination, via food chain or direct contact, of these resistant bacteria has been reported. In Tunisia, little is known about avian ESBL- producing E. coli and further studies are needed. Seventeen ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from poultry faeces from two farms (Farm 1 and farm 2 in the North of Tunisia have been used in this study. Eleven of these isolates (from farm 1 have the same resistance profile to nalidixic acid, sulfonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline and norfloxacine (intermediately resistant. Out of the six isolates recovered from farm 2, only one was co-resistant to tetracycline. All isolates, except one, harboured blaCTX-M-1 gene, and one strain co-harboured the blaTEM-1 gene. The genes tetA and tetB were carried, respectively, by 11 and 1 amongst the 12 tetracycline-resistant isolates. Sulfonamides resistance was encoded by sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes in 3, 17, and 5 isolates, respectively. The qnrB1 was detected in nine strains, one of which co-harboured qnrS1 gene. The search for the class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR showed that in farm 1, class 1 and 2 integrons were found in one and ten isolates, respectively. In farm 2, class 1 integron was found in only one isolate, class 2 was not detected. Only one gene cassette arrangement was demonstrated in the variable regions (VR of the 10 int2-positive isolates: dfrA1- sat2-aadA1. The size of the VR of the class 1 integron was approximately 250 bp in one int1-positive isolate, whereas in the second isolate, no amplification was observed. All isolates of farm 1 belong to the phylogroup A (sub-group A0. However, different types of phylogroups in farm 2 were detected. Each of the phylogroups A1, B22, B23 was detected in one strain, while the D2 phylogroup was found in 3 isolates. The virulence genes iutA, fimH, and traT were detected in 3, 7 and 3 isolates, respectively

  17. Preliminary Study of Strain HNQ11, a Pinewood Nematode Trapping Fungus%松材线虫捕食真菌——少孢节丛孢HNQ11菌株初步研究

    鄢小宁; 郑服丛; 伍素娟

    2006-01-01

    从海南岛香蕉根围土壤分离得到松材线虫(Bursaphelenchus xylophilus,PWN)捕食真菌HNQ11菌株,鉴定为少孢节丛孢(Arthrobotrys oligospora).研究了HNQ11菌株的捕食作用及影响HNQ11捕食率的因素,结果表明,HNQ11菌株对松线虫表现出较好的捕食作用.HNQ11在含20g/L玉米粉的CMA培养基上捕食率最高:20~28℃,pH 6.5~7.5条件下均能捕食松材线虫,25℃,pH 6.5条件下捕食率最高,为87%;在不加入诱饵松材线虫或仅加入线虫洗液时不能产生捕食器官,在加入诱饵松材线虫和线虫磨碎液时能产生捕食器官,但线虫磨碎液诱导的菌环数比PWN诱导的菌环数少78%.

  18. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must do this without increasing the total uncertainty far beyond that of the original experiment. Such a transformation is described in Section 3. It was obtained using a pair of continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations. First, the critical configuration was modeled in full detail - every plate, drawer, matrix tube, and air gap was modeled explicitly. Then the regionwise compositions and volumes from the detailed as-built model were used to construct a homogeneous, two-dimensional (RZ) model of ZPR-3/11 that conserved the mass of each nuclide and volume of each region. The simple cylindrical model is the criticality-safety benchmark model. The difference in the calculated k{sub eff} values between the as-built three-dimensional model and the homogeneous two-dimensional benchmark model was used to adjust the measured excess reactivity of ZPR-3/11 loading 10 to obtain the k{sub eff} for the benchmark model.

  19. Effectiveness of an educational intervention in schoolchildren from 8 to 11 presenting deforming Efectividad de una intervención educativa en escolares de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes

    Clara Rosa Rosell Silva; José Luis Capote Femenías; Clotilde Mora Pérez; Odalis Acevedo Sierra; Yuritza Hernández Núñez

    2011-01-01

    Background: The practice of deforming oral habits may interfere with normal growth and development of the stomatognathic system and, consequently, cause dentomaxillofacial abnormalities. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children from 8 to 11 presenting deforming oral habits. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted before and after the intervention. The samp...

  20. CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUTANT PROINSULIN WITH SHIFTED INTRA-A CHAIN DISULFIDE-BOND%(A11,A12)胰岛素原移位突变体的表征研究

    井健

    2009-01-01

    With PCR technique a mutant proinsulin gene with CysA11Ser and SerA12Cys was constructed to investigate intra A-chain disulfide effect on insulin biological activity. After expression, unfolding and refolding, mutant proinsulin was purified with (A6, A12) intra-A chain disulfide-bond. The mutant proinsulin showed 55% radioimmunoactivity (RIA) and 11% of receptor binding activity of native proinsulin. Mass spectrometry analysis, IEF and amino acid composition assay were carried out to determine mutant proinsulin. Data showed that the A6-A12 intra-A chain disulfide bond was formed, having some negative effect on native proinsulin structure, especially in regard to the stability of insulin receptor binding region.%将(CysA11Ser,SerA12Cys)人胰岛素原移位突变体基因克隆至高效表达质粒pET22b多克隆位点区,构建重组表达质粒pET-A112,并在大肠杆菌E.coli BL21(DE3)pLys中进行了表达.表达产物存在于包涵体中,通过包涵体的分离及二硫键变复性,获得A6-A12二硫键突变型的胰岛素原突变体.SDS-PAGE电泳显示突变型胰岛素原的电泳迁移率与野生型胰岛素原基本相同.质谱检测表明,突变性胰岛素原的分子结构均一、纯度良好,氨基酸组成与理论值基本一致.以野生型人胰岛素原为对照进行的胰岛素受体试验及胰岛素放射免疫试验表明,A6-A12二硫键错接型胰岛素原突变体的受体结合活性和放免活性是野生型胰岛素原的11%与55%.

  1. 2-Hy­droxy-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexa­hydro-1H-pyrrolo­[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11-dione

    Sarah Ourahou; Hafid Zouihri; Mohamed Massoui; El Mokhtar Essassi; Seik Weng Ng

    2011-01-01

    The seven-membered ring of the title compound, C12H12N2O3, which is fused with the phenylene ring, adopts a boat-shaped conformation (with the methine C atom as the prow and the phenylene C atoms as the stern); the H atom on the methine linkage exists in an axial position. The five-membered ring that is fused with the seven-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the C atom bearing the hydroxy substituent representing the flap) [the deviation from the plane defined by the other fo...

