WorldWideScience

Sample records for 11-a ctx 11-a

  1. Heterologous expression of chaetomium thermophilum xylanase 11-a (ctx 11-a) gene

    Chaetomium has a potential source of xylanase and cellulase enzymes, both of which are required in the treatment of fibre in the poultry feed. The titre of the enzymes needs to be enhanced by using recombinant DNA technology for fulfilling the requirement of the industries. Efforts are made to construct prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression cassettes that can be cloned under specific strong promoters i.e., T7 and AOX1, respectively, and the enhancer elements to get the maximum gene expression. In the present study BL21 E. coli and GS115 Pichia pastoris strains are used as model organisms to express the CtX 11-A gene in the presence of 1 mM IPTG and 100% methanol upto final concentration of 0.5. In case of BL21 expression, the maximum xylanase activity was observed after 1.5 h in the presence of 1% xylose, which was 2.302 U/ml and after 7 h in the presence of 0.5% lactose, was 1.708 U/ml. However, in Pichia pastoris the maximum production of xylanase was 2.904 and 0.006 U/ml as compared to control 0.484 and 0.06 U/ml, respectively. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  3. 19 CFR 132.11a - Time of presentation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of presentation. 132.11a Section 132.11a... TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.11a Time of presentation. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time of presentation of an entry/entry summary for...

  4. BCL11A expression in acute phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Yin, Jiawei; Zhang, Fan; Tao, Huiquan; Ma, Xiao; Su, Guangsong; Xie, Xiaoli; Xu, Zhongjuan; Zheng, Yanwen; Liu, Hong; He, Chao; Mao, Zhengwei Jenny; Wang, Zhiwei; Chang, Weirong; Gale, Robert Peter; Wu, Depei; Yin, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has chronic and acute phases. In chronic phase myeloid differentiation is preserved whereas in acute phase myeloid differentiation is blocked. Acute phase CML resembles acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic phase CML is caused by BCR-ABL1. What additional mutation(s) cause transition to acute phase is unknown and may differ in different persons with CML. BCL11A encodes a transcription factor and is aberrantly-expressed in several haematological and solid neoplasms. We analyzed BCL11A mRNA levels in subjects with chronic and acute phase CML. BCL11A transcript levels were increased in subjects with CML in acute phase compared with those in normals and in subjects in chronic phase including some subjects studied in both phases. BCL11A mRNA levels were correlated with percent bone marrow blasts and significantly higher in lymphoid versus myeloid blast crisis. Differentiation of K562 with butyric acid, a CML cell line, decreased BCL11A mRNA levels. Cytology and flow cytometry analyses showed that ectopic expression of BCL11A in K562 cells blocked differentiation. These data suggest BCL11A may operate in transformation of CML from chronic to acute phase in some persons. PMID:27285855

  5. Molecular comparison of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    Padiernos, R B C; Mingala, C N

    2016-06-01

    Solute-linked carrier 11a and 11a2 (Slc) have been associated with disease resistance and/or susceptibility across animal species. These genes have an important mechanism in the regulation against intracellular infection. This study analysed the genetic characteristic of Slc 11a and 11a2 in swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes to understand their immunological distinction. Characterization of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 genes from swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was carried out by molecular cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cloned cDNA of Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 contained an open reading frame of 1647 and 1723 nucleotides, encoding 549 and 574 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of both Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 had 99% in swamp and riverine type, which gives almost identical polypeptide. However, Slc11a1 and Slc11a2 have substitutions of 5 and 1 amino acid residues, correspondingly. These substitutions suggest as a potential gene markers for resistance and/or susceptibility to intracellular infection. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed the degree of relationship between the bubaline species and justifies the distinctness of each breed by the bootstrap value generated. PMID:27091413

  6. IEEE802.11A STANDARD PERFORMANCE IN MOBILE ENVIRONMENT

    Janis Jansons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we reflect evaluation of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN standard in a vehicular environment. WLAN based on the IEEE802.11a standard in wireless user community is widespread and well known to ensure wireless communication. This standard can be used indoor environment for stationary and slowly move users. Despite this fact we analysed this wireless communication standard to understand basic performance and suitability for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS providing a ubiquitous mobile INTERNET access. A wireless vehicular communication tests in real scenario usually require a large number of vehicles and testers for proper results. To derive an experimental result we used simulation/emulation tool such as National Chiao Tung University- network simulator (NCTUns.

  7. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    2010-04-01

    ..., particularly sections 11(a) and 23(a) thereof, and Rule 11a-1 (17 CFR 240.11a-1) under the Act, deeming it... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation...

  8. Cloning and expression of chaetomium thermophilum xylanase 11-A

    The various thermophilic fungi like Chaetomium thermophile has potential to secrete xylanase and cellulase enzymes. In the present study eukaryotic expression system of Pichia pastoris (yeast) was used to express xylanase gene. The xylanase (Xyn 11-A) gene was isolated from C. thermophile strain NIBGE-1. Primers were designed to amplify the gene, ligated into P. pastoris pPIC3.5K vector, the resultant recombinant clone pSSZ810 was transformed into the genome of P. pastoris GS115 strain through electroporation. Transformants were selected on yeast peptone dextrose medium (YPD) plates containing antibiotic geneticin (100 mg/ml) upto final concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The maximum activity of xylanase 2.04 U/ml after incubation of 2 hours at 50 degree C was observed in the presence of 100% methanol inducer upto final concentration of 30 macro L (0.5%) as compared to control. HPLC analysis represented high peak of xylose as compared to control. SDS-PAGE indicated approx. 28 kDa protein of expressed xylanase gene. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. 610.11a Section 610.11a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety...

  10. HST observations of the LMC compact HII region N11A

    Heydari-Malayeri, M; Deharveng, L; Rosa, M R; Schärer, D; Zinnecker, H

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of the LMC compact HII region N11A using Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations which resolve N11A and reveal its unknown nebular and stellar features. The presence of a sharp ionization front extending over more than 4'' (1 pc) and fine structure filaments as well as larger loops indicate an environment typical of massive star formation regions, in agreement with high [OIII]/Hb line ratios. N11A is a young region, as deduced from its morphology, reddening, and especially high local concentration of dust, as indicated by the Balmer decrement map. Our observations also reveal a cluster of stars lying towards the central part of N11A. Five of the stars are packed in an area less than 2'' (0.5 pc), with the most luminous one being a mid O type star. N11A appears to be the most evolved compact HII region in the Magellanic Clouds so far studied.

  11. Evaluation of SLC11A1 as an inflammatory bowel disease candidate gene

    Petras Robert E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant evidence suggests that a promoter polymorphism withinthe gene SLC11A1 is involved in susceptibility to both autoimmune and infectious disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLC11A1 has a role in the susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD by characterizing a promoter polymorphism within the gene and two short tandem repeat (STR markers in genetic proximity to SLC11A1. Methods The studied population consisted of 484 Caucasians with IBD, 144 population controls, and 348 non-IBD-affected first-degree relatives of IBD patients. IBD subjects were re-categorized at the sub-disease phenotypic level to characterize possible SLC11A1 genotype-phenotype correlations. Polymorphic markers were amplified from germline DNA and typed using gel electrophoresis. Genotype-phenotype correlations were defined using case-control, haplotype, and family-based association studies. Results This study did not provide compelling evidence for SLC11A1 disease association; most significantly, there was no apparent evidence of SLC11A1 promoter allele association in the studied Crohn's disease population. Conclusion Our results therefore refute previous studies that have shown SLC11A1 promoter polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to this form of IBD.

  12. Modeling data rate agility in the IEEE 802.11a wireless local area networking protocol

    Braswell, Bryan E.

    2001-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11a high-speed wireless local area networking (WLAN) protocol does not specify a mechanism for dynamically altering network data rates based on changing link conditions. This thesis first presents a baseline software model of the 802.11a protocol developed using the OPNET simulation tool. The model includes both the medium access control (MAC) and physical (PHY) layers of the standard. Two data rate agility mechanisms are then proposed and analyzed using the model. An infrastruct...

  13. OFDM based PHY Performance of IEEE 802.11a Using Various practical channel models

    Narendra Giradkar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Today with the advent of wireless communication and need for greater bandwidth and speed requirement with noise free reception, research has opened up a whole new market for wireless solutions. The IEEE 802.11a standards using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM can provide data rates up to 54 Mbps which makes good for high speed communications in wireless local area networks. In this paper, We evaluated the OFDM based PHY performance of IEEE 802.11a using various practical channel models such as Rician Fading, Rayleigh multipath Fading & AWGN. The effects of different transmission modes define in PHY on IEEE 802.11a system performance are studied using MATLAB SIMULINK. The performance is characterized in terms of 802.11a receivers bit error rates and signal to noise ratio for various modulation schemes such as 16 QAM, 64 QAM, BPSK and QPSK for different code rates as defined by the IEEE Standards 802.11a. All the Simulink models were studied using convolutional coder and Viterbi Decoder and standard OFDM format with 48 carriers, 4 pilots and a zero insertion in the middle.

  14. Evidence of association with type 1 diabetes in the SLC11A1 gene region

    Walker Neil M; Stevens Helen E; Nutland Sarah; Howson Joanna MM; Downes Kate; Yang Jennie HM; Todd John A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Linkage and congenic strain analyses using the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model for human type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, including Slc11a1 (formerly known as Nramp1). Genetic variants in the orthologous region encompassing SLC11A1 in human chromosome 2q35 have been reported to be associated with various immune-related diseases including T1D. Here, we have conducted association analysis of th...

  15. BCL11A Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome and Dysregulates Transcription.

    Dias, Cristina; Estruch, Sara B; Graham, Sarah A; McRae, Jeremy; Sawiak, Stephen J; Hurst, Jane A; Joss, Shelagh K; Holder, Susan E; Morton, Jenny E V; Turner, Claire; Thevenon, Julien; Mellul, Kelly; Sánchez-Andrade, Gabriela; Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Deriziotis, Pelagia; Santos, Rui F; Lee, Song-Choon; Faivre, Laurence; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Liu, Pentao; Hurles, Mathew E; Fisher, Simon E; Logan, Darren W

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common condition with considerable genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing of large cohorts has identified an increasing number of genes implicated in ID, but their roles in neurodevelopment remain largely unexplored. Here we report an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in BCL11A, encoding a transcription factor that is a putative member of the BAF swi/snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Using a comprehensive integrated approach to ID disease modeling, involving human cellular analyses coupled to mouse behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular phenotyping, we provide multiple lines of functional evidence for phenotypic effects. The etiological missense variants cluster in the amino-terminal region of human BCL11A, and we demonstrate that they all disrupt its localization, dimerization, and transcriptional regulatory activity, consistent with a loss of function. We show that Bcl11a haploinsufficiency in mice causes impaired cognition, abnormal social behavior, and microcephaly in accordance with the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify shared aberrant transcriptional profiles in the cortex and hippocampus of these mouse models. Thus, our work implicates BCL11A haploinsufficiency in neurodevelopmental disorders and defines additional targets regulated by this gene, with broad relevance for our understanding of ID and related syndromes. PMID:27453576

  16. Polymorphism of Caprine SLC11A1 Gene and Relationships with Hygienic Characteristics of Milk

    Gianpiera Piras

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1 gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Genetic variability at the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR of this gene is due to the presence of a polymorphic microsatellites that contain a (GT n dinucleotide repeat. The microsatellite variability and relationships with milk yield and composition, somatic cell count (SCC and total microbic count (TMC were investigated in 260 goats of Sarda breed. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn revealed twenty different genotypes and eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14, GT15, GT16, GT17, GT18 and GT19. The present study confirmed the high genetic variability of the Sarda goat and that the genotype of the microsatellite at 3’-UTR SLC11A1 affected many chemical and hygienic characteristics of milk as fat, protein and SCC.

  17. Polymorphism of Caprine SLC11A1 Gene and Relationships with Hygienic Characteristics of Milk

    Gianpiera Piras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1 gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Genetic variability at the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR of this gene is due to the presence of a polymorphic microsatellites that contain a (GT n dinucleotide repeat. The microsatellite variability and relationships with milk yield and composition, somatic cell count (SCC and total microbic count (TMC were investigated in 260 goats of Sarda breed. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn revealed twenty different genotypes and eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14, GT15, GT16, GT17, GT18 and GT19. The present study confirmed the high genetic variability of the Sarda goat and that the genotype of the microsatellite at 3’-UTR SLC11A1 affected many chemical and hygienic characteristics of milk as fat, protein and SCC.

  18. RAB11A Is Essential for Transport of the Influenza Virus Genome to the Plasma Membrane▿

    Eisfeld, Amie J.; Kawakami, Eiryo; Watanabe, Tokiko; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus assembly is a complex process that requires the intersection of pathways involved in transporting viral glycoproteins, the matrix protein, and viral genomes, incorporated in the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex, to plasma membrane sites of virion formation. Among these virion components, the mechanism of vRNP delivery is the most incompletely understood. Here, we reveal a functional relationship between the cellular Rab11 GTPase isoform, RAB11A, and vRNPs and show that...

  19. Rab11A Controls the Biogenesis of Birbeck Granules by Regulating Langerin Recycling and Stability

    Uzan-Gafsou, Stéphanie; Bausinger, Huguette; Proamer, Fabienne; Monier, Solange; Lipsker, Dan; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Goud, Bruno; de la Salle, Henri; Hanau, Daniel; Salamero, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which Rab GTPases, Rab-interacting proteins, and cargo molecules cooperate in the dynamic organization of membrane architecture remains to be clarified. Langerin, a recycling protein accumulating in the Rab11-positive compartments of Langerhans cells, induces the formation of Birbeck granules (BGs), which are membrane subdomains of the endosomal recycling network. We investigated the role of Rab11A and two members of the Rab11 family of interacting proteins, Rip11 and RCP, in La...

  20. IEEE 802.11a performance for infrastructure-to-train communications in an underground tunnel

    KASSAB, M; Wahl, M; Casanova, M; BERBINEAU, M; Aguado, M.

    2009-01-01

    The deployment of wireless technologies for public transport may imply several constraints due to specific environment, such as tunnels. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of IEEE 802.11a based networks deployed for infrastructure-to-train communications in underground tunnels. The signal attenuation specific to the tunnel propagation is taken into account. We propose an optimization of the handover detection mechanism to minimize the connectivity loss when the train moves between Acc...

  1. Error Probability of Different Modulation Schemes for OFDM based WLAN standard IEEE 802.11a

    sanjeev kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM is a key technique for achieving high data rates and spectral efficiency requirements for wireless communication systems. This paper presents a modeling and simulation of OFDM based on WLAN standard (IEEE 802.11a. Performance of OFDM is evaluated for different modulation schemes such as PSK, QAM, DQPSK, and OQPSK. The performance of OFDM is compared in terms of BER vs SNR for different modulation formats.

  2. Receptor SiGe de conversión directa para WLAN 802.11a

    Hernández García, Leticia; Jato Llano, Yolanda; Herrera Guardado, Amparo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a MMIC direct conversion receiver for WLAN manufactured in SiGe: C BiCMOS technology for the IEEE 802.11a/HiperLAN WLAN standard. Direct conversion architecture was chosen because it eliminates the need for bulky external image reject filters, resulting in a compact, low power and low cost front-end. The direct conversion receiver must incorporate quadrature downconversion as both lateral bands contain different information that will be distorted if they are superimposed.

  3. The oncoprotein BCL11A binds to orphan nuclear receptor TLX and potentiates its transrepressive function.

    Sara B Estruch

    Full Text Available Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1 functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TLX social network of interactors and only few TLX coregulators are described. To identify and characterize novel TLX-binders and possible coregulators, we performed yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H screens of a human adult brain cDNA library using different TLX constructs as baits. Our screens identified multiple clones of Atrophin-1 (ATN1, a previously described TLX interactor. In addition, we identified an interaction with the oncoprotein and zinc finger transcription factor BCL11A (CTIP1/Evi9, a key player in the hematopoietic system and in major blood-related malignancies. This interaction was validated by expression and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. BCL11A potentiated the transrepressive function of TLX in an in vitro reporter gene assay. Our work suggests that BCL11A is a novel TLX coregulator that might be involved in TLX-dependent gene regulation in the brain.

  4. Rab11a Is Essential for Lamellar Body Biogenesis in the Human Epidermis.

    Reynier, Marie; Allart, Sophie; Gaspard, Elise; Moga, Alain; Goudounèche, Dominique; Serre, Guy; Simon, Michel; Leprince, Corinne

    2016-06-01

    Most of the skin barrier function is attributable to the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum, which is composed of flattened, anucleated cells called corneocytes surrounded by a lipid-enriched lamellar matrix. The composition of the stratum corneum is directly dependent on the underlying granular keratinocytes, which are the last living cells in the stratified epidermis. Many components present in the intercorneocyte matrix are delivered by the underlying granular keratinocytes through a secretion process dependent on lysosome-related organelles called lamellar bodies. Because of the importance of lamellar bodies in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier, the mechanisms regulating their biogenesis must be better understood. In this study, we show that the Rab11a GTPase is highly expressed in terminally differentiated keratinocytes, where it is partly associated with lamellar bodies. Rab11a silencing in three-dimensional in vitro reconstructed human epidermis induces a barrier defect, a decrease in the amount of lipid found in the stratum corneum, a reduction in lamellar body density and secretion areas in granular keratinocytes, and the mis-sorting of lamellar body cargoes being driven to the lysosomal degradation pathway. Our results highlight the importance of Rab11a-dependent regulation of lamellar body biogenesis in keratinocytes and consequently on epidermal barrier homeostasis. PMID:26872604

  5. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae.

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan; Orlando, Ludovic; Horin, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Immunity-related genes are a suitable model for studying effects of selection at the genomic level. Some of them are highly conserved due to functional constraints and purifying selection, while others are variable and change quickly to cope with the variation of pathogens. The SLC11A1 gene encodes a transporter protein mediating antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Little is known about the patterns of selection shaping this gene during evolution. Although it is a typical evolutionarily conserved gene, functionally important polymorphisms associated with various diseases were identified in humans and other species. We analyzed the genomic organization, genetic variation, and evolution of the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae to identify patterns of selection within this important gene. Nucleotide SLC11A1 sequences were shown to be highly conserved in ten equid species, with more than 97 % sequence identity across the family. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the coding and noncoding regions of the gene. Seven codon sites were identified to be under strong purifying selection. Codons located in three regions, including the glycosylated extracellular loop, were shown to be under diversifying selection. A 3-bp indel resulting in a deletion of the amino acid 321 in the predicted protein was observed in all horses, while it has been maintained in all other equid species. This codon comprised in an N-glycosylation site was found to be under positive selection. Interspecific variation in the presence of predicted N-glycosylation sites was observed. PMID:26846480

  6. Association of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) polymorphisms with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection.

    Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Hijikata, Minako; Matsushita, Ikumi; Tanaka, Goh; Ieki, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Toyota, Emiko; Nagai, Hideaki; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Keicho, Naoto

    2012-05-01

    Although genetic variants in SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) have been associated with mycobacterial diseases, these findings have not been extensively validated in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. This study investigated the genomic structure of SLC11A1 and its association with MAC infection. Nineteen polymorphic loci were genotyped in European descendents and the Japanese population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and frequencies of major haplotypes differed between these 2 populations. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen from the data set, and 6 polymorphic sites were genotyped in 122 pulmonary MAC cases and 211 controls from Japan. We observed that the T allele of rs2279014 in the 3' untranslated region was associated with protection from MAC disease when comparing allele frequencies with an odds ratio of 0.582 (95% confidence interval 0.379-0.894, p = 0.013). The frequencies of haplotypes constructed with the above 6 variants did not differ between cases and controls. Allele-specific expression imbalance of SLC11A1 mRNA was evaluated in peripheral blood cells from heterozygous individuals, but no difference was observed among haplotypes. Although the significance was modest, rs2279014 is in strong LD with nearby SNPs and further studies are required for conclusive validation. PMID:22387151

  7. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now...... be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden) part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age), the top (exposed) part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian age) and the middle...

  8. WOK : A Simulation Model for DFS and Link Adaptation in IEEE 802.11a WLAN

    Janson, Magnus; Karlsson, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    With the 1999 introduction of IEEE 802.11b, the 2.4 GHz Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standard, the WLAN market finally began to experience the growth levels that had been expected for so long. Now, 5 GHz solutions, with the IEEE 802.11a standard leading the way, offer higher throughput and more efficient use of the spectrum. Just as the 2.4 GHz band, the 5 GHz band is unlicensed. A common concern to all unlicensed bands is interference between devices using the spectrum. Furthermore, in...

  9. Magnetic Logs from the Lopra-1/1A and Vestmanna-1 wells (Faroe Islands)

    Waagstein, R.; Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      Susceptibility results from cores (representing basalt, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs) and magnetic logs from the Lopra-1/1A well are presented. The basalts fall into a high- and a low-susceptibility group with no overlap. The high-susceptibility basalts (7 cores) have susceptibilities between 4 and 85...... high-susceptibility basalts. The susceptibility of 9 volcaniclastites of lapilli-tuff or tuff varies from 0.4 to 4 x 10-3 SI. The cores reveal a bimodal distribution of magnetic susceptibily in the Lopra well. Low susceptibilities ranging from 0.4 to 4 in the well  are characteristic to both altered...... 2381 m and sidewall cores of basalt from the Lopra-1/1A well have a mean susceptibility of 22.1 ± 3.5 ´ 10-3 SI (σ = 23.6, N = 46), while samples of hyaloclastite (lapilli-tuff and tuff) have a mean susceptibility of 0.85 ´ 10-3 SI (σ = 0.39, N = 17). The mean values of the rock magnetic parameters for...

  10. Cloning and expression of a novel, moderately thermostable xylanase-encoding gene (Cflxyn11A) from Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Vega-Estrada, Jesús; Amelia, Farrés-G-S; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Montes-Horcasitas, María Del Carmen; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia

    2010-07-01

    The Cfl xyn11A gene, encoding the endo-1,4-beta-xylanase Cfl Xyn11A from Cellulomonas flavigena, was isolated from a genomic DNA library. The open reading frame of the Cfl xyn11A gene was 999 base pairs long and encoded a polypeptide (Cfl Xyn11A) of 332 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35,110Da. The Cfl xyn11A gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant enzyme, with an estimated molecular weight of 31kDa was purified and xylanase activity was measured. Cfl Xyn11A showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 55 degrees C. The enzyme demonstrated moderate thermal stability as Cfl Xyn11A maintained 50% of its activity when incubated at 55 degrees C for 1h or at 45 degrees C for 6h. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression and functional characterization of an endo-1,4-beta-xylanase-encoding gene from C. flavigena. Cfl Xyn11A may be suitable for industrial applications in the food and feed industries, or in the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass required to improve the yields of fermentable sugars for bioethanol production. PMID:20231092

  11. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  12. Immobilisation and solidification of cesium on 11 A calcium silicate hydroxy hydrate column

    Calcium silicate hydrate closely resembling silicate mineral 11 A tobermorite has been synthesised by hydrothermal treatment of lime and silica at 175 degC. The synthetic mineral exhibits selectivity for Cs+ in the presence of strong solutions of alkali and alkaline earth cations, viz, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, etc. The Al-substituted form of this mineral effectively separates cesium ion when used as an exchanger in column of size 35x5 mm (hxr). It is possible to remove 98.65±0.5%Cs+ from a mixed solution of cesium and sodium (0.0001N Cs+ + 0.5N Na+). Column separation of cesium from simulated intermediate level waste solution shows that from the first run ∼ 76% Cs+ can be immobilised on a small column, 18x10mm (hxr), having 2.0 g of exchanger. (author)

  13. MREG V1.1 : a multi-scale image registration algorithm for SAR applications.

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2013-08-01

    MREG V1.1 is the sixth generation SAR image registration algorithm developed by the Signal Processing&Technology Department for Synthetic Aperture Radar applications. Like its predecessor algorithm REGI, it employs a powerful iterative multi-scale paradigm to achieve the competing goals of sub-pixel registration accuracy and the ability to handle large initial offsets. Since it is not model based, it allows for high fidelity tracking of spatially varying terrain-induced misregistration. Since it does not rely on image domain phase, it is equally adept at coherent and noncoherent image registration. This document provides a brief history of the registration processors developed by Dept. 5962 leading up to MREG V1.1, a full description of the signal processing steps involved in the algorithm, and a user's manual with application specific recommendations for CCD, TwoColor MultiView, and SAR stereoscopy.

  14. Isolation and characterization of DUSP11, a novel p53 target gene

    Caprara, Greta; Zamponi, Raffaella; Melixetian, Marina;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA damage repair. Here we demonstrate that DUSP11 (Dual Specificity Phosphatase 11), a member of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase family that binds to RNA-RNP complexes and RNA splicing factors, is a p53...... target gene. Consistent with this, the expression of DUSP11 is induced in a p53-dependent manner after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that p53 binds to 2 putative p53 DNA binding sites in the promoter region of DUSP11. Colony formation and proliferation...... (Src-Associated protein in Mitotic cells) binds to DUSP11 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together these results suggest that DUSP11 contributes to p53-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and that it might be involved in regulating RNA splicing through SAM68....

  15. The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A contributes to virulence with its necrotizing activity, not with its catalytic activity

    González Celedonio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A has been previously shown to be required for full virulence of this organism despite its poor contribution to the secreted xylanase activity and the low xylan content of B. cinerea hosts. Intriguingly, xylanases from other fungi have been shown to have the property, independent of the xylan degrading activity, to induce necrosis when applied to plant tissues, so we decided to test the hypothesis that secreted Xyn11A contributes to virulence by promoting the necrosis of the plant tissue surrounding the infection, therefore facilitating the growth of this necrotroph. Results We show here that Xyn11A has necrotizing activity on plants and that this capacity is conserved in site-directed mutants of the protein lacking the catalytic activity. Besides, Xyn11A contributes to the infection process with the necrotizing and not with the xylan hydrolyzing activity, as the catalytically-impaired Xyn11A variants were able to complement the lower virulence of the xyn11A mutant. The necrotizing activity was mapped to a 30-amino acids peptide in the protein surface, and this region was also shown to mediate binding to tobacco spheroplasts by itself. Conclusions The main contribution of the xylanase Xyn11A to the infection process of B. cinerea is to induce necrosis of the infected plant tissue. A conserved 30-amino acids region on the enzyme surface, away from the xylanase active site, is responsible for this effect and mediates binding to plant cells.

