WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1000kw on-site pafc

  1. Development of on-site PAFC stacks

    Hotta, K.; Matsumoto, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki (Japan); Horiuchi, H.; Ohtani, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) has been researched for commercial use and demonstration plants have been installed in various sites. However, PAFC don`t have a enough stability yet, so more research and development must be required in the future. Especially, cell stack needs a proper state of three phases (liquid, gas and solid) interface. It is very difficult technology to keep this condition for a long time. In the small size cell with the electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}, gas flow and temperature distributions show uniformity. But in the large size cell with the electrode area of 4000 cm{sup 2}, the temperature distributions show non-uniformity. These distributions would cause to be shorten the cell life. Because these distributions make hot-spot and gas poverty in limited parts. So we inserted thermocouples in short-stack for measuring three-dimensional temperature distributions and observed effects of current density and gas utilization on temperature.

  2. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  3. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  4. Development of a 50 kW PAFC power generation system

    Yang, J. C.; Park, Y. S.; Seo, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Noh, J. S.

    LG-Caltex Oil Corp. developed a 50 kW PAFC stack during 1994-1999. The aim of this study was the preparation of a 50 kW PAFC stack for the application of on-site power generation system. To manufacture the large-size electrodes (4225 cm 2), automated manufacturing facilities were used. These facilities provided uniformity and reproducibility of manufacturing of the electrodes. These electrodes showed high current density (400 mA/cm 2 at 0.65 V) in the unit cell measurement. Only 3% of degradation of cell voltage was observed in the unit cell test over the cumulative operation of 6000 h. The 50 kW PAFC stack was composed of 109 unit cells and 19 cooling plates. The 50 kW stack showed 85% of hydrogen utilization rate and 40% of electrical efficiency (LHV). Uniform voltage distribution among cells (within 5%) was observed during operation. LG-Caltex Oil Corp. is developing the prototype 50 kW PAFC power generation system during the years 2000-2002. This prototype will be composed of reformer, inverter, stack and control systems. The prototype will be tested for the commercial application of on-site power generation. The long run, reliability and economic feasibility of the prototype will be analyzed for commercial power generation.

  5. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  6. Evaluation of polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) as a composite coagulant for water and wastewater treatment.

    Gao, B; Yue, Q; Miao, J

    2003-01-01

    Coal gangue is a kind of waste from coal mine processing. Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), a new type of inorganic composite coagulant, was prepared by using the waste from the Mineral Bureau of Yanzhou, China, hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate as raw materials. The relationship between the stability of ferric ion and the ionic strength of solution was investigated. The zeta potential of PAFC hydrolysis products of PAFC and the coagulation performances under different pH value were discussed. The turbidity removal properties of PAFC, polyaluminium (PAC) and polyferric sulfate (PFS) were compared, and the color removal effect of PAFC for the wastewater containing suspended dyes was also tested. In addition, the coagulation performance of PAFC for actual wastewaters from petrochemical plant, iron and steel plant, and coal mining processing was evaluated. The experimental results suggest that PAFC took a maximum value of zeta potential at about pH 5.8 on the positive side. Compared with PAC, PAFC gives better turbidity removal performance in the range of pH from 7.0 to 8.4. PAFC gives good color removal performance on suspension dyes. PAFC also gives good wastewater purifying results for the actual wastewater. Therefore, PAFC is a high-effect and stable water treatment agent. PMID:12578184

  7. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of catalyst degradation on electrode performance

    Nishizaki, K.; Uchida, H.; Watanabe, M. [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Aiming commercialization of Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) power plant, many researches and developments have been contributed. Over 20000 hours operations have been demonstrated by many PAFC power plants. But there is no effective method for the estimation of lifetime of electrochemical cells without a practical long-term operation. Conducted by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), cooperative research projects aiming development of PAFC lifetime estimation method have started since 1995 FY in Japan. As part of this project, this work has been performed to clarify basic phenomena of the performance degradation at PAFCs jointly by Yamanashi University, Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and PAFC manufacturers (Toshiba Co., Mitsubishi Electric Co, Fuji Electric Co.). Among several main causes of the cell performance degradation, effects of catalyst degradation (reduction in metal surface area, dealloying, changes in catalyst support) on PAFC cathode performances are discussed in this work.

  8. Development of the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack

    Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kotani, Ikuo [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Kobe (Japan); Morotomi, Isamu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Hyogo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Kansai Electric Power Co. and Mitsubishi Electric Co. have been developing the electric utility dispersed use PAFC stack operated under the ambient pressure. The new cell design have been developed, so that the large scale cell (1 m{sup 2} size) was adopted for the stack. To confirm the performance and the stability of the 1 m{sup 2} scale cell design, the short stack study had been performed.

  9. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  10. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of electrolyte fill-level on electrode performance

    Kitai, Takashi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this report, we will exhibit the effect of the electrolyte fill-level on the electrode performances.

  11. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of operating conditions on acid loss

    Miyoshi, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1 MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY conducted by NEDO, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. As part of this project, this work has been performed to clarify basic phenomena of the performance degradation at PAFCs jointly by Yamanashi University, PAFC-TRA and PAFC manufacturers. The acid loss into exhaust gases is one of life limiting factors in PAFCs. To design the cells of long-life, it is important to estimate the phosphoric acid loss and to contrive ideas eliminating it. With the objective of obtaining basic data for simulating the acid loss in the large size cells, the effect of the operating conditions on the acid loss into exhaust gases has been studied experimentally by using a single cell with an active electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}.

  12. PAFC PDMDAAC复合絮凝剂在地表水处理中的絮凝特性%Coagulation Performance of Composite Flocculant of PAFC PDMDAAC for Surface Water Treatment

    孙翠珍; 朱大伟; 李杰瑞

    2015-01-01

    混凝沉淀法相较其他水处理方法具有多种优点,被广泛应用于地表水处理中,该方法的决定性因素之一是絮凝剂性能的优劣。为了提高絮凝剂处理地表水的效果,以PAFC和PDMDAAC为原料合成PAFC PDMDAAC。研究了在模拟地表水处理中PAFC PDMDAAC投加量、碱化度、( Al+Fe)/PDMDAAC质量比和特性黏度对PAFC PDMDAAC混凝性能的影响。结果表明PAFC PDMDAAC优于PAFC的絮凝效果,PAFC PDMDAAC的最佳絮凝条件:( Al+Fe)/PDMDAAC质量比为10、碱化度为1.0。%Coagulation sedimentation process is widely applied in surface water treatment because of its advantages against other process, and coagulant property is one of the key factors of the process.In order to improve flocculation efficiency of treatment for surface water, a new composite flocculants combined PAFC with PDMDAAC was created.The effect of PAFC PDMDAAC, mass ratio of ( Al +Fe)/PDMDAAC, alkalization degree and intrinsic viscosity on coagulation of surface water were studied.The results show flocculation effect of PAFC PDMDAAC is better than that of PAFC, and the best flocculation conditions of PAFC PDMDAAC are as follows:mass ratio of (Al+Fe)/PDMDAAC is 10, degree of alkalization is 1.0.

  13. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu [NTT Integrated Information & Energy System Labs., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  14. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC investigation of dealloying process of electrocatalysts with in-situ XRD

    Nakajima, Noriyuki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complementary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1 MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. This work has been performed in the Basic Research Project, as part of that project on PAFC`s, selecting four subjects (Electrocatalysts degradation, Electrolyte fill-level, Cell material corrosion, Electrolyte loss) as the essential factors relating to the life-time. In this study, the effect of temperature and potential on the dealloying process of electrocatalysts was examined in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} electrolyte with X-ray diffraction measurement.

  15. Long-term commitment of Japanese gas utilities to PAFCs and SOFCs

    Matsumoto, Kiyokazu; Kasahara, Komei

    Tokyo Gas and Osaka Gas have been committed to addressing the energy- and environment-related issues of Japan through promotion of natural gas, an energy friendly to the environment. Being aware of the diversifying market needs (e.g. efficient energy utilization, rising demand for electricity, etc.), active efforts have been made in marketing gas-fired air-conditioning and co-generation systems. In this process, a high priority has also been placed on fuel cells, particularly for realizing their market introduction. Since their participation in the TARGET Program in USA in 1972, the two companies have been involved with the field testing and operation of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs), whose total capacity has amounted to 12.4 MW. The two companies have played a vital role in promoting and accelerating fuel cell development through the following means: (1) giving incentives to manufacturers through purchase of units and testing, (2) giving feedback on required specifications and technical problems in operation, and (3) verifying and realizing long-term operation utilizing their maintenance techniques. It has been expected that the primary goal of the cumulative operation time of 40 000 h shall be achieved in the near future. Work has also been in progress to develop SOFC. In the joint R&D of a 25-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Westinghouse, the record operation time of 13 000 h has been achieved. Though still twice as much as the average price of competing equipment, the commercialization of PAFCs is close at hand. By utilizing government spending and subsidies for field testing, work will be continued to verify reliability and durability of PAFCs installed at users' sites. These activities have been expected to contribute to realizing economically viable systems and enhance market introduction. The superlative advantages of fuel cells, particularly their environment-friendly qualities, should be best taken advantage of at an appropriate time. In

  16. Evaluation of the electrode performance for PAFC by using acid absorption, acceleration and ac-impedance measurement

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Song, Rak-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Woo [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In PAFC, the degradation on cathode electrode caused by carbon corrosion, platinum dissolution and growth is especially severe. An acceleration test is a good technique for evaluating the degradation of electrode performance, because it does not need long time. Coleman et al used thermal cycling and on-off cycling as an acceleration test. Song et al showed that hydrogen shortage decreased the electrode performance more rapidly than that of air shortage in gas shortage test. Honji et al reported that the rate of coarsening of Pt particle is rapid in open circuit potential and this is one of major causes on the performance degradation of electrode. The cathode performance has been studied by using acid absorption, acceleration and ac-impedance measurements as functions of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) contents and sintering temperatures of the electrode.

  17. Proteasome Accessory Factor C (pafC) Is a novel gene Involved in Mycobacterium Intrinsic Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics - Fluoroquinolones

    Qiming Li; Longxiang Xie; Quanxin Long; Jinxiao Mao; Hui Li; Mingliang Zhou; Jianping Xie

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics resistance poses catastrophic threat to global public health. Novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action will inspire better measures to control drug resistance. Fluoroquinolones are potent and widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Bacterial protein degradation pathways represent novel druggable target for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Mycobacteria proteasome accessory factor C (pafC), a component of bacterial proteasome, is involved in fluoro...

  18. Present on Site

    Ingemann, Bruno

    Why are exhibitions and museums so important? What can they be used for? Who determines relevance in a transformative process? Transforming exhibitions is not just something you do, it is something that gets better the more you do it. This book looks at the intersection of the visitor or user, wh...... • Invisibles – The exhibition design processes • Openings – Category, objects and communication Present on site is relevant not only for students and researchers in the field of museum communication, media and design studies, but also for exhibition and museum practitioners....

  19. ON - SITE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

    Sahil.R.Choure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Site material management is a process for controlling field and office activities on construction site related to the materials. The site material management system attempts to insure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately delivered and handled onsite in a timely manner. Planning a nd controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner and most importantly are available at the point of use when required. Materials management is the system whic h represents a major expense in construction, so improving site material management improves opportunities for reducing the overall project costs. Poor management can result in increased costs during construction. Efficient management of materials can resu lt in substantial savings in project costs. This project is about on - site material control and the aim is to minimize delays, wastage of material and indirectly the cost. The project’s focus is on material quality control, proper storage facility, materia l accounting on site of Amanora future towers. The project concentrated on the products that contribute the most to construction organization revenue. Study will be done to understand and analyze the above practices on the construction project of Amanora f uture towers.

  20. Efficient on-site construction

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This research aims to analyse the implementation of a German platform for housing projects through a successful case on modern methods of construction featuring efficient on-site construction. Through continuous development, the platform has been carefully designed to suit a carefully...... costing); and incremental rather than radical innovation. Originality/value – The findings challenge the predominant understanding of industrialisation of the construction processes, illustrating how substantial improvements can be achieved through platform thinking, on-site production and traditional...... construction practices....

  1. CTBT on-site inspections

    Zucca, J. J. [Principal Deputy, Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  2. Training Artisans On-Site

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and  the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation. 

  3. Recommendations for on-site vibration standards

    Unless certain common sense precautions are observed, the luminosity of the Collider may be adversely affected by otherwise preventable ground vibrations. Previous work indicates that ground vibrations can be thought of as being caused by the sum of (a) natural and (b) cultural (i.e., man-made) effects, of which the latter can be further divided into uncontrollable and controllable. Examples of category (b) include: traffic, both on site and off site; construction activity on site and off site; assembly of equipment in nearby I.R. Halls, even footsteps in the tunnel; or continuously operating machinery. This note addresses question with respect to category (b) iv., only. As a guide, the order of magnitude of amplitudes and frequencies of presently, (on site) known noise polluters is described in relation to naturally occurring disturbances and to the tolerances required for successful Collider operation. Some methods of mitigating the effects of on site machinery are suggested. Finally, a vibration tolerance level specification is recommended as well as a mechanism to police adherence to such standards. 6 figures

  4. SICOM: On-site inspection systems

    As the irradiation conditions become more demanding for the fuel than in the past, there is a need for surveillance programs to gather in-reactor operating experience. The data obtained in these programs can be used to assess the performance of current fuel designs and the improvements incorporated to the fuel assembly design, the performance of the advanced cladding alloys, etc. In these regards, valuable data is obtained from on-site fuel inspections. These on-site data comprise fuel assembly dimensional data such as length and distortion (tilt, twist and bow) and fuel rod data such as length and oxide thickness. These data have to be reliable and accurate to be useful thus, demanding a high precision inspection equipment. However, the inspection equipment has to be also robust and flexible enough to operate in the plant spent fuel pool and, sometimes, without interfering in the works carried out during a plant outage. To meet these requirements, during the past years ENUSA and TECNATOM have developed two on-site inspection systems. While the first system can perform most of the typical measurements in a stand-alone manner thus, without interfering with the critical path of the reload, the second one reduces the inspection time but requires using the plant capabilities. The paper describes both equipment for fuel on-site inspection, their characteristics and main features. (author)

  5. Requirements of on-site facilities

    1) Requirements of on-site facilities: a) brief description of supplying the site with electricity and water; communication facilities, b) necessary facilities for containment and pipeline installation, c) necessary facilities for storage, safety, accommodation of personnel, housing; workshops; 2) Site management: a) Organisation schedules for 'turn-key-jobs' and 'single commission', b) Duties of the supervisory staff. (orig.)

  6. On site monitoring of concrete reinforcement corrosion

    Reinforcement corrosion is the result of the penetration through the concrete cover of the carbon dioxide (carbonation) and of chlorides. It is not a usual event in nuclear plants due to the relatively short service life required. However, in waste storage facilities with much longer target service life.. it may be one of the most relevant deterioration processes. Therefore. its detection and measurement should be one of the aspects to be taken into account in the overall management of these kind of installations. In present paper, the most usual electrochemical techniques to measure reinforcement corrosion are described. The aims of the application of these techniques is. 1) to control the performance of new constructions (embedded sensors). 2) to detect corroding areas in existing structures (by on-site measurements or by installing external sensors) and implement these values in models to recalculate the structural performance and 3) to control the efficiency of repair techniques. In the paper is as well presented the evolution from 1995 of corrosion parameters (corrosion rate, corrosion potential, electrical resistivity, concrete strains, oxygen availability) obtained in a pilot container buried in real conditions in the repository of El-Carbril-Spain. The results indicate that the temperature is the most relevant variable influencing the measurements. In conclusion: Corrosion of reinforcement can be approximately model and accurately measured on-site. The periodical corrosion rate measurements on its monitoring seems very necessary to assess present conditions of concrete structures and is a very useful tool in the case of cooling towers of power plants. Techniques based in the measurement of Polarization Resistance have been implemented in portable corrosion rate meters to obtain corrosion rate values, and corrosion-data-loggers are now operative in different structures to monitor corrosion related parameters. (authors)

  7. Liability for on-site nuclear property damage

    Typically, liability for on-site property addressed in contracts between operator and its suppliers. Nuclear power plant operators ordinarily protect themselves against risk of nuclear damage to on-site property by insurance. Nuclear liability laws do not specifically address liability for nuclear damage to on-site property. Nuclear plant owners should address risk of damage to on-site property when developing risk management program

  8. DBE on site public relations tasks

    Full text: Thesis: There is no 'golden rule' for an immediate increase in acceptance of nuclear facility sites - this applies to nuclear power plants as well as waste management facilities. The German Company for the Construction and Operation of Repositories for Waste Products (DBE - entrusted on behalf of the Federal Government with the management of all three German waste repository sites (projects), Morsleben, Konrad, Gorleben - concentrates in the field of public relations work on the following: - caring for (and informing) visitors from home and abroad; - cooperation with local and regional authorities and their representatives, press, media, etc. including associate editing of the GORLEBEN-information leaflet which appears monthly or every second month in cooperation with the Federal Board for Radiation Protection (BfS), as well as press releases if required; - responding to inquiries and visit requests of press, radio and TV. Basic work: - early and comprehensive information of the public at the sites about progress of work and possible exceptional events with special involvement of local politicians and representatives as well as press agencies. Close contacts exist to the local paper and to a national paper; - municipal representatives and the media are regularly directly informed on site or sporadically at their own request; - special emphasis is placed on the spoken, explaining word, namely that communication and discussion are valued more highly than written material. Of course, transparencies, films and brochures are available to support the spoken word; - continual availability for discussion and information presentations e.g., also at weekends; - maintenance of casual contacts to opponents of the plant. In Gorleben - the site of further waste management facilities beside the exploration mine - there is close cooperation with representatives of the other important companies and institutions hence, visitors are generally pooled, i.e., the majority

  9. On-site monitoring of plutonium workers

    Full text: As part of the Maralinga rehabilitation program it is necessary to implement a system of on-site monitoring for the workers in order to ensure that they do not exceed recommended dose limits. The main problem in the rehabilitation work is the inhalation of dusts which contain micron sized plutonium particles. Using the new ICRP lung model and available data derived from measurements on contaminated soils, the intake for a dose of 20 mSv was calculated to be 1200 Bq. Four methods are available for direct measurements on workers; nasal swabs, faecal analysis, urine analysis and lung monitoring. The first two techniques are sensitive but will give varying results depending of the time interval between exposure and sampling. They are also difficult to implement on a routine basis. For the second two techniques, the activity in the lungs and the activity excreted per day in the urine remain relatively constant for several years following an intake, making more accurate dose estimates possible. The ICRP lung model predicts deposition in the lung of the order of 5% of intake and urinary excretion models predict approximately 10-5 of this will be excreted daily in the urine. Lung monitoring of workers will be performed routinely at Maralinga in a partly enclosed room constructed from 10cm of steel, using two 50 mm diameter germanium detectors shielded with lead collimators. The detectors will measure 241Am, which has grown in following the decay of 241Pu, and the minimum detectable activity will be 15 - 20 Bq depending on the chest thickness and chest wall thickness of the individual being measured. Urine will be collected routinely and selected samples will be measured. The minimum detectable activity will be 2001μBq of 239Pu in a daily urine sample

  10. On-site contingency planning at Pt. Lepreau NGS

    On-site contingency plans are required as part of the licensing process for Canadian nuclear power plants. The objective of these plans is to mitigate the consequences of an emergency and to provide assurance that all reasonable measures will be taken to protect health and safety and minimize property damage. This paper describes the on-site contingency plans that have been prepared for the Pt. Lepreau Generating Station. The interaction between the on-site and off-site plans is also discussed

  11. Managing the risks of on-site health centers.

    Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2011-11-01

    This review sought to assess compliance concerns, determine risk management strategies, and identify opportunities for future research to contribute to employers' understanding of the laws and regulations that apply to on-site care. A comprehensive review of databases, professional organizations' websites, and journals resulted in 22 publications reporting on the consequences of noncompliance among on-site health centers accepted for inclusion. None of those studies reported a study design or quantifiable outcome data. Two noncompliance themes were repeated among the publications. First, direct penalties included fines, civil actions, loss of licensure, and, potentially, criminal charges. Second, noncompliance also resulted in indirect costs such as employee mistrust and lowered standards of care, which jeopardize on-site health centers' ability to demonstrate a return on investment. Further research with rigorous methodology is needed to inform employer decisions about on-site health services and associated risk management. PMID:22017191

  12. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Gangolells Solanellas, Marta; Casals Casanova, Miquel; Forcada Matheu, Núria; Macarulla Martí, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling mun...

  13. Anaerobic on-site wastewater treatment at low temperatures

    Luostarinen, Sari

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic on-site wastewater treatment at low temperaturesAnaerobic treatment stabilises the treated waste(water), and enables production of renewable energy (methane, hydrogen), and preservation of valuable resources (nutrients). Decentralised, on-site application of anaerobic treatment for communities or individual households may thus provide combined waste(water) management, energy production, and nutrient recovery. Two-phased UASB-septic tanks were feasible for treatment of synthetic blac...

  14. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also

  15. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  16. Experiences with on-site power sources at KCB

    The design of the nuclear power station is of the late sixties. The experiences with the on-site power sources, signal processing and some of the resulting modifications of the design of the power plant are mentioned. In order to let the design satisfy as much as possible present ideas about safety, it was decided to realize a total new and Independent decay heat removal System. With this system a second independent on-site power System is at disposal in case of accident situations. (author)

  17. On-site inspections: The ultimate verification measure

    Having existed for a mere six weeks in 2008, the State of Arcania was short-lived. The fictitious state helped to test on-site inspections, a key element of a global alarm system that monitors the Earth for signs of nuclear explosions. The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is mandated to build this system to verify States' compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). On-site inspections (OSI ) complement the verification regime's other elements: the International Monitoring System with its network of 337 facilities, the International Data Centre with its extensive data analysis capacities, and the Global Communications Infrastructure. On-site inspections can be invoked only after the Treaty's entry into force. A Member State may request an inspection should the analysis of monitoring data indicate that a nuclear explosion was carried out in violation of the CT BT. Facts gathered directly on the ground during an inspection will help States to establish whether or not a nuclear explosion did indeed take place. Thus, on-site inspections constitute the final verification measure under the Treaty.

  18. Number of on-site personnel and their functions

    After the definition of the general tasks, the development of an organization chart for on-site personnel is shown, the number and qualifications are indicated relating to the specific jobs. The functions of the different people are explained in detail. (orig.)

  19. The feasibility of mobile computing for on-site inspection.

    Horak, Karl Emanuel; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Blair, Dianna Sue

    2014-09-01

    With over 5 billion cellphones in a world of 7 billion inhabitants, mobile phones are the most quickly adopted consumer technology in the history of the world. Miniaturized, power-efficient sensors, especially video-capable cameras, are becoming extremely widespread, especially when one factors in wearable technology like Apples Pebble, GoPro video systems, Google Glass, and lifeloggers. Tablet computers are becoming more common, lighter weight, and power-efficient. In this report the authors explore recent developments in mobile computing and their potential application to on-site inspection for arms control verification and treaty compliance determination. We examine how such technology can effectively be applied to current and potential future inspection regimes. Use cases are given for both host-escort and inspection teams. The results of field trials and their implications for on-site inspections are discussed.

  20. On-site tests on the nuclear power plants

    On-site tests and experiments are performed by EDF Research and Development Division on the nuclear power plants to assess the behaviour of major components submitted to thermal and vibratory solicitations. On-going studies deal with the qualification of new nuclear power plant standard and with the feedback of plants under operation. The tests, particularly the investigation tests, correspond to large investments and entail an important data volume which must ensure the continuity over a long period of the order of magnitude of the in-service plant life (around 40 years). This paper addresses the on-site experimental activities, describes the means to be used, and gives an example: the qualification of SG of new 1450 MW nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. On-site early-warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan

    Dino Bindi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development of an on-site early warning system for Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan is outlined. Several low cost sensors equipped with MEMS accelerometers are installed in eight buildings distributed within the urban area. The different sensing units communicate each other via wireless links and the seismic data are streamed in real-time to the data center using internet. Since each single sensing unit has computing capabilities, software for data processing can be installed to perform decentralized actions. In particular, each sensing unit can perform event detection task and run software for on-site early warning. If a description for the vulnerability of the building is uploaded in the sensing unit, this piece of information can be exploited to introduce the expected probability of damage in the early-warning protocol customized for a specific structure.

  2. AB005. Genomics on site of detection of malaria

    Sugano, Sumio; Yamagishi, Junya; Mongan, Arthur E.; Tuda, Joesf; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore sequencer, MinION, has enabled sequencing analysis without pre-installation of expensive conventional sequencers or pre-requisite of specific skills in biological experiments. Even electric supply is not always necessary, by connecting MinION to a laptop PC. These features of MinION have opened the opportunity to enable precise genotyping of pathogens on site. In this study, we conducted genotyping of presumed drug resistance-causing SNVs in malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum. ...

  3. Consideration of accident events during on-site waste handling

    The safe on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel must rely on the structural integrity of the transport container and the system of transport. Regard for safe and efficient on-site transport routes are important and manageable using well thought-out planning. Difficulties arise when non-manageable incidences occur such as flying debris from tornado-force winds that may result in high velocity impact on the transport system. Part of the site Nuclear Safety Design Guide considers design basis tornado (Level F0) incidents. A Dry Storage Container (DSC) is used to transport and store spent fuel. A DSC is loaded with spent fuel and typically travels on-site to a processing building for permanent lid attachment. During on-site transport a lid clamp is utilized to ensure the container lid remains in place. This paper consists of simulations that consider several wind borne projectiles impacting the DSC. These types of postulated accident scenarios are analysed using detailed nonlinear finite element techniques. A state-of-the-art, large deformation, non-linear, finite element code is used in the simulations. Projectile impact poses two concerns. Large object impact (large poles, piping) in the vicinity of the lid/container interface may result in damage to the lid clamp and dislodging of the lid. Small object impact (slender solid rods) may result in through-wall penetration and loss of shielding. Impact simulation results for these two types of objects show that for large projectiles the lid clamp retains the lid/body interface and for small projectiles there is no penetration of the container wall, ensuring safe containment of spent fuel under tornado conditions. (author)

  4. On-site testing of crop drying fans

    Winkelman, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial peanut dryers used today were first conceived when energy was relatively inexpensive. Since then, energy costs have increased significantly, and more efficient peanuts dryers are desirable. To evaluate dryer efficiency, a mobile fan test facility was designed, built and calibrated for on-site fan airflow and energy measurements. Four-, six-, and eight-trailer peanut dryers were tested for performance. The characteristics observed were delivery of fan airflow as compared to m...

  5. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production. PMID:12058817

  6. Effective hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine

    Chaiwongsa, Praitoon; Pornsuwancharoen, Nithiroth; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2009-07-01

    We propose a new concept of hydrogen generator testing for on-site small engine. In general, there is a trade-off between simpler vehicle design and infrastructure issues, for instance, liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol for small engine use. In this article we compare the hydrogen gases combination the gasoline between normal systems (gasoline only) for small engine. The advantage of the hydrogen combines gasoline for small engine saving the gasoline 25%. Furthermore, the new concept of hydrogen combination for diesel engine, bio-diesel engine, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas vehicle (NGV), which is discussed in details.

  7. On-site hydrogen generation from biodiesel and diesel

    Martin, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The lack of hydrogen infrastructure and distribution poses an obstacle for the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the market. Therefore it is reasonable to consider using liquid fuels for on-board or on-site hydrogen generation. Within the FP7 project NEMESIS2+ (01/2012-06/2015, www.nemesis-project.eu) a small-scale hydrogen generator capable of producing 50 Nm3h-1 from biodiesel and diesel is currently being developed. Reduction of hydrogen production costs (< 5.0 € per kg), high overall...

  8. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  9. Status of small reactor designs without on-site refuelling

    There is an ongoing interest in member states in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). A distinct trend in design and technology development, accounting for about half of the SMR concepts developed worldwide, is represented by small reactors without on-site refuelling. Such reactors, also known as battery-type reactors, could operate without reloading and shuffling of fuel in the core over long periods, from 5 to 25 years and beyond. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA member states, within its Programme 1 'Nuclear Power, Fuel Cycle, and Nuclear Science', the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMRs development and implementation in the 21st century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR technology. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and

  10. Technical considerations of on-site spent fuel storage

    As more time is spent on power generation, more nuclear plants will face the dilemma of finding spent fuel storage space. Presently, there are numerous options available to nuclear power plant owners. The most common options are wet storage, such as fuel consolidation in a spent fuel pool, and dry storage, such as vault and cask storage. Choosing the most suitable option for a particular power plant is not an easy task. The primary selection considerations are licensing and financial. To achieve the optimum licensing and financial goals, a thorough technical evaluation of plant design, environmental requirements, and safety significance are essential. The purpose of this presentation is to benefit other nuclear plant owners by sharing the knowledge gained in selecting and evaluating the on-site spent fuel storage plan implemented at Power Company's Palisades Plant

  11. Utilizing the fluidized bed to initiate water treatment on site

    Escalating wastewater disposal costs coupled with enforcement of stricter regulations push industrial sites previously without water treatment to treat on site. These sites, inexperienced in water treatment, require a treatment technology that is easily installed, operated, and maintained. The aerobic granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized bed incorporates biological and adsorptive technologies into a simple, cost-effective process capable of meeting strict effluent requirements. Two case studies at industrial sites illustrate the installation and operation of the fluidized bed and emphasize the ability to use the fluidized bed singularly or as an integral component of a treatment system capable of achieving treatment levels that allow surface discharge and reinjection. Attention is focused on BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes)

  12. CASDAC system: On-Site Multiplexer user's guide

    The CASDAC (Containment and Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system is a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The CASDAC system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. This report describes the outline and usage of the On-Site Multiplexer (OSM), which controls all other equipments in a facility subsystem and communicates with the GCC. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  14. On-site intermediate storage facilities in Germany

    Full text: In 2002 German utilities and the federal government agreed on the future of nuclear power in Germany. Part of this 'consensus' are site specific phase out periods, termination of reprocessing and the erection of on-site storage facilities. Shipment of spent fuel to reprocessing plants is only allowed until 2005, shipments to the German joint storage facilities of Ahaus and Gorleben have to be minimized. Each nuclear power plant has to create its own spent fuel storage with appropriate capacity. The necessary storage capacity is about 20 to 40 t/a and per plant, corresponding to 40 to 80 PWR- and 140 to 180 BWR-fuel bundles, depending on plant power and discharge burnup. Wet storage capacity inside the reactor building of most German NPPs was increased (compact storage) when shipments of spent fuel were ceased, following discussions about surface contaminations on casks. To avoid shut-down some plants even built short term storage facilities. Whereas short-term storage is to guarantee undisturbed operation of plants on an intermediate time scale, long term storage - until final nuclear waste disposal after 2030 is available - is also driven by economical considerations. Of the existing storage techniques wet and dry storage were analyzed with respect to costs and time for design, licensing and construction. Both techniques fulfill the safety requirements, but wet storage turns out to be more costly because of the necessary heat removing devices and operating expense. Total costs for construction, operation and decommissioning of a wet storage facility - as it was built in Obrigheim in 1998 on a smaller scale - rank from 80 to 250 million Euro, 1,4 million Euro annually and 45 million Euro for decommissioning (price index of 2003), respectively. Compared to that, dry storage needs about 26 million Euro for construction, annually 0,3 million Euro plus 2 - 3 casks (e.g. of the CASTOR type) with around 1,2 million Euro per flask and about 12 million Euro for

  15. On-site attractive multiorbital Hamiltonian for d -wave superconductors

    Bishop, Christopher B.; Liu, Guangkun; Dagotto, Elbio; Moreo, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a two-orbital Hamiltonian on a square lattice that contains on-site attractive interactions involving the two eg orbitals. Via a canonical mean-field procedure similar to the one applied to the well-known negative-U Hubbard model, it is shown that the model develops d -wave (B1 g) superconductivity with nodes along the diagonal directions of the square Brillouin zone. This result is also supported by exact diagonalization of the model in a small cluster. The expectation is that this relatively simple attractive model could be used to address the properties of multiorbital d -wave superconductors in the same manner that the negative-U Hubbard model is widely applied to the study of the properties of s -wave single-orbital superconductors. In particular, we show that by splitting the eg orbitals and working at three-quarters filling, such that the x2-y2 orbital dominates at the Fermi level but the 3 z2-r2 orbital contribution is nonzero, the d -wave pairing state found here phenomenologically reproduces several properties of the superconducting state of the high Tc cuprates.

  16. On-site digital heritage inventory development at Bat, Oman

    Kondo, Y.; Miki, T.; Kuronuma, T.; Oguchi, T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the on-site development of a local-scale digital heritage inventory (DHI) of the Bronze Age site at Bat in the interior of Oman. The goal of this inventory project was to share geospatial and archaeological information of tombs and other built structures with researchers and government agents to conduct cultural heritage management, scientific research, outreach, and education. To this end, the Bat Digital Heritage Inventory (BatDHI) was compiled at the local office by incorporating previous survey records, which were concurrently crosschecked and updated by ground-truth surveys. The current version of the BatDHI was implemented using a combination of a network-access-ready database application, open source geographical information system, and web-based map engine. This system assisted both fieldwork and management works including decision making and planning. This inventory project exemplified a transdisciplinary research, in which researchers and societal stakeholders collaborated for co-design of research agendas, co-production of knowledge, and co-dissemination of outcomes.

  17. On site inspection for nuclear test ban verirication

    P. D. Marschall

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verifying compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty is mainly a technical one. However the problem of detecting, locating and identifying nuclear explosions has, since the late 1950s, been intimately involved with the political problems associated with negotiating a treaty. In fact there are few other areas in which policy, diplomacy and science have been so interwoven. This paper attempts to illustrate how technology can. be applied to solve some of the political problems which arise when considering the role of an On Site Inspection (OSI to determine whether or not a nuclear explosion, in violation of a treaty, has occurred or not. It is hoped that the reader, with a scientific background, but with little or no experience of treaty negotiations, will gain an. insight as to how technical matters can interact with political requirements. The demands made on scientists to provide technical support for negotiating and rnonitoring compliance of a treaty have increased significanfly over the last 40 years. This is a period in which a number of major treaties have contained a significant technical component e.g. the Limited Test Ban Treaty (Threshold Treaty and the Chemical Weapon Convention. This paper gives an indication of some of the political decisions which will have to be made and suggests some of the technical methods which are of value in the identification of a clandestine nuclear explosion.

  18. 13 CFR 120.1050 - On-site reviews and examinations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On-site reviews and examinations. 120.1050 Section 120.1050 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1050 On-site reviews and examinations. (a) On-site reviews. SBA may conduct on-site reviews of the...

  19. 13 CFR 120.1051 - Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations. 120.1051 Section 120.1051 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1051 Frequency of on-site reviews and examinations. SBA may conduct on-site reviews...

  20. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... on-site at the Santa Clara, California location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology... International, reporting to Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site...

  1. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  2. Global Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater Management

    Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater management at the global scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and management. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a globally significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation

  3. REPORT OF ON-SITE INSPECTION WORKSHOP-16

    Sweeney, J J

    2009-07-07

    The central issue addressed by this workshop was the task of making the on-site inspection (OSI) part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification system operationally ready at entry into force of the Treaty. It is recognized, and this was emphasized by the 2008 OSI Integrated Field Exercise (IFE), that it is not possible to develop every part of the OSI regime simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to prioritize the approach to OSI readiness. The reviews of the IFE have pointed to many elements of OSI readiness that still need development. The objective of this workshop was to provide priorities for the path forward for Working Group B to consider. Several critical areas have been identified that are related to the development of OSI readiness: (1) Technology development: Priorities are radionuclide and noble gas sampling and analysis, visual observation, multispectral/infrared imaging methods, active seismic methods and the recognition of the importance of signatures. (2) Organizational development: Priorities are health and safety, the Operations Support Centre, the Equipment Storage and Maintenance Facility, information technology data flow and communications. (3) Resources: The expertise to develop key parts of the OSI regime is not available within the current OSI Division staff. To develop these aspects of the regime will require more staff or supplements to the staff with cost-free experts or other means. Aspects of the system that could benefit from more staff include radionuclide and noble gas detection methods, data flow and communications, visual observation, multispectral/infrared methods and health and safety. As the path forward, participants of this workshop recognized a need to optimize the development of OSI priorities. The outcome of this workshop is to suggest for consideration an operational approach to OSI readiness that utilizes results of an evaluation of the relative effectiveness of OSI elements versus their relative

  4. Distribution of mental health professionals working on site in English and Welsh general practices.

    Kendrick, T.; Sibbald, B; Addington-Hall, J.; Brenneman, D; Freeling, P.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the nature and distribution of mental health professionals working on site in general practices. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire and telephone interview survey. SETTING--English and Welsh general practices. SUBJECTS--1880 general practitioners, of whom 1542 (82%) responded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence, types, and distribution of mental health professionals working on site among general practices. Factors predicting the presence of mental health professionals on site....

  5. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, com...

  6. 75 FR 11922 - Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff, Ultimate Staffing (Roth...

    2010-03-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Apria Healthcare, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Corestaff... Healthcare, including on-site leased workers from Corestaff, Cromwell, Connecticut. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3938). At the request of the State agency,...

  7. 76 FR 13663 - Celestica, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Aerotek, Purchasing Professionals...

    2011-03-14

    ... 3, 2009, applicable to workers of Celestica, including on-site leased workers from Adecco, Aerotek and Purchasing Professionals. The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2009 (74 FR... Employment and Training Administration Celestica, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco,...

  8. 75 FR 69469 - LSI Corporation, 1110 American Parkway, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spinnaker...

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration LSI Corporation, 1110 American Parkway, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spinnaker, Allentown, PA; LSI Corporation, 555 Union Boulevard, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Spinnaker, Allentown, PA;...

  9. 75 FR 28295 - Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower and Spherion Staffing...

    2010-05-20

    ... workers of Cummins Filtration, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Lake Mills, Iowa. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65798). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration Cummins Filtration, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.353 - Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews. 3560.353 Section 3560.353 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING....353 Scheduling of on-site monitoring reviews. Generally, the Agency will provide the borrower...

  11. 78 FR 48468 - Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2013-08-08

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on June 10, 2013 (Volume 78 FR Pages 34672-34674). At the... Employment and Training Administration Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, Including On-Site... to workers of Delphi Corporation, Electronics and Safety Division, including on-site leased...

  12. On-Site Detection as a Countermeasure to Chemical Warfare/Terrorism.

    Seto, Y

    2014-01-01

    On-site monitoring and detection are necessary in the crisis and consequence management of wars and terrorism involving chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as sarin. The analytical performance required for on-site detection is mainly determined by the fatal vapor concentration and volatility of the CWAs involved. The analytical performance for presently available on-site technologies and commercially available on-site equipment for detecting CWAs interpreted and compared in this review include: classical manual methods, photometric methods, ion mobile spectrometry, vibrational spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, sensors, and other methods. Some of the data evaluated were obtained from our experiments using authentic CWAs. We concluded that (a) no technologies perfectly fulfill all of the on-site detection requirements and (b) adequate on-site detection requires (i) a combination of the monitoring-tape method and ion-mobility spectrometry for point detection and (ii) a combination of the monitoring-tape method, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction, and gas chromatography with a trap and special detectors for continuous monitoring. The basic properties of CWAs, the concept of on-site detection, and the sarin gas attacks in Japan as well as the forensic investigations thereof, are also explicated in this article. PMID:26226969

  13. Development of the on-site power supply in German nuclear power plants

    The design of the on-site power supply is different in German Nuclear Power Plants, depending on age and size of the plant. The cause for this is the evolution of the safety requirements. The general development of the design of safety Systems, which resulted in a strict separation of redundant trains is also reflected in the design of the emergency power system and even the complete on-site power supply System. This will be demonstrated by different examples. The advantages of this design with respect to the availability of on-site power will be explained and verified by means of operating experience. (author)

  14. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

    1996-05-02

    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  15. 77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    2012-01-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on February 24, 2011, applicable to workers of Abbott Laboratories... location of Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division. The Department has determined that these...

  16. 78 FR 69878 - First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tapfin, Staffworks, Aerotek...

    2013-11-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration First Advantage Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Staffing, St. Petersburg, Florida; First Advantage Corporation, Charlotte, North Carolina, First Advantage Corporation, Bolingbrook, Illinois; First Advantage Corporation, Dallas, Texas; First Advantage...

  17. Postulated accident scenarios for the on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel

    Once a spent fuel container is loaded with spent fuel it typically travels on-site to a processing building for permanent lid attachment. During on-site transport a lid clamp is utilized to ensure the container lid remains in place. The safe on-site transport of spent nuclear fuel must rely on the structural integrity of the transport container and system of transport. Regard for on-site traffic and safe, efficient travel routes are important and manageable with well thought-out planning. Non-manageable incidences, such as flying debris from tornado force winds or postulated blasts in proximity to the transport container, that may result in high velocity impact and shock loading on the transport system must be considered. This paper consists of simulations that consider these types of postulated accident scenarios using detailed nonlinear finite element techniques

  18. On-site toxicity of irrigation drainwater from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge to aquatic organisms

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The toxicity of water from seven locations in the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area was evaluated in a series of on-site tests conducted over a 10 day period with...

  19. Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment : Removal mechanisms and sustainability

    Eveborn, David

    2010-01-01

    For many surface waters, phosphorus (P) leaching is a serious problem that should be minimized to prevent eutrophication. In Sweden there is a demand for physical and technical development of high-performance P removal techniques to reduce phosphorus leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems to the Baltic Sea. However, although these systems are designed to reduce eutrophication there are also other environmental impacts to be considered when implementing them in on-site systems; ene...

  20. New Technological Charts for Concreting Operations on Site for Civil Constructions

    René Antonio Puig Martínez; Juan José Howland Albear

    2014-01-01

    The on site concreting of constructions, require some regulations to guide the construction companiesto execute the concreting operations according to the status and potential of existing technologies.In Cuba were used for a long time many regulations and construction technical standards issued bythe Ministry of Construction and relating companies, and was published in 1990 the only one versionof Technological Charts for concreting operations on site, about the existing constructions in Cuba,...

  1. Explanation of procedure on site medical emergency response for nuclear accident

    National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health, supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents. Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan. The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units. The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  2. Value of biomedical scientists providing on-site specimen adequacy assessment for fine-needle aspirations.

    Narine, N; Rana, D N; Perera, D M; Irshad, A

    2012-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is accepted as a first-line investigation in patients with superficial or deep-seated mass lesions. One of the fundamental principles of successful aspiration is harvesting sufficient numbers of cells that are representative of the lesion being investigated. Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust provides FNA services to Christie Hospital, including non-attended and biomedical scientist-attended aspirations, some of which are assessed on-site for specimen adequacy. This study audits the FNA coverage provided to Christie Hospital by exploring the contribution of biomedical scientist on-site specimen adequacy assessment to successful aspirations and identifies potential areas for service improvement such that unsatisfactory sampling is reduced. Satisfactory sampling rates varied between biomedical scientist-attended (79%) and non-attended (70%) procedures. Within the former group, 100% satisfactory sampling was achieved with on-site assessment, falling to 77% without on-site assessment. The highest unsatisfactory sampling rate was identified at 33% for thyroid aspirations in endocrinology, while rates elsewhere varied between 21% and 23%. This audit demonstrated the value of on-site specimen adequacy assessment as the ultimate goal of any FNA is to negate the need for more invasive procedures. In terms of flexibility and economic value, having adequately trained biomedical scientists to perform on-site assessment is quite feasible. Extending this biomedical scientist-led service to other departments would reduce unsatisfactory sample rates and the requirement for more invasive procedures. PMID:23057157

  3. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  4. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector; TOPICAL

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of$27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are: (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33)-Steel, Aluminum, Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation

  5. 75 FR 5147 - Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten...

    2010-02-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site... Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten Staffing Services New Bedford, MA; Acushnet Company a Subsidiary of Fortune Brands Including On-Site Leased Workers From Olsten Staffing Services Dartmouth,...

  6. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    Caffrey, Gus J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Egger, Ann E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Krebs, Kenneth M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Milbrath, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, D. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warren, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilmer, N. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—Osiris—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  7. On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy (Osiris) System Development

    We have designed and tested hardware and software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy-Osiris-software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,132I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for Osiris testing. These spectra were measured, where possible, or generated by modeling. The synthetic test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, Osiris correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.The Osiris gamma-ray spectrometer is a mechanically-cooled, battery-powered ORTEC Transpec-100, chosen to avoid the need for liquid nitrogen during on-site inspections. The spectrometer was used successfully during the recent 2014 CTBT Integrated Field Exercise in Jordan. The spectrometer is controlled and the spectral data analyzed by a Panasonic Toughbook notebook computer. To date, software development has been the main focus of the Osiris project. In FY2016-17, we plan to modify the Osiris hardware, integrate the Osiris software and hardware, and conduct rigorous field tests to ensure that the Osiris system will function correctly during CTBT on-site inspections. The planned development will raise Osiris to technology readiness level TRL-8; transfer the Osiris technology to a commercial manufacturer, and demonstrate Osiris to potential CTBT on-site inspectors.

  8. Analytical evaluation of a rapid on-site oral fluid drug test

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Pil, Kristof; Veramme, Jolien; Verstraete, Alain

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable rapid on-site oral fluid test that can be used in police controls to detect impaired drivers. We evaluated the Varian OralabA (R) 6 and collected two oral fluid samples from 250 subjects, one with the Varian OralabA (R) 6 and one with the StatSure (TM) SalivaaEuro cent Sampler (TM). The OralabA (R) 6 can detect six drug types: amphetamines, methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and phencyclidine (PCP). On-site results were obtaine...

  9. On Site Raman Analysis of the earliest known Meissen Porcelain and Stoneware

    Colomban, Philippe; Milande, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    On Site Raman analyses were performed at the Musée national de Céramique, Sèvres, France, on selected rare items of the earliest known European hard-paste porcelains and stonewares, produced from ~1710 to ~1750 in the Meissen workshop (Saxony) founded by J.F. Böttger and E.W. von Tschirnhaus. Characteristic on-site Raman signatures have been obtained for white Sake bottles from ~1715, a green bowl, depicting a purple landscape and dated 27th August 1726, a middle of the 18th century produced ...