  2. A transient benign lymph node-based proliferation of T-cells simulating non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with psoriasis treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha and CD11a antagonists

    Leonardi Craig L; George Mary; Hurley M Yadira; Frater John L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Therapeutic biologic agents are uncommonly associated with lymphoma. Case presentation We report a patient with psoriasis treated with the biologic agents efalizumab (Raptiva®) and etanercept (Enbrel®), who developed painless lymphadenopathy with peripheral lymphocytosis during treatment, simulating a non-Hodgkin lymphoma clinically and pathologically. Lymphocytosis and lymphadenopathy spontaneously remitted following cessation of etanercept therapy and have not recurred. ...

  3. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 1.1a (temporary ditches and 1.2g (permanent grass cover of set-aside in reducing soil erosion and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the monitoring carried out in three hilly farms of the MONACO project in order to verify the effectiveness of the Standard 1.1 (commitment a (temporary ditches and Standard 1.2 (commitment g (Vegetation cover throughout the year in set-aside land in the reduction in soil erosion, contained in Rule 1: ‘minimum land management that meets specific conditions’ of the decree Mipaaf 2009 and following modifications, until the recent decree No. 180 of January 23, 2015. In addition, the assessment of the competitiveness gap was done. That is the evaluation of the additional costs borne by the beneficiary of the single payment determined from agronomic commitments. Monitoring has also compared the erosion actually observed in the field with that predicted by RUSLE model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Renard et al., 1997 in the two situations: with and without the presence of temporary ditches, i.e. assuming Factual (compliance rules and in that Counterfactual (infringement. This comparison was made in view of the fact that the RUSLE model was chosen by the 'European Evaluation Network for Rural Development (EEN, 2013 as a forecasting tool for the quantification of' Common Indicator ‘soil erosion by water’. The results of soil erosion survey carried out by using a new  UAV-GIS methodology  on two monitoring farms in two years of observations have shown that temporary ditches were effective in decreasing erosion, on average, by 42.5%, from 36. 59 t ha-1 to 21.05 t ha-1 during the monitoring period. It was also evaluated the effectiveness of grass strips (at variance with the commitment of temporary ditches. The results showed a strong, highly significant, reduction in erosion by about 35% times respect soil erosion observed in bare soil and also a significant reduction in the volume of runoff water.  With regard to Standard 1.2 (commitment g the statistical analysis shows a strong and highly significant decrease in the erosion due to the vegetation cover of the soil compared to bare soil. The economic competitiveness gap of  Standard 1.1(commitment a stood at € 4.07±1.42 € ha-1 year-1, while CO2 emissions due to execution of temporary ditches was 2.58 kg ha-1year-1. As for the Standard 1.2 (commitment g the average differential competitiveness gap amounted to  50.22±13.7 € ha-1 year-1 and an output of CO2 equal to 31.52  kg ha-1 year.

  4. Test of Scaling Removing Device by Frequency Electromagnetic Field in CB11A oil Production Platform%变频电磁场除防垢装置在CB11A井组平台上的试验

    梁立民

    2011-01-01

    Removing scale mechanism study on magnetic, ultrasonic and variable frequency electromagnetic technology for Chengdao Oil wells,through a large number of experimental studies and economic comparison,variable frequency electromagnetic remove scale technique was proposed,a variable frequency electromagnetic removal scale device was developed for field use.The onsite test showed that,in higher water content,oil pipeline scale can also be removal;the effect can be extended to be used in the oil-water separation tank,oil remover,and water tank.Applying the device,the pipeline in the pharmaceutical dosage of prevent scale and avoid scale pipeline cleaning was significantly reduced so as to achieve cost savings and reduce the secondary pollution.%埕岛油田采用注水开发工艺,油井结垢严重影响生产.介绍了磁阻垢除垢、超声波阻垢除垢及变频电磁场阻垢除垢的原理.提出采用变频电磁场来阻垢、除垢,并开发了一套适合现场使用的装置.现场试验表明:该装置可有效防止注水系统结垢,对含水量较高的输油管线也有阻垢、除垢的作用,效果可以延伸到油水分离罐、除油器以及污水罐.采用该技术可极大降低管线中加阻垢剂的药量,避免因清洗结垢管线而停产,节约生产成本,减少二次污染.

  5. Relación entre conductas alimentarias anómalas y otros hábitos de salud en niños de 11 a 14 años

    Guirado Martínez, Mª Carmen; Ballester Arnal, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la relación existente entre conductas alimentarias anómalas y entre estas conductas alimentarias y otros comportamientos, como los hábitos de sueño, el absentismo escolar, el consumo de alcohol y drogas, la baja autoestima, el bienestar emocional, el control de impulsos, el ejercicio físico y la conducta sexual. Para ello, administramos a una muestra de 819 adolescentes, cuyas edades estaban comprendidas entre los 11 y los 1...

  6. Gender differences in the sleep habits of 11-13 year olds Diferenças nos hábitos de sono entre gêneros nos escolares de 11 a 13 anos de idade

    César L. Natal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sleep plays an important role in the physical and emotional development of adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in sleep habits in a sample of 11-13 year olds. METHOD: The study was carried out in the city of Patos de Minas, Brazil. The study cohort was composed of 200 students (96 boys and 104 girls attending (in the morning or in the afternoon the 5th, 6th or 7th grades, with ages ranging from 11 to 13 years. A Sleep Questionnaire developed at the Federal University of São Paulo was used in order to evaluate student sleep habits and schedules, as well as the overall quality of sleep. RESULTS: For the period between Friday night and Sunday morning, girls displayed longer sleep duration than did boys. During the week, students attending only afternoon classes woke up later than did students attending only morning classes. In addition, morning-class students showed more adverse effects on sleep, including irregular sleep/wakefulness circadian rhythms, when compared with afternoon-class students. CONCLUSION: Sleep habits are affected by gender and school schedule.OBJETIVO: O sono desempenha um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento físico e emocional de adolescentes. Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar as diferenças entre gêneros nos hábitos de sono de escolares com idades entre 11 e 13. MÉTODO: Este estudo foi realizado na cidade de Patos de Minas-MG, Brasil. A amostra foi composta de 200 alunos (96 meninos e 104 meninas matriculados da 5ª a 7ª séries (ambos os turnos, manhã e tarde e com idade entre 11 e 13 anos. O Questionário de sono UNIFESP foi utilizado para avaliar a qualidade de sono, hábitos e horários de sono. RESULTADOS: As meninas demonstraram maior tempo de sono do que os meninos da sexta-feira à noite para o domingo de manhã. Os alunos que estudavam a tarde acordavam mais tarde que os alunos do turno matutino durante a semana; alunos do turno da manhã são mais afetados negativamente em relação ao sono e podem ter um ciclo vigília/sono irregular quando comparado com os alunos que estudam no turno da tarde. CONCLUSÃO: Meninos e meninas têm diferentes hábitos de sono, sendo influenciados pelo turno escolar.