  16. Complete genome sequence of a serotype 11A, ST62 Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive isolate

    Superti Fabiana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen representing a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sequenced the genome of a serotype 11A, ST62 S. pneumoniae invasive isolate (AP200, that was erythromycin-resistant due to the presence of the erm(TR determinant, and carried out analysis of the genome organization and comparison with other pneumococcal genomes. Results The genome sequence of S. pneumoniae AP200 is 2,130,580 base pair in length. The genome carries 2216 coding sequences (CDS, 56 tRNA, and 12 rRNA genes. Of the CDSs, 72.9% have a predicted biological known function. AP200 contains the pilus islet 2 and, although its phenotype corresponds to serotype 11A, it contains an 11D capsular locus. Chromosomal rearrangements resulting from a large inversion across the replication axis, and horizontal gene transfer events were observed. The chromosomal inversion is likely implicated in the rebalance of the chromosomal architecture affected by the insertions of two large exogenous elements, the erm(TR-carrying Tn1806 and a functional prophage designated ϕSpn_200. Tn1806 is 52,457 bp in size and comprises 49 ORFs. Comparative analysis of Tn1806 revealed the presence of a similar genetic element or part of it in related species such as Streptococcus pyogenes and also in the anaerobic species Finegoldia magna, Anaerococcus prevotii and Clostridium difficile. The genome of ϕSpn_200 is 35,989 bp in size and is organized in 47 ORFs grouped into five functional modules. Prophages similar to ϕSpn_200 were found in pneumococci and in other streptococcal species, showing a high degree of exchange of functional modules. ϕSpn_200 viral particles have morphologic characteristics typical of the Siphoviridae family and are capable of infecting a pneumococcal recipient strain. Conclusions The sequence of S. pneumoniae AP200 chromosome revealed a dynamic genome, characterized by chromosomal rearrangements and

  17. Stickler syndrome and the vitreous phenotype: Mutations in COL2A1 and COL11A1

    Richards, Allan; McNinch, Annie; Martin, Howard; Oakhill, Kim; Rai, Harjeet; WALLER, SARAH; Treacy, Becky; Whittaker, Joanne; Meredith, Sarah; Poulson, Arabella; Snead, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stickler syndrome is a dominantly inherited disorder affecting the fibrillar type II/XI collagen molecules expressed in vitreous and cartilage. Mutations have been found in COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2. It has a highly variable phenotype that can include midline clefting, hearing loss, premature osteoarthritis, congenital high myopia and blindness through retinal detachment. Although the systemic phenotype is highly variable, the vitreous phenotype has been used successfull...

  18. Mechanisms of Nd(III) uptake by 11 A tobermorite and xonotlite

    Mandaliev, P., E-mail: petar.mandaliev@empa.ch [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] [Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Wieland, E.; Daehn, R.; Tits, J.; Churakov, S.V. [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zaharko, O. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The uptake of Nd(III) by the crystalline C-S-H phases 11 A tobermorite and xonotlite has been investigated by the combined use of wet chemistry techniques, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with Rietveld refinement. The results from XRD and EXAFS allowed the different modes of Nd-Ca substitution in tobermorite and xonotlite to be distinguished from each other. Wet chemistry and EXAFS data showed that the formation of any Nd solid phase with fixed stoichiometry could be ruled out. XRD studies on the samples with high Nd loading (350 {mu}mol Nd/g solid phase) further showed that Nd was bound in the structure of C-S-H phases. The EXAFS data suggested that Nd could form several species on xonotlite and tobermorite at low loadings (7-35 {mu}mol Nd/g solid phase). Neodymium was predominantly bound on the external surface of both crystalline C-S-H phases after 1 day of reaction time and predominantly incorporated in the Ca layers of the crystalline C-S-H phases in the long run ({>=}60 days reaction time). The latter process was faster at low Nd loadings and was apparently controlled by re-crystallization of the C-S-H phases. Neodymium incorporation was accompanied by the release of 'zeolitic' water (water molecules in the interlayer of C-S-H) and bridging Si tetrahedra, reflected by the formation of more disordered structures in both C-S-H phases. The Nd retention model proposed in this study helps to improve understanding of the immobilization of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in cementitious materials. This knowledge is essential for long-term predictions of radionuclide retention in conjunction with a more detailed assessment of the safe disposal of actinides in the cementitious near field of a repository for radioactive waste.

  19. Linking chronic infection and autoimmune diseases: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, SLC11A1 polymorphisms and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Daniela Paccagnini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.

  20. Human rab11a: transcription, chromosome mapping and effect on the expression levels of host GTP-binding proteins

    Gromov, P S; Celis, J E; Hansen, Claus;

    1998-01-01

    Rab11a is a member of the rab-branch of the ras-like small GTP-binding protein superfamily that is associated with both constitutive and regulated secretory pathways. Using a direct procedure for cDNA cloning of small ras-related GTPases, that is based on the screening of eukaryotic cDNA expression...

  1. PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A expression in rat trigeminovascular pain signalling system

    Kruse, Lars S; Møller, Morten; Tibaek, Maiken; Gammeltoft, Steen; Olesen, Jes; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup

    2009-01-01

    expression of PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A in the trigeminovascular system. The functional implications are yet unknown, but their localisation indicates that they may have a role in the pain pathway of migraine as well as trigeminal neuralgia and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.......Activation of the trigeminovascular pain signalling system, including cerebral arteries, meninges, trigeminal ganglion, and brain stem, is involved in migraine. Furthermore, stimulation of cyclic nucleotide (cAMP and cGMP) production as well as inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) induces...... headache and migraine. In order to investigate the possible role of PDE in the pain pathway of migraine, expression of the most recently discovered PDE subtypes (9A, 10A and 11A) in cerebral arteries, dura mater, and trigeminal ganglion and nucleus was examined. The presence of mRNA and protein in the...

  2. Novel mutations confirm that COL11A2 is responsible for autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB53.

    Chakchouk, Imen; Grati, M'hamed; Bademci, Guney; Bensaid, Mariem; Ma, Qi; Chakroun, Amine; Foster, Joseph; Yan, Denise; Duman, Duygu; Diaz-Horta, Oscar; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Mittal, Rahul; Farooq, Amjad; Tekin, Mustafa; Masmoudi, Saber; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2015-08-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a major public health issue. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous.The identification of the causal mutation is important for early diagnosis, clinical follow-up, and genetic counseling. HL due to mutations in COL11A2, encoding collagen type XI alpha-2, can be non-syndromic autosomal-dominant or autosomal-recessive, and also syndromic as in Otospondylomegaepiphyseal Dysplasia, Stickler syndrome type III, and Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome. However, thus far only one mutation co-segregating with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) in a single family has been reported. In this study, whole exome sequencing of two consanguineous families with ARNSHL from Tunisia and Turkey revealed two novel causative COL11A2 mutations, c.109G > T (p.Ala37Ser) and c.2662C > A (p.Pro888Thr). The variants identified co-segregated with deafness in both families. All homozygous individuals in those families had early onset profound hearing loss across all frequencies without syndromic findings. The variants are predicted to be damaging the protein function. The p.Pro888Thr mutation affects a -Gly-X-Y- triplet repeat motif. The novel p.Ala37Ser is the first missense mutation located in the NC4 domain of the COL11A2 protein. Structural model suggests that this mutation will likely obliterate, or at least partially compromise, the ability of NC4 domain to interact with its cognate ligands. In conclusion, we confirm that COL11A2 mutations cause ARNSHL and broaden the mutation spectrum that may shed new light on genotype-phenotype correlation for the associated phenotypes and clinical follow-up. PMID:25633957

  3. Polymorphisms of the coding region of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 gene associated to natural resistance against bovine brucellosis

    T.A. Paixão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucelose bovina causada por Brucella abortus é uma importante doença zoonótica, caracterizada pela ocorrência de aborto durante o último trimestre da gestação, o que resulta em diminuição da fertilidade da produção de leite em vacas. A identificação de genes associados à resistência natural contra brucelose tem sido investigada com o objetivo de selecionar animais resistentes à doença. Em bovinos, é controversa a resistência natural contra B. abortus associada ao polimorfismo da região 3' UTR do gene Slc11A1 (Nramp1. Polimorfismos localizados na sequência codificadora de Slc11A1 têm sido identificados em bovinos, contudo a influência sobre a resistência natural contra brucelose não é conhecida. No presente estudo, três novos polimorfismos do gene Slc11A1 foram genotipados por análise conformacional de fita simples em vacas experimentalmente ou naturalmente infectadas por B. Abortus, e foram avaliadas a frequência de cada genótipo e sua associação com o fenótipo de resistência ou susceptibilidade à brucelose bovina. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que alguns genótipos foram mais frequentes em animais considerados fenotipicamente susceptiveis à brucelose.

  4. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  6. Crystal structure of the I-domain from the CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1, alpha L beta 2) integrin.

    Qu, A; Leahy, D J

    1995-01-01

    We report the 1.8-A crystal structure of the CD11a I-domain with bound manganese ion. The CD11a I-domain contains binding sites for intercellular adhesion molecules 1 and 3 and can exist in both low- and high-affinity states. The metal-bound form reported here is likely to represent a high-affinity state. The CD11a I-domain structure reveals a strained hydrophobic ridge adjacent to the bound metal ion that may serve as a ligand-binding surface and is likely to rearrange in the absence of boun...

  7. hMENA(11a) contributes to HER3-mediated resistance to PI3K inhibitors in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.

    Trono, P; Di Modugno, F; Circo, R; Spada, S; Di Benedetto, A; Melchionna, R; Palermo, B; Matteoni, S; Soddu, S; Mottolese, M; De Maria, R; Nisticò, P

    2016-02-18

    Human Mena (hMENA), an actin regulatory protein of the ENA/VASP family, cooperates with ErbB receptor family signaling in breast cancer. It is overexpressed in high-risk preneoplastic lesions and in primary breast tumors where it correlates with HER2 overexpression and an activated status of AKT and MAPK. The concomitant overexpression of hMENA and HER2 in breast cancer patients is indicative of a worse prognosis. hMENA is expressed along with alternatively expressed isoforms, hMENA(11a) and hMENAΔv6 with opposite functions. A novel role for the epithelial-associated hMENA(11a) isoform in sustaining HER3 activation and pro-survival pathways in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells has been identified by reverse phase protein array and validated in vivo in a series of breast cancer tissues. As HER3 activation is crucial in mechanisms of cell resistance to PI3K inhibitors, we explored whether hMENA(11a) is involved in these resistance mechanisms. The specific hMENA(11a) depletion switched off the HER3-related pathway activated by PI3K inhibitors and impaired the nuclear accumulation of HER3 transcription factor FOXO3a induced by PI3K inhibitors, whereas PI3K inhibitors activated hMENA(11a) phosphorylation and affected its localization. At the functional level, we found that hMENA(11a) sustains cell proliferation and survival in response to PI3K inhibitor treatment, whereas hMENA(11a) silencing increases molecules involved in cancer cell apoptosis. As shown in three-dimensional cultures, hMENA(11a) contributes to resistance to PI3K inhibition because its depletion drastically reduced cell viability upon treatment with PI3K inhibitor BEZ235. Altogether, these results indicate that hMENA(11a) in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells sustains HER3/AKT axis activation and contributes to HER3-mediated resistance mechanisms to PI3K inhibitors. Thus, hMENA(11a) expression can be proposed as a marker of HER3 activation and resistance to PI3K inhibition therapies, to

  8. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein–Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    Zöllner A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 μM CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  9. Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri to disease.

    Amy J Osborne

    Full Text Available The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1 plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance.

  10. Examining the Role of Components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the Susceptibility of New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to Disease

    Osborne, Amy J.; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B. Louise; Kennedy, Martin A.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i) a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii) putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii) a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance. PMID:25874773

  11. RFX1 regulates CD70 and CD11a expression in lupus T cells by recruiting the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1

    Zhao, Ming; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Luo, Shuangyan; Liang, Gongping; Su, Yuwen; Tan, Yixin; Lu, Qianjin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Regulatory factor X-box 1 (RFX1) can interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), and RFX1 down-regulation contributes to DNA hypomethylation and histone H3 hyperacetylation at the cluster of differentiation (CD) 11a and CD70 promoters in CD4+ T cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This leads to CD11a and CD70 overexpression, thereby triggering autoimmune responses. In order to provide more insight into the epigenetic mech...

  12. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible

  13. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: peretz@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3211 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3223 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible.

  14. First case report of rare congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by mutations in the CYP11A1 gene in the Czech Republic.

    Pomahačová, Renata; Sýkora, Josef; Zamboryová, Jana; Paterová, Petra; Varvařovská, Jana; Šubrt, Ivan; Dort, Jiří; Dortová, Eva

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a case of congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency. The patient presented after birth with cardiopulmonary instability, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. We confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency. There were no signs of the external genitalia virilism. The replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids led to normal laboratory results. At the age of 12 years, we confirmed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which revealed disorder of steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands and in the gonads. The enzymatic block was found at the beginning of steroidogenesis. The mutation was confirmed in the CYP11A1 gene. The patient is compound heterozygote for the novel CYP11A1 missense mutation c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) in exon 2 and frameshift mutation c.508_509delCT (p.Leu170Valfs*30) in exon 3. The CYP11A1: c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) was predicted as pathogenic by in silico analysis. So far, only 19 patients with CYP11A1 mutations causing P450scc deficiency have been reported worldwide. There are no related reports in the Czech Republic. PMID:27008691

  15. Effects of whole body γ irradiation on skin wound cells and the repaired-promoting action of W11-a12

    Objective: To study the effects of 6 Gy whole body γ irradiation on components of wound cells and the repair-promoting action of W11-a12, an extract from Periplaneta americana. Methods: After mice were received 6 Gy gamma ray irradiation, the area of healing range in wound cross section, the cellular infiltration of wound and the content of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in wound epithelial cells were observed and the healing-promoting effect of W11-a12 on the radiation-impaired wound was investigated. Results: The area of healing range in cross section was decreased, various infiltrated cells were all inhibited by radiation, but the range of inhibition was more or less different, and the descending order of severity was as follows: macrophages, vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The content of bFGF in epithelial cells was decreased. W11-a12 had beneficial heal-promoting effect on radiation-impaired wound: it increased cellular infiltration and promoted synthesis and secretion of bFGF in epithelial cells. Conclusion: The depletion of wound cells is mainly responsible for the healing deficits of radiation-impaired skin wound and W11-a12 enhances cell migration and proliferation and promotes synthesis and secretion of bFGF in epithelial cells

  16. Pristane-induced arthritis loci interact with the Slc11a1 gene to determine susceptibility in mice selected for high inflammation.

    De Franco, Marcelo; Peters, Luciana C; Correa, Mara A; Galvan, Antonella; Canhamero, Tatiane; Borrego, Andrea; Jensen, José R; Gonçalves, Jussara; Cabrera, Wafa H K; Starobinas, Nancy; Ribeiro, Orlando G; Dragani, Tommaso A; Dragani, Tommaso; Ibañez, Olga M

    2014-01-01

    AIRmax (maximal inflammation) and AIRmin (minimal inflammation) mice show distinct susceptibilities to pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). The Slc11a1 gene, which regulates macrophage and neutrophil activity, is involved in this infirmity. AIRmax (SS) mice homozygous for the non-functional Slc11a1 S (gly169asp) allele obtained by genotype-assisted crosses from AIRmax and AIRmin mice are more susceptible than mice homozygous for the Slc11a1 resistant (R) allele. The present work sought to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulating PIA and to examine the interactions of these QTL with Slc11a1 alleles in modulating PIA. Mice were given two ip injections of 0.5 mL pristane at 60 day intervals, and the incidence and severity of PIA was scored up to 160 days. Genome-wide linkage studies were performed to search for arthritis QTL in an F2 (AIRmax × AIRmin, n = 290) population. Significant arthritis QTL (LODscore>4) were detected on chromosomes 5 and 8, and suggestive QTL on chromosomes 7, 17 and 19. Global gene expression analyses performed on Affymetrix mouse 1.0 ST bioarrays (27k genes) using RNA from arthritic or control mice paws showed 419 differentially expressed genes between AIRmax and AIRmin mice and demonstrated significantly (P<0.001) over-represented genes related to inflammatory responses and chemotaxis. Up-regulation of the chemokine genes Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Cxcl5, Cxcl13 on chromosome 5 was higher in AIRmax(SS) than in the other lines. Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 and hemeoxigenase (decycling) 1 genes on chromosome 8 were also expressed at higher levels in AIRmax(SS) mice. Our results show that the gene expression profiles of the two arthritis QTL (on chromosomes 5 and 8) correlate with Slc11a1 alleles, resulting in enhanced AIRmax(SS) mice susceptibility to PIA. PMID:24505471

  17. Adaptación y validación española de la Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt en adolescentes tempranos (BIS-11-A

    Víctor Martínez-Loredo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La impulsividad ha sido relacionada con multitud de trastornos psiquiátricos como el abuso de sustancias. La Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt (BIS-11 es uno de los autoinformes más comúnmente administrados para la evaluación de la impulsividad, tanto en el ámbito clínico como de investigación. Hay una versión para adolescentes llamada BIS- 11-A, que aún no ha sido convenientemente adaptada a población española. El objetivo de este estudio es ofrecer una versión española alternativa y más adecuada del BIS-11-A, así como la evaluación de sus características psicométricas tales como estructura factorial, fiabilidad y validez predictiva sobre el uso de sustancias (uso en el último mes de alcohol, tabaco y cánnabis, presencia de borracheras en el último mes, consumo intensivo y problemático de alcohol. El BIS-11-A e ítems de la Encuesta Escolar Europea sobre Alcohol y otras Drogas (ESPAD fueron aplicados a 1.183 estudiantes (edad 12-14 años en 16 institutos españoles de educación secundaria. El BIS-11-A ha mostrado una estructura bidimensional, alta fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach = 0,87 y buena capacidad para identificar el uso de sustancias, consumo intensivo y problemático de alcohol (sensibilidad = 67,3-75%; especificidad = 83,4-85,4%. La versión española del BIS-11-A es un instrumento fiable y válido para su uso con adolescentes tempranos.

  18. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation.

    Anita Kloss-Brandstätter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6. Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineous parents with three of four children presenting with IRIDA not responding to oral but to intravenous iron supplementation. After excluding all known causes responsible for iron deficiency anaemia we searched for mutations in SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 that could explain the severe anaemia in these children. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in all six family members. Thereby, we found seven known and fairly common SNPs, but no new mutation. We then genotyped these seven SNPs in the population-based SAPHIR study (n = 1,726 and performed genetic association analysis on iron and ferritin levels. Only two SNPs, which were top-hits from recent GWAS on iron and ferritin, exhibited an effect on iron and ferritin levels in SAPHIR. Six SAPHIR participants carrying the same TMPRSS6 genotypes and haplotype-pairs as one anaemic son showed lower ferritin and iron levels than the average. One individual exhibiting the joint SLC11A2/TMPRSS6 profile of the anaemic son had iron and ferritin levels lying below the 5(th percentile of the population's iron and ferritin level distribution. We then checked the genotype constellations in the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (n = 1,832, but the profile of the anaemic son did not occur in this population. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot exclude a gene-gene interaction between SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6, but we can also not confirm it. As in this case candidate gene sequencing did not reveal causative rare mutations, the samples will be subjected to whole exome sequencing.

  19. COL11A2 mutation associated with autosomal recessive Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome: molecular and clinical overlap with otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED).

    Harel, Tamar; Rabinowitz, Ronen; Hendler, Netta; Galil, Aharon; Flusser, Hagit; Chemke, Juan; Gradstein, Libe; Lifshitz, Tova; Ofir, Rivka; Elbedour, Khalil; Birk, Ohad S

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome (WZS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by rhizomelic dwarfism and severe hearing loss. Mutations in the COL11A2 gene have been implicated in causing the autosomal dominant form of this syndrome as well as non-ocular Stickler syndrome and the autosomal recessive syndrome otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED). In a consanguineous Bedouin tribe living in Southern Israel, five individuals affected by autosomal recessive WZS were available for genetic analysis. Homozygosity of a mutation in the COL11A2 gene was found in all affected individuals. This finding lends molecular support to the clinical notion that autosomal recessive WZS and OSMED are a single entity. PMID:15558753

  20. A high-linearity InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier for IEEE 802.11a/n

    A three-stage 4.8–6 GHz monolithic power amplifier (PA) compatible with IEEE 802.11a/n designed based on an advanced 2 μm InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT) process is presented. The PA integrates input matching and closed-loop power control circuits on chip. Under 3.3 V DC bias, the amplifier achieves a ∼31 dB small signal gain, excellent wide band input and output matching among overall 1.2 GHz bandwidth, and up to 24.5 dBm linear output power below EVM 3% with IEEE 802.11a 64QAM OFDM input signal. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Risk-Association of CYP11A1 Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Among Han Chinese Women in Southern China

    Minying Sun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endogenous sex hormones has been reported as a risk factor for breast cancer. The CYP11A1 gene encodes the key enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. In this study, the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CYP11A1 and breast cancer susceptibility were examined. Six SNPs in CYP11A1 were genotyped using the MassARRAY IPLEX platform in 530 breast cancer patients and 546 healthy controls. Association analyses based on a χ2 test and binary logistic regression were performed to determine the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI for each SNP. Two loci (rs2959008 and rs2279357 showed evidence of associations with breast cancer risk. The variant genotype C/T-C/C of rs2959008 was significantly associated with a decreased risk (age-adjusted OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58–0.96; P = 0.023 compared with the wild-type TT. However, the homozygous TT variant of rs2279357 exhibited increased susceptibility to breast cancer (age-adjusted OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05–1.98; P = 0.022. The locus rs2959003 also showed an appreciable effect, but no associations were observed for three other SNPs. Our results suggest that polymorphisms of CYP11A1 are related to breast cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese women of South China.

  2. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Peretz, Jackye; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex s...

  3. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Nytoft, H. Peter; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m), may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been repo...

  4. The CD11a partner in Sus scrofa lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1: mRNA cloning, structure analysis and comparison with mammalian homologues

    Thomas Anne VT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, the most abundant and widely expressed beta2-integrin, is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Many studies have shown that LFA-1 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by Repeats-in-toxin (RTX -producing bacteria. Results The porcine-LFA-1 CD11a (alpha subunit coding sequence was cloned, sequenced and compared with the available mammalian homologues in this study. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of these latter. Interestingly, as in sheep and humans, an allelic variant with a triplet insertion resulting in an additional Gln-744 was consistently identified, which suggests an allelic polymorphism that might be biologically relevant. Conclusion Together with the pig CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of porcine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Sus scrofa beta2-integrin LFA-1 in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the porcine species.

  5. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  6. Association of leishmaniasis with TNF alpha promoter and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients of two endemic areas in Mexico.

    Ortiz-Flores, Aaxin; De la Rosa-López, Gabriela; Zavaleta-Villa, Beatriz; Chávez-López, Susana; Pastor-Santiago, Jorge; Guzmán-Bracho, Carmen; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Olivo-Díaz, Angélica

    2015-05-01

    Some Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukins and other modulatory molecules of the immune response play an important role in susceptibility to infectious diseases, particularly those involving intracellular parasites. In this study, we evaluated allele, genotype and haplotype associations of two SNPs of the TNF-α promoter and seven of the SLC11A1 gene in 79 patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 15 with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), compared with 127 and 89 locality paired controls, respectively, from two endemic areas of Chiapas State, Mexico. None of the TNF-α alleles and genotypes was associated either to CL or to VL. Alleles rs2276631-C (P = 0.02; OR [95%CI] = 2.11 [1.16-3.86]) and rs2279015-G (P = 0.005; OR [95%CI] = 2.42 [1.33-4.41]) of SLC11A1, were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas genotypes rs2276631 C/C (P = 0.003; OR [95%CI] = 2.65 [1.41-5.00]) and rs2279015 G/G (P = 0.018; OR [95%CI] = 2.05 [1.15-3.64]) were significantly increased in CL and VL patients, respectively. Complete haplotypes involved in susceptibility were CGCCGDins with VL and CGCCADins with CL. CGCCA was the minimal susceptibility haplotype for CL and CCG for VL. Our data suggest that SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms might have a relevant role in the pathology of leishmaniasis, directing towards susceptibility outcome of this disease in residents of an endemic area. PMID:25603101

  7. A FORTRAN-compatible program package for the control of CAMAC-systems by a PDP-11 (CA11-A/DEC, Type 1533A/BORER)

    The described software serves for the control of CAMAC-systems by a PDP-11 Computer with one DEC CA11-A Branch-Driver, respectively up to ten BORER Type 1533A Single-Crate-Controllers under the Operating System DOS V08. The software consists of three parts: 1) a subroutine library for programming in FORTRAN, 2) a macro library for programming in Assembler (for time-critical problems), 3) a loadable CAMAC-Driver for controlling the system by input of single CAMAC-commands at the terminal. Programs which apply the first two parts can be written independently of the CAMAC-Controller used at runtime. (orig.)