  10. On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Buildings: A System-Level Analysis.

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2016-05-01

    Adopting a green building rating system (GBRSs) that strongly considers use of renewable energy can have important environmental consequences, particularly in developing countries. In this paper, we studied on-site renewable energy and GBRSs at the system level to explore potential benefits and challenges. While we have focused on GBRSs, the findings can offer additional insight for renewable incentives across sectors. An energy model was built for 25 sites to compute the potential solar and wind power production on-site and available within the building footprint and regional climate. A life-cycle approach and cost analysis were then completed to analyze the environmental and economic impacts. Environmental impacts of renewable energy varied dramatically between sites, in some cases, the environmental benefits were limited despite the significant economic burden of those renewable systems on-site and vice versa. Our recommendation for GBRSs, and broader policies and regulations, is to require buildings with higher environmental impacts to achieve higher levels of energy performance and on-site renewable energy utilization, instead of fixed percentages. PMID:27031788

  11. On-site denitrification beds could reduce indirect greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural drainage waters

    Nitrate (NO3-) laden agricultural drainage waters are non-point sources of indirect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which represent a significant fraction of total N2O emissions in the USA. On-site denitrification beds filled with woodchips were used to reduce NO3- under carbon rich anaerobic conditi...

  12. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    2011-12-29

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 49531). The notice was amended on December 7, 2010 to include several on-site leased worker firms. The amended notice was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77664-77665... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control...

  13. Artificial neural network for on-site quantitative analysis of soils using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, fast on-site quantitative analyses of soils are required. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy is a serious candidate to address this challenge and is especially well suited for multi-elemental analysis of heavy metals. However, saturation and matrix effects prevent from a simple treatment of the LIBS data, namely through a regular calibration curve. This paper details the limits of this approach and consequently emphasizes the advantage of using artificial neural networks well suited for non-linear and multi-variate calibration. This advanced method of data analysis is evaluated in the case of real soil samples and on-site LIBS measurements. The selection of the LIBS data as input data of the network is particularly detailed and finally, resulting errors of prediction lower than 20% for aluminum, calcium, copper and iron demonstrate the good efficiency of the artificial neural networks for on-site quantitative LIBS of soils. - Highlights: ► We perform on-site quantitative LIBS analysis of soil samples. ► We demonstrate that univariate analysis is not convenient. ► We exploit artificial neural networks for LIBS analysis. ► Spectral lines other than the ones from the analyte must be introduced

  14. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed

    Bech, Lasse; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Grell, Morten Nedergaard;

    2015-01-01

    The on-site production of cell wall degrading enzymes is an important strategy for the development of sustainable bio-refinery processes. This study concerns the optimization of production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum. A comparative secretome analysis was...

  15. Decision precision or holistic heuristic?: Insights on on-site selection of student nurses and midwives.

    Macduff, Colin; Stephen, Audrey; Taylor, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about quality of care delivery in the UK have led to more scrutiny of criteria and methods for the selection of student nurses. However few substantive research studies of on-site selection processes exist. This study elicited and interpreted perspectives on interviewing processes and related decision making involved in on-site selection of student nurses and midwives. Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with 36 lecturers, 5 clinical staff and 72 students from seven Scottish universities. Enquiry focused primarily on interviewing of candidates on-site. Qualitative content analysis was used as a primary strategy, followed by in-depth thematic analysis. Students had very mixed experiences of interview processes. Staff typically took into account a range of candidate attributes that they valued in order to achieve holistic assessments. These included: interpersonal skills, team working, confidence, problem-solving, aptitude for caring, motivations, and commitment. Staff had mixed views of the validity and reliability of interview processes. A holistic heuristic for overall decision making predominated over belief in the precision of, and evidence base for, particular attribute measurement processes. While the development of measurement tools for particular attributes continues apace, tension between holism and precision is likely to persist within on-site selection procedures. PMID:26213147

  16. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations..., applicable to workers of UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken... Department's certification is to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc.,...

  17. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  18. Rapid on-site detection of Acidovorax citrulli by cross-priming amplification.

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Qian; Zhu, Shui-fang; Zhao, Wen-jun; Liu, Feng-quan

    2012-08-01

    Cross-priming amplification (CPA) for Acidovorax citrulli detection was evaluated in this study. The sensitivity of CPA assay for pure bacterial culture was 3.7 × 10(3) CFU/ml. Bacteria on naturally infected watermelon seeds were detected using CPA assay, suggesting this method is suitable for A. citrulli on-site detection from watermelon seeds. PMID:22507851

  19. Alternative Wastewater Treatment: On-Site Bio-treatment Wetlands at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center

    This paper describes the design and operation of a constructed on-site bio-treatment wetland at the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center. The use of constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater at the Fernald Preserve contributed to the award of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design platinum certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. (authors)

  20. The interactive on-site inspection system: An information management system to support arms control inspections

    DeLand, S.M.; Widney, T.W.; Horak, K.E.; Caudell, R.B.; Grose, E.M.

    1996-12-01

    The increasing use of on-site inspection (OSI) to meet the nation`s obligations with recently signed treaties requires the nation to manage a variety of inspection requirements. This document describes a prototype automated system to assist in the preparation and management of these inspections.

  1. Operations manual: On Site Monitor (OSM), solar heating and cooling systems

    1977-01-01

    The on-site monitor is a portable device which, when connected to a solar system site data acquisition subsystem; allows readouts of clock and sensor data in voltage or engineering units at instrumented solar heating and cooling sites. The unit is described and procedures for its proper operation are presented.

  2. Subsystem design package for the on-site monitor at solar heating and cooling sites

    1977-01-01

    The on-site monitor is a portable device which can be easily connected to a Site Data Acquisition Subsystem to allow readouts of realtime sensor data in voltage or engineering units at instrumented solar heating and cooling sites. The design package consists of the performance specification, performance requirements cross reference, and the acceptance test procedure.

  3. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    Full text: We will present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48

  4. ON-SITE GC/MS ANALYSIS OF CHAPMAN GASIFICATION SEPARATOR LIQUOR

    The report gives results of a characterization of a wastewater stream from a coal gasification plant, using on-site extraction and GC/MS analysis. Extractable material in the wastewater was primarily phenols and alkylphenols, accounting for about 99% of the total mass identified....

  5. On-site and off-site forensic analysis capabilities for proliferation and terrorism prevention

    We present current on-site technologies that can be utilized for the screening of explosives, chemical agents, and environmental contaminants. These techniques must have the capability to detect various hazardous materials at very low levels, since they pose a major challenge for first responders. Specifically, the technology must detect concealed explosives or chemical agents on-site rapidly. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing several different high explosive screening and detection technologies for field use. Two technologies that have demonstrated an ability to screen for explosives at low levels are colorimetric spot tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Another technology that has demonstrated usefulness for the on-site analysis of unknowns is portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) sampling. Several examples utilizing these technologies and their usefulness will be presented. In addition to developing on-site screening methods, LLNL is an Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) designated laboratory and is certified to accept CW suspect samples. Currently, LLNL is expanding its ISO-17025 certification to include nuclear forensics and explosives. These off-site forensic analysis capabilities and certified procedures will support the needs for homeland security. We will highlight some of the ISO-17025 requirements to accredit procedures, handle samples, and reports. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48. (author)

  6. On-site transfer system for remote handling of low-level radioactive waste

    Increased uncertainties regarding the future availability of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites have caused many commercial nuclear power utilities to investigate and implement alternatives to radwaste storage and disposal. Nuclear Packaging, Inc., under contract to Southern California Edison has developed an on-site radioactive waste transfer system (OTS), which allows shielded handling of LLW at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station. The system is designed to remotely transfer multiconfigured radwaste containers into shielded storage modules, on-site radioactive waste storage facilities, or shipping casks. The OTS consists of three primary components: (a) a shielded transfer cask, (b) a transport trailer, and (c) a mobile straddle crane for remote handling and positioning of the transfer cask during container transfer operations

  7. Analysis of acoustic-seismic coupling behaviour for CTBT on-site inspection performance improvement

    Liebsch, Mattes; Knoop, Jan-Frederik [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    After teleseismic detection of a big underground explosion, during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) weak seismic signals from aftershocks are to be detected. These, however, can be masked by soil vibrations which are caused by acoustic waves which couple to the ground. To analyse the coupling behaviour between acoustic waves and soil vibrations several experiments with different acoustic sources (helicopters, firecrackers, loudspeaker) were performed. Of special interest is the influence of surface waves, excited in a larger area around the sensor, which can superpose constructively at the position of the sensor and can increase the measured seismic signal. A better understanding of the acoustic-seismic coupling can be used to develop guidelines for seismic aftershock measurements, such as a suitable sensor setup, with the goal of reducing or even preventing disturbing signals to improve the performance of on-site inspections for the CTBT.

  8. Analysis of acoustic-seismic coupling behaviour for CTBT on-site inspection performance improvement

    After teleseismic detection of a big underground explosion, during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) weak seismic signals from aftershocks are to be detected. These, however, can be masked by soil vibrations which are caused by acoustic waves which couple to the ground. To analyse the coupling behaviour between acoustic waves and soil vibrations several experiments with different acoustic sources (helicopters, firecrackers, loudspeaker) were performed. Of special interest is the influence of surface waves, excited in a larger area around the sensor, which can superpose constructively at the position of the sensor and can increase the measured seismic signal. A better understanding of the acoustic-seismic coupling can be used to develop guidelines for seismic aftershock measurements, such as a suitable sensor setup, with the goal of reducing or even preventing disturbing signals to improve the performance of on-site inspections for the CTBT.

  9. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  10. Experience in verification regimes. United States On-Site Inspection Agency

    Experiences are described of the United States On-site Inspection Agency in verification regimes all over the world where it has been applied in the last 30 years. The challenge for the future is to extend the benefits of the applied tools to all states in all regions to enhance stability and to create conditions for peace at lower levels of armaments than currently exist. The USA need to engage states currently caught in cycles of violence and arms escalation. They must examine technologies which together with on-site aspects of verification or transparency regimes can provide a comprehensive picture at affordable costs. They foresee a growth in combined training with new states entering for the first time into regime that include arms control and transparency measure

  11. Framatome recent developments and application on site in NDE of steam generator tubes

    The increasing needs concerning the follow up and expertise of PWR steam generator (SG) tubing have led Framatome to develop a quick on-site intervention mobile unit, which could implement any current technique and equipment. Besides, Framatome has developed several non destructrive examination methods to solve the specific problems encountered in service on the SG tubes: profilometry of the SG tubes by eddy current. Inside and above the tube sheet, eddy current inspection of tube sleeving by ultrasonic testing and eddy current

  12. Potential impacts of regional climate change on site productivity of Larix olgensis plantations in northeast China

    Shen C; Lei X; Liu H.; Wang L; Liang W

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to substantially affect forest site productivity. However, its effects may vary depending on the climate scenario, region and tree species. We chose Larix olgensis in northeast China to investigate the responses of forest site productivity to regional climate change using a generalized additive model (GAM). Based on site index data and climate variables from 335 townships across the Jilin Province, we developed a climate-sensitive forest site index model, which acco...

  13. On-site staffing requirements for a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR)

    In 1992 the total generating costs were estimated by EPRI for a baseload, nth-of-a-kind advanced reactor with the following cost distribution: capital cost 62%, operation and maintenance (O and M) cost 20%, fuel cost 16%, and decommissioning cost 2%. Thus the O and M cost is a significant component of the total cost of electricity, second only to the capital cost. The O and M cost in turn can be split into: cost for on-site staff, maintenance materials, supplies and expenses, off-site technical support, regulatory fees, insurance premiums and administration. The costs for on-site staff is about 30% of the total O and M cost. In 1992, the US Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA) estimated the on-site staffing for a typical 600 MWe advanced reactor to be about 330 with 25 (full time equivalent, FTE) contractors. This estimate was reevaluated by EPRI, and the staffing was modified based on a reengineering of the organizational structure that eliminated unnecessary layers of vertical management. As a result of this review, the on-site staffing was decreased to 259 with 25 (FTE) contractors, for a total of 284 people. The Dodewaard power plant (GKN) in The Netherlands is a 60 MWe facility with a natural circulating reactor. Since the 600 MWe Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR), an advanced reactor, also utilizes a natural circulating reactor with other passive safety features it was desired to extrapolate the GKN staffing to the SBWR. Also, some of the European O and M practices that utilize fewer skilled labor are reflected. This paper provides the results of the comparison between the EPRI recommendations and the staffing based on GKN experience

  14. Performance evaluation of telemetry stations based on site selection (Short Communication)

    M. Goswami; B. Sucharita; P. Arya

    2003-01-01

    In a test range, selection of sites for deployment of mobile telemetry stations plays a crucial role for acquiring and tracking any airborne vehicle under test. Efforts have been made to correlate the tracking performance of the auto track stations based on site selection for various test flights conducted from different launching pads. Some of the tracking methodologies discussed in this paper are single channel amplitude comparison monopulse (SCACMP) technique and E-SCAN technique. A...

  15. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    Maria Gunady; Natalia Shishkina; Henry Tan; Clemencia Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often at...

  16. Devices for on-site maintenance allows an increased availability of supplies of orbital welding systems

    Until now, energy supplies of orbital welding systems had to be shipped for maintenance. As described in this article, technological advances like portable calibration units allow the owners of such systems to perform themselves maintenance operations. On-site calibration results in a reduction of costs and off-site maintenance, therefore in an increased availability. The article describes the main functions of these portable calibration units which are used to calibrate welding critical variables

  17. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel: Emerging public issues

    Failure to consummate plans for a permanent repository or above- ground interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel has spurred innovative efforts to ensure at-reactor storage in an environmentally safe and secure manner. This article examines the institutional and socioeconomic impacts of Dry Cask Storage Technology (DCST)-an approach to spent fuel management that is emerging as the preferred method of on-site interim spent fuel storage by utilities that exhaust existing storage capacity

  18. Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina

    2004-11-30

    While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.

  19. Problems Of Senior Teacher Students In On-Site School Training

    AYDIN, Furkan; AKGÜN, Özcan Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Training qualified teachers is a very important goal to increase quality of education. Today, Educational faculties are responsible for teacher training to sustain education system. School experience and on-site teaching practice courses are key factors in teacher training to nurture students in order to know their job and get necessary knowledge and skills. These courses have very important functions in teacher training but there are some problems about them. In this study we have investigat...

  20. Recent chemical engineering requirements as the result of TMI on-site experience

    From the experiences gained from the on-site experience at TMI, it is apparent that the role of chemical engineers should increase in order for the nuclear option to proceed in a safe and efficient fashion. It is also obvious that as the results of the reports investigating the causes and effects of the accident come to light and attempts to backfit system designs to prevent a recurrence are studied, more technical demands will be placed on the profession

  1. On-site approximation for spin-orbit coupling in LCAO density functional methods

    Fernandez-Seivane, Lucas; Oliveira, Miguel A; Sanvito, Stefano; Ferrer, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    We propose a computational method that simplifies drastically the inclusion of spin-orbit interaction in density functional theory implemented on localised atomic orbital basis sets. Our method is based on a well-known procedure for obtaining pseudopotentials from atomic relativistic 'ab initio' calculations and on an on-site approximation for the spin-orbit matrix elements. We have implemented the technique in the SIESTA code, and we show that it provides accurate results for the overall ban...

  2. Using Automated On-Site Monitoring to Calibrate Empirical Models of Trihalomethanes Concentrations in Drinking Water

    Thomas E. Watts III; Robyn A. Snow; Brown, Aaron W.; J. C. York; Greg Fantom; Paul S. Simone Jr.; Gary L. Emmert

    2015-01-01

    An automated, on-site trihalomethanes concentration data set from a conventional water treatment plant was used to optimize powdered activated carbon and pre-chlorination doses. The trihalomethanes concentration data set was used with commonly monitored water quality parameters to improve an empirical model of trihalomethanes formation. A calibrated model was used to predict trihalomethanes concentrations the following year. The agreement between the models and measurements was evaluated. The...

  3. Reliability of on-site greywater treatment systems in Mediterranean and arid environments - a case study.

    Alfiya, Y; Gross, A; Sklarz, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-01

    On-site greywater (GW) treatment and reuse is gaining popularity. However, a main point of concern is that inadequate treatment of such water may lead to negative environmental and health effects. Maintenance of single-family home GW systems is usually performed by home owners with limited professional support. Therefore, unless GW systems are reliable, environmental and public health might be compromised. This study is aimed at investigating the reliability of on-site recirculated vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) in 20 single-family homes. In order to ensure reliability, the failure-tree approach was adopted during the design and construction of the systems. The performance of the systems was monitored for 1.5 years, by evaluating treated GW flow and quality, and by recording all malfunctions and maintenance work. Only 39 failures occurred during this period, of which four caused irrigation with impaired quality GW, while the rest led to no irrigation. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 305 days; two out of the 20 systems suffered from seven malfunctions (each), while nine systems did not fail at all. Thus, it can be postulated that if on-site GW treatment systems are designed with the right controls, and if scheduled (basic and relatively infrequent) maintenance is performed, GW reuse can be safe to the environment and human health. PMID:23508166

  4. Conceptual design for an on-site spent-fuel transfer system

    Transnuclear, Inc. has developed two conceptual designs for transferring spent fuel from a nuclear plant's fuel storage pool to large storage casks by means of a small transfer cask. The transfer of spent fuel would be performed external to the nuclear plant, rather than within the plant's fuel building or transport bay. The systems can also be used to transfer fuel between storage casks and transport casks. Both systems meet the design considerations for on-site spent-fuel transfer systems outlined in EPRI Report NP-6425, ''Design Considerations for On-Site Spent-Fuel Transfer Systems.'' One of the designs involves a dry transfer into the storage cask, while the other uses a wet transfer method. Both systems have been evaluated for economic and technical feasibility, licensability and practicality. This report describes each of the conceptual designs and outlines the operating procedures for each system. In addition, a risk and accident assessment, a logistical evaluation, and an economic analysis including target cost evaluations and system cost estimates are included. This report shows that it is technically feasible and that costs are economically justifiable to perform on-site spent-fuel transfers using small transfer casks. However, the final design selection for the transfer system could depend on the individual utility's operational preferences and the unique facility features that already exist at each nuclear plant. 9 tabs

  5. Shielding requirements on-site loading and acceptance testing on the Leksell gamma knife.

    Maitz, A H; Lunsford, L D; Wu, A; Lindner, G; Flickinger, J C

    1990-02-01

    On August 14, 1987, the first stereotactic radiosurgical procedure using the gamma knife was performed in North America. Located in a self-contained radiosurgical suite in the basement of Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This device uses 201 highly focused beams 60Co for the single-treatment closed-skull irradiation of brain lesions localized by stereotactic techniques (radiosurgery). One hundred and fifty-two patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations or brain tumors were treated in the first year of operation. The Presbyterian University Hospital of Pittsburgh gamma knife is the first such unit in which the 60Co sources were loaded on-site. This effort required us to solve some difficult and unusual problems encountered during site preparation, delivery, and loading of the unit in a busy hospital setting. The solutions developed enabled installation and use of the gamma knife with minimal disruption of hospital activities while maintaining acceptable levels of exposure to radiation. Environmental surveys performed during the loading of the 201 radioactive sources (total, 219 TBq) confirmed that on-site loading is possible and practical. Our experience in the design, construction, and implementation of the first North American gamma knife supports the practicality and safety of on-site loading and may be of value in the planning and development of future gamma knife installations. PMID:2406231

  6. Shielding requirements on-site loading and acceptance testing on the Leksell gamma knife

    On August 14, 1987, the first stereotactic radiosurgical procedure using the gamma knife was performed in North America. Located in a self-contained radiosurgical suite in the basement of Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This device uses 201 highly focused beams 60Co for the single-treatment closed-skull irradiation of brain lesions localized by stereotactic techniques (radiosurgery). One hundred and fifty-two patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations or brain tumors were treated in the first year of operation. The Presbyterian University Hospital of Pittsburgh gamma knife is the first such unit in which the 60Co sources were loaded on-site. This effort required us to solve some difficult and unusual problems encountered during site preparation, delivery, and loading of the unit in a busy hospital setting. The solutions developed enabled installation and use of the gamma knife with minimal disruption of hospital activities while maintaining acceptable levels of exposure to radiation. Environmental surveys performed during the loading of the 201 radioactive sources (total, 219 TBq) confirmed that on-site loading is possible and practical. Our experience in the design, construction, and implementation of the first North American gamma knife supports the practicality and safety of on-site loading and may be of value in the planning and development of future gamma knife installations

  7. New Technological Charts for Concreting Operations on Site for Civil Constructions

    René Antonio Puig Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The on site concreting of constructions, require some regulations to guide the construction companiesto execute the concreting operations according to the status and potential of existing technologies.In Cuba were used for a long time many regulations and construction technical standards issued bythe Ministry of Construction and relating companies, and was published in 1990 the only one versionof Technological Charts for concreting operations on site, about the existing constructions in Cuba,that are in obsolescence in this moment. During more than two decades, the country has experimentedvery rapidly develop of on site concreting technologies according with the development achieved bythe construction industry, importing or producing new efficient and productive equipments. The newtechnological charts are the result of the authors research project. They have proposed the suitableprocedures for the preparation, transportation, pouring, compaction and curing of the concrete mix incorrespondence with the country "state of the art", and the consumption normative of workers,equipments, time and costs of these activities, using the "concreting flow" as a regulator of theconcreting system.

  8. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  9. ALERTES-SC3 Early Warning System prototype for South Iberian Peninsula: on-site approach.

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Martín Davila, José; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Vera, Angel; Ciberia, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Strollo, Angelo; Hanka, Winfried; Carranza, Marta

    2016-04-01

    In recent years several Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world. The area between SW Cape St. Vicente and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In the frame of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects, the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for south Iberia. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc) and the displacement peak (Pd), but also the velocity peak (Pv), the maximum period (τPmáx), among others. In order to warm the areas closest to the hypocentre, places located inside the "blind zone", a on-site EEWS has also been developed by ROA and integrated in the ALERTES-SC3 prototype. From the on-site approach, a warm level is declared from one station as a function of the estimated characteristic period (τc) and the displacement Peak (Pd), although the earthquake location and therefore the lead time available remains unknown. This on-site EEWS is being tested in several Western Mediterranean net (WM) stations as ARNO (Arenosillo, Huelva,Spain) or CHAS (Chafarinas island, North Africa, Spain). Also an on-site low cost station is being developed based in low cost accelerometers. In this work the current state of the on-site EEWS developed, its integration in the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS system and the low cost seismic stations are shown.

  10. 77 FR 21588 - Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    2012-04-10

    ... of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21354). At the... Employment and Training Administration Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On- Site... subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC, including on-site leased workers from Reliable, Masiello Employment...

  11. 75 FR 452 - Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc...

    2010-01-05

    ... Federal Register on February 2, 2009 (74 FR Number 5871). The Department issued an amended certification... Employment and Training Administration Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Workers From Elite Staffing, Inc.; Cozad, NE; Tenneco, Inc.; Including On-Site Leased Workers of Elite Staffing, Inc.; Monroe, MI;...

  12. 77 FR 6586 - GE Oil & Gas Operations, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Argus Technical, Inc...

    2012-02-08

    ... oil and gas industry. The notice was published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2011 (76 FR... Employment and Training Administration GE Oil & Gas Operations, LLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From... 28, 2011, applicable to workers of GE Oil & Gas Operations, LLC, including on-site leased...

  13. 75 FR 11921 - Heritage Aviation, Ltd., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Global Technical Services and...

    2010-03-12

    ... the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7033). At the request of the State Agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Heritage Aviation, Ltd., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Global... workers of Heritage Aviation, including on-site leased workers from Heritage Aviation, Ltd, including...

  14. 76 FR 37154 - Covidien, Formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly...

    2011-06-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Covidien, Formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division, Including On- Site..., 2011, applicable to workers of Covidien, formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division, including on-site...-site at the Norwood, Massachusetts location of Covidien, formerly Aspect Medical, R & MS Division....

  15. 76 FR 61740 - Geneon Entertainment (USA) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and...

    2011-10-05

    ... production of DVD masters. The notice was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40401). At... Employment and Training Administration Geneon Entertainment (USA) Including On-Site Leased Workers From..., applicable to workers of Geneon Entertainment (USA), including on-site leased workers from Interplace,...

  16. 40 CFR 262.212 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site interim status or permitted treatment...

    2010-07-01

    ....212 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site interim status or permitted treatment... hazardous waste permit or interim status as soon as it arrives in the on-site treatment, storage or disposal... permitted treatment, storage or disposal facility. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste,...

  17. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    2011-12-21

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41526). At the request of the State... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and...

  18. 76 FR 16447 - ETHICON, a Subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Temporary...

    2011-03-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration ETHICON, a Subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson Including On-Site Leased... and Johnson Company, San Angelo, Texas, separated from employment on or after June 9, 2007 through... Johnson & Johnson, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Temporary Services, San Angelo, Texas....

  19. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    2010-07-01

    ..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  20. 75 FR 41522 - Hewlett Packard, Technical Support Call Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    2010-07-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Technical Support Call Center, Including On-Site... workers of Hewlett Packard, Technical Support Call Center, including on-site leased workers from Manpower, Volt, and Adecco, Boise, Idaho. The notice was published in the Federal Register March 12, 2010 (75...

  1. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  2. A business case for on-site generation: The BD biosciences pharmingen project

    Firestone, Ryan; Creighton, Charles; Bailey, Owen; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Deregulation is haltingly changing the United States electricity markets. The resulting uncertainty and/or rising energy costs can be hedged by generating electricity on-site and other benefits, such as use of otherwise wasted heat, can be captured. The Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1978 first invited relatively small-scale generators ({ge} 1 MW) into the electricity market. The advent of efficient and reliable small scale and renewable equipment has spurred an industry that has, in recent years, made even smaller (business scale) electricity generation an economically viable option for some consumers. On-site energy capture and/or conversion, known as distributed energy resources (DER), offers consumers many benefits, such as economic savings and price predictability, improved reliability, control over power quality, and emissions reductions. Despite these benefits, DER adoption can be a daunting move to a customer accustomed to simply paying a monthly utility bill. San Diego is in many ways an attractive location for DER development: It has high electricity prices typical of California and a moderate climate i.e. energy loads are consistent throughout the year. Additionally, the price shock to San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) customers during the summer of 2000 has interested many in alternatives to electricity price vulnerability. This report examines the business case for DER at the San Diego biotechnology supply company, BD Biosciences Pharmingen, which considered DER for a building with 200-300 kW base-load, much of which accommodates the refrigerators required to maintain chemicals. Because of the Mediterranean climate of the San Diego area and the high rate of air changes required due to on-site use of chemicals, modest space heating is required throughout the year. Employees work in the building during normal weekday business hours, and daily peak loads are typically about 500 kW.

  3. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency exercises

    A review of existing Canadian and International emergency exercise evaluation criteria and approaches has been conducted. Based on the results of the review, criteria are proposed for the evaluation of on-site emergency exercises for Canadian nuclear power stations. The proposed criteria are performance-based. They are comprehensive, yet remain adaptable to all stations and accident scenarios. They are primarily aimed at radiological emergency exercises, but are entirely applicable to fire or other conventional exercises. This report also addresses evaluation preparation and methodology. (author). 21 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Evaluation of the Institutional Conservation Program: results of on-site analyses. Final report

    1983-04-30

    In October 1981, the US Department of Energy (DOE) contracted to evaluate Cycles I and II of the Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The Program provides assistance and matching funds to help four types of non-profit institutions reduce their energy consumption. On the basis of analyses of institutional records, on-site assessments, and interviews with state and institution administrators, evaluators assessed the implementation of the program, the impacts of the ICP and estimated the energy savings participating institutions achieved using data collected from Cycles I and II participants. The findings and conclusions of the ICP evaluation are presented.

  5. Construction of helical coil winding machine for LHD and on-site winding

    On-site winding of two helical coils of LHD started at the beginning of 1995, using a numerically controlled winding machine. They are large-scale pool-cooled superconducting coils which are designed to satisfy fully stabilized criterion. The conductor consists of Nb-Ti/Cu strands with a pure aluminum stabilizer and copper sheath. The main demanded values for winding the coils are 2.0 mm and 6.5 microm for the accuracy of coil and the average gap between layers, respectively. A winding method was established by trial of winding

  6. On-site Atractive Multiorbital Hamiltonian for $d$-Wave Superconductors

    Bishop, Christopher B.; Liu, Guangkun; Dagotto, Elbio; Moreo, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a two-orbital Hamiltonian on a square lattice that contains on-site attractive interactions involving the two $e_g$ orbitals. Via a canonical mean-field procedure similar to the one applied to the well-known negative-$U$ Hubbard model, it is shown that the new model develops $d$-wave ($B_{1g}$) superconductivity with nodes along the diagonal directions of the square Brillouin zone. This result is also supported by exact diagonalization of the model in a small cluster. The expecta...

  7. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2012-01-01

    into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the...... analysis includes five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of...

  8. On-site treatment and landfilling of MSWI air pollution control residues

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard;

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC-residue and...... a fly ash. The treatment involved mixing of the residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation of the suspension. Afterwards, the suspension was spread on a dedicated landfill section and allowed to drain by gravity through the drainage system of the landfill. The wastewater from...

  9. Solitary heat waves in nonlinear lattices with squared on-site potential

    Rovinita Perseus; M M Latha

    2013-06-01

    A model Hamiltonian is proposed for heat conduction in a nonlinear lattice with squared on-site potential using the second quantized operators and averaging the same using a suitable wave function, equations are derived in discrete form for the field amplitude and the properties of heat transfer are examined theoretically. Numerical analysis shows that the propagation of heat is in the form of solitons. Furthermore, a systemized version of tanh method is carried out to extract solutions for the resulting nonlinear equations in the continuum case and the effect of inhomogeneity is studied for different temperatures.

  10. Lectotype optimization of mid-highrise residential building based on site conditions and seismic fortification intensity

    2006-01-01

    A multi-objective lectotype optimization model based on site conditions and seismic fortification intensity is presented for mid-highrise residential buildings taking into account multiple items such as the original investment, disaster losses and maintenance cost, the integral stiffness, the total ductility, the construction period, and so on. A Three-Scale Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy process is proposed by introducing the Three-Scale Analytical Hierarchy process and the trapezoid fuzzy number. The result of a calculation example shows that the T-FAHP is practical.

  11. Using Automated On-Site Monitoring to Calibrate Empirical Models of Trihalomethanes Concentrations in Drinking Water

    Thomas E. Watts III

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An automated, on-site trihalomethanes concentration data set from a conventional water treatment plant was used to optimize powdered activated carbon and pre-chlorination doses. The trihalomethanes concentration data set was used with commonly monitored water quality parameters to improve an empirical model of trihalomethanes formation. A calibrated model was used to predict trihalomethanes concentrations the following year. The agreement between the models and measurements was evaluated. The original model predicted trihalomethanes concentrations within ~10 μg·L−1 of the measurement. Calibration improved model prediction by a factor of three to five times better than the literature model.

  12. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system

  13. A reliable aptamer array prepared by repeating inkjet-spotting toward on-site measurement.

    Inoue, Suzuyo; Seyama, Michiko; Miura, Toru; Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Iwasaki, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Jun-Ichi; Hayashi, Katsuyoshi; Tamechika, Emi

    2016-11-15

    A preparation protocol is proposed for a reliable aptamer array utilizing an ink-jet spotter. We accumulated streptavidin and biotinylated-aptamer in this order on a biotinylated-polyethylene glycol-coated gold substrate to prepare an aptamer array. The aptamer array was prepared with an alternate spotting structure where each aptamer spot was placed between reference spots formed with blocking solution thus suppressing contamination from neighboring spots during the blocking and washing processes. Four aptamer spots were prepared in a small area of 1×4.8mm(2) with five reference spots made of blocking solution. We evaluated the thrombin binding ability of the spotted aptamer array using a multi-analysis surface plasmon resonance sensor. We prepared a disposable capillary-driven flow chip designed for on-site measurement (Miura et al., 2010) with our aptamer array and detected thrombin from phosphate-buffered saline at concentrations of 50ngmL(-1) and 1μgmL(-1) (equivalent to 1.35 and 27nM, respectively). A correlation was observed between the refractive index shift and thrombin concentration. This implies that our array preparation protocol meets the requirement for the preparation of a one-time-use chip for on-site measurement. PMID:27315520

  14. Combination of in situ preconcentration and on-site analysis for phosphate monitoring in fresh waters.

    Li, Weijia; Lee, Lai Yoke; Yung, Lin Yue Lanry; He, Yiliang; Ong, Choon Nam

    2014-08-01

    Excess nutrients of phosphorus and nitrogen would lead to adverse impacts on a water body. It is important that their concentrations in a dynamic water ecosystem are measured accurately and constantly for an early warning before occurrences of algal blooms and for environmental management. Nevertheless, on-site measurements by existing technologies are often limited by the inherent sensitivities. In this study, a portable system for dissolved phosphate monitoring in freshwater based on the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was developed. A polydiallydimethylammonium chloride (PDA) aqueous solution and a dialysis membrane were used as a binding phase and a diffusive layer in this preconcentration device, respectively. The binding properties of the PDA solution were evaluated in solutions of different pH (3 to 9) and varying concentrations of anions (2.0-20 mM). The amount of phosphates preconcentrated in the devices was measured by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy to obtain the concentrations in waters without elution steps. The devices were validated in synthetic river water with good agreement with the theoretical prediction and in natural river water. A system combining this preconcentration device and a compact detection chamber equipped with a pair of light emitting diodes (LED) was studied in lab synthetic solutions for on-site monitoring of phosphate concentrations and their fluctuations. PMID:25011428

  15. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  16. User's manual for applicants proposing on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste

    It is the primary purpose of this document to describe for medical and research institutions as well as industrial generators of low-level radioactive waste the NRC or state submittal requirements for authorizing the on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste. Authorization is given to an applicant to dispose of its own radioactive waste by burial in soil on its private property, and this general burial procedure will, in this study, be referred to as the ''operation of an on-site radioactive waste burial ground'' even though operations are fairly limited to occasional disposals. This manual is designed for use by medical and research institutions and industrial low-level radioactive waste generators. This manual includes requirements and costs for site selection, preparation and maintenance as well as a discussion of general procedures necessary for operation and closure of such a disposal site in a manner minimizing risks of hazardous or unexpected exposures. Recommendations for obtaining technical assistance are also included. 19 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  18. Analysis of acoustic-seismic coupling for CTBT on-site inspection support

    The measurements of weak seismic signals, e.g. aftershock measurements during an on-site inspection for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), can be masked by man-made disturbances. These can be caused by airborne signals, like the noises of aircraft or helicopters, which couple to the ground and excite soil vibrations. We have measured sound pressure and corresponding soil vibrations caused by aircraft and by signals produced artificially with a speaker. Methods of acoustic deadening were applied to reduce the incident acoustic power locally. The influence on soil vibrations in different depths below the surface is investigated. The underlying question was whether the coupling of sound happens locally or soil vibrations created in a wide area around the sensor sum up to the total seismic signal. A better understanding of acoustic-seismic coupling can be used to develop guidelines for seismic aftershock measurements in order to improve the performance of on-site inspections for the CTBT.

  19. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: Attitudes and perceptions of local residents

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and - more generally - the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three countries where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Loch Linnhe `94: Test operations description and on-site analysis, US activities

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1994-11-01

    A field experiment named Loch Linnhe `94 (LL94) is described. This experiment was conducted in upper Loch Linnhe, Scotland, in September 1994, as an exercise involving UK and US investigators, under the Joint UK/US Radar Ocean Imaging Program. This experiment involved a dual-frequency, dual-polarization hillside real aperture radar operated by the UK, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) current meter array (CMA), in-water hydrodynamic sensors, and meteorological measurements. The primary measurements involved imaging ship-generated and ambient internal waves by the radar and the CMA. This report documents test operations from a US perspective and presents on-site analysis results derived by US investigators. The rationale underlying complementary radar and CMA measurements is described. Descriptions of the test site, platforms, and major US instrument systems are given. A summary of test operations and examples of radar, CMA, water column profile, and meteorological data are provided. A description of the rather extensive analysis of these data performed at the LL94 test site is presented. The products of this analysis are presented and some implications for further analysis and future experiments are discussed. All experimental objectives were either fully or partially met. Powerful on-site analysis capabilities generated many useful products and helped improve subsequent data collection. Significant further data analysis is planned.

  1. Analytical quality control concept in the Euratom on-site laboratories

    Full text: Two on-site laboratories have been developed, installed, commissioned and put into routine operation by the Euratom safeguards office (ESO), jointly with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). These laboratories are operated by ITU staff and provide verification measurement results on samples taken by Euratom inspectors. The analysts work in weekly changing shift teams, manage the laboratories and operate the various analytical techniques. Operating such a laboratory at a remote location, without a senior scientist immediately available in case of problems, The existing boundary conditions challenge the robustness of the entire laboratory, i.e. comprising staff and instrumentation. In order to continuously ensure a high degree of reliability of the measurement results, a stringent quality control system was implemented. The quality control concept for the two on-site laboratories was developed at a very early stage and implemented in the pre-OSL training facility at ITU. This enabled to thoroughly test and develop further the concept. At the same time the analysts get acquainted with the quality control procedures in place and they are instilled with the principles. The quality control concept makes use of a fully computerized data management and data acquisition system. All measurement devices, including balances, density meters, mass spectrometers, passive neutron counter, hybrid K-edge instrument, gamma spectrometers and alpha spectrometers are networked and data exchange is performed on electronic basis. A specifically developed laboratory information management system collects individual measurement data, calculates intermediate and final result and shares the information with a quality control module. In order to ensure the reliability of the results, which are reported to the ESO inspectorate, five levels of quality control were implemented. The present paper describes in detail the different levels of quality control, which check the

  2. On-site semi-quantitative analysis for ammonium nitrate detection using digital image colourimetry.

    Choodum, Aree; Boonsamran, Pichapat; NicDaeid, Niamh; Wongniramaikul, Worawit

    2015-12-01

    Digital image colourimetry was successfully applied in the semi-quantitative analysis of ammonium nitrate using Griess's test with zinc reduction. A custom-built detection box was developed to enable reproducible lighting of samples, and was used with the built-in webcams of a netbook and an ultrabook for on-site detection. The webcams were used for colour imaging of chemical reaction products in the samples, while the netbook was used for on-site colour analysis. The analytical performance was compared to a commercial external webcam and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The relationship between Red-Green-Blue intensities and ammonium nitrate concentration was investigated. The green channel intensity (IG) was the most sensitive for the pink-violet products from ammonium nitrate that revealed a spectrometric absorption peak at 546 nm. A wide linear range (5 to 250 mgL⁻¹) with a high sensitivity was obtained with the built-in webcam of the ultrabook. A considerably lower detection limit (1.34 ± 0.05mgL⁻¹) was also obtained using the ultrabook, in comparison with the netbook (2.6 ± 0.2 mgL⁻¹), the external web cam (3.4 ± 0.1 mgL⁻¹) and the DSLR (8.0 ± 0.5 mgL⁻¹). The best inter-day precision (over 3 days) was obtained with the external webcam (0.40 to 1.34%RSD), while the netbook and the ultrabook had 0.52 to 3.62% and 1.25 to 4.99% RSDs, respectively. The relative errors were +3.6, +5.6 and -7.1%, on analysing standard ammonium nitrate solutions of known concentration using IG, for the ultrabook, the external webcam, and the netbook, respectively, while the DSLR gave -4.4% relative error. However, the IG of the pink-violet reaction product suffers from interference by soil, so that blank subtraction (|IG-IGblank| or |AG-AGblank|) is recommended for soil sample analysis. This method also gave very good accuracies of -0.11 to -5.61% for spiked soil samples and the results presented for five seized samples showed good correlations between

  3. Analytical quality control concept in the Euratom On-Site laboratories

    Safeguarding the large reprocessing plants poses undoubtedly a challenge to the Safeguards Authorities. The size of the plants and the high material throughput require a significant effort in verification activities. In order to achieve the required high level of detection probability, the safeguards inspectors need to take a high number of samples which have to be subjected to independent analysis. Evidently, the results of these analyses need to be highly reliable, reporting times have to be short and costs have to be kept at a reasonably low level. Based on the latter two aspects, the Euratom Safeguards Office (ESO) decided in the early 1990's to conceive, develop, install and operate safeguards analytical laboratories at the site of the two large European reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France). The analytical concept of these 'On-Site Laboratories' was developed jointly between ESO and the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). Already at this conceptual stage, the aspects related to analytical quality control were discussed and incorporated in the analytical strategy. The present paper summarises the analytical challenges, describes some operational aspects and explains the analytical concept, highlighting the measures and tools that are implemented for assuring a high degree of reliability of measurements results. The quality control concept implemented in the on-site laboratories forms an integral part of the laboratories' measurement strategy. The concept is arranged in five independent levels and assures a comprehensive check of all measurement results produced in the on-site laboratories. The fact that the quality control is integrated in the laboratory information management system imposes a stringent control on each individual measurement and on each technique. The existing system ensures that the standards set in the International Target Values are met. The analysts consider the quality control as a tool to improve the overall

  4. Operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources. Proceedings of a Specialist Meeting

    The reliability of on-site electric power sources of nuclear power plants usually consisting of diesel generators, gas turbine generators and DC power sources, has been a matter of concern during reactor operations. The frequent recurrence and the important consequences of failures relating to on-site electric power sources have led to a general consensus that they form one of the most significant features influencing the total performance of the safety Systems. This has also been confirmed by surveys performed on the incidents reported through the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS). Accordingly, a recommendation to organise a Specialist Meeting on the subject was made at the third annual meeting of CSNI Principal Working Group No. 1 (Operating Experience and Human Factors). At the 12. meeting of the CSNI held in November 1984. the Committee endorsed the proposal and accepted an offer by the United Kingdom to host and organise the Specialist Meeting. The Specialist Meeting, sponsored by the CSNI, was held in London, United Kingdom from 16 to 18 October 1985. It was hosted by H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate of the Health and Safety Executive. The purpose of the meeting was to promote the exchange of Information on operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources and to look for measures to further improve their reliability In the areas of design, operation and licensing. The meeting was organised by a Programme Group which included nominated members of CSNI PWG No. 1. the Programme Group met in May and June 1985 in Paris to agree on the programme and practical arrangements for the meeting. As a result of the review of the abstracts which had been contributed in response to the Call for Papers, 28 papers were accepted for presentation during the meeting. Approximately 60 delegates from 13 Member countries, and the NEA Secretariat, attended the meeting. Session summaries prepared by the respective session chairmen are Included prior to the

  5. Validation of on-site job-built guardrails with shoring jack as supports

    Lan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To protect themselves against fall hazards in a slab-column frame, workers use the row of shoring jacks installed at 1 m from the edge as supports for on-site built guardrails. Inspectors of the Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST have expressed concern about the safety and compliance of these on-site built guardrails with the Quebec Safety Code for the Construction Industry (S-2.1, r.4. Some workers have also inquired if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system. The present study describes how an evaluation method and a test protocol have been used to verify if guardrails built on-site, with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with the requirements of S-2.1, r.4 and if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor point for a travel restraint system. The results of the study show 1 guardrails built on site with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with S-2.1, r.4 and 2 shoring jacks used as supports for guardrails must not be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system.Para la protección contra el peligro de caída en altura durante la ejecución de la estructura de un edificio, los trabajadores utilizan puntales acodalados a dos forjados y situados a 1 metro del borde de forjado como apoyo de las barandillas de seguridad. Inspectores de la Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commision de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST han expresado su preocupación por la seguridad y el cumplimiento de estos sistemas de protección en la construcción conforme al Código de Seguridad de Quebec para la industria de la construcción (S-2.1, R.6. Así mismo algunos trabajadores han mostrado su inquietud sobre la utilización de los puntales como sistemas para limitar el desplazamiento. El presente estudio describe un método de evaluación y un procedimiento de ensayo que se han utilizado para verificar si las barandillas de seguridad

  6. Methods and apparatus for the on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Inventor); James, Patrick I. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods, apparatus, and applications for the on-site production of hydrogen peroxide are described. An embodiment of the apparatus comprises at least one anolyte chamber coupled to at least one anode, at least one catholyte chamber, wherein the at least one catholyte chamber is coupled to at least one cathode, at least one anode membrane and at least one cathode membrane, wherein the anode membrane is adjacent to the at least one anode, wherein the cathode membrane is adjacent to the at least one cathode, at least one central chamber disposed between the at least one anolyte chamber and the at least one catholyte chamber. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by reduction of an oxygen-containing gas at the cathode.