  7. Incidencia poblacional del infarto con elevación del ST o bloqueo de rama izquierda a lo largo de 11 años en una comunidad de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Alberto Caccavo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónEl infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM es una causa importante de muerte en la población argentina.Actualmente, su tratamiento está dirigido a intentar la reperfusión precoz de la arteria ocluida por un trombo. No conocemos estudios, realizados en nuestro país, que permitan estimar cuántas personas necesitan este tipo de tratamiento en una población determinada.Objetivosa Describir la tasa anual de hospitalizaciones por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM en un distrito de la provincia de Buenos Aires en el período 1995-2005.b Describir la variación de dicha tasa según edad, sexo y época del año.c Evaluar la mortalidad intrahospitalaria.Población y Material y métodosEl presente es un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo (1995-2005 realizado en el distrito de Coronel Suárez, provincia de Buenos Aires, a partir de las hospitalizaciones de los únicos hospitales que internan pacientes con IAM. Se consideró a todo paciente que presentara un diagnóstico de IAM con supradesnivel del ST, se correlacionó con el censo 2001 del INDEC y se estimó la tasa anual de hospitalización para toda la población, por sexo, grupo etario y estación del año. Para analizar la significación estadística de la diferencia de tasas en hombres y mujeres y entre estaciones se utilizó el intervalo de confianza para la relación entre dos tasas independientes y la prueba de chi cuadrado.ResultadosA lo largo del estudio se identificaron 367 hospitalizaciones por IAM, 275 en hombres y 92 en mujeres. La tasa anual de hospitalización por IAM (cada 10.000 personas para toda la población fue de 9,06 [8,13-9,98], en hombres fue de 13,8 y en mujeres de 4,47 (razón: 3,06 [2,37-3,76]. La tasa anual mostró una tendencia creciente con la edad.ConclusionesEn nuestra población, aproximadamente 9 personas cada 10.000 habitantes requerirían internación por IAM por año. La tasa de hospitalización es mayor en hombres y en > 65 años, sin diferencias estacionales significativas. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria hallada en el estudio fue del 9%.

  8. Final seminar of the 11A025 research project : Instrumentation and monitoring methods for civil engineering applications : Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Bouguenais, 14-15 décembre 2005

    LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2005-01-01

    Le contrôle de structure ainsi que les outils associés s'y rattachant prennent de plus en plus une solide et croissante importantce pour les utilisateurs des méthodes expérimentales dans le génie civil. Les systèmes de mesure servent non seulement dans le cadre du suivi de la pathologie d'un pont ou d'un comportement défectueux, mais également en tant que vrais systèmes automatisés de prise de décision ou d'outils pour le contrôle actif de structure. De nos jours, ces systèmes comportent les ...

  9. Perspectives of Central Office Staff, Principals, Teachers, and School Site Councils on Resource Allocation and "Budgeting for Student Achievement" Implementation in 2010-11. A Report Prepared for the Los Angeles Unified School District

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Chambers, Jay G.; Manship, Karen; Cruz, Lisa; O'Neil, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project (called Budgeting for Student Success, or BSA, in Los Angeles Unified School District), the American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted surveys of principals, teachers, and members of School Site Councils (SSCs) to gather information on their attitudes and…

  10. IOGURTE DE LEITE DE BÚFALA SABOR CAJÁ (SPONDIAS LUTEA L.: CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E ACEITAÇÃO SENSORIAL ENTRE INDIVÍDUOS DE 11 A 16 ANOS

    Kátia Cristina BORGES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar físico-quimica e sensorialmente o iogurte batido elaborado com leite bubalino acrescido de calda de cajá e compará-lo com o tradicional iogurte bovino. Foram elaborados dois grupos experimentais: IB (iogurte elaborado com leite de búfala e IV (iogurte elaborado com leite de vaca, os quais receberam calda de cajá na proporção 15% (p/p. Os dois grupos de iogurtes foram analisados quanto ao pH, acidez (ºDornic, sólidos totais, cinzas, proteína, gordura, açúcares redutores e redutores totais (%. O painel sensorial composto por 90 alunos com idades entre 11 e 16 anos de uma escola pública avaliou os atributos aparência, aroma, consistência e sabor utilizando escala hedônica de nove pontos Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença estatística (p<0,05 entre os grupos IB e IV, sobretudo para o teor de sólidos totais (23,86 e 15,68% IB e IV, espectivamente e proteína (5,50 e 4,77% IB e IV, respectivamente. O iogurte bubalino apresentou escore sensorial superior (p<0,05 em todos os atributos sensoriais analisados. Conclui-se, dessa forma, que o iogurte bubalino apresenta diferenças marcantes do ponto de vista físico-químico e sensorial em relação ao iogurte bovino.

  11. A transient benign lymph node-based proliferation of T-cells simulating non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with psoriasis treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha and CD11a antagonists

    Leonardi Craig L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic biologic agents are uncommonly associated with lymphoma. Case presentation We report a patient with psoriasis treated with the biologic agents efalizumab (Raptiva® and etanercept (Enbrel®, who developed painless lymphadenopathy with peripheral lymphocytosis during treatment, simulating a non-Hodgkin lymphoma clinically and pathologically. Lymphocytosis and lymphadenopathy spontaneously remitted following cessation of etanercept therapy and have not recurred. Conclusion Distinction between clinically benign lymphoid proliferations related to antipsoriasis therapy and malignant lymphoma avoids the unnecessary use of anti-lymphoma chemotherapy.