  8. Structure of Na+,K+-ATPase at 11-A resolution: comparison with Ca2+-ATPase in E1 and E2 states.

    Rice, W J; Young, H S; Martin, D W; Sachs, J R; Stokes, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits and a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps. Here we present an 11-A structure of the heterodimer determined from electron micrographs of unstained frozen-hydrated tubular crystals. For this reconstruction, the enzyme was isolated from supraorbital glands of salt-adapted ducks and was crystallized within the native membranes. Crystallization conditions fixed Na+,K+-ATPase in the vanadate-inhibited E2 conformation, and the cry...

  9. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1.

    Grieco, Amanda J; Billett, Henny H; Green, Nancy S; Driscoll, M Catherine; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF) expressing red blood cells (F-cells) and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es) derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fetal hemoglobin production in F-cells negatively correlates with expression of BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1. We then examined the effects of hydroxyurea on these three transcription factors and conclude that a successful induction of γ-globin includes a reduction in BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1 expression. These data suggests that expression changes in this transcription factor network modulate γ-globin expression in F-cells during steady state erythropoiesis and after induction with hydroxyurea. PMID:26053062

  10. Two WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX genes, PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b, are involved in adventitious root formation of poplar.

    Xu, Meng; Xie, Wenfan; Huang, Minren

    2015-12-01

    The plant-specific WUSCHEL-related HOMEOBOX (WOX) transcription factors play important roles in key developmental processes, but knowledge regarding functional characterization of WOX genes in poplar remains limited. To reveal genes and signaling pathways associated with adventitious rooting in poplar, here we isolated and characterized two WOX genes through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), sequence aligning, expression profiling, protoplast transfection and poplar transformation. Detailed information about the sequence similarity, structural features, evolutionary relationships, expression patterns and subcellular localization of the two genes were revealed. Overexpression of either PeWOX11a or PeWOX11b not only increased the number of adventitious roots on the cuttings but also induced ectopic roots in the aerial parts of transgenic poplars. Meanwhile, their overexpression in transgenic poplars affected axillary bud and leaf development. These results suggest that PeWOX11a and PeWOX11b were involved in multiple developmental processes of poplar, especially in adventitious root formation. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying adventitious root formation of poplar. PMID:25998748

  11. Relationship between Crohn's disease, infection with Mycobacterium a vium subspecies paratuberculosis and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in Sardinian patients

    Leonardo A Sechi; Maria Gazouli; Lee E Sieswerda; Paola Molicotti; Niyaz Ahmed; John Ikonomopoulos; Antonio M Scanu; Daniela Paccagnini; Stefania Zanetti

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between Crohn's disease (CD),Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), and genetic factors by examining the role of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene polymorphisms (now SLC11A1) in Sardinian patients with CD and controls.METHODS: Thirty-seven CD patients and 34 controls with no inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were recruited at the University of Sassari after giving written consent. Six SCL11A1 polymorphisms previously reported to be the most significantly associated with IBD were searched.M. paratuberculosis was identified by IS900PCR and sequencing. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the associations among CD,presence of MAP, and 6 loci described above.RESULTS: For the first time, a strong association was observed between polymorphisms at NRAMP1 locus 823C/T and CD. While CD was strongly associated with both NRAMP1 and MAP, NRAMP1 polymorphisms and MAP themselves were not correlated.CONCLUSION: Combined with previous work on the NOD2/CARD15 gene, it is clear that the interplay of genetic, infectious, and immunologic factors in the etiologyof CD is complex.

  12. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1) to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4) was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no. AF325503). ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and transmembrane protease, serine 11A (TMPRSS11A, also known as ECRG1, GenBank accession no. AF071882). Then, p21 protein expression, cell cycle and cell proliferation regulations were examined after ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-transfection in ESCC cells. We revealed for the first time that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 phase block in ESCC. Binding affinity and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 in ESCC cells. Furthermore, the ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-expression remarkably upregulatd p21 protein level by Western blot (P < 0.001), induced cell cycle G1 phase block by flow cytometric analysis (P < 0.001) and suppressed cell proliferation by MTT and BrdU assay (both P < 0.01) in ESCC cells. ECRG4 interacts directly with ECRG1 to upregulate p21 protein expression, induce cell cycle G1 phase block and inhibit cancer cells proliferation in ESCC

  13. A novel tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 interacts directly with TMPRSS11A (ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell growth in esophageal carcinoma

    Zhou Yun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The esophageal carcinoma related gene 4 (ECRG4 was initially identified and cloned from human normal esophageal epithelium in our laboratory (GenBank accession no.AF325503. ECRG4 has been described as a novel tumor suppressor gene associated with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Methods In this study, binding affinity assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation experiment in vivo were utilized to verify the physical interaction between ECRG4 and transmembrane protease, serine 11A (TMPRSS11A, also known as ECRG1, GenBank accession no. AF 071882. Then, p21 protein expression, cell cycle and cell proliferation regulations were examined after ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-transfection in ESCC cells. Results We revealed for the first time that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell cycle G1 phase block in ESCC. Binding affinity and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that ECRG4 interacted directly with ECRG1 in ESCC cells. Furthermore, the ECRG4 and ECRG1 co-expression remarkably upregulatd p21 protein level by Western blot (P Conclusions ECRG4 interacts directly with ECRG1 to upregulate p21 protein expression, induce cell cycle G1 phase block and inhibit cancer cells proliferation in ESCC.

  14. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can provide a substantial benefit in spacecraft systems, reducing launch weight and providing unprecedented flexibility by allowing instrumentation capabilities to grow and change over time. Achieving data transport reliability on par with that of wired systems, however, can prove extremely challenging in practice. Fortunately, much progress has been made in developing standard WSN radio protocols for applications from non-critical home automation to mission-critical industrial process control. The relative performances of candidate protocols must be compared in representative aerospace environments, however, to determine their suitability for spaceflight applications. In this paper, we will present the results of a rigorous laboratory analysis of the performance of two standards-based, low power, low data rate WSN protocols: ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a. Both are based on IEEE 802.15.4 and augment that standard's specifications to build complete, multi-hop networking stacks. ZigBee Pro targets primarily the home and office automation markets, providing an ad-hoc protocol that is computationally lightweight and easy to implement in inexpensive system-on-a-chip components. As a result of this simplicity, however, ZigBee Pro can be susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference. ISA100.11a, on the other hand, targets the industrial process control market, providing a robust, centrally-managed protocol capable of tolerating a significant amount of RF interference. To achieve these gains, a coordinated channel hopping mechanism is employed, which entails a greater computational complexity than ZigBee and requires more sophisticated and costly hardware. To guide future aerospace deployments, we must understand how well these standards relatively perform in analog environments under expected operating conditions. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating goodput -- application level throughput -- in a representative crewed environment

  15. Association of variants at BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB with hemoglobin F and hospitalization rates among sickle cell patients in Cameroon.

    Ambroise Wonkam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at loci influencing adult levels of HbF have been shown to modify the clinical course of sickle cell disease (SCD. Data on this important aspect of SCD have not yet been reported from West Africa. We investigated the relationship between HbF levels and the relevant genetic loci in 610 patients with SCD (98% HbSS homozygotes from Cameroon, and compared the results to a well-characterized African-American cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Socio-demographic and clinical features were collected and medical records reviewed. Only patients >5 years old, who had not received a blood transfusion or treatment with hydroxyurea were included. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and a full blood count were conducted upon arrival at the hospital. RFLP-PCR was used to describe the HBB gene haplotypes. SNaPshot PCR, Capillary electrophoresis and cycle sequencing were used for the genotyping of 10 selected SNPs. Genetic analysis was performed with PLINK software and statistical models in the statistical package R. Allele frequencies of relevant variants at BCL11A were similar to those detected in African Americans; although the relationships with Hb F were significant (p <.001, they explained substantially less of the variance in HbF than was observed among African Americans (∼ 2% vs 10%. SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region (HMIP likewise had a significant impact on HbF, however, we did not find an association between HbF and the variations in HBB cluster and OR51B5/6 locus on chromosome 11p, due in part to the virtual absence of the Senegal and Indian Arab haplotypes. We also found evidence that selected SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region (HMIP and BCL11A affect both other hematological indices and rates of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This study has confirmed the associations of SNPs in BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB and fetal haemoglobin in Cameroonian SCA patients; hematological indices and hospitalization rates were also associated with specific allelic variants.

  16. (6aS,11aR,11cS-8-Sulfanylidene-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracen-3a-ium chloride hemihydrate

    Liang Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H23N2S+·Cl−·0.5H2O, was prepared from (6aS,11aR,11cS-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracene-8-one (sophocarpine and Lawesson's reagent. The thione-substituted ring is in an envelope conformation and the three other six-membered rings are in chair conformations. In the crystal, anions and cations are linked by N—H...Cl and weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. One 0.5-occupancy solvent water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis and another 0.25-occupancy solvent water molecule is in a general position. The H atoms of these water molecules were not located or included in the refinement.

  17. Performance Comparison of AODV and OLSR Using 802.11A And DSRC (802.11P Protocols in Urban Vanets

    Ederval Pablo Ferreira da Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is a network formed purely among vehicles without presence of anycommunication infrastructure as base stations and/or access point. Frequent topological changes due tohigh mobility is one of the main issues in VANETs. In this paper we evaluate Ad-hoc On-Demand DistanceVector (AODV and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR routing protocols using 802.11a and 802.11p ina realistic urban scenario. For this comparison, we chose five performance metrics: Path Availability, Endto-End Delay, Number of Created Paths, Path Length and Path Duration. Simulation results show, that formost of the metrics evaluated, OLSR outperforms AODV when 802.11p and that 802.11p is more efficientin urban VANETs.

  18. The use of retardion 11A8 amphoteric ion exchange resin for separation and determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis

    In this work the ion exchange separation scheme with the use of amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 underlying the method for the determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis has been devised. The accuracy of the elaborated method was tested by determining Cd and Zn content in two reference materials: Lake Sediment (SL-1) of environmental and Zinnwaldite ZW-C of geological origin. The results of quantitative determinations show good agreement with the certified values. Gamma ray spectra of zinc and cadmium fractions are practically free from other activities apart from those, which are normally observed in the background. Analytical results were corrected for the blank resulting from using reagents, glassware and contact with atmosphere when isolation of analytes before neutron activation is accomplished. Considerable minimization and good reproducibility of the blank was finally achieved.(authors)

  19. A high-linearity InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier for IEEE 802.11a/n

    Cui Jie; Chen Lei; Kang Chunlei; Shi Jia; Zhang Xuguang; Ai Baoli; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A three-stage 4.8-6 GHz monolithic power amplifier (PA) compatible with IEEE 802.11 a/n designed based on an advanced 2 μm InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT) process is presented.The PA integrates input matching and closed-loop power control circuits on chip.Under 3.3 V DC bias,the amplifier achieves a ~31 dB small signal gain,excellent wide band input and output matching among overall 1.2 GHz bandwidth,and up to 24.5 dBm linear output power below EVM 3% with IEEE 802.1 la 64QAM OFDM input signal.

  20. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Palaeomagnetic results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Abrahamsen, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of thec. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden part of thelower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age, the top (exposed part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian ageand the middle and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian. Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from mostPalaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence of 20 specimens from one solid core (1½ m in length and 26 sidewall cores from the well between –2219 and –3531 m below sea level (b.s.l. suggest that the volcanic materials can be divided into two characteristic groups: solid unaltered basalts and altered basalts and tuffs. The magnetic properties are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at 2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented as all specimens appear to be from one flow. Magnetic logging (magnetic susceptibility and field intensity down to 3515 m b.s.l. was made in Lopra-1/1A together with other geophysical logs but did not yield conclusive inclination data.

  1. Influence of the solar radiation on the WI-FI networks performance in the 5 ghz band (802.11a

    Carlos Orlando Chávez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental intention of this investigation was the analysis of the influence of the solar radiation on the Wi-Fi networks performance that operate in the 5 GHz band (802.11a, with the purpose of determining to what extent the incident solar radiation affects the performance of these networks in terms of throughput and the percentage of lost packages. For the data collection of performance a test Wi-Fi network was designed and implemented operating in the 5 GHz band formed in Ad-Hoc mode and, with the aid of a wireless sniffer, throughput and loss of package were obtained; at the same time the data of solar radiation provided by the weather station of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of the University of Zulia was analyzed. The obtained results indicate that the solar radiation exerts a significant influence on the performance of the Wi-Fi networks that operate in the 5 GHz band. In order to reach this conclusion, a performance index was created based on throughput and the loss of packages that, once quantified, was tabulated together with the values solar radiation values later to make a statistical analysis of regression and correlation of variables. The obtained finding serves as reference to companies as to network professionals, in order that they take in consideration this meteorological parameter at the moment of implementing networks that operate in the 5 GHz bands in geographical areas with the climatic characteristics of the Maracaibo.Key words: Solar radiation, WiFi Networks 802.11a, performance, throughput, loss of packages, to sniffer.

  2. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Thermal structure of the deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands

    Breiner, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available nformation on temperature, temperature gradients, thermal conductivity and heat flow from the c. 3.5 km deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands is presented and analysed. The upper 2450 m of the drilled sequence consists of thick tholeiitic basalt flows and the deeper parts of hyaloclastites and thin beds of basalt. Temperature data originate from high precision temperature logging a long time after drilling to a depth of 2175 m (the original Lopra-1 borehole and from commercial temperature logs measured a short time after drilling to a depth of 3430 m (Lopra-1/1A. The high-precision temperature log determines accurately levels of inflow of groundwater to the borehole and significantthermal disturbances to a depth of c. 1250 m. Below 1300 m, no significant disturbances are seen and interval temperature gradients for large depth intervals show only small variations between 28 and 33°C/km. The mean least-squares gradient for the depth interval of 1400–3430 m is 31.4°C/ km. In clear contrast to these overall very homogeneous, large-interval, mean temperature gradients, great local variability, between gradients of 20–25°C/km and 45°C/km, was observed between about 1300 and 2175 m (maximum depth of the high-resolution temperature log. These gradient variations are interpreted to be due to thermal conductivity variations and to reflect varying secondary mineralisation and mineral alterations.A preliminary analysis of the Lopra-1/1A temperature–depth function in terms of long-term palaeoclimatic signals indicates subsurface temperatures below about 1300 m to be in equilibrium with mean surface temperatures significantly below zero during the last glacial period. A subsequent temperature increase of 12–16°C occurred at around the termination of the last glaciation. The measured temperatures (some after correction and the thermal regime below 1300 m seem to represent conductive equilibrium conditions without significant disturbances from the effect of drilling, groundwater flow or long-term palaeoclimatic surface temperature variations.Thermal conductivity measured on samples of basalt taken from drill cores and surface outcrops in the area of the borehole shows values within a rather narrow range and a well-defined mean value forlow porosity basalts of about 1.8 W/m°C , while a few samples of lapilli-tuff/tuff from the borehole gave values around 1.9 W/m°C . Lapilli-tuff and tuff seem to have higher matrix (grain conductivitythan basalt. Heat flow is estimated at 60 ± 5 mW/m2. A heat flow of this magnitude is consistent with the Faroe Islands being underlain by continental crust.

  3. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CMAB001, an anti-CD11a antibody, in Chinese healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients

    Xian-ping LI; Ya-jun GUO; Jing LI; Heng YAN; BO ZHOU; Bo-hua LI; Wei-zhu QIAN; Sheng HOU; Hao WANG; Fei HAO

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK),pharmacodynamics (PD) and primary tolerability of an anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody (CMAB001) in Chinese healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients.Methods:Two open-label studies were conducted.One was a parallel-group,single-center,dose-escalation test,including 24 healthy adult volunteers from 18 to 45 years in age.All subjects randomly received a single subcutaneous injection dose of 0.5,1.0,or 2.0 mg/kg.The other was a multiple-dose study:10 adult psoriatic patients were administered weekly subcutaneous injections of 1.0 mg/kg for 7 weeks.Results:CMAB001 was well tolerated in the single- and multiple-dose studies.Slow absorption was observed in both studies.In the single-dose study,the concentration of CMAB001 reached its highest level 2 d later after the injection,and the Cmax increased in an approximate dose-proportionate manner,while the area under curve (AUC) showed much greater than dose-proportionate increase.In the multiple-dose study,the steady-state serum concentration level was attained following the 4th injection.Conclusion:CMAB001 exhibited a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile over the dose range from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/kg,and was well tolerated in healthy volunteers and psoriatic patients.

  4. Annotated definition of BCL11A and HMIP-2 haplotypes through the analysis of sicilian β-thalassemia patients with high levels of fetal hemoglobin.

    Buccheri, Maria A; Spina, Sonia; Ruberto, Concetta; Lombardo, Turi; Labie, Dominique; Ragusa, And Angela

    2013-01-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) is the principal ameliorating factor of β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell disease. Persistent production in adult life is a quantitative trait regulated by loci inside or outside the β-globin gene cluster. From genome-wide association studies, principal quantitative trait loci (QTL) (accounting for 50.0% of Hb F variability in different populations) have been identified in the BCL11A gene, HBS1L-MYB intergenic polymorphism and the β-globin gene cluster itself. In this study, we analyzed quantitative trait haplotypes in two Sicilian families with extremely mild β-thal and unusually high Hb F expression, in order to examine possible genetic background variations in a similar β-thalassemic phenotype. This study redefines the linkage disequilibrium blocks at these loci, but also shows slight differences between probands in haplotype combinations which could reflect different mechanisms of high Hb F production in patients with β-thal. We proposed a haplotype-based approach as a useful tool for the understanding of β-thal phenotype variation in patients with similar β-thalassemic backgrounds in an attempt to answer the recurring question of why patients with the same β-thalassemic genotype show different phenotypes. PMID:23777413

  5. 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier and power amplifier driver for WLAN IEEE 802.11a transmitter front-end

    Zhang Xuelian; Yan Jun; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Foster, Dai Fa, E-mail: xlzhang@semi.ac.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier (VGA) and a power amplifier (PA) driver are designed for WLAN IEEE 802.11a monolithic RFIC. The VGA and the PA driver are implemented in a 50 GHz 0.35 mum SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupy 1.12 x 1.25 mm{sup 2} die area. The VGA with effective temperature compensation is controlled by 5 bits and has a gain range of 34 dB. The PA driver with tuned loads utilizes a differential input, single-ended output topology, and the tuned loads resonate at 5.2 GHz. The maximum overall gain of the VGA and the PA driver is 29 dB with the output third-order intercept point (OIP3) of 11 dBm. The gain drift over the temperature varying from -30 to 85 deg. C converges within +-3 dB. The total current consumption is 45 mA under a 2.85 V power supply.

  6. 8.64-11.62 GHz CMOS VCO and divider in a zero-IF 802.11a/b/g WLAN and Bluetooth application

    Sun Yu; Mei Niansong; Lu Bo; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yumeihuang@fudan.edu.c [ASIC and System State Key Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-10-15

    A fully integrated VCO and divider implemented in SMIC 0.13-{mu}m RFCMOS 1P8M technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage is presented. The frequency of the VCO is tuning from 8.64 to 11.62 GHz while the quadrature LO signals for 802.11a WLAN in 5.8 GHz band or for 802.11b/g WLAN and Bluetooth in 2.4 GHz band can be obtained by a frequency division by 2 or 4, respectively. A 6 bit switched capacitor array is applied for precise tuning of all necessary frequency bands. The testing results show that the VCO has a phase noise of-113 dBc - 1 MHz offset from the carrier of 5.5 GHz by dividing VCO output by two and the VCO core consumes 3.72 mW. The figure-of-merit for the tuning-range (FOM{sub T}) of the VCO is -192.6 dBc/Hz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Analyses of the Temporal Development and Yield Losses due to Sheath Blight of Rice (Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a)

    2007-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a, has become the most important disease and caused serious yield losses in some major rice-growing regions in China in recent years. In the present study, field plot experiment was conducted to examine the relationships between disease intensity and inoculum density (ID), the seasonal disease epidemic dynamics, and yield reductions due to disease damages. Results from the experiment demonstrated that the areas under progress curves of disease severity and those of percent rice tillers diseased were positively and closely related to the relative initial ID of the pathogen. The inoculum density-disease (IDD) relationships were simulated and the impractical linear models were obtained. Both logistic and Gompertz functions could be used to simulate the disease progress dynamics in time, but the progress curves of the disease severity were modeled better by the Gompertz than by logistic function. However, the Richards function was found to be the best in simulating the disease progress curves when a most appropriate value was chosen for the shape parameter m by using the computer software Epitimulator(R).Sheath blight infection decreased rice yield very significantly and a yield reduction of 40% was recorded in rice crop with the highest inoculum density. Rice yield was linearly and negatively correlated with the disease severity and the percent tillers affected. The simulated models for all these relationships were computed through executing Epitimulator(R) software and were presented in this paper.

  8. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  9. 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier and power amplifier driver for WLAN IEEE 802.11a transmitter front-end

    A 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier (VGA) and a power amplifier (PA) driver are designed for WLAN IEEE 802.11a monolithic RFIC. The VGA and the PA driver are implemented in a 50 GHz 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupy 1.12 x 1.25 mm2 die area. The VGA with effective temperature compensation is controlled by 5 bits and has a gain range of 34 dB. The PA driver with tuned loads utilizes a differential input, single-ended output topology, and the tuned loads resonate at 5.2 GHz. The maximum overall gain of the VGA and the PA driver is 29 dB with the output third-order intercept point (OIP3) of 11 dBm. The gain drift over the temperature varying from -30 to 85 deg. C converges within ±3 dB. The total current consumption is 45 mA under a 2.85 V power supply.

  10. 8.64-11.62 GHz CMOS VCO and divider in a zero-IF 802.11a/b/g WLAN and Bluetooth application

    A fully integrated VCO and divider implemented in SMIC 0.13-μm RFCMOS 1P8M technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage is presented. The frequency of the VCO is tuning from 8.64 to 11.62 GHz while the quadrature LO signals for 802.11a WLAN in 5.8 GHz band or for 802.11b/g WLAN and Bluetooth in 2.4 GHz band can be obtained by a frequency division by 2 or 4, respectively. A 6 bit switched capacitor array is applied for precise tuning of all necessary frequency bands. The testing results show that the VCO has a phase noise of-113 dBc - 1 MHz offset from the carrier of 5.5 GHz by dividing VCO output by two and the VCO core consumes 3.72 mW. The figure-of-merit for the tuning-range (FOMT) of the VCO is -192.6 dBc/Hz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. Fluorosis y caries dental en niños de 9 a 11 años del estado de Aguascalientes, México

    Virginia Hernández Montoya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aguascalientes presenta contenido de fluoruros superior a 1.5 mg/L. A pesar de que existe una exposición crónica a los fluoruros a través del agua para consumo humano en este estado, se han realizado pocos estudios para establecer los daños en la salud pública ocasionados por la ingesta de fluoruros. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer las prevalencias de fluorosis y caries dental en 445 niños con una edad entre 9 y 11 años que residían en diferentes zonas de exposición a fluoruros del estado de Aguascalientes. Se encontraron prevalencias de fluorosis dental cercanas al 100 % en aquellas regiones donde el agua para consumo presentó concentración de fluoruros superior a 5.0 mg/L. Inclusive en las zonas donde el contenido de fluoruros en el agua para consumo era inferior a 1.5 mg/L, las prevalencias de fluorosis dental fueron superiores al 50 %. Se encontró que el 76 % de los niños que participaron en este estudio presentaron caries dental. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio confirman la presencia de un problema de salud pública de fluorosis dental en esta entidad mexicana.

  12. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years Bruxismo y funcionamiento familiar en escolares de 5 a 11 años

    Jeny Fernández Martínez

    2009-01-01

    >Fundamento: El bruxismo, hábito perjudicial muy frecuente en niños, se asocia a menudo con conflictos emocionales, ansiedad, estrés o frustración, que bien pueden darse en el entorno familiar Objetivo: Caracterizar el funcionamiento de familias con niños de 5 a 11 años que padecen de bruxismo. Métodos: Estudio con diseño analítico de caso y control, desarrollado de marzo a junio del 2007, que incluyó niños de 5 a 11 años de 3 escuelas primarias urbanas del Área II del municipio de Cienfuegos. Se seleccionó la totalidad de niños con bruxismo como casos y los controles por pareamiento de 2 a 1. Mediante la prueba FF–SIL se percibió el funcionamiento familiar. Resultados: El bruxismo en la muestra de estudio no dependió del sexo, se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de caso y control respecto al comportamiento de los componentes del funcionamiento familiar, en los que resultaron la afectividad y la cohesión las de mayor resultado y en menor grado la armonía. En las familias estudiadas predominaron las funcionales y las moderadamente funcionales. La mayor cantidad de niños con bruxismo proceden de familias en las cuales no existe un funcionamiento familiar adecuado, además las familias disfuncionales y severamente disfuncionales son mayores en el grupo de niños con bruxismo. Conclusiones: En la muestra estudiada el bruxismo estuvo relacionado, en gran medida, con el funcionamiento familiar inadecuado.

  13. ANÁLISIS DE MÁXIMO DESEMPEÑO PARA WLAN OPERANDO A TASAS FIJAS O ADAPTIVAS USANDO EL ESTÁNDAR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g FIXED OR ADAPTIVE RATE MAXIMUM THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS FOR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g WLAN'S

    Walter Grote H; Claudio Ávila C; Alexis Molina B

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un análisis simple, pero efectivo, de desempeño (throughput) de redes de área local inalámbricas (WLAN: Wireless Local Area Networks) operando bajo la familia de estándares IEEE 802.11 a/b/g. El análisis considera la influencia del tamaño de los paquetes, parámetros de configuración de los dispositivos (uso del protocolo RTS/CTS o acceso básico, tamaño de la ventana de contienda inicial, tasas de transmisión) como el efecto del número de dispositivos que conforman ...