  7. Operating experience and licensing criteria relating to on-site electric power systems in Italy

    The most significant events of on-site electrical power supply degradation in Italian plants took place in coincidence with severe atmospheric conditions or with the propagation of disturbances by lightning stroke inside the plant. Essential instrumentation was lost in two cases so that, for some time, no indication of the plant status was allowed. In both cases the recovery of the plant was achieved by restoration of external power supply. Corrective actions included both improvement in immunity to disturbances, redundancy, capability and physical separation and DG's reliability demonstration. Design and safety analysis of new plants are now carried out with the help of reliability studies and probabilistic risk assessment. As a result, design changes were performed on new plants to improve the reliability of DGs start-up and the independence of the electrical emergency divisions. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of reliability of on-site A.C. power systems based on maintenance records

    To the end of ascertain in what extent the evaluation of reliability of emergency diesel generators (D.G.) can be improved by means of a deeper knowledge of their operating history a study has been carried-out on 21 D.G. sets: 4 D.G. of the Caorso nuclear plant (BWR, 870 MWe) and 17 D.G. in service at 6 steam-electric fossil-fuelled plants. The major points of interest resulting from this study are: 1) reliability assessments of A.C. on-site power Systems, made on the basis of outcomes of surveillance tests, may lead to results which overestimate the real performance. 2) the unreliability of a redundant System of stand-by components is determined in large extent by unavailabilities due to scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, latent failures, tests. (authors)

  9. Experiences as an observer of the CTBT on-site-inspection exercise DE07 in Chernobyl

    The directed exercise DE07 took place in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in the Ukraine from 4. June 2007 to 14. June 2007. The aim of the exercise was to train several aspects of an on-site-inspection (OSI) to provide evidence of a forbidden nuclear weapons test in the context of the preparation of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT). I had the opportunity to join the exercise as an observer. 25 experts from 22 state parties took part in the exercise. In addition 4 observers from 4 countries participated. The aim of the directed exercise was to measure radioactivity levels in a simulated inspection area and to identify the nuclides. The following aspects of an OSI were trained: carborne and airborne gamma survey; environmental sampling and analysis in a field laboratory; safety of work, personal protection and decontamination; communication and navigation in the field; data preparation and data handling

  10. Operational experiences of on-site transport of spent nuclear fuels in Korea

    Since 1990 more than 800 PWR spent nuclear fuel assemblies has been on-site transported using two kinds of transport casks from one unit to nearby another unit in order to secure the storage capacity of spent nuclear fuel of the Kori nuclear power plant in Korea. The complete on-site transport system, which includes two transport casks, the related equipment and two transport vehicles, had been provided. Considerable amount of modification to the existing power plant equipment and facilities had been carried out. Two kinds of the KSC-4 cask and the CASTOR KN-12 cask were developed and licensed in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. From 1990 to the first half of 2002 two KSC-4 casks were used and more than 420 spent nuclear fuels were transported. From the second half of 2002 two CASTOR KN-12 cask have been used to transport more than 400 spent nuclear fuels. About 180 spent nuclear fuels of Kori site are transported using the CASTOR KN-12 cask this year, and the KSC-4 casks are no longer used. The CASTOR KN-12 cask was designed to transport twelve spent nuclear fuel assemblies from pressure water reactors and to comply with the requirements of the Korea and the IAEA regulations for Type B(U)F package. PWR spent nuclear fuels with maximum initial enrichment of 5.0wt.%, maximum average burn-up of 50,000MWD/MTU and minimum cooling time of 7 years are loaded and subsequently transported under dry and wet conditions. The loaded weight of the cask with impact limiters is 85 tons. Two casks were fabricated in accordance with ASME B and PV code Section III Division 3. The related equipment to handle the cask and to perform on-site transport are cask lifting devices, cask lid handling tools, crane adapters, vacuum drying and helium back-filling equipment and cask cool-down equipment, spent nuclear fuel handling tool, decontamination equipment using high pressure water and transport vehicles. However, spent nuclear fuels of the Kori site has

  11. On-site methanol production plant from natural gas with modular HTR

    The consumption of natural gas has been increasing year by year due to its relatively low level of CO2 emissions and low cost. All of the natural gas consumed in Japan is imported from foreign countries in the form of liquid natural gas (LNG). Therefore, liquefaction, transportation and storage equipment costs are large. On the other hand, handling methanol is as easy as handling oil. If a plant for producing methanol from natural gas is sited near a natural gas field, transportation and storage costs are expected to be significantly lower than such costs for LNG production. From the above viewpoint, the concept of an on-site methanol production plant with a modular HTR (High Temperature Reactor) was studied. (author)

  12. On-site habitability in the event of an accident at a nuclear facility

    This publication is intended to provide technical guidance and a methodology for regulatory bodies, designers, constructors and operators of nuclear facilities to assist them in assessing the current situation as regards on-site habitability for their specific nuclear facilities. Initially, the aim will be to ensure that the ''vital areas'' of the facility which are necessary for the safe operation and shutdown of the facility will remain habitable, in some cases continuously and in others transiently, in the event of an accident inside or outside the installation. The assessment procedure can be used not only for potential radiation accidents but also to consider the effects on habitability of those probable non-radiological events which, if not correctly and effectively countered, could lead to the development of potentially unsafe conditions in the facility itself. 30 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  13. On-site field test on groundwater re-flooding (2)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    A mini-dome (an underground structure to be closed; ground level: - 50 m to - 82.5 m) situated on a diluvium along the Sagami River, Kanagawa prefecture, Japan, was used to perform an on-site field tests on groundwater re-flooding for 11 months after the mini-dome was filled up with sand, mortar, and fluidized soil consisting of cement and mudwater. The present report includes monitoring data of the environmental groundwater at the surrounding bed rocks and of the groundwater in the deep mudstone beneath the site. Change with time at various test points in water pressure, water temperature, pH, electric conductivity, and the temperature of the wall of the structure making the mini-dome is reported. Furthermore, some isotopic abundance and the monitoring results on chemical analysis were also included. (S. Ohno)

  14. Corrosion rate of steel in concrete - Evaluation of confinement techniques for on-site corrosion rate

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica; Elsener, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Earlier on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that varying corrosion rates are obtained when different commercially available instruments are used. The different confinement techniques, rather than the different electrochemical techniques used in the instruments, are considered...... to be the main reason for the discrepancies. This paper presents a method for the quantitative assessment of confinement techniques based on monitoring the operation of the corrosion rate instrument and the current distribution between the electrode assembly on the concrete surface and a segmented...... reinforcement bar embedded in the concrete. The applicability of the method was demonstrated on two commercially available corrosion rate instruments based on different confinement techniques. The method provided an explanation of the differences in performance of the two instruments. Correlated measurements of...

  15. User's manual for applicants proposing on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste

    This document describes, for medical and research institutions as well as industrial generators of low-level radioactive waste, the NRC or state submittal requirements for authorizing the on-site burial of self-generated radioactive waste. An important part of completing the license application for operation justifying this alternative for waste disposal over other alternatives. Reasons that might be considered acceptable might include the need to dispose of large volumes of low activity waste that would otherwise take up valuable space in commercial sites; the ability to demonstrate that this method of disposal will result in reduced exposures to the public; the ability to show that the prohibitive costs of other methods of disposal would be detrimental to the progress of significant research which generates radioactive waste. 19 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Utility investment in on-site solar: risk and return analysis for capitalization and financing

    Kahn, E.; Schutz, S.

    1978-09-01

    A set of financial strategies designed to accelerate the penetration of on-site solar heating and cooling systems are studied. The approach of portfolio theory or the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is used. The major features of the CAPM is summarized including a survey of those applications which are most relevant to the analysis. These include utility return on equity calculations and project evaluation techniques. How to apply empirical results is discussed based on CAPM methods. In particular, applications to the capitalization variant of the utility investment strategy and the financing variant are distinguished. Subsidization rationales are also discussed. Empirical results to date are summarized, including estimation problems for the various risk measures. The general problem of financial risk assessment for energy technologies is reviewed. (MHR)

  17. On-site power generation in Italy: Regulatory and commercial interface problems

    This paper first briefly assesses the potential in Italy for auto-production of electricity by private firms making use of various renewable energy sources - hydroelectric, wind, solar and biomass energy. It then discusses the impacts of current national normatives governing on-site power generation (especially those which specify minimum plant power ratings and air pollution control requirements), the severity of marketing constraints for auto-produced power, as well as, the compatibility of this practice with the future development plans of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). Attention is given to power pooling and common carrier problematics, relative national fiscal policies regarding the use of conventional energy sources, and rate structure for the case of power sharing with the national grid

  18. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  19. Joint federal initiative for demonstration of on-site innovative technologies

    The Federal Government needs to develop and implement new technologies to support its environmental and waste management programs. The incentive is threefold: First, new technologies are needed to accomplish many cleanup and waste management tasks. Second, the development and implementation of new technologies is expected to reduce significantly total cleanup costs. Third, the development of new environmental technologies can help secure national economic advantages by making U.S. industry more competitive in terms of global environmental markets. The Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) initiative reinvents inter-governmental relations by stressing the solving of environmental problems through partnerships rather than through confrontation. This overview -- which is essentially a shortened and slightly modified version of the recent Coordinating Group Report to the DOIT Committee --describes the waste management challenges facing the Nation, discusses the innovative solutions offered by DOIT, outlines progress of the initiative to date, and identifies critical next steps

  20. Novel On-Site Cupric Oxide Recovery Process from Waste Containing Copper

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Kano, Kazunori; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Atsushi

    2013-05-01

    Although the copper-containing waste from semiconductor or printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing contains a high concentration of copper, it is usually transported and treated outside of the factories. We studied a novel treatment technology for on-site recycling in the factories. In this technology, cupric oxide with a low-chloride-content was obtained from waste with a high copper concentration, such as cupric chloride etchant waste and cupric sulfate plating waste. In the proposed method, copper-containing waste mixed with H2O2 solution is added to NaOH solution by stepwise addition. In laboratory experiments, we optimized the reaction conditions and obtained low-chloride-content CuO from actual cupric chloride etchant waste and cupric sulfate plating waste. Based on the laboratory experiments, we constructed the first practical plant at a PCB factory and obtained low-chloride-content CuO.

  1. Recent developments in on-site nuclear engineering graduate programs at the University of Cincinnati

    The University of Cincinnati (UC) Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Nuclear Engineering with the sponsorship of the Toledo-Edison Company (TED) has undertaken a new multiyear on-site graduate program at the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant. The program enables TED employees with the proper academic background to earn a master of science (MS) degree in nuclear engineering (mechanical engineering option). In addition, with management approval, selected individual courses may be taken without enrolling in the overall program. One objective of the program is to enhance the understanding and engineering skills of the participants so that this knowledge may be applied to their professional positions. To this end, appropriate plant-specific examples and problems are incorporated into each course, enhancing the technical staff's understanding of the practical applications of the principles presented

  2. On-site vs off-site management of environmental restoration waste: A cost effectiveness analysis

    The Sandia National Laboratories Environmental Restoration Project is expected to generate relatively large volumes of hazardous waste as a result of cleanup operations. These volumes will exceed the Laboratories existing waste management capacity. This paper presents four options for managing remediation wastes, including three alternatives for on-site waste management utilizing a corrective action management unit (CAMU). Costs are estimated for each of the four options based on current volumetric estimates of hazardous waste. Cost equations are derived for each of the options with the variables being waste volumes, the major unknowns in the analysis. These equations provide a means to update cost estimates as volume estimates change. This approach may be helpful to others facing similar waste management decisions

  3. Revaluation of breast cytology with pathologist on-site of lesions with suspicious sonographic features

    Capalbo, Emanuela, E-mail: emanuelacapalbo@tiscalinet.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Sajadidehkordi, Farideh, E-mail: faridehit@yahoo.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Colombi, Claudio; Ticha, Vladimira; Moretti, Angela, E-mail: info.radiologia@sancarlo.mi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, 20153 Milano (Italy); Peli, Michela, E-mail: peli.michela@gmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Cosentino, Maria, E-mail: maria-cosentino@tiscali.it [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Lovisatti, Maria, E-mail: marialovisatti@hotmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, Università degli Studi di Milano Via Di Rudinì, Milano, 20142 Italy (Italy); Berti, Elisabetta, E-mail: eliberti@hotmail.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Anatomia Patologica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, Milano 20153 (Italy); Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: info.radiologia@sancarlo.mi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Diagnostiche, UOC di Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, A.O San Carlo Borromeo. Via Pio II, 3, 20153 Milano (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: Evaluating correlation estimation between diagnostic ultrasound (U.S.) of breast lesions and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and the correlation between cytology and histology (I) of these lesions undergo surgery. Materials and methods: In 2010 we performed 1589 ultrasound breast. We identified 210 suspicious lesions to be subjected to FNAC, which was performed with pathologist on site, and extemporaneous analysis of the sample to assess their appropriateness. We classified the lesions in 5 ultrasound (U) classes according to the criteria defined by Echographic BIRADS Lexicon. The results of cytology were classified in 5 classes (C) according to the guidelines of F.O.N.Ca.M. Then we evaluated the diagnostic correlation between U.S. and FNAC, and between FNAC and Histology. Results: The distribution of lesions in U classes was: 57U2, 55U3, 36U4 and 62U5. The diagnostic concordance between U and FNAC was 96.7%, with a sensitivity of 98%, specificity 93%, negative and positive predictive value respectively of 94.9% and 97.3%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96.6%. The 98 patients with C4-C5 lesions were subjected to surgery and the histology confirmed high-grade malignancy of lesions with a concordance of 99.7%. Conclusions: Having achieved high diagnostic concordance between U and FNAC, and then between FNAC and histology, we may say that the FNAC, less invasive and traumatic for the patient than needle biopsy (CB), may be still a valid method when performed with pathologist on-site to assess the adequacy of the sample taken.

  4. On-site characterization and verification for removal of cesium contamination along an active rail spur

    A rapid, cost-effective sampling and analysis approach was used to conduct on-site analysis of soil and ballast for 137Cs contamination along an active rail spur in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Savings in time and analytical costs were realized for both the characterization and cleanup phases of this project. For characterization, a procedure was developed to conduct gamma-logging of shallow boreholes. Portable gamma radiation survey instruments consisting of a 5- by 5-cm NaI detector coupled to a digital ratemeter/scaler with a single-channel analyzer were calibrated to a 137Cs source, then used for both surface and subsurface gamma radiation surveys. A correlation was made between the direct radiation measurements and 137Cs concentrations in surface and subsurface soil and ballast. Borehole logs of gamma-ray activity as a function of depth were used to estimate vertical profiles of the subsurface distribution of 137Cs. Information from these surveys was used to develop accurate 3-dimensional isopleths of contaminated areas, including estimates of waste volumes. After a remedial alternative was selected, on-site analytical methods were again used to verify that the cleanup level was achieved. Samples from excavated areas were analyzed for 137Cs by comparative gamma-ray counting using a multi-channel pulse height analyzer and a 3-in. diameter by 2-in. thick NaI crystal. The counting system was housed in a mobile field laboratory. To better direct ongoing excavation, a correlation factor between samples analyzed by gamma spectroscopy and measurements made by field instruments was determined. In both the characterization and the cleanup phases, sample results were verified by independent off-site laboratory analyses

  5. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  6. Lead-cooled fast reactor (BREST) with an on-site fuel cycle

    Full text: Out of a great many of new power technologies, fission nuclear power is the only realistic way to stop the growth in extraction and combustion of fossil fuel. However, this is something to be achieved only through the nuclear power to have by the mid-21st century the capacity an order of magnitude as high as the current level. Nuclear power of such a scale will necessitate a new nuclear technology which is required to provide: transition to power with unlimited fuel resources; economically competitive nuclear power through reducing the cost of building and operating NPPs of a high inherent safety level with highly efficient utilization of fuel and generated heat; elimination of severe accidents with radioactive release which require evacuation of population, to be achieved primarily through combining inherent safety, passive protection features and impossible loss of lead coolant; an environmentally safe closed fuel cycle with in-pile combustion of minor actinides and radiation-equivalent disposal of radioactive waste; creation of nuclear proliferation barriers by way of eliminating uranium enrichment and plutonium separation facilities. These problems are solved in the BREST lead-cooled fast reactor. The initial stage plan is to build an NPP with a demonstration reactor and an on-site fuel cycle to verify designs, try out processes involving lead using as the coolant and study the behavior of the reactor and its systems and components in different modes, including resistance to anticipated operational occurrences and accidents simulated on the reactor. This will be followed by a rapid transition to a fast lead-cooled power reactor of 1200 MW(e) featuring two- circuit heat removal from the core to the turbine with supercritical steam parameters. The state of the activities to develop the NPP with lead-cooled fast reactors and an on-site fuel cycle is presented. A core with a moderate power rating has been considered. This will have a uranium

  7. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    lack of sample pre-treatment and the adaptation of a cooled auto-sampler, short time analysis suited for light petroleum pollutant such as gasoline and kerosene. The simple protocol applied to the soil appeared rapidly suitable for keeping the track of depollution process efficiency. During its qualification, the analyser has been involved in rehabilitation process evaluation by analysing various contaminated soils before and after clean-up treatment. From 1999, IFP was frequently asked for on-site diagnosis involving Pollut-Eval methodology. So, IFP installed this lab equipment in a mobile van in order to qualify the methodology through real time and on-site diagnosis. In addition to the qualification program, the aim of the project was also to identify the analytical parameters available in the method and sufficient for field contaminated soil characterisation. During 2 years, all over France, IFP, Gester and Vinci Technologies gathered their effort to ensure 10-site diagnosis. The variety of pollutants encountered has enriched a data base that has been included in a user guide. The gathered experience ended by the design of a compact apparatus dedicated to field analyses. Its small size and weight (less than 20 kg) was designed to perform on-site and autonomous characterisations. (authors)

  8. A P-wave based, on-site method for Earthquake Early Warning

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Can we rapidly predict the potential damage of earthquakes by-passing the estimation of its location and magnitude? One possible approach is to predict the expected peak ground shaking at the site and the earthquake magnitude from the initial P-peak amplitude and characteristic period, respectively. The idea, first developed by Wu and Kanamori (2005), is to combine the two parameters for declaring the alert once the real-time measured quantities have passed pre-defined thresholds. Our proposed on-site early warning method generalized this approach, based on the analysis of strong motion data from modern accelerograph networks in Japan, Taiwan and Italy (Zollo et al., 2010). It is based on the real-time measurement of the period (τc) and peak displacement (Pd) parameters at one or more co-located stations at a given target site to be protected against the earthquake effects. By converting these real-time proxies in predicted values of Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) or instrumental intensity (IMM) and magnitude, an alert level is issued at the recording site based on a decisional table with four entries defined upon threshold values of the parameters Pd and Tc. The latter ones are set according to the error bounds estimated on the derived prediction equations. A near-source network of stations running the onsite method can provide the event location and transmit the information about the alert levels recorded at near-source stations to more distant sites, before the arrival of the most destructive phase. The network-based approach allows for the rapid and robust estimation of the Potential Damage Zone (PDZ), that is the area where most of earthquake damage is expected (Colombelli et al., 2012). A new strategy for a P-wave based, on-site earthquake early warning system has been developed and tested on Japanese strong motion data and under testing on Italian data. The key elements are the real-time, continuous measurement of three peak amplitude parameters and their

  9. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine oral fluid on-site screening and confirmation.

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-03-01

    Accurate on-site devices to screen for drug intake are critical for establishing whether an individual is driving under the influence of drugs (DUID); however, on-site oral fluid (OF) cocaine device performance is variable. We evaluated the performance of a newly developed benzoylecgonine (BE) test-strip for the Draeger® DrugTest 5000 device (20 µg/L cut-off) with equivalent cross reactivity for cocaine and BE. Ten cocaine users provided OF, collected with the Draeger cassette and Oral-Eze® and StatSure Saliva Sampler(TM) devices, up to 69 h following 25 mg intravenous cocaine administration. All screening results were confirmed by a validated two-dimensional-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D-GC-MS) method for cocaine and/or BE. Cocaine test-strip median Tlast for screening only results was 6.5 h, and 6.5 h with Oral-Eze® and 4 h for StatSure OF confirmation for cocaine and/or BE at 1, 8, and 10 µg/L; sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency ranged from 85.5 to 100% and 83.3 to 100% for cocaine only confirmation at 8 and 10 µg/L. For the BE test-strip, median Tlast was 12.5 h for screening only and confirmation for cocaine and/or BE at all three cut-offs; sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency ranged from 85.5 to 97.5% and 78.4 to 97.4% with cocaine and/or BE confirmation at 8 and 10 µg/L cut-offs, respectively. The Draeger cocaine test-strip with cocaine only confirmation offers a useful option for monitoring the acute intoxication phase of DUID; additionally the BE test-strip with cocaine and/or BE confirmation increases the length of detection of cocaine intake for workplace drug testing, drug court, parole, pain management, drug treatment programs and both the acute cocaine intoxication and cocaine crash/fatigue phase of DUID. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26968560

  10. On-site monitoring of fish spoilage using vanadium pentoxide xerogel modified interdigitated gold electrodes

    Helali, S.; Abdelghani, A. [Unite de Recherche de Physique des Semiconducteurs et Capteurs, IPEST (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, N. [Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques, Universite de Claude Bernard, Lyon (France); Trikalitis, P.N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71 003, Heraklion Crete (Greece); Efstathiou, C.E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, 157 71, Athens (Greece); Prodromidis, M.I., E-mail: mprodrom@cc.uoi.g [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45 110, Ioannina (Greece)

    2010-05-30

    The development of a vanadium pentoxide xerogel (VXG)-based sensor for the detection of volatile inorganic (ammonia) and organic (dimethylamine, etc.) amines is described. The xerogel film was deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes by dip-coating using an aqueous solution of VXG. The morphology of the sensing layer, its interaction with ammonia, which was used as a model analyte throughout this work, as well as the regeneration of the surface of the sensor electrodes with vapors of HCl were examined with scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. Signal changes, due to changes of the RC-product of the electrochemical cell (Au-VXG-Au), as a result of its interactions with ammonia vapors, were probed with a portable, homemade charge meter, the Multipulser. Exposing the sensor electrodes to various concentrations of ammonia vapors resulted in proportional changes in the signal output. Finally, the proposed sensors were successfully used for on-site, real-time monitoring of fish spoilage in ambient conditions.

  11. [Research progress on site-oriented and three-dimensional immobilization of proteins].

    Wang, C; Feng, B

    2015-01-01

    In today's post-genome era, the goals of research are geared toward understanding the meaning of information in sequenced DNA, namely, understanding the functional characteristics of proteins encoded by genomes of living beings. Protein array technologies, particularly miniaturized high-throughput platforms such as micro- or nano-fluidic chips that allow the parallel detection of thousands of proteins simultaneously, are playing increasing important roles as discovery tools in proteomics. These technologies are based on principles of molecular recognition and consist of a support surface, such as a glass slide, bead, or microtiter plate, to which an array of captured proteins is bound. However, immobilized proteins often lose their immunoactivity and suffer from low surface density, which results in inefficient signal response. In this review, we mainly provide an introduction about the research progress on site-oriented adsorption of protein at solid-liquid interfaces, especially the three-dimensional immobilization of protein, whose objective is to retain immobilized proteins in an active state at great density. PMID:25916107

  12. Application of On-Site Wastewater Treatment in Ireland and Perspectives on Its Sustainability

    Donata Dubber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater of one third of Ireland’s population is treated on-site using domestic treatment systems (DWWTSs that usually consist of a septic tank and soil attenuation system. Within the past four years, the legislative framework for these systems has undergone a major change with a registration and inspection regime being introduced to identify legacy sites that will require remediation work, particularly in areas of the country underlain by subsoils of very low permeability. Against this background this study aims to assess the overall sustainability of existing DWWTSs as well as alternative treatment and disposal options. The results show that main CO2eq emissions are from the methane production in septic tanks. The reduced methane production in mechanically aerated secondary treatment systems was found to counterbalance the related emissions due to the additional energy requirements. In contrast, septic tank systems have the lowest construction and operational costs representing the most economically sustainable solution. Pressurised disposal systems are slightly more expensive but have the potential to reduce environmental impact on surface water and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Clustered decentralised treatment solutions could be environmentally and economically sustainable but ownership, management and related financial and legal issues will need to be addressed and developed.

  13. Training of medical teams on-site for individual and coordinated response in emergency management

    Andersen, Verner

    2003-01-01

    A system for training of coordination and cooperation of decision makers in emergency management has been under construction for some time. A first prototype of the system was developed in the MUSTER system. The system is being developed modularly with one module for each of the suborganisations ...... system for specific training set-ups for specific groups of trainees. The first module completed as a commercial system, "Training of medical teams on site", will be presented.......A system for training of coordination and cooperation of decision makers in emergency management has been under construction for some time. A first prototype of the system was developed in the MUSTER system. The system is being developed modularly with one module for each of the suborganisations...... involved in the complete preparedness: fire brigade, police, medical team, civil defence, etc. All these modules will in the end be integrated on a common integration platform, either to a fully-fledged system covering all aspects of training for the complete preparedness, or for creating a dedicated...

  14. An Explosion Aftershock Model with Application to On-Site Inspection

    Ford, Sean R.; Labak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    An estimate of aftershock activity due to a theoretical underground nuclear explosion is produced using an aftershock rate model. The model is developed with data from the Nevada National Security Site, formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, and the Semipalatinsk Test Site, which we take to represent soft-rock and hard-rock testing environments, respectively. Estimates of expected magnitude and number of aftershocks are calculated using the models for different testing and inspection scenarios. These estimates can help inform the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) deployment in a potential Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection (OSI), by giving the OSI team a probabilistic assessment of potential aftershocks in the Inspection Area (IA). The aftershock assessment, combined with an estimate of the background seismicity in the IA and an empirically derived map of threshold magnitude for the SAMS network, could aid the OSI team in reporting. We apply the hard-rock model to a M5 event and combine it with the very sensitive detection threshold for OSI sensors to show that tens of events per day are expected up to a month after an explosion measured several kilometers away.

  15. A C. elegans-based foam for rapid on-site detection of residual live virus.

    Negrete, Oscar A.; Branda, Catherine; Hardesty, Jasper O. E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Tucker, Mark David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kaiser, Julia N. (Global Product Management, Hilden, Germany); Kozina, Carol L.; Chirica, Gabriela S.

    2012-02-01

    In the response to and recovery from a critical homeland security event involving deliberate or accidental release of biological agents, initial decontamination efforts are necessarily followed by tests for the presence of residual live virus or bacteria. Such 'clearance sampling' should be rapid and accurate, to inform decision makers as they take appropriate action to ensure the safety of the public and of operational personnel. However, the current protocol for clearance sampling is extremely time-intensive and costly, and requires significant amounts of laboratory space and capacity. Detection of residual live virus is particularly problematic and time-consuming, as it requires evaluation of replication potential within a eukaryotic host such as chicken embryos. The intention of this project was to develop a new method for clearance sampling, by leveraging Sandia's expertise in the biological and material sciences in order to create a C. elegans-based foam that could be applied directly to the entire contaminated area for quick and accurate detection of any and all residual live virus by means of a fluorescent signal. Such a novel technology for rapid, on-site detection of live virus would greatly interest the DHS, DoD, and EPA, and hold broad commercial potential, especially with regard to the transportation industry.

  16. Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Statistical Software as Related to the CTBTO's On-Site Inspection Procedure

    In the event of a potential nuclear weapons test the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is commissioned to conduct an on-site investigation (OSI) of the suspected test site in an effort to find confirmatory evidence of the nuclear test. The OSI activities include collecting air, surface soil, and underground samples to search for indications of a nuclear weapons test - these indicators include radionuclides and radioactive isotopes Ar and Xe. This report investigates the capability of the Visual Sample Plan (VSP) software to contribute to the sampling activities of the CTBTO during an OSI. VSP is a statistical sampling design software, constructed under data quality objectives, which has been adapted for environmental remediation and contamination detection problems for the EPA, US Army, DoD and DHS among others. This report provides discussion of a number of VSP sample designs, which may be pertinent to the work undertaken during an OSI. Examples and descriptions of such designs include hot spot sampling, combined random and judgment sampling, multiple increment sampling, radiological transect surveying, and a brief description of other potentially applicable sampling methods. Further, this work highlights a potential need for the use of statistically based sample designs in OSI activities. The use of such designs may enable canvassing a sample area without full sampling, provide a measure of confidence that radionuclides are not present, and allow investigators to refocus resources in other areas of concern.

  17. Stormwater management criteria for on-site pollution control: a comparative assessment of international practices.

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria. PMID:25855072

  18. On-site laboratory support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory environmental restoration field activities

    A remedial investigation/feasibility study has been undertaken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Bechtel National, Inc. and partners CH2M Hill, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, and PEER Consultants are contracted to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, performing this work for ORNL's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. An on-site Close Support Laboratory (CSL) established at the ER Field Operations Facility has evolved into a laboratory where quality analytical screening results can be provided rapidly (e.g., within 24 hours of sampling). CSL capabilities include three basic areas: radiochemistry, chromatography, and wet chemistry. Radiochemical analyses include gamma spectroscopy, tritium and carbon-14 screens using liquid scintillation analysis, and gross alpha and beta counting. Cerenkov counting and crown-ether-based separation are the two rapid methods used for radiostrontium determination in water samples. By extending count times where appropriate, method detection limits can match those achieved by off-site contract laboratories. Volatile organic compounds are detected by means of gas chromatography using either headspace or purge and trap sample introduction (based on EPA 601/602). Ionic content of water samples is determined using ion chromatography and alkalinity measurement. Ion chromatography is used to quantify both anions (based on EPA 300) and cations. Wet chemistry procedures performed at the CSL include alkalinity, pH (water and soil), soil resistivity, and dissolved/suspended solids. Besides environmental samples, the CSL routinely screens health and safety and waste management samples. The cost savings of the CSL are both direct and indirect

  19. Influence of Palythoa caribaeorum (Anthozoa, Cnidaria) zonation on site-attached reef fishes.

    Mendonça-Neto, José P; Ferreira, Carlos E L; Chaves, Laís C T; Pereira, Renato C

    2008-09-01

    This work aimed to test the influence of Palythoa caribeorum, a widely distributed zoanthid in the Atlantic, on site-attached reef fish in a subtropical rocky shore. Density, richness and vertical distribution of reef fish inside (ID) and outside (OD) previously chosen P. caribaeorum dominance patches were compared through stationary visual censuses along three different periods. Fishes were grouped in different trophic guilds to evidence differences in resources uses in both treatments. A complexity index was estimated by the chain link method and percentage covering of benthic organisms was obtained analyzing random points from replicated photo-quadrats. We observed thirty-eight species of fishes, belonging to twenty-five families. Reef fish communities between studied patches were similar,both in terms of species composition and vertical distribution. Considering only the most site-attached fishes, which were the most frequent and abundant species, data showed that ID sustains higher diversity and abundance than OD. Results showed that benthic composition differ significantly among patches whereas complexity remained without differences. Otherwise, results indicated that these areas might play an important role in space limitation, structuring neighboring benthic community and consequently reef fish assemblages. PMID:18797801

  20. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  1. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  2. Investigation of the optimum on-site storage option of HIC packed with dried spent resin

    In order to treat spent resin, Youngkwang NPP has introduced a Spent Resin Drying(SRDS) of which volume reduction ratio is much higher than that of cementation process. However High Integrity Container(HIC), which is used for the packaging of dried spent resin from SRDS, has larger size and much higher radioactivity than those of the present 55gal drum. Therefore, the modification of drum handling devices and drum storage facilities, and new drum handling procedure may be required. In order to determine the optimum option for the on-site storage of the HIC at Youngkwang NPP site, the yearly generation amount of the spent resin and it's surface dose rate have been investigated. And the current system used for drum handling and storage, and basic requirements for the storage of HIC have been also investigated. The yearly amount of HIC generated from Youngkwang NPP site is expected to be 18. The highest surface dose rate of HIC is anticipated to be about 60R/h. From the Investigated results, three options for the storage of HIC was suggested. Among the three options, the sequential storage option has been selected as the most realistic option for the storage of HIC. Finally radiation safety analysis result for the optimum option showed that outside surface dose rate of the two storage facilities would meet the requirement of 0.5 mR/h

  3. Testing in support of on-site storage of residues in the Pipe Overpack Container

    The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. It is desirable to use this same waste packaging for interim on-site storage in non-hardened buildings. To meet the safety concerns for this storage the Pipe Overpack Container has been subjected to a series of tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition to the tests required to qualify the Pipe Overpack Container as a waste container for shipment in the TRUPACT-II several tests were performed solely for the purpose of qualifying the container for interim storage. This report will describe these tests and the packages response to the tests. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  4. BIPM direct on-site Josephson voltage standard comparisons: 20 years of results

    The discovery of the Josephson effect has for the first time given national metrology institutes (NMIs) the possibility of maintaining voltage references which are stable in time. In addition, the introduction in 1990 of a conventional value for the Josephson constant, KJ-90, has greatly improved world-wide consistency among representations of the volt. For 20 years, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has conducted an ongoing, direct, on-site key comparison of Josephson voltage standards among NMIs under the denominations BIPM.EM-K10.a (1 V) and BIPM.EM-K10.b (10 V) in the framework of the mutual recognition arrangement (CIPM MRA). The results of 41 comparisons illustrate the consistency among primary voltage standards and have demonstrated that a relative total uncertainty of a few parts in 1010 is achievable if a few precautions are taken with regard to the measurement set-up. Of particular importance are the grounding, efficient filters and high insulation resistance of the measurement leads, and clean microwave distribution along the propagation line to the Josephson array. This paper reviews the comparison scheme and technical issues that need to be taken into account to achieve a relative uncertainty at the level of a few parts in 1010 or even a few parts in 1011 in the best cases. (paper)

  5. Oxygen profile and clogging in vertical flow sand filters for on-site wastewater treatment.

    Petitjean, A; Forquet, N; Boutin, C

    2016-04-01

    13 million people (about 20% of the population) use on-site wastewater treatment in France. Buried vertical sand filters are often built, especially when the soil permeability is not sufficient for septic tank effluent infiltration in undisturbed soil. Clogging is one of the main problems deteriorating the operation of vertical flow filters for wastewater treatment. The extent of clogging is not easily assessed, especially in buried vertical flow sand filters. We suggest examining two possible ways of detecting early clogging: (1) NH4-N/NO3-N outlet concentration ratio, and (2) oxygen measurement within the porous media. Two pilot-scale filters were equipped with probes for oxygen concentration measurements and samples were taken at different depths for pollutant characterization. Influent and effluent grab-samples were taken three times a week. The systems were operated using batch-feeding of septic tank effluent. Qualitative description of oxygen transfer processes under unclogged and clogged conditions is presented. NH4-N outlet concentration appears to be useless for early clogging detection. However, NO3-N outlet concentration and oxygen content allows us to diagnose the early clogging of the system. PMID:26775157

  6. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  7. The Cherenkov Telescope Array On-Site integral sensitivity: observing the Crab

    Fioretti, Valentina; Schussler, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future large observatory in the very high energy (VHE) domain. Operating from 20 GeV to 300 TeV, it will be composed of tens of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) displaced in a large area of a few square kilometers in both the southern and northern hemispheres. The CTA/DATA On-Site Analysis (OSA) is the system devoted to the development of dedicated pipelines and algorithms to be used at the CTA site for the reconstruction, data quality monitoring, science monitoring and realtime science alerting during observations. The OSA integral sensitivity is computed here for the most studied source at Gamma-rays, the Crab Nebula, for a set of exposures ranging from 1000 seconds to 50 hours, using the full CTA Southern array. The reason for the Crab Nebula selection as the first example of OSA integral sensitivity is twofold: (i) this source is characterized by a broad spectrum covering the entire CTA energy range; (ii) it represents, at the time of writing, the standar...

  8. Single house on-site grey water treatment using a submerged membrane bioreactor for toilet flushing.

    Fountoulakis, M S; Markakis, N; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater recycling has been and continues to be practiced all over the world for a variety of reasons including: increasing water availability, combating water shortages and drought, and supporting environmental and public health protection. Nowadays, one of the most interesting issues for wastewater recycling is the on-site treatment and reuse of grey water. During this study the efficiency of a compact Submerged Membrane Bioreactor (SMBR) system to treat real grey water in a single house in Crete, Greece, was examined. In the study, grey water was collected from a bathtub, shower and washing machine containing significant amounts of organic matter and pathogens. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the system was approximately 87%. Total suspended solids (TSS) were reduced from 95mgL(-1) in the influent to 8mgL(-1) in the effluent. The efficiency of the system to reduce anionic surfactants was about 80%. Fecal and total coliforms decreased significantly using the SMBR system due to rejection, by the membrane, used in the study. Overall, the SMBR treatment produces average effluent values that would satisfy international guidelines for indoor reuse applications such as toilet flushing. PMID:26901745

  9. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,131I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better

  10. Oscillating multidromion excitations in higher-dimensional nonlinear lattice with intersite and external on-site potentials using symbolic computation

    We show by an extensive method of quasi-discrete multiple-scale approximation that nonlinear multi-dimensional lattice waves subjected to intersite and external on-site potentials are found to be governed by (N + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. In particular, the resonant mode interaction of (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation has been identified and the theory allows the inclusion of transverse effect. We apply the exponential function method to the (2+1)-dimensional NLS equation and obtain the class of soliton solutions with a purely algebraic computational method. Notably, we discuss in detail the effects of the external on-site potentials on the explicit form of the soliton solution generated recursively. Under the action of the external on-site potentials, the model presents a rich variety of oscillating multidromion patterns propagating in the system. (general)

  11. OSIRIS-Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Caffrey, A. J.; Bowyer, T. W.; Egger, A. E.; Hall, J. C.; Kelly, S. M.; Krebs, K. M.; Kreek, S. A.; Jordan, D. V.; Milbrath, B. D.; Padgett, S. W.; Wharton, C. J.; Wimer, N. G.

    2015-06-01

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy-OSIRIS-software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,131I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.

  12. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Caffrey, A.J., E-mail: Gus.Caffrey@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bowyer, T.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Egger, A.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hall, J.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S.M.; Krebs, K.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kreek, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Jordan, D.V.; Milbrath, B.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Padgett, S.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wharton, C.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wimer, N.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,{sup 131}I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.

  13. A small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell for on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    The behavior of a small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell (AFC) built-up for on-site production of HO2- using commercial gas-diffusion electrodes has been studied. It produces a spontaneous current due to the oxidation of H2 to H2O at the H2-diffusion anode and the reduction of O2 to HO2- at the O2-diffusion cathode, while a fresh 1.0-6.0 mol dm-3 KOH electrolyte at 15.0-45.0 deg. C is injected through it. Under circulation of HO2-+KOH solutions in open circuit, the flow AFC behaves as a two-electron reversible system. When it is shorted with an external load (Rext), steady cell voltage-current density curves are found. The use of O2/N2 mixtures to fed the cathode causes a loss of its performance, being required to supply pure O2 to yield a maximum HO2- electrogeneration. The current density and HO2- productivity increase with raising OH- concentration, temperature and pressure of O2 fed. At Rext=0.10 Ω, a current efficiency close to 100% is obtained, and current densities >100 mA cm-2 are achieved for 1.0 mol dm-3 KOH at 45.0 deg. C and for higher KOH concentrations at 25.0 deg. C. The flow AFC can work under optimum conditions up to 6.0 mol dm-3 KOH and 45.0 deg. C for possible industrial applications

  14. Static and dynamic stress analyses of the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurement

    Huang, X.; Oram, C.; Sick, M.

    2014-03-01

    More efforts are put on hydro-power to balance voltage and frequency within seconds for primary control in modern smart grids. This requires hydraulic turbines to run at off-design conditions. especially at low load or speed-no load. Besides. the tendency of increasing power output and decreasing weight of the turbine runners has also led to the high level vibration problem of the runners. especially high head Francis runners. Therefore. it is important to carry out the static and dynamic stress analyses of prototype high head Francis runners. This paper investigates the static and dynamic stresses on the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurements and numerical simulations. The site measurements are performed with pressure transducers and strain gauges. Based on the measured results. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the flow channel from stay vane to draft tube cone are performed. Static pressure distributions and dynamic pressure pulsations caused by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) are obtained under various operating conditions. With the CFD results. static and dynamic stresses on the runner at different operating points are calculated by means of the finite element method (FEM). The agreement between simulation and measurement is analysed with linear regression method. which indicates that the numerical result agrees well with that of measurement. Furthermore. the maximum static and dynamic stresses on the runner blade are obtained at various operating points. The relations of the maximum stresses and the power output are discussed in detail. The influences of the boundary conditions on the structural behaviour of the runner are also discussed.

  15. Residential on site solar heating systems: a project evaluation using the capital asset pricing model

    Schutz, S.R.

    1978-12-01

    An energy source ready for immediate use on a commercial scale is solar energy in the form of On Site Solar Heating (OSSH) systems. These systems collect solar energy with rooftop panels, store excess energy in water storage tanks and can, in certain circumstances, provide 100% of the space heating and hot water required by the occupants of the residential or commercial structure on which the system is located. Such systems would take advantage of a free and inexhaustible energy source--sunlight. The principal drawback of such systems is the high initial capital cost. The solution would normally be a carefully worked out corporate financing plan. However, at the moment it is individual homeowners and not corporations who are attempting to finance these systems. As a result, the terms of finance are excessively stringent and constitute the main obstacle to the large scale market penetration of OSSH. This study analyzes the feasibility of OSSH as a private utility investment. Such systems would be installed and owned by private utilities and would displace other investment projects, principally electric generating plants. The return on OSSH is calculated on the basis of the cost to the consumer of the equivalent amount of electrical energy that is displaced by the OSSH system. The hurdle rate for investment in OSSH is calculated using the Sharpe--Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model. The results of this study indicate that OSSH is a low risk investment having an appropriate hurdle rate of 7.9%. At this rate, OSSH investment appears marginally acceptable in northern California and unambiguously acceptable in southern California. The results also suggest that utility investment in OSSH should lead to a higher degree of financial leverage for utility companies without a concurrent deterioration in the risk class of utility equity.

  16. On-site evaluation of crud build-up and clad oxidation level

    The general trend in the late 1980's is to move toward longer operating cycles and extended burn-up. Among the questions raised by this increased performance PWR's waterside corrosion could be a potentially life-limiting problem. Therefore a large on site surveillance programme has been set up to collect data in various conditions: different plants and cycles, local burn-up up to 60 GWd/MTU, load follow operation, nucleate boiling... For that purpose FRAGEMA has developed a simple device, which can be easily installed in the spent fuel pit, featuring jointly a crud scrapping system and an Eddy-current probe for oxide thickness measurements: this makes possible correlation between clad corrosion and crud thickness. A telescopic pole is hanged along the wall of the pit, an X-Y carriage allows its movement in two perpendicular directions. At the bottom part either a scrapping head or an Eddy-current probe can be mounted. Both selection of the areas to be examined and monitoring during scrapping and measurements are made with the help of a T.V. camera. Design of the tool has been focused on safety aspect to avoid any deterioration of the fuel assembly and to minimize radiation exposure during crud collection and filtration. The positioning and the touching of the eddy-current probe on the rod have been carefully studied to ensure reliable data collection. For calibration, oxidized zircaloy tubes with well known oxide thickness, are used. Detailed description of the complete device and experience obtained through several campaigns are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Static and dynamic stress analyses of the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurement

    More efforts are put on hydro-power to balance voltage and frequency within seconds for primary control in modern smart grids. This requires hydraulic turbines to run at off-design conditions. especially at low load or speed-no load. Besides. the tendency of increasing power output and decreasing weight of the turbine runners has also led to the high level vibration problem of the runners. especially high head Francis runners. Therefore. it is important to carry out the static and dynamic stress analyses of prototype high head Francis runners. This paper investigates the static and dynamic stresses on the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurements and numerical simulations. The site measurements are performed with pressure transducers and strain gauges. Based on the measured results. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the flow channel from stay vane to draft tube cone are performed. Static pressure distributions and dynamic pressure pulsations caused by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) are obtained under various operating conditions. With the CFD results. static and dynamic stresses on the runner at different operating points are calculated by means of the finite element method (FEM). The agreement between simulation and measurement is analysed with linear regression method. which indicates that the numerical result agrees well with that of measurement. Furthermore. the maximum static and dynamic stresses on the runner blade are obtained at various operating points. The relations of the maximum stresses and the power output are discussed in detail. The influences of the boundary conditions on the structural behaviour of the runner are also discussed

  18. Qualification methodologies for mechanical components, I and C, piping using on-site testing

    A qualification procedure shall confirm that the equipment is capable of meeting, throughout its design operational life, the requirements for performing safety functions while subject to the environmental conditions prevailing at the time of need. (The Safety of Nuclear Power Plant: Design IAEA Safety Guide). IEC 780 gives the following definition: Qualification is the generation and maintenance of evidence to ensure that the equipment will operate on demand to meet the system performance requirements. When it should be used on-site testing? Seismic design and qualification for nuclear power plants IAEA Safety Guide is requiring periodic safety review. (Maintenance throughout the design operational life.) Inspection and Testing for Acceptance IAEA Q4 Safety Guide requires that in some circumstances final acceptance of a supplied item is only possible after it has been installed. Testing methodology includes: low impedance tests (mechanical excitation impact, soil blast). Mechanical excitation: small exciters (electro-dynamic shakers or servo-hydraulic actuators) are used. Impulse technique is used for structural frequency response testing. The flowing examples are presented: in-situ dynamic test on reactor tank, in-situ dynamic test on cabinets; in-situ soil explosion test on NPP. Qualification by in-situ testing is more or less always a qualification by combination of tests and analyses. In situ testing can be performed only with low level excitation and then very special attention should be paid to non linear behaviour of structures and components. When dealing with components with bolted connections the behaviour can be very different from low and high level excitation both due to changing of restraint conditions and energy dissipating mechanisms. Piping restraints allowing thermal expansion can have a very different behaviour from low to high level excitation

  19. Balloon Coating with Rapamycin Using an On-site Coating Device

    Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Ruhr, Juergen von der [Institute of Anatomy, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Dobratz, Markus; Kehlbach, Rainer [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Braun, Isabelle [Translumina GmbH (Germany); Greiner, Tim-Oliver [Clinic of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany); Behnisch, Boris [Translumina GmbH (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. The efficacy of drug-eluting balloons has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The drug predominantly used is paclitaxel because of its lipophilic properties and the rapid onset of action. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an alternative balloon coating with rapamycin that can be applied on site.MethodsThe balloon coating (3.0/18 and 3.0/12 mm, Cathy No. 4, Translumina GmbH) with rapamycin was conducted with a coating machine (Translumina GmbH). Concentrations were 2, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2, 3, and 4 %. Measurements regarding the amount of substance released to the vessel wall were carried out on explanted porcine coronaries by means of ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy. Inflation time varied between 30 and 120 s. The biological effect of the coating was evaluated in a porcine peripheral overstretch and stent implantation model. Results. The amount of rapamycin on the balloon surface ranged from 558 {+-} 108 {mu}g for the 2 % solution to 1,441 {+-} 228 {mu}g in the 4 % solution. An amount of 95 {+-} 63-193 {+-} 113 {mu}g was released into the vessel wall. The quantitative measurements of the angiographic examinations 4 weeks after treatment revealed a reduction of diameter stenosis from 20.6 {+-} 17.4 % in the control group to 11.6 {+-} 5.5 % in the drug-eluting balloon group. Conclusion. A balloon coating with rapamycin omitting an excipient is possible with a dose-adjustable coating machine. However, the biological effects are moderate, which make further optimization of the coating process and evaluation of appropriate excipients necessary.

  20. Validation of Self-Reported Power Take-Off Shielding Using On-Site Farm Audits.

    Chapel, D B; Sorensen, J A; Tinc, P J; Fiske, T; Wyckoff, S; Mellors, P W; Jenkins, P

    2015-04-01

    Despite the substantial contribution of power take-off (PTO) entanglements to workplace morbidity and mortality among agricultural workers, the degree of proper PTO shielding on U.S. farms remains poorly characterized. Sampling from the New York data of the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS), at least 200 each of dairy, livestock, crop, fruit, and vegetable farms were surveyed by phone to determine the extent of proper PTO shielding. In the same year, on-site audits were performed at 211 randomly selected New York livestock and dairy farms using a four-point scale to assess PTO shielding. Supplemental data were gathered on farm acreage, number of livestock, principal commodity, and operator experience. The phone survey data for livestock and dairy farms were then compared to the on-farm audit data. In the phone survey, 72.5% of farms reported having shields on all implements. The mean percentage of implements reported to be shielded was 90.2%. By on-farm audit, 10% of farms had all implements properly shielded, and the mean percentage of properly shielded implements was 56.7%, with shielding rates differing widely for different classes of implements. No significant predictors of PTO shielding were identified. The phone survey greatly overestimated proper PTO shielding rates when compared with the on-farm audits. These data suggest a lower level of proper shielding among farmers than is mandated by current industry safety standards. The results also identify a principal weakness of phone surveys in accurately assessing the true magnitude of on-farm risk for PTO entanglement. PMID:26204785

  1. Balloon Coating with Rapamycin Using an On-site Coating Device

    Purpose. The efficacy of drug-eluting balloons has been demonstrated in clinical trials. The drug predominantly used is paclitaxel because of its lipophilic properties and the rapid onset of action. The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an alternative balloon coating with rapamycin that can be applied on site.MethodsThe balloon coating (3.0/18 and 3.0/12 mm, Cathy No. 4, Translumina GmbH) with rapamycin was conducted with a coating machine (Translumina GmbH). Concentrations were 2, 2 × 2, 3, and 4 %. Measurements regarding the amount of substance released to the vessel wall were carried out on explanted porcine coronaries by means of ultraviolet and visible-light spectroscopy. Inflation time varied between 30 and 120 s. The biological effect of the coating was evaluated in a porcine peripheral overstretch and stent implantation model. Results. The amount of rapamycin on the balloon surface ranged from 558 ± 108 μg for the 2 % solution to 1,441 ± 228 μg in the 4 % solution. An amount of 95 ± 63–193 ± 113 μg was released into the vessel wall. The quantitative measurements of the angiographic examinations 4 weeks after treatment revealed a reduction of diameter stenosis from 20.6 ± 17.4 % in the control group to 11.6 ± 5.5 % in the drug-eluting balloon group. Conclusion. A balloon coating with rapamycin omitting an excipient is possible with a dose-adjustable coating machine. However, the biological effects are moderate, which make further optimization of the coating process and evaluation of appropriate excipients necessary.