  12. Complete Nucleotide Sequences of Plasmids pEK204, pEK499, and pEK516, Encoding CTX-M Enzymes in Three Major Escherichia coli Lineages from the United Kingdom, All Belonging to the International O25:H4-ST131 Clone ▿

    Woodford, Neil; Carattoli, Alessandra; Karisik, Edi; Underwood, Anthony; Ellington, Matthew J.; Livermore, David M.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of three plasmids that encode CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-defined United Kingdom variants (strains A, C, and D) of the internationally prevalent Escherichia coli O25:H4-ST131 clone. Plasmid pEK499 (strain A; 117,536 bp) was a fusion of type FII and FIA replicons and harbored the following 10 antibiotic resistance genes conferring resistance to eight antibiotic classes: blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1, b...

  13. [In vitro and in vivo activity of a combination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin against Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended broad-spectrum betalactamase (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4)].

    Migueres, M L; Ronco, E; Guenounou, M; Philippon, A

    1989-05-01

    In vitro activity of an aminopenicillin (amoxicillin or ampicillin) combined with a betalactamase inhibitor (clavulanic acid or sulbactam, 2 mg/l) was examined against 39 strains of K. pneumoniae producing 3 types of extended broad spectrum betalactamases (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4). Clavulanic acid produces the best synergistic effect. The in vivo activity of Augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid), 1 g once or twice a day, during 10 +/- 3 days was evaluated on 10 cases urinary tract infections in paraplegic patients. After 3 days, no leucocyturia was observed and bacteria were no more detected. The inhibitory effect of clavulanic acid for the extended broad-spectrum betalactamases shows that such an association could be probably chosen as well for treatment urinary infection. PMID:2674869

  14. Frequency of conjugative transfer of plasmid-encoded ISEcp1 - blaCTX-M-15 and aac(6'-lb-cr genes in Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in Lebanon - role of transferases

    Araj George F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of transfer of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents was determined by conjugation in ESBL-producing and/or fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates at a tertiary care center in Lebanon. In addition, the role of tra genes encoding transferases in mediating conjugation was assessed. Methods Conjugation experiments were done on 53 ESBL-producing and/or fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae and ESBL-producing S. sonnei isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on parent and transconjugant isolates, and PCR amplifications on plasmid extracts of the resistance-encoding genes: blaCTX-M-15 with the ISEcp1 insertion sequence, the aac(6'-lb-cr and qnrS genes, as well as tra encoding transferases genes were done. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed to demonstrate whether conjugative isolates are clonal and whether they are linked epidemiologically to a particular source. Results Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on transconjugants revealed that 26 out of 53 (49% ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were able to transfer antimicrobial resistance to the recipients. Transfer of high-level resistance to the transconjugants encoded by the blaCTX-M-15 gene downstream the ISEcp1 insertion sequence against 3rd generation cephalosporins, and of low-level resistance against ciprofloxacin, and variable levels of resistance against aminoglycosides encoded by aac(6'-lb-cr gene, were observed in transconjugants. tra encoding transferase genes were detected exclusively in conjugative isolates. Conclusion In conclusion, the frequency of transfer of antimicrobial resistance in non clonal Enterobacteriaceae at the tertiary care center by conjugation was 49%. Conjugation occurred in isolates expressing the tra encoding transferase genes. Multiple conjugative strains harboring the plasmid encoded antimicrobial resistant genes were circulating in

  15. First characterisation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance-qnrS1 co-expressed bla CTX-M-15 and bla DHA-1 genes in clinical strain of Morganella morganii recovered from a Tunisian Intensive Care Unit

    S Mahrouki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim of this study was to show the emergence of the qnr genes among fluoroquinolone-resistant, AMPC and ESBL (extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase co-producing Morganella morganii isolate. Materials and Methods: A multi resistant Morganella morganii SM12012 isolate was recovered from pus from a patient hospitalized in the intensive care unit at the Military hospital, Tunisia. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested with the agar disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. ESBLs were detected using a standard double-disk synergy test. The characterization of beta-lactamases and associated resistance genes were performed by isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. Results: The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the high resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins (MICs: 64-512 μg/ml and fluoroquinolones (MICs: 32-512 μg/ml. But M. morganii SM12012 isolate remained susceptible to carbapenems (MICs: 4-<0.25 μg/ml. The double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. Three identical β-lactamases with pI values of 6.5, 7.8 and superior to 8.6 were detected after isoelectric focusing analysis. These β-lactamases genes can be successfully transferred by the conjugative plasmid. Molecular analysis demonstrated the co-production of bla DHA-1, bla CTX-M-15 and qnrS1 genes on the same plasmid. The detection of an associated chromosomal quinolone resistance revealed the presence of a parC mutation at codon 80 (Ser80-lle80. Conclusion: This is the first report in Tunisia of nosocomial infection due to the production of CTX-M-15 and DHA-1 β-lactamases in M. morganii isolate with the association of quinolone plasmid resistance. The incidence of these strains invites continuous monitoring of such multidrug-resistant strains and the further study of their epidemiologic evolution.

  16. Complete sequences of IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnrS1 in equine Escherichia coli provide new insights into plasmid evolution

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Minoia, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the structure of two multidrug-resistant IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Escherichia coli isolates disseminated in an equine clinic in the Czech Republic. METHODS: A complete nucleotide sequencing of 239 kb IncHI1 (pEQ1) and 287 kb IncHI1/X1 (pEQ2) plasmids was...... performed using the 454-Genome Sequencer FLX system. The sequences were compared using bioinformatic tools with other sequenced IncHI1 plasmids. RESULTS: A comparative analysis of pEQ1 and pEQ2 identified high nucleotide identity with the IncHI1 type 2 plasmids. A novel 24 kb module containing an operon...... involved in short-chain fructooligosaccharide uptake and metabolism was found in the pEQ backbones. The role of the pEQ plasmids in the metabolism of short-chain fructooligosaccharides was demonstrated by studying the growth of E. coli cells in the presence of these sugars. The module containing the bla...