  14. ANÁLISIS DE MÁXIMO DESEMPEÑO PARA WLAN OPERANDO A TASAS FIJAS O ADAPTIVAS USANDO EL ESTÁNDAR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g FIXED OR ADAPTIVE RATE MAXIMUM THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS FOR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g WLAN'S

    Walter Grote H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis simple, pero efectivo, de desempeño (throughput de redes de área local inalámbricas (WLAN: Wireless Local Area Networks operando bajo la familia de estándares IEEE 802.11 a/b/g. El análisis considera la influencia del tamaño de los paquetes, parámetros de configuración de los dispositivos (uso del protocolo RTS/CTS o acceso básico, tamaño de la ventana de contienda inicial, tasas de transmisión como el efecto del número de dispositivos que conforman la red. El objetivo de este estudio es que los administradores de este tipo de redes puedan estimar los efectos que tiene sobre el desempeño la configuración de los dispositivos de la red. Los resultados obtenidos mediante este análisis constituyen una cota máxima del desempeño de la red, ya que, con el objetivo de evitar un análisis estocástico, se asume ausencia de colisiones e interferencia electromagnética en el canalIn this publication a simple, but effective, throughput analysis for WLANs (Wireless Local Area Networks operating according to the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g family of standards is presented. The influence of data packet sizes, device configuration parameters (RTS/CTS or basic access protocol, initial contention window, transmission rate and the effect of the number of devices of the network are considered. The purpose of this study is to provide network administrators an insight of how network configuration parameters affect network performance. Results of this kind of analysis will provide an upper bound on network performance, since they do not consider the effect of collisions and electromagnetic interference

  15. Features of Terra MOD11A2DAY in Operational Forecastof Grain Crops Yield in Kazakhstan with AN 8 Day Renewal

    Terekhov, A.

    2011-08-01

    The Kazakhstan, with export capacity of 6-8 million tons, is one of the largest wheat exporter in the world. About 16 million hectares of unirrigated land is used for monocultural cultivation of cereals (wheat and barley). Most of the cropland is located in the steppe and forest steppe zone. The moisture deficit limits the crop productivity and creates a strong dependency of its state of the moisture conditions during vegetation season. In Kazakhstan, the average grain yield variations are sufficiently large, from 0.9 (2010) to 1.4 tonha (2007). Given the high volatility of the gross grain harvest and export potential, respectively, methods of early satellite forecast of grain yield with high frequency of the renewal are of the great interest. In Kazakhstan, the variations in the weather growing season determine the yield of grain crops. By significant weather parameters include: the spring soil moisture, humidity and air temperature, rainfall, and several others. Plants respond to the sum of all parameters through the volume of green biomass. The regional cereal state can be estimated from satellite vegetation indices, which are particularly informative in the period of its seasonal peak. Another satellite parameter closely related to humidity conditions may be the land surface temperature (LST). Product USGS: TERRA MOD11A2DAY represents the 8-days LST composite was tested in the task of estimating of arable lands temperature in Northern Kazakhstan. The description of the temperature conditions of the growing season based on the temperature calibrated index (TCI), which was introduced by Kogan. TCI provides a weighted assessment of the current LST on a scale of 0-100, where 0 - the lowest, respectively, 100 as a high temperature, recorded during the observation period at a given location at a given time window. The monitoring period included 2004-2010 years. During the beginning of the growing season was taken on April 15, season end on 20 August - ripeness stage

  16. Determination of CTX equilibria

    The method by which we determine the magnetic field equilibrium for CTX in a nonperturbing manner is presented. Measurements of flux conserver image currents are combined with calculations from a numerical model of the equilibrium. Results give equilibria which differ significantly from the minimum energy state, but the equilibria data are well-described by a model where j/B has a linear dependence on the poloidal flux function. The observation of non-disruptive rotating internal kink distortions (with toroidal mode numbers n = 1, 2 and 3) within the equilibria and theoretical MHD thresholds for the onset of these modes corroborate the inferred equilibria

  17. CTX-M Enzymes: Origin and Diffusion

    Cantón, Rafael; González-Alba, José María; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases are considered a paradigm in the evolution of a resistance mechanism. Incorporation of different chromosomal bla CTX-M related genes from different species of Kluyvera has derived in different CTX-M clusters. In silico analyses have shown that this event has occurred at least nine times; in CTX-M-1 cluster (3), CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 clusters (2 each), and CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 clusters (1 each). This has been mainly produced by the participation of genetic mobilization units s...

  18. CTX-M enzymes: origin and diffusion

    RafaelCanton

    2012-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases are considered a paradigm in the evolution of a resistance mechanism. Incorporation of different chromosomal blaCTX-M related genes from different species of Kluyvera has derived in different CTX-M clusters. In silico analyses have shown that this event has occurred at least nine times; in CTX-M-1 cluster (3), CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 clusters (2 each), and CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 clusters (1 each). This has been mainly produced by the participation of genetic mobilization units su...

  19. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: A reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions in fracture-filling quartz and calcite from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Fracture-filling calcite and quartz from the Lopra-1/1A well (at 2380 m and 3543 m depth contains both aqueous low-salinity fluid inclusions and hydrocarbon-dominated fluid inclusions. Microthermometry indicates that the aqueous fluids contain 0.2 to 1.4 equivalent weight% NaCl and occasionally contain traces of hydrocarbons. Homogenisation to liquid occurred between 90°C and 150°C. Modelling based on these fluid inclusion observations indicates that during burial the basaltic section was subjected to temperatures of 160°C and 170°C, occasional pressures of 600–700 bars and the simultaneous percolation of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. These fluid conditions may also be relevant to the formation of zeolite observed in the Lopra-1/1A well.

  20. Positively selected Leu-11a (CD16+) cells require the presence of accessory cells or factors for the lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected fibroblasts but not herpes simplex virus-infected Raji.

    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P; Feldman, M; Curl, S; Schnell, J; Denny, T

    1989-08-15

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that human NK activity against HSV-infected fibroblasts (HSV-Fs) but not K562 targets was sensitive to treatment with anti-HLA-DR plus C. In the current study, we have selected Leu-11a+ (CD-16) cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting and found that although Leu-11a enriched populations lysed K562 targets in 14-h 51Cr-release assays, they were unable to kill HSV-Fs targets unless a Leu-11a-depleted population was added back to the effectors or unless known activators of NK cells (IFN-alpha or IL-2) were added to the assays. In contrast, Leu-11a-enriched populations were able to mediate ADCC against HSV-Fs in the presence of sera from HSV-seropositive individuals without the requirement for accessory cells. We have begun preliminary characterization of the accessory cells which allow lysis of HSV-Fs by NK cells: they are HLA-DR+ cells which enrich in the light density fractions of Metrizamide density gradients. They need be present in very small numbers for lysis to take place and are not MHC restricted in that heterologous add-backs between anti-HLA-DR plus C and anti-Leu-11b plus C-treated populations are capable of target cell lysis at levels similar to those achieved with the autologous add-backs. Further, the levels of lysis in heterologous add-back experiments reflected the lytic potential of the effector rather than the accessory cell donor. Finally, although the requirement for accessory cells for NK lysis has been demonstrated for fibroblasts infected with HSV-1, CMV, and VZV, lysis of HSV-infected Raji lymphoblastoid cells is relatively accessory-cell independent, indicating that the requirement for accessory cells for lysis by NK cells is not a property of all herpesvirus-infected targets. PMID:2526183

  1. Estudo do crescimento e desenvolvimento em escolares de 11 a 16 anos de idade de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Estudo do crescimento e desenvolvimento em escolares de 11 a 16 anos de idade de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Determinação das características do crescimento e desenvolvimento em escolares de diferentes níveis sócio-econômicos. Avaliação de 360 crianças do sexo masculino, de 11 a 16 anos, que estudam na rede de escolas públicas no município de Londrina, Paraná. Foram realizadas medidas de altura, peso corporal, peso de gordura e massa corporal magra. Para determinar o peso de gordura utilizou-se a medida dos valores de dobras cutâneas, segundo padronização de Yuhasz. A população mensurada foi dividida em dois grupos, classificados pelo nível sócio-econômico determinado pela profissão dos pais, atendendo aos critérios da tabela de Glass, modificada por Hutchinson. Comparando-se os resultados obtidos entre o grupo considerado de baixo nível e o de alto nível sócio-econômico, foram verificadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes (P Determination of the characteristics of the growth and development of students of different socio-economic levels. Evaluation of 360 male children, from 11 to 16 years of age, who attend the public schools of the municipality of Londrina, Parana. Measurements of height, bodily weight, weight of fat and lean corporal mass, were taken. To determine the weight of fat, the measurement of the values of the cutaneous folds, following the standardization of Yuhasz, was utilized. The measured population was divided in two groups, classified according to socio-economic level as determined by the father's occupation, considering the criteria of Glass's table, as modified by Hutchinson. Comparing the results obtained in the group considered of low level and in that of high socio-economic level, statistically significant differences (P < 0,01 were verified for all of the variables studied. It was concluded, by the data obtained in this study, that the socio-economic aspect, together with other factors, can influence significantly the pattern of growth and physical development in children between the ages of

  2. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-14 β-Lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae Isolated in France

    Dutour, C.; Bonnet, R.; H. Marchandin; Boyer, M.; Chanal, C; Sirot, D; Sirot, J

    2002-01-01

    Six clinical CTX-M-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae were detected between 1999 and 2000 in different French hospitals. Two strains produced CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-3 and four strains produced CTX-M-14, a mutant Ala-231→Val of CTX-M-9. A putative transposable element, ISEcp-1, was located 43 bp upstream of all the blaCTX-M genes. Two CTX-M-14-encoding plasmids exhibited similar restriction patterns. The CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-3-encoding plasmids were related to the CTX-M-1- and CTX-M-...

  3. Congenital insensitivity to pain: Fracturing without apparent skeletal pathobiology caused by an autosomal dominant, second mutation in SCN11A encoding voltage-gated sodium channel 1.9.

    Phatarakijnirund, Voraluck; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Wenkert, Deborah; Clements, Karen L; Whyte, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) comprises the rare heritable disorders without peripheral neuropathy that feature inability to feel pain. Fracturing and joint destruction are common complications, but lack detailed studies of mineral and skeletal homeostasis and bone histology. In 2013, discovery of a heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in SCN11A encoding voltage-gated sodium channel 1.9 (Nav1.9) established a distinctive CIP in three unrelated patients who suffered multiple painless fractures, self-inflicted mutilation, chronic diarrhea, and hyperhidrosis. Here, we studied a mother and two children with CIP by physical examination, biochemical testing, radiological imaging including DXA, iliac crest histology, and mutation analysis. She suffered fractures primarily of her lower extremities beginning at age two years, and had Charcot deformity of both ankles and joint hypermobility. Nerve conduction velocity together with electromyography were normal. Her children had recurrent major fractures beginning in early childhood, joint hypermobility, and chronic diarrhea. She had an excoriated external nare, and both children had hypertrophic scars from scratching. Skin collagen studies were normal. Radiographs revealed fractures and deformities. However, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores, biochemical parameters of mineral and skeletal homeostasis, and iliac crest histology of the mother (after in vivo tetracycline labeling) were normal. Genomic DNA from the children revealed a unique heterozygous missense mutation in exon 23 (c.3904C>T, p.Leu1302Phe) of SCN11A that is absent in SNP databases and alters an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. This autosomal dominant CIP reflects the second gain-of-function mutation of SCN11A. Perhaps joint hypermobility is an unreported feature. How mutation of Nav1.9 causes fracturing remains unexplained. Lack of injury awareness is typically offered as the reason, and was supported by our unremarkable biochemical

  4. The Impact of XmnI-HBG2, BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Hb F Variation of Hematologically Normal Iranian Individuals.

    Keyhani, Elaheh; Jafari Vesiehsari, Mahjoobeh; Talebi Kakroodi, Setareh; Darabi, Elham; Zamani, Fahimeh; Karimlou, Masoud; Kamali, Koorosh; Neishabury, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    The impact of Hb F on severity of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia (β-thal) is well documented. The XmnI-HBG2, BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been introduced as the most important factors causing variation in fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in different population studies. However, the extent of their effect could be population-specific. In this study, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of Hb F with age, sex, and eight SNPs, including XmnI-HBG2, four BCL11A, two HBS1L-MYB SNPs and the polymorphic palindromic 5' hypersensitive 4-locus control region (5'HS4-LCR). One hundred and twenty-two hematologically normal individuals, from a previous study cohort, constituted our study population. In multivariate regression analyses, no association of Hb F was observed with age or sex of the individuals and SNPs in this study. We conducted a univariate regression analysis to further investigate the results, which among all the factors only detected XmnI-HBG2 and 5'HS4 SNPs as significant modifiers of Hb F. The significance of these two factors disappeared in a bivariate analysis. These results suggest that either XmnI-HBG2 or 5'HS4-LCR have a stronger contribution in Hb F variations of the Iranian population than BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB SNPs. Furthermore, the effect of low population size and technical limitations on obtained results could not be ruled out. PMID:27117569

  5. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona

    M. Castells Cuixart; C. Capdevila Prim; T. Girbau Solà; C. Rodríguez Caba

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como...

  6. Primer molar permanente: historia de caries en un grupo de niños entre los 5 y 11 años frente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres.

    Jorge Tascón; Liliana Aranzazu; Tania Velasco; Karol Trujillo; Mónica Paz

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Describir la historia de caries del primer molar permanente en niños entre 5 y 11 años y los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres. INTRODUCCIÓN: La caries es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, se inicia tras la erupción dental y determina un reblandecimiento de los tejidos duros del diente. El primer molar permanente erupciona entre los 5 y 7 años de edad, no tiene predecesor y es uno de los dientes más afectados por esta enfermedad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS:...

  7. Primer molar permanente: historia de caries en un grupo de niños entre los 5 y 11 años frente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón; Liliana Aranzazu; Tania Velasco; Karol Trujillo; Mónica Paz

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir la historia de caries del primer molar permanente en niños entre 5 y 11 años y los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres. Introducción: La caries es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, se inicia tras la erupción dental y determina un reblandecimiento de los tejidos duros del diente. El primer molar permanente erupciona entre los 5 y 7 años de edad, no tiene predecesor y es uno de los dientes más afectados por esta enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: Para es...

  8. An alternative pathway of vitamin D2 metabolism Cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1)-mediated conversion to 20-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Wortsman, Jacobo; Zjawiony, Jordan; Li, Wei; Zbytek, Blazej; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    We report an alternative, hydroxylating pathway for the metabolism of vitamin D2 in a cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc; CYP11A1) reconstituted system. NMR analyses identified solely 20-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2 derivatives. 20-Hydroxyvitamin D2 was produced at a rate of 0.34 mol·min−1·mol−1 P450scc, and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D2 was produced at a rate of 0.13 mol·min−1·mol−1. In adrenal mitochondria, vitamin D2 was metabolized to six monohydroxy products. Nev...

  9. Dyspraxia 5-11: A Practical Guide.

    Macintyre, Christine

    This book attempts to explain dyspraxia, a coordination disorder, and how the condition affects children of primary school age. The first chapter defines dyspraxia and answers common questions concerning what the condition is, difficulties these children experience, reasons for these difficulties, the prevalence of dyspraxia, and ways to help.…

  10. Spain: Project control. Annex 11A

    This annex deals with project control. This annex presents some details of the suspension program manual as prepared at a Spanish NPP. The manual is a pre-requisite for orderly transformation from construction to extended suspension phase. Table of content of the manual is given. (author)

  11. INFLUENCIA DE LA RADIACIÓN SOLAR SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO DE LAS REDES WI-FI EN LA BANDA DE LOS 5 GHZ (802.11A)

    Carlos Orlando Chávez

    2007-01-01

    El propósito fundamental de esta investigación fue el análisis de la influencia de la radiación solar sobre el desempeño de las redes WI-FI que operan en la banda de los 5 GHz (802.11a), con el fin de determinar en qué medida la radiación solar incidente afecta el desempeño de estas redes en términos de throughput y porcentaje de paquetes perdidos. Para la recolección de datos de desempeño se diseñó e implementó una red WI-FI de prueba operando en la banda de 5 GHz configurada en modo Ad-Hoc ...

  12. NMR analysis of (1S,1aR,6aR-2’,3’,6,6a-tetrahydro-spiro[cycloprop[a]indene-1(1aH,1’-[1H]indene

    PETER SPITELLER

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aldol condensation product of 1H-indan-1-one, (2E-2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one, subjected to Huang–Minlon reduction conditions was shown, via 1D and 2DNMRanalysis, to be amixture of (1S,1aR,6aR-2’,3’,6,6a-tetrahydro-spiro[cycloprop[a]indene-1(1aH,1’-[1H]indene] and its 1R,1aS,6aS enantiomerand not 2,3,1’,3’-tetrahydro-[1,2’]-biindenylidene as originally expected. The full NMR assignment, the coupling constants in the proton NMR, and the couplings in the HMBC and NOESY of the title compound are summarized in the Table.

  13. Extracciones e indicaciones de extracciones dentales en población rural chilena de 11 a 30 años Extractions and indications of dental extractions in rural chilean population give 11 to 30 years

    S. Olate; JP Alister; Soto, M.; R Alveal; J. Fuentes; D. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: A pesar de la creciente tecnología odontológica y el progresivo aumento de la cantidad de odontólogos, el precario estándar de salud oral de la población rural se ha mantenido a lo largo del tiempo. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir y cuantificar las exodoncias de piezas dentarias permanentes en población rural. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo seleccionando el 100% de los sujetos atendidos en el Consultorio Chol-Chol, (IX Región) de 11 a 30 añ...

  14. The interaction domain of the redox protein adrenodoxin is mandatory for binding of the electron acceptor CYP11A1, but is not required for binding of the electron donor adrenodoxin reductase

    Adrenodoxin (Adx) is a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin involved in electron transfer reactions in the steroid hormone biosynthesis of mammals. In this study, we deleted the sequence coding for the complete interaction domain in the Adx cDNA. The expressed recombinant protein consists of the amino acids 1-60, followed by the residues 89-128, and represents only the core domain of Adx (Adx-cd) but still incorporates the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Adx-cd accepts electrons from its natural redox partner, adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), and forms an individual complex with this NADPH-dependent flavoprotein. In contrast, formation of a complex with the natural electron acceptor, CYP11A1, as well as electron transfer to this steroid hydroxylase is prevented. By an electrostatic and van der Waals energy minimization procedure, complexes between AdR and Adx-cd have been proposed which have binding areas different from the native complex. Electron transport remains possible, despite longer electron transfer pathways

  15. CTX-M-93, a CTX-M Variant Lacking Penicillin Hydrolytic Activity

    Djamdjian, L.; Naas, T; Tande, D.; Cuzon, G.; Hanrotel-Saliou, C.; Nordmann, P

    2011-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type are increasingly being reported worldwide, with more than 90 known variants. Clinical Escherichia coli isolate Bre-1 was isolated in 2009 and displayed an unusual ESBL phenotype, made of a synergy image between expanded cephalosporins and clavulanic acid discs and susceptibility to penicillins. E. coli Bre-1 harbored a novel CTX-M-encoding gene, designated blaCTX-M-93. CTX-M-93 differed from CTX-M-27 by only a single L169Q substitution....

  16. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Wire-line log-based stratigraphy of flood basalts from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Boldreel, Lars O.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows that it is possible to use conventional borehole logs to perform a detailed lithological/stratigraphical division of a column of subaerially extruded basalt. A stratigraphical division of the subaerial flood basalts penetrated by the Lopra-1/1A well has been carried out using new wire-line logging data measured in 1996 in the interval 200–2489 m depth. Resistivity data acquired in the interval 200–2178 m depth during 1981 after the initial drilling of the Lopra-1 well have also been incorporated. Eighty-six individual flow units, 18 compound flows and two dolerite dykes have been identified by combining the NPHI porosity, RHOB density, P-, S- and Stonely-sonic transit time, calliper and resistivity logs. Fifty-two sedimentary/tuffaceous layers have also been identified using the CGR and SGR gamma ray and potassium logs in combination with the aforementioned logs. Within the flow units, sonic velocity, density and resistivity are highest in the core where porosity is lowest. This relation is reversed in the uppermost and basal zones of the flow units. The sonic velocity in the core seems to be independent of the thickness of the flow unit. Porous zones seem abundant in some cores and the total section of cores containing porous zones constitutes more than 70% of the thickness of its flow unit, but where porous zones are absent the core makes up only roughly 50% of the thickness of the flow. It is suggested that the flow units with porous cores represent aa flows (88% of the flow units and the others pahoehoe flows (12% of the flow units.The log pattern of the flow units (crust, core and basal zone is similar to log patterns reported from other basalt plateaux. However the patterns in Lopra-1/1A show a larger variation than elsewhere,suggesting that the flow units are more complex vertically than previously thought. Statistical analysis of P-, S- and Stonely-waves, RHOB, NPHI, resistivity, gamma and calliper logs has beencarried out. Cross-plots based on the lithological divisions have been produced that show a pronounced reduction in scattering versus P-sonic transit time and P- and S-sonic, RHOB and NPHI logs correlate with depth. The geochemical logs do not reflect the cyclic structure of the flow units and probably represent the primary composition of the basalt. The thorium log especially indicatesflow units with high and low radioactivity and it is suggested that a minimum of 36 flow fields form the logged part of the lower basalt series. Dolerite units described in previous works have been confirmed based on the combined interpretation of wire-line logs. The log data suggest that the subaerially extruded basalt has its base at a depth of approximately 2490 m and that a hyaloclastite succession is found below that depth. The transition from subaerially extruded basalt to hyaloclastite produces a negative acoustic impedance and it is found that the transition corresponds to a negative reflection interpreted on VSP surveys from 1988 and 1994.

  17. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  18. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

    Maureen Janette Más García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 children from three clinics of the quarter “Junco Sur” in Cienfuegos developed from June 2005 to June 2006. The clinical examination was performed in children, and their parents or tutors were interviewed. The frequency of buccal deforming habits was determined, as well as the presence of dental maxillofacial defects. Results: Deforming habits were identified in 60, 2% of the children; the most frequent were baby bottle suction (48%, finger suction (24% at six years old and lingual protraction at eight years (36,1% in girls. The dental maxillary-facial defects occurred in the 42,6% and there was a prevalence of vestibule-version at eight years (44,4%, augmented ridge at 10 years (35,4% and bilabial incompetence at 11 years (13,3%, all of them in girls. There was prevalence in Angle´s Class I with 60, 1%. Conclusion: Buccal deforming habits are a health problem in the studied universe.Fundamento: Para tratar malos hábitos, el primer paso es la detección del agente causal. Muchos se derivan de situaciones comunes que al ser detectadas y adecuadamente tratadas pueden contribuir a la desaparición espontánea del mal hábito. Objetivo: Caracterizar un grupo de niños de 5 a 11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional que incluyó 176 niños de tres consultorios del Consejo Popular “Junco Sur” de Cienfuegos, desarrollado de junio de 2005 a

  19. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  20. Forsmark site investigation. Microorganisms in groundwater from boreholes KFM10A, KFM11A and KFM08D - numbers, viability, and metabolic diversity. Results from five sections 298.0-305.1 m and 478.0-487.5 m in KFM10A, 447.5-454.6 m in KFM11A, and 669.7-676.8 m and 828.4-835.5 m in KFM08D

    Microorganisms and their characteristic features were investigated while geochemically characterizing the groundwater, as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark. The investigation consists of determining the total numbers of microorganisms, the concentration of adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP), and the number of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB); also included is a method for determining the numbers of organisms belonging to different physiological groups, the most probable number (MPN) method. This investigation covered eight different groups, namely, nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria, auto- and heterotrophic acetogens, and auto- and heterotrophic methanogens. The reproducibility of the MPN method was tested using groundwater from a depth of 450 m at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and was found to be excellent. Samples were taken from boreholes KFM10A at 298.305 m and 478.487 m, KFM11A at 447.454 m, and KFM08D at 669.676 m and 828.835 m; the sampling dates were 2006-11-28, 2006-10-31, 2007-03-13, 2007-06-19, and 2007-05-02, respectively. The total number of cells (TNC) found in KFM10A groundwater was the highest so far found in a total of 19 analysed sections in the Forsmark area. In contrast, KFM08D-828 m and KFM11A-447 m had among the lowest numbers of cells found thus far. A large amount of ATP per cell indicates large, active cells. The average of all previous ATP/TNC ratios (n ≅ 100) in deep groundwater was determined to be 0.43. The analysed groundwater samples from KFM10A-478 m and KFM08D-669 m had ATP/TNC ratios exceeding the overall average of 0.43 for deep groundwater. This suggests that the microorganisms in these groundwaters possessed viability and activity levels above the average for deep groundwater microorganisms. The ratios between the CHAB and NRB numbers found here suggest that there was no surface water contamination. The percentages of TNC culturable using the MPN method were in the 1

  1. Occurrence of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-9 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Korea

    Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Young-Sook; Seol, Sung-Yong

    2005-01-01

    Among 603 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between June and November 2003 from three university hospitals within Korea, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-9 were detected in 41 isolates of species from five different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens.