  2. Experience feedback from on-site inspections of small owners of nuclear materials in France

    Small quantities of nuclear materials are used beside the nuclear industry, in the industrial, medical and research sectors. Those materials are covered by detailed and comprehensive regulations set up by the French government in the Law no 80-572 of 25 July 1980 concerning protection and control of nuclear materials. This paper focuses on on-site inspections, carried out by sworn and accredited inspectors under the authority of the Ministry for Industry, with a view to checking the enforcement of regulations and also to providing comprehensive information to the operator about those regulations. The first part of the paper deals with the legal framework regarding the use of nuclear materials by small owners. Emphasis is put on the declaration which must be prepared and submitted each year. This declaration provides to the competent authority data related to inventory and inventory changes of all nuclear materials held by the operator. It also describes the main features concerning facility layout related to physical protection of nuclear materials. The second part shows how this declaration may provide guidance to the inspectors from French national safeguards to control the proper application of regulatory requirements. A brief description of the different inspection phases is given and illustrated by practical examples. The third part highlights the experience feedback arising from more than 120 inspections made during the last four years. Those inspections have permitted, through a verification of the annual physical inventory declared by the operators, to replace several items in a controlled environment. Moreover a new global approach for the management of nuclear materials is now appearing in the industrial or medical sectors. Finally, demonstration is made that good practices in the field of control and physical protection of nuclear materials held by small owners, not only reduce the occurrence of incidents related to losses or thefts of equipment or

  3. The project on site - setting the scene for successful industrial relations

    The site construction performance at Torness and Heysham 2 has been described in various other papers during the Conference and in common with other large projects undertaken over the last 20 years a final judgement will be made as to whether, in simple terms, they were ''good'' or ''bad'' sites. Although there are many individuals or organisations who may make this judgement, it is unlikely that the basic conclusion will differ. What may differ however is the list of reasons that will be advanced to explain the final result. Looking at the investigations made into past projects, the reasons advanced for their success or otherwise can range from the geographical location of the site to material delivery problems, design changes, safety issues, or even the state of the overall national economic climate during the period under scrutiny. Where industrial relations problems are singled out, they can usually be linked to one or more of the factors mentioned. When looking at the complexity of projects such as Torness and Heysham, it is to be expected that unlooked for difficulties and problems will always arise but it is equally true that there is sufficient experience and expertise available in the industry for many possible problem areas to be anticipated and ''designed'' out before work even commences on site. This paper will be looking at the clients' role in creating a suitable environment for contractors to fully manage all aspects of their site operation and to ensure that acute problems can receive the full attention of all parties and not have to be set against a continuing background of unnecessary irritations. (author)

  4. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  5. Detection of Anomalous Gamma-Ray Spectra for On-Site Inspection

    This work aims to solve some of the technical and logistical challenges inherent in performing On Site Inspection activities under the authority of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Inspectors require equipment that can reliably identify the radionuclide signatures of nuclear test explosions amid a background of environmental contamination. Detection of these radiation anomalies by mobile search teams in the air or on the ground can narrow the search field and target specific areas for more detailed inspection or sampling. The need to protect confidential information of the inspected State Party, especially regarding past nuclear testing activities, suggests that full access to measured gamma-ray spectra should be limited. Spectral blinding techniques - in which only a fraction of the information derived from the spectra is displayed and stored - have the potential to meet the needs of both the OSI team and the State Party. In this paper, we describe one such algorithm that we have developed for identifying anomalous spectra from handheld, mobile, or aerial sensors. The algorithm avoids potential sensitivities by reducing the gamma-ray spectrum into a single number that is displayed and stored. A high value indicates that the spectrum is anomalous. The proposed technique does not rely on identifying specific radionuclides, operates well in the presence of high background variability, and can be configured to ignore specific spectral components. In previous work, the algorithm has proven very effective in classifying gamma-ray spectra as anomalous or not, even with poor statistical information. We performed a limited simulation of an airborne search scenario to demonstrate the potential algorithm for OSI missions. The technique successfully detected an injected source of interest whose count rate was an order of magnitude below background levels. We also configured the algorithm to ignore 137Cs as irrelevant to the mission. The resulting alarm metrics were

  6. Authentication and sample chemistry: A new approach at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant on-site laboratory

    Full text: The On-Site Laboratory (OSL) has the commitment to provide IAEA safeguards with reliable, accurate and timely results of the inspection samples taken at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). The Laboratory is an important part of the effort to safeguard adequately this large reprocessing plant and is located on the premises of the RRP which facilitates solving the timeliness dilemma. The OSL is operated jointly by the analysts of IAEA and NMCC (Nuclear Material Control Center)/JSGO (Japan Safeguards Office). This joint task requires solving new challenges in destructive analysis (DA), sharing instruments, space and procedures in order to reach the best analytical results possible. While great efforts are made by the inspector analysts (IA) to achieve excellence in the sample chemistry no minor effort is made by the IAEA to ensure that the results are adequately authenticated. Due to the fact that the instruments are jointly used, new approaches for the implementation of measures for authentication and continuity of knowledge (CoK) have been designed and put into practice. The authentication measures include securing the instruments and the data produced. Additionally, maintaining CoK of the samples that undergo different chemical analysis, securing the procedures and considering measures of deterrence have been given special attention. All which build a relative solid frame for independent DA. It must be understood from the beginning that a 100% assurance for a tamper free operation is a great challenge, and that the best achievable authentication under the given situation is the target for the IAEA. The implementation of authentication in the routine sample chemistry requires additional efforts on part of the IA and has an impact on the time needed to do the work if compared to the activities of a normal nuclear Laboratory. This paper describes the authentication policy in the OSL, the specific measures that are implemented and the range of confidence

  7. Authentication and sample chemistry: A new approach at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant on-site laboratory

    The On-Site Laboratory (OSL) is committed to providing the IAEA with reliable, accurate and timely results of the inspection samples taken at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). The OSL is an important part of the efforts to safeguard adequately this large reprocessing plant. It is located on the premises of the RRP, which helps to resolve the timeliness dilemma. The OSL is operated jointly by the IAEA, the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO). This joint task requires addressing new challenges in destructive analysis (DA) and the sharing of instruments, space and procedures in order to reach the best analytical results possible. The inspector-analysts make great efforts to achieve excellence in the sample chemistry and to ensure that the procedures and results are adequately authenticated. Because the instruments are jointly used, new approaches for the implementation of measures for authentication and continuity of knowledge have been designed and put into practice. The authentication measures include securing the instruments and the data produced. Additionally, special attention is given to maintaining continuity of knowledge of the samples that undergo chemical analyses, securing the procedures and considering measures of deterrence. All these measures build a relatively solid framework for independent DA. It must be understood that a 100% assurance for a tamper-free operation is a great challenge, and the IAEA aims to achieve the best authentication under the given situation. The implementation of authentication in the routine sample chemistry requires additional efforts on the part of the IAEA and has an impact on the time needed to perform the work, compared to the activities of a normal nuclear laboratory. This paper describes the authentication policy in the OSL, the specific measures implemented and the range of confidence expected in different procedures. (author)

  8. Hand-Held Devices for the Detection of Clandestine Nuclear Material on Site

    means for detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities on-site. It is not sufficient to have measuring devices at hand with the best and most advanced technology but it is at least of the same importance to apply them correctly and in best manner. (author)

  9. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  10. Dynamic telecytopathology of on site rapid cytology diagnoses for pancreatic carcinoma

    Chhieng David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of pancreatic lesions can be accurately performed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA with onsite cytopathologists to assess specimen adequacy and to determine a preliminary diagnosis. Considerable time is needed to perform on-site assessments. This takes away work time of cytopathologists and prohibits them from serving remote locations. It is therefore logical to ask if real-time telecytopathology could be used to assess specimen adequacy and if telecytopathology diagnosis has the same level of agreement to the final diagnosis as that of onsite evaluation. In this study, we compare agreement between cytodiagnoses rendered using telecytopathology with onsite and final interpretations. Method 40 Diff-Quik-stained EUS-FNA were re-evaluated retrospectively (patient ages 31–62, 19:21 male:female, 15 non-malignant lesions, 25 malignant lesions as classified by final diagnosis. Each previously assessed by a cytopathologist and finally reviewed by the same or different cytopathologist. Blinded to the final diagnosis, a resident pathologist re-screened all slides for each case, selected a slide and marked the diagnostic cells most representative of the lesion. Blinded to the diagnosis, one cytopathologist assessed the marked cells through a real time remotely operated telecytopathology system (MedMicroscopy. Diagnosis and time spent were recorded. Kappa statistic was used to compare agreements between telecytopathology vs. original onsite vs. final diagnoses. Results Time spent for prescreening ranged from 1 to 5 minutes (mean 2.6 +/- 1.3 minutes and time spent for telecytopathology diagnosis ranged from 2–20 minutes (mean 7.5 +/- 4.5 minutes. Kappa statistics, K, was as follows: telecytopathology versus onsite diagnosis K, 95% CI = 0.65, 0.41–0.88, for telecytopathology versus final K, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.37–0.85 and for onsite diagnosis versus final K, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.61–0.98. There is

  11. Thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy: Do we really need an on-site cytopathologist?

    Purpose: The aim of this single center study is to evaluate the effectiveness of performing ultrasound-guided thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) performed by the radiologist alone without an on-site cytopathologist. Materials and methods: In this prospective randomized study, 203 patients with single nodules measuring 10 mm or more underwent ultrasound-guided FNAB: 102 patients underwent FNAB performed by the radiologist accompanied by a cytopathologist (control group); 101 patients underwent FNAB by the radiologist alone (study group). In both groups biopsy time, specimen adequacy ratio, total aspiration number, cytopathologist's cytological diagnosis time (t1), cytopathologist's total time consumption (t2) were evaluated. Results: Mean total biopsy time was 8.74 ± 2.31 min in the study group and was significantly shorter than the control group's 11.97 ± 6.75 min (p = 0.004). The average number of aspirations per patient in the study group was 4.00 ± 0; compared to the control group's 3.56 ± 1.23 this was significantly higher (p = 0.001). t1 of the study group was 307.48 ± 226.32 s; compared to 350.14 ± 247.64 s in the control group, there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.137). t2 of the study group was 672.93 ± 270.45 s; compared to the control group (707.03 ± 258.78 s) there was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.360). Diagnostic adequacy of aspirated specimens was reassessed in the pathology laboratory. In the study group, 84 out of 101 aspirations and in the control group 89 out of 102 aspirations was determined as adequate with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.302). Conclusions: We believe that in centers where a cytopathologist is not available, ultrasound-guided thyroid FNAB can be adequately performed by an experienced radiologist who was effectively trained in smear preparation

  12. Evaluation of snow-glide risk by modelling and on-site assessment

    Leitinger, Georg; Meusburger, Katrin; Rüdisser, Johannes; Tasser, Erich; Höller, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Abandonment of agricultural practices on alpine grasslands lead to increasing snow-glide intensities due to lower surface roughness of the vegetation. Beneath the danger of snow-glide avalanches snow gliding leads to soil erosion and damaging of young trees at afforested sites. Especially in high altitudes afforestation is important to protect settlements and infrastructure against snow-gliding and glide avalanches. Snow-glide damages are therefore of particular danger for these afforestation sites. In the light of future climate change and warmer winter periods, studies already state increasing snow-glide risk and the occurrence of glide avalanches. This study presents an approach to evaluate snow-glide risk by combining the refined Spatial Snow Glide Model (SSGM) first published by Leitinger et al. (2008) and the Guidelines to Identify Snow-Glide Areas (GISGA) proposed by Höller (2012), an on-site risk analyses approach. First, GISGA was validated on the basis of corresponding snow-glide measurements. Second, a potential snow-glide map for an area in the Eastern Alps covering 20000 km² was modelled. The results revealed considerable areas of high snow-glide risk. Using the average amount of winter precipitation between 1990 and 2010 in the SSGM shows higher vulnerability for the northern part of the study area (Tyrol, Austria) than in the southern part (South Tyrol, Italy) because of lower winter precipitation. However, running the SSGM based on the highest winter precipitation registered in the study area between 1801 and 2003 exhibits the possibility of very high snow-glide risk for most parts of the study area with significant increasing risk in the southern part. Given the very probable future climate during winter periods with increasing temperatures but uncertain development of precipitation patterns, snow-glide activity and linked glide avalanches might further increase at least in areas and altitudes with solid precipitation. In combination with the

  13. NG09 And CTBT On-Site Inspection Noble Gas Sampling and Analysis Requirements

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Tanaka, Junichi

    2010-05-01

    A provision of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) allows on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspect nuclear sites to determine if the occurrence of a detected event is nuclear in origin. For an underground nuclear explosion (UNE), the potential success of an OSI depends significantly on the containment scenario of the alleged event as well as the application of air and soil-gas radionuclide sampling techniques in a manner that takes into account both the suspect site geology and the gas transport physics. UNE scenarios may be broadly divided into categories involving the level of containment. The simplest to detect is a UNE that vents a significant portion of its radionuclide inventory and is readily detectable at distance by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The most well contained subsurface events will only be detectable during an OSI. In such cases, 37 Ar and radioactive xenon cavity gases may reach the surface through either "micro-seepage" or the barometric pumping process and only the careful siting of sampling locations, timing of sampling and application of the most site-appropriate atmospheric and soil-gas capturing methods will result in a confirmatory signal. The OSI noble gas field tests NG09 was recently held in Stupava, Slovakia to consider, in addition to other field sampling and analysis techniques, drilling and subsurface noble gas extraction methods that might be applied during an OSI. One of the experiments focused on challenges to soil-gas sampling near the soil-atmosphere interface. During withdrawal of soil gas from shallow, subsurface sample points, atmospheric dilution of the sample and the potential for introduction of unwanted atmospheric gases were considered. Tests were designed to evaluate surface infiltration and the ability of inflatable well-packers to seal out atmospheric gases during sample acquisition. We discuss these tests along with some model-based predictions regarding infiltration under different near

  14. 77 FR 3500 - Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    2012-01-24

    ... November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68220). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Reading Powder Coatings, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment Services and Gage Personnel Reading, PA; Amended Certification...

  15. 77 FR 21587 - Bayer Cropscience, LP, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Jacobs PSG, Middough Associates, Inc...

    2012-04-10

    ... published in the Federal Register on February 21, 2012 (77 FR 9971). At the request of the International... PSG, Middough Associates, Inc., Adecco, CDI Engineering Solutions, Becht Engineering, Engineering... Cropscience, LP, including on-site leased workers from Jacobs PSG, Middough Associates, Inc., Adecco,...

  16. 77 FR 6587 - PHB Die Casting a Subsidiary of PHB, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Concepts...

    2012-02-08

    ..., Pennsylvania. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 14, 2009 (74 FR 2136). At the request... Employment and Training Administration PHB Die Casting a Subsidiary of PHB, Inc., Including On-Site Leased... Alternative Trade Adjustment Assistance on December 19, 2008, applicable to workers of PHB Die Casting,...

  17. 75 FR 66798 - Ormet Primary Aluminum Corporation Including On-Site Temporary Workers, Hannibal, OH; Notice of...

    2010-10-29

    ... negative determination was published in the Federal Register on March 12, 2010 (75 FR 11925). To support... Employment and Training Administration Ormet Primary Aluminum Corporation Including On-Site Temporary Workers... regarding eligibility for workers and former workers of Ormet Primary Aluminum Corporation, including...

  18. 77 FR 43368 - Joerns Healthcare, LLC, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2012-07-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Joerns Healthcare, LLC, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Division, Including... Federal Register on June 6, 2012 (77 FR 33493). At the request of a state workforce official, the... Healthcare, LLC, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Division, Stevens Point, Wisconsin, including on-site...

  19. TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION. ON-SITE TESTING WITH MOBILE PILOT PLANT TRAILER

    Seeded water treatment using a SALA high gradient magnetic separator pilot plant system was conducted on combined sewer overflows and raw sewage at SALA Magnetics in Cambridge, MA and at on-site locations in the Boston area. Special emphasis was placed on specific design and oper...

  20. 76 FR 13227 - Continental Structural Plastics, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Doepker...

    2011-03-10

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4463). The notice was amended on December 17..., 2011 (76 FR 175) At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Continental Structural Plastics, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  1. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    2010-04-01

    ... 25, 2010 (75 FR 3934). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the certification... Employment and Training Administration Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics... Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield Plastics, including on-site leased workers...

  2. 76 FR 175 - Continental Structural Plastics Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Time...

    2011-01-03

    ... of Continental Structural Plastics, North Baltimore, Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4463). At the request of the UAW, Local 1889, the Department reviewed... Employment and Training Administration Continental Structural Plastics Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  3. An Empirical Study of the Effectiveness of Publicly-Funded "Structured On-Site Training": Implications for Policy and Practice

    Gorman, Phil; Moore, Richard; Blake, Daniel; Phillips, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports findings from an assessment of the effectiveness of privately administered "structured on-site training" (SOST) programs funded by the California Employment Training Panel. It reports on the characteristics of SOST programs that increased trainees' competitiveness in the internal and external labor markets. In addition, it…

  4. 75 FR 45158 - Holcim (US) Inc. Corporate Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower, Office Team...

    2010-08-02

    ...., Corporate Division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower and Office Team, Dundee, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32223). At the request of the State... From Manpower, Office Team and Advance Temporary Services; Dundee, MI; Amended Certification...

  5. 75 FR 26793 - Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Adecco, St. Elizabeth Business...

    2010-05-12

    ... in the Federal Register April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21354). At the request of the State Agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Beam Global Spirits & Wine, Including On-Site Leased Workers from... Eligibility to apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on March 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Beam...

  6. 78 FR 31593 - Aleris Recycling Bens Run, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Winans Extras Support...

    2013-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Aleris Recycling Bens Run, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Recycling Bens Run, LLC, Friendly, West Virginia. The determination was issued on March 13, 2013....

  7. 76 FR 73684 - Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks and Beyond Employment...

    2011-11-29

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on November 3, 2011 (76 FR 68220). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration Tiger Drylac USA, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Berks... Adjustment Assistance on October 19, 2011, applicable to workers of Tiger Drylac USA, Inc.,...

  8. 77 FR 67399 - State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliations Team, Including..., applicable to workers and former workers of State Street Corporation, Putnam Cash Reconciliation Team, Quincy..., doing business as (D/B/A) ZeroChaos, were employed on-site at State Street Corporation, Putnam...

  9. 75 FR 20390 - Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., Including the On-Site Leased Workers of Manpower...

    2010-04-19

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3930). At the request of the State Agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., Including the On- Site... December 10, 2009, applicable to workers of Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., including the...

  10. 76 FR 16448 - Hach Company a Subsidiary of Danaher Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment...

    2011-03-23

    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10320). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of the subject firm. The company... Employment and Training Administration Hach Company a Subsidiary of Danaher Including On-Site Leased...

  11. 77 FR 29362 - Kohler Company, Malvern Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Staffing and Dow...

    2012-05-17

    ... Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on March 26, 2012 (77 FR 17527). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of the... Employment and Training Administration Kohler Company, Malvern Division, Including On-Site Leased...

  12. 77 FR 19718 - Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content Services Including On-Site Workers From Aerotek, Inc...

    2012-04-02

    ... Federal Register on February 8, 2012 (77 FR 6590). At the request of the New Jersey State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content Services Including On-Site Workers From Aerotek, Inc., Princeton, NJ; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

  13. 75 FR 30064 - Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ameristaff Employment and...

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ameristaff Employment and Staffing Solutions, Stanleytown, VA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker...

  14. 75 FR 26794 - International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2010-05-12

    ... February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7034). At the request of the Company, the Department reviewed the certification... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From Railserve, Franklin, VA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

  15. 78 FR 40507 - Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio; Notice of...

    2013-07-05

    ... reviewed the certification applicable to workers of Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Dayton, Ohio (TA-W-74, 813A... Employment and Training Administration Eastman Kodak Company, IPS, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Dayton, Ohio; Notice of Termination of Certification This Notice terminates the...

  16. 75 FR 77665 - Frank Russell Company, Administrative Service Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt...

    2010-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Frank Russell Company, Administrative Service Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Services, Tacoma, WA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In...

  17. 76 FR 66328 - Callaway Golf Ball Operations, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reliable Temp Services...

    2011-10-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Callaway Golf Ball Operations, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reliable Temp Services, Inc., Johnson & Hill Staffing and Apollo Security, Chicopee, MA; Amended... from Reliable Temp Services, Inc., and Johnson and Hill Staffing, Chicopee, Massachusetts. The...

  18. 78 FR 66779 - CTS Automotive LLC, a Subsidiary of CTS Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Metro...

    2013-11-06

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 3, 2013(78 FR 61391). At the request of Illinois State, the... Employment and Training Administration CTS Automotive LLC, a Subsidiary of CTS Corporation Including On- Site... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on September 5, 2013, applicable to workers of CTS Automotive LLC,...

  19. 75 FR 69470 - JL French Automotive Castings, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Labor Ready and Seek...

    2010-11-12

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3935). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration JL French Automotive Castings, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Worker Adjustment Assistance on November 4, 2009, applicable to workers of JL French Automotive...

  20. 77 FR 9969 - Clow Water Systems Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol Harris Stafffing Including...

    2012-02-21

    ... on December 29, 2011(76 FR 81988). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Clow Water Systems Company Including On-Site Leased Workers From Carol... leased workers from Carol Harris Staffing, Coshocton, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities...

  1. 78 FR 1252 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site...

    2013-01-08

    ... December 13, 2011 (76 FR 77556). At the request of the State of Minnesota, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation (CWNC), Satellite Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Select Staffing, Oxnard, CA; CalAmp Wireless...

  2. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    2011-05-11

    ... Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38128-38129). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  3. 76 FR 35025 - Nokia, Inc.; a Subsidiary of Nokia Group; Including On-Site Leased Workers From ATC Logistics and...

    2011-06-15

    ... phone equipment. The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2011 (76 FR 13229). At... Workers From ATC Logistics and Electronics and Adecco Fort Worth, TX; Amended Certification Regarding...., a subsidiary of Nokia Group, including on-site leased workers from ATC Logistics and...

  4. 77 FR 44685 - ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young...

    2012-07-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Shrack, Young, and Associates, Inc., and Project Control Associates, Trainer, PA; Notice of... of ConocoPhillips Company, Trainer Refinery, Trainer, Pennsylvania (subject firm). The subject...

  5. RECONCILING ON-SITE STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (BMP) EFFECTIVENESS AND PERFORMANCE WITH CURRENT HYDROLOGIC AND ECONOMIC PERCEPTIONS

    There is currently a dearth of data characterizing best management practice impacts on runoff production at the parcel-level. This data is of critical importance insofar as judging the effectiveness and reliability of on-site stormwater BMPs, with significant implications for bot...

  6. 77 FR 75448 - Welded Tube-Berkeley Including On-Site Leased Workers From Snelling, Aerotek and Express...

    2012-12-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Welded Tube--Berkeley Including On-Site Leased Workers From Snelling... Worker Adjustment Assistance on October 10, 2012, applicable to workers of Welded Tube--Berkeley... Register on October 29, 2012 (77 FR 65583). At the request of South Carolina State, the Department...

  7. 75 FR 22629 - Kenco Logistic Services, LLC, Electrolux Webster City, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    2010-04-29

    ... February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7037). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Kenco Logistic Services, LLC, Electrolux Webster City, Including On... of Kenco Logistic Services, LLC, Electrolux Webster City, including on-site leased workers...

  8. Applying the 5 WHYs to Identify Root Causes to Non-completions in On-Site Construction

    Lindhard, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    In on-site production, mass-customized subproducts are assembled through standardized processes. The production is pushing mass customization to the edge by producing unique and complex products. Due to the project structure, it has proven difficult to avoid repetitions of problems and to learn f...

  9. 75 FR 45166 - Jeld-Wen, Inc., Hawkins Window Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Nicolet Staffing...

    2010-08-02

    ... was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65790). The initial investigation... Employment and Training Administration Jeld-Wen, Inc., Hawkins Window Division, Including On-Site Leased...- clad windows and patio doors did not contribute to worker group separations and that the subject...

  10. 75 FR 43562 - FANUC Robotics America, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Right Angle Staffing, Inc...

    2010-07-26

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38125). The initial... Employment and Training Administration FANUC Robotics America, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... period, Fanuc Robotics America neither imported articles like or directly competitive with the...

  11. 75 FR 38125 - Fanuc Robotics America, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Right Angle Staffing, Inc...

    2010-07-01

    ... on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7034). The initial investigation resulted in a negative determination based on the finding that, during the relevant period, Fanuc Robotics America neither imported articles... Employment and Training Administration Fanuc Robotics America, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  12. 75 FR 54388 - Rain Bird Corporation, Arizona Molding Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Lumea...

    2010-09-07

    ... was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38137). At the request of the state, the... Employment and Training Administration Rain Bird Corporation, Arizona Molding Division Including On-Site..., 2009, applicable to workers of Rain Bird Corporation, Arizona Molding Division, including...

  13. 77 FR 3499 - Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Selectremedy Park Ridge, NJ...

    2012-01-24

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 38143-38144). The notice as amended on August 13, 2011 to include other locations. The amended notice was published in the Federal Register on November 12, 2010 (75 FR 69471-69472) At the... Employment and Training Administration Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers...

  14. The on-site laboratory for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan

    Full text: The Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) in Japan was the first reprocessing to come under international safeguards and state system of accounting for and control of nuclear material (SSAC) in Japan. TRP has an operating throughput of around 90 tones heavy metal (HM) per year with a product of plutonium nitrate. During the more than 25 years of applying safeguards at TRP, the IAEA and the Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO) have significantly strengthened the safeguards approach and in doing so learned how to overcome some of the inherently technical factors limited at a complex, flow facility. The IAEA and the JSGO need to design a new credible safeguards approach for a large commercial scale reprocessing facility with decision in the 1980s to construct the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) in northern mainland of Japan, with a throughput of 800t HM/year. The RRP is managed and operated by Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). There was a concern within the international community whether the IAEA could overcome these challenges. As a result of the concern, a multinational forum referred to as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) was established to address how an effective safeguards approach could be implemented at such a facility and yet maintain an efficient use of resources. This forum, which was founded in large part by the Government of Japan during the period of 1988 through 1992, was made up by more than 50 experts in safeguards and reprocessing technologies. One of the primary findings and recommendation was in the areas of on-site laboratory (OSL) capabilities. The recommendation for the OSL was to take independent samples and obtain timely results. One of the difficulties encountered in bulk facilities, particularly with flow processes, is the taking of representative and valid samples. Since inspectors are normally not allowed to directly take the samples from bulk materials, they must depend on the operator to provide them. In some cases

  15. Influence of Palythoa caribaeorum (Anthozoa, Cnidaria zonation on site-attached reef fishes

    José P. Mendonça-Neto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to test the influence of Palythoa caribeorum, a widely distributed zoanthid in the Atlantic, on site-attached reef fish in a subtropical rocky shore. Density, richness and vertical distribution of reef fish inside (ID and outside (OD previously chosen P. caribaeorum dominance patches were compared through stationary visual censuses along three different periods. Fishes were grouped in different trophic guilds to evidence differences in resources uses in both treatments. A complexity index was estimated by the chain link method and percentage covering of benthic organisms was obtained analyzing random points from replicated photo-quadrats. We observed thirty-eight species of fishes, belonging to twenty-five families. Reef fish communities between studied patches were similar,both in terms of species composition and vertical distribution. Considering only the most site-attached fishes, which were the most frequent and abundant species, data showed that ID sustains higher diversity and abundance than OD. Results showed that benthic composition differ significantly among patches whereas complexity remained without differences. Otherwise, results indicated that these areas might play an important role in space limitation, structuring neighboring benthic community and consequently reef fish assemblages.Este estudo visou testar a influência de Palythoa caribeorum, um zoantídeo amplamente distribuído no Atlântico, na estruturação da comunidade de peixes recifais associados a um costão rochoso de uma região subtropical. A densidade, a riqueza e a distribuição vertical de peixes recifais em áreas previamente selecionadas com e sem a dominância de Palythoa caribaeorum foram comparadas através de censos visuais estacionários em três períodos distintos de tempo. Os peixes foram agrupados em guildas tróficas a fim de evidenciar diferenças nos usos dos recursos nas diferentes áreas analisadas. Foram analisados também

  16. Comparing on site human and video counts at Igarapava fish ladder, south eastern Brazil

    Mark D. Bowen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available On site human observations and video images were collected and compared at the window of the Igarapava Dam fish ladder (IDFL, rio Grande , Southeastern Brazil, between March 1st and June 30th, 2004. We conducted four experiments with two humans (Observer 1 and Observer 2 observing fish passage in the IDFL window while a Sony 3CCD video camera (Observer 3 recorded fish passage at the same time. Experiments, each one hour in length, were distributed throughout the diel cycle using full spectrum lights. We identified fish species, the number of individuals for each species, and the real time that they passed. Counts from each human observer were compared to the video counts. The fish species most commonly observed in the window were - curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, mandi-amarelo (Pimelodus maculatus, piau-três-pintas (Leporinus friderici and ferreirinha (Leporinus octofasciatus. The number of species and individuals were indistinguishable for the three observers. But, the number of species and individuals were significantly different among experiments. Thus, the three observers register the same number of species and count the same number of individuals even when these two response variables differ significantly among experiments. Based on these results, we concluded that the video count was an accurate method to assess fish passage at the IDFL.Observações in loco e vídeo filmagens foram coletadas na janela da escada de peixes da UHE Igarapava (EPUG, rio Grande, sudeste do Brasil, entre 1º de março e 30 junho de 2004. Realizaram-se quatro experimentos com dois observadores humanos (Observador 1 e Observador 2 que observaram a passagem de peixes na janela da EPUG enquanto uma vídeo câmera Sony 3CCD (Observador 3 registrou simultaneamente a passagem de peixes. Os dois observadores humanos registraram in situ a passagem de peixes no visor da escada enquanto a câmera os filmava ao mesmo tempo. Os experimentos, cada um com uma hora de dura

  17. New concept of small power reactor without on-site refueling for non-proliferation

    Brown, N.W., LLNL

    1998-07-13

    more pre-conceptual designs. The pre-conceptual designs will be used to confirm the adequacy of the requirements through iteration and trade studies. A down selection to a preferred and backup concept would be made following a 12-18 month design effort. The selected designs, system design specifications, and the necessary R&D programs would be developed in greater detail over the next three and one-half years. A reactor in the 50 to 150 MWe class, nominally 100 MWe, shows the best potential for meeting these challenges. The system will have unique characteristics to achieve proliferation resistance, and will maximize the reliance on passive safety features to reduce the risk of serious accidents and their consequences, simplify operations and maintenance, and reduce the need for the developing country to establish a sophisticated and expensive nuclear infrastructure. In particular, to eliminate all on- site refueling, the reactor will be equipped with a long-life core that will be returned to the supplier when spent. This process will be managed under international control to further both overall non- proliferation objectives and to reduce the infrastructure burden on the developing country. It will also reduce the anticipated burden and expense to the International Atomic Energy Agency for assuring security associated with expanded international use of nuclear energy. An integral part of the program will be the development of new approaches for implementing international safeguards applicable to the entire fuel cycle including recycling and waste disposal. The report discusses the preliminary requirements and the rationale for selecting them. It then discusses the four nuclear system technologies and how they might proceed to meet the requirements. Brief discussions are provided on the approaches to stimulating the appropriate international and industrial participation necessary to finance development of a design with improved proliferation resistance that is useful

  18. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  19. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI

  20. Evaluation of Approaches for Managing Nitrate Loading from On-Site Wastewater Systems near La Pine, Oregon

    Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Weick, Rodney J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and Deschutes County, to develop a better understanding of the effects of nitrogen from on-site wastewater disposal systems on the quality of ground water near La Pine in southern Deschutes County and northern Klamath County, Oregon. Simulation models were used to test the conceptual understanding of the system and were coupled with optimization methods to develop the Nitrate Loading Management Model, a decision-support tool that can be used to efficiently evaluate alternative approaches for managing nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems. The conceptual model of the system is based on geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data collected for this study, as well as previous hydrogeologic and water quality studies and field testing of on-site wastewater systems in the area by other agencies. On-site wastewater systems are the only significant source of anthropogenic nitrogen to shallow ground water in the study area. Between 1960 and 2005 estimated nitrate loading from on-site wastewater systems increased from 3,900 to 91,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. When all remaining lots are developed (in 2019 at current building rates), nitrate loading is projected to reach nearly 150,000 pounds of nitrogen per year. Low recharge rates (2-3 inches per year) and ground-water flow velocities generally have limited the extent of nitrate occurrence to discrete plumes within 20-30 feet of the water table; however, hydraulic-gradient and age data indicate that, given sufficient time and additional loading, nitrate will migrate to depths where many domestic wells currently obtain water. In 2000, nitrate concentrations greater than 4 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg N/L) were detected in 10 percent of domestic wells sampled by Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Numerical simulation models were constructed at transect (2

  1. DNA enrichment by functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for on-site and fast detection of virus in biomedical application

    Mai Anh Tuan [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Hoang Hai [Center for Materials Science, Faculty of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: tuanma-itims@mail.hut.edu.vn

    2009-09-01

    Label-free electrochemical DNA sensor is a promising technique for simple, fast, on-site virus detection. However, the low sensitivity is still a challenge for this method. This report shows a way to improve the sensitivity by magnetic enrichment of the DNA concentration before measuring DNA concentration by the DNA sensor. The enrichment was performed by conjugating superparamagnetic nanoparticles with the DNA probe single strand. Then, the system of nanoparticles-DNA probe was matched with the target DNA followed by magnetic decantation and compulsorily unfolding the DNA strands at a high temperature. The obtained solution was determined by the electrochemical DNA sensor. The results showed that the DNA enrichment process by magnetic nanoparticles improved the sensitivity of the electrochemical DNA sensor to about 200 times, which can be used for on site virus detection.

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the construction of an on-site hostel at CERN

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the construction of an on-site hostel at CERN. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium BATIFLEX (GB) - BATINEG (CH), the lowest bidder, for the construction of an on-site hostel at CERN for a total amount of 5 290 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. However, for the reasons explained in this document, the Management wishes to request the Finance Committee to give consideration to the approval of a variant to the original specification to allow use to be made of part of an existing building for the reasons detailed in this document, at an additional cost of 350 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision, bringing the total construction cost to 5 640 000 Swiss francs.

  3. Shielding Analysis for Development of Type A and Type B packages for On-site Transportation in Domestic NPPs

    There are many kinds of radioactive wastes generated from nuclear power plants. On-site, within Site boundaries where public access is restricted and controlled, transportation of radioactive wastes is a part of routine radiation works in each NPPs and various packages are being used for it. This paper describes radiation shielding analysis assessments for a development of package for on-site transportation, especially for Type A and Type B packages. Especially , this analysis is intended for use in the selection of the package shield material and for an estimate of shielding thickness as well. The results are intended to provide a technical basis for determining an optimal design for each types of the packages

  4. Safeguards for spent nuclear fuel in transfer from wet storage to dry storage in on-site interim storage facilities

    Full text: In Germany, the current approach for spent fuel management is on-site interim storage in transport and storage casks as part of a political agreement between the German government and the nuclear operators on the future use of nuclear energy. Recent legislation has triggered the construction of on-site dry storage facilities at nuclear power plants. A reason behind this is to avoid transportation of spent fuel that is determined for direct final disposal via public road or rail systems to away-from-reactor storage facilities, as they had been built at Gorleben and Ahaus. Spent fuel will be loaded into shielding casks, e.g., of the CASTOR-type, and transferred out of the reactor containment into the associated on-site dry storage facility. On-site interim storage of spent nuclear fuel has a strong political relevance for the nuclear debate in Germany. On-site interim storage facilities are being taken into operation on a step-by-step basis. The intention is to develop acceptable safeguards concepts for both transfer and dry storage of spent fuel, ideally, a standard safeguards concept that would match all German nuclear power plant sites without ignoring technical and organisational differences. From the State's point of view the safeguards concepts have to comply with requirements related to operational safety, radiation protection, and physical protection. Furthermore, they have to take into account the political and technical boundary conditions as well as the time schedule for spent fuel transfers that has been coordinated between all the nuclear power plant operators. From a safeguards point of view material balance areas have to be defined and basic technical characteristics (design information) of the on-site interim storage facilities have to be reported to the Euratom Safeguards Office for re-transfer of this information to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Furthermore, plant operators have to announce to Euratom, in advance, dates

  5. Nitrogen removal from on-site treated anaerobic effluents using intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactors at low temperature.

    Luostarinen, Sari; Luste, Sami; Valentín, Lara; Rintala, Jukka

    2006-05-01

    On-site post-treatment of anaerobically pre-treated dairy parlour wastewater (DPWWe; 10 degrees C) and mixture of kitchen waste and black water (BWKWe; 20 degrees C) was studied in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR). The focus was on removal of nitrogen and of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD). Moreover, the effect of intermittent aeration and continuous vs. sequencing batch operation was studied. All MBBRs removed 50-60% of nitrogen and 40-70% of total COD (CODt). Complete nitrification was achieved, but denitrification was restricted by lack of carbon. Nitrogen removal was achieved in a single reactor by applying intermittent aeration. Continuous and sequencing batch operation provided similar nitrogen and COD removal, wherefore simpler continuous feeding may be preferred for on-site applications. Combination of pre-treating upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) -septic tank and MBBR removed over 92% of CODt, 99% of biological oxygen demand (BOD7), and 65-70% of nitrogen. PMID:16647521

  6. XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples : An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hesterberg, Dean; Hillier, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopyis a useful technique for characterization of chemical speciesof phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To developand evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selectionof promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational was...

  7. Effective Hamiltonian for a half-filled asymmetric ionic Hubbard chain with alternating on-site interaction

    Grusha, I.; Menteshashvili, M.; Japaridze, G. I.

    2016-01-01

    We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian for the one-dimensional half-filled asymmetric ionic Hubbard model (IHM) with alternating on-site interaction in the limit of strong repulsion. It is shown that the effective Hamiltonian is that of a spin S = 1/2 anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg chain with alternating next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) and three-spin couplings in the presence of a uniform and a staggered magnetic field.

  8. The Fate of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Conventional and Engineered On-Site Wastewater Drain Fields

    Beardall, James

    2015-01-01

    Utah State University Division of Environmental Engineering student, under the direction of Ms. Judith L. Sims, has investigated the fate of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in conventional and engineered on-site wastewater drain fields. The presence of PPCPs in the environment, especially in aquatic environments, has raised awareness to the effects of PPCPs on aquatic life and the fate of these PPCPs, and has caused regulators to become more involved in setting requirem...

  9. A Laser-Based Method for On-site Analysis of UF6 and Environmental Samples at Enrichment Plants

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) long-term R&D plan calls for more cost-effective and efficient safeguard methods to detect and deter misuse of gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEPs). The IAEA's current safeguards approaches at GCEPs are based on a combination of routine and random inspections that include environmental sampling (ES) and destructive assay (DA) sample collection from UF6 in-process material and selected cylinders. Samples are then shipped off-site for subsequent laboratory analysis. On-site analysis could provide timely screening of ES samples, and help to meet challenges in transportation and chain of custody for UF6 DA samples. PNNL's development of the Laser Ablation, Laser Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) method is aimed at these two applications. For both ES and DA samples, a LAARS analysis instrument could be temporarily or permanently deployed in the IAEA control room of the facility, for example in the IAEA data acquisition cabinet. Sample collection concepts include a PNNL-designed handheld DA sampler with a small sampling planchet to collect microgrammes of adsorbed UF6 gas directly from a process line tap and potentially, from a cylinder headspace. The sample planchet could then be assayed on-site by LAARS; some portion of the sample could be reserved for laboratory analysis (low sample activity should mitigate shipping restrictions). A second sampling concept collects aerosol particles from facility surfaces using a small backpack aerosol collector based on a PNNL rotating drum impactor design, which offers the possibility of sample segregation by sampling location and particle size. Some portions of the collector drums could be characterized on-site by LAARS to provide early sample screening and to guide additional sampling. The remaining drum samples could be transported to off-site laboratories for comprehensive analysis need to confirm or refute initial on-site findings. (author)

  10. Spatial Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Groundwater beneath Two Large On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Charles Humphrey; Michael O'Driscoll; Jonathan Harris

    2014-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWS) are a common means of wastewater treatment in coastal North Carolina, where the soils are sandy and groundwater is relatively close to the surface (<5 m). Wastewater contains elevated concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate groundwater and surface water if OWS are not operating efficiently and distributing wastewater equally to all drainfield trenches. The objectives of this study were to compare the distribution of fecal ...

  11. Home and community composting for on-site treatment of urban organic waste : perspective for Europe and Canada

    Adhikari, B.; Trémier, A.; MARTINEZ, J; Barrington, S.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of urbanization and economic prosperity, which has accelerated the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) along with its organic fraction, the management of MSW is a challenge faced by urban centres worldwide, including the European Union (EU) and Canada. Within a concept of waste recovery, the source separation and on-site treatment of urban organic waste (UOW) can resolve some of the major economic issues faced by urban centres along with the environmental and social issues a...

  12. Management of joint and soft tissue injuries in three general practices: value of on-site physiotherapy.

    Hackett, G I; Bundred, P; HUTTON, J.L.; O'Brien, J.; Stanley, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the potential benefits in patient management and cost effectiveness of physiotherapists employed by general practitioners compared with direct hospital access and access via consultants. The study involved 401 patients from three rural general practices in south Cheshire and north Staffordshire and took place over six months. On-site physiotherapy in general practice premises resulted in higher referral rates to the physiotherapist compared with...

  13. The role of on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions in the correlated two-particles quantum walk

    Peixoto, A. S.; Dias, W. S.

    2016-09-01

    We study the influence of the on-site and nearest-neighbor interactions on the eigenstates and dynamics of two-particles restricted to move in a one-dimensional optical lattice. An effective tight-binding approach with non-local interactions is employed in order to consider the non-perfect screening of the coulomb interaction between two-particles. Numerical and analytical results unveil the emergence of a new sub-band of bound states due to the nearest-neighbor interaction, besides a broadening of the usual sub-band associated with the hubbard-like on-site coupling. Furthermore, we solve the time-dependent schrodinger equation to follow the time evolution of an initially localized two-particles state. While the on-site interaction is responsible for a correlated dynamics in which particles occupy predominantly the same site, nearest-neighbor interactions is shown to be able to induce a quantum walk on which the particles remain predominantly in neighboring sites.

  14. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites, associated with the contemporary and legacy effects of human activities, remain a serious environmental problem in the Antarctic and Arctic. The management of contaminated sites in these regions is often confounded by the logistical, environmental, legislative and financial challenges associated with operating in polar environments. In response to the need for efficient and safe methods for managing contaminated sites, several technologies have been adapted for on-site or in situ application in these regions. This article reviews six technologies which are currently being adapted or developed for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic. Bioremediation, landfarming, biopiles, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation and permeable reactive barriers are reviewed and discussed with respect to their advantages, limitations and potential for the long-term management of soil and groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in the Antarctic and Arctic. Although these technologies demonstrate potential for application in the Antarctic and Arctic, their effectiveness is dependent on site-specific factors including terrain, soil moisture and temperature, freeze–thaw processes and the indigenous microbial population. The importance of detailed site assessment prior to on-site or in situ implementation is emphasized, and it is argued that coupling of technologies represents one strategy for effective, long-term management of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the Antarctic and Arctic.

  15. The use of modern on-site bioremediation systems to reduce crude oil contamination on oilfield properties

    Oil-field properties frequently have areas in which the soil has been degraded with crude oil. Soil contaminated in this manner is often considered either a hazardous waste or designated waste under regulatory guidelines. As a result, there is often concern about an owner's liabilities and the financial institution's liabilities whenever oilfield properties are transferred to new operators, abandoned, or converted to other uses such as real estate. There is also concern about the methods and relative costs to remediate soil which has been contaminated with crude oil. Modern, well-designed, soil bioremediation systems are cost effective for the treatment of crude oil contamination, and these systems can eliminate an owner's subsequent liabilities. Compared to traditional land-farming practices, a modern on-site bioremediation system (1) requires significantly less surface area, (2) results in lower operating costs, and (3) provides more expeditious results. Compared to excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil, on-site bioremediation will eliminate subsequent liabilities and is typically more cost effective. Case studies indicate that o-site bioremediation systems have been successful at reducing the crude oil contamination in soil to levels which are acceptable to regulatory agencies in less than 10 weeks. Total costs for on-site bioremediation has ranged from $35 to $40 per cubic yard of treated soil, including excavation

  16. 5 CFR 792.218 - Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families?

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Does the law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? 792.218 Section 792.218 Administrative... law apply only to on-site Federal child care centers that are utilized by Federal families? The...

  17. 41 CFR 102-36.105 - Who is authorized to screen and where do we go to screen excess personal property on-site?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is authorized to screen and where do we go to screen excess personal property on-site? 102-36.105 Section 102-36.105... where do we go to screen excess personal property on-site? You may authorize your agency...