  17. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Nicole Roschanski

    Full Text Available Beta-lactamase resistant bacteria and especially ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are an increasing problem worldwide. For this reason a major interest in efficient and reliable methods for rapid screening of high sample numbers is recognizable. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR was developed to detect the predominant class A beta-lactamase genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and CIT-type AmpCs in a one-step reaction. A set of 114 Enterobacteriaceae containing previously identified resistance gene subtypes and in addition 20 undefined animal and environmental isolates were used for the validation of this assay. To confirm the accessibility in variable settings, the real-time runs were performed analogous in two different laboratories using different real-time cyclers. The obtained results showed complete accordance between the real-time data and the predetermined genotypes. Even if sequence analyses are further necessary for a comprehensive characterization, this method was proofed to be reliable for rapid screening of high sample numbers and therefore could be an important tool for e. g. epidemiological purposes or support infection control measures.

  18. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting. PMID:27436392

  19. F33: A-: B-, IncHI2/ST3, and IncI1/ST71 plasmids drive the dissemination of fosA3 and blaCTX-M-55/-14/-65 in Escherichia coli from chickens in China

    Xiaoyun eYang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from chickens and to characterize the plasmids carrying fosA3. A total of 661 E. coli isolates of chicken origin collected from 2009 to 2011 were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants by PCR. Plasmids were characterized using PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Associated addiction systems and resistance genes were identified by PCR. PCR-mapping was used for analysis of the genetic context of fosA3. Fosfomycin resistance was detected in 58 isolates that also carried the fosA3 gene. Fifty-seven, 17, and 52 FosA3-producers also harbored blaCTX-M, rmtB, and floR genes, respectively. Most of the 58 fosA3-carrying isolates were clonally unrelated, and all fosA3 genes were located on plasmids belonged to F33:A-:B- (n=18, IncN-F33:A-:B- (n=7, IncHI2/ST3 (n=10, IncI1/ST71 (n=3, IncI1/ST108 (n=3, and others. The genetic structures, IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-55-orf477-blaTEM-1-IS26-fosA3-1758bp-IS26 and ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-65- IS903-iroN-IS26-fosA3-536bp-IS26 were located on highly similar F33:A-:B- plasmids. In addition, blaCTX-M-14-fosA3-IS26 was frequently present on similar IncHI2/ST3 plasmids. IncFII plasmids had a significantly higher frequency of addiction systems (mean 3.5 than other plasmids. Our results showed a surprisingly high prevalence of fosA3 gene in E. coli isolates recovered from chicken in China. The spread of fosA3 can be attributed to horizontal dissemination of several epidemic plasmids, especially F33:A-:B- plasmids. Since coselection by other antimicrobials is the major driving force for the diffusion of the fosA3 gene, a strict antibiotic use policy is urgently needed in China.

  20. Plasma impurity-control studies in CTX

    In the past, magnetized coaxial gun generated Compact Toroids (CTs) have exhibited magnetic field and density lifetimes of about 250 to 350 μs and electron temperatures of about 10 eV. In recent experiments, after hydrogen discharge cleaning the gun and flux conserver surfaces, the lifetimes have been extended to 550 μs. This improvement in lifetime, together with spectroscopic and bolometric measurements, are consistent with the interpretation that the CT plasma losses are impurity dominated and that discharge cleaning is reducing the impurities. Details of these measurements are described as well as successful experiments which led to a more open flux conserver

  1. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Shiga toxin gene (stx1)-positive Escherichia coli O91:H14 carrying blaCTX-M-15 on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid isolated from a human patient in Germany.

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun; Fruth, Angelika; Uphoff, Helmut; Pfeifer, Yvonne

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, the Shiga toxin- and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 caused a serious outbreak of gastroenteritis in Germany. This strain carried bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1) on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid. During screening of individuals at risk for acquisition of the epidemic E. coli O104:H4, we isolated another ESBL-producing and Shiga toxin-positive E. coli belonging to serotype O91:H14 from feces of a human patient. Interestingly, the patient also carried a further ESBL-producing but Shiga toxin-negative E. coli. Both strains harbored bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(TEM-1) on an IncI1-ST31 plasmid, which was indistinguishable regarding size and plasmid restriction pattern from the plasmid of the epidemic E. coli O104:H4 strain. The patient had traveled to India 6 months prior to the isolation of the E. coli strains. This is the first report of an ESBL-producing, Shiga toxin-positive E. coli of serogroup O91. Our data suggest a high propensity of the IncI1-ST31 plasmid to spread in the human and/or animal population. PMID:25801683

  2. Crystal structure of (3S*,4S*,4aS*,5R*,6R*,6aS*,7R*,11aS*,11bR*)-5,6-bis(benzo-yloxy)-3,4a-dihy-droxy-4,7,11b-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca-hydro-phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-4-carb-oxy-lic acid methanol monosolvate.

    Siddiqui, Sadaf; Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Falodun, Abiodun; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Yousuf, Sammer

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, C34H36O9·CH3OH, is a diterpenoid isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Swartz. The three trans-fused six-membered rings are in chair, chair and half-chair conformations. The mean plane of this fused-ring system makes dihedral angles of 67.95 (15) and 83.72 (14)° with the two phenyl rings of the benzo-yloxy groups. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite chain along the b-axis direction. PMID:26594451

  3. Differences between primed allogeneic T-cell responses and the primary mixed leucocyte reaction. Primed T cells become independent of the blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies against IL-1 beta and the CD5, CD11a (LFA-1), and CD11c (p 150,95) molecules

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Morling, N;

    1988-01-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated that the primary mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) is dependent on certain accessory molecules, e.g. CD4 and LFA-1. We have compared the requirements of the primary MLR and the responses of alloreactive, primed lymphocytes (PL) by inhibition studies using......-reactive MoAb significantly inhibited the primary MLR (inhibition = 25%, P less than or equal to 0.01; 48%, P less than or equal to 0.01 and 13%, P less than or equal to 0.05, respectively) but these MoAb did not inhibit the primed lymphocyte reaction (PLR). The CD11b-reactive MoAb had no significant.......01) and the purified protein derivative (PPD) induced lymphocyte transformation response (42%, P less than or equal to 0.01) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), whereas primed allogeneic responses to PBMC and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cell lines were unaffected by this MoAb. In addition...

  4. Relación entre madurez neuropsicológi-ca y la creatividad. Programa de inter-vención para fomentar la creatividad a través del desarrollo neuropsicológico entre los 7 y 11 años.