  2. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  3. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DEFNAT (Tunisia) and the BIPM February to March 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Ben Salah, B.; Mallat, A.; Abene, L.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Laboratoire de Métrologie Electrique, DEFNAT (Tunisia), was carried out from February to March 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMC (ZC) and BIPM6 (Z6), were transported by freight to DEFNAT and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a BIPM in-house voltage stabiliser was connected in parallel to the internal battery. The voltage stabiliser consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for 10 consecutive days. At DEFNAT, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DEFNAT, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DEFNAT, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DEFNAT, UDEFNAT, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 26th of February 2016. UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.04 μV, at 1.018 V UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.38 μV uc = 0.10 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  4. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DMDM (Serbia) and the BIPM, January to March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Pantelic-Babic, J.; Sofranac, Z.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM), Beograd, Serbia, was carried out from January to March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMA (ZA), were transported by freight to DMDM. At DMDM, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output electromotive force of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DMDM, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DMDM, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DMDM, UDMDM, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 13 February 2014. UDMDM - UBIPM = 0.094 µV uc = 0.072 µV, at 1 V UDMDM - UBIPM = 0.39 µV uc = 0.12 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at DMDM, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The results at the 10 V level are not covered by the uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. After the distribution of the Draft A, the DMDM discovered that the pressure gauge was defective. Some considerations on the correction to apply on the comparison result and the corresponding uncertainties are presented in the report. Nevertheless, the above results fully cover the CMCs of DMDM which are significantly larger. No corrections for temperature and pressure are applied in calibrations for

  5. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y bajo desempeño escolar, en estudiantes de 11 a 24 años de edad del estado de Morelos, México

    Arillo-Santillán Edna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la asociación entre desempeño escolar autorreportado, y la experimentación y consumo de tabaco actual en estudiantes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio poblacional transversal en el ámbito escolar, de 72 zonas administrativas de los 33 municipios del estado de Morelos, en áreas urbana, semiurbana y rural. De un marco muestral de escuelas públicas se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 13 293 estudiantes, de entre 11 a 24 años, que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multinomial, donde la variable dependiente fue el hábito tabáquico en tres categorías (no fumadores, fumadores experimentadores y fumadores actuales. Resultados. La prevalencia de experimentación de consumo de tabaco fue 14.9% (IC 95%: 14.1-15.7 en mujeres y 27.3% (IC 95%: 26.1-28.4 en hombres; la prevalencia de consumo actual fue 6.1% (IC 95%: 5.6-6.6 y 13.1% (IC 95%: 12.2-13.9, respectivamente. En ambos géneros, conforme se incrementa la prevalencia tanto en experimentación como en consumo de tabaco actual, decrece el desempeño escolar. La asociación entre consumo de tabaco actual fue 5.1 veces mayor en mujeres (IC 95%:2.5-10.4, con promedio anual de calificaciones de seis respecto de quienes reportaron un promedio con valores de 10 y de nueve; en hombres se observó el mismo fenómeno (RM=4.2;IC 95%:2.7-6.7, con una tendencia lineal positiva y significativa en mujeres y hombres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados brindan evidencia de la posible relación entre el incremento de consumo de tabaco y el bajo desempeño escolar. Dicha asociación está determinada por complejas prácticas cotidianas de estilos y condiciones de vida de los adolescentes.

  6. Effectiveness of an educational intervention in schoolchildren from 8 to 11 presenting deforming Efectividad de una intervención educativa en escolares de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes

    Clara Rosa Rosell Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The practice of deforming oral habits may interfere with normal growth and development of the stomatognathic system and, consequently, cause dentomaxillofacial abnormalities. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children from 8 to 11 presenting deforming oral habits. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted before and after the intervention. The sample consisted of 67 children from the "Roberto Fleites" primary school in Cienfuegos, from January to September 2008. Different types of patterns and anomalies were identified for each child. The special program "Take Care of Your Smile" was applied weekly. A survey was applied to children, parents and educators before and after the application of educative and prevention actions and treatment. Results: deforming habits were eliminated in 66 % of cases (more frequent deforming habits were tongue protraction, bottle suction and nail biting and dentomaxillofacial abnormalities were reduced. The knowledge level of children, parents and educators was raised. Conclusions: deforming habits constitute a health problem that can be prevented in early stages in order to improve the harmony of the stomatognathic system components. An educational intervention can be effective for prevention in these cases.Fundamento: la práctica de hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático y como consecuencia anomalías dentomaxilofaciales. Objetivo: analizar la efectividad de una intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: estudio cuasiexperimental con intervención antes y después, realizado en una muestra de 67 niños de la escuela primaria “Roberto Fleites”, de Cienfuegos, desde

  7. Deforming buccal habits in children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos. 2005. Hábitos bucales deformantes en niños de 5 a 11 años. Cienfuegos, 2005.

    Elsie María Padilla Gómez

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are very complex neuromuscular patterns. Deforming buccal habits can obstruct the normal growth and development of stomatognathic system. Objective: To characterize subjects with deforming habits. Method: An observational, descriptive and correlacional study was developed in 341 children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos from December 2004 to September 2005. In addition to the clinical examination, an interview was performed to parents/tutors and teachers. Data was collected in a data formulary and variables as age, sex, deforming buccal habits and dentomaxillofacial anomalies were analyzed. Findings: Deforming buccal habits frequency was 79%. The most common habits were lingual protraction (47, 2%, baby bottle suction (32, 6% and onychophagia (23, 5%, all of them predominant in girls. 75% of the children with these habits developed anomalies; being vestibule-version (21, 1%, increased over bite (20,2% and bilabial incompetence (17,9% the most frequent. Conclusions: It was confirmed that deforming Buccal habits are a health problem that affects the stomatognathic system. This should be treated by the General Integral Dentist in a systematic and direct way.
    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza muy compleja. La práctica de los hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático. Objetivo: Caracterizar los portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional, en 341 niños de 5 a 11 años, del municipio Cienfuegos, en el período de diciembre 2004 a septiembre 2005. Además del examen clínico, se realizó entrevista a padres/tutores y maestros de cada niño. La información fue almacenada en un formulario de datos

  8. blaCTX-M Genes in Escherichia coli Strains from Croatian Hospitals Are Located in New (blaCTX-M-3a) and Widely Spread (blaCTX-M-3a and blaCTX-M-15) Genetic Structures▿

    Literacka, Elżbieta; Bedenic, Branka; Baraniak, Anna; Fiett, Janusz; Tonkic, Marija; Jajic-Bencic, Ines; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from three Croatian hospitals were analyzed. All blaCTX-M-15 genes and one blaCTX-M-3a gene resided in widely spread ISEcp1 transposition modules, but other blaCTX-M-3a genes were in a new configuration with two IS26 copies, indicating a new event of gene mobilization from a Kluyvera ascorbata genome. The study confirmed the role of the E. coli ST131 clonal group with IncFII-type plasmids in the spread of blaCTX-M-15 and of IncL/M pCTX-M3-type plasmid...

  9. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y bajo desempeño escolar, en estudiantes de 11 a 24 años de edad del estado de Morelos, México

    Edna Arillo-Santillán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la asociación entre desempeño escolar autorreportado, y la experimentación y consumo de tabaco actual en estudiantes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio poblacional transversal en el ámbito escolar, de 72 zonas administrativas de los 33 municipios del estado de Morelos, en áreas urbana, semiurbana y rural. De un marco muestral de escuelas públicas se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 13 293 estudiantes, de entre 11 a 24 años, que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multinomial, donde la variable dependiente fue el hábito tabáquico en tres categorías (no fumadores, fumadores experimentadores y fumadores actuales. Resultados. La prevalencia de experimentación de consumo de tabaco fue 14.9% (IC 95%: 14.1-15.7 en mujeres y 27.3% (IC 95%: 26.1-28.4 en hombres; la prevalencia de consumo actual fue 6.1% (IC 95%: 5.6-6.6 y 13.1% (IC 95%: 12.2-13.9, respectivamente. En ambos géneros, conforme se incrementa la prevalencia tanto en experimentación como en consumo de tabaco actual, decrece el desempeño escolar. La asociación entre consumo de tabaco actual fue 5.1 veces mayor en mujeres (IC 95%:2.5-10.4, con promedio anual de calificaciones de seis respecto de quienes reportaron un promedio con valores de 10 y de nueve; en hombres se observó el mismo fenómeno (RM=4.2;IC 95%:2.7-6.7, con una tendencia lineal positiva y significativa en mujeres y hombres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados brindan evidencia de la posible relación entre el incremento de consumo de tabaco y el bajo desempeño escolar. Dicha asociación está determinada por complejas prácticas cotidianas de estilos y condiciones de vida de los adolescentes.Objective. To assess the association between self-reported academic performance and tobacco experimentation and established tobacco use among adolescents and young adults in Morelos State

  10. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona

    M. Castells Cuixart

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como el visionado de la televisión y la actividad física. Resultados: El estudio muestra que la unidad familiar formada por dos hijos y los padres es la más habitual. Solo el 12% de los adolescentes encuestados viven con los abuelos. Se observa poca presencia de toda la familia durante las principales comidas en los días laborables mientras que se produce un incremento en los días festivos de un 26% en desayuno, un 44% en la comida y de un 11% en la cena. El 24% de los escolares desayunan sin compañía y el 46% comen lo que quieren. En cuanto a la merienda el 25% lo hacen solos y el 55% comen lo que quieren. Un 60% nunca o casi nunca participan en la decisión de compra de los alimentos. El 70% realizan alguna otra actividad mientras comen. Concretamente, el 40, 39 y 59% de los adolescentes manifiestan que ven la televisión durante el desayuno, la merienda y la cena, respectivamente. La frecuencia de consumo de horas de televisión, chucherías y refrescos es significativamente menor en los adolescentes de los centros privados que en los de los públicos. Conclusiones: El estudio revela que mayoritariamente los padres deciden los alimentos que compran, pero los adolescentes tienen un papel importante en la decisión de los alimentos que consumen principalmente en el desayuno y en la merienda así como en las actividades que realizan mientras comen. Por ello, el farmacéutico, como profesional de la salud, debe intervenir en la educaci

  11. CTX-M-123, a Novel Hybrid of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 Group β-Lactamases Recovered from Escherichia coli Isolates in China

    He, Dandan; Partridge, Sally R.; Shen, Jianzhong; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Lanping; Rao, Lili; Lv, Luchao; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The chimeric blaCTX-M-123 gene was identified in two ceftazidime-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from animals in different Chinese provinces. Like other CTX-M-1/9 group hybrids (CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-132), the ends (amino acids 1 to 135 and 234 to 291) of CTX-M-123 match CTX-M-15 while the central part (122 to 241) matches CTX-M-14. blaCTX-M-123 is carried on related, but not identical, ∼90-kb IncI1 plasmids in the two isolates, and one isolate simultaneously carries the group 1 blaCTX-M-55 ...

  12. blaCTX-M-1/9/1 Hybrid Genes May Have Been Generated from blaCTX-M-15 on an IncI2 Plasmid

    Liu, Lanping; He, Dandan; Lv, Luchao; Liu, Wuling; Chen, Xiaojie; Zeng, Zhenling; Partridge, Sally R.; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three hybrid CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-64, CTX-M-123, and CTX-M-132, with N and C termini matching CTX-M-1 group enzymes and centers matching CTX-M-9 group enzymes, have been identified. The hybrid gene sequences suggested recombination between blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14, the two most common blaCTX-M variants worldwide. However, blaCTX-M-64 and blaCTX-M-123 are found in an ISEcp1-blaCTX-M transposition unit with a 45-bp “spacer,” rather than the 48 bp usually associated with blaCTX-M-15, and...

  13. MRO CTX-based Digital Terrain Models

    Dumke, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    In planetary surface sciences, digital terrain models (DTM) are paramount when it comes to understanding and quantifying processes. In this contribution an approach for the derivation of digital terrain models from stereo images of the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) are described. CTX consists of a 350 mm focal length telescope and 5000 CCD sensor elements and is operated as pushbroom camera. It acquires images with ~6 m/px over a swath width of ~30 km of the Mars surface [1]. Today, several approaches for the derivation of CTX DTMs exist [e. g. 2, 3, 4]. The discussed approach here is based on established software and combines them with proprietary software as described below. The main processing task for the derivation of CTX stereo DTMs is based on six steps: (1) First, CTX images are radiometrically corrected using the ISIS software package [5]. (2) For selected CTX stereo images, exterior orientation data from reconstructed NAIF SPICE data are extracted [6]. (3) In the next step High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) DTMs [7, 8, 9] are used for the rectification of CTX stereo images to reduce the search area during the image matching. Here, HRSC DTMs are used due to their higher spatial resolution when compared to MOLA DTMs. (4) The determination of coordinates of homologous points between stereo images, i.e. the stereo image matching process, consists of two steps: first, a cross-correlation to obtain approximate values and secondly, their use in a least-square matching (LSM) process in order to obtain subpixel positions. (5) The stereo matching results are then used to generate object points from forward ray intersections. (6) As a last step, the DTM-raster generation is performed using software developed at the German Aerospace Center, Berlin. Whereby only object points are used that have a smaller error than a threshold value. References: [1] Malin, M. C. et al., 2007, JGR 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002808 [2] Broxton, M. J. et al

  14. Desarrollo y validación preliminar de escalas para la evaluación de la competencia motriz acuática en escolares de 4 a 11 años. Development and preliminary validation of an aquatic competence scale for children 4 to 11 years old.

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2005-01-01

    ResumenEl objeto de este trabajo es la creación y validación de unas escalas para medir la competencia motriz acuática de los 4 a los 11 años. Para ello se utiliza una muestra de 645 niños con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 11 años. Se aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio, quedando constituida por cuatro escalas, compuestas a su vez por dos factores cada una de ellas, una referida a la familiarización con el medio acuático, y otro factor referido a las acciones donde es necesario ...

  15. Practical route to the left wing of CTX1B and total syntheses of CTX1B and 54-deoxyCTX1B.

    Yamashita, Shuji; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Koyama, Takuya; Inoue, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative agents of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are extremely large polycyclic ethers. We report herein a reliable route for constructing the left wing of CTX1B, which possesses the acid/base/oxidant-sensitive bisallylic ether moiety, by a 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing metathesis strategy. This new route enabled us to achieve the second-generation total synthesis of CTX1B and the first synthesis of 54-deoxyCTX1B. PMID:25529606

  16. Emergence and Dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Producing CTX-M-1-Like Enzymes in Spain Are Associated with IncFII (CTX-M-15) and Broad-Host-Range (CTX-M-1, -3, and -32) Plasmids▿

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Moreira, Raquel; Peixe, Luísa; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2006-01-01

    The spread of CTX-M-1-like enzymes in Spain is associated with particular plasmids of broad-host-range IncN (blaCTX-M-32, blaCTX-M-1), IncL/M (blaCTX-M-1), and IncA/C2 (blaCTX-M-3) or narrow-host-range IncFII (blaCTX-M-15). The identical genetic surroundings of blaCTX-M-32 and blaCTX-M-1 and their locations on related 40-kb IncN plasmids indicate the in vivo evolution of this element.

  17. Relacion entre capacidades físicas, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la discriminación dentro de la clase de Educación Física en alumnos de 10 y 11 años, en cuatro colegios de Chillan, Chile

    Portes Júnior, Moacyr; Avendaño R., Macarena; Baeza, Daniela G.; Castillo E., Gabriela; Cifuentes A., Claudio; Moraga M., Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: verificar relación entre IMC, capacidades físicas y discriminación en clase de Educación Física, alumnos entre 10 a 11 años, 4 colegios de Chillán, Chile. Metodología: medir flexibilidad, velocidad y resistencia; calcular IMC; posteriormente contestar cuestionario de auto percepción frente a sus pares en relación a discriminación en clases de Educación Física. Población: 178 sujetos; muestra: 44 indicaron discriminación. Resultados: IMC: 72,6% de la muestra, que sienten discriminaci...

  18. Three Cefotaximases, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, and CTX-M-14, among Enterobacteriaceae in the People's Republic of China

    Chanawong, Aroonwadee; M'Zali, Fatima Hannachi; Heritage, John; Xiong, Jian-Hui; Hawkey, Peter Michael

    2002-01-01

    Of 15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying blaCTX-M genes revealed that they harbored three diffe...

  19. The Novel CTX-M-116 β-Lactamase Gene Discovered in Proteus mirabilis Is Composed of Parts of the CTX-M-22 and CTX-M-23 Genes

    Fursova, N.; Pryamchuk, S.; Kruglov, A; Abaev, I.; Pecherskikh, E.; Kartsev, N.; Svetoch, E.; Dyatlov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The novel β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-116 was identified in a Proteus mirabilis nosocomial isolate recovered from the urine of a patient in Moscow in 2005. DNA sequence analysis showed blaCTX-M-116 to be a hybrid gene consisting of 5′ blaCTX-M-23 (nucleotides 1 to 278) and 3′ blaCTX-M-22 (nucleotides 286 to 876) moieties separated by an intervening putative site of recombination (GTTAAAT). A retrospective analysis of available blaCTX-M genes in the GenBank database revealed 19 blaCTX-M genes th...

  20. CTX-M Expression and Selection of Ertapenem Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli▿

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    In vitro selection of mutants with decreased susceptibility to ertapenem was performed using Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains producing either the blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-9, or blaCTX-M-15 gene. Frequencies of mutants with decreased susceptibilities to ertapenem were similar for all β-lactamases expressed.

  1. A Novel CTX-M β-Lactamase (CTX-M-8) in Cefotaxime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated in Brazil

    Bonnet, R.; Sampaio, J. L. M.; Labia, R; De Champs, C; Sirot, D; Chanal, C; Sirot, J

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Brazil, 18 strains from different species of the family Enterobacteriaceae exhibiting a positive double-disk synergy test were collected by a clinical laboratory from several hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1996 and 1997. Four strains (Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Citrobacter amalonaticus) hybridized with a 550-bp CTX-M probe. The P. mirabilis strain produced a CTX-M-2 enzyme. The E....

  2. Effects of irradiation and W11-a12 on anion-selective channel of mouse peritoneal macrophage%电离辐射对小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞阴离子通道活动的影响及康复新对其的作用

    舒崇湘; 叶本兰; 程天民; 萧家思

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨电离辐射对小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞阴离子通道活动的影响及康复新对其的作用。方法 采用电生理膜片钳离子单通道记录方法。结果 用调理的zymosan刺激腹腔巨噬细胞后,阴离子通道开放的阳性率在受照射组显著减少,且受刺激至通道开放的时间间隔显著延长。受照射组较正常对照组通道开放概率显著降低、开放时间常数缩短而关闭时间常数延长,康复新对正常对照组离子通道活动的影响不显著,但可使照射组的通道开放有一定程度的加强。结论 电离辐射抑制巨噬细胞膜上阴离子通道的开放可能是其抑制巨噬细胞功能的一个重要途径。康复新可减弱电离辐射的这一抑制作用。%Objective To study the effects of irradiation and W11-a12,a kind of repair-promoting drug,on anion-selective channel in membranes of mouse peritoneal macrophage. Methods The activity of anion-selective channel was recorded from cell-attached patches with patch clamp techniques. Results The effects of irradiation on anion-selective channel in membranes of peritoneal macrophage included:①decreasing the mean number of activated channels by the presence of zymosan; ②prolonging the mean time from stimulus to the opening of channels; ③depressing the opening of channels by decreasing open-state probability,shortening open-time and prolonging close-time. The effects of irradiation could partly be depressed by W11-a12. Conclusion Irradiation will depress the anion-selective channel of peritoneal macrophage, which may be an important way to depress the function of macrophage.

  3. Molecular and Kinetic Comparison of the Novel Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases CTX-M-25 and CTX-M-26

    Munday, Craig J.; Boyd, David A.; Brenwald, Nigel; Miller, Mark; Andrews, Jennifer M.; Wise, Richard; Mulvey, Michael R; Hawkey, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    CTX-M-25 is a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase isolated from a single Canadian Escherichia coli isolate. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that this enzyme confers resistance to both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, but the level of resistance was reduced with the addition of β-lactamase inhibitors. The blaCTX-M-25 gene was detected on a 111-kb plasmid. It is a member of the CTX-M-8 group and has the closest amino acid identity (99%; three amino acid substitutions) with CTX-M-26. The blaCTX-M...

  4. CTX-M-14, CTX-M-24 and resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates

    2006-01-01

    @@ Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the main cause of resistance to the third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae, which are mediated by plasmids and can hydrolyze oxyiminoaminothiazolyl cephalosporins and mono- bactams.1 Most of ESBLs are mutants of the classical TEM and SHV types, with one or more amino-acid substitution(s) in the active site. β-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, can inhibit their activities. Recently, The cefotaximases (CTX-M) group, a new family of plasmid-mediated ESBLs, reported from many countries increasingly, preferentially hydrolyzes cefotaxime.2 So far, CTX-M-3 has been the most prevalent type of ESBL in China and widespread in Enterobacteriaceae, while other CTX-M type ESBLs are few reported.3 In this study, we identified the CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-24 in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) clinical isolates from patients in Shanghai Huashan Hospital in 1999.

  5. CTX-M–producing Non-Typhi Salmonella spp. Isolated from Humans, United States

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Howie, Rebecca; Krueger, Amy; Rickert, Regan; Pecic, Gary; Lupoli, Kathryn; Folster, Jason P.; Whichard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    CTX-M–type β-lactamases are increasing among US Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Of 2,165 non-Typhi Salmonella isolates submitted in 2007 to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, 100 (4.6%) displayed elevated MICs (>2 mg/L) of ceftriaxone or ceftiofur. Three isolates (serotypes Typhimurium, Concord, and I 4,5,12:i:–) contained bla CTX-M-5, bla CTX-M-15, and bla CTX-M-55/57, respectively.

  6. Novel Chimeric β-Lactamase CTX-M-64, a Hybrid of CTX-M-15-Like and CTX-M-14 β-Lactamases, Found in a Shigella sonnei Strain Resistant to Various Oxyimino-Cephalosporins, Including Ceftazidime▿

    Nagano, Yukiko; Nagano, Noriyuki; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2008-01-01

    The plasmid-mediated novel β-lactamase CTX-M-64 was first identified in Shigella sonnei strain UIH-1, which exhibited resistance to cefotaxime (MIC, 1,024 μg/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC, 32 μg/ml). The amino acid sequence of CTX-M-64 showed a chimeric structure of a CTX-M-15-like β-lactamase (N- and C-terminal moieties) and a CTX-M-14-like β-lactamase (central portion, amino acids 63 to 226), suggesting that it originated by homologous recombination between the corresponding genes. The introduct...

  7. Community-Onset Disease Caused by Citrobacter freundii Producing a Novel CTX-M β-Lactamase, CTX-M-30, in Canada

    Abdalhamid, Baha; Pitout, Johann D. D.; Moland, Ellen S.; Hanson, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    Strains of Citrobacter freundii intermediate to cefotaxime but sensitive to ceftazidime were isolated from four different patients in Canada. Sequencing of PCR products by use of CTX-M-specific primers revealed a new combination of four amino acid substitutions. This new gene was designated blaCTX-M-30 and was encoded on a 3-kb plasmid. The pI of CTX-M-30 was 8.0.

  8. Emergence of CTX-M-15-Producing Enterobacteria in Cameroon and Characterization of a blaCTX-M-15-Carrying Element

    Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Miriagou, V.; Vourli, S.; Tzelepi, E.; Ngassam, P.; Tzouvelekis, L S

    2005-01-01

    CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli emerged recently in Cameroon. CTX-M-15 was encoded by two different multiresistance plasmids, of which one carried an ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M-15) element flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and inserted within a Tn2-derived sequence. A truncated form of this element in the second plasmid was identified.

  9. High-Level Resistance to Ceftazidime Conferred by a Novel Enzyme, CTX-M-32, Derived from CTX-M-1 through a Single Asp240-Gly Substitution

    Cartelle, Monica; del Mar Tomas, Maria; Molina, Francisca; Moure, Rita; Villanueva, Rosa; Bou, German

    2004-01-01

    A clinical strain of Escherichia coli isolated from pleural liquid with high levels of resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam harbors a novel CTX-M gene (blaCTX-M-32) whose amino acid sequence differs from that of CTX-M-1 by a single Asp240-Gly substitution. Moreover, by site-directed mutagenesis we demonstrated that this replacement is a key event in ceftazidime hydrolysis

  10. Acesso anterior para pacientes com fraturas traumáticas do tipo compressão do segmento toracolombar (T11 a L2 da coluna vertebral Anterior approach in patients with traumatic compression fracture type of thoracolumbar spine (T11-L2

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com o acesso anterior em fraturas traumáticas do tipo compressão no segmento toracolombar (T11 a L2 que foram submetidos à cirurgia pelo acesso anterior. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de janeiro de 1994 a janeiro de 2004 envolvendo 32 pacientes. A presença da fusão óssea e do alinhamento foram analisadas 6 e 12 meses após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 36,53 anos, sendo 23 do sexo masculino. A vértebra mais atingida foi L1 (n=12. A maioria dos casos que internaram em ASIA/IMSOP C (n=10 e D (n=13 evoluiram para ASIA/IMSOP E. A média da deformidade angular pré-operatória foi 14,9°±7,5°, com diferença estatística (pOBJECTIVE: To describe experience with anterior access in compression fractures of thoracolumbar segment (T11 to L2 traumatic fractures that undergone anterior access surgery. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted between January 1994 and January 2004 with 32 patients. The bone fusion and thoracolumbar alignment were analyzed 6 months and 12 months after the surgery. RESULTS:The average age was 36.53 years old with 23 male patients. The most compromised vertebrae was L1 (n=12. The 23 patients that was ASIA/IMSOP C and ASIA/IMSOP D turned to ASIA/IMSOP E after 1 month (n=12 and 12 months (n=5 of surgery. The preoperative angular deformity average was 14.9°±7.5°. Statistical significance was found (p<0.0001 when compared to the 30 days postoperative value. CONCLUSION: The anterior access permits a better spinal canal decompression and angular deformity correction when compared with the posterior access alone.