  18. Increasing session-to-session transfer in a brain-computer interface with on-site background noise acquisition

    Cho, Hohyun; Ahn, Minkyu; Kim, Kiwoong; Jun, Sung Chan

    2015-12-01

    Objective. A brain-computer interface (BCI) usually requires a time-consuming training phase during which data are collected and used to generate a classifier. Because brain signals vary dynamically over time (and even over sessions), this training phase may be necessary each time the BCI system is used, which is impractical. However, the variability in background noise, which is less dependent on a control signal, may dominate the dynamics of brain signals. Therefore, we hypothesized that an understanding of variations in background noise may allow existing data to be reused by incorporating the noise characteristics into the feature extraction framework; in this way, new session data are not required each time and this increases the feasibility of the BCI systems. Approach. In this work, we collected background noise during a single, brief on-site acquisition session (approximately 3 min) immediately before a new session, and we found that variations in background noise were predictable to some extent. Then we implemented this simple session-to-session transfer strategy with a regularized spatiotemporal filter (RSTF), and we tested it with a total of 20 cross-session datasets collected over multiple days from 12 subjects. We also proposed and tested a bias correction (BC) in the RSTF. Main results. We found that our proposed session-to-session strategies yielded a slightly less or comparable performance to the conventional paradigm (each session training phase is needed with an on-site training dataset). Furthermore, using an RSTF only and an RSTF with a BC outperformed existing approaches in session-to-session transfers. Significance. We inferred from our results that, with an on-site background noise suppression feature extractor and pre-existing training data, further training time may be unnecessary.

  19. Development of an on-site measurement method for residual stress in primary system piping of nuclear power plants

    In residual stress measurement for large-scale pipes and vessels in high radiation areas and highly contaminated areas of nuclear plants, it is difficult to bring the radioactivated pipes and vessels out of the areas as they are. If they can brought out, it is very burdensome to handle them for the measurement. Development of an on-site measurement method of residual stress which can be quickly applied and has sufficient measurement accuracy is desirable. In this study, a new method combining an electric discharge skim-cut method with a microscopic strain measurement method using markers was proposed to realize the on-site residual stress measurement on pipes in high radiation areas and highly contaminated areas. In the electric discharge skim-cut method, a boat-type sample is skimmed out of a pipe outer/inner surface using electric discharge machining and released residual stress is measured. The on-site measurement of residual stress by the method can be done using a small, portable electric discharge machine. In the microscopic strain measurement method using markers, the residual stress is estimated by microscopic measurement of the distance between markers after the stress release. The combination of both methods can evaluate the residual stress with the same accuracy as conventional methods offer and it can achieve reduction of radiation exposure in the measurement because the work is done simply and rapidly. In this study, the applicability of the electric discharge skim-cut method was investigated because the applicability of the microscopic strain measurement method using markers was confirmed previously. The experimental examination clarified the applicable conditions for the residual stress measurement with the same accuracy as the conventional methods. Furthermore, the electric discharge machining conditions using pure water as the machining liquid was found to eliminate the amount of liquid radioactive waste completely. (author)

  20. Real-time and on-site γ-ray radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices and its applications

    Mu, Yifei; Zhao, Ce Zhou; Qi, Yanfei; Lam, Sang; Zhao, Chun; Lu, Qifeng; Cai, Yutao; Mitrovic, Ivona Z.; Taylor, Stephen; Chalker, Paul R.

    2016-04-01

    The construction of a turnkey real-time and on-site radiation response testing system for semiconductor devices is reported. Components of an on-site radiation response probe station, which contains a 1.11 GBq Cs137 gamma (γ)-ray source, and equipment of a real-time measurement system are described in detail for the construction of the whole system. The real-time measurement system includes a conventional capacitance-voltage (C-V) and stress module, a pulse C-V and stress module, a conventional current-voltage (I-V) and stress module, a pulse I-V and stress module, a DC on-the-fly (OTF) module and a pulse OTF module. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors or MOSFET devices are measured by each module integrated in the probe station under continuous γ-ray exposure and the measurement results are presented. The dose rates of different gate dielectrics are calculated by a novel calculation model based on the Cs137 γ-ray source placed in the probe station. For the sake of operators' safety, an equivalent dose rate of 70 nSv/h at a given operation distance is indicated by a dose attenuation model in the experimental environment. HfO2 thin films formed by atomic layer deposition are employed to investigate the radiation response of the high-κ material by using the conventional C-V and pulse C-V modules. The irradiation exposure of the sample is carried out with a dose rate of 0.175 rad/s and ±1 V bias in the radiation response testing system. Analysis of flat-band voltage shifts (ΔVFB) of the MOS capacitors suggests that the on-site and real-time/pulse measurements detect more serious degradation of the HfO2 thin films compared with the off-site irradiation and conventional measurement techniques.

  1. 'Nuclear emergency preparedness' for local residents. Support of on-site training of many kinds of places and people

    In order to support and ensure the nuclear emergency preparedness system and safety of residents in cities, towns and villages, NPO Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Support Center was established in May, 2003. 130 on-site training and education classes were held and above 2,000 participants attended to them for two years. Objects of the countermeasure of nuclear emergency preparedness in local area and residents, what is nuclear emergency for inhabitants, what is use of Table of International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)?, a use of INES, relation between INES level and the nuclear emergency preparedness system are discussed. (S.Y.)

  2. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A R; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; Orrell, J. L.; A. Seifert; Woods, V. T.

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensi...

  3. A consideration of radionuclide particulate resuspension as a verification tool in the CTBT On-Site Inspection verification component

    A considerable amount of radioactivity could leak from an underground nuclear test at levels easily detectable by one or more of the radiological methods available for on-site inspection, even if the event does not immediately result in gas or particulate debris reaching stations of the International Monitoring System, of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This work presents a feasibility study showing that winds or human activity can resuspend surface debris in quantities that could be detected using high-volume aerosol samplers outside an established restricted area and subsequent measurement in a Base of Operations laboratory. (author)

  4. Heat and particle transport in a one-dimensional hard-point gas model with on-site potential

    Heat and particle transport in a one-dimensional hard-point gas of elastically colliding particles are studied. In the nonequal mass case, due to the presence of on-site potential, the heat conduction of the model obeys the Fourier law and all the transport coefficients asymptotically approach constants in the thermodynamic limit. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT increases slowly with the system length L and is proportional to the height of the potential barriers H in high H regime. These findings may serve as a guide for future theoretical and experimental studies

  5. Heat and particle transport in a one-dimensional hard-point gas model with on-site potential

    Lei Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat and particle transport in a one-dimensional hard-point gas of elastically colliding particles are studied. In the nonequal mass case, due to the presence of on-site potential, the heat conduction of the model obeys the Fourier law and all the transport coefficients asymptotically approach constants in the thermodynamic limit. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT increases slowly with the system length L and is proportional to the height of the potential barriers H in high H regime. These findings may serve as a guide for future theoretical and experimental studies.

  6. Translating an on-site course to an online course for implementers of an open source software system.

    Aden, Hodo Elmi

    2015-01-01

    The DHIS 2 Academy program provides on-site courses where they train DHIS2 implementers, users and administrators in different locations of the world several times a year. There is a rapid growth for more academies to be held. However there are certain limitations and barriers related to a further outreach of these courses such as logistical work, financial issues and less quality assurance of the training of the users if the size of the group expands. In order to solve these limitations the ...

  7. On-site residence time in a driven diffusive system: violation and recovery of mean-field

    Messelink, Joris J B; Vahabi, Mahsa; MacKintosh, Fred C; Sharma, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    We investigate simple one-dimensional driven diffusive systems with open boundaries. We are interested in the average on-site residence time defined as the time a particle spends on a given site before moving on to the next site. Using mean-field theory, we obtain an analytical expression for the on-site residence times. By comparing the analytic predictions with numerics, we demonstrate that the mean-field significantly underestimates the residence time due to the neglect of time correlations in the local density of particles. The temporal correlations are particularly long-lived near the average shock position, where the density changes abruptly from low to high. By using Domain wall theory (DWT), we obtain highly accurate estimates of the residence time for different boundary conditions. We apply our analytical approach to residence times in a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP), TASEP coupled to Langmuir kinetics (TASEP + LK), and TASEP coupled to mutually interactive LK (TASEP + MILK). The high ...

  8. Paper-based analytical device for sampling, on-site preconcentration and detection of ppb lead in water.

    Satarpai, Thiphol; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2016-07-01

    A simple and cost effectiveness procedure based on a paper based analytical device (PAD) for sampling, on-site preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) in water samples was developed. The inkjet printing method was used for patterning of PAD. Colorimetric assay was developed on a PAD for Pb(II) detection in µgL(-1) level. This µgL(-1) level detection limit was achieved by in situ- and on-site preconcentration of Pb(II) onto adsorption filter paper disc with a home-made holder before color development. Water sample was loaded onto a circular filter paper coated with zirconium silicate in 3% sodium carboxymethylcellulose for Pb(II) preconcentration. Subsequently, sodium rhodizonate in tartrate buffer solution (pH 2.8) was used as colorimetric reagent for direct Pb(II) detection on a PAD. Detection was achieved by measuring the pink color and recorded by scanner or digital camera. ImageJ software was used for measuring grey scale values. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10µgL(-1) and 100µgL(-1), with a detection limit of 10µgL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb(II) in drinking water, tap water and surface water near electronic waste storage and the results were compared with those by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) with good agreement. PMID:27154707

  9. On-site residence time in a driven diffusive system: Violation and recovery of a mean-field description.

    Messelink, J; Rens, R; Vahabi, M; MacKintosh, F C; Sharma, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate simple one-dimensional driven diffusive systems with open boundaries. We are interested in the average on-site residence time defined as the time a particle spends on a given site before moving on to the next site. Using mean-field theory, we obtain an analytical expression for the on-site residence times. By comparing the analytic predictions with numerics, we demonstrate that the mean-field significantly underestimates the residence time due to the neglect of time correlations in the local density of particles. The temporal correlations are particularly long-lived near the average shock position, where the density changes abruptly from low to high. By using domain wall theory, we obtain highly accurate estimates of the residence time for different boundary conditions. We apply our analytical approach to residence times in a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP), TASEP coupled to Langmuir kinetics (TASEP+LK), and TASEP coupled to mutually interactive LK (TASEP+MILK). The high accuracy of our predictions is verified by comparing these with detailed Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26871036

  10. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty and the radiological risk to on-site inspection teams

    South Africa signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) and accordingly made commitments to the Organization (CTBTO). Of the obligations are the establishment of a Radionuclide Laboratory, the design, installation and operation and maintenance of a radionuclide particulate and noble-gas monitoring station and the nomination of one radionuclide specialist South African to serve on an international team for On-Site Inspection (OSI). The last to provide expertise when the worldwide monitoring network provides strong indications that an illegal nuclear test has been performed at the territory of a State Party. The inspection team will be equipped with amongst others radiation monitors and nuclide specific measuring equipment limited to report on specific radionuclides agreed upon by all State Parties. In real-time operational circumstances one may assume that all members of the team will not be registered radiation workers and accordingly be regarded as members of the public when radiation hazard is to be evaluated. Radionuclides of interest are categorized and radiological risk to the OSI-team due to inhalation of airborne radioactive particulate matter during the survey at the site of an anticipated nuclear test is evaluated. From this study recommendations will be made to the CTBTO for possible implementation of portable sampling and analysis equipment to allow on-site evaluation of the potential internal exposure of OSI-team members. (author)

  11. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: Results from a pilot-scale on-site trial

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE PLC, Aldermaston, Berks RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Cundy, Andrew B., E-mail: A.Cundy@brighton.ac.uk [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Hopkinson, Laurence [School of Environment and Technology, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Purdie, Philip [AWE PLC, Aldermaston, Berks RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-28

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m{sup 3} (ca. 4 tonnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kW h/m{sup 3}, and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations.

  12. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume II: criteria

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume II: Criteria. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume 1: basis document

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume I: Basis Document. 58 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Short-term microbial release during rain events from on-site sewers and cattle in a surface water source.

    Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Reischer, Georg H; Hermansson, Malte

    2013-09-01

    The protection of drinking water from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia requires an understanding of the short-term microbial release from faecal contamination sources in the catchment. Flow-weighted samples were collected during two rainfall events in a stream draining an area with on-site sewers and during two rainfall events in surface runoff from a bovine cattle pasture. Samples were analysed for human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) Bacteroidales genetic markers through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria through culturing as a complement to traditional faecal indicator bacteria, somatic coliphages and the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. analysed by standard methods. Significant positive correlations were observed between BacH, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, turbidity, conductivity and UV254 in the stream contaminated by on-site sewers. For the cattle pasture, no correlation was found between any of the genetic markers and the other parameters. Although parasitic protozoa were not detected, the analysis for genetic markers provided baseline data on the short-term faecal contamination due to these potential sources of parasites. Background levels of BacH and BacR makers in soil emphasise the need to including soil reference samples in qPCR-based analyses for Bacteroidales genetic markers. PMID:23981872

  15. On-site tests to estimate aquifer permeability of drainage area of south caisson anchorage construction of Taizhou Bridge

    Feng Zhaoxiang; Zhao Yanrong

    2011-01-01

    During the construction of the south caisson anchorage of Taizhou Bridge, the drainage area is located in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the permeability of stratums there is considerable. In order to maintain progress and guarantee safety during the sinking of the caisson, water should be drained in the initial period. Subsequently, detailed information about the aquifer permeability is required to make sure that the drainage will proceed successfully,which consequently necessitates the on-site estimation of the aquifer permeability in the drainage area. Therefore, the traditional pumping test and slug test are implemented respectively on site. The comparison of computational results of these two tests indicates that they are consistent overall. Notwithstanding, as slug test can be conducted with portable facilities in a short time and the manipulation is easy and few people need to be involved, the advantages of slug test is conspicuous compared with the traditional pumping test. It could be speculated that slug test will gain a prevalent application in the measurement of aquifer permeability in the future.

  16. On-site assessment of rock discontinuities from resistivity logs. T-L log: A new logging technique

    Tselentis, Gerasimos-Akis

    1986-03-01

    The direct on-site assessment of the vertical distribution of discontinuities to rock masses is very important since it can give a first estimation of the hydraulic properties of the strata and has many practical applications, such as groundwater resources investigations, radioactive and toxic waste disposal, dam foundation site investigations, etc. In the present work, the effect that fractures have upon some geophysical parameters which can easily be determined from the analysis of conventional normal resistivity logs is examined and a new technique for the on-site processing of resistivity logging data is introduced. Using a microcomputer in series with the logging unit, a zonation process was applied to the logs, which were interpreted in terms of a series of beds, each having a specific thickness and resistivity, and a new parameter defined by the difference between transverse and longitudinal resistivities was computed (T-L log). In almost all the cases that the method was applied, the obtained results were satisfactory and the microcomputer-based software and hardware package that was developed for the automatic processing of the data proved to be very efficient.

  17. An aptamer based lateral flow strip for on-site rapid detection of ochratoxin A in Astragalus membranaceus.

    Zhou, Weilu; Kong, Weijun; Dou, Xiaowen; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Meihua

    2016-06-01

    An aptamer based lateral flow strip based on competitive format was developed for on-site rapid detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Astragalus membranaceus. Some crucial parameters that might influence the sensitive detection, such as the characterization of the colloidal gold, size and shape of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), amount of AuNPs-aptamer conjugate, migration rate and the addition amount of methanol, were investigated to provide the optimum assay performance. To perform the test, 1g sample was extracted with 2.5mL of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) and diluted by 4-fold running buffer to eliminate the matrix and methanol interferences. Under optimized conditions, the aptamer-based assay showed a visual limit of detection (LOD) of 1ngmL(-1), and with no significant cross-reactivity with several homologous toxins. The whole detection could be completed within 15min without special equipment because of available visual results. One out of nine A. membranaceus samples was found to be positive of OTA, which was in a good agreement with those obtained from LC-MS/MS analysis. The results demonstrated that the aptamer-based lateral flow assay could be used as a rapid, reliable, cost-effective and robust on-site screening technique for mycotoxins at trace level in complex matrices without special instrumentation. PMID:27085019

  18. Safeguards for spent nuclear fuel in transfer from wet storage to dry storage in on-site interim storage facilities

    Germany initially planned to store spent nuclear fuel in the two away-from-reactor interim storage facilities built at Ahaus and Gorleben. The current approach for spent fuel management is on-site interim storage in transport and storage casks as part of a political agreement between the German government and the nuclear operators on the future use of nuclear energy. A reason for this is to avoid near term transportation of spent fuel determined for direct final disposal via public road or rail systems to away-from-reactor storage facilities. Recent legislation has triggered the construction of 12 on-site dry storage facilities at nuclear power plants. Currently, such facilities are being taken into operation on a step-by-step basis. There is a strong need to develop acceptable safeguards concepts for both transfer and dry storage of spent fuel, ideally, a standard safeguards concept that would match all German nuclear power plant sites without ignoring technical and organisational differences. The paper will address the relevant issues and give an overview of the status of safeguards implementation. (author)

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: Results from a pilot-scale on-site trial

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m3 (ca. 4 tonnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kW h/m3, and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or <0.4 Bq/g above background activities). The data show the potential of this method as a low-cost, on-site tool for remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations.

  20. A screening lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for on-site detection of okadaic acid in shellfish products.

    Lu, Shi-Ying; Lin, Chao; Li, Yan-Song; Zhou, Yu; Meng, Xian-Mei; Yu, Shi-Yu; Li, Zhao-Hui; Li, Le; Ren, Hong-Lin; Liu, Zeng-Shan

    2012-03-15

    A lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC) test strip based on a colloidal gold-monoclonal antibody (McAb) conjugate was developed for on-site rapid detection of okadaic acid (OA) in shellfish. It applies a competitive format using an immobilized toxin conjugate and free toxin present in samples. The McAb against OA was conjugated with 20-nm colloidal gold as detector reagent. The toxin in the sample competed with the immobilized toxin to bind to the gold conjugated with McAb. The colloidal gold/McAb/toxin mobile complex was not captured by OA-bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the test line, but it was captured by goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) on the control line. The color density of the test line correlated with the concentration of toxin in the range of 10-50 ng ml(-1). The qualitative detection limit of 150 μg kg(-1) sample was close to the European Union (EU) regulatory limit (160 μg kg(-1)). Therefore, these strips were able to directly and qualitatively estimate the consuming safety of shellfish. They require no equipment because of available visual results, and they screened numerous samples within 10 min. The results were further confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). As a food safety screening tool, the test strips are convenient and useful to rapidly on-site test the presence of OA in shellfish products. PMID:22266294

  1. Innovative AE and NDT techniques for on-site measurement of concrete and masonry structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM technical committee 239-MCM

    2016-01-01

    This volume, in which on-site measurements of concrete and masonry structures by NDT techniques are comprehensively summarized, focuses on the visualization procedure of the results measured. The research and its outcomes presented in this book treat applications of NDT techniques to on-site measurements. These on-site measurements have been marginally successful as each technique requires a particular analysis. In this regard, visualization and imaging of results are in great demand for practitioners and engineers for inspection. The book will therefore be of great value to the field. .

  2. 谈土建工程项目现场施工管理%On the On-site Construction Management of Civil Engineering

    郭宜旭

    2014-01-01

    The on-site construction management of civil engineering is an important content of the construction of building engineering. This paper describes several aspects of on-site construction management, and puts forward strategies to improve and strengthen on-site construction management.%土建工程项目的现场施工管理是建筑工程建设的重要内容。文章主要阐述了施工现场管理的几个方面,并在此基础上提出改进和加强施工现场管理的策略。

  3. Scaling up kangaroo mother care in South Africa: 'on-site' versus 'off-site' educational facilitation

    van Rooyen Elise

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up the implementation of new health care interventions can be challenging and demand intensive training or retraining of health workers. This paper reports on the results of testing the effectiveness of two different kinds of face-to-face facilitation used in conjunction with a well-designed educational package in the scaling up of kangaroo mother care. Methods Thirty-six hospitals in the Provinces of Gauteng and Mpumalanga in South Africa were targeted to implement kangaroo mother care and participated in the trial. The hospitals were paired with respect to their geographical location and annual number of births. One hospital in each pair was randomly allocated to receive either 'on-site' facilitation (Group A or 'off-site' facilitation (Group B. Hospitals in Group A received two on-site visits, whereas delegates from hospitals in Group B attended one off-site, 'hands-on' workshop at a training hospital. All hospitals were evaluated during a site visit six to eight months after attending an introductory workshop and were scored by means of an existing progress-monitoring tool with a scoring scale of 0–30. Successful implementation was regarded as demonstrating evidence of practice (score >10 during the site visit. Results There was no significant difference between the scores of Groups A and B (p = 0.633. Fifteen hospitals in Group A and 16 in Group B demonstrated evidence of practice. The median score for Group A was 16.52 (range 00.00–23.79 and that for Group B 14.76 (range 07.50–23.29. Conclusion A previous trial illustrated that the implementation of a new health care intervention could be scaled up by using a carefully designed educational package, combined with face-to-face facilitation by respected resource persons. This study demonstrated that the site of facilitation, either on site or at a centre of excellence, did not influence the ability of a hospital to implement KMC. The choice of outreach

  4. ON - SITE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

    Sahil.R.Choure; M.R.Apte

    2015-01-01

    Site material management is a process for controlling field and office activities on construction site related to the materials. The site material management system attempts to insure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately delivered and handled onsite in a timely manner. Planning a nd controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner and ...

  5. Standardization of Methods for Early Diagnosis and On-Site Treatment of High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema

    Qiquan Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening disease of high altitude that often affects nonacclimatized apparently healthy individuals who rapidly ascend to high altitude. Early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment are essential to maintain the safety of people who ascend to high altitude, such as construction workers and tourists. In this paper, I discuss various methods and criteria that can be used for the early diagnosis and prediction of HAPE. I also discuss the preventive strategies and options for on-site treatment. My objective is to improve the understanding of HAPE and to highlight the need for prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment of HAPE to improve the safety of individuals ascending to high altitude.

  6. A Discussion of Procedures and Equipment for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty On-Site Inspection Environmental Sampling and Analysis

    Wogman, Ned A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Payne, Rosara F.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Friese, Judah I.; Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Onishi, Yasuo; Hayes, James C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper is intended to serve as a scientific basis to start discussions of the available environmental sampling techniques and equipment that have been used in the past that could be considered for use within the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspections (OSI). This work contains information on the techniques, equipment, costs, and some operational procedures associated with environmental sampling that have actually been used in the past by the United States for the detection of nuclear explosions. This paper also includes a discussion of issues, recommendations, and questions needing further study within the context of the sampling and analysis of aquatic materials, atmospheric gases, atmospheric particulates, vegetation, sediments and soils, fauna, and drill-back materials.

  7. On-site bridge inspection with partial CT by 3.95Mev X-band linac source

    Since more and more bridges built several decades ago in Japan have become aged and dangerous, the non-destructive evaluation of those bridges is really an urgent problem. CT system with portable 3.95MeV linacs for bridge inspection is considered to work on-site, considering the law of Japanese radiation protection allows using linacs up to 4MeV outside radiation controlled area. The system would confirm the internal steel situation of bridges and analyze structural strain and stress with 3D model built from sectional imaging to evaluate load-bearing performance. The reconstruction process of bridge imaging is based on partial scanned data because bridge shape confines possible scanning angle to smaller than 180deg and a few translations. A small concrete sample with internal steel bars and attachment accessories is scanned in laboratory as preliminary work. (author)

  8. Measurement of 37Ar to support technology for On-site Inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Aalseth, C E; Haas, D A; Hoppe, E W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; Orrell, J L; Seifert, A; Woods, V T

    2010-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) is a key component of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Measurements of radionuclide isotopes created by an underground nuclear explosion are a valuable signature of a Treaty violation. Argon-37 is produced from neutron interaction with calcium in soil, 40Ca(n,{\\alpha})37Ar. For OSI, the 35-day half-life of 37Ar provides both high specific activity and sufficient time for completion of an inspection before decay limits sensitivity. This paper presents a low-background internal-source gas proportional counter with an 37Ar measurement sensitivity level equivalent to 45.1 mBq/SCM in whole air.

  9. On site treatment of NORM for surface waste disposal in Texas under Texas Railroad Commission Rule 94

    Remediation of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) by surface disposal under the provisions of Texas Railroad Commission Rule 94 and the applicable provisions of the Texas Department of Health Radiation Control Regulations is permitted under current State regulation and represents a viable alternative to commercial disposal under many circumstances. The economic advantages of on-sit disposal compared with commercial disposal can be significant, provided the generator is aware of the limitations of on-site disposal and has enough information and expertise to ensure a successful project. This report examines the experience gained from disposals performed under Rule 94 and summarizes the methods used and the results of actual NORM disposal projects at production sites under varying field conditions

  10. Design and field-scale implementation of an "on site" bioremediation treatment in PAH-polluted soil.

    Pelaez, A I; Lores, I; Sotres, A; Mendez-Garcia, C; Fernandez-Velarde, C; Santos, J A; Gallego, J L R; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    An "on site" bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially naphthalene. We began by characterizing the soil's physical and chemical properties. A microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs. We then analyzed the viability of bioremediation by developing laboratory microcosms and pilot scale studies, to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of the biostimulation was confirmed, a real-scale bioremediation program was undertaken in 900 m(3) of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera. PMID:23867700

  11. Development of a Mobile CZT Detector System for Burnup Measurement of Spent Fuel Assembly and On-Site Application

    The advantages of mobile CdZnTe (CZT) detector for nuclear safeguard applications of spent fuel burnup inspection in assembly storage pond are compactness, low cost and ease of operations. In this work, a mobile detection system shield with tungsten alloy was designed and then performed on-site. Net count rate of the 662 keV line of 137Cs was produced linearly with burnup as experimental data simulations shows, in which the deviation from linearity is smaller than 9%. As a result, the feasibility of the method using CZT detector to monitor spent nuclear fuel assembly burnup in a fuel pond was validated. The results calculated with Monte Carlo procedure Geant4 can provide a theoretical guide for the further burnup measurement. (author)

  12. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  13. Recommended Method To Account For Daughter Ingrowth For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Modeling

    A 3-D STOMP model has been developed for the Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at Site D as outlined in Appendix K of FBP 2013. This model projects the flow and transport of the following radionuclides to various points of assessments: Tc-99, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Am-241, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Th-228, and Th-230. The model includes the radioactive decay of these parents, but does not include the associated daughter ingrowth because the STOMP model does not have the capability to model daughter ingrowth. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides herein a recommended method to account for daughter ingrowth in association with the Portsmouth OSWDF Performance Assessment (PA) modeling

  14. On-site vibration fault diagnosis and solution measures of a centrifugal charging pump in nuclear power plant

    Vibration measurement of equipment during commissioning of nuclear power plants is one of important measures to ensure the plant safety. In this paper, through vibration measurement of the centrifugal charging pump during commission of a certain nuclear power plant, vibration fault of the pump is found. According to the signal features measured, faults of mass unbalance and uneven torque for the foundation bolts are diagnosed, and corresponding measures are implemented, which finally solve the vibration problem of this pump. The diagnosis process of the pump demonstrates that vibration faults of on-site equipment often have several causes, and even the same symptoms have different reasons. The vibration problem of the centrifugal charging pump in this paper is meaningful for solving practical engineering problems, and will provide important instructions and reference for disposing similar problems. (authors)

  15. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor

  16. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on on-site radioactive waste management and decommissioning

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The CEGB evidence to the Inquiry presented here provides information on the on-site management of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes both during station operation and during decommissioning. Estimates are given of current and projected future discharges of liquid and gaseous wastes from the site and packaging and transport arrangements for solid radioactive wastes are described. The framework of waste management policy, disposal strategy and legislation in the United Kingdom which will determine procedure at Hinkley Point ''C'' is given. (UK)

  17. Woking Park PAFC CHP monitoring. Phase 1: Planning, installation and commissioning

    Goulding, P.S.; Fry, M.R.

    2003-07-01

    This report covers the planning, installation and commissioning of the first commercially operated fuel cell cogeneration system in the UK. The involvement of Woking Borough Council, its approach to energy efficiency, and the Woking Park site are discussed, and details are given of the PC25/C 200kW fuel cell which is manufactured in the US by UTC Fuel Cells. A description of the Woking Park fuel cell combined heat and power application is presented, and the project economics, specification and tendering are examined. The route taken to planning approval is traced, and installation procedures are outlined. The testing of the phosphoric type PC25 fuel cell cogeneration unit is described, and expected cost and project timescales are noted.

  18. Effects of cooling system parameters on heat transfer in PAFC stack

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali A.

    1985-08-01

    Analytical and experimental study for the effects of cooling system parameters on the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the electrode plates of a phosphoric acid fuel-cell has been conducted. An experimental set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was designed and constructed. The set-up was then used to measure the overall heat transfer coefficient, the thermal contact resistance, and the electrode temperature distribution for two different cooling plate configurations. Two types of cooling plate configurations, serpentine and straight, were tested. Air, water, and oil were used as coolants. Measurements for the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal contact resistance were made for various flow rates ranging from 16 to 88 Kg/hr, and stack clamping pressure ranging from O to 3448 Kpa. The experimental results for the overall heat transfer coefficient were utilized to derive mathematical relations for the overall heat transfer coefficient as a function of stack clamping pressure and Reynolds number for the three coolants. The empirically derived formulas were incorporated in a previously developed computer program to predict electrodes temperature distribution and the performance of the stack cooling system. The results obtained were then compared with those available in the literature. The comparison showed maximum deviation of +/- 11%.

  19. Effects of cooling system parameters on heat transfer in PAFC stack. Ph.D. Thesis

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali A.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and experimental study for the effects of cooling system parameters on the heat transfer and temperature distribution in the electrode plates of a phosphoric acid fuel-cell has been conducted. An experimental set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was designed and constructed. The set-up was then used to measure the overall heat transfer coefficient, the thermal contact resistance, and the electrode temperature distribution for two different cooling plate configurations. Two types of cooling plate configurations, serpentine and straight, were tested. Air, water, and oil were used as coolants. Measurements for the heat transfer coefficient and the thermal contact resistance were made for various flow rates ranging from 16 to 88 Kg/hr, and stack clamping pressure ranging from O to 3448 Kpa. The experimental results for the overall heat transfer coefficient were utilized to derive mathematical relations for the overall heat transfer coefficient as a function of stack clamping pressure and Reynolds number for the three coolants. The empirically derived formulas were incorporated in a previously developed computer program to predict electrodes temperature distribution and the performance of the stack cooling system. The results obtained were then compared with those available in the literature. The comparison showed maximum deviation of +/- 11%.

  20. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  1. Study for highly functional resin (macroporous resin) superior in removing micro particles in PWR primary circuit: on-site test

    In Japanese PWR plants, efforts to remove particulate constituents containing radioactive cobalt which provides a source of radiation exposure, are needed. Performance evaluation study was conducted for macroporous resin which was said to possess excellent performance in removing particulate constituents and whose practical accomplishment at plants in USA was reported to be good. As one of the means for radiation exposure reduction in PWR, a study for application of crud removing resin to actual plant was executed by laboratory experiments using simulated crud (Fe3O4 particle). In this study, following two mechanisms were demonstrated as the particle capturing mechanism of macroporous resin; physical trapping by fine pores on resin surface; electrical adsorption onto resin surface. In addition, in parallel to the study for application of macroporous resin to actual PWR plant, on-site study was planned to investigate the primary system water chemistry during various stages of actual plant operation and to research performance of particle capturing in detail. As the on-site study, column experiments, there water was let pass through the column, were planned for various operation stage (startup period, power operation period and shutdown period). A kind of conventional gel-type resin and three kinds of macroporous resin were examined for onsite tests. As to particulate capturing, basic knowledge regarding capturing efficiency and influence of water chemistry on capturing performance were ordered. Capturing performance of each resin tested became clear and was ordered by comparison. Effectiveness of macroporous resin with regard to crud removal in primary coolant was confirmed. (author)

  2. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns

  3. A method for the on-site determination of prestressing forces using long-gauge fiber optic strain sensors

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) consists of the continuous or periodic measurement of structural parameters and their analysis with the aim of deducing information about the performance and health condition of a structure. The significant increase in the construction of prestressed concrete bridges motivated this research on an SHM method for the on-site determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along prestressed concrete beam structures. The estimation of the distribution of forces is important as it can give information regarding the overall performance and structural integrity of the bridge. An inadequate transfer of the designed prestressing forces to the concrete cross-section can lead to a reduced capacity of the bridge and consequently malfunction or failure at lower loads than predicted by design. This paper researches a universal method for the determination of the distribution of prestressing forces along concrete beam structures at the time of transfer of the prestressing force (e.g., at the time of prestressing or post-tensioning). The method is based on the use of long-gauge fiber optic sensors, and the sensor network is similar (practically identical) to the one used for damage identification. The method encompasses the determination of prestressing forces at both healthy and cracked cross-sections, and for the latter it can yield information about the condition of the cracks. The method is validated on-site by comparison to design forces through the application to two structures: (1) a deck-stiffened arch and (2) a curved continuous girder. The uncertainty in the determination of prestressing forces was calculated and the comparison with the design forces has shown very good agreement in most of the structures’ cross-sections, but also helped identify some unusual behaviors. The method and its validation are presented in this paper. (papers)

  4. Investigating the potential benefits of on-site food safety training for Folklorama, a temporary food service event.

    Mancini, Roberto; Murray, Leigh; Chapman, Benjamin J; Powell, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    Folklorama in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is a 14-day temporary food service event that explores the many different cultural realms of food, food preparation, and entertainment. In 2010, the Russian pavilion at Folklorama was implicated in a foodborne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 that caused 37 illnesses and 18 hospitalizations. The ethnic nature and diversity of foods prepared within each pavilion presents a unique problem for food inspectors, as each culture prepares food in their own very unique way. The Manitoba Department of Health and Folklorama Board of Directors realized a need to implement a food safety information delivery program that would be more effective than a 2-h food safety course delivered via PowerPoint slides. The food operators and event coordinators of five randomly chosen pavilions selling potentially hazardous food were trained on-site, in their work environment, focusing on critical control points specific to their menu. A control group (five pavilions) did not receive on-site food safety training and were assessed concurrently. Public health inspections for all 10 pavilions were performed by Certified Public Health Inspectors employed with Manitoba Health. Critical infractions were assessed by means of standardized food protection inspection reports. The results suggest no statistically significant difference in food inspection scores between the trained and control groups. However, it was found that inspection report results increased for both the control and trained groups from the first inspection to the second, implying that public health inspections are necessary in correcting unsafe food safety practices. The results further show that in this case, the 2-h food safety course delivered via slides was sufficient to pass public health inspections. Further evaluations of alternative food safety training approaches are warranted. PMID:23043832

  5. On-site inspection: A brief overview and bibliography of techniques pertinent to assessing suspected nuclear test sites

    The purpose of this report is to provide a brief overview and bibliography of those techniques that may have application for the evaluation of a site to determine if a high energy release event is nuclear in nature. This effort is motivated by recognition of the changing world political climate and the perception that low yield and non-proliferation issues will grow in importance as countries become increasingly involved as signators to treaties that are intended to limit the development and testing of nuclear weapons. Along with an increasing interest in such issues is the awareness of the need to implement improved capabilities for treaty monitoring programs that must deal with assessing suspicious occurrences of high energy release events. In preparing this report, it is recognized that monitoring can take two main forms. The first involves the resolution of unidentified events detected by seismic and satellite National Technical Means. Events of an indeterminate nature could occur world-wide and could induce tension in neighboring countries. If an on-site measurement capability were available, a monitoring team could be sent to the suspected site of an event to take measurements that could confirm or disprove the occurrence of a clandestine nuclear test. The second monitoring form is the confirmation that a clandestine event is not masked by a declared event. For example, a large mining explosion could mask a decoupled nuclear explosion. On-site measurements before and during the test could confirm that a clandestine event did not occur and could provide assurance that the party carrying out the explosion is not taking advantage of clandestine testing opportunities. 48 refs

  6. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete

  7. On-Site Pilot Study - Removal of Uranium, Radium-226 and Arsenic from Impacted Leachate by Reverse Osmosis - 13155

    Conestoga-Rovers and Associates (CRA-LTD) performed an on-site pilot study at the Welcome Waste Management Facility in Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the effectiveness of a unique leachate treatment process for the removal of radioactive contaminants from leachate impacted by low-level radioactive waste. Results from the study also provided the parameters needed for the design of the CRA-LTD full scale leachate treatment process design. The final effluent water quality discharged from the process to meet the local surface water discharge criteria. A statistical software package was utilized to obtain the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the results from design of experiment applied to determine the effect of the evaluated factors on the measured responses. The factors considered in the study were: percent of reverse osmosis permeate water recovery, influent coagulant dosage, and influent total dissolved solids (TDS) dosage. The measured responses evaluated were: operating time, average specific flux, and rejection of radioactive contaminants along with other elements. The ANOVA for the design of experiment results revealed that the operating time is affected by the percent water recovery to be achieved and the flocculant dosage over the range studied. The average specific flux and rejection for the radioactive contaminants were not affected by the factors evaluated over the range studied. The 3 month long on-site pilot testing on the impacted leachate revealed that the CRA-LTD leachate treatment process was robust and produced an effluent water quality that met the surface water discharge criteria mandated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and the local municipality. (authors)

  8. Interaction of on-site and near real time measured turbidity and enzyme activity in stream water.

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    On-site and on-line systems that provide an integrated surveillance of physicochemical and microbiological parameters gain significance in water quality monitoring. Particular relating to diffuse pollution from agricultural areas and use-orientated protection of waters the detection of faecal pollution is a fundamental part. For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological faecal pollution of water, the beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter. Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the sensitivity and specificity concerning the faecal indication capacity of GLUC in relation to standard assays (Cabral 2010). Interference effects of physicochemical parameters on the enzymatic activity respectively fluorescence have been discussed (Molina-Munoz et al. 2007; Tryland and Fiksdal 1998, Biswal et al. 2003). Results from a monitoring of a rivulet in an agricultural catchment in Lower Austria (HOAL - Hydrological Open Air Laboratory) are presented here. The HOAL offers technical resources that allow measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution and to apply various hydrological methods in one catchment. Two automated enzymatic measuring devices (Coliguard, mbOnline, Austria) and physicochemical in-stream measurements are used, as well as in-stream spectroscopy (spectrolyser, s::can, Austria). Accuracy of both enzymatic measuring devices is compared through diverse hydrological and seasonal conditions. Reference analyses by cultivation based determination were performed. Data from Coliguard devices is combined with physicochemical and spectroscopy data to gain information about the

  9. A partnership approach to providing on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees: a pilot study from Alabama, USA

    Bronwen Lichtenstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV in the United States is concentrated in the South, an impoverished region with marked health disparities and high rates of incarceration, particularly among African Americans. In the Deep South state of Alabama, a policy directive to reduce prison overcrowding has diverted large numbers of convicted felons to community supervision. Probation and parole offices have yet to provide the HIV education and testing services that are offered in state prisons. This study sought to implement on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees through an intersectoral programme involving law enforcement, university and HIV agency employees. The three main objectives were to (1 involve probation/parole officers in planning, execution and assessment of the programme, (2 provide HIV education to the officers and (3 offer voluntary pretest HIV counselling and testing to probationers and parolees. Methods: The partnered programme was conducted between October and December 2015. Offenders who were recently sentenced to probation (“new offenders”, received HIV education during orientation. Offenders already under supervision prior to the programme (“current offenders” learned about the on-site services during scheduled office visits. Outcomes were measured through officer assessments, informal feedback and uptake of HIV services among offenders. Results: A total of 86 new and 249 current offenders reported during the programme (N=335. Almost one-third (31.4% of new offenders sought HIV testing, while only 3.2% of current offenders were screened for HIV. Refusals among current offenders invoked monogamy, time pressures, being tested in prison, fear of positive test results and concerns about being labelled as gay or unfaithful to women partners. Officers rated the programme as worthwhile and feasible to implement at other offices. Conclusions: The partnership approach ensured support from law enforcement and intersectoral cooperation

  10. Diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls in rapid on-site evaluation of endobronchial ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration

    Monaco Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the novel techniques utilizing fine needle aspiration (FNA in the diagnosis of mediastinal and lung lesions is the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS-guided FNA. In this study, we describe five cases which had a discrepancy between on-site evaluation and final diagnosis, or a diagnostic dilemma when rendering the preliminary diagnosis, in order to illustrate some of the diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls that can occur in EBUS FNA. Methods: A total of five EBUS FNA cases from five patients were identified in our records with a discrepancy between the rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE and final diagnosis, or that addressed a diagnostic dilemma. All of the cases had histological confirmation or follow-up. The cytomorphology in the direct smears, cell block, and immunohistochemical stains were reviewed, along with the clinical history and other available information. Results: Two cases were identified with a nondefinitive diagnosis at ROSE that were later diagnosed as malignant (metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC on the final cytological diagnosis. Three additional cases were identified with a ROSE and final diagnosis of malignant (large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC and two squamous cell carcinomas, but raised important diagnostic dilemmas. These cases highlight the importance of recognizing discohesive malignant cells and bland neoplasms on EBUS FNA, which may lead to a negative or a nondefinitive preliminary diagnosis. Neuroendocrine tumors can also be difficult due to the wide range of entities in the differential diagnosis, including benign lymphocytes, lymphomas, small and nonsmall cell carcinomas, and the lack of immunohistochemical stains at the time of ROSE. Finally, the background material in EBUS FNAs may be misleading and unrelated to the cells of interest. Conclusions: This study illustrates the cytomorphology of five EBUS FNA cases that address some of the

  11. A partnership approach to providing on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees: a pilot study from Alabama, USA

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Barber, Brad Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV in the United States is concentrated in the South, an impoverished region with marked health disparities and high rates of incarceration, particularly among African Americans. In the Deep South state of Alabama, a policy directive to reduce prison overcrowding has diverted large numbers of convicted felons to community supervision. Probation and parole offices have yet to provide the HIV education and testing services that are offered in state prisons. This study sought to implement on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees through an intersectoral programme involving law enforcement, university and HIV agency employees. The three main objectives were to (1) involve probation/parole officers in planning, execution and assessment of the programme, (2) provide HIV education to the officers and (3) offer voluntary pretest HIV counselling and testing to probationers and parolees. Methods The partnered programme was conducted between October and December 2015. Offenders who were recently sentenced to probation (“new offenders”), received HIV education during orientation. Offenders already under supervision prior to the programme (“current offenders”) learned about the on-site services during scheduled office visits. Outcomes were measured through officer assessments, informal feedback and uptake of HIV services among offenders. Results A total of 86 new and 249 current offenders reported during the programme (N=335). Almost one-third (31.4%) of new offenders sought HIV testing, while only 3.2% of current offenders were screened for HIV. Refusals among current offenders invoked monogamy, time pressures, being tested in prison, fear of positive test results and concerns about being labelled as gay or unfaithful to women partners. Officers rated the programme as worthwhile and feasible to implement at other offices. Conclusions The partnership approach ensured support from law enforcement and intersectoral cooperation throughout the

  12. Applicability of rapid and on-site measured enzyme activity for surface water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Sommer, Regina; Kumpan, Monika; Zessner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological fecal pollution of water, the measurement of beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter and has been already successfully operated for water quality monitoring of ground water resources (Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the fecal indication capacity of GLUC (specificity, sensitivity, persistence, etc.) in relation to potential pollution sources and catchment conditions (Cabral 2010, Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Furthermore surface waters are a big challenge for automated detection devices in a technical point of view due to the high sediment load during event conditions. This presentation shows results gained form two years of monitoring in an experimental catchment (HOAL) dominated by agricultural land use. Two enzymatic measurement devices are operated parallel at the catchment outlet to test the reproducibility and precision of the method. Data from continuous GLUC monitoring under both base flow and event conditions is compared with reference samples analyzed by standardized laboratory methods for fecal pollution detection (e.g. ISO 16649-1, Colilert18). It is shown that rapid enzymatic on-site GLUC determination can successfully be operated from a technical point of view for surface water quality monitoring under the observed catchment conditions. The comparison of enzyme activity with microbiological standard analytics reveals distinct differences in the dynamic of the signals during event conditions. Cabral J. P. S. (2010) "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water" International Journal of

  13. Model evaluation of potential impacts of on-site wastewater systems on phosphorus in Turkey creek watershed.

    Geza, Mengistu; McCray, John E; Murray, Kyle E

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient loading to surface water systems has traditionally been associated with agricultural sources. Sources such as on-site wastewater systems (OWS) may be of concern especially in rural, nonagricultural watersheds. The impact of various point and nonpoint sources including OWS in Turkey Creek Watershed was evaluated using the Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, which was calibrated using 10 yr of observed stream flow and total P concentrations. Doubling the population in the watershed or OWS septic tank effluent P concentration increased mean stream total P concentration by a factor of 1.05. Converting all the OWS to a conventional sewer system with a removal efficiency of 93% at the wastewater treatment plant increased the mean total P concentration at the watershed outlet by a factor of 1.26. Reducing the soil adsorption capacity by 50% increased the mean stream total P concentration by a factor of 3.2. Doubling the initial P concentration increased the mean stream total P concentration by a factor of 1.96. Stream flow and sediment transport also substantially affected stream P concentration. The results suggest that OWS contribution to stream P in this watershed is minimal compared with other factors within the simulated time frame of 10 yr. PMID:21043269

  14. Compucea: A high performance analysis procedure for timely On-site Uranium Accountancy Verification in Leu Fuel Fabrication Plants

    COMPUCEA (Combined Procedure for Uranium Concentration and Enrichment Assay) is used for on-site analytical measurements in support of joint EURATOM-IAEA inspections during physical inventory verification (PIV) campaigns in European Low-Enriched Uranium (Leu) fuel fabrication plants. The analytical technique involves the accurate determination of the uranium element content by energy-dispersive X-ray absorption edge spectrometry (L-edge densitometry) and of the 235 U enrichment by gamma spectrometry with a LaBr3(Ce) detector. For evaluation of the LaBr3 spectra a modified version of the NaIGEM code is used, which has recently been adapted to handle the presence of reprocessed uranium. This paper describes the technique, setup and calibration procedure of the instrument. Results from PIV campaigns in 2007 and 2008 are presented, which demonstrate the performance of the technique. First results obtained with a sandwich detector configuration for enhanced detection efficiency of the passive gamma spectrometry are discussed.

  15. XANES speciation of P in environmental samples: an assessment of filter media for on-site wastewater treatment.

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Ion Petter; Hesterberg, Dean; Hillier, Stephen

    2009-09-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is a useful technique for characterization of chemical species of phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To develop and evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selection of promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples. Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory- and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60% of total P in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35% of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed. PMID:19764210

  16. XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples: An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment

    Eveborn, D.; Gustafsson, J; Hesterberg, D; Hillier, S

    2009-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is a useful technique for characterization of chemical species of phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To develop and evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selection of promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples. Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory- and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60% of total P in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35% of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed.