    Ramírez-Villén, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    La madurez neuropsicológica es un factor esencial, que juegan un papel importante en el desarro-llo integral de cualquier sujeto. Además, si se traslada a la población escolar es probable que sea un indicador de un alto o bajo rendimiento escolar. Por otra parte, la creatividad es un factor im-portante, ya que en los sujetos que está presente, no solo va a permitir la elaboración de produc-tos o ideas originales sino también, va a proporcionar un pensamiento más divergente. Por ello, este est...

  5. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    Claudia García Salazar; Ivan Manotas Arevalo

    2013-01-01

    El estudio epidemiológico radiográfico sobre la prevalencia de las anomalías dentarias en niños de una determinada población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así mismo para preparar al paciente a convivir con las posibles anomalías de forma definitiva, llevando una vida normal e integrándose a la sociedad. La radiografía panor...

  6. 反观九一一事件:对美国反恐战略的解读(下)%Re -surveying the Event of September 11: A Dissection of the U. S.'s Counter-terrorism Strategy (2 of 2)

    马丽蓉

    2007-01-01

    追问九一一事件真相,认清了由此引发复仇之举与后续"大中东战略"间的内在关联,从背景、动机、思路、框架及其成效等方面质疑美国的反恐战略,以预判国际政治的发展趋势.九一一事件不仅是美国实施反恐战略的原初动因与强力推手,也对美国乃至世界政治、经济、文化均产生深远的影响,九一一事件后形成媒体牢笼对全球民主生态的消损更是不争的事实.

  7. 反观九一一事件:对美国反恐战略的解读(上)%Re -surveying the Event of September 11: A Dissection of the U. S.'s Counter-Terrorism Strategy ( 1 of 2)

    马丽蓉

    2007-01-01

    五年多来的大量事实证明:出于能源、地缘与文化的再三考量,美国抓住九一一事件乘势将"绿祸"锁定为"假想敌",它暗合了白宫借反恐谋霸的现实需求:布什政府将报九一一事件之仇的军事行动定性为"全世界的战斗",甚至"文明社会的战斗",进而以"要么站在我们一边,要么站在恐怖分子一边"来划分世界,希望各国的态度是"打击一个国家就是打击全体",借此"把整个世界团结起来".为配合布什政府的这一反恐战略,美国传媒则以发掘九一一事件的世界性意义、渲染"改变一切"的新闻议题等方式在一定程度上精心菅构了有利于美国的国际舆论.

  8. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico Sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de 5 a 11 años de edad beneficiarios de programas de ayuda alimentaria en México

    Lucía Cuevas-Nasu; Bernardo Hernández-Prado; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Eric A Monterrubio; María del Carmen Morales-Ruan; Lidia B Moreno-Macías

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic ...

  9. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico Sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de 5 a 11 años de edad beneficiarios de programas de ayuda alimentaria en México

    Lucía Cuevas-Nasu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006 were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic regression models were adjusted. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% and 9%, respectively. No significant association between overweight and obesity and participation in Liconsa was found. Among school-aged children in the middle socioeconomic status quintile, those enrolled in the School Breakfast program were more likely to be overweight than those not enrolled (OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3. CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between the Liconsa and the School Breakfast programs and overweight or obesity in school-aged children.OBJETIVO: Determinar la asociación entre el sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños de edad escolar y la pertenencia a los programas de asistencia alimentaria Liconsa o Desayunos Escolares en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de 15 003 niños en edad escolar de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006. Se obtuvo el índice de masa corporal (IMC e información sobre participación en programas de asistencia alimentaria. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue de 17.3 y 9%, respectivamente. No hubo asociación significativa entre el sobrepeso y obesidad y ser beneficiario de Liconsa. En el quintil socioeconómico medio, los beneficiarios de Desayunos Escolares tuvieron mayores posibilidades de presentar sobrepeso que los no beneficiarios (RM= 1.6, IC 95% 1.1,2.3. CONCLUSIONES: No se encontró asociación entre ser beneficiario de Liconsa o Desayunos Escolares con el sobrepeso y obesidad en este grupo de edad.

  10. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for children and adolescents aged 4 to 11 years living in Salvador, Bahia La validación de un cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria para niños y adolescentes de 4 a 11 años que viven en Salvador, Bahía

    S. M. A. Matos; M. S. Prado; C. A. S. T. Santos; S. D'Innocenzo; A. M. O. Assis; L. S. Dourado; N. S. Oliveira; Rodrigues, L C; M. L. Barreto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by applying it to children and adolescents living in Salvador, Bahia. Methods: The validity of this FFQ with 98 food items was investigated among 108 children and adolescents who were selected from a sample of 1445 that had been planned for a study on the risk factors for asthma and other allergic diseases. The adults responsible for these children and adolescents gave responses for a 24-hour recall (R24h) and an FFQ. T...

  11. Global behavior of the difference equation x{sub n+1}=(x{sub n-l+1})/(1+a{sub 0}x{sub n}+a{sub 1}x{sub n-1}+...+a{sub l}x{sub n-l}+x{sub n-l+1})

    Dehghan, Mehdi [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mdehghan@aut.ac.ir; Douraki, Majid Jaberi [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Laval, 1056 Quebec (Canada)], E-mail: mjaberi@mat.ulaval.ca; Razzaghi, Mohsen [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424 Hafez Avenue, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)], E-mail: razzaghi@math.msstate.edu

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we find the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the third order difference equation x{sub n+1}=(x{sub n-2})/(1+px{sub n}+qx{sub n-1}+x{sub n-2}) ,n=0,1,2,... for all admissible non-negative values of the parameters p, q where the initial conditions x{sub -2}, x{sub -1}, x{sub 0} are positive. We show that the solutions do not exhibit a periodic attitude for all parameters of the above mentioned difference equation. It is worth to mention that this difference equation was an open problem introduced by Kulenovic and Ladas. Note that we also generalize and extend the above mentioned equation and we investigate the same arguments as the third difference equation for the zero equilibrium point of the higher case.

  12. Educational intervention applied in children from 5 to 11 years of age with deforming oral habits Intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 5 a11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales

    Ivette Alvarez Mora; Nicolás Ramón Cruz Pérez; Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez; María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-01-01

    Background: Habits are complex neuromuscular patterns learnt by frequent repetition and act as unnatural forces that may cause dental maxillofacial defects. Objective: To assess the intervention of educative measures applied to children with deforming buccal habits in the primary school Raúl Suárez Martínez from the zone “Rafaelito”. Methods:&l...

  13. Educational intervention applied in children from 5 to 11 years of age with deforming oral habits Intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 5 a11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales

    Ivette Alvarez Mora

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are complex neuromuscular patterns learnt by frequent repetition and act as unnatural forces that may cause dental maxillofacial defects. Objective: To assess the intervention of educative measures applied to children with deforming buccal habits in the primary school Raúl Suárez Martínez from the zone “Rafaelito”. Methods: A cuasi-experimental study was developed, with before-after intervention without control group including 253 children from December 2006 to November 2007. We applied the program “To Happily Smile” with a weekly frequency. Surveys were applied to children, parents and teachers after the educational actions to achieve the reduction ofincorrect habits. The studied variables were: age, sex, deforming habits frequency before and after the intervention. Results: The knowledge level of children, parents and teachers was significantly improved. Risk factors were eradicated in more than 50% of the children being the most frequent: lingual protraction, baby bottle suction, mainly among females. Conclusions: The intervention was successful for the reduction of deforming oral habits, and the high level of knowledge acquired. After the intervention it was shown that the educative process is a key tool for the General Comprehensive Dentist.

     

    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza compleja que se aprenden por su repetición frecuente, y sin ser funcionales ni necesarios hacen que actúen fuerzas no naturales sobre los dientes que pueden causar alteraciones dentomaxilofaciales. Objetivo: Evaluar la intervención de las medidas educativas aplicadas sobre los portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales en la escuela primaria Raúl Suárez Martínez del consejo popular Rafaelito. Método: se efectuó un estudio cuasiexperimental con intervención antes y después sin grupo de control en una muestra de 253 niños en el período comprendido de diciembre del 2006 a noviembre del 2007. Se procedió a aplicar el programa Para Sonreír Feliz, con una frecuencia semanal. Se aplicaron entrevistas a los niños, padres y educadores después de las acciones educativas, para lograr la reducción de los hábitos deletéreos. Se analizaron variables como: edad y sexo, frecuencia de hábitos deformantes antes y después de aplicada la intervención a niños, educadores y padres. Resultados: Se elevó el nivel de conocimiento de los niños, padres y educadores de forma significativa, se eliminaron estos factores de riesgo en más del 50% de los niños, fueron los más frecuentes: la protracción lingual, succión del biberón y el tete, principalmente en el sexo femenino. Conclusiones: La intervención fue satisfactoria por la reducción de cada uno de los hábitos deformantes bucales encontrados, así como el elevado nivel de conocimiento adquirido con las consecuencias que producen; después de aplicada la intervención, se demostró que la labor educativa constituye una herramienta fundamental para el Estomatólogo General Integral.

     

  14. Desarrollo fonológico-fonético en un grupo de niños entre 3 y 5, 11 años Phonetic-phonological child development in a group of children between 3 and 5.11-year old

    Pilar Vivar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conocer cómo los niños adquieren el sistema fonológico-fonético de su lengua materna y describir la cronología de secuencia de adquisición del repertorio fonético-fonológico en la muestra. MÉTODOS: la muestra está compuesta por 72 sujetos dividida en seis grupos etáreos de seis meses cada uno. Se le aplicó el "Cuestionario para la Evaluación de la Fonología Infantil" (CEFI que evaluó la articulación de las consonantes en sus todas sus posiciones mediante una tarea de nombrado. Los resultados de cada grupo etáreo fueron comparados en cada segmento para observar la secuencia de adquisición de los sonidos según la edad de los informantes. RESULTADOS: se observó que el rendimiento general de las consonantes evidenció un aumento en el porcentaje de emisión normal en relación al avance en la edad de los sujetos. Los fonemas /f/ - /s/ - /x/ y el grupo de líquidas /l/-/lh/ - /r/ fueron los segmentos que presentaron mayor dificultad articulatoria. Las nasales /m/ - /n/ - /nh/ y las sordas no continuas /p/ - /t/ - /tch/-/k/ fueron los segmentos con mayor porcentaje de articulación normal. CONCLUSIONES: a los 3 años los sujetos tienen sobre un 80% de articulación normal en las consonantes.Las mayores dificultades de adquisición se manifestaron en las consonantes fricativas /s/ y /x/ y, sobre todo, en la consonante /r/. A la inversa, las consonantes que menos dificultades de adquisición presentaron fueron las nasales y las oclusivas.PURPOSE: to become familiar with the way children acquire the phonetic-phonological system in their maternal language and to describe the chronology of the acquisition sequence related to the phonetic-phonological repertoire in the sample. METHODS: the sample was composed of 72 individuals divided into six age groups of six months each. The "Questionnaire for Evaluating Child Phonology" (QECP was applied in order to evaluate articulation of vowels in every position by means of a naming task. The results for each age group were compared in every segment in order to observe the acquisition sequence of sounds in every subject. RESULTS: It was observed that the general performance of vowels showed an increase in the percentage of normal rendering in relation to the increase in age of the subjects. The phonemes /f/ - /s/ - /x/ and the group of liquids /l/-/lh/ - /r/ were the segments that showed the highest articulatory difficulty. Nasals /m/ - /n/ - /nh/ and voiceless non continuous /p/ - /t/ - /tch/-/k/ were the segments that had the highest percentage of normal articulation. CONCLUSIONS: at the age of 3, the subjects have over 80% of normal consonant articulation. The biggest acquisition difficulties were shown by fricative consonants /s/ and /x/, and, particularly, the consonant /r/. On the contrary, the consonants showing the lowest acquisition difficulty were the nasal and occlusive consonants.

  15. Effects of mixture from ginsebosides and astragalus polysaccharides on immune and antioxidative function in immunosuppressive mice induced with CTX%参芪合剂对环磷酰胺所致免疫抑制小鼠免疫和抗氧化功能的影响

    张海玉; 朴惠顺; 金在久; 张善玉

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察参芪合剂(MGA)对环磷酰胺(CTX)所致免疫抑制小鼠免疫系统和抗氧化功能的影响,为MGA的临床应用提供实验依据.方法:60只昆明种小鼠随机分为5组:正常对照组、模型组和100、200、400 mg·kg-1 MGA 3个剂量组,MGA组分别腹腔注射给药15 d,正常对照组和模型组腹腔注射等量生理盐水,第3和10天除正常对照组外的4个组均腹腔注射CTX 100 mg·kg-1,正常对照组腹腔注射等量生理盐水,测定小鼠免疫器官重量、网状内皮系统吞噬功能、外周白细胞(WBC)、全血谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)及血浆超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果:与正常对照组比较,免疫抑制模型组小鼠的胸腺、脾脏重量、吞噬指数及吞噬活性均明显降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),外周WBC计数明显减少(P<0.001),全血GSH-Px及血浆SOD活性明显降低(P<0.01),血浆MDA含量明显提高(P<0.05),提示CTX可造成小鼠免疫抑制及抗氧化功能降低;与模型组比较,MGA 200、400 mg·kg-1组小鼠脾脏重量、吞噬指数、吞噬活性及外周WBC计数均升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),全血GSH-Px活性明显升高(P<0.05),血浆MDA含量明显降低(P<0.05);400 mg·kg-1组小鼠胸腺重量和血浆SOD活性明显增加(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:MGA具有改善免疫抑制小鼠免疫和抗氧化功能的作用,提示该合剂可用作抗肿瘤补助治疗药物.

  16. Telopéptido carboxilo terminal del colágeno tipo I (b-CTX sérico y compromiso óseo en la insuficiencia renal crónica Serum b-Type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (b-CTXs and bone involvement in chronic renal failure

    Beatriz Oliveri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La osteodistrofia renal (ODR se caracteriza por alteraciones óseas. Se evaluaron métodos bioquímicos alternativos a la biopsia ósea en pacientes renales para determinar cambios rápidos del remodelamiento óseo en 43 pacientes predialíticos (PD y 49 hemodializados (HD. Los PD presentaron fosfatemia, fosfatasa alcalina ósea (FAO, hormona paratiroidea intacta (PTHi y b-telopéptido carboxilo terminal del colágeno tipo I (bCTXs mayores y clearence de creatinina (Ccr menores (p40 ml/min. En PD, bCTXs (pAn increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH levels in chronic renal failure (CRF induces bone abnormalities known as renal osteodystrophy (ROD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alternative biochemical methods to bone biopsy, to evaluate changes in bone remodeling in renal patients. Intact PTH (iPTH and bone markers were measured in 43 predialysis (PD, 49 hemodialysis patients (HD and 185 controls. bCTXs, bone alkaline phosphatase (bAL, iPTH were higher and creatinine clearance (Ccr was lower in PD and HD compared with controls (p40 ml/min. bCTXs (p<0.05 in PD and bCTXs and bAL in HD patients were higher than controls, even when iPTH was within normal range (<65 pg/ml. Patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism showed higher bone markers than patients with normal or moderately increased iPTH (p<0.001. These results suggest that even when there is no increase in iPTH, bone remodeling increases (possibly due to other factors exhibiting higher bone resorption, and bCTXs would seem to be an adequate non-invasive tool to assess early bone changes in CRF and prevent future fractures. Bone marker measurements in ROD would be useful to identify patients who may require bone biopsy. However, further studies comparing both methods must be performed before replacing bone biopsy with serum b-CTX.

  17. Atypical pit craters on Mars: New insights from THEMIS, CTX, and HiRISE observations

    Cushing, Glen E.; Okubo, Chris H.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-06-01

    More than 100 pit craters in the Tharsis region of Mars exhibit morphologies, diameters, and thermal behaviors that diverge from the much larger bowl-shaped pit craters that occur in most regions across Mars. These Atypical Pit Craters (APCs) generally have sharp and distinct rims, vertical or overhanging walls that extend down to their floors, surface diameters of ~50-350 m, and high depth to diameter (d/D) ratios that are usually greater than 0.3 (which is an upper range value for impacts and bowl-shaped pit craters) and can exceed values of 1.8. Observations by the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) show that APC floor temperatures are warmer at night and fluctuate with much lower diurnal amplitudes than nearby surfaces or adjacent bowl-shaped pit craters. Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i, hosts pit craters that formed through subsurface collapse into active volcanic dikes, resulting in pits that can appear morphologically analogous to either APCs or bowl-shaped pit craters. Partially drained dikes are sometimes exposed within the lower walls and floors of these terrestrial APC analogs and can form extensive cave systems with unique microclimates. Similar caves in Martian pit craters are of great interest for astrobiology. This study uses new observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera to refine previous work where seven APCs were described from lower resolution THEMIS visible wavelength observations. Here we identify locations of 115 APCs, map their distribution across the Tharsis region, characterize their internal morphologies with high-resolution observations, and discuss possible formation mechanisms.

  18. Increased particle confinement with the use of external dc bias field in the CTX spheromak

    Spheromaks are formed in a mesh flux conserver in the presence of an external dc bias field. The spheromaks remain stable to tilt instabilities with ratios of bias-to-spheromak flux of up to 47 +- 7%. Normally applied bias flux puts the spheromak separatrix inside the metal mesh and improves the particle confinement

  19. Waste water effluent contributes to the dissemination of CTX-M-15 in the natural environment

    Amos, G.C.A.; Hawkey, P M; Gaze, W. H.; Wellington, E M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae pose a significant threat to public health. We aimed to study the impact of sewage treatment effluent on antibiotic resistance reservoirs in a river. Methods River sediment samples were taken from downstream and upstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in 2009 and 2011. Third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. PCR-based techniques were used to elucidate mechanisms of resistance, with a new two-...

  20. On the formation of 7-ketocholesterol from 7-dehydrocholesterol in patients with CTX and SLO

    Björkhem, Ingemar; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Starck, Lena; Jonsson, Monica; Tallman, Keri; Schirmer, Henrik; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Crick, Peter J; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J; Guengerich, F Peter

    2014-01-01

    with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLO) have markedly increased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol in plasma and tissues. In addition, the former patients have markedly upregulated CYP7A1. We hypothesized that these patients may produce 7-ketocholesterol from 7-dehydrocholesterol with formation of...