  11. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    Claudia García Salazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio epidemiológico radiográfico sobre la prevalencia de las anomalías dentarias en niños de una determinada población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así mismo para preparar al paciente a convivir con las posibles anomalías de forma definitiva, llevando una vida normal e integrándose a la sociedad. La radiografía panorámica, por sus características topográficas y por permitir la observación de todo el complejo maxilofacial, es reconocida como la mejor imagen convencional para visualizar las anomalías dentomaxilo-mandibulares. Se observaron, las radiografías panorámicas seleccionadas y se registraron los hallazgos en un formato previa-mente validado, previa consulta bibliográfica y la construcción de un marco conceptual, se realizó la interpretación y análisis, iluminados por las categorías conceptuales y reales surgidas dentro de la observación e interpretación de la radiografía panorámica y se logró el propósito de establecer los índices de las anomalías más frecuentes de crecimiento y desarrollo dentario, observables en radiografía panorámica entre pacientes de ambos sexos de 4 a 11 años de edad, generando un impacto entre los profesionales y estudiantes de odontología sobre el uso de la radiografía panorámica en la población infantil como complemento necesario de la historia clínica, de otro tipo de radiografías (periapicales para un fomento de la práctica de una odontología basada en la evidencia. (Duazary 2006; 1: 45 - 54

  12. Prevalência, necessidade de tratamento e fatores predisponentes do traumatismo na dentição permanente de escolares de 11 a 13 anos de idade Prevalence, treatment needs, and predisposing factors for traumatic injuries to permanent dentition in 11-13-year-old schoolchildren

    J. Traebert

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência do traumatismo dentário na dentição permanente e observar associações com fatores predisponentes. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com escolares de 11 a 13 anos de Biguaçu, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os exames foram realizados por um cirurgião-dentista utilizando os mesmos critérios do Children's Dental Health Survey do Reino Unido. Foram observados tipo de dano, tratamento providenciado e necessidade, overjet incisal, adequabilidade da cobertura labial, idade, sexo e nível de educação dos pais. Foram examinadas 2.260 crianças e as prevalências encontradas foram: 10,4%, 10,6% e 11,2% aos 11, 12 e 13 anos, respectivamente. A necessidade de tratamento foi de 6,3 incisivos por mil examinados. Escolares do sexo masculino e com overjetmaior que 5mm tiveram mais traumatismo dentário do que escolares do sexo feminino e com overjetincisal até 5mm. Cobertura labial inadequada e nível de educação dos pais não estiveram estatisticamente associados com o traumatismo dentário. Concluiu-se que ser do sexo masculino ou ter um overjetincisal maior do que 5mm aumenta a chance de sofrer traumatismo dentário.The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors and the association with clinical predisposing factors and parents' schooling. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with schoolchildren aged 11 to 13 years in Biguaçu, Brazil. Dental examinations were conducted by a dentist, and the criteria for traumatic dental injuries used in the children's dental health survey in the United Kingdom were adopted. the study recorded the type of damage sustained, treatment performed or needed, the size of incisal overjet, and whether lip coverage was adequate. Socio-demographic data included sex, age, and parents' level of schooling. a total of 2,260 children were examined, and prevalence rates were 10.4%, 10.6%, and 11.2% in 11, 12, and 13-year

  13. Epidemic Plasmid Carrying bla CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella penumoniae in China

    Zhuo, Chao; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Zong, Zhi-yong; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the local epidemiology of Klebsiella penumoniae carrying bla CTX-M-15 in southern China and to characterize the genetic environment of bla CTX-M-15. Methods PCR and DNA sequencing were used to detect and characterize the genetic contexts of bla CTX-M-15. The clonal relatedness of isolates carrying bla CTX-M-15 was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Conjugative plasmids carrying bla CTX-M-15 were obtained by mating and were further subject to restriction an...

  14. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates were determined using the agar diffusion method according to the CLSI. Screening for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes and class 1 integron was performed by PCR amplification. To determine the genomic diversity of CTX-M-producers, isolates were analyzed by macrorestriction profile analysis following PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-one K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL-producing. PCR and sequencing experiments detected 38 CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to groups CTX-M 1, CTX-M 2, CTX-M 8 and CTX-M 9. The association of different types ESBL (CTX-M, SHV and TEM was frequent. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried class 1 integron. PFGE analysis revealed thirty-one clonal types among CTX-M-producing isolates. The data presented herein illustrate the diversity of genotypes of CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae among Brazilians hospitals.

  15. Characterization of CTX-M-Type Extend-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella spp. in Kashan, Iran

    2015-01-01

    Context: The CTX-M family consists of more than 50 β-lactamases, which are grouped on the basis of sequences into five subtypes including CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25. Objectives: The current study aimed to detect subtypes of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among ESBL positive Klebsiella isolates from patients in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 clinical isolates of Klebsiella were collected and the isolates, which showed resistance or reduce...

  16. β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者血红蛋白F表达与BCL11A基因rs11886868位点单核苷酸多态性的关系%Correlation Between Hemoglobin F Levels and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism at BCL11A Gene rs11886868 Locus in β-thalassemia Patients

    陈群蓉; 孙顺昌; 彭运生; 王清; 莫宝妹

    2012-01-01

    本研究通过分析β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者的血红蛋白F(HbF)表达及BCL11A基因rs11886868位点的单核苷酸多态性,探讨二者之间的关系.选取89例已知基因突变类型的轻型β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者,通过毛细管电泳分析患者的红细胞HbF含量;提取患者基因组DNA,通过聚合酶链反应扩增含rs11886868位点的BCL11A基因片段,用DNA测序法确定rs11886868位点的单核苷酸多态性.结果显示,在89例深圳地区β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者的BCL11A基因rs11886868位点中发现C和T两种单核苷酸多态性;携带C/C单倍型患者的红细胞HbF含量为(4.47±3.42)%,高于携带C/T单倍型患者的(2.79±2.21)%.结论:β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者BCL11A基因rs11886868位点存在C和T两种单核苷酸多态性,其中C多态性可能与红细胞内HbF高表达存在相关性.%This study was aimed to analyze hemoglobin F (HbF) level and single nucleotide polymorphisms at rsl 1886868 locus of BCUIA gene in p-thalassemia patients, and to explore correlation between them. 89 mild β-thalassemia patients with known mutations were registered, and HbF levels were determined by capillary elcctrophoresis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes, fragment including rsll886868 locus in BCL11A gene was amplified by PCR, and polymorphism was determined by DNA sequencing. The results showed that 2 polymorphisms including C and T were found at rsl 1886868 locus in BCUIA gene among 89 mild β-thalassemia patients. HbF levels in red blood cells were (4. 47 ± 3. 42)% and (2. 79 ± 2. 21)% for β-thalassemia patients carrying C/C and C/T haplotypes, respectively. There was difference between 2 haplotype groups. It is concluded that the C and T polymorphisms are found at rsl 1886868 locus in the BCUIA gene for β-thalassemia patients. C polymorphism may be related to high HbF expression in red blood cells.

  17. Variaciones del clima terrestre y rayos cósmicos galácticos durante el ciclo solar de 11 años: Revisión teórica Earth climate and galactic cosmic rays variations during 11 year solar cicle: Theoretical review

    Eduardo Andrés Agosta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, han sido numerosos los estudios en torno a la interacción entre los rayos cósmicos galácticos (RCGs y el clima de la Tierra con una gran variedad de resultados, algunos de ellos controversiales. Parece haberse dado un gran avance en el aspecto teórico de la posible interacción, siendo dos los principales mecanismos físicos candidatos: la nucleación mediada-por-el-ión (ion-mediated nucleation, IMN y la electrocolección. En una y otra teoría, el papel fundamental de los RCGs es la ionización en la atmósfera. La teoría del IMN prescribe cambios en las propiedades de la microfísica de la nube (vida de la nube, albedo, espesor óptico, concentración de núcleos de condensación, entre otros y consecuentes cambios en la cobertura nubosa baja global. La electrocolección añade a la anterior, modificaciones en la dinámica de la nube que, en mayor escala, produce modificaciones en la circulación atmosférica. Hay algunas evidencias observacionales de relación consistente con las teorías propuestas a lo largo del ciclo solar de 11 años entre RCGs y variables climáticas (cobertura nubosa global, circulación atmosférica, precipitación. No obstante, la complejidad del sistema deja entrever otros posibles mecanismos; por ejemplo, la interacción estratosfera-troposfera por la relación UV-ozono. A su vez, la existencia de tendencias seculares en el flujo de RCGs, que se asociarían al calentamiento global, sugiere incorporar otra variable a evaluar en la problemática del cambio global.In recent years, a number of studies are concerned on the relationship between the Earth climate and the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs. A variety of results are found and some are controversial. Theoretical advance seems to be reached through two main candidate theories: the ion-mediated nucleation (IMN and the electro-scavenging. In both theories, the main role of GCRs is ionization in the Atmosphere. The IMN theory prescribes

  18. Identification of the discrepancy bone-teeth in children between 5 and 11 years with oral breathing Determinación de la discrepancia hueso diente en niños de 5 a 11 años respiradores bucales

    María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The correct proportion between teeth arches and size is crucial, thus there are different methods to measure dental size. Objective: To apply the method Moyer-Jenkin and its modification in mixed dentition. Method: Analytical, cross-sectional design, developed in the period January-April, 2007. The sample included 60 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years with oral breathing and Angle Class II and mixed dentition from the primary school "Guerrillero Heroico", Health Area II in Cienfuegos. Microsoft Word and SPSS 15.0 in English were used to process data. The studied variables were: measures and time. Results: The measurements of bone-teeth discrepancies for both maxillas were similar for both methods, without statistical significant differences. Regarding the discrepancy level, there was a moderated discrepancy in the studied group, with a marked increase in the mandible. There was a prevalence of normal incisive index and a reduction of macrodontism in negative discrepancies. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the modified method was proved, related with the reduction of the application time compared with Moyers-Jenkin method.

    Fundamento: Es estrictamente necesario que exista una adecuada proporción entre los tamaños de los dientes y sus arcos, por lo que existen diferentes métodos para proceder a la medición de los tamaños dentarios. Objetivo: Aplicar el método de Moyer-Jenkin y su modificación en dentición mixta para la comparación de los resultados en los pacientes respiradores bucales con maloclusiones de clase II. Método: El estudio tiene un diseño analítico. La muestra estuvo constituida por 60 niños entre las edades de 5 a 11 años respiradores bucales con clase II de Angle y dentición mixta, de la escuela primaria Guerrillero Heroico del área II de salud del

  19. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Kesavaram Padmavathy; Krishnan Padma; Sikhamani Rajasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients fro...

  20. Transcriptional Analysis of the blaCTX-M-2 Gene in Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis

    Di Conza, José A.; Gutkind, Gabriel O.; Mollerach, Marta E.; Ayala, Juan A.

    2005-01-01

    Transcriptional organization of blaCTX-M-2 present in a multiresistance plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis suggests the presence of more than one promoter involved in the expression of the β-lactamase gene. At least two blaCTX-M-2-specific mRNAs (near to 1 kb and 5 kb) were evidenced. Two +1 signals were detected at −22 bp and −59 bp of blaCTX-M-2 defining two putative promoters.

  1. Emergence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14)-Producing Nontyphoid Salmonella with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin among Food Animals and Humans in Korea ▿

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Tae-Sun; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Twenty of 1,279 nontyphoid Salmonella strains isolated from food animals and humans produced CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase. All expressed CTX-M-15, except two which coexpressed CTX-M-14 and TEM-1. Insertion sequence ISEcp1 was identified upstream of blaCTX-M genes. The blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 genes were disseminated by large conjugative IncFIIs and IncI1-Iγ plasmids, respectively.

  2. CTX-M-9 group extended-spectrum β-lactamases in neonatal stool isolates: Emergence in India

    Roy, S.; Mukherjee, S.; A.K. Singh; Basu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports for the first time the identification of CTX-M-14-like and CTX-M-27-like extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) belonging to the CTX-M-9 group in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolated from the neonatal stool in India. The plasmid carrying the blaCTX-M-9 group in both the isolates was transferable. Till date, no other CTX-M group, except the CTX-M-1 group, has been reported from India. A total of 77% of the neonates had ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae or E. coli in...

  3. Comparative Analysis of IncHI2 Plasmids Carrying blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-9 from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry and Humans▿

    Fernández, Aurora García; Cloeckaert, Axel; Bertini, Alessia; Praud, Karine; Doublet, Benoît; Weill, François-Xavier; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-9 plasmid backbones from isolates from Belgium and France were analyzed. The blaCTX-M-2-plasmids from both human and poultry isolates were related to the IncHI2 pAPEC-O1-R plasmid, previously identified in the United States in avian Escherichia coli strains; the blaCTX-M-9 plasmids were closely related to the IncHI2 R478 plasmid.

  4. Strain diversity of CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae in individual pigs

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Bortolaia, Valeria; Damborg, Peter Panduro;

    2014-01-01

    of CTX-M-2/97-producing Proteus mirabilis or Providencia rettgeri was observed in two sows and two offspring. At least two genetically unrelated CTX-M-producing E. coli strains were isolated from approximately one fourth of the samples with remarkable differences between isolates obtained by enrichment...

  5. ISEcp1B-Mediated Transposition of blaCTX-M in Escherichia coli

    Poirel, Laurent; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Several expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes are associated with ISEcp1-like elements in Enterobacteriaceae. We found that ISEcp1B was able to mobilize the adjacent blaCTX-M-19 gene by a transpositional mechanism in Escherichia coli by recognizing a variety of DNA sequences as right inverted repeats. PMID:15616333

  6. Prevalence of bla CTX M extended spectrum beta lactamase gene in enterobacteriaceae from critical care patients

    R Indra Priyadharsini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Early detection of CTX M producing Enterobacteriaceae by continuous surveillance and thereby reducing their spread and restricted use of third generation Cephalosporins (3GC antibiotics could be the possible routes to prevent the emergence and spread of CTX M ESBL producing organisms.

  7. ISEcp1B-Mediated Transposition of blaCTX-M in Escherichia coli

    Poirel, Laurent; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Nordmann, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Several expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes are associated with ISEcp1-like elements in Enterobacteriaceae. We found that ISEcp1B was able to mobilize the adjacent blaCTX-M-19 gene by a transpositional mechanism in Escherichia coli by recognizing a variety of DNA sequences as right inverted repeats.

  8. Chromosome-Encoded CTX-M-3 from Kluyvera ascorbata: a Possible Origin of Plasmid-Borne CTX-M-1-Derived Cefotaximases

    Rodríguez, María Margarita; Power, Pablo; Radice, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela; Galleni, Moreno; Ayala, Juan A.; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    A gene identical to plasmid-borne blaCTX-M-3 is present in the chromosome of one Kluyvera ascorbata strain. It is associated with a structure including an inverted repeat right and an open reading frame 477-like gene probably involved in the mobilization of blaCTX-M-3. Two other K. ascorbata strains rendered the previously described blaKLUA-9 gene.

  9. Clonal spread of highly successful ST15-CTX-M-15 Klebsiella pneumoniae in companion animals and horses

    Ewers, Christa; Stamm, Ivonne; Pfeifer, Yvonne;

    2014-01-01

    (CTX-M-1) (5.6%), bla(CTX-M-3), bla(CTX-M-9), bla(SHV-2) and bla(SHV-12) (1.1% each), were also detected. Additional resistances, e.g. to fluoroquinolones (89.9%), were frequently present. ST15-CTX-M-15, a clonal group that recently emerged in humans, accounted for 75.8% of the strains analysed by MLST and...

  10. Intercontinental emergence of Escherichia coli clone O25:H4-ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

    Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Blanco, Jorge; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Demarty, Raphael; Alonso, Maria Pilar; Caniça, Maria Manuela; Park, Yeon-Joon; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Pitout, Johann; Johnson, James,

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concomitant with the recent emergence of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), Escherichia coli has become the enterobacterial species most affected by ESBLs. Multiple locales are encountering CTX-M-positive E. coli, including specifically CTX-M-15. To gain insights into the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we assessed clonality and diversity of virulence profiles within an international collection of CTX-M-15-positive E. coli. METHODS: Forty-one ESBL-positive...

  11. Identification of CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Genes Using Real-Time PCR and Pyrosequencing▿

    Naas, Thierry; Oxacelay, Cynthia; Nordmann, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasingly prevalent worldwide among Escherichia coli bacteria, mostly in community-acquired urinary tract infections. Finding a fast and reliable technique for identification of CTX-M enzymes is becoming a challenge for the microbiology laboratory. A fast real-time PCR amplification technique, using degenerated primers specific for all the blaCTX-M alleles, coupled to real-time pyrosequencing was developed. The five CTX-M groups were unambig...

  12. Molecular characterization of CTX-M β-lactamases among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients at Tehran hospitals

    N Shoeib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Plasmid-encoded CTX-M-group of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs represent a significant and rapidly emerging problem in most part of the world. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of CTX-M producing Klebsiella pneumoniae at Tehran hospitals. Materials and Methods: Clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (n=250 were collected from 10 hospitals of Tehran. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, MIC of cefotaxime and ESBLs production of collected isolates were detected. All ESBL-producing isolates were screened for bla CTX-M genes using PCR and DNA sequencing. Molecular typing of bla CTX-M harboring isolates was performed by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay. Results: Of 250 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, 102 isolates revealed ESBLs - phenotype. PCR assay and sequencing detected bla CTX-M genes in 71.5% (n= 73 of ESBL-producing isolates. The prevalence of CTX-M -I and CTX-M-III clusters among these isolates was 35.61% (n=26 and 21.9 % (n=16 respectively. Coexistence of CTX-M -I and CTX-M-III clusters was found among 42.5% (n= 31 of isolates. Of 102 isolates that were positive in the phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT, 29 isolates (28.4% did not produce any amplicons in PCR for bla CTX-M gene. The results of PCR for CTX-M -II and CTX-M-IV clusters were also negative. Analysis of the 31 CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae isolates by PFGE typing showed 26 distinct patterns. Conclusions: The bla CTX-M genes are widespread among Iranian isolates of K. pneumoniae. PFGE demonstrated the high diversity of K. pneumoniae harboring bla CTX-M in our study.

  13. Genotyping and characterization of CTX-M-15 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from an Iranian hospital.

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to describe the genetic characterization of blaCTX-M-1 group gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae and to investigate the relationship between isolates by MLVA and PFGE. We analyzed 36 CTX-M group 1-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. rmpA and wcaG virulence genes were identified by PCR. The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-1 was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid replicons were determined using PCR-based replicon typing. The isolates were typed by MLVA and PFGE. All blaCTX-M-1 were blaCTX-M-15. The wcaG and rmpA were detected in 1 and 2 isolates, respectively. IncF were the most frequently detected replicons (63.88%). In all isolates, ISEcp1 was found upstream and orf477 downstream of blaCTX-M-15, IS26 was found in two isolates. MLVA identified 20 MLVA types, whereas PFGE identified 25 different profiles. The dissemination of CTX-M-15 in our isolates was due to the clonal spread of isolates and to the genetic transfer of mobile elements among unrelated strains. PMID:25734924

  14. Comparison and Co-Registration of Dems Generated from HiRISE and Ctx Images

    Wang, Yiran; Wu, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Images from two sensors, the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and the Context Camera (CTX), both on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), were used to generate high-quality DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of the Martian surface. However, there were discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the images acquired by these two sensors due to various reasons, such as variations in boresight alignment between the two sensors during the flight in the complex environment. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the HiRISE and CTX images. A combined adjustment algorithm is presented for the co-registration of HiRISE and CTX DEMs. Experimental analysis was carried out using the HiRISE and CTX images collected at the Mars Rover landing site and several other typical regions. The results indicated that there were systematic offsets between the HiRISE and CTX DEMs in the longitude and latitude directions. However, the offset in the altitude was less obvious. After combined adjustment, the offsets were eliminated and the HiRISE and CTX DEMs were co-registered to each other. The presented research is of significance for the synergistic use of HiRISE and CTX images for precision Mars topographic mapping.

  15. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India.

    Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Padma, Krishnan; Rajasekaran, Sikhamani

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for bla CTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs), fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2%) of the ESBL producers harbored bla CTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIP(R)SXT(R)GEN(R)) was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%). However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27123344

  16. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Kesavaram Padmavathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for blaCTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs, fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2% of the ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIPRSXTRGENR was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%. However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS.

  17. High prevalence ofblaCTX-M inEnterobacteriaceae isolates from the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Khalid M Bindayna; Mariam Murtadha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) by testing a cohort of clinicalESBL-producing bacterial isolates that were isolated in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods:ESBLproducingEnterobacteriaceae isolates (based on phenotypic tests) were collected from Microbiology Laboratory of the Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain between January-June2006. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics was performed andblaCTX-M genes were detected by multiplexPCR.Results: A total of230 isolates (Escherichia coli,n=180;Klebsiella pneumoniae,n=50) were studied,98% were CTX-M type. ForEscherichia coli isolates,65 (36.1%)harboredCTXM+TEMcombination and68(37.8%) had CTX-M alone. In contrast, forKlebsiella pneumoniae isolates only 5 (10.0%) harbored the CTX-M combination, and none had CTX-M only. The blaCTX-Mgene was found predominantly in urine isolates (n=145/230; 63.0%). Sensitivity to imipenem and nitrofurantoin was100% and 60%, respectively.CTX-M carriage was associated with the resistance to fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides.Conclusions: Our study documentes high prevalence ofCTX-M ESBL type amongEscherichia coliandKlebsiella from the Kingdom of Bahrain. The apparent dissemination of CTX-Mproducers could represent a substantial barrier in the treatment of community-acquired infections. The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides is compromised, leaving carbapenems as the therapeutic option for severe infections caused byESBL producers.

  18. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Padma, Krishnan; Rajasekaran, Sikhamani

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for blaCTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs), fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2%) of the ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIPRSXTRGENR) was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%). However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27123344

  19. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Liao, Xiao-Ping; Xia, Jing; YANG, Lei; Liang LI; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya-Hong; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of bla CTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in Escherichia coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for bla CTX-M-14 and then the bla CTX-M-14 -positive i...

  20. Characterisation of CTX-M-β-lactamases in enterobacteriaceaeae in hospitals in Kuwait

    Almaraghi, Norya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this decade, the CTX-M family of enzymes are considered to be the most common type of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The production of these Class A β-lactamases are noted to be most prevalent in the Enterobacteriaceaeae family. Many global reports indicated that CTX-M-15, of the CTX-M-1 group, is a growing concern, causing resistance to different classes of antibiotics. Worrisome trends of the spread of this enzyme have been indicated in nosocomial...

  1. Molecular Characterization of CTX-M β-Lactamase and Associated Addiction Systems in Escherichia coli Circulating among Cattle, Farm Workers, and the Farm Environment

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Gurung, Mamata; Jang, Geum-Chan; Kim, Su-Ran; JUNG, SUK-CHAN; Park, Yong Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, farm workers, and the farm environment isolated from February to September 2008 in the Republic of Korea were investigated. All 84 ESBL-producing isolates carried blaCTX-M genes that belonged to the CTX-M-1 (n = 35) or CTX-M-9 (n = 49) family. The most predominant CTX-M type identified was CTX-M-14 (n = 49), followed by CTX-M-32 (n = 26). The blaCTX-M genes were identified most commonly in E. c...

  2. PCR Classification of CTX-M-Type β-Lactamase Genes Identified in Clinically Isolated Gram-Negative Bacilli in Japan

    Shibata, Naohiro; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yohei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Yamane, Kunikazu; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Satowa; Kimura, Kouji; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kato, Haru; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Shibayama, Keigo; Kai, Kumiko; Konda, Toshifumi; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Of 1,456 strains isolated from 2001 to 2003 demonstrating resistance to either oxyimino-cephalosporin, 317 strains, isolated in 57 of 132 clinical facilities, were found to harbor blaCTX-M genes by PCR. Fifty-seven, 161, and 99 strains harbored blaCTX-M genes belonging to the blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, and blaCTX-M-9 clusters, respectively.

  3. Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases of the CTX-M Type Now in Switzerland▿

    Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Zinsius, Catherine; Wenger, Aline; Bille, Jacques; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiology of clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was investigated among infection-associated enterobacterial isolates at the University Hospital in Lausanne, Switzerland, from January 2004 to June 2005. Out of 57 nonrepetitive ESBL producers (prevalence rate of 0.7%), 45 produced CTX-M-like ESBLs. CTX-M enzymes were mostly from clonally nonrelated Escherichia coli isolates, from urinary infections and community-acquired infections. Pediatric patients (20 ou...

  4. Identification of two novel Chlorotoxin derivatives CA4 and CTX-23 with chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic potential.

    Xu, Tengfei; Fan, Zheng; Li, Wenxin; Dietel, Barbara; Wu, Yingliang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wrosch, Jana K; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Cao, Zhijian; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors are fast proliferating and destructive within the brain microenvironment. Effective chemotherapeutic strategies are currently lacking which combat this deadly disease curatively. The glioma-specific chloride ion channel represents a specific target for therapy. Chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide derived from scorpion venom, has been shown to be specific and efficacious in blocking glioma Cl(-) channel activity. Here, we report on two new derivatives (termed CA4 and CTX-23) designed and generated on the basis of the peptide sequence alignments of CTX and BmKCT. The novel peptides CA4 and CTX-23 are both effective in reducing glioma cell proliferation. In addition, CTX, CA4 and CTX-23 impact on cell migration and spheroid migration. These effects are accompanied by diminished cell extensions and increased nuclear sizes. Furthermore, we found that CA4 and CTX-23 are selective with low toxicity against primary neurons and astrocytes. In the ex vivo VOGiM, which maintain the entire brain tumor microenvironment, both CTX and CA4 display anti-tumor activity and reduce tumor volume. Hence, CTX and CA4 reveal anti-angiogenic properties with endothelial and angiogenic hotspots disrupting activities. These data report on the identification of two novel CTX derivatives with multiple anti-glioma properties including anti-angiogenesis. PMID:26831010

  5. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Lithuania: associations between sites of infection, coresistance, and phylogenetic groups.