  17. Two-Dimensional Pnictogen Honeycomb Lattice: Structure, On-Site Spin-Orbit Coupling and Spin Polarization.

    Lee, Jason; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Because of its novel physical properties, two-dimensional materials have attracted great attention. From first-principle calculations and vibration frequencies analysis, we predict a new family of two-dimensional materials based on the idea of octet stability: honeycomb lattices of pnictogens (N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The buckled structures of materials come from the sp(3) hybridization. These materials have indirect band gap ranging from 0.43 eV to 3.7 eV. From the analysis of projected density of states, we argue that the s and p orbitals together are sufficient to describe the electronic structure under tight-binding model, and the tight-binding parameters are obtained by fitting the band structures to first-principle results. Surprisingly large on-site spin-orbit coupling is found for all the pnictogen lattices except nitrogen. Investigation on the electronic structures of both zigzag and armchair nanoribbons reveals the possible existence of spin-polarized ferromagnetic edge states in some cases, which are rare in one-dimensional systems. These edge states and magnetism may exist under the condition of high vacuum and low temperature. This new family of materials would have promising applications in electronics, optics, sensors, and solar cells. PMID:26122870

  18. Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-03-01

    The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site wastes: results from a pilot-scale on-site trial.

    Agnew, Kieran; Cundy, Andrew B; Hopkinson, Laurence; Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Purdie, Philip

    2011-02-28

    This paper examines the field-scale application of a novel low-energy electrokinetic technique for the remediation of plutonium-contaminated nuclear site soils, using soil wastes from the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) Aldermaston site, Berkshire, UK as a test medium. Soils and sediments with varying composition, contaminated with Pu through historical site operations, were electrokinetically treated at laboratory-scale with and without various soil pre-conditioning agents. Results from these bench-scale trials were used to inform a larger on-site remediation trial, using an adapted containment pack with battery power supply. 2.4 m(3) (ca. 4t onnes) of Pu-contaminated soil was treated for 60 days at a power consumption of 33 kWh/m(3), and then destructively sampled. Radiochemical data indicate mobilisation of Pu in the treated soil, and migration (probably as a negatively charged Pu-citrate complex) towards the anodic compartment of the treatment cell. Soil in the cathodic zone of the treatment unit was remediated to a level below free-release disposal thresholds (1.7 Bq/g, or remediation of radioactively contaminated soils and wastes which can be operated remotely on working sites, with minimal disruption to site infrastructure or operations. PMID:21227583

  20. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance. PMID:27435622

  1. Standard Guide for On-Site Inspection and Verification of Operation of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures and test methods for conducting an on-site inspection and acceptance test of an installed domestic hot water system (DHW) using flat plate, concentrating-type collectors or tank absorber systems. 1.2 It is intended as a simple and economical acceptance test to be performed by the system installer or an independent tester to verify that critical components of the system are functioning and to acquire baseline data reflecting overall short term system heat output. 1.3 This guide is not intended to generate accurate measurements of system performance (see ASHRAE standard 95-1981 for a laboratory test) or thermal efficiency. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  2. Ground instability in the old town of Agrigento (Italy) depicted by on-site investigations and Persistent Scatterers data

    Cigna, F.; Del Ventisette, C.; Gigli, G.; Menna, F.; Agili, F.; Liguori, V.; Casagli, N.

    2012-12-01

    We combine on-site investigations with the interpretation of satellite Persistent Scatterers (PS) to analyse ground instability in the historic town of Agrigento, Italy. Geological and geomorphologic surveys, together with geostructural and kinematic analyses, depict the deformational patterns of the northwestern sector of the town, previously documented by extensive literature available for the neighbouring Valley of the Temples. The geological and geomorphologic maps are reconstructed by combining bibliographic studies, field surveys and aerial stereo-interpretation. ERS-1/2 PS data reveal deformation velocities up to 18-20 mm yr-1 in 1992-2000 over the Addolorata landslide, and a sudden motion of 1.6 cm over the Bishop's Seminary in 1999. RADARSAT-1 PS data highlight velocities of 3.0 mm yr-1 for St. Gerlando's Cathedral and reveals worsening of its structural instability since 2006. Ground instability of the town is controlled by low quality and high fracturing of the Agrigento formation rock masses, and the remarkable contrast between different mechanical behaviours of its calcarenite (brittle), silt and clay (plastic) facies. Slow landslides and widespread erosion are also recognised in the clays of the underlying Monte Narbone formation. Coexistence of these factors induces progressive retrogression of the edge of the Girgenti hill and damages the overlying historic buildings, whose stability and safe accessibility are nowadays almost compromised.

  3. Biological sample collection and processing in an on site laboratory in Estonian shale oil mine - BIOMODEM study

    Full text: The BIOMED-concerted action 'BIOMarkers for Occupational Diesel exhaust Exposure Monitoring (BIOMODEM)' project implied biological sampling from 100 workers of an Estonian shale oil mine. Experiences from pilot studies in Ostrava in Czech Republic and Kotla-Jaerve in Estonia stressed the need of fast processing and storage of biological samples Therefore, in the main study a field laboratory was set up in a building at the mine. Urine samples were collected pre-shift and post-shift after one workday and after 3-4 workdays. Urine samples were separated into 6 aliquots and stored at -200C. Blood samples were collected in CPT-tubes and processed with isolation of lymphocytes, erythrocytes and plasma. The detailed steps in the processing will be presented together with yields of cell populations compared with amount of blood processed. The samples were stored in liquid nitrogen on site and transported on dry ice to laboratories in the United Kingdom, Denmark and Tallinn. The transport of processed samples was taken care of by the project participants to avoid delay with consequent thawing. (author)

  4. Anaerobic on-site black water and kitchen waste treatment using UASB-septic tanks at low temperatures.

    Luostarinen, S; Rintala, J

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic on-site treatment of black water (BW) and a mixture of black water and kitchen waste (BWKW) was studied in a two-phased upflow anaerobic sludge blanket septic tank (UASBst) at 10-20 degrees C. The processes were fed either continuously or discontinuously (twice per weekday). Moreover, BWKW was post-treated for nitrogen removal in an intermittently aerated moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at 20 degrees C. Removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD1) was efficient at minimum 90% with all three UASBst at all temperatures. Removal of dissolved COD (CODdis) was also high at approx. 70% with continuously fed BW and discontinuously fed BWKW, while with discontinuous BW feeding it was 20%. Temperature decrease had little effect on COD removals, though the need for phase 2 increased with decreasing temperature, especially with BWKW. Post-treatment of BWKW in MBBR resulted in approx. 50% nitrogen removal, but suffered from lack of carbon for denitrification. With carbon addition, removal of ca. 83% was achieved. PMID:16939095

  5. Anaerobic on-site treatment of black water and dairy parlour wastewater in UASB-septic tanks at low temperatures.

    Luostarinen, Sari A; Rintala, Jukka A

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic on-site treatment of synthetic black water (BW) and dairy parlour wastewater (DPWW) was studied in two-phased upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks at low temperatures (10-20 degrees C). At all temperatures, total chemical oxygen demand (COD(t)) removal was above 90% with BW and above 80% with DPWW and removal of total suspended solids (TSS) above 90% with both wastewaters. Moreover, dissolved COD (COD(dis)) removal was approx. 70% with both wastewaters indicating good biological activity of the sludges. With BW, a single-phased reactor was found sufficient for good COD removals, while with DPWW, a two-phased process was required. Temperature optimum of reactor sludges was still 35 degrees C after long (398d) operation. Most of the nutrients from BW were removed with TSS, while with DPWW nutrient removal was low. In conclusion, UASB-septic tank was found feasible for (pre)treatment of BW and DPWW at low temperatures. PMID:15644252

  6. Predicting the macroseismic intensity from early radiated P wave energy for on-site earthquake early warning in Italy

    Brondi, P.; Picozzi, M.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Mucciarelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) are potentially effective tools for risk mitigation in active seismic regions. The present study explores the possibility of predicting the macroseismic intensity within EEW timeframes using the squared velocity integral (IV2) measured on the early P wave signals, a proxy for the P wave radiated energy of earthquakes. This study shows that IV2 correlates better than the peak displacement measured on P waves with both the peak ground velocity and the Housner Intensity, with the latter being recognized by engineers as a reliable proxy for damage assessment. Therefore, using the strong motion recordings of the Italian Accelerometric Archive, a novel relationship between the parameter IV2 and the macroseismic intensity (IM) has been derived. The validity of this relationship has been assessed using the strong motion recordings of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Strong Motion Data and Osservatorio Sismico delle Strutture databases, as well as, in the case of the MW 6, 29 May 2012 Emilia earthquake (Italy), comparing the predicted intensities with the ones observed after a macroseismic survey. Our results indicate that P wave IV2 can become a key parameter for the design of on-site EEWS, capable of proving real-time predictions of the IM at target sites.

  7. Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers

    We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm3. The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

  8. Rapid on-site detection of airborne asbestos fibers and potentially hazardous nanomaterials using fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing.

    Kuroda, Akio; Alexandrov, Maxym; Nishimura, Tomoki; Ishida, Takenori

    2016-06-01

    A large number of peptides with binding affinity to various inorganic materials have been identified and used as linkers, catalysts, and building blocks in nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. However, there have been few applications of material-binding peptides in the fluorescence microscopy-based biosensing (FM method) of environmental pollutants. A notable exception is the application of the FM method for the detection of asbestos, a dangerous industrial toxin that is still widely used in many developing countries. This review details the selection and isolation of asbestos-binding proteins and peptides with sufficient specificity to distinguish asbestos from a large variety of safer fibrous materials used as asbestos substitutes. High sensitivity to nanoscale asbestos fibers (30-35 nm in diameter) invisible under conventional phase contrast microscopy can be achieved. The FM method is the basis for developing an automated system for asbestos biosensing that can be used for on-site testing with a portable fluorescence microscope. In the future, the FM method could also become a useful tool for detecting other potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the environment. PMID:27220109

  9. On-site hydrolytic enzymes production from fungal co-cultivation of Bermuda grass and corn cob.

    Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Gracida, Jorge; Huizache-Peña, Nelson; Elizondo-García, Norberto; Salazar-Martínez, José; García Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is used to produce industrial enzymes. The objective of this study was to use a co-culture of Aspergillus niger GS1 and Trichoderma reesei, grown on a mixture of Bermuda grass and corn cob to obtain fermented forage (FF) rich in hydrolytic enzymes, as a value added ingredient for animal feed. FPase, amylase and xylanase productivities (dry matter, DM) were 8.8, 181.4, and 42.1Ug(-1)h(-1), respectively (1U=reducing sugars released min(-1)), after 12-16h of SSF with C/N=60. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased 1.6-, 2.7- and 1.9-fold (DM), respectively. In vitro ruminal and true digestibility of DM was improved 2.4- and 1.4-fold. Ruminal digestion of FF reduced 1.32-fold the acetate:propionate ratio, which may reduce the environmental impact of ruminants feeding. On-site hydrolytic enzymes productivity using SSF without enzymes extraction could be of economic potential for digestibility improvement in animal feed. PMID:27130226

  10. On-site evaluation of percutaneous CT-guided fine needle aspiration of pulmonary lesions. A study of 321 cases

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of having a cytopahologist present during percutaneous CT-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of pulmonary lesions. Materials and methods: Three hundred and twenty-one FNAs of lung lesions were performed in 312 patients (218 males, 94 females; age range 20-86 years; means age: 66yrs). Nodule size ranged from 0.5 to 8 cm. The sampling was performed by a radiologist under CT-guidance; the calibre of the needle used was 20-25G. Smears were prepared in the Radiology Department and stained using a quick method by a cytopathologist: the sample adequacy was assessed and, if possible, a preliminary diagnosis was made. An additional FNA was requested if the first aspirate was considered diagnostically inadequate. The diagnostic accuracy was examinated by reviewing the clinical data and by correlating with the histological material and the clinical outcome.Results: Satisfactory diagnostic material was obtained in 275 of the 321 FNA (86%): 231 were malignant (72%), 8 suspicious (3%) and 36 were negative for malignancy (11%). Forty-six of the 321 specimens (14%) were considered inadequate for any diagnostic verification. An additional FNA was performed immediately in 60 cases (19%). Forty-two subjects developed pneumothorax: 21 patients (50%) of these required thoracic drainage. Blood effusion around the lesion site or adjacent to the needle path was observed in 39 patients (12%). Sensitivity was 99%, specificity was 95% and diagnostic accuracy was 99%. Conclusions: CT-guided aspiration cytology can be a safe and fast procedure for lung nodule characterization. On-site immediate evaluation of FNA specimens can be beneficial in determining the adequacy of the aspirate and in providing accurate preliminary diagnoses of the specimens, thus allowing for rapid clinical decisions

  11. Anaerobic digestion of peel waste and wastewater for on site energy generation in a citrus processing facility

    A citrus processing facility produces significant quantities of both peel waste and wastewater. A leach – bed batch anaerobic digester was operated successfully at thermophilic (55 °C) temperature for biogasification of citrus peel waste. The retention time in the digester was 25 days. The citrus processing wastewater was digested in a thermophilic DSFF (down flow stationary fixed film) anaerobic reactor fed continuously and operated for 76 days. At an average organic loading rate of 0.51 kg sCOD m−3 d−1 the hydraulic retention time was 16 days. No long term toxicity issues due to limonene were observed during digestion of both citrus waste feedstocks. Biogasification yielded, 0.116 m3 methane at STP kg−1 peel waste received and 2.1 m3 at STP m−3 wastewater received. An energy analysis showed that in a citrus processing plant handling 600 tons per day of fruits, the biogas produced from the waste streams is more than sufficient to meet all the electricity and fuel demands. Excess electricity generated from biogas may be sold generating estimated revenues of more than a $1 million annually (at electricity sale price of $0.04/kWhe). - Highlights: • Citrus peel waste digestion yields 0.116 m3 of methane at STP per kg as received. • Citrus processing wastewater digestion yields 2.1 m3 of methane at STP per m3. • 600 ton/day citrus factory can produce 3.2 MWe on site, using biogas from wastes. • Biogas can supply all the energy (electricity and fuel) needs of the plant

  12. Survey of energy harvesting and energy scavenging approaches for on-site powering of wireless sensor- and microinstrument-networks

    Lee, D.; Dulai, G.; Karanassios, Vassili

    2013-05-01

    Energy (or power) harvesting can be defined as the gathering and either storing or immediately using energy "freely" available in a local environment. Examples include harvesting energy from obvious sources such as photon-fluxes (e.g., solar), or wind or water waves, or from unusual sources such as naturally occurring pH differences. Energy scavenging can be defined as gathering and storing or immediately re-using energy that has been discarded, for instance, waste heat from air conditioning units, from in-door lights or from everyday actions such as walking or from body-heat. Although the power levels that can be harvested or scavenged are typically low (e.g., from nWatt/cm2 to mWatt/cm2), the key motivation is to harvest or to scavenge energy for a wide variety of applications. Example applications include powering devices in remote weather stations, or wireless Bluetooth headsets, or wearable computing devices or for sensor networks for health and bio-medical applications. Beyond sensors and sensor networks, there is a need to power compete systems, such as portable and energy-autonomous chemical analysis microinstruments for use on-site. A portable microinstrument is one that offers the same functionality as a large one but one that has at least one critical component in the micrometer regime. This paper surveys continuous or discontinuous energy harvesting and energy scavenging approaches (with particular emphasis on sensor and microinstrument networks) and it discusses current trends. It also briefly explores potential future directions, for example, for nature-inspired (e.g., photosynthesis), for human-power driven (e.g., for biomedical applications, or for wearable sensor networks) or for nanotechnology-enabled energy harvesting and energy scavenging approaches.

  13. Quantifying the Contribution of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems to Stream Discharge Using the SWAT Model.

    Oliver, C W; Radcliffe, D E; Risse, L M; Habteselassie, M; Mukundan, R; Jeong, J; Hoghooghi, N

    2014-03-01

    In the southeastern United States, on-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are widely used for domestic wastewater treatment. The degree to which OWTSs represent consumptive water use has been questioned in Georgia. The goal of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs on streamflow in a gauged watershed in Gwinnett County, Georgia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed-scale model, which includes a new OWTS algorithm. Streamflow was modeled with and without the presence of OWTSs. The model was calibrated using data from 1 Jan. 2003 to 31 Dec. 2006 and validated from 1 Jan. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2010 using the auto-calibration tool SWAT-CUP 4. The daily and monthly streamflow Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.49 and 0.71, respectively, for the calibration period and 0.37 and 0.68, respectively, for the validation period, indicating a satisfactory fit. Analysis of water balance output variables between simulations showed a 3.1% increase in total water yield at the watershed scale and a 5.9% increase at the subbasin scale for a high-density OWTS area. The percent change in water yield between simulations was the greatest in dry years, implying that the influence of OWTSs on the water yield is greatest under drought conditions. Mean OWTS water use was approximately 5.7% consumptive, contrary to common assumptions by water planning agencies in Georgia. Results from this study may be used by OWTS users and by watershed planners to understand the influence of OWTSs on water quantity within watersheds in this region. PMID:25602655

  14. The non-proliferation experiment and gas sampling as an on-site inspection activity: A progress report

    The Non-proliferation Experiment (NPE) is contributing to the development of gas sampling methods and models that may be incorporated into future on-site inspection (OSI) activities. Surface gas sampling and analysis, motivated by nuclear test containment studies, have already demonstrated the tendency for the gaseous products of an underground nuclear test to flow hundreds of meters to the surface over periods ranging from days to months. Even in the presence of a uniform sinusoidal pressure variation, there will be a net flow of cavity gas toward the surface. To test this barometric pumping effect at Rainier Mesa, gas bottles containing sulfur hexaflouride and 3He were added to the pre-detonation cavity for the 1 kt chemical explosives test. Pre-detonation measurements of the background levels of both gases were obtained at selected sites on top of the mesa. The background levels of both tracers were found to be at or below mass spectrographic/gas chromatographic sensitivity thresholds in the parts-per-trillion range. Post-detonation, gas chromatographic analyses of samples taken during barometric pressure lows from the sampling sites on the mesa indicate the presence of significant levels (300--600 ppt) of sulfur hexaflouride. However, mass spectrographic analyses of gas samples taken to date do not show the presence of 3He. To explain these observations, several possibilities are being explored through additional sampling/analysis and numerical modeling. For the NPE, the detonation point was approximately 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa and the event did not produce significant fracturing or subsidence on the surface of the mesa. Thus, the NPE may ultimately represent an extreme, but useful example for the application and tuning of cavity gas detection techniques

  15. A device for fully automated on-site process monitoring and control of trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water

    Highlights: • Commercial device for on-line monitoring of trihalomethanes in drinking water. • Method detection limits for individual trihalomethanes range from 0.01–0.04 μg L–1. • Rugged and robust device operates automatically for on-site process control. • Used for process mapping and process optimization to reduce treatment costs. • Hourly measurements of trihalomethanes made continuously for ten months. - Abstract: An instrument designed for fully automated on-line monitoring of trihalomethane concentrations in chlorinated drinking water is presented. The patented capillary membrane sampling device automatically samples directly from a water tap followed by injection of the sample into a gas chromatograph equipped with a nickel-63 electron capture detector. Detailed studies using individual trihalomethane species exhibited method detection limits ranging from 0.01–0.04 μg L−1. Mean percent recoveries ranged from 77.1 to 86.5% with percent relative standard deviation values ranging from 1.2 to 4.6%. Out of more than 5200 samples analyzed, 95% of the concentration ranges were detectable, 86.5% were quantifiable. The failure rate was less than 2%. Using the data from the instrument, two different treatment processes were optimized so that total trihalomethane concentrations were maintained at acceptable levels while reducing treatment costs significantly. This ongoing trihalomethane monitoring program has been operating for more than ten months and has produced the longest continuous and most finely time-resolved data on trihalomethane concentrations reported in the literature

  16. On the On-site Management of Construction Enterprise%浅谈建筑企业现场施工管理

    郭素芳

    2013-01-01

    This paper, by analyzing the existing problems of on-site construction management in construction enterprises, discusses the problems of how to improve the on-site construction management level, to hope to provide reference for the construction enterprises.%  本文通过分析建筑企业在现场施工管理方面存在的问题,就如何提高建筑企业现场施工管理水平这一问题展开了论述,以期能为建筑企业提供借鉴意义。

  17. On-site detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus using a portable, automated sample preparation and PCR system

    Full text: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of farm livestock. The etiological agent, FMD virus (FMDV), is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Aphthovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Rapid and accurate confirmation of the presence of FMDV is needed for effective control and eradication of the disease. An on-site detection test would be highly advantageous as the time taken to transport suspect clinical material to a central laboratory can often be lengthy, thus delaying a definitive diagnosis in the event of an outbreak. This study describes the development of a molecular assay for the detection of all seven serotypes of FMDV using novel technology, namely: Linear-After-The- Exponential (LATE)-PCR, for transfer onto a portable, easy-to-use, fully automated sample preparation and RT-PCR instrument. Primers and a mismatch tolerant probe were designed from consensus sequences in the FMDV 3D (RNA polymerase) gene to detect the target and its variants at low temperature. An internal control (IC) was included to validate negative results. After demonstrating that the LATE RT-PCR signal at end-point was proportional to number of target molecules over the range 10 to 1 million copies, the assay was compared with a one-step real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay (also targeting the 3D) used routinely by reference laboratories. The LATE RT-PCR assay amplified RNA extracted from multiple strains of all FMDV serotypes. Of the 121 FMDV-positive samples tested, 119 were positive by both rRT-PCR and LATE RT-PCR tests while 118 had tested positive by virus isolation at the time of receipt. Twenty-eight FMDVnegative samples failed to react in all 3 tests. There were no false positive signals with RNA from other vesicular disease-causing viruses. Each FMDV-negative sample generated a signal from the IC, ruling out amplification failures. A dilution series of an FMDV reference strain demonstrated

  18. Study of an aquifer contaminated by ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): Site characterization and on-site bioremediation

    Highlights: ► Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) (>300 mg L−1) found in a groundwater (gas-station). ► No significant carbon or hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE along the plume. ► MC-IFP culture degraded ETBE (0.91 mg L−1 h−1) and BTEX (0.64 mg L−1 h−1). ► A pilot plant (2 m3) inoculated with MC-IFP degraded ETBE in groundwater (15 °C). ► ethB gene (ETBE biodegradation) amplified during bioaugmentation (5 × 106ethB gene copies L−1). - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was detected at high concentration (300 mg L−1) in the groundwater below a gas-station. No significant carbon neither hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE was detected along the plume. ETBE and BTEX biodegradation capacities of the indigenous microflora Pz1-ETBE and of a culture (MC-IFP) composed of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016, Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017 and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis IFP 2003 showed that ETBE and BTEX degradation rates were in the same range (ETBE: 0.91 and 0.83 mg L−1 h−1 and BTEX: 0.64 and 0.82 mg L−1 h−1, respectively) but tert-butanol (TBA) accumulated transiently at a high level using Pz1-ETBE (74 mg L−1). An on-site pilot plant (2 m3) filled with polluted groundwater and inoculated by MC-IFP, successfully degraded four successive additions of ETBE and gasoline. However, an insignificant ETBE isotopic fractionation was also accompanying this decrease which suggested the involvement of low fractionating-strains using EthB enzymes, but required of additional proofs. The ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 involved in ETBE biodegradation (present in R. aetherivorans IFP 2017) was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) on DNA extracted from water sampled in the pilot plant which yield up to 5 × 106 copies of ethB gene per L−1.

  19. Changes in competence of public authorities in connection with final storage pursuant to the omnibus law on site selection

    The omnibus law on site finding and selection for a repository for radioactive waste generating heat, and with amendments to other laws, of June 13, 2012 is to reshuffle fundamentally the competences of public authorities for final storage. The federal government is to assume more responsibilities from former federal state competences. Moreover, most of the existing competences of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection are to be transferred to a federal agency yet to be founded, which is called Federal Office for Nuclear Safety in the present draft legislation. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection will only retain its responsibility as project agent for repositories, and that only in the phases of site exploration and licensing. Afterwards, the duty of final storage in the draft legislation is transferred to a 3rd party. Again in the version of the draft legislation, and unlike present regulations, this 3rd party may only be a company whose sole owner is the federal government, which also is to strengthen the influence of the federal government under aspects of company law. Legislative efforts seeking to strengthen the federal government and its competences by assigning licensing duties for repositories to federal agencies are understandable under feasibility aspects and may even be in the emotional interest of the states and their competent representatives in public authorities who, merely because their work is connected with the disputed topic of final storage, often face attacks and accusations by the public. Nevertheless, the transfer to federal agencies of administrative duties is subject to constitutional limits which must be observed. These constitutional aspects are highlighted in the publication. It is left to the reader to assess the meaningfulness of establishing another independent high-level federal agency in the area of responsibility of the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), i.e. a Federal Office for Nuclear Safety, alongside the

  20. Study of an aquifer contaminated by ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): Site characterization and on-site bioremediation

    Fayolle-Guichard, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.fayolle@ifpen.fr [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Durand, Jonathan [Institut EGID Bordeaux 3, 1 Allee Daguin 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Cheucle, Mathilde [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Rosell, Monica [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Michelland, Rory Julien [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne (France); Tracol, Jean-Philippe [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); Le Roux, Francoise [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Grundman, Genevieve [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR5557, Ecologie Microbienne (France); Atteia, Olivier [Institut EGID Bordeaux 3, 1 Allee Daguin 33607 Pessac Cedex (France); Richnow, Hans H. [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dumestre, Alain [SERPOL, 2 chemin du Genie, BP 80, 69633 Venissieux Cedex (France); and others

    2012-01-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) (>300 mg L{sup -1}) found in a groundwater (gas-station). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant carbon or hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE along the plume. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MC-IFP culture degraded ETBE (0.91 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) and BTEX (0.64 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pilot plant (2 m{sup 3}) inoculated with MC-IFP degraded ETBE in groundwater (15 Degree-Sign C). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ethB gene (ETBE biodegradation) amplified during bioaugmentation (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}ethB gene copies L{sup -1}). - Abstract: Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) was detected at high concentration (300 mg L{sup -1}) in the groundwater below a gas-station. No significant carbon neither hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ETBE was detected along the plume. ETBE and BTEX biodegradation capacities of the indigenous microflora Pz1-ETBE and of a culture (MC-IFP) composed of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis IFP 2016, Rhodococcus aetherivorans IFP 2017 and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis IFP 2003 showed that ETBE and BTEX degradation rates were in the same range (ETBE: 0.91 and 0.83 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1} and BTEX: 0.64 and 0.82 mg L{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively) but tert-butanol (TBA) accumulated transiently at a high level using Pz1-ETBE (74 mg L{sup -1}). An on-site pilot plant (2 m{sup 3}) filled with polluted groundwater and inoculated by MC-IFP, successfully degraded four successive additions of ETBE and gasoline. However, an insignificant ETBE isotopic fractionation was also accompanying this decrease which suggested the involvement of low fractionating-strains using EthB enzymes, but required of additional proofs. The ethB gene encoding a cytochrome P450 involved in ETBE biodegradation (present in R. aetherivorans IFP 2017) was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) on DNA extracted from water sampled in the pilot plant

  1. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 ± 54 versus 125 ± 59 min, respectively, p 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of Program for Infant/Toddler Care (PITC): An On-Site Training of Caregivers. Final Report. NCEE 2012-4003

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Bos, Johannes; Tseng, Fannie; Rosenthal, Emily; Ortiz, Lorena; Dowsett, Chantelle; Huston, Aletha; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of training strategies for child care providers. The current study used an experimental intent-to-treat design to measure the impact of an established intervention, the on-site caregiver training component of the Program for Infant/Toddler Care (PITC), on child development and child care…

  3. Isotope Investigations at an Alpine Karst Aquifer by Means of On-Site Measurements with High Time Resolution and Near Realtime Data Availability

    For a lot of hydrological isotope investigations it would be helpful to conduct on-site measurements with a very high time resolution. Recent developments of a highly sensitive gas analyser on the basis of so called 'Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy' (CRDS) has lead to a new class of on-site capable measuring devices, the wavelength scanned (WS)-CRDS. In the framework of a new project it succeeded for the first time in measuring the stable environmental isotopes of the water on-site and on-line at one of the most important karst springs in Austria. It was necessary, to adapt the WS-CRDS system for on-site application. Particularly the sampling device had to be adopted to get samples from the flow of the spring to the WS-CDRS system in real time. The system was installed at the spring during snowmelt with measuring intervals of fewer than 10 minutes. This measuring device was combined with a near real time data transmission system, based on LEO satellites. This allowed a dissemination of the data via the internet and, for registered users, also a download possibility of the data. (author)

  4. Recovery Act. Direct Confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado Using Remote Sensing and On-Site Exploration, Testing, and Analysis

    Foley, Paul [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Skeehan, Kirsten [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Smith, Jerome [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Mink, Roy [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States); Geohydro, Mink [Pagosa Verde LLC, Pagosa Springs, CO (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Report on the confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado describing the on site testing and analysis to confirm remote sensing identified potential resources. A series of thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Pagosa Springs region and the data collected is analyzed within.

  5. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  6. The understanding of the formation of valleys and its implication on site characterization: Moredalen and Pukedalen, south-eastern Sweden

    Tiren, Sven A.; Waenstedt, Stefan; Straeng, Thomas (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In south-eastern Sweden, there are a number of over-deepened narrow valleys, more than 20 m deep, formed in Precambrian bedrock located above the highest post-glacial shoreline. Canyon-like valleys, called 'kursu' or kursu valleys, are generally interpreted to be formed by glaciofluvial erosion. An example of such a valley is Moredalen, a canyon in the Fennoscandian Shield, which has an implication on site selection for radioactive waste disposal. There are also more open over-deepened valleys along which sub-glacial flow has occurred, e.g. Pukedalen. The main part of this paper discusses a combined geological and geophysical investigation of Moredalen, with the aim to investigate possible reasons for the formation of such an unusual feature formed in acid vulcanite and foliated tonalitic to granodioritic rocks. Moredalen is a marked, approximately 7 km long, E-W striking valley that cuts through a plateau (c. 140 m a.s.l.), and an elevated block of the sub-Cambrian peneplain. Glaciofluvial sediments can be found up-streams where the canyon widens to the west. Just east of the valley is a larger delta deposited at the highest post-glacial shoreline (c. 105 m a.s.l). Further east of, and in line with the Moredalen valley there is an esker. Rock debris in the valley is angular. Pukedalen is a northwest-southeast trending valley incised in massive granite. The valley is in its northern parts relatively open and becomes narrow in its south-eastern part having partly a vertical south-western wall. Rock surfaces are smooth along the valley and rock debris in the valley consists generally of rounded blocks. In line with Pukedalen, on both sides at great distances though, there are eskers. Geomorphological features of this kind indicate certain characteristics of the bedrock that need to be considered during safety analysis of repositories for nuclear waste. The distinct weakness zones along which the kursu-valleys are formed create prominent transport paths for

  7. On-site visits to radiotherapy centres: Medical physics procedures. Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO)

    The IAEA has a long standing history of providing support and assistance for radiotherapy dosimetry audits in Member States, for educating and training radiotherapy professionals, and for reviewing the radiotherapy process in a variety of situations. Since 1969, and in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), the IAEA has implemented a dosimetry audit service using mailed thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the calibration of radiotherapy beams in hospitals in Member States. The IAEA/WHO TLD service aims at improving the accuracy and consistency of clinical radiotherapy dosimetry worldwide. Detailed follow-up procedures have been implemented for correcting incorrect beam calibrations. When necessary, on-site visits by IAEA experts in radiotherapy physics are organized to identify and rectify dosimetry problems in hospitals. The IAEA has also been requested to organize expert missions in response to problems found during the radiation treatment planning process. Assessment of the doses received by affected patients and a medical assessment were undertaken when appropriate. Although vital for the radiotherapy process, accurate beam dosimetry and treatment planning alone cannot guarantee the successful treatment of a patient. The quality assurance (QA) of the entire radiotherapy process has to be taken into account. Hence, a new approach has been developed and named 'Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO)'. The principal aim of QUATRO is to review the radiotherapy process, including the organization, infrastructure, clinical and medical physics aspects of the radiotherapy services. It also includes reviewing the hospital's professional competence, with a view to quality improvement. The QUATRO methodology is described in the IAEA publication Comprehensive Audits of Radiotherapy Practices: A Tool for Quality Improvement. QUATRO, in addition, offers assistance in the resolution of suspected or actual dose misadministrations (over

  8. Portable Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with Ion Mobility Spectrometry System for On-Site Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Simulants in Water Samples

    Liu Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples.

  9. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  10. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  11. Portable solid phase micro-extraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry system for on-site analysis of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples.

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Cao, Shuya; Yang, Jie; Yang, Junchao; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-01-01

    On-site analysis is an efficient approach to facilitate analysis at the location of the system under investigation as it can result in more accurate, more precise and quickly available analytical data. In our work, a novel self-made thermal desorption based interface was fabricated to couple solid-phase microextraction with ion mobility spectrometry for on-site water analysis. The portable interface can be connected with the front-end of an ion mobility spectrometer directly without other modifications. The analytical performance was evaluated via the extraction of chemical warfare agents and simulants in water samples. Several parameters including ionic strength and extraction time have been investigated in detail. The application of the developed method afforded satisfactory recoveries ranging from 72.9% to 114.4% when applied to the analysis of real water samples. PMID:25384006

  12. The importance of the on-site electron-electron interaction for the magnetic coupling in the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5

    Wang, Hao

    2010-09-27

    We present first-principles electronic structure calculations for the zigzag spin-chain compound In2VO5 using the generalized gradient approximation both with and without inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction. It has been proposed that In2VO5 is characterized by itinerant V 3d electrons at high temperature and localized electrons at low temperature. Consequently, it is to be expected that electronic correlations play an important role for the magnetic transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic exchange around 120 K. In this context, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of a set of possible spin configurations. Our calculations show that inclusion of an on-site Coulomb interaction in fact changes the ground state from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. A microfabricated, low dark current a-Se detector for measurement of microplasma optical emission in the UV for possible use on-site

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Karim, Karim S.; Karanassios, Vassili

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, samples are collected on-site (i.e., in the field) and are shipped to a lab for chemical analysis. An alternative is offered by using portable chemical analysis instruments that can be used on-site (i.e., in the field). Many analytical measurements by optical emission spectrometry require use of light-sources and of spectral lines that are in the Ultra-Violet (UV, ~200 nm - 400 nm wavelength) region of the spectrum. For such measurements, a portable, battery-operated, fiber-optic spectrometer equipped with an un-cooled, linear, solid-state detector may be used. To take full advantage of the advanced measurement capabilities offered by state-of-the-art solid-state detectors, cooling of the detector is required. But cooling and other thermal management hamper portability and use on-site because they add size and weight and they increase electrical power requirements. To address these considerations, an alternative was implemented, as described here. Specifically, a microfabricated solid-state detector for measurement of UV photons will be described. Unlike solid-state detectors developed on crystalline Silicon, this miniaturized and low-cost detector utilizes amorphous Selenium (a-Se) as its photosensitive material. Due to its low dark current, this detector does not require cooling, thus it is better suited for portable use and for chemical measurements on-site. In this paper, a microplasma will be used as a light-source of UV photons for the a-Se detector. For example, spectra acquired using a microplasma as a light-source will be compared with those obtained with a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer equipped with a Si-based 2080-element detector. And, analytical performance obtained by introducing ng-amounts of analytes into the microplasma will be described.

  14. Role of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's On-Site Representatives in pre-licensing activities for a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission are required to consult with each other prior to DOE's submittal of a license application to construct a high-level radioactive waste repository. DOE entered into an agreement which, in part, enabled NRC On-Site Representatives to be stationed at a high-level waste candidate site open-quotes principally to serve as a point of prompt informational exchange and consultation and to preliminary identify concerns about such investigations relating to potential licensing issues.close quotes On-Site Representatives' direct observation of site characterization activities including construction of an underground studies facility (at Yucca Mountain, NV candidate site) provides NRC staff opportunities to help ensure that DOE will develop data which are appropriate to determine if the site will safely isolate waste and which will be defensible in a License Application. The On-Site Representatives, through supervision and input from the Division of High-Level Waste Management, may consult with the DOE site project office and its contractor staff on items pertaining to management and program controls necessary to satisfy NRC licensing needs, such as demonstrated application of procedural controls and technical data that will support a License Application. The On-Site Representatives interact with DOE through consultations with project staff, quality assurance workshops, observations of reviews of computer software and Q-List considerations, responses to audit and surveillance observations and day-to-day contact with DOE site management, QA staff, and technical investigators

  15. Uranium mining sites of Somair and Cominak (Niger). Situation of mission on site in may 2004, application of radiological impact and advice on the network of environmental surveillance

    The report presents successively the context of the two mining sites, the situation of the I.R.S.N. mission on site of may 2004, an appreciation by I.R.S.N. of sites impact on the populations, the evaluation by I.R.S.N. of associated impact to generic scenario of scrap recovery from sites by the population around. (N.C.)

  16. Development of an impact assessment methodology and decision making tool to assist in the evaluation of site suitability for on-site sanitation systems / Johanna Christina Vivier

    Viviers, Johanna Christina

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in water supply to rural communities. This statement is supported by the survey conducted at clinics within the Limpopo Province where the majority of aquifers in the area can be classified as Sole Source aquifers, supplying 50 % or more of domestic water in the absence of any reasonable alternative. The water quality study also concluded that the impact from on site sanitation on the groundwater system is significant given that 44 % of water samples of cli...

  17. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to metal-contaminated sites in Antarctica and the Arctic: a review

    Danielle Camenzuli; Freidman, Benjamin L.; Tom M. Statham; Mumford, Kathryn A.; Gore, Damian B.

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of contaminated land requires a sound understanding of site geology, chemistry and biology. This is particularly the case for Antarctica and the Arctic, which function using different legislative frameworks to those of industrialized, temperate environments and are logistically challenging environments to operate in. This paper reviews seven remediation technologies currently used, or demonstrating potential for on-site or in situ use at metal-contaminated sites in polar ...

  18. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to metal-contaminated sites in Antarctica and the Arctic: a review

    Camenzuli, Danielle; Freidman, Benjamin L.; Tom M. Statham; Mumford, Kathryn A.; Gore, Damian B.

    2013-01-01

    Effective management of contaminated land requires a sound understanding of site geology, chemistry and biology. This is particularly the case for Antarctica and the Arctic, which function using different legislative frame- works to those of industrialized, temperate environments and are logistically challenging environments to operate in. This paper reviews seven remediation technologies currently used, or demonstrating potential for on-site or in situ use at metal-contaminated sites in pola...

  19. “One-stop shop” spectral imaging for rapid on-site diagnosis of lung cancer : a future concept in nano-oncology

    Darwiche, Kaid; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Krauss, Leslie; Oezkan, Filiz; Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Theegarten, Dirk; Sakkas, Leonidas; Sakkas, Antonios; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Freitag, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Background There are currently many techniques and devices available for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, rapid on-site diagnosis is essential for early-stage lung cancer, and in the current work we investigated a new diagnostic illumination nanotechnology. Methods Tissue samples were obtained from lymph nodes, cancerous tissue, and abnormal intrapulmonary lesions at our interventional pulmonary suites. The following diagnostic techniques were used to obtain the samples: endobronchial u...

  20. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study

    Knaapen, Paul; Rossum, Albert C. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, Maarten de; Peels, Hans O.; Cornel, Jan H.; Umans, Victor A.W.M. [Medical Center Alkmaar, Department of Cardiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Zant, Friso M. van der [Medical Center Alkmaar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Twisk, Jos W.R. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 {+-} 54 versus 125 {+-} 59 min, respectively, p < 0.01), although symptoms-to-treatment time was only insignificantly reduced (257 {+-} 211 versus 286 {+-} 146 min, respectively, p = 0.39). Infarct size was comparable between treatment centers (16 {+-} 15 versus 14 {+-} 12%, respectively p = 0.35). Multivariate analysis revealed that TIMI 0/1 flow grade at initial coronary angiography (OR 3.125, 95% CI 1.17-8.33, p = 0.023), anterior wall localization of the myocardial infarction (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.38-8.55, p < 0.01), and development of pathological Q-waves (OR 5.07, 95% CI 2.10-12.25, p < 0.01) were independent predictors of an infarct size > 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size. (orig.)

  1. Health Science Students and Their Learning Environment: A Comparison of Perceptions of On-Site, Remote-Site, and Traditional Classroom Students

    Elison-Bowers, P.; Snelson, Chareen; Casa de Calvo, Mario; Thompson, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the responses of on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students on measures of student/teacher interaction, course structure, physical learning environment, and overall course enjoyment/satisfaction. The sample population consisted of students taking undergraduate courses in medical terminology at two western colleges. The survey instrument was derived from Thomerson's questionnaire, which included closed- and open-ended questions assessing perceptions of student...

  2. International ENEA/ISMES/ENS specialist meeting on 'On-site experimental verification of the seismic behaviour of nuclear reactor structures and components'. Proceedings

    The seismic verification of nuclear plants is a subject of increasing interest in all the industrial countries, with respect to both the safety aspects and the impact of the seismic event on the design and the costs of a nuclear reactor. This topic is especially of great interest for a country like Italy, whose territory is unfortunately characterized by non - negligible seismicity: we remember, not too many years ago, the catastrophic earthquakes of Frioul and Irpinia, that caused thousands of dead people. The meeting aimed at establishing the state-of-the-art on on-site testing of nuclear reactors structures and components, with particular attention to experiences and research programmes concerning: methodologies of on-site tests and interpretation of the experimental data; seismic monitoring systems, recorded data, their use and interpretation; calibration and validation of numerical analyses. Six technical sessions were held, during which 23 high papers were presented and discussed, and six panel discussions were held (the importance of discussion was emphasized in the meeting). The technical contributions consisted of: an introduction paper, summarizing the seismic studies performed in Italy for PEC reactor and explaining the reasons why on-site tests had been performed on this reactor; 6 invited lectures, one for each of the countries that are more deeply involved in seismic analysis, providing the state-of-the-art on the topics of interest for the meeting; 16 contributed papers dealing with more specific technical items, related to the various countries and international organizations

  3. Screening of several drugs of abuse in Italian workplace drug testing: performance comparisons of on-site screening tests and a fluorescence polarization immunoassay-based device.

    Basilicata, Pascale; Pieri, Maria; Settembre, Veronica; Galdiero, Alessandra; Della Casa, Elvira; Acampora, Antonio; Miraglia, Nadia

    2011-11-15

    According to the Italian laws, some categories of workers entrusted with duties possibly constituting a threat to security, physical safety, and health of third parties have to be screened to exclude the use/abuse of the following drugs of abuse: opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methadone, and buprenorphine. Toxicological tests can be performed with urinary on-site rapid screening devices, provided that sensitivities up to specified cutoffs are ensured. The present study reports performances, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, of an automatic on-site test and of an FPIA-based device, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as a reference methodology. Three levels of concentration were tested, corresponding to the cutoff and to 2 and 3 times the limits, respectively. In terms of sensitivities, neither the on-site nor the benchtop instrumentations gave positive results, since values of zero percentage were obtained for concentrations up to 2-fold the limits. Even if good results were obtained in terms of specificity and accuracy by both devices, none of them seem to be adequate for the current application to the toxicological screening at workplaces. In fact, a rapid screening device can be used for drug tests provided that it ensures sensitivity at the prescribed cutoffs. Data showed that such is completely rejected and a more sensitive instrumentation should be preferred. PMID:21992470

  4. Assessment of solar photocatalysis to purify on-site rinse waters from tractor cisterns used in grapevine pest control: field experimentation.

    Pichat, P; Vannier, S; Dussaud, J; Rubis, J P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess in a vineyard the effect of purifying by solar photocatalysis the title rinse waters (currently most often rejected) in terms of efficacy and on-site practicality for the wine grower. The on-site, self-functioning, solar purifying unit included a corrugated-steel inclined plate of area S = 1 m2 onto which a TiO2-coated thin material had been slightly pressed, a tank, and an aquarium-type pump powered by a photovoltaic panel (appropriate for isolated locations). For a vineyard of area A = 0.15 km2, the rinse water (about 90 L) corresponding to each of four typical vine treatments in summer was analysed (major pesticides for each treatment, TOC, Microtox test and, in one case, BOD5) by independent laboratories, before and after purification for 8 days. The S/A ratio tested was found insufficient even if the photocatalytic treatment markedly improved the quality of the rinse waters. From the relatively low final organic content reached in one case, it is calculated that a three-time higher S/A ratio might suffice, but new trials are necessary to determine whether it is valid for other typical cases. Inferred contribution of inorganic ions to the post-photocatalytic treatment toxicity points to the need for an additional detoxification. These field experiments have also demonstrated that the purifying prototype is robust, and easy to install and use on site by the wine grower. PMID:16312971

  5. Small Reactors without On-site Refuelling: Neutronic Characteristics, Emergency Planning and Development Scenarios. Final Report of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    Small reactors without on-site refuelling have a capability to operate without reloading or shuffling of fuel in their cores for reasonably long periods of time consistent with plant economy and considerations of energy security, with no fresh or spent fuel being stored at the site during reactor operation. In 2009, more than 25 design concepts of such reactors were analyzed or developed in IAEA Member States, representing both developed and developing countries. Small reactors without on-site refuelling are being developed for several reactor lines, including water cooled reactors, sodium cooled fast reactors, lead and lead bismuth cooled reactors, and also include some non-conventional concepts. Most of the concepts of small reactors without on-site refuelling reactors are at early design stages. To make such reactors viable, further research and development (R and D) is necessary, inter alia, to validate long-life core operation, define and validate new robust types of fuel, justify an option of plant location in the proximity to its users, and examine possible niches that such reactors could fill in future energy systems. To further research and development (R and D) in the areas mentioned above and several others, and to facilitate progress in Member States in design and technology development for small reactors without on-site refueling, the IAEA has conducted a dedicated Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Small Reactors without On-site Refuelling' (CRPi25001). The project started late in 2004 and, after a review in 2008, was extended for one more year to be ended in 2009. The project has created a network of 18 research institutions from 10 Member States, representing both developed and developing countries. Over the CRP period, collaborative results were achieved for many of the abovementioned research areas. Some studies highlighted new directions of research to be furthered after the CRP completion. Some studies remained the efforts of

  6. Development of a rotary disc voltammetric sensor system for semi-continuous and on-site measurements of Pb(II).

    Lee, Yong-Gu; Han, Jungyoup; Kwon, Soondong; Kang, Seoktae; Jang, Am

    2016-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are widely used for determination of heavy metals due to their low detection limits. However, they are not applicable to on-site measurements of heavy metals as bulky equipment, and highly skilled laboratory staffs are needed as well. In this study, a novel analytical method using a rotary disc voltammetric (RDV) sensor has been successfully designed, fabricated and characterized for semi-continuous and on-site measurements of trace levels of Pb(II) in non-deoxygenating solutions. The square wave anodic stripping voltammetry was used to improve the sensitivity of the Pb(II) detection level with less than 10nM (2μgL(-1)). The RDV sensor has 24-sensing holes to measure concentrations of Pb(II) semi-continuously at sampling sites. Each sensing hole consists of a silver working electrode, an integrated silver counter, and a quasi-reference electrode, which requires only a small amount of samples (clogging the sensing environment. In addition, the RDV sensor showed a correlation coefficient of 0.998 for the Pb(II) concentration range of 10nM-10μM at the deposition time of 180s and its low detection limit was 6.19nM (1.3μgL(-1)). These results indicated that the advanced monitoring technique using a RDV sensor might provide environmental engineers with a reliable way for semi-continuous and on-site measurements of Pb(II). PMID:26058555

  7. Development of on-site high- purity hydrogen manufacturing equipment; Mise au point d'un equipement de production d'hydrogene de grande purete

    Furuta, H. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    On-site high-purity hydrogen manufacturing equipment using city gas as a feedstock was developed to expand sales of city gas. High-purity hydrogen is used as an atmosphere gas and feedstock gas in industry, and demand is rising. Large-scale equipment for on-site production of industrial hydrogen from city gas is commercially available and its use is spreading. Conventional small-scale units, however, fail to meet market requirements vis-a-vis product (hydrogen) purity, hydrogen production cost, and ease of installation and operation, and are consequently less widely used. In response, Tokyo Gas applied its reforming technology (acquired through its experience in city gas manufacturing) in combination with various other resources to develop a unit capable of low-cost production of hydrogen of 'five nine' (99.999%) purity on a par with hydrogen supplied by high pressure gas cylinder. The equipment was in addition made more acceptable to the market by, for example, making it capable of full-auto load-following operation and on-site steam generation in order to make it more capable of independent and automated operation. Wider use of this equipment could contribute to greater sales of city gas, with each unit creating new demand for about 120,000 m{sup 3} N/year. It could also be used for production of hydrogen from city gas for supply to cogeneration systems and vehicles powered by polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), which are expected to be used more extensively in the future. (author)

  8. Experimental measurement at the seismic station Ostrava-Krásné Pole (OKC): preliminary results and remarks on site effect at the studied locality

    Lednická, M. (Markéta); Rušajová, J. (Jana)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some preliminary results and remarks on site effect at the locality of the seismic station Ostrava-Krásné Pole (OKC) which is part of the Czech regional seismological network. Short-term seismological measurements were realized simultaneously at two sites with different geological conditions using two identical seismic apparatuses GAIA Vistec and seismometers Lennartz LE3D/5s within the frequency range of 0.2 - 50 Hz. Station “ST1” located in an experimental gallery repres...