    Giedraitienė, Agnė; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Ašmonienė, Virginija; Plančiūnienė, Rita; Simonytė, Sandrita; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Arlet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Increasing resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to antibiotics, especially to the third-generation cephalosporins, has prompted studies on widespread resistance genes such as blaCTX-M and differentiation of E. coli to phylogenetic groups. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between the CTX-M type and the phylogenetic group, the site of infection, and coresistance in Lithuanian E. coli isolates producing β-lactamases. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 90 E. coli ESBL strains were recovered from the lower respiratory tract, the urinary tract, sterile body sites, wounds, and other body sites between 2008 and 2012. The E. coli isolates resistant to at least 2 antibiotics with different modes of action along with resistance to cefotaxime were considered as multiresistant. The blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV genes, the phylogenetic groups, and the resistance profiles were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 90 isolates, 84 (93.3%) were classified as multiresistant and 6 (6.6%) as resistant. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the most prevalent gene followed by the blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-92 genes. The logistic regression analysis revealed the associations between CTX-M-15 and resistance to ceftriaxone, between CTX-M-14 and resistance to cefoxitin, aztreonam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, and between CTX-M-92 and resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study showed a significant association between CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-92 β-lactamases and resistance to some antibiotics as well as CTX‑M-14 β-lactamase and phylogenetic group A in the Lithuanian population. The associations between the CTX-M type and the site of infection were not determined. PMID:24589574

  6. Characterization of CTX-M ESBLs in Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from Cairo, Egypt

    Khalaf Noha G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high rate of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Egypt has been previously reported. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanism (s to extended spectrum cephalosporins among resistant clinical isolates at a medical institute in Cairo, Egypt. Methods Nonconsecutive Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp, Enterobacter cloacae (ENT and Escherichia coli (EC isolates were obtained from the clinical laboratory at the medical institute. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by CLSI disk diffusion and ESBL confirmatory tests. MICs were determined using broth microdilution. Isoelectric focusing (IEF was used to determine the pI values, inhibitor profiles, and cefotaxime (CTX hydrolysis by the β-lactamases. PCR and sequencing were performed using blaCTX-M and ISEcp1-specific primers, with DNA obtained from the clinical isolates. Conjugation experiments were done to determine the mobility of blaCTX-M. Results All five clinical isolates were resistant to CTX, and were positive for ESBL screening. IEF revealed multiple β-lactamases produced by each isolate, including a β-lactamase with a pI of 8.0 in Kp and ENT and a β-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 in EC. Both β-lactamases were inhibited by clavulanic acid and hydrolyzed CTX. PCR and sequence analysis identified blaCTX-M-14 in Kp and ENT and a blaCTX-M-15 in EC. Both blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 were preceded by ISEcp1 elements as revealed by partial sequence analysis of the upstream region of the blaCTX-M genes. blaCTX-M-15 was transferable but not blaCTX-M-14. Conclusion This is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Kp and ENT isolates from Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa.

  7. Multiclonal Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase CTX-M-2 and Novel Variant CTX-M-59 in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Brazil▿

    de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti; Doi, Yohei; Szabo, Dora; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Vaz, TÂnia M. I.; Leite, Daniela; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Maristela P. Freire; Silveira, Fernanda P.; Paterson, David L.

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 10 pulsotypes identified during the outbreak and follow-up periods, nine produced CTX-M-2 or its new variant CTX-M-59 and one produced SHV-5. blaCTX-M-2/59 genes were located on closely related plasmids that were transferable.

  8. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of CTX-M-131, a Natural Asp240Gly Variant Derived from CTX-M-2, Produced by a Providencia rettgeri Clinical Strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Dropa, Milena; Ghiglione, Barbara; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; Balsalobre, Livia Carminato; Lincopan, Nilton; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Gutkind, Gabriel; Power, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    CTX-M-131 is a natural Asp240Gly variant from the CTX-M-2 group detected in a Providencia rettgeri clinical strain from Brazil. Molecular analysis showed that blaCTX-M-131 was inserted in a complex class 1 integron harbored by a 112-kb plasmid, which has not been previously described as a platform for CTX-M-encoding genes with the Asp240Gly mutation. Steady-state kinetic parameters showed that the enzyme has a typical cefotaximase catalytic profile and an enhanced activity against ceftazidime.

  9. X11---A graphic interface in the OS-9 real-time environment

    X11 is a graphic window manager developed as a joint project of the Masschusetts Institute of Technology and Digital Equipment Corporation. It represents a widely available platform to develop distributed graphic applications using TCP/IP and DECNET. Microware's OS-9 is a real-time operating system widely used inside the physics community. The marriage between OS-9 and X11 should be seen as an attempt to stabilize a wise, open and accepted platform in the physics world to do real-time programming as well as line graphic output. Choosing X11 as our graphic environment should allow applications to run virtually without changes for several years but still be able to use the latest and fastest CPUs/architectures

  10. Aquaporin-11: A channel protein lacking apparent transport function expressed in brain

    Tsunenari Takashi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aquaporins are a family of integral membrane proteins composed of two subfamilies: the orthodox aquaporins, which transport only water, and the aquaglyceroporins, which transport glycerol, urea, or other small solutes. Two recently described aquaporins, numbers 11 and 12, appear to be more distantly related to the other mammalian aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Results We report on the characterization of Aquaporin-11 (AQP11. AQP11 RNA and protein is found in multiple rat tissues, including kidney, liver, testes and brain. AQP11 has a unique distribution in brain, appearing in Purkinje cell dendrites, hippocampal neurons of CA1 and CA2, and cerebral cortical neurons. Immunofluorescent staining of Purkinje cells indicates that AQP11 is intracellular. Unlike other aquaporins, Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP11 in the plasma membrane failed to transport water, glycerol, urea, or ions. Conclusion AQP11 is functionally distinct from other proteins of the aquaporin superfamily and could represent a new aquaporin subfamily. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of AQP11 in the brain.

  11. PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN FOR LANSCE INTEGRATED FLIGHT PATHS 11A, 11B, 12, and 13

    D. H. BULTMAN; D. WEINACHT - AIRES CORP.

    2000-08-01

    This Preliminary Project Plan Summarizes the Technical, Cost, and Schedule baselines for an integrated approach to developing several flight paths at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. For example, the cost estimate is intended to serve only as a rough order of magnitude assessment of the cost that might be incurred as the flight paths are developed. Further refinement of the requirements and interfaces for each beamline will permit additional refinement and confidence in the accuracy of all three baselines (Technical, Cost, Schedule).

  12. Is the stellar system WR 11 a gamma-ray source?

    Benaglia, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Many early-type stars are in systems; some of them have been indicated as putative high-energy emitters. The radiation is expected to be produced at the region where two stellar winds collide. Compelling evidence of such emission was found only for the colliding-wind binary (CWB) Eta Car, which was associated to a GeV source. Very recently, the closest CWB, WR 11, was proposed as a counterpart of a 6sigma emission excess, measured with the Fermi LAT satellite. We looked for evidence to support or reject the hypothesis that WR 11 is responsible of the gamma-ray excess. Archive radio interferometric data at 1.4 and 2.5 GHz taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array along sixteen different dates were reduced. The sizes of the field-of-view at 2.5 GHz and of the central region of the Fermi LAT excess are alike. We analyzed the emission of the field of WR 11, characterized the radio sources detected and derived their spectral indices, to investigate their nature. Eight sources with fluxes above 10 mJy were d...

  13. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet;

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family......, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional...... individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in...

  14. MtSWEET11, a Nodule-Specific Sucrose Transporter of Medicago truncatula.

    Kryvoruchko, Igor S; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Sosso, Davide; Pislariu, Catalina I; Guan, Dian; Murray, Jeremy; Benedito, Vagner A; Frommer, Wolf B; Udvardi, Michael K

    2016-05-01

    Optimization of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legumes is a key area of research for sustainable agriculture. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) occurs in specialized organs called nodules and depends on a steady supply of carbon to both plant and bacterial cells. Here we report the functional characterization of a nodule-specific Suc transporter, MtSWEET11 from Medicago truncatula MtSWEET11 belongs to a clade of plant SWEET proteins that are capable of transporting Suc and play critical roles in pathogen susceptibility. When expressed in mammalian cells, MtSWEET11 transported sucrose (Suc) but not glucose (Glc). The MtSWEET11 gene was found to be expressed in infected root hair cells, and in the meristem, invasion zone, and vasculature of nodules. Expression of an MtSWEET11-GFP fusion protein in nodules resulted in green fluorescence associated with the plasma membrane of uninfected cells and infection thread and symbiosome membranes of infected cells. Two independent Tnt1-insertion sweet11 mutants were uncompromised in SNF Therefore, although MtSWEET11 appears to be involved in Suc distribution within nodules, it is not crucial for SNF, probably because other Suc transporters can fulfill its role(s). PMID:27021190

  15. Calls for help after september 11: a community mental health hot line

    Wunsch-Hitzig, Robin; Plapinger, Jane; Draper, John; Campo, Elsie del

    2002-01-01

    Although unprepared for a disaster of the magnitude of September 11th, New York City's mental health system responded immediately. Within weeks, Project Liberty, a recovery program funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), was in operation. The program provided free education, outreach, and crisis counseling services for those affected by the disaster and its aftermath. LifeNet, a 24-bour, 7-day-a-week mental health information and referral botline, is a key component of Proje...

  16. Is Growth Differentiation Factor 11 a Realistic Therapeutic for Aging-Dependent Muscle Defects?

    Harper, Shavonn C; Brack, Andrew; MacDonnell, Scott; Franti, Michael; Olwin, Bradley B; Bailey, Beth A; Rudnicki, Michael A; Houser, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    This "Controversies in Cardiovascular Research" article evaluates the evidence for and against the hypothesis that the circulating blood level of growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) decreases in old age and that restoring normal GDF11 levels in old animals rejuvenates their skeletal muscle and reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. Studies supporting the original GDF11 hypothesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle have not been validated by several independent groups. These new studies have either found no effects of restoring normal GDF11 levels on cardiac structure and function or have shown that increasing GDF11 or its closely related family member growth differentiation factor 8 actually impairs skeletal muscle repair in old animals. One possible explanation for what seems to be mutually exclusive findings is that the original reagent used to measure GDF11 levels also detected many other molecules so that age-dependent changes in GDF11 are still not well known. The more important issue is whether increasing blood [GDF11] repairs old skeletal muscle and reverses age-related cardiac pathologies. There are substantial new and existing data showing that GDF8/11 can exacerbate rather than rejuvenate skeletal muscle injury in old animals. There is also new evidence disputing the idea that there is pathological hypertrophy in old C57bl6 mice and that GDF11 therapy can reverse cardiac pathologies. Finally, high [GDF11] causes reductions in body and heart weight in both young and old animals, suggestive of a cachexia effect. Our conclusion is that elevating blood levels of GDF11 in the aged might cause more harm than good. PMID:27034276

  17. SU-E-J-11: A New Optical Method to Register Patient External Motion

    Purpose: To devise and implement a new system to measure and register the patient motion during radiotherapy treatments. Methods: The system can obtain the position of several points in the 3D-space, through their projections in the 2D-images recorded by two cameras. The algorithm needs a series of constants, that are obtained using the images of a calibrated phantom.To test the system, some adhesive labels were placed on the surface of an object. Two cameras recorded the moving object over time. An in-house developed software localized the labels in each image. In the first pair of images, the program used a first approximation given by the user. In the subsequent images, it used the last position as an approximate location. The final exact coordinates of the point were obtained in a two-step process using the contrast of the images. From the 2D-positions of the point in each frame, the 3D-trajectories of each of these marks were obtained.The system was tested with linear displacements, oscillations of a mechanical oscillator, circular trajectories of a rotating disk, and with respiratory motion of a volunteer. Results: Trajectories of several points were reproduced with sub-millimeter accuracy in the three directions of the space. The system was able to follow periodic motion with amplitudes lower than 0.5mm; and trajectories of rotating points at speeds up to 200mm/s. The software could also track accurately the respiration motion of a person. Conclusion: A new, inexpensive optical tracking system for patient motion has been demonstrated. The system detects motion with high accuracy. Installation and calibration of the system is simple and quick. Data collection is not expected to involve any discomfort for the patient, nor any delay for the treatment. The system could be also used as a method of warning for patient movements, and for gating. We acknowledge financial support from Fundacion Mutua Madrilena, Madrid, Spain

  18. Endocrine abnormalities in ring chromosome 11: a case report and review of the literature

    Lange, Renata; Von Linsingen, Caoê; Mata, Fernanda; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; Arruda, Mariana; Vieira Neto, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ring chromosomes (RCs) are uncommon cytogenetic findings, and RC11 has only been described in 19 cases in the literature. Endocrine abnormalities associated with RC11 were reported for two of these cases. The clinical features of RC11 can result from an alteration in the structure of the genetic material, ring instability, mosaicism, and various extents of genetic material loss. We herein describe a case of RC11 with clinical features of 11q-syndrome and endocrine abnormalities that h...

  19. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan; Orlando, Ludovic; Horin, Petr

    2016-01-01

    a transporter protein mediating antimicrobial activity of macrophages. Little is known about the patterns of selection shaping this gene during evolution. Although it is a typical evolutionarily conserved gene, functionally important polymorphisms associated with various diseases were identified in...

  20. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  1. SU-E-I-11: A New Cone-Beam CT System for Bedside Head Imaging

    Sun, H; Zeng, W; Xu, P; Wang, Z; Xing, X; Sun, M [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a new mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for head imaging with good soft-tissue visibility, to be used bedside in ICU and neurosurgery department to monitor treatment and operation outcome in brain patients. Methods: The imaging chain consists of a 30cmx25cm amorphous silicon flat panel detector and a pulsed, stationary anode monoblock x-ray source of 100kVp at a maximal tube current of 10mA. The detector and source are supported on motorized mechanisms to provide detector lateral shift and source angular tilt, enabling a centered digital radiographic imaging mode and half-fan CBCT, while maximizing the use of the x-ray field and keep the source to detector distance short. A focused linear anti-scatter grid is mounted on the detector, and commercial software with scatter and other corrective algorithms is used for data processing and image reconstruction. The gantry rotates around a horizontal axis, and is able to adjust its height for different patient table positions. Cables are routed through a custom protective sleeve over a large bore with an in-plane twister band, facilitating single 360-degree rotation without a slip-ring at a speed up to 5 seconds per rotation. A UPS provides about 10 minutes of operation off the battery when unplugged. The gantry is on locked casters, whose brake is control by two push handles on both sides for easy reposition. The entire system is designed to have a light weight and a compact size for excellent maneuverability. Results: System design is complete and main imaging components are tested. Initial results will be presented and discussed later in the presentation. Conclusion: A new mobile CBCT system for head imaging is being developed. With its compact size, a large bore, and quality design, it is expected to be a useful imaging tool for bedside uses. The work is supported by a grant from Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The Oncoprotein BCL11A Binds to Orphan Nuclear Receptor TLX and Potentiates its Transrepressive Function

    Sara B. Estruch; Víctor Buzón; Carbó, Laia R.; Lenka Schorova; Jens Lüders; Eva Estébanez-Perpiñá

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1) functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TL...

  3. Importin-11, a nuclear import receptor for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcM2.

    Plafker, S M; Macara, I G

    2000-10-16

    Importins are members of a family of transport receptors (karyopherins) that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargoes. We identified importin-11 as a potential new human member of this family, on the basis of limited similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, Lph2p, and cloned the complete open reading frame. Importin-11 interacts with the Ran GTPase, and constitutively shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. A yeast dihybrid screen identified UbcM2, an E2-type ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, as a binding partner and potential transport cargo for importin-11. Importin-11 and UbcM2 interact directly, and the complex is disassembled by Ran:GTP but not by Ran:GDP. UbcM2 is constitutively nuclear and shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Nuclear import of UbcM2 requires Ran and importin-11, and is inhibited by wheatgerm agglutinin, energy depletion or dominant interfering mutants of Ran and importin-beta. These data establish importin-11 as a new member of the karyopherin family of transport receptors, and identify UbcM2 as a nuclear member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. PMID:11032817

  4. Importin-11, a nuclear import receptor for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcM2

    Plafker, Scott M.; Macara, Ian G.

    2000-01-01

    Importins are members of a family of transport receptors (karyopherins) that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargoes. We identified importin-11 as a potential new human member of this family, on the basis of limited similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, Lph2p, and cloned the complete open reading frame. Importin-11 interacts with the Ran GTPase, and constitutively shuttles between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. A yeast dihybrid screen identi...

  5. PSR B1828-11: a precession pulsar torqued by a quark planet?

    Liu, K.; Y. L. YUE; Xu, R. X.

    2006-01-01

    The pulsar PSR B1828-11 has long-term, highly periodic and correlated variations in both pulse shape and the rate of slow-down. This phenomenon may provide evidence for precession of the pulsar as suggested previously within the framework of free precession as well as forced one. On a presumption of forced precession, we propose a quark planet model to this precession henomenon instead, in which the pulsar is torqued by a quark planet. We construct this model by constraining mass of the pulsa...

  6. The Design and Construction of K11: A Novel α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptide

    Huang Jin-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptides comprise a class of broad-spectrum agents that are used against pathogens. We designed a series of antimicrobial peptides, CP-P (KWKSFIKKLTSKFLHLAKKF and its derivatives, and determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, their minimum hemolytic concentrations (MHCs for human erythrocytes, and the Therapeutic Index (MHC/MIC ratio. We selected the derivative peptide K11, which had the highest therapeutic index (320 among the tested peptides, to determine the MICs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and 22 clinical isolates including Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Klebsiella pneumonia. K11 exhibited low MICs (less than 10 μg/mL and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, especially against clinically isolated drug-resistant pathogens. Therefore, these results indicate that K11 is a promising candidate antimicrobial peptide for further studies.

  7. The Disappearing Solar Filament of 2003 June 11: A Three-body Problem

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Cliver, E. W.; Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent filament on 2003 June 11 was preceded by the birth of a nearby active region—a common scenario. In this case, however, the filament lay near a pre-existing active region and the new active region did not destabilize the filament by direct magnetic connection. Instead it appears to have done so indirectly via magnetic coupling with the established region. Restructuring between the perturbed fields of the old region and the filament then weakened the arcade overlying the midpoint of filament, where the eruption originated. The inferred rate (~11° day-1) at which the magnetic disturbance propagates from the mature region to destabilize the filament is larger than the mean speed (~5º-6° day-1) but still within the scatter obtained for Bruzek's empirical relationship between the distance from a newly formed active region to a quiescent filament and the time from active region appearance to filament disappearance. The higher propagation speed in the 2003 June 11 case may be due to the "broadside" (versus ''end-on") angle of attack of the (effective) new flux to the coronal magnetic fields overlying a central section of the axis of the filament.

  8. SU-E-I-11: A New Cone-Beam CT System for Bedside Head Imaging

    Purpose: To design and develop a new mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for head imaging with good soft-tissue visibility, to be used bedside in ICU and neurosurgery department to monitor treatment and operation outcome in brain patients. Methods: The imaging chain consists of a 30cmx25cm amorphous silicon flat panel detector and a pulsed, stationary anode monoblock x-ray source of 100kVp at a maximal tube current of 10mA. The detector and source are supported on motorized mechanisms to provide detector lateral shift and source angular tilt, enabling a centered digital radiographic imaging mode and half-fan CBCT, while maximizing the use of the x-ray field and keep the source to detector distance short. A focused linear anti-scatter grid is mounted on the detector, and commercial software with scatter and other corrective algorithms is used for data processing and image reconstruction. The gantry rotates around a horizontal axis, and is able to adjust its height for different patient table positions. Cables are routed through a custom protective sleeve over a large bore with an in-plane twister band, facilitating single 360-degree rotation without a slip-ring at a speed up to 5 seconds per rotation. A UPS provides about 10 minutes of operation off the battery when unplugged. The gantry is on locked casters, whose brake is control by two push handles on both sides for easy reposition. The entire system is designed to have a light weight and a compact size for excellent maneuverability. Results: System design is complete and main imaging components are tested. Initial results will be presented and discussed later in the presentation. Conclusion: A new mobile CBCT system for head imaging is being developed. With its compact size, a large bore, and quality design, it is expected to be a useful imaging tool for bedside uses. The work is supported by a grant from Chinese Academy of Sciences

  9. Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function

    Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John J.; Chen, Jie; Deng, Susan L.; Cheng, Fengdong; Distler, Allison; Woods, David M.; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Laino, Andressa Sodre'; Youn, Je-In; Woan, Karrune V.; Villagra, Alejandro; Gabrilovich, Dmitry,; Sotomayor, Eduardo M.; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC's), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting ...

  10. Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function.

    Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John J; Chen, Jie; Deng, Susan L; Cheng, Fengdong; Distler, Allison; Woods, David M; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sodre, Andressa L; Youn, Je-In; Woan, Karrune V; Villagra, Alejandro; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting that this may represent an important targetable axis through which to dampen MDSC formation. Using a murine transgenic reporter model system where eGFP expression is controlled by the HDAC11 promoter (Tg-HDAC11-eGFP), we provide evidence that HDAC11 appears to function as a negative regulator of MDSC expansion/function in vivo. MDSCs isolated from EL4 tumor-bearing Tg-HDAC11-eGFP display high expression of eGFP, indicative of HDAC11 transcriptional activation at steady state. In striking contrast, immature myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice display a diminished eGFP expression, implying that the transition of IMC to MDSC's require a decrease in the expression of HDAC11, where we postulate that it acts as a gate-keeper of myeloid differentiation. Indeed, tumor-bearing HDAC11-knockout mice (HDAC11-KO) demonstrate a more suppressive MDSC population as compared to wild-type (WT) tumor-bearing control. Notably, the HDAC11-KO tumor-bearing mice exhibit enhanced tumor growth kinetics when compare to the WT control mice. Thus, through a better understanding of this previously unknown role of HDAC11 in MDSC expansion and function, rational development of targeted epigenetic modifiers may allow us to thwart a powerful barrier to efficacious immunotherapies. PMID:25155994

  11. Mutations in C10orf11, a Melanocyte-Differentiation Gene, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Albinism

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M.; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N.; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P.; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L.; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2–q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that...

  12. PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN FOR LANSCE INTEGRATED FLIGHT PATHS 11A, 11B, 12, and 13

    This Preliminary Project Plan Summarizes the Technical, Cost, and Schedule baselines for an integrated approach to developing several flight paths at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. For example, the cost estimate is intended to serve only as a rough order of magnitude assessment of the cost that might be incurred as the flight paths are developed. Further refinement of the requirements and interfaces for each beamline will permit additional refinement and confidence in the accuracy of all three baselines (Technical, Cost, Schedule)

  13. Structure of a HIV-1 Protease-Inhibitor Complex determined at 1.1A resolution

    Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Štouračová, Renata; Fábry, Milan; Hradilek, Martin; Souček, Milan; Konvalinka, Jan; Sedláček, Juraj

    Jena : Jena, 2002, s. -. [International Conference on the crystal lization of Biological Macromolecules /9./. Jena, Německo (DE), 23.03.2002-28.03.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : Structure of a HIV-1 * protease * Inhibitor complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Molecular epidemiology of hybrid CTX-M type beta-lactamases among Escherichia coli isolates from human and animals

    Liu, Chunjiao; 刘春娇

    2014-01-01

    A novel and effective mechanism of forming resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by producing hybrid CTX-M-type beta-lactamases through genetic recombination was reported recently, albeit sporadically. Its primary introductory factor is the horizontal resistant gene transfer that occurs within the 876 bp 〖bla〗_(CTX-M) gene in Escherichia coli isolates, followed by the extensive application of beta-lactam antimicrobials. 〖bla〗_(CTX-M) originated from the nonpathogenic commensal Kluyvera spp., ...

  15. Dominance of blaCTX-M within an Australian Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Gene Pool▿

    Zong, Zhiyong; Partridge, Sally R.; Thomas, Lee; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2008-01-01

    blaCTX-M genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, are the dominant extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Sydney, Australia, where we also found one example of blaCTX-M-62, encoding a novel enzyme conferring ceftazidime resistance. ESBL genes were present in diverse community isolates and in a variety of associated conjugative plasmids.

  16. CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Italy: Molecular Epidemiology of an Emerging Countrywide Problem

    Mugnaioli, Claudia; Luzzaro, Francesco; De Luca, Filomena; Brigante, Gioconda; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Stefani, Stefania; Toniolo, Antonio; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    A nationwide survey of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production among Enterobacteriaceae, carried out in 2003, showed that CTX-M-type enzymes have achieved a sizeable prevalence among ESBL producers in Italy, mostly in Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this work, we report on the molecular epidemiology of the CTX-M-producing isolates from that survey and on the mechanisms of dissemination of these emerging resistance determinants. The CTX-M-producin...

  17. Phenotypic and Molecular Detection of CTX-M-β-Lactamases Produced by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Hossain, Ashfaque; Hanson, Nancy D.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms producing CTX-M-β-lactamases are emerging around the world as a source of resistance to oxyiminocephalosporins such as cefotaxime (CTX). However, the laboratory detection of these strains is not well defined. In this study, a molecular detection assay for the identification of CTX-M-β-lactamase genes was developed and used to investigate the prevalence of these enzymes among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species in the Calgary Health Region during 2000 to 2002...

  18. Co-expression and Immunity of Legionella pneumophila mip Gene and Immunoadjuvant ctxB Gene

    Tao WANG; Jian-Ping CHEN; Hong LI; Ke-Qian ZHI; Lei ZHANG; Chun-Lei YANG; Da-Chang TAO

    2005-01-01

    The nip gene of Legionella pneumophila and the ctxB gene of Vibrio cholerae were amplified by PCR respectively. The amplified cDNA was ligated to the pcDNA3.1 (+) vector. The recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB were identified by restriction analysis and PCR, and further confirmed by sequencing analysis. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB according to the Lipofection method. Transient and stable products of the co-expression of the nip gene and ctxB gene were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results showed that NIH3T3 cells were successfully transfected, and that the transiently and stably co-expressed products can be detected in the transfected cells. To detect the humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice induced by the coimmunization of the mip and ctxB genes, female BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB. The results showed that the specific antibody titer and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for pcDNA3.1-mip immunization and co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1 (+) immunization. Furthermore, the specific antibody titer and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1-mip immunization. Statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant difference between the groups (P<0.01). The results indicated that the ctxB gene enhanced the humoral and cellular immune response to the mip gene immunization. These findings provide experimental evidence to support the development of the L. pneumophila DNA vaccine.