  9. On-site test of filters in nuclear facilities using radioactive sodium chloride (24Na)-aerosol and methyl iodide (131I)

    The nuclar facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are equipped with high-efficiency filters to protect the environment from routine or accidental releases of radioactive material. The filter efficiency must be tested regularly and a method for on-site control is described. It is based on injection of a radioactive sample in the filter duct, followed by sampling before and after the filter. HEPA-filters are tested with a 24NaCl-aerosol and charcoal filters with 131ICH3. Normally samples of 1 mCi are used. Penetrations (1 - efficiency) can be determined with a relative uncertainty of 10-15%. (author)

  10. 50 kW on-site concentrating solar photovoltaic power system. Phase I: design. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Pittman, P F

    1979-03-30

    This contract is part of a three phase program to design, fabricate, and operate a solar photovoltaic electric power system with concentrating optics. The system will be located beside a Local Operating Headquarters of the Georgia Power Company in Atlanta, Georgia and will provide part of the power for the on-site load. Fresnel lens concentrators will be used in 2-axis tracking arrays to focus solar energy onto silicon solar cells producing a peak power output of 56 kW. The present contract covers Phase I which has as its objective the complete design of the system and necessary subsystems.

  11. On-site experimental dynamic analysis for evaluating the soil-structure interaction and the seismic behaviour of the Italian PEC fast reactor building

    The paper describes the on-site dynamic tests carried out on the PEC fast reactor building, using various excitation methods (two eccentric back-rotating-mass mechanical vibrator, blasting in bore-hole, hydraulic actuators at the building foundations). It points out the purposes of the four tests campaigns performed at various construction stages and reports the main experimental results. These results concern both the design safety margins and the data for the validation of the three-dimensional numerical model of the reactor building, including soil-structure interaction phenomena. (author)

  12. Rapid on-site/in-situ detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water using a structure-switching DNA optical biosensor

    Feng Long; Anna Zhu; Hanchang Shi; Hongchen Wang; Jingquan Liu

    2013-01-01

    A structure-switching DNA optical biosensor for rapid on-site/in situ detection of heavy metal ions is reported. Mercury ions (Hg2+), highly toxic and ubiquitous pollutants, were selected as model target. In this system, fluorescence-labeled DNA containing T-T mismatch structure was introduced to bind with DNA probes immobilized onto the sensor surface. In the presence of Hg2+, some of the fluorescence-labeled DNAs bind with Hg2+ to form T-Hg2+-T complexes through the folding of themselves in...

  13. Collaborative Russian-US work in nuclear material protection, control and accounting at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. 3: Emphasis on site-wide issues

    During 1997, collaborative Russian-US nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) tasks at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk, Russia are focusing increasingly on site-wide issues, though there is continued work at several major facilities: the Fast Critical Facility, the Technological Laboratory for Fuel Fabrication, and the (new and existing) Central Storage Facility. The collaborative work is being done with US Department of Energy National Laboratories. IPPE's emphasis on site-wide issues has resulted in the formation of a separate division for MPC and A. This new division reports directly to the IPPE Chief Engineer. It is a separate scientific and engineering operating division responsible for coordination and harmonization of MPC and A at IPPE, as well as for audit, assessment and inspection. By virtue of the organizational independence of this new division, IPPE has significantly strengthened the role of MPC and A. Two specific site-wide accomplishments are the consolidation of nuclear material from many buildings to a smaller number, and, as a major part of this strategy, the construction of a nuclear island surrounding the Fast Critical Facility and the new Central Storage Facility. Most of IPPE's weapons-grade nuclear materials will be concentrated within the nuclear island. The paper summarizes the following technical elements: computerized accounting, bar coding, weight measurements, gamma-ray measurements, tamper indicating devices, procedures for physical inventory taking and material balance closure, and video monitoring systems for storage and critical assembly areas

  14. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    El Haddad, J. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bruyère, D. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Ismaël, A.; Gallou, G. [IVEA Solution, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Bât 503, 91400 Orsay (France); Laperche, V.; Michel, K. [BRGM, Service Métrologie, Monitoring et Analyse, 3 av. C. Guillemin, B.P 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex (France); Canioni, L. [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France); Bousquet, B., E-mail: bruno.bousquet@u-bordeaux.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, LOMA, CNRS UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-07-01

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis. - Highlights: • Application of a series of artificial neural networks (ANN) to quantitative LIBS • Matrix-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Concentration-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Series of quantitative ANN models dedicated to the analysis of data subsets • Relative error of prediction lower than 20% for LIBS analysis of soil samples.

  15. The Concept of “Sala de Fabrica”: On-Site Museums to Raise Awareness of Cultural Heritage After a Restoration Project

    Ana Almagro Vidal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A conservation process usually generates new knowledge and an enormous amount of documentation during the inception and implementation of the project: the information collected from archives and other institutions; the information provided by the preliminary studies carried out prior to the intervention; the data provided in the field during the works and at the end of the process; and the final set of documentation delivered to the institution responsible for the maintenance and management of the monument. The challenge for conservation professionals and cultural heritage managers throughout this process once the works are over is to achieve and transmit this information to the public and specialists in order to raise awareness for better conservation of our built heritage. During the last few years, one of the actions that the Caja Madrid Foundation has activated with its restoration projects has been the opening of permanent on site museums or “Salas de Fábrica”, a place on site to understand the restoration works, to exhibit the remains that have being retrieved during the project and to permit the public to better understand the historical and artistic values of architectural and archaeological heritage as well as the importance of preserving our cultural legacy for the future.

  16. On-site and in situ remediation technologies applicable to metal-contaminated sites in Antarctica and the Arctic: a review

    Danielle Camenzuli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of contaminated land requires a sound understanding of site geology, chemistry and biology. This is particularly the case for Antarctica and the Arctic, which function using different legislative frameworks to those of industrialized, temperate environments and are logistically challenging environments to operate in. This paper reviews seven remediation technologies currently used, or demonstrating potential for on-site or in situ use at metal-contaminated sites in polar environments, namely permeable reactive barriers (PRB, chemical fixation, bioremediation, phytoremediation, electrokinetic separation, land capping, and pump and treat systems. The technologies reviewed are discussed in terms of their advantages, limitations and overall potential for the management of metal-contaminated sites in Antarctica and the Arctic. This review demonstrates that several of the reviewed technologies show potential for on-site or in situ usage in Antarctica and the Arctic. Of the reviewed technologies, chemical fixation and PRB are particularly promising technologies for metal-contaminated sites in polar environments. However, further research and relevant field trials are required before these technologies can be considered proven techniques.

  17. Process Design and Economics of On-Site Cellulase Production on Various Carbon Sources in a Softwood-Based Ethanol Plant

    Guido Zacchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes by 5–16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60–78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42–0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative.

  18. Rapid on-site/in-situ detection of heavy metal ions in environmental water using a structure-switching DNA optical biosensor

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Shi, Hanchang; Wang, Hongchen; Liu, Jingquan

    2013-07-01

    A structure-switching DNA optical biosensor for rapid on-site/in situ detection of heavy metal ions is reported. Mercury ions (Hg2+), highly toxic and ubiquitous pollutants, were selected as model target. In this system, fluorescence-labeled DNA containing T-T mismatch structure was introduced to bind with DNA probes immobilized onto the sensor surface. In the presence of Hg2+, some of the fluorescence-labeled DNAs bind with Hg2+ to form T-Hg2+-T complexes through the folding of themselves into a hairpin structure and dehybridization from the sensor surface, which leads to decrease in fluorescence signal. The total analysis time for a single sample was less than 10 min with detection limit of 1.2 nM. The rapid on-site/in situ determination of Hg2+ was readily performed in natural water. This sensing strategy can be extended in principle to other metal ions by substituting the T-Hg2+-T complexes with other specificity structures that selectively bind to other analytes.

  19. Application of a series of artificial neural networks to on-site quantitative analysis of lead into real soil samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Artificial neural networks were applied to process data from on-site LIBS analysis of soil samples. A first artificial neural network allowed retrieving the relative amounts of silicate, calcareous and ores matrices into soils. As a consequence, each soil sample was correctly located inside the ternary diagram characterized by these three matrices, as verified by ICP-AES. Then a series of artificial neural networks were applied to quantify lead into soil samples. More precisely, two models were designed for classification purpose according to both the type of matrix and the range of lead concentrations. Then, three quantitative models were locally applied to three data subsets. This complete approach allowed reaching a relative error of prediction close to 20%, considered as satisfying in the case of on-site analysis. - Highlights: • Application of a series of artificial neural networks (ANN) to quantitative LIBS • Matrix-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Concentration-based classification of the soil samples by ANN • Series of quantitative ANN models dedicated to the analysis of data subsets • Relative error of prediction lower than 20% for LIBS analysis of soil samples

  20. The Muscle Sensor for on-site neuroscience lectures to pave the way for a better understanding of brain-machine-interface research.

    Koizumi, Amane; Nagata, Osamu; Togawa, Morio; Sazi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an expanding field of science to investigate enigmas of brain and human body function. However, the majority of the public have never had the chance to learn the basics of neuroscience and new knowledge from advanced neuroscience research through hands-on experience. Here, we report that we produced the Muscle Sensor, a simplified electromyography, to promote educational understanding in neuroscience. The Muscle Sensor can detect myoelectric potentials which are filtered and processed as 3-V pulse signals to shine a light bulb and emit beep sounds. With this educational tool, we delivered "On-Site Neuroscience Lectures" in Japanese junior-high schools to facilitate hands-on experience of neuroscientific electrophysiology and to connect their text-book knowledge to advanced neuroscience researches. On-site neuroscience lectures with the Muscle Sensor pave the way for a better understanding of the basics of neuroscience and the latest topics such as how brain-machine-interface technology could help patients with disabilities such as spinal cord injuries. PMID:24140267

  1. New Surface-Enhanced Raman Sensing Chip Designed for On-Site Detection of Active Ricin in Complex Matrices Based on Specific Depurination.

    Tang, Ji-Jun; Sun, Jie-Fang; Lui, Rui; Zhang, Zong-Mian; Liu, Jing-Fu; Xie, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-27

    Quick and accurate on-site detection of active ricin has very important realistic significance in view of national security and defense. In this paper, optimized single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides named poly(21dA), which function as a depurination substrate of active ricin, were screened and chemically attached on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, ∼100 nm) via the Au-S bond [poly(21dA)-AuNPs]. Subsequently, poly(21dA)-AuNPs were assembled on a dihydrogen lipoic-acid-modified Si wafer (SH-Si), thus forming the specific surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) chip [poly(21dA)-AuNPs@SH-Si] for depurination of active ricin. Under optimized conditions, active ricin could specifically hydrolyze multiple adenines from poly(21dA) on the chip. This depurination-induced composition change could be conveniently monitored by measuring the distinct attenuation of the SERS signature corresponding to adenine. To improve sensitivity of this method, a silver nanoshell was deposited on post-reacted poly(21dA)-AuNPs, which lowered the limit of detection to 8.9 ng mL(-1). The utility of this well-controlled SERS chip was successfully demonstrated in food and biological matrices spiked with different concentrations of active ricin, thus showing to be very promising assay for reliable and rapid on-site detection of active ricin. PMID:26719952

  2. On-site detection of Phytophthora spp.—single-stranded target DNA as the limiting factor to improve on-chip hybridization

    We report on a lab-on-a-chip approach for on-site detection of Phytophthora species that allows visual signal readout. The results demonstrate the significance of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) generation in terms of improving the intensity of the hybridization signal and to improve the reliability of the method. Conventional PCR with subsequent heat denaturation, sodium hydroxide-based denaturation, lambda exonuclease digestion and two asymmetric PCR methods were investigated for the species P. fragariae, P. kernoviae, and P. ramorum. The positioning of the capture probe within the amplified yeast GTP-binding protein (YPT1) target DNA was also of interest because it significantly influences the intensity of the signal. Statistical tests were used to validate the impact of the ssDNA generation methods and the capture-target probe position. The single-stranded target DNA generated by Linear-After-The-Exponential PCR (LATE-PCR) was found to produce signal intensities comparable to post-PCR exonuclease treatment. The LATE-PCR is the best method for the on-site detection of Phytophthora because the enzymatic digestion after PCR is more laborious and time-consuming. (author)

  3. Development of on-site automatic pipe coating system using heating-shrinkable tube under vacuum condition; Developpement d'un systeme automatise de revetement sur site des canalisations (tubes thermo-retractables sous vide)

    Teruyuki, Ikeda [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a high-quality automatic coating system for the on-site coating on the welded joint of polyethylene-coated steel pipe. The system is able to completely eliminate the harmful air voids which can be left between a steel pipe and a coating tube. The coating tube is shrunken and tightly adheres to the pipe through the heating process under quasi-vacuum pressure. The automatic on-site-coating system improved the reliability of on-site coating for the higher integrity of coating adhesion as compared with the conventional manual coating system. (author)

  4. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions

  5. Training Artisans On-Site

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-01-01

    The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this pr...

  6. On-site emergency planning

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating organization and is based on the Code of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as on arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau and - outlines the basis and content of an emergency plan - describes the emergencies postulated for emergency planning purposes - describes the responsibilities, the organization and the procedures of the operating organization to cope with emergency situations and the liaison between the operating organization, the regulatory body and public authorities - describes the facilities and equipment which should be available to cope with emergency sitauations - describes the measures and actions to be taken when an emergency arises in order to correct abnormal plant conditions and to protect the persons on-and off-site - describes the aid to be given to affected personnel - describes the aspects relevant to maintaining the emergency plan and organization in operational readiness. (orig./RW)

  7. On-Site Field Services

    The Spanish nuclear industry has extensive experience in the development of services for nuclear power plants. The moratorium on new projects in the decade of the 1980s led these nuclear industry companies to find and enter new markets. The quality of their services, along with the long experience gained in the support of the Spanish plants, has enabled a significant number of companies to win relevant contracts in competition with leading corporation around the world. European countries are an important market. The first experiments to support the operation in Central and Eastern Europe are being extended with work in neighboring countries. Meanwhile, Latin America is a nearby market for reasons of language and historical proximity, which is also present in the industry. It emphasizes the participation of Spanish companies in projects in countries of the Asia-Pacific region. This article describes the experiences of four Spanish-owned companies and of the services division of Westinghouse in spain. (Author)

  8. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  9. On-Site Field Services

    Rodriguez Aycart, M.; Bobo, E.; Pascual, L.; Merino, A.; Martinez Gozalo, I.; Ruiz, J. T.; Soto, M.; Vilanova, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Spanish nuclear industry has extensive experience in the development of services for nuclear power plants. The moratorium on new projects in the decade of the 1980s led these nuclear industry companies to find and enter new markets. The quality of their services, along with the long experience gained in the support of the Spanish plants, has enabled a significant number of companies to win relevant contracts in competition with leading corporation around the world. European countries are an important market. The first experiments to support the operation in Central and Eastern Europe are being extended with work in neighboring countries. Meanwhile, Latin America is a nearby market for reasons of language and historical proximity, which is also present in the industry. It emphasizes the participation of Spanish companies in projects in countries of the Asia-Pacific region. This article describes the experiences of four Spanish-owned companies and of the services division of Westinghouse in spain. (Author)

  10. Coupling of SPME with MCC/UV-IMS as a tool for rapid on-site detection of groundwater and surface water contamination

    Walendzik, G.; Baumbach, J.I.; Klockow, D. [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    The combination of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) [1] with fast chromatographic pre-separation by means of multi-capillary columns (MCC) coupled to an ion mobility spectrometer equipped with a 10.6 eV photoionisation source was applied to rapid on-site monitoring of ground and surface water contaminations. Under field conditions, water contaminants were directly detectable down to the upper {mu}g/L range. The potential of the developed method is illustrated by measurements of BTEX, naphthalene, chlorinated alkenes and chlorinated benzenes in water. Practical results from investigations of contaminated groundwater at a former gasworks site and groundwater from the site of a metal processing plant, focusing on the key substances benzene, naphthalene and tetrachloroethene, demonstrate the feasibility of the system for field studies. (orig.)

  11. 如何加强QC小组在现场管理中的作用%How to Strengthen the Role of QC Team on Site Management

    赵春梅

    2014-01-01

    In order to strengthen team building, train team spirit and enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises, this paper carries on an analysis from the perspective of the role of the QC team on site management and combines the team building and QC team activities by describing the characteristics and status of enterprise QC team activities, provides reference for enterprise management.%为了加强团队建设,培养团队精神,提升企业的核心竞争力。本文从QC小组在现场管理中的作用的角度进行分析,通过阐述企业QC小组活动的特点和现状,将团队建设与QC小组活动进行结合,进而为企业管理提供参考依据。

  12. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...... costs. It has been successfully applied in a sample case study. The approach can easily be extended to all kind of RES technologies and also allows for implementing further constraints and requirements proprietary to residential NZEBs such as e.g. reliabilities, noise levels or space requirements of...

  13. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  14. Development of utility for on-site recording of dose rate and program for data accumulation, mapping and management using GPS and GIS (DRaMM-GiGs)

    We developed the utility for on-site recording of dose rate and program for data accumulation, mapping and management using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a geographic information system (GIS) (DRaMM-GiGs) to perform prompt and reliable investigations in a decontamination project. The system simultaneously accumulates data on dose rate, date, time and position, and integrates the accumulated data which are available to be viewed and analyzed on a map. The system incorporates a function which presets monitoring sites as a grid square, and allows to access easily to the preset monitoring sites using a personal digital assistant (PDA) with GPS even after removal of marks such as trees and bushes. It was confirmed that working time and manpower for monitoring and data analysis could be substantially reduced through preliminary operation. (author)

  15. Screening for potential fermentative hydrogen production from black water and kitchen waste in on-site UASB reactor at 20 degrees C.

    Luostarinen, S; Pakarinen, O; Rintala, J

    2008-06-01

    The potential of black water and a mixture of black water and kitchen waste as substrates for on-site dark fermentative hydrogen production was screened in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at 20 degrees C. Three different inocula were used with and without heat treatment. With glucose, the highest specific hydrogenogenic activity was 69 ml H2 g volatile solids(-1) d(-1) in batch assays and the highest hydrogen yield 0.44 mol H2 mol glucose(-1) in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. The mixture of black water and kitchen waste degraded readily into volatile fatty acids in the reactors, thus showing potential for hydrogen production. In the conditions applied, however, the highest end product was propionate and no hydrogen was produced. Black water alone apparently contained too little readily soluble carbohydrates for hydrogen producing bacteria, and little VFA and no hydrogen was produced. PMID:18702295

  16. A water calorimeter for on-site absorbed dose to water calibrations in 60Co and MV-photon beams including MRI incorporated treatment equipment

    de Prez, Leon; de Pooter, Jacco; Jansen, Bartel; Aalbers, Tony

    2016-07-01

    In reference dosimetry the aim is to establish the absorbed dose to water, D w, under reference conditions. However, existing dosimetry protocols are not always applicable for rapidly emerging new treatment modalities. For primary standard dosimetry laboratories it is generally not feasible to acquire such modalities. Therefore it is strongly desired that D w measurements with primary standards can be performed on-site in clinical beams for the new treatment modalities in order to characterize and calibrate detectors. To serve this need, VSL has developed a new transportable water calorimeter serving as a primary D w standard for 60Co and MV-photons including MRI incorporated treatment equipment. Special attention was paid to its operation in different beam geometries and beam modalities including the application in magnetic fields. The new calorimeter was validated in the VSL 60Co beam and on-site in clinical MV-photon beams. Excellent agreement of 0.1% was achieved with previous 60Co field calibrations, i.e. well within the uncertainty of the previous calorimeter, and with measurements performed in horizontal and vertical MV-photon beams. k Q factors, determined for two PTW 30013 ionization chambers, agreed very well with available literature data. The relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) for D w measurements in 60Co and MV-photons is 0.37%. Calibrations are carried out with a standard uncertainty of 0.42% and k Q -factors are determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.40%.

  17. The Potential in Water Supply and Sanitation Services of the On Site Production of Sodium Hypochlorite (OSEC Driven by PV Solar Source

    Andrea Micangeli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the impact of an On Site Electro Chlorination (OSEC device, a system for the sodium hypochlorite production, on the improvement of health and hygienic standards in Mesoamerica focusing on Chiapas-Mexico and Costa Rica, as well as in Africa, Western Sahara (Refugees Camp and Tanzania. The threat of infectious diseases and the importance of cleaned and treated water with the consequent high impact on the vulnerable population have been studied in each of the above countries. In this framework the production of low cost sodium hypochlorite through a stand-alone system powered by PV solar source could be a good starting point in improving sanitation conditions, assuring the disinfection of water and clothes, and improve food safety. The cost analysis shows that producing sodium hypochlorite with an OSEC solar system could lead to 10 to 15 times saving with respect to the purchasing of it at market price, above all in developing countries. Furthermore, the LCA study highlights the low environmental impact of the on-site production of sodium hypochlorite through qualitative and quantitative data that demonstrate how this system has pollutant emissions from 14 to 56 times lower than the equivalent industrial process (N factor. The paper describes as well possible practical applications of the sodium hypochlorite in the African and Latin American context. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential to create an impact on the social context and microenterprises specialised in the production of hygiene and sanitation products, managed by local people selling at affordable prices and reaching the poorest villages of developing countries.

  18. Research on on-site medical emergency preparedness and response to nuclear facilities%核设施场内医学应急准备与响应

    秦斌; 李抗; 侯长松

    2014-01-01

    目的:为实施迅速、有效的场内应急响应、最大限度地减轻核事故造成的损失和不良后果提供建议,并为我国核设施场内医学应急准备与响应提供参考。方法:根据国内外有关法律、法规和标准,以及本课题组多年来参与核设施场内医学应急准备与响应相关工作的经验和研究,做好威胁评估,有针对性地制订应急预案,有效利用应急资源,提高应急响应效能。结果:提出了进一步加强核事故场内医学应急准备与响应的有关建议,以及人群核辐射体内污染的检测与处置。结论:核设施单位必须建立场内医学应急组织,承担相应的核事故场内医学应急任务,做好核设施场内医学应急准备与响应。%Objective: To provide reference for on-site medical emergency preparedness and response to nuclear facilities of our country. Methods: On the basis of laws, regulations and standards as well as our experience and research in this field. Results: To provide effective advice for on-site medical emergency preparedness and response. Conclusion:Introduce unclear accident influence, unclear accident emergency system and so on.

  19. Assessment of diffusion parameters of new passive samplers using optical chemical sensor for on-site measuring formaldehyde in indoor air: experimental and numerical studies.

    Vignau-Laulhere, Jane; Mocho, Pierre; Plaisance, Hervé; Raulin, Katarzyna; Desauziers, Valérie

    2016-03-01

    New passive samplers using a sensor consisting of a sol-gel matrix entrapping Fluoral-P as sampling media were developed for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor air. The reaction between Fluoral-P and formaldehyde produces a colored compound which is quantified on-site by means of a simple optical reading module. The advantages of this sensor are selectivity, low cost, ppb level limit of detection, and on-site direct measurement. In the development process, it is necessary to determine the sampling rate, a key parameter that cannot be directly assessed in the case of diffusive samplers using optical chemical sensor. In this study, a methodology combining experimental tests and numerical modeling is proposed and applied at five different radial diffusive samplers equipped with the same optical chemical sensor to assess the sampled material flows and sampling rates. These radial diffusive samplers differ in the internal volume of the sampler (18.97 and 6.14 cm(3)), the position of sensor inside the sampler (in front and offset of 1.2 cm above the membrane) and the width of the diffusion slot (1.4 and 5.9 mm). The influences of these three parameters (internal volume, position of sensor inside the sampler, and width of the diffusion slot) were assessed and discussed with regard to the formaldehyde sampling rate and water uptake by sensor (potential interference of measure). Numerical simulations based on Fick's laws are in agreement with the experimental results and provide to estimate the effective diffusion coefficient of formaldehyde through the membrane (3.50 × 10(-6) m(2) s(-1)). Conversion factors between the sensor response, sampled formaldehyde mass and sampling rate were also assessed. PMID:26847188

  20. Rapid on-site evaluation with dynamic telecytopathology for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of head and neck nonthyroid lesions

    Kamal K Khurana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE at the time of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (USGFNA of head and neck lesion is essential for obtaining adequate samples and providing the preliminary diagnosis. We summarize our experience with ROSE of USGFNA on head and neck nonthyroid lesions using telecytopathology. Materials and Methods: Real-time images of Diff-Quik stained cytology smears were obtained at ultrasound suite with an Olympus DP-70 digital camera attached to an Olympus CX41 microscope, and transmitted via ethernet by a cytotechnologist to a cytopathologist in cytopathology laboratory who rendered a preliminary diagnosis. Live communication was conducted with Vocera voice communication system. The ultrasound suite was located on different floor from the cytopathology laboratory. Accuracy of ROSE via telecytopathology was compared with an equal number of cases that received ROSE, prior to introduction of telecytopathology, via conventional microscopy. Results: Rapid on-site evaluation was performed on a total of 116 USGFNA of head and neck nonthyroid lesions. The telecytopathology system and conventional microscopy was used to evaluate equal number of cases (58 each. Preliminary diagnoses of benign, atypical/suspicious for malignancy, and positive for malignancy were 72.4%, 17.2% and 10.3% for telecytopathology, and 69.0%, 10.3% and 20.7% for conventional microscopy. None of the cases were deemed unsatisfactory. The overall concordance between the preliminary and final diagnoses was 94.8% for telecytopathology and 98.3% for conventional microscopy and was not statistically significant (P = 0.309. The causes of discordant preliminary and final diagnoses were mainly attributed to availability of cell block and Papanicolaou-stained slides for review or flow cytometry results for lymphoma cases at the time of final sign out. Conclusions: Telecytopathology is comparable with conventional microscopy in ROSE of USGFNA of head and

  1. Rapid Improvement in Passive Tuberculosis Case Detection and Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes After Implementation of a Bundled Laboratory Diagnostic and On-Site Training Intervention Targeting Mid-Level Providers

    Manabe, Yukari C; Zawedde-Muyanja, Stella; Burnett, Sarah M.; Mugabe, Frank; Naikoba, Sarah; Coutinho, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods.  Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared wi...

  2. “One-stop shop” spectral imaging for rapid on-site diagnosis of lung cancer: a future concept in nano-oncology

    Darwiche K

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaid Darwiche,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,1,2 Leslie Krauss,3 Filiz Oezkan,1 Robert Fred Henry Walter,1,4 Robert Werner,4 Dirk Theegarten,4 Leonidas Sakkas,5 Antonios Sakkas,5 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Scmidt,6 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,1 Lutz Freitag11Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2Pulmonary Department, Oncology Unit, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3CytoViva, Inc, Auburn, AL, USA; 4Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, University Hospital of Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 5Pathology Department, G Papanikolaou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 6II Medical Department, Coburg Regional Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, GermanyBackground: There are currently many techniques and devices available for the diagnosis of lung cancer. However, rapid on-site diagnosis is essential for early-stage lung cancer, and in the current work we investigated a new diagnostic illumination nanotechnology.Methods: Tissue samples were obtained from lymph nodes, cancerous tissue, and abnormal intrapulmonary lesions at our interventional pulmonary suites. The following diagnostic techniques were used to obtain the samples: endobronchial ultrasound bronchoscopy; flexible bronchoscopy; and rigid bronchoscopy. Flexible and rigid forceps were used because several of the patients were intubated using a rigid bronchoscope. In total, 30 tissue specimens from 30 patients were prepared. CytoViva® illumination nanotechnology was subsequently applied to each of the biopsy tissue slides.Results: A spectral library was created for adenocarcinoma, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, usual interstitial pneumonitis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, typical carcinoid tumor, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, small cell

  3. Rapid On-Site Environmental Sampling and Analysis of Propellant Stabilizers and their Decomposition Products by Portable Sampling and Thin-Layer Chromotography Kits

    Haas, J S; Gonzalez, M A

    2003-08-04

    Sustainable future use of land containing unexploded ordnance requires extensive field assessments, cleanup, and restoration. The ordnance is generally semi-exposed or buried in pits and, because of aging, needs to be handled with caution. Being able to characterize the ordnance in the field to minimize handling, as well as to distinguish it from inert mock material, greatly facilitates assessments and clean-up. We have developed unique sample preparation methodologies and a portable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) kit technology for rapid field screening and quantitative assessment of stabilizer content in propellants and, energetic materials (explosives) in environmental scenarios. Major advantages of this technology include simultaneous chromatography of multiple samples and standards for high sample throughput, high resolution, very low detection limits, and ease of operation. The TLC kit technology, sponsored by the Defense Ammunition Center (DAC) of the U.S. Army, is now patented and has been completely transitioned to our commercial partners, Ho'olana Technologies, located in Hilo, Hawaii. Once fully deployed in the field, the new technology will demonstrate a cost-effective and efficient means for determining the percent of effective stabilizer that is remaining on-site and at munitions clean-up sites, as well as munitions storage facilities. The TLC kit technology is also readily applicable for analysis at military or commercial facilities, for a variety of emergency and non-emergency scenarios, and for situations where public concern is high.

  4. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  5. Development of an on-site rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction system and the characterization of suitable DNA polymerases for TaqMan probe technology.

    Furutani, Shunsuke; Naruishi, Nahoko; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Nagai, Hidenori

    2016-08-01

    On-site quantitative analyses of microorganisms (including viruses) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system are significantly influencing medical and biological research. We have developed a remarkably rapid and portable real-time PCR system that is based on microfluidic approaches. Real-time PCR using TaqMan probes consists of a complex reaction. Therefore, in a rapid real-time PCR, the optimum DNA polymerase must be estimated by using actual real-time PCR conditions. In this study, we compared the performance of three DNA polymerases in actual PCR conditions using our rapid real-time PCR system. Although KAPA2G Fast HS DNA Polymerase has the highest enzymatic activity among them, SpeedSTAR HS DNA Polymerase exhibited better performance to rapidly increase the fluorescence signal in an actual real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Furthermore, we achieved rapid detection of Escherichia coli in 7 min by using SpeedSTAR HS DNA Polymerase with the same sensitivity as that of a conventional thermal cycler. PMID:27271319

  6. Loads imposed on dual purpose casks in German on-site-storage facilities for long term intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel

    In accordance with recent changes of the atomic energy act and in order to secure reliable removal of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants' fuel storage ponds the German utilities filed license applications for a total of 12 onsite- storage facilities for spent fuel assemblies. By the end of 2003 the last of these storage facilities were licensed and are currently under construction. The first on-site-storage facility of that line became operational in late 2002. There are several design lines of storage facilities with different handling procedures or possible accident conditions. Short term interim storage facilities for a few casks are characterized by individual concrete hoods shielding the casks in horizontal position whereas long term intermediate storage facilities currently erected for large numbers of casks typically feature a condensed pattern of casks stored in upright position and massive structures of reinforced concrete. TUeV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e. V. (now TUeV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co. KG) has been contracted as a body of independent experts for the assessment of all related safety requirements on behalf of the national licensing authority, the federal office for radiation protection (BfS)

  7. Off-Site Lime Stabilisation as an Option to Treat Pit Latrine Faecal Sludge for Emergency and Existing On-Site Sanitation Systems

    Wilson Greya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Off-site lime stabilisation for treating faecal sludge was assessed by undertaking small-scale (35 L and large-scale (600 L field trials in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was dosed to maintain pH 10, pH 10.5, pH 11, pH 11.5, and pH 12 depending on the buffer capacity of the faecal sludge in the four replica small-scale field trials. Significant reduction of E. coli to below the detection limit of 104 CFU/100 mL within 1 hour of treatment was reported for pH > 11. Based on the small-scale findings, large-scale field trials were conducted and greater than 3 log removal of E. coli was observed under pH 12 conditions. Therefore, based on the study, off-site lime stabilisation by dosing lime in the range of 10–35% w/w (dry solid basis, depending on the buffer capacity and solids content of the sludge to maintain pH > 11, can be used to sanitise faecal sludge during emergencies, as well as for existing on-site sanitation systems.

  8. Electronic structure of antifluorite Cu2X (X = S, Se, Te) within the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U.

    Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Youwei; Xi, Lili; Qiu, Ruihao; Shi, Xun; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-02-21

    The traditional photon absorbers Cu2-xX (X = S, Se, and Te) have regained significant research attention in the search of earth-abundant photovoltaic materials. These moderate- and narrow-gap materials have also been shown to exhibit excellent thermoelectric properties recently. However, semimetallic band structures with inverted band orderings are predicted for antifluorite structure Cu2X using density functional theory with the local density approximation or the generalized gradient approximation. We find that semiconducting band structures and normal band orderings can be obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U (the mBJ+U approach), which is consistent with our earlier finding for diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors [Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Gao, T. A. Abtew, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, and W. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184706 (2013)]. The trend of the chemical bonding of Cu2X is analyzed, which shows that the positions of the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are strongly affected by the inter-site pd and intra-site sp hybridizations, respectively. The calculated gaps of Cu2S and Cu2Se still seem to be underestimated compared with experimental results. We also discuss the effects of different structural phases and Cu disordering and deficiency on the bandgaps of these materials. PMID:24559355

  9. The use of food waste as a carbon source for on-site treatment of nutrient-rich blackwater from an office block.

    Tannock, Simon J C; Clarke, William P

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater from office blocks is typically dominated by blackwater and is therefore concentrated and nutrient-rich. A pilot plant was operated for 260 days, receiving 300 L d(-1) of wastewater directly from an office building to determine whether nutrient removal could be achieved using food waste (FW) as a supplemental carbon source. The pilot plant consisted of a 600 L prefermenter and a 600 L membrane bioreactor that was operated as a sequential batch reactor in order to cycle through anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic phases. The influent wastewater Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)/N/P was, on average, 1438/275/40 mg L(-1), considerably higher than typical municipal wastewater. Treatment trials on the wastewater alone showed that the COD was only marginally sufficient to exhaust nitrate, and initiate anaerobic conditions required for phosphate removal. The addition of 15 kg d(-1) of macerated FW increased the average influent COD/N/P concentrations to 20,072/459/66 mg L(-1). The suitability of FW as a carbon source was demonstrated by denitrification to NOx-N concentration of supplementation were 7/50/13 mg L(-1) which equates to 99%, 89% and 80% COD/N/P removal, respectively, meeting the highest nutrient removal efficiency standards stipulated by state jurisdictions for on-site systems in the USA. PMID:26853844

  10. On-site sensor recalibration of a spinning multi-beam LiDAR system using automatically-detected planar targets.

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Chien, Hsiang-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully-automated method to establish a calibration dataset from on-site scans and recalibrate the intrinsic parameters of a spinning multi-beam 3-D scanner. The proposed method has been tested on a Velodyne HDL-64E S2 LiDAR system, which contains 64 rotating laser rangefinders. By time series analysis, we found that the collected range data have random measurement errors of around ±25 mm. In addition, the layered misalignment of scans among the rangefinders, which is identified as a systematic error, also increases the difficulty to accurately locate planar surfaces. We propose a temporal-spatial range data fusion algorithm, along with a robust RANSAC-based plane detection algorithm to address these issues. Furthermore, we formulate an alternative geometric interpretation of sensory data using linear parameters, which is advantageous for the calibration procedure. The linear representation allows the proposed method to be generalized to any LiDAR system that follows the rotating beam model. We also confirmed in this paper, that given effective calibration datasets, the pre-calibrated factory parameters can be further tuned to achieve significantly improved performance. After the optimization, the systematic error is noticeable lowered, and evaluation shows that the recalibrated parameters outperform the factory parameters with the RMS planar errors reduced by up to 49%. PMID:23202019

  11. On-Site Sensor Recalibration of a Spinning Multi-Beam LiDAR System Using Automatically-Detected Planar Targets

    Hsiang-Jen Chien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully-automated method to establish a calibration dataset from on-site scans and recalibrate the intrinsic parameters of a spinning multi-beam 3-D scanner. The proposed method has been tested on a Velodyne HDL-64E S2 LiDAR system, which contains 64 rotating laser rangefinders. By time series analysis, we found that the collected range data have random measurement errors of around ±25 mm. In addition, the layered misalignment of scans among the rangefinders, which is identified as a systematic error, also increases the difficulty to accurately locate planar surfaces. We propose a temporal-spatial range data fusion algorithm, along with a robust RANSAC-based plane detection algorithm to address these issues. Furthermore, we formulate an alternative geometric interpretation of sensory data using linear parameters, which is advantageous for the calibration procedure. The linear representation allows the proposed method to be generalized to any LiDAR system that follows the rotating beam model. We also confirmed in this paper, that given effective calibration datasets, the pre-calibrated factory parameters can be further tuned to achieve significantly improved performance. After the optimization, the systematic error is noticeable lowered, and evaluation shows that the recalibrated parameters outperform the factory parameters with the RMS planar errors reduced by up to 49%.

  12. Fabrication of transparent SERS platform via interface self-assembly of gold nanorods and gel trapping technique for on-site real time detection.

    Lin, Xiang; Hasi, Wu-Li-Ji; Han, Si-Qin-Gao-Wa; Lou, Xiu-Tao; Lin, Dian-Yang; Lu, Zhi-Wei

    2015-12-14

    A transparent SERS platform was fabricated via the gel-trapping method coupled with a liquid/liquid interface self-assembly technique. We employed gold nanorods as the building blocks for interface self-assembly because of their strong localized surface plasmons upon excitation by infrared radiation. Based on a "top cover" configuration, this transparent SERS platform endows high signal reproducibility for directly detecting liquid samples by confining the sample droplet into a regular shape. The Au NR PDMS platform was able to directly detect crystal violet in aqueous solutions down to 10 ppb level with high enhancement factor (0.87 × 10(5)) and signal uniformity (RSD = 3.9%). Furthermore, SERS-based anti-fungal agent detection on a fish scale was demonstrated by simply covering the fish scale with a tailored GNRs PDMS film. The experimental results clearly show that the Au NR PDMS SERS platform has great potential for on-site real time detection of contaminants in water as well as on curved surfaces. PMID:26556757

  13. Anaerobic on-site treatment of kitchen waste in combination with black water in UASB-septic tanks at low temperatures.

    Luostarinen, S; Rintala, J

    2007-07-01

    Anaerobic on-site treatment of a mixture of black water and kitchen waste (BWKW) was studied using two-phased upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) septic tanks at the low temperatures of 20 and 10 degrees C. Black water (BW) was also treated alone as reference. The two-phased UASB-septic tanks removed over 95% of total suspended solids (TSS) and 90% of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(t)) from both BWKW (effluent COD(t) 171-199mg/l) and BW (effluent COD(t) 92-100mg/l). Also, little dissolved COD (COD(dis)) was left in the final effluents (BW 48-70mg/l; BWKW 110-113mg/l). Part of total nitrogen (N(tot)) was removed (BW 18% and BWKW 40%) and especially at 20 degrees C ammonification was efficient. A two-phased process was required to obtain the high removals with BWKW at 10 degrees C, while with BW a single-phased process may have sufficed even at 10 degrees C. BWKW also produced more methane than BW alone. Sludge in phases 1 of BW and BWKW treatment was not completely stabilised after 198d of operation. PMID:16935497

  14. Erwinia amylovora loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid pathogen detection and on-site diagnosis of fire blight.

    Bühlmann, Andreas; Pothier, Joël F; Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Andreou, Michael; Boonham, Neil; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-03-01

    Several molecular methods have been developed for the detection of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight in pear and apple, but none are truly applicable for on-site use in the field. We developed a fast, reliable and field applicable detection method using a novel target on the E. amylovora chromosome that we identified by applying a comparative genomic pipeline. The target coding sequences (CDSs) are both uniquely specific for and all-inclusive of E. amylovora genotypes. This avoids potential false negatives that can occur with most commonly used methods based on amplification of plasmid gene targets, which can vary among strains. Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) with OptiGene Genie II chemistry and instrumentation proved to be an exceptionally rapid (under 15 min) and robust method for detecting E. amylovora in orchards, as well as simple to use in the plant diagnostic laboratory. Comparative validation results using plant samples from inoculated greenhouse trials and from natural field infections (of regional and temporal diverse origin) showed that our LAMP had an equivalent or greater performance regarding sensitivity, specificity, speed and simplicity than real-time PCR (TaqMan), other LAMP assays, immunoassays and plating, demonstrating its utility for routine testing. PMID:23275135

  15. LDA+DMFT study of Ca2RuO4 and Sr2RuO4 using the full on-site Coulomb interaction

    The Ca2-xSrxRuO4 layered ruthenates display a complex phase diagram. Whereas Sr2RuO4 is a correlated metal, the progressive substitution Sr with Ca leads to a number of structural phase changes. Finally, Ca2RuO4 exhibits Mott transition at T∼350 K. In this work we calculate the photoemission spectra of Sr2RuO4 and study the temperature-induced Mott transition in Ca2RuO4. As a method we use the LDA+DMFT technique. First we construct a material-specific NMTO Wannier basis for the partially filled 4d t2g bands and the corresponding three-band t2g Hubbard Hamiltonian. Then we solve this model within the DMFT approximation retaining the full self-energy matrix and using the Continuous Time QMC impurity solver. This solver allow us to analyze the role played by the spin-flip terms of the on-site Coulomb vertex.

  16. Electronic structure of antifluorite Cu2X (X = S, Se, Te) within the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U

    The traditional photon absorbers Cu2−xX (X = S, Se, and Te) have regained significant research attention in the search of earth-abundant photovoltaic materials. These moderate- and narrow-gap materials have also been shown to exhibit excellent thermoelectric properties recently. However, semimetallic band structures with inverted band orderings are predicted for antifluorite structure Cu2X using density functional theory with the local density approximation or the generalized gradient approximation. We find that semiconducting band structures and normal band orderings can be obtained using the modified Becke-Johnson potential plus an on-site Coulomb U (the mBJ+U approach), which is consistent with our earlier finding for diamond-like Cu-based multinary semiconductors [Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, W. Gao, T. A. Abtew, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, and W. Zhang, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184706 (2013)]. The trend of the chemical bonding of Cu2X is analyzed, which shows that the positions of the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are strongly affected by the inter-site pd and intra-site sp hybridizations, respectively. The calculated gaps of Cu2S and Cu2Se still seem to be underestimated compared with experimental results. We also discuss the effects of different structural phases and Cu disordering and deficiency on the bandgaps of these materials

  17. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    Donohue, Shane [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick [Department of Applied Sciences, Dundalk Institute of Technology, Dublin Road, Dundalk (Ireland); Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  18. The Use of Explosion Aftershock Probabilities for Planning and Deployment of Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System for an On-site Inspection

    Labak, P.; Ford, S. R.; Sweeney, J. J.; Smith, A. T.; Spivak, A.

    2011-12-01

    One of four elements of CTBT verification regime is On-site inspection (OSI). Since the sole purpose of an OSI shall be to clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out, inspection activities can be conducted and techniques used in order to collect facts to support findings provided in inspection reports. Passive seismological monitoring, realized by the seismic aftershock monitoring (SAMS) is one of the treaty allowed techniques during an OSI. Effective planning and deployment of SAMS during the early stages of an OSI is required due to the nature of possible events recorded and due to the treaty related constrains on size of inspection area, size of inspection team and length of an inspection. A method, which may help in planning the SAMS deployment is presented. An estimate of aftershock activity due to a theoretical underground nuclear explosion is produced using a simple aftershock rate model (Ford and Walter, 2010). The model is developed with data from the Nevada Test Site and Semipalatinsk Test Site, which we take to represent soft- and hard-rock testing environments, respectively. Estimates of expected magnitude and number of aftershocks are calculated using the models for different testing and inspection scenarios. These estimates can help to plan the SAMS deployment for an OSI by giving a probabilistic assessment of potential aftershocks in the Inspection Area (IA). The aftershock assessment combined with an estimate of the background seismicity in the IA and an empirically-derived map of threshold magnitude for the SAMS network could aid the OSI team in reporting. We tested the hard-rock model to a scenario similar to the 2008 Integrated Field Exercise 2008 deployment in Kazakhstan and produce an estimate of possible recorded aftershock activity.

  19. Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization: Report of the On-Site Inspection Workshop-5-Planning Examination of Inspection Phases

    Krioutchenkov, V.; Shchukin, V.; Davies, A.; Sweeney, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    On-Site Inspection (OSI) Workshop-5 met 8-12 November, 1999 in Farnborough, UK and was hosted by the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA). The purpose of the workshop was to provide guidance on OSI Operational Manual (OM) development for Working Group B (WGB) of the CTBT Preparatory Commission (PrepCom). The two main topics of the workshop involved logistics/preparatory activities for the pre-inspection phase and in-depth examination of technology application during the initial and continuation phases of an OSI. Reports from the PTS-sponsored Kazakhstan OSI experiment set the tone for the discussions of logistics and preparatory activities. The most important recommendation coming out of the experiment and workshop discussions is a need for Working Group A to develop specific administrative and financial rules regarding OSIs and define the status of inspectors and inspector assistants with respect to the CTBTO. There was also extensive discussion of a need for Working Group B to develop and/or adapt safety standards. With respect to OSI preparations, the group agreed that the time line and quick response required by an OSI necessitate development of special procedures; standing arrangements and/or advanced parties are suggested as one possible approach and a list of relevant issues has been initiated. A chart was developed that outlines the various elements of logistics required for an OSI that can serve as a basis for development of checklists, databases, and other preparation activities. Technology presentations and discussion focused on three major areas: phenomenology, synergy, and specifications.

  20. The Simud-Tiu Valles hydrologic system: A multidisciplinary study of a possible site for future Mars on-site exploration

    Pajola, Maurizio; Rossato, Sandro; Baratti, Emanuele; Mangili, Clara; Mancarella, Francesca; McBride, Karen; Coradini, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    When looking for traces of past life on Mars, we have to look primarily for places where water was present, possibly for long time intervals. The Simud and Tiu Valles are two large outflow channels connected to the north with the Chryse Basin, Oxia Palus quadrangle. The area, carved by water during the Noachian/Early Hesperian is characterized by a complex geological evolution. The geomorphological analysis shows the presence of fluvial and alluvial structures, interpreted as fluvial channels and terraces, debris flow fronts and short-lasting small water flows coexisting with maar-diatremes and mud volcanoes. Several morphological features indicate a change in water flux direction after the main erosive phase. During this period water originated from the Masursky crater and flown southwards into the Hydraotes Chaos. This phenomenon caused the studied area to become a depocenter where fine-grained material deposition took place, possibly in association with ponding water. This setting is potentially quite valuable as traces of life may have been preserved. The presence of water at various times over a period of about 1 Ga in the area is corroborated by mineralogical analyses of different areas that indicate the possible presence of hydrated minerals mixtures, such as sulfate-bearing deposits. Given the uniqueness of the evolution of this region, the long term interactions between fluvial, volcanic, and tectonic processes and its extremely favorable landing parameters (elevation, slope, roughness, rock distribution, thermal inertia, albedo, etc.), we decided to propose this location as a possible landing site for the ESA ExoMars 2018, the NASA Mars 2020 and future on-site missions.

  1. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    Granja, Carlos; Slavicek, Tomas; Kroupa, Martin; Owens, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Janout, Zdenek; Kralik, Miloslav; Solc, Jaroslav; Valach, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV-9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20-30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2-5 m from the station.

  2. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100 m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  3. On-site analysis of d13C- and dD-CH4 by laser spectroscopy for the allocation of source processes

    Eyer, Simon; Tuzson, Béla; Popa, Elena; van der Veen, Carina; Röckmann, Thomas; Brand, Willi A.; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David; Nisbet, Euan G.; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Harris, Eliza; Emmenegger, Lukas; Fischer, Hubertus; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of the most abundant methane isotopologues 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D can be used to disentangle source/sink processes (Fischer et al. 2008) and to develop target oriented reduction strategies. Isotopic analysis of CH4 is accomplished by isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) and more recently by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy. For high precision measurements in ambient air, however, both techniques rely on preconcentration of the target gas (Eyer et al. 2014). We developed a field-deployable analyser for real-time, on-site analysis of CH4 isotopologues which is based on a dual quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) in combination with an innovative preconcentration technique named trace gas extractor (TREX). The core part of the 19 ″ rack-mounted preconcentration unit is a highly efficient adsorbent trap attached to the cold end of a Stirling cooler. The system achieves preconcentration factors >500. For fast desorption and optimal heat management, the trap is decoupled from the cooler during desorption. The QCLAS has been developed based on a previously described instrument (Tuzson 2010). It comprises two cw-QC laser sources combined and coupled into an astigmatic multipass absorption cell with 76 m optical path. The developed technique reaches an unsurpassed precision of 0.1‰ for d13C-CH4 and Behrens, M., Bock, M., Richter, U., Schmitt, J., Loulergue, L., Chappellaz, J., Spahni, R., Blunier, T., Leuenberger, M., Stocker, T. F. (2008) Nature 452: 864-867. Eyer, S., Stadie, N. P., Borgschulte. A., Emmenegger, L., Mohn, J. (2014) Adsorption 20:657-666. Tuzson, B., Hiller, R. V., Zeyer, K., Eugster, W., Neftel, A., Ammann, C., Emmenegger, L. (2010) Atmospheric Measurement Techniques: 1519-1531.

  4. Technical assistance to Ohio closure sites; Technologies to address leachate from the on-site disposal facility at Fernald Environmental Management Project, Ohio

    Hazen, Terry

    2002-08-26

    On August 6-7, 2002, a Technical Assistance Team (''Team'') from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) met with Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) personnel in Ohio to assess approaches to remediating uranium-contaminated leachate from the On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF). The Team was composed of technical experts from national labs, technology centers, and industry and was assembled in response to a request from the FEMP Aquifer Restoration Project. Dave Brettschneider of Fluor Fernald, Inc., requested that a Team of experts be convened to review technologies for the removal of uranium in both brine ion exchange regeneration solution from the Advanced Wastewater Treatment facility and in the leachate from the OSDF. The Team was asked to identify one or more technologies for bench-scale testing as a cost effective alternative to remove uranium so that the brine regeneration solution from the Advanced Waste Water Treatment facility and the leachate from the OSDF can be discharged without further treatment. The Team was also requested to prepare a recommended development and demonstration plan for the alternative technologies. Finally, the Team was asked to make recommendations on the optimal technical solution for field implementation. The Site's expected outcomes for this effort are schedule acceleration, cost reduction, and better long-term stewardship implementation. To facilitate consideration of the most appropriate technologies, the Team was divided into two groups to consider the brine and the leachate separately, since they represent different sources with different constraints on solutions, e.g., short-term versus very long-term and concentrated versus dilute contaminant matrices. This report focuses on the technologies that are most appropriate for the leachate from the OSDF. Upon arriving at FEMP, project personnel asked the Team to concentrate its efforts on evaluating

  5. Geophysical and hydrogeological characterisation of the impacts of on-site wastewater treatment discharge to groundwater in a poorly productive bedrock aquifer.

    Donohue, Shane; McCarthy, Valerie; Rafferty, Patrick; Orr, Alison; Flynn, Raymond

    2015-08-01

    Contaminants discharging from on-site wastewater treatment systems (OSWTSs) can impact groundwater quality, threatening human health and surface water ecosystems. Risk of negative impacts becomes elevated in areas of extreme vulnerability with high water tables, where thin unsaturated intervals limit vadose zone attenuation. A combined geophysical/hydrogeological investigation into the effects of an OSWTS, located over a poorly productive aquifer (PPA) with thin subsoil cover, aimed to characterise effluent impacts on groundwater. Groundwater, sampled from piezometers down-gradient of the OSWTS percolation area displayed spatially erratic, yet temporally consistent, contaminant distributions. Electrical resistivity tomography identified an area of gross groundwater contamination close to the percolation area and, when combined with seismic refraction and water quality data, indicated that infiltrating effluent reaching the water table discharged to a deeper more permeable zone of weathered shale resting on more competent bedrock. Subsurface structure, defined by geophysics, indicated that elevated chemical and microbiological contaminant levels encountered in groundwater samples collected from piezometers, down-gradient of sampling points with lower contaminant levels, corresponded to those locations where piezometers were screened close to the weathered shale/competent rock interface; those immediately up-gradient were too shallow to intercept this interval, and thus the more impacted zone of the contaminant plume. Intermittent occurrence of faecal indicator bacteria more than 100m down gradient of the percolation area suggested relatively short travel times. Study findings highlight the utility of geophysics as part of multidisciplinary investigations for OSWTS contaminant plume characterisation, while also demonstrating the capacity of effluent discharging to PPAs to impact groundwater quality at distance. Comparable geophysical responses observed in similar

  6. NaFe_{0.56}Cu_{0.44}As: A Pnictide Insulating Phase Induced by On-Site Coulomb Interaction.

    Matt, C E; Xu, N; Lv, Baiqing; Ma, Junzhang; Bisti, F; Park, J; Shang, T; Cao, Chongde; Song, Yu; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Dai, Pengcheng; Patthey, L; Plumb, N C; Radovic, M; Mesot, J; Shi, M

    2016-08-26

    In the studies of iron pnictides, a key question is whether their bad-metal state from which the superconductivity emerges lies in close proximity with a magnetically ordered insulating phase. Recently, it was found that at low temperatures, the heavily Cu-doped NaFe_{1-x}Cu_{x}As (x>0.3) iron pnictide is an insulator with long-range antiferromagnetic order, similar to the parent compound of cuprates but distinct from all other iron pnictides. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we determined the momentum-resolved electronic structure of NaFe_{1-x}Cu_{x}As (x=0.44) and identified that its ground state is a narrow-gap insulator. Combining the experimental results with density functional theory (DFT) and DFT+U calculations, our analysis reveals that the on-site Coulombic (Hubbard) and Hund's coupling energies play crucial roles in the formation of the band gap about the chemical potential. We propose that at finite temperatures, charge carriers are thermally excited from the Cu-As-like valence band into the conduction band, which is of Fe 3d-like character. With increasing temperature, the number of electrons in the conduction band becomes larger and the hopping energy between Fe sites increases, and finally the long-range antiferromagnetic order is destroyed at T>T_{N}. Our study provides a basis for investigating the evolution of the electronic structure of a Mott insulator transforming into a bad metallic phase and eventually forming a superconducting state in iron pnictides. PMID:27610876

  7. Demonstration of impact performance of the nuclear transport package in on-site hypothetical collision scenarios by a heavy goods vehicle

    Spent fuel modules are contained in Module Removal Container (MRC) during on-site transport at the D154 facilities in the Devonport Naval Dockyard in the United Kingdom. The container is transported on its own on a Low Level Transfer Trolley (LLTT) and accommodated within a Transfer Frame. The LLTT travels on rails and moves either under its own power or towed by a Rail Tug Unit. The Transfer Frame provides a secure means of support to the MRC during transit and provides impact protection in the event of collision. The MRC is accommodated within the Transfer Frame by way of a sub-frame assembly. It rests on its sub-frame and is held in a vertical position by a number of support arms bolted to the Frame. The Transfer Frame is attached to the Low Level Transfer Trolley by a combination of bolts and shear pins. The combination of LLTT, Transfer Frame, sub-frame and a MRC is known as a Nuclear Transport Package (NTP). The design basis vehicle impact accident specifies a collision from a 20 tonne vehicle travelling at 20 mph from any direction. In order to satisfy the safety functional requirements, the NTP is required to meet the following conditions: The NTP should not overturn as a complete assembly following the impact. The Transfer Frame should not detach from the LLTT, and with the attachments remaining within the Level D stress limits specified in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 3. The MRC should be shown to withstand any potential impacts of the vehicle in the event of failure of any of the frame members. The frame must not transmit as a result of the vehicle impact, to either container, loads that would compromise their shielding and containment boundaries. The performance of the NTP was substantiated by finite element (FE) analysis, using the explicit non-linear transient code LS-DYNA. The work formed part of the site license application for the D154 facilities

  8. Education on Risk Management with Gender Equity: Experiences in United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) courses using on-site education and synchronous technologies for distance education

    Cepeda, J.; Marroquín, W.; Villar, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The experiences in two Risk Management courses organised by the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA) and the "América Latina Genera" project of the BCPR-UNDP (Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery of the United Nations Development Programme) are presented focusing on the design of teaching material and the selection and use of information-communication technologies (ICT) during the learning process. The organisation of these courses has posed three main challenges: the integration of a gender-equity approach in a subject that has traditionally lacked of it, the preparation of specialised teaching material for an audience with varied backgrounds and experience, and a widespread distribution of students and lecturers in different countries and with significant differences in ICT resources. These courses have combined tutorials, video-conferences, forums, chats, a media centre with video and podcast, and other resources to allow a close follow-up of the students' progress and strengthen the learning process. A specialised database of information within the "América Latina Genera" project has also been used intensively. Even though the building of capacity has been important, the emphasis of the courses has been on the practical application of projects in the students' work environment and in other real situations. The first course took place between June and December 2008 and consisted of a combination of on-site and distance education. The 15 students that registered the course included officials of local and central government institutions, private consultants, university staff and members of non-governmental organisations. Lecturers from the United States Geological Survey and the International Centre for Geohazards broadcasted videoconferences from the United States and Norway, respectively. The second course started in November 2008 and is scheduled to finish in February 2009. This course has been fully developed using distance education

  9. Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices

    Heuze, F; Cohen, J; Pittard, G; Deskius, G; Vorkinn, P; Rock, D

    1999-11-01

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX [2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one

  10. Rapid deployment drilling system for on-site inspections under a comprehensive test ban treaty vol. 1: description, acquisition, deployment, and operation vol. 2: appendices; TOPICAL

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has been signed by many countries, including the US. The US Senate will start discussions of CTBT ratification in the near future. The Treaty aims to prevent any nuclear explosion from being conducted. A verification system is being implemented. It includes the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI) in a country where a suspicious seismic signal has been identified, which could come from a clandestine nuclear test. As part of an OSI, the use of drilling is allowed by the CTBT so as to obtain irrefutable proof of a Treaty violation. Such proof could be in the form of diagnostics of very high gamma radiation levels and high temperatures underground, which could not be explained by a natural source. A typical situation is shown in Figure 1, where the OSI team must find a nuclear cavity underground when only an approximate location is inferred. This calls for the ability to do directional drilling. Because there is no need for large borings and to minimize the cost and size of the equipment, slim-hole drilling is adequate. On that basis, an initial study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[1] concluded that coiled-tubing (C-T) was the most attractive option for OSI drilling (Figure 2). Then, a preliminary design of a C-T Rapid Deployment Drilling System (RDDS) was performed by Maurer Engineering of Houston, TX[2]. Although a drilling mud system is also included in the RDDS definition, the preferred mode of operation of the RDDS would be drilling with air and foam. This minimizes water requirements in cases when water may be scarce at the OSI site. It makes the required equipment smaller than when a mud system is included. And it may increase the drilling rates, by eliminating the ''chip hold-down'' effect of a mud column. Following this preliminary design study, it was determined that the preferred bottom-hole assembly for such a system would be the Viper system of Schlumberger Anadrill, with one essential modification

  11. Demonstration of impact performance of the nuclear transport package in on-site hypothetical collision scenarios by a heavy goods vehicle

    Tso, C.F.; Izatt, C. [Arup (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Spent fuel modules are contained in Module Removal Container (MRC) during on-site transport at the D154 facilities in the Devonport Naval Dockyard in the United Kingdom. The container is transported on its own on a Low Level Transfer Trolley (LLTT) and accommodated within a Transfer Frame. The LLTT travels on rails and moves either under its own power or towed by a Rail Tug Unit. The Transfer Frame provides a secure means of support to the MRC during transit and provides impact protection in the event of collision. The MRC is accommodated within the Transfer Frame by way of a sub-frame assembly. It rests on its sub-frame and is held in a vertical position by a number of support arms bolted to the Frame. The Transfer Frame is attached to the Low Level Transfer Trolley by a combination of bolts and shear pins. The combination of LLTT, Transfer Frame, sub-frame and a MRC is known as a Nuclear Transport Package (NTP). The design basis vehicle impact accident specifies a collision from a 20 tonne vehicle travelling at 20 mph from any direction. In order to satisfy the safety functional requirements, the NTP is required to meet the following conditions: The NTP should not overturn as a complete assembly following the impact. The Transfer Frame should not detach from the LLTT, and with the attachments remaining within the Level D stress limits specified in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 3. The MRC should be shown to withstand any potential impacts of the vehicle in the event of failure of any of the frame members. The frame must not transmit as a result of the vehicle impact, to either container, loads that would compromise their shielding and containment boundaries. The performance of the NTP was substantiated by finite element (FE) analysis, using the explicit non-linear transient code LS-DYNA. The work formed part of the site license application for the D154 facilities.

  12. A transportable source of gamma rays with discrete energies and wide range for calibration and on-site testing of gamma-ray detectors

    We describe a compact and transportable wide energy range, gamma-ray station for the calibration of gamma-ray sensitive devices. The station was specifically designed for the on-site testing and calibration of gamma-ray sensitive spacecraft payloads, intended for space flight on the BepiColombo and SoIar Orbiter missions of the European Space Agency. The source is intended to serve as a calibrated reference for post test center qualification of integrated payload instruments and for preflight evaluation of scientific radiation sensors. Discrete gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV–9 MeV are produced in the station with reasonable intensity using a radionuclide neutron source and 100 l of distilled water with 22 kg salt dissolved. The gamma-rays generated contain many discrete lines conveniently evenly distributed over the entire energy range. The neutron and gamma-ray fields have been simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. Results of the numerical calculations are given in the form of neutron and gamma-ray spectra as well as dose equivalent rate. The dose rate was also determined directly by dedicated dosemetric measurements. The gamma-ray field produced in the station was characterized using a conventional HPGe detector. The application of the station is demonstrated by measurements taken with a flight-qualified LaBr3:Ce scintillation detector. Gamma-ray spectra acquired by both detectors are presented. The minimum measuring times for calibration of the flight-version detector, was between 2 and 10 min (up to 6.2 MeV) and 20–30 min (up to 8 MeV), when the detector was placed at a distance 2–5 m from the station. - Highlights: • Transportable station of mono-energetic gamma rays has been built. • Produced neutron and gamma ray field simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. • Discrete gamma rays produced in wide energy range up to 9 MeV. • Produced gamma ray spectra measured by HPGe and scintillating LaBr3Ce detectors. • Demonstration of application

  13. Microchannel Reactor System Design & Demonstration For On-Site H2O2 Production by Controlled H2/O2 Reaction

    Adeniyi Lawal

    2008-12-09

    We successfully demonstrated an innovative hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production concept which involved the development of flame- and explosion-resistant microchannel reactor system for energy efficient, cost-saving, on-site H2O2 production. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for controlled direct combination of H2 and O2 in all proportions including explosive regime, at a low pressure and a low temperature to produce about 1.5 wt% H2O2 as proposed. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we demonstrated our H2O2 production approach by ‘numbering up’ the channels in a multi-channel microreactor-based pilot plant to produce 1 kg/h of H2O2 at 1.5 wt% as demanded by end-users of the developed technology. To our knowledge, we are the first group to accomplish this significant milestone. We identified the reaction pathways that comprise the process, and implemented rigorous mechanistic kinetic studies to obtain the kinetics of the three main dominant reactions. We are not aware of any such comprehensive kinetic studies for the direct combination process, either in a microreactor or any other reactor system. We showed that the mass transfer parameter in our microreactor system is several orders of magnitude higher than what obtains in the macroreactor, attesting to the superior performance of microreactor. A one-dimensional reactor model incorporating the kinetics information enabled us to clarify certain important aspects of the chemistry of the direct combination process as detailed in section 5 of this report. Also, through mathematical modeling and simulation using sophisticated and robust commercial software packages, we were able to elucidate the hydrodynamics of the complex multiphase flows that take place in the microchannel. In conjunction with the kinetics information, we were able to validate the experimental data. If fully implemented across the whole

  14. 利用液态磷渣制备乳浊玻璃%On-Site Preparation of Opaque Glass Using Liquid Phosphorus Slag

    舒杼; 周俊; 王焰新; 卢学实

    2009-01-01

    为实现炼磷排放的高温液态磷渣的热能、物质的同步回收利用,并消除其环境污染问题,通过现场试验,以高温液态磷渣为主要原料,直接与16.5%的石英粉和8.5%的高岭土热配合,再经1 450℃熔炼、浇铸成型和850℃乳化热处理,制得了乳浊玻璃板材.磷渣乳浊玻璃的抗折强度为43.68 MPa,耐酸性为0.51%,耐碱性为0.04%,能满足建筑装饰材料的质量要求.ESEM、XRD和EDS分析结果共同表明,母玻璃的乳浊机理在于主体玻璃中析出了富Ca元素的粒径为0.1~0.4 μm的非晶质球形颗粒.由于高温液态磷渣掺量高达75%,改性剂掺量低且成本低廉,生产线易于配置,本研究具有较高的工业化生产可行性、较佳的经济效益和应用前景.%In order to recycle both the heat energy and the material of hot liquid phosphorus slag discharged from the phosphorus smelting furnace and eliminate its environmental problem, orrsite preparation tests were carried out beside the smelting furnace by undertaking the following process: first, 75. 0 % fresh hot liquid phosphorus slag was mixed directly with 16. 5% quartz powder and 8. 5% kaolin clay, and then melted at 1 450℃ and cast-molded into parent glass panels which were subsequently heat-treated at 850 'C and transformed into opaque glass, which possesses bending strength, acid resistance and alkali resistance respectively of 43. 68 MPa, 0. 51% and 0. 04%, and so is applicable for wall decorating in buildings. Results of ESEM, XRD and EDS analyses indicate that the mechanism of emulsification of parent glass is attributed to the phase separation of parent glass and so the deposition of the non-crystalline spherical granules with particle sizes of about 0. 1-0.4 μm. Since high proportion of hot liquid phosphorus slag is consumed, cheap modifying raw materials are used and ordinary glass manufacturing facilities can be directly employed, the proposed on-site test process is cost-effective and

  15. 《核事故场内医学应急响应程序》解读%Explanation of Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident

    刘玉龙; 姜忠

    2012-01-01

    国家职业卫生标准——《核事故场内医学应急响应程序》已经卫生部批准并发布.此标准根据《中华人民共和国突发事件应对法》、《中华人民共和国职业病防治法》、《核电厂核事故应急管理条例》和《卫生部核事故与辐射事故卫生应急预案》制定,与《核事故场内医学应急计划与准备》及《核事故场外医学应急计划与准备》配套使用.《核事故场内医学应急响应程序》是场内应急计划的一部分,此标准规定了核设施营运单位核事故场内医学应急响应程序的基本内容和要求,用于指导和规范核设施营运单位的核事故场内医学应急响应工作.该文对此标准的相关内容进行解读.%National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health.This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China,Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases,Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants,and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health,supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents.Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan.The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units.The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article.

  16. HIV现场快速检测在浴池男男性接触人群中的应用%The Application of the On-site Rapid Detection of HIV Antibody among MSM in Public Bathroom

    李剑; 徐丹戈; 倪志敏; 葛阳; 陈婷; 方叶珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To apply On - site rapid detection of HIV antibody among MSM in public bathroom, solve the problem of high loss to follow -up rate in MSM population who were detected positive in HIV primary screening, and to establish a feasible way of intervention. Methods Volunteers were divided into 2 groups by their choice, one group for both the on - site rapid detection and routine test, the other only for routine test. The demographic characteristics, sexual behavioral characteristics of the subjects were collected, and the routine serological tests were cartied out in both groups. Restlts Among 180 eligible subjects, 87 (48. 33% ) took the on - site rapid detection, and 10 men's antibodies of HIV were detected positive, the infection rate in this group was 11.49%, 93 (5 1.67% ) chose the routine test, 15 were detected positive, the infection rate was 16. 13%. There was no significant statistical difference in the infection rates between two groups ( P>0. 05). More unmarried men chose the on -site rapid detection rather than the routine test ( P<0. 05). Among all subjects, 92.78% received their test Results. The difference of informing rate between two groups showed no significance ( P > 0. 05 ). All subjects who were detected HIV positive by on - site rapid detection were followed - up ( the follow - up rate was 100% ), while only 9 of 15 subjects detected HIV positive by routine testing were followed - up ( the follow - up rate was 60%) ,the difference between two groups was significant ( P<0. 05). Conclusions On - site rapid detection of HIV antibody was proved to be very practical. It should be widely applied in HIV intervention among MSM in the public bathroom.%目的 通过现场快速检测方法在浴池MSM人群艾滋病性病干预检测的应用,建立和完善可行的干预流程,探讨浴池MSM人群初筛阳性者高流失情况的解决方法.方法 按自愿原则分2组,1组为现场快检组,在浴池对MSM人

  17. Possibilities of checking large flow sensors on-site. Ultrasound clamp-on and LDV segment method; Moeglichkeiten zur Vor-Ort-Ueberpruefung von grossen Durchflusssensoren. Ultraschall-clamp-on- und LDV-Segmentverfahren

    Mueller, Ulrich [Optolution GmbH, Reinach (Switzerland); Dues, Michael [Intelligent Laser Applications (ILA), GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Guntermann, Peter [TUEV Rheinland Insitu Calibration GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Rose, Juergen; Lederer, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Adunka, Franz

    2011-07-15

    Heat meters on pipes larger than DN 200 measure heat quantities of no small value. Metering precision is therefore a matter of great importance in these devices. However there are often large differences between the conditions in which they are calibrated and the conditions in which they are used, and this has a significant influence on the measuring behaviour of the metering point as a whole. Having demonstrated the need for on-site checks in another publication the authors now present the methods available for this purpose as well as the legal framework conditions.

  18. Quality assurance and quality control at the joint IAEA NMCC On-Site Laboratory at RRP as a contribution to the inspectorate's review of near real time accountancy of nuclear material

    This paper provides updates on the elements of the quality management system (QMS) of the On-Site Laboratory for nuclear safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. Representative examples of the OSL's quality control levels are discussed, such as analytical method performance review, method inter-comparison and participation in Laboratory inter-comparison exercises. It also highlights quality assurance measures to continuously improve the data quality within the boundary conditions of a high throughput industrial laboratory operating according to the guidelines of ISO 17025 and to meet the requirements of the ITV's on method uncertainties. (author)

  19. Evaluation of TUBEX-TF and OnSite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo rapid tests to detect Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection during a typhoid outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Tarupiwa, Andrew; Tapera, Simba; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Gumbo, Peter; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Gudza-Mugabe, Muchaneta; Majuru, Ngoni Xmas; Chin’ombe, Nyasha

    2015-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid, is endemic in most parts of the world especially in Africa. Reliable and rapid diagnosis of the bacterium is therefore critical for confirmation of all suspected typhoid cases. In many parts of Zimbabwe, laboratory capacity to isolate the microorganism by culture method as a way of diagnosis has limitations. In this study, two rapid serological kits, TUBEX-TF and OnSite Typhoid IgG/IgM Combo, were evaluated for poss...

  20. An on-site immunosensor for ractopamine based on a personal glucose meter and using magnetic β-cyclodextrin-coated nanoparticles for enrichment, and an invertase-labeled nanogold probe for signal amplification

    We report on an on-site ultrasensitive sandwich immunoassay for ractopamine (RAC) that is based on the use of a personal glucose meter. RAC is preconcentrated with the help of magnetic nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin (Fe3O4-SiO2-CD), and a novel polymer tag labeled with invertase is employed to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to form glucose which is detected with the glucose meter. Invertase-modified gold nanoparticles were prepared and immobilized, along with antibodies against RAC, on an Envision reagent (a polymer that contains many anti-IgG antibodies). Because of its high loading with the enzyme, the resulting copolymers strongly amplify the signal. The concentration of RAC is calculated on the basis of the linear relationship between the concentration of RAC and the amount of glucose formed. The method exhibits a detection limit of 0.34 μg kg−1 as determined for a sample of pork. This on-site testing method may also be applied to the detection of other low-molecular toxins by simply changing the antibody (author)

  1. Activities dedicated to FCPP commercialization at Toshiba

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Ozono, Jiro; Sato, Nobuaki [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The present line-up of fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) at Toshiba consists of 11MW FCPP for pressurized operation, 1000kW on-site FCPP and 200kW on-site FCPP. In these, an 11MW FCPP installed at Goi Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is providing valuable experience through more than 20,000 cumulative hours of operation. Also, a 1000kW on-site FCPP, which Toshiba manufactured under the joint program of NEDO and PAFC Technology Research Association, has cumulative operation of 7,500 hours. Toshiba, however, believes that the 200kW on-site FCPP is the leader in the commercialization of phosphoric acid FCPP. This paper therefore presents the development status of 200kW power plants and our strategic considerations for full commercialization of PC25 type 200kW FCPP.

  2. Rapid improvement in passive tuberculosis case detection and tuberculosis treatment outcomes after implementation of a bundled laboratory diagnostic and on-site training intervention targeting mid-level providers.

    Manabe, Yukari C; Zawedde-Muyanja, Stella; Burnett, Sarah M; Mugabe, Frank; Naikoba, Sarah; Coutinho, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods.  Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared with 2 controls and their own performance the previous year. Results.  From January to October 2012, 186 357 and 32 886 outpatients were seen in the 10 intervention and 2 control facilities, respectively. The intervention facilities had a 52.04% higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (odds ratio [OR] = 12.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.60-28.55). After adjusting for age group and gender, the proportion of smear-positive patients initiated on treatment was 37.76% higher in the intervention than in the control facilities (adjusted OR [AOR], 7.59; 95% CI, 2.19-26.33). After adjusting for the factors above, as well as human immunodeficiency virus and TB retreatment status, the proportion of TB cases who completed treatment was 29.16% higher (AOR, 4.89; 95% CI, 2.24-10.67) and the proportion of TB cases who were lost to follow-up was 66.98% lower (AOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09). When compared with baseline performance, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (64.70% vs 3.44%; OR, 23.95; 95% CI, 12.96-44.25), and these facilities started 56.25% more smear-positive TB cases on treatment during the project period (AOR, 15.36; 95% CI, 6.57-35.91). Conclusions.  Optimizing the existing healthcare workforce through a bundled diagnostics and on-site training intervention for nonphysician healthcare workers will rapidly improve TB case detection and outcomes towards global

  3. Formation of on-site normal points

    Appleby, G. M.; Sinclair, Andrew T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe our methods of fitting a smoothing function to observational range differences from a predicted orbit, by deducing corrections to the orbit in the radial and along-track directions. The method has been used on observations of a variety of satellites, and using predicted orbits computed both by numerical integration using IRV's as starting values and analytically from orbital elements. The along-track corrections to the predicted orbit have been successfully used in the form of time biases to improve subsequent predictions, and a statistical test has been devised to ensure that the range residuals may be used to form unbiased quick look normal points.

  4. Laser technologies for on-site surveillance

    Surveillance techniques are based on the detection of changes. These changes can be caused by moving objects or people, or by modifications made to the environment itself. Visual surveillance uses optical means, e.g., the analysis of an image acquired by a surveillance camera. These techniques are effective in detecting objects moving within the surveyed area. There are situations, however, where optical surveillance may prove to be unreliable. In some cases, the changes in the image are too small to be properly detected with scene change detectors. In other cases, alarms are generated without objects (or people) moving. These false alarms may be caused by changes in illumination, e.g., a faulty lamp or spurious reflections in places near water pools. Further, the absence of illumination during a blackout (whether it is caused by accident or on purpose) prevents cameras from their surveillance operation. There are high security installations for which it is necessary to introduce reliable, independent and effective sensors that can keep the surveillance work even during a blackout. Laser range scanners are electronic instruments measuring the distance from the instrument itself to the outside world along a specific direction. The type of the instrument to use depends on the range of distances to measure. Indeed, whereas for large distances (e.g. between 1 and 200m) it is possible to use time-of-flight instruments, for short distances (e.g., from a few centimetres to about 1.5m) a triangulation laser striping system is used. The deflection of the laser beam (e.g., using rotating mirrors) enables the acquisition of the distance profiles (or matrices) of the surrounding premises in a very short time

  5. Prehistory: A Teacher's Guide. Education on Site.

    Corbishley, Mike; Darvill, Tim; Stone, Peter

    Chronologically prehistory accounts for over 99% of the human past. During this time, the earliest human ancestors spread across the world from Africa and changed, modified, and evolved until the species "Homo sapiens sapiens" made its appearance some 200,000 years ago. This teacher's guide provides an outline of the prehistory of the British…

  6. Decisions on sites by Laender parliaments

    The Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke (VDEW, Association of German Electricity Utilities) proposes two independent steps in the licensing procedure for each nuclear power plant constuction project: one first phase in which to establish site guarantees, and one licensing phase for construction and operation of the power plant. The first phase should henceforth proceed with the active participation of the public involved within the framework of a plans approval procedure. The novel aspect would be the binding clarification in this procedure not only of the nuclear aspects of the case, as formerly, but of all public aspects relating to the site. The construction and operating permits, which would constitute phase two, could then be handled in the usual procedure without any need for urgency. (orig.)

  7. Development of on-site emergency procedures

    The physical accidental phenomena analyzed are grouped in two-categories: (1) progression in primary system (including core uncovery and heatup, hydrogen and steam generation in the core and in the lower head); reactor vessel failure; and (2) behaviour of the containment (including core debris dispersal, core-water interactions, core-concrete interactions). Emergency operator response models are analyzed for both cases

  8. Damage to ''on-site'' property

    The objective of this paper is to present and examine the various legal interpretations which have been formulated in relation to the question whether the channelling of liability to nuclear operators applies equally to contractual and extra-contractual liability, or simply to the latter. The response to this question determines whether the operator of a nuclear installation can invoke the general liability of one of his suppliers in the event of nuclear damage to onsite property caused by that supplier's negligence. The author points out the uncertainty that exists for suppliers in relation to their scope of liability and the possibility of potential court cases, and expresses the conviction that this question calls for a definitive answer in the future. The author describes the two main postulates advanced in connection with this debate. The first theory denies the operator's right to invoke the general liability (responsabilite de droit commun) of one of his suppliers. Certain supporters of this theory believe however that this possibility may be provided for contractually. This theory is based on the premise that (i) the text of the conventions makes no distinction between contractual and third party liability; (ii) the Paris Convention provides that the operator can have a right of recourse if this has been expressly provided for by contract, which would appear to indicate that the founders of the Convention had given the question of contractual liability due consideration; and (iii) the founders of the Convention wanted to set up a practicable system of insurance of nuclear risk by channelling the risk to the operator and providing for limited liability. The second theory claims that the nuclear operator can invoke the general liability of a supplier even without a contractual clause to this effect. This particular interpretation is based on the supposition that Article 6 of the Paris Convention only concerns third party liability and rights of recourse in this respect between operators and suppliers, but not direct contractual liability between suppliers and operators. The author proceeds to examine criticisms advanced by various parties in respect of the opposing theories, and concludes that an institutional decision is necessary in order to put an end to the legal uncertainty surrounding this question of interpretation. (author)

  9. Capabilities of an on-site inspection

    The technical capabilities of a 10-person radionuclide team operating mobile labs and portable equipment against a nuclear anomaly that could be a contained underground nuclear explosion is described. Surveys, including flight, car-borne, and backpack, help locate an area for investigation, then in situ survey and sample collections can identify isotopic anomalies in concentration, location, and ratio. Where surface radionuclides are not evident, subsurface noble gas (Xe and Ar) collection and mobile lab measurements can detect leakage from even well-contained nuclear tests. The authors will discuss the strategies for using these capabilities and the integration of information from other technical subteams in a 4-week exercise. (author)

  10. Means of on-site studies

    Expertise tools and controls systems presented are used during the shutdown periods of french PWR reactors. Classical tests are completed by in-situ nondestructive television optical microscopy examinations, and elastomer replica techniques. (A.B.). 9 figs

  11. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  12. Laser technologies for on-site surveillance

    There are situations, where video surveillance based on automated scene change detection systems may prove to be ineffective. In some cases, the changes in the image are too small to be properly detected. In others, false alarms are generated without objects (or people) moving. These alarms may be caused by changes in illumination, e.g., a faulty lamp or spurious reflections in places near water pools. Further, the absence of illumination during a blackout (whether it is caused by accident or on purpose) prevents cameras from their surveillance operation. There are high security installations for which it is necessary to introduce reliable, independent and effective sensors that can keep the surveillance work even during a blackout. Laser range scanners are electronic instruments measuring the distance from the instrument itself to the outside world along a specific direction. The type of the instrument to use depends on the range of distances to measure. The deflection of the laser beam (e.g., using a rotating mirror) enables the acquisition of the distance profiles of the surrounding premises in a very short time. Alarms are generated by comparing acquired distance measurements (organized as profiles - 2D Laser Surveillance, or in clouds of points - 3D Laser Surveillance) with previously acquired references. This is most effective for real-time detection of even small changes in the environment. The main feature of laser surveillance system is that it measures distances between the instrument itself and the real world, rather than measuring only appearance as video surveillance systems do. As such, any physical change occurring within the field of site of the laser instrument is immediately measured and detected. The fact that laser systems are self-illuminating and do not depend on the external illumination make them quite effective to work during blackouts. The paper introduces laser surveillance and shows how such systems complement well already existing video surveillance systems. (author)

  13. Lessons learned from the first U.S./Russian Federation joint tabletop exercise to prepare for conducting on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; TOPICAL

    A U.S./Russian Federation Joint Tabletop Exercise took place in Snezhinsk, Russia, from 19 to 24 October 1998, whose objectives were the following: (1) To simulate the actions of the Inspection Team (IT), including interactions with the inspected State Party (ISP), in order to examine different ways the United States and Russian Federation (RF) approach inspections and develop appropriate recommendations for the international community. (2) To identify ambiguities and contradictions in the interpretation of Treaty and Protocol provisions that might become apparent in the course of an inspection and that need clarification in connection with the development of Operational Manuals and on-site inspection (OSI) infrastructure. (3) To confirm the efficacy of using bilateral tabletop exercises to assist in developing an effective Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification regime. (4) To identify strong and weak points in the preparation and implementation methods of such exercises for the purpose of further improving possible future exercises

  14. Effects of the cooling system parameters on heat transfer and performance of the PAFC stack during transient operation. Ph.D. Thesis

    Ridha, Rabi M. J.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation for the effects of transient operation of a phosphoric acid fuel-cell stack on heat transfer and temperature distribution in the electrodes has been conducted. The proposed work utilized the experimental setup with modifications, which was designed and constructed under NASA Contract No. NCC-3-17(5). The experimental results obtained from this investigation and the mathematical model obtained under NASA Contract No. NCC3-17(4) after modifications, were utilized to develop mathematical models for transient heat transfer coefficient and temperature distribution in the electrode and to evaluate the performance of the cooling - system under unsteady state conditions. The empirical formulas developed were then implemented to modifying the developed computer code. Two incompressible coolants were used to study experimentally the effect of the thermophysical properties of the cool-ants on the transient heat transfer coefficient and the thermal contact resistance during start-up and shut-down processes. Coolant mass flow rates were verified from 16 to 88.2 Kg/hr during the transient process when the electrical power supply was gradually increased or decreased in the range (O to 3000 W/sq m). The effect of the thermal contact resistance with a range of stack pressure from O to 3500 KPa was studied.

  15. Methodology using a portable X-ray fluorescence device for on-site and rapid evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in wounds: a model study for application to plutonium contamination.

    Hiroshi Yoshii

    Full Text Available Workers decommissioning the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant damaged from the Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami are at risk of injury with possible contamination from radioactive heavy atoms including actinides, such as plutonium. We propose a new methodology for on-site and rapid evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in wounds using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF device. In the present study, stable lead was used as the model contaminant substitute for radioactive heavy atoms. First, the wound model was developed by placing a liquid blood phantom on an epoxy resin wound phantom contaminated with lead. Next, the correlation between the concentration of contaminant and the XRF peak intensity was formulated considering the thickness of blood exiting the wound. Methods to determine the minimum detection limit (MDL of contaminants at any maximal equivalent dose to the wound by XRF measurement were also established. For example, in this system, at a maximal equivalent dose of 16.5 mSv to the wound and blood thickness of 0.5 mm, the MDL value for lead was 1.2 ppm (3.1 nmol. The radioactivity of 239Pu corresponding to 3.1 nmol is 1.7 kBq, which is lower than the radioactivity of 239Pu contaminating puncture wounds in previous severe accidents. In conclusion, the established methodology could be beneficial for future development of a method to evaluate plutonium contamination in wounds. Highlights: Methodology for evaluation of heavy-atom contamination in a wound was established. A portable X-ray fluorescence device enables on-site, rapid and direct evaluation. This method is expected to be used for evaluation of plutonium contamination in wounds.

  16. Effect of on-site intervention on targeted monitoring of surgical site infections%现场干预在外科手术部位感染目标性监测中的作用

    李金娜; 王宁宁; 刘芳菲; 段艳霞; 赵丽燕; 白小龙; 秦变妮

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the risk factors of surgical site infections (SSI) and provide basis for reducing the SSI. METHODS A prospective study and interventional methods were performed on surgical site in patients undergoing six surgeries in the hospital. Both single and multiple regression logistic analysis were executed with SPSS on the 10 factors including , on-site intervention in the risk factors. RESULTS Among 519 patients undergoing surgeries, the incidence rate of SSI was 1. 9%; the insulation measure and the surgical drainage had the most significant correlation with the SSI (P<0. 01) ;after the on-site intervention, the incidence rates of the SSI caused by colorectal surgery and gallbladder bile duct surgery decreased to 7. 1% and 6. 3% , respectively, the simple cholecystectomy decreased to 1. 6%; the utilization rale of the prophylactic antibiotics of the patients undergoing thyroidectomy or high ligation of the great saphenous vein decreased from 100. 0% to below 30. 0%. CONCLUSION The intraoperative low temperature,drainage,hospital stay are the high-risk factors for SSI, and the on-site intervention in the target monitoring is an powerful way to control the high-risk factors.%目的 探讨现场干预对外科手术部位感染(SSI)目标性监测的作用,降低SSI发生率.方法 采用干预性研究方法,对6种手术患者的手术部位感染及相关因素进行了目标性监测,对危险因素进行现场干预.结果 共监测手术患者519例,SSI发生率为1.9%;手术部位感染与年龄、保温措施、ASA评分、住院天数、是否引流有关(P<0.05);其中保温措施、外科引流与手术部位感染有显著关系(P<0.01);经过现场干预,直肠、结肠手术及胆囊、胆管手术的手术部位感染率分别下降至7.1%及6.3%,单纯胆囊切除术下降至1.6%;甲状腺切除术及大隐静脉高位结扎术患者预防性抗菌药物使用率从100.0%降至<30.0%.结论 术中低体温、

  17. A pilot study on the assessment of trace organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products from on-site wastewater treatment systems along Skaneateles Lake in New York State, USA.

    Subedi, Bikram; Codru, Neculai; Dziewulski, David M; Wilson, Lloyd R; Xue, Jingchuan; Yun, Sehun; Braun-Howland, Ellen; Minihane, Christine; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-04-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs or septic systems) are designed to treat and dispose effluents on the same property that produces the wastewater. Approximately 25% of the U.S. population is served by such facilities. Nevertheless, studies on the treatment efficiency and discharge of organic contaminants through septic effluents are lacking. This pilot study showed the occurrence of organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in septic effluents, adjacent lake water samples, household drinking water in homes that use lake water or a well adjacent to the lake as a source of drinking water, and offshore lake water samples. Septic effluent as well as lake and tap water samples were collected from several households with OWTSs around Skaneateles Lake located in central New York. The advanced on-site systems were installed in some households for the purpose of limiting nutrient levels in the effluent to protect the local surface water. Additionally, because many of these systems serve homes with limited land, advanced treatment systems were needed. The median concentrations of ten PPCPs (ranged from 0.45 to 388 ng/L) and eleven PFASs (ranged from 0.20 to 14.6 ng/L) in septic water were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) than in lake water samples. The median concentrations of PPCPs and PFASs in lake and tap water samples were not significantly different (p ≥ 0.65). The median concentrations of ∑PBDEs in septic, lake, and tap water samples were 7.47, 3.49, and 2.22 ng/L, respectively, and those for ∑PCBs were 33.1, 29.2, and 28.6 ng/L, respectively. The mass flux of PPCPs (i.e. the mass flow of PPCPs per unit area per unit time) through the disposal of treated septic effluent from textile biofilter and aerobic treatments to the dispersal unit ranged from 12 (carbamazepine) to 66900 μg/m(2)/day

  18. 机车制动机现场培训考试系统的研究%Research on the On-site Training Exam System of Automotive Braking Machine

    张玲

    2015-01-01

    The on-site training exam system of automotive braking machine was devised and developed with the pneumatic technology on the basis of liquid mechanics theory aimed at the problems such as short time of cultivation for the locomotive drivers, insufficient experience, and unskilled degree of controlling the locomotive, low accuracy to the estimation of the phenomenon. It was applied in the training of steward and achieved distinct effect, enhanced the level for steward to operate braking machine and judge the train braking pipe accurately.%针对目前普遍存在机车司机培养时间短、 经验不足, 对机车操纵的熟练程度及对现象判断的准确性不高的问题, 采用气动技术、 依据流体力学理论, 设计开发了机车制动机现场培训考试系统. 经过在乘务员培训中的应用, 取得明显的效果, 提高了乘务员的制动机操作水平和对列车管判断的准确性.

  19. 剥肋滚压直螺纹套筒钢筋机械现场质量控制方法%Study on the On-site Quality Control Method of Using Rib-Paring to Roll Straight Thread

    黄世武

    2011-01-01

    文章介绍剥肋滚压直螺纹套筒钢筋机械连接技术,通过实验发现引起钢筋机械接头不合规范的四种因素,并提出通过检验每个套筒尺寸、控制每个钢筋丝头尺寸、检验拧紧力矩、成品检验的四因素检验控制方法来保障该技术现场施工质量。%The article introduces the steel mechanical connection technique by using rib-paring to roll straight thread.Through test, four factors that cause the steel connectors to be incorrect are identified.The article then proposes a test and control method through testing the size of each socket,controlling the size of steel thread head ,examine tightening torque, and testing finished product,to ensure the on site construction quality.

  20. Brief Analysis of Factors Influencing Installing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Stud on Site%浅析影响反应堆压力容器主螺栓现场安装的因素

    胡大芬; 杨景超; 刘东杰; 陈莲

    2016-01-01

    Based on occurred CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel stud unscrewing in stud hole on site by u-sing multi stud tensioning machine(MSTM)in a domestic nuclear power plant,and combined the charac-teristics of its′stud screw thread structure and performance of MSTM,the influencing factors causing this phenomena were analyzed.The influencing mechanism of each factor was discussed.Then corresponding preventive measures were proposed.%针对国内某核电厂 CPR1000反应堆压力容器主螺栓采用整体螺栓拉伸机现场安装时无法顺利旋入主螺孔的现象,结合其主螺栓螺纹副结构和整体螺栓拉伸机性能特点,分析了造成该现象的影响因素,讨论了各因素的影响机理,并提出了相应的预防措施。