  19. Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli Isolates That Produce CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Kevin B Laupland; Church, Deirdre L; Menard, Megan L.; Johnson, James R.

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the phylogenetic groups and virulence factors of 37 Escherichia coli isolates producing types of CTX-M compared with those of 19 isolates producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in a well-defined North American population. Most CTX-M-14 producers (97%) were from phylogenic group D; 67% of the CTX-M-15 producers were from group B2. A single CTX-M-14-producing strain belonged to clonal group A. There were significant prevalence differences for i...

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates at a Tertiary Medical Center in Western Pennsylvania▿

    Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Paterson, David L.; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Ewan, Lindsay; Pasculle, Anthony W.; Muto, Carlene A.; Tian, Guo-Bao; Doi, Yohei

    2009-01-01

    A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods was used to investigate 70 unique Escherichia coli clinical isolates identified as producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) at a medical center in Pittsburgh, PA, between 2007 and 2008. Fifty-seven isolates (81%) produced CTX-M-type ESBLs, among which CTX-M-15 was predominant (n = 46). Isolates producing CTX-M-2, -9, -14, and -65 were also identified. One CTX-M-producing isolate coproduced CMY-2 cephalosporinase. Ten isolates (14%) pro...

  1. CTX-M β-Lactamase–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Suburban New York City, New York, USA

    Wang, Guiqing; Huang, Tiangui; Surendraiah, Pavan Kumar Makam; Wang, Kemeng; Komal, Rashida; Zhuge, Jian; Chern, Chian-Ru; Kryszuk, Alexander A.; King, Cassidy; Wormser, Gary P

    2013-01-01

    CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are infrequently reported in the United States. In this study, we analyzed nonduplicate ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates collected during 2005–2012 at a tertiary care medical center in suburban New York City, USA, for the presence of bla CTX-M, bla SHV, bla TEM, and bla KPC genes. Despite a high prevalence of bla CTX-M genes in ESBL-producing E. coli since 2005, bla CTX-M gen...

  2. Recent Emergence of Escherichia coli with Cephalosporin Resistance Conferred by blaCTX-M on Washington State Dairy Farms

    Davis, Margaret A.; Sischo, William M.; Jones, Lisa P.; Moore, Dale A; Ahmed, Sara; Short, Diana M.; Besser, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae-associated blaCTX-M genes have become globally widespread within the past 30 years. Among isolates from Washington State cattle, Escherichia coli strains carrying blaCTX-M (CTX-M E. coli strains) were absent from a set of 2008 isolates but present in a set of isolates from 2011. On 30 Washington State dairy farms sampled in 2012, CTX-M E. coli prevalence was significantly higher on eastern than on northwestern Washington farms, on farms with more than 3,000 adult cows, and ...

  3. Prevalence of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Salmonella Isolated from Chicken in Korea.

    Kim, Sara; Kang, Hyun-Wol; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2015-08-01

    A total of 162 Salmonella isolates were isolated in samples from poultry farms, slaughterhouses, retail chicken meats, and human feces between 2012 and 2013. All extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates had bla(CTX-M-15) gene sequence in their plasmids. This genotype may be related to multidrug resistance. Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction patterns among CTX-M-15 isolates were classified into 12 indistinguishable groups. CTX-M-15 isolates had various plasmid replicon types; however, the most frequent type was FIIS. This result suggests that bla(CTX-M-15) could be propagated via plasmid transfer. PMID:26258260

  4. Novel Cefotaximase (CTX-M-16) with Increased Catalytic Efficiency Due to Substitution Asp-240→Gly

    Bonnet, R.; Dutour, C.; Sampaio, J. L. M.; Chanal, C; Sirot, D; Labia, R; De Champs, C; Sirot, J

    2001-01-01

    Three clinical strains (Escherichia coli Rio-6, E. coli Rio-7, and Enterobacter cloacae Rio-9) collected in 1996 and 1999 from hospitals in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were resistant to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and gave a positive double-disk synergy test. Two blaCTX-M genes encoding β-lactamases of pl 7.9 and 8.2 were implicated in this resistance: the blaCTX-M-9 gene observed in E. coli Rio-7 and E. cloacae Rio-9 and a novel CTX-M-encoding gene, designated blaCTX-M-16, observed in E. coli ...

  5. Nationwide Survey of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Strains Producing CTX-M Extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Croatia.

    Fiolić, Zlatko; Bosnjak, Zrinka; Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Mareković, Ivana; Cetkovic, Helena; Kalenić, Smilja

    2015-12-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported in both hospital and community patients. Production of ESBLs is the major mechanism of resistance to oxymino-cephalosporins and aztreonam in Gram-negative bacteria. Recently a new family of ESBLs with predominant activity against cefotaxime (CTX-M β-lactamases) has been reported. Over 80 CTX-M enzymes have been described so far, which can be grouped into five main subgroups according to amino acid sequence identity (CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9 and CTX-M-25). In some countries, CTX-M β-lactamases are the most prevalent types of ESBLs, for instance in Russia, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Japan, Taiwan, China and Argentina. These enzymes have been identified in countries near Croatia such is Italy, Hungary and Austria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the types of CTX-M β lactamases produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from October 2006 to January 2007 from both community- and hospital-based isolates were included (Figure 1.). 128 ESBL isolates were subjected to further analysis: screening with double disc diffusion test and confirmed by ESBL E test. PMID:26987165

  6. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Xiao-Ping eLiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of blaCTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in E. coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for blaCTX-M-14 and then the blaCTX-M-14 –positive isolates were detected by other resistance determinants (ESBLs, PMQR, rmtB and floR and analyzed by phylogenetic grouping analysis, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing, multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analysis. The genetic environments of blaCTX-M-14 were also determined by PCR. The results showed that fourteen CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were identified, belonging to groups A (7/14, B1 (4/14 and D (3/14. The most predominant resistance gene was blaTEM (n= 8, followed by floR (n=7, oqxA (n=3, aac(6’-1b-cr (n=2 and rmtB (n=1. Plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14 were classified to IncK, IncHI2, IncHI1, IncN, IncFIB, IncF or IncI1, ranged from about 30kb to 200kb, and with insertion sequence of ISEcp1, IS26 or ORF513 located upstream and IS903 downstream of blaCTX-M-14. The result of MLST showed that 14 isolates had 11 STs, and the 11 STs belonged to 5 groups. Many of the identified STs are reported to be common in E. coli isolates associated with extraintestinal infections in humans, suggesting possible transmission of blaCTX-M-14 between animals and humans. The difference in the flanking sequences of blaCTX-M-14 between the 2009 isolates and the early ones suggests that the resistance gene context continues to evolve in E. coli of food producing animals.

  7. Community-Wide Outbreaks of Clonally Related CTX-M-14 β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in the Calgary Health Region

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Gregson, Daniel B.; Church, Deirdre L; Elsayed, Sameer; Kevin B Laupland

    2005-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) typically cause nosocomial infections. Previous surveillance in the Calgary Health Region showed that Escherichia coli strains producing ESBLs were common among community patients. During the period (2000 to 2002): 23 of 157 (15%) of the strains were positive for blaCTX-M genes from the CTX-M-I group (CTX-M-1-like) and 87 of 157 (55%) of the strains were positive for blaCTX-M genes from the CTX-M-III group (CTX-M-14-like). Th...

  8. Synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C induces a rapid imbalance in neuronal excitability.

    Martín, Victor; Vale, Carmen; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Rubiolo, Juan Andrés; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatera is a human global disease caused by the consumption of contaminated fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs), sodium channel activator toxins. Symptoms of ciguatera include neurological alterations such as paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, depression, and heightened nociperception, among others. An important issue to understand these long-term neurological alterations is to establish the role that changes in activity produced by CTX 3C represent to neurons. Here, the effects of synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on membrane potential, spontaneous spiking, and properties of synaptic transmission in cultured cortical neurons of 11-18 days in vitro (DIV) were evaluated using electrophysiological approaches. CTX 3C induced a large depolarization that decreased neuronal firing and caused a rapid inward tonic current that was primarily GABAergic. Moreover, the toxin enhanced the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic inhibitory currents (mIPSCs), whereas it decreased the amplitude of miniature postsynaptic excitatory currents (mEPSCs). The frequency of mIPSCs increased, whereas the frequency of mEPSCs remained unaltered. We describe, for the first time, that a rapid membrane depolarization caused by CTX 3C in cortical neurons activates mechanisms that tend to suppress electrical activity by shifting the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission toward inhibition. Indeed, these results suggest that the acute effects of CTX on synaptic transmission could underlie some of the neurological symptoms caused by ciguatera in humans. PMID:25945403

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  10. Characterization of two new CTX-M-25-group extended-spectrum β-lactamase variants identified in Escherichia coli isolates from Israel.

    Jascha Vervoort

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We characterized two new CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL variants in Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of two elderly patients admitted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Both patients underwent treatment with cephalosporins prior to isolation of the E. coli strains. METHODS: ESBLs were detected by the double-disk synergy test and PCR-sequencing of β-lactamase genes. The bla(CTX-M genes were cloned into the pCR-BluntII-TOPO vector in E. coli TOP10. The role of amino-acid substitutions V77A and D240G was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of the bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 genes and comparative characterization of the resulting E. coli recombinants. MICs of β-lactams were determined by Etest. Plasmid profiling, mating experiments, replicon typing and sequencing of bla(CTX-M flanking regions were performed to identify the genetic background of the new CTX-M variants. RESULTS: The novel CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-94 and -100, belonged to the CTX-M-25-group. Both variants differed from CTX-M-25 by the substitution V77A, and from CTX-M-39 by D240G. CTX-M-94 differed from all CTX-M-25-group enzymes by the substitution F119L. Glycine-240 was associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and leucine-119 with increased resistance to ceftriaxone. bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 were located within ISEcp1 transposition units inserted into ∼93 kb non-conjugative IncFI and ∼130 kb conjugative IncA/C plasmids, respectively. The plasmids carried also different class 1 integrons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on CTX-M-94 and -100 ESBLs, novel members of the CTX-M-25-group.

  11. JavaCtx: Seamless Toolchain Integration for Context-Oriented Programming

    Salvaneschi, Guido; Pradella, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Context-oriented programming is an emerging paradigm addressing at the language level the issue of dynamic software adaptation and modularization of context-specific concerns. In this paper we propose JavaCtx, a tool which employs coding conventions to generate the context-aware semantics for Java programs and subsequently weave it into the application. The contribution of JavaCtx is twofold: the design of a set of coding conventions which allow to write context-oriented software in plain Java and the concept of context-oriented semantics injection, which allows to introduce the context-aware semantics without a source-to-source compilations process which disrupts the structure of the code. Both these points allow to seamless integrate JavaCtx in the existing industrial-strength appliances and by far ease the development of context-oriented software.

  12. JavaCtx: Seamless Toolchain Integration for Context-Oriented Programming

    Salvaneschi, Guido; Ghezzi, Carlo; Pradella, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Context-oriented programming is an emerging paradigm addressing at the language level the issue of dynamic software adaptation and modularization of context-specific concerns. In this paper we propose JavaCtx, a tool which employs coding conventions to generate the context-aware semantics for Java programs and subsequently weave it into the application. The contribution of JavaCtx is twofold: the design of a set of coding conventions which allow to write context-oriented software in plain Jav...

  13. Evolutionary trajectories of beta-lactamase CTX-M-1 cluster enzymes: predicting antibiotic resistance.

    Angela Novais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type beta-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of specific mutations enhancing protein efficiency and fitness concomitantly. The existence of driver antibiotic molecules favoring protein divergence has been investigated by combining evolutionary analyses and experimental site-specific mutagenesis. Phylogenetic reconstruction with all the CTX-M variants described so far provided a hypothetical evolutionary scenario showing at least three diversification events. CTX-M-3 was likely the enzyme at the origin of the diversification in the CTX-M-1 cluster, which was coincident with positive selection acting on several amino acid positions. Sixty-three CTX-M-3 derivatives containing all combinations of mutations under positively selected positions were constructed, and their phenotypic efficiency was evaluated. The CTX-M-3 diversification process can only be explained in a complex selective landscape with at least two antibiotics (cefotaxime and ceftazidime, indicating the need to invoke mixtures of selective drivers in order to understand the final evolutionary outcome. Under this hypothesis, we found congruent results between the in silico and in vitro analyses of evolutionary trajectories. Three pathways driving the diversification of CTX-M-3 towards the most complex and efficient variants were identified. Whereas the P167S pathway has limited possibilities of further diversification, the D240G route shows a robust diversification network. In the third route, drift may have played a role in the early stages of

  14. Molecular characterization of nosocomial CTX-M type β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in south India

    Jemima S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M group of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs represents a rapidly emerging problem in many countries. The prevalence of nosocomial bla CTX-M-1 producing Enterobacteriaceae strains has not been reported earlier in Indian hospitals. This study describes molecular subtyping of nosocomial bla CTX-M producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae . Polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for bla CTX-M-1 coding genes was used to identify 95 Enterobacteriaceae strains producing bla CTX-M positive isolates. Of the 95 bla CTX-M producing isolates, 45 strains were positive for bla CTX-M-1 . bla CTX-M-1 was found to be most prevalent in Klebsiella strains.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli in the Calgary Health Region: Emergence of CTX-M-15-Producing Isolates▿

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Church, Deirdre L; Gregson, Daniel B.; Chow, Barbara L.; McCracken, Melissa; Mulvey, Michael R; Kevin B Laupland

    2007-01-01

    A study was designed to describe the molecular epidemiology of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli over a 6-year period (2000 to 2005) in a large well-defined Canadian region with a centralized laboratory system. Molecular characterization was done by isoelectric focusing, PCR, and automated sequencing, while genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI. Of the 552 viable extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates isolated, 354 (64%) were positiv...

  16. Comparative Study of Genotype and Virulence in CTX-M-Producing and Non-Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular and virulence characteristics of CTX-M-producing and non-extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (non-ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were compared. Lack of shared characteristics between the two groups suggested that most CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in South Korea did not occur by transfer of blaCTX-M into susceptible strains. Conjugation assays confirmed that the plasmid with the blaCTX-M-15 gene confers virulence as well as antimicrobial resistance, suggesting tha...

  17. Characterisation of the CTX-M-15-encoding gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from the Barcelona metropolitan area: plasmid diversity and chromosomal integration

    Coelho, Alicia; González-López, Juan José; Miró, Elisenda; Alonso-Tarrés, Carles; Mirelis, Beatriz; Larrosa, María Nieves; Bartolomé, Rosa María; Andreu, Antonia; Navarro, Ferran; Johnson, James R.; Prats, Guillem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The localisation and genetic organisation of blaCTX-M-15 were studied in 37 CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected from 2005 to 2008 within the Barcelona metropolitan area. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based replicon typing and Southern hybridisations were used to identify the blaCTX-M-15 location. The genetic environment was analysed by PCR mapping and sequencing, and transferability of blaCTX-M-15 was evaluated by conjugation and transformation as...

  18. Molecular characterization of nosocomial CTX-M type β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae from a tertiary care hospital in south India

    Jemima S; Verghese S

    2008-01-01

    CTX-M group of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs) represents a rapidly emerging problem in many countries. The prevalence of nosocomial bla CTX-M-1 producing Enterobacteriaceae strains has not been reported earlier in Indian hospitals. This study describes molecular subtyping of nosocomial bla CTX-M producing strains of Enterobacteriaceae . Polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for bla CTX-M-1 coding genes was used to identify 95 Enterobacteriaceae strains produci...

  19. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jelsbak, Lotte; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander; Guardabassi, Luca; Olsen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between...

  20. Vliv motorických schopností a antropometrických měr na úspěšnost v závodech u 11 a 12letých hráček tenisu The influence of tennis motor abilities and anthropometric measures on the competition successfulness of 11 and 12 year-old female tennis players

    Tjaša Filipčič

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Soubor 75 mladých hráček tenisu ve věku 11 a 12 let byl zahrnut do výzkumného projektu s cílem zjistit vliv vybraných antropometrických údajů a tenisových motorických dovedností na úspěšnost v soutěžích mladých tenisových hráčů. Vybrané tenisové motorické proměnné zahrnují: sílu svalů paží a ramen, sílu nohou, opakovanou sílu trupu, rychlost pohybu, rychlost střídavého pohybu rukou, ohebnost zad, hbitost a koordinaci ruka – oko. Výsledky regresní analýzy antropometrických měr odhalují statisticky významné spojení s kritérii proměnných (0,36. Skupina predikčních proměnných může vysvětlit 13% rozdílnost kritérií proměnných. To stejné se aplikuje na tenisové motorické proměnné, u kterých je důležitá hodnota poněkud bližší, dosahuje 0,64, zatímco systém prediktorů vysvětluje 41% rozdílnost kritérií proměnných. Tři proměnné z antropometrických měr (obvod lýtka, tělesná váha, břišní kožní řasa vysvětlují kritérium proměnné se statistickou významností. Mezi již výše zmíněné tenisové motorické proměnné patří běh na 2 400 metrů, který se používá pro měření vytrvalosti v běhu, a běh na 5 metrů, který se používá pro meření rychlosti pohybu. A sample of 75 young female tennis players, aged 11 and 12, was included in a research project aimed at establishing the influence of selected anthropometric measures and tennis motor abilities on the competition successfulness of young tennis players. The selected tennis motor variables include: the muscular power of arms and shoulders, elastic power of the legs, repetitive strength of the trunk, speed of movement, speed of alternative movements with the arm, flexibility of the back, agility, and hand-eye coordination. The results of regression analysis of anthropometric measures reveal a statistically significant connection with the criterion variable (0.36. The system of

  1. Successful treatment of ctx-m ESBL producing Escherichia coli relapsing pyelonephritis with long term pivmecillinam.

    Nicolle, Lindsay E; Mulvey, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Oral therapy options for pyelonephritis caused by ESBL producing E. coli are limited. We describe a woman with relapsing pyelonephritis due to a CTX-M ESBL E. coli who was cured with a prolonged course of pivmecillinam. This suggests pivmecillinam may be effective treatment for selected patients with pyelonephritis with these organisms. PMID:17654359

  2. Bioavailability and intravenous toxicokinetic parameters for Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats.

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Ramsdell, John S

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channel activator toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning. In this study, we determined the toxicokinetic parameters of the Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats after an intravenous (iv) dose of 0.13 ng P-CTX-1 per g of body weight. The ciguatoxin activity was assessed over time in blood using the sensitive functional Neuro2a assay. The data were analyzed with a two-compartmental model. After exposure, the ciguatoxin activity exhibited a rapid (alpha half-life of 6 min) and extensive distribution into tissues (apparent steady state volume of distribution of 7.8 L). Ciguatoxin elimination from blood was slower with a beta half-life estimated at 35.5 h. The toxicokinetic parameters determined from this study were compared to data previously obtained after oral and intraperitoneal exposure of rats to 0.26 ng P-CTX-1 per g of body weight. Maximal bioavailability was determined by the area under the concentration curve, and was used to calculate the absolute P-CTX-1 bioavailabilities for oral and intraperitoneal routes of exposures of 39% and 75%, respectively. PMID:23319077

  3. Convergent synthesis of the HIJKLM ring system of ciguatoxin CTX3C.

    Takamura, Hiroyoshi; Nishiuma, Naoki; Abe, Takashi; Kadota, Isao

    2011-09-01

    The HIJKLM ring system of ciguatoxin CTX3C was synthesized in a convergent manner. The key steps were a conjugate addition/alkylation sequence, spiroacetalization, intramolecular allylation, ring-closing metathesis, and hydrogenation to form the 36-α-methyl substituent. PMID:21805971

  4. CTX-M-27 Producing Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhimurium and Indiana Are Prevalent among Food-Producing Animals in China

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella isolates from chickens and pigs in China. Salmonella isolates were identified by API20E system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; serotypes were determined using slide agglutination with hyperimmune sera; antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the ager dilution method; the prevalence of ESBLs and PMQR genes were screened by PCR; CTX-M-producing isolates were further characterized by conjugation along with genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type. In total, 159 Salmonella strains were identified, among which 95 strains were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 63 strains were S. enterica serovar Indiana, and 1 strain was S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. All of these isolates presented multi-drug resistant phenotypes. Forty-five isolates carried blaCTX-M genes, the most common subtype was CTX-M-27(34), followed by CTX-M-65(7) and CTX-M-14(4). Most blaCTX-M genes were transmitted by non-typeable or IncN/IncFIB/IncP/IncA/C/IncHI2 plasmids with sizes ranging from 80 to 280 kb. In particular, all the 14 non-typeable plasmids were carrying blaCTX-M-27 gene and had a similar size. PFGE profiles indicated that CTX-M-positive isolates were clonally related among the same serotype, whilst the isolates of different serotypes were genetically divergent. This suggested that both clonal spread of resistant strains and horizontal transmission of the resistance plasmids contributed to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-9G-positive Salmonella isolates. The presence and spread

  5. CTX-M-27 Producing Salmonella enterica Serotypes Typhimurium and Indiana Are Prevalent among Food-Producing Animals in China.

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Xiang-Yan; Xu, Liang; Gu, Xi-Xi; Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important food-borne pathogens causing digestive tract and invasive infections in both humans and animals. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) especially the CTX-M-type ESBLs are increasingly being reported worldwide and in China. These studies seldom focused on Salmonella isolates from food-producing animals. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles, serotypes and ESBLs and in particular, CTX-M producing Salmonella isolates from chickens and pigs in China. Salmonella isolates were identified by API20E system and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay; serotypes were determined using slide agglutination with hyperimmune sera; antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the ager dilution method; the prevalence of ESBLs and PMQR genes were screened by PCR; CTX-M-producing isolates were further characterized by conjugation along with genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type. In total, 159 Salmonella strains were identified, among which 95 strains were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, 63 strains were S. enterica serovar Indiana, and 1 strain was S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. All of these isolates presented multi-drug resistant phenotypes. Forty-five isolates carried bla CTX-M genes, the most common subtype was CTX-M-27(34), followed by CTX-M-65(7) and CTX-M-14(4). Most bla CTX-M genes were transmitted by non-typeable or IncN/IncFIB/IncP/IncA/C/IncHI2 plasmids with sizes ranging from 80 to 280 kb. In particular, all the 14 non-typeable plasmids were carrying bla CTX-M-27 gene and had a similar size. PFGE profiles indicated that CTX-M-positive isolates were clonally related among the same serotype, whilst the isolates of different serotypes were genetically divergent. This suggested that both clonal spread of resistant strains and horizontal transmission of the resistance plasmids contributed to the dissemination of bla CTX-M-9G-positive Salmonella isolates. The presence and

  6. XML Determination of Phylogenetic Group and Prevalence of blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 Genes in Escherichia Coli Isolates from Intestinal and Urinary Tract Infections in under Five- Year- Old Children

    Momeni, F. (MSc); Ghanbarpour, R. (PhD); Dolatshah, L. (MSc); Alizade, H. (MSc)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases is a rapidly expanding group of enzymes encountered with increasing fre‌quency, especially, in Escherichia coli (E. coli). There are a few reports on phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from clinical sources of under five-year- old children in Iran. The purpose of this study was phylotyping of E. coli isolates having blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes from under five-year- old children with diarrhea and urinary tract i...

  7. Occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli in soils, cattle and farm environment in France (Burgundy region.

    AlainHartmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M (extended spectrum beta-lactamase- ESBL producing Escherichia coli are increasingly involved in human infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate potential reservoirs for such strains: soils, cattle and farm environment. The prevalence of blaCTX-M genes was determined directly from soil DNA extracts obtained from 120 sites in Burgundy (France using real time PCR. blaCTX-M targets were found in 20% of the DNA extracts tested. Samples of cattle feces (n=271 were collected from 182 farms in Burgundy. Thirteen ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from 12 farms and further characterized for the presence of bla genes. Of the 13 strains, five and eight strains carried blaTEM-71 genes and blaCTX-M-1 genes respectively. Ten strains of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli were isolated from cultivated and pasture soils as well as from composted manure within 2 of these farms. The genotypic analysis revealed that environmental and animal strains were clonally related. Our study confirms the occurrence of CTX-M producing E. coli in cattle and reports for the first time the occurrence of such strains in cultivated soils. The environmental competence of such strains has to be determined and might explain their long term survival since CTX-M isolates were recovered from a soil that was last amended with manure one year before sampling.

  8. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Isolation of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in a Large U.S. Medical Center

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Gattu, Sureka; Marchaim, Dror; Bhargava, Ashish; Palla, Mohan; Alshabani, Khaled; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Sarkar, Moumita; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Ramasamy, Balaji; Nanjireddy, Priyanka; Mohin, Shah

    2013-01-01

    A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs ...

  9. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates.

    Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-08-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids harboring the blaCTX-M genes may undergo cross-species migration among potential bacterial pathogens, with E. coli as the major source of such elements. PMID:26014934

  10. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    Luvsansharav UO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav,1 Itaru Hirai,1 Marie Niki,1 Arisa Nakata,1 Aya Yoshinaga,1 Akira Yamamoto,2 Mayumi Yamamoto,3 Hiroyuki Toyoshima,4,† Fusao Kawakami,5 Nariaki Matsuura,6 Yoshimasa Yamamoto1,7,8 1Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 2Blueberry, Amagasaki Health Care Facilities for the Elderly, Hyogo, 3Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, 4Nursing home Minoh, Osaka, 5Nursing home Itami, Hyogo, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 7Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, 8Osaka University Global Collaboration Center, Osaka, Japan†Hiroyuki Toyoshima passed away on February 21, 2013Abstract: The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples. Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates. Genotyping of blaCTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%, 13 (29.5%, and 1 (2.3% of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression