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Sample records for 1-year repeat mri

  1. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  2. MRI of the wrist and finger joints in inflammatory joint diseases at 1-year interval: MRI features to predict bone erosions

    Savnik, Anette [Department of Rheumatology, Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Radiology, University Hospital at Herlev, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Malmskov, Hanne; Graff, Lykke B.; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [Department of Rheumatology, Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital at Herlev, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nielsen, Henrik [Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital at Herlev, Copenhagen (Denmark); Boesen, Jens [Department of Radiology, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of MRI determined synovial volumes and bone marrow oedema to predict progressions in bone erosions after 1 year in patients with different types of inflammatory joint diseases. Eighty-four patients underwent MRI, laboratory and clinical examination at baseline and 1 year later. Magnetic resonance imaging of the wrist and finger joints was performed in 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis less than 3 years (group 1) who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, 18 patients with reactive arthritis or psoriatic arthritis (group 2), 22 patients with more than 3 years duration of rheumatoid arthritis, who fulfilled the ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (group 3), and 20 patients with arthralgia (group 4). The volume of the synovial membrane was outlined manually before and after gadodiamide injection on the T1-weighted sequences in the finger joints. Bones with marrow oedema were summed up in the wrist and fingers on short-tau inversion recovery sequences. These MRI features was compared with the number of bone erosions 1 year later. The MR images were scored independently under masked conditions. The synovial volumes in the finger joints assessed on pre-contrast images was highly predictive of bone erosions 1 year later in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (groups 1 and 3). The strongest individual predictor of bone erosions at 1-year follow-up was bone marrow oedema, if present at the wrist at baseline. Bone erosions on baseline MRI were in few cases reversible at follow-up MRI. The total synovial volume in the finger joints, and the presence of bone oedema in the wrist bones, seems to be predictive for the number of bone erosions 1 year later and may be used in screening. The importance of very early bone changes on MRI and the importance of the reversibility of these findings remain to be clarified. (orig.)

  3. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    Kongsted, Alice; Sorensen, Joan; Andersen, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion and......Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large...... extension of the cervical spine. Participants were included after rear-end or frontal car collisions. Patients with fractures or dislocations diagnosed by standard procedures at the emergency unit were not included. MRI scans of the cervical spine were performed at baseline and repeated after 3 months...

  4. Data on the safety of repeated MRI in healthy children

    Scott K. Holland

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Examination of neurocognitive and biometric data from a decade-long, longitudinal fMRI study of normal language development in this small, longitudinal sample of healthy children in the age range of 5 to 18 years, who received up to 10 MRI scans, provides scientific evidence to support the belief that MRI poses minimal risk for use in research with healthy children.

  5. The Neural Consequences of Repeated Cocaine Exposure Revealed by Functional MRI in Awake Rats

    Febo, Marcelo; Segarra, Annabell C.; Nair, Govind; Schmidt, Karl; Duong, Timothy Q.; Ferris, Craig F.

    2005-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in animal models of cocaine addiction is an invaluable tool for investigating the neuroadaptations that lead to this psychiatric disorder. We used blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI in awake rats to identify the neuronal circuits affected by repeated cocaine administration. Rats were given an injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle for 7 days, abstained from injections for 1 week, and challenged with an intracerebrovent...

  6. Timing of MRI in pregnancy, repeat exams, access, and physician qualifications.

    Levine, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    This review addresses specific questions regarding performance and utility of fetal MR. The specific issues addressed are (1) physician qualifications; (2) MR safety; (3) access to fetal MR; (4) timing of MRI in pregnancy; (5) repeat exams; and (6) when MRI is most effective for prenatal diagnosis. Fetal MRI is a problem-solving tool used for specific indications that are driven by ultrasound or at times by family history. Fetal MR should always be performed with knowledge of the sonographic findings from prior targeted scan. The best evidence for utility of MR is in assessment of CNS anomalies and assessment of the fetus with airway obstruction requiring decisions regarding mode of therapy. The type of information provided by MR can profoundly impact patient counseling and management. We recommend a team approach including specialists in obstetric imaging, fetal MRI, and postnatal care in interpreting MR so that the best information can be given to the pregnant patient. PMID:24176157

  7. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    Crema, Michel D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hunter, David J. [The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Li, Ling [New England Baptist Hospital, Division of Research, Boston, MA (United States); Marra, Monica D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H. [Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged {>=}40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  8. Repeated BOLD-fMRI imaging of deep brain stimulation responses in rats.

    Chao, Tzu-Hao Harry; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with α-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, α-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol) with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP) thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1). The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91), and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67). The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI. PMID:24825464

  9. Repeated BOLD-fMRI imaging of deep brain stimulation responses in rats.

    Tzu-Hao Harry Chao

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI provides a picture of the global spatial activation pattern of the brain. Interest is growing regarding the application of fMRI to rodent models to investigate adult brain plasticity. To date, most rodent studies used an electrical forepaw stimulation model to acquire fMRI data, with α-chloralose as the anesthetic. However, α-chloralose is harmful to animals, and not suitable for longitudinal studies. Moreover, peripheral stimulation models enable only a limited number of brain regions to be studied. Processing between peripheral regions and the brain is multisynaptic, and renders interpretation difficult and uncertain. In the present study, we combined the medetomidine-based fMRI protocol (a noninvasive rodent fMRI protocol with chronic implantation of an MRI-compatible stimulation electrode in the ventroposterior (VP thalamus to repetitively sample thalamocortical responses in the rat brain. Using this model, we scanned the forebrain responses evoked by the VP stimulation repeatedly of individual rats over 1 week. Cortical BOLD responses were compared between the 2 profiles obtained at day1 and day8. We discovered reproducible frequency- and amplitude-dependent BOLD responses in the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1. The S1 BOLD responses during the 2 sessions were conserved in maximal response amplitude, area size (size ratio from 0.88 to 0.91, and location (overlap ratio from 0.61 to 0.67. The present study provides a long-term chronic brain stimulation protocol for studying the plasticity of specific neural circuits in the rodent brain by BOLD-fMRI.

  10. Repeatability of cardiac-MRI-measured right ventricular size and function in congenital heart disease

    The measurement error for right ventricular (RV) size and function assessed by cardiac MRI (CMRI) in congenital heart disease has not been fully characterized. As CMRI parameters are being increasingly utilized to make clinical decisions, defining error in the clinical setting is critical. This investigation examines the repeatability of CMRI for RV size and function. Forty consecutive people with congenital heart disease involving the RV were retrospectively identified. Contouring of RV volumes was performed by two expert CMRI clinicians. The coefficient of variability and repeatability coefficients were calculated. Repeatability coefficients were multiplied by the mean value for each group studied to define a threshold beyond which measurement error was unlikely to be responsible. The variability for indexed RV end-diastolic volume = 3.2% and 3.3% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, respectively. The repeatability coefficients were 13.2% and 14.9% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, which yielded threshold values of 15.1 ml/m2 and 20.2 ml/m2, respectively. For RV ejection fraction (EF), the repeatability coefficients for intra- and interobserver comparisons were 5.0% and 6.0%, which resulted in threshold values of 2.6 EF% and 3.0 EF%. The threshold values generated can be used during serial assessment of RV size and function. (orig.)

  11. Repeatability of cardiac-MRI-measured right ventricular size and function in congenital heart disease

    Walsh, Rowan; Salem, Yishay [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Shah, Amee; Lai, Wyman W. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York Presbyterian, New York, NY (United States); Nielsen, James C. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai Children' s Heart Center, Box 1201, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The measurement error for right ventricular (RV) size and function assessed by cardiac MRI (CMRI) in congenital heart disease has not been fully characterized. As CMRI parameters are being increasingly utilized to make clinical decisions, defining error in the clinical setting is critical. This investigation examines the repeatability of CMRI for RV size and function. Forty consecutive people with congenital heart disease involving the RV were retrospectively identified. Contouring of RV volumes was performed by two expert CMRI clinicians. The coefficient of variability and repeatability coefficients were calculated. Repeatability coefficients were multiplied by the mean value for each group studied to define a threshold beyond which measurement error was unlikely to be responsible. The variability for indexed RV end-diastolic volume = 3.2% and 3.3% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, respectively. The repeatability coefficients were 13.2% and 14.9% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, which yielded threshold values of 15.1 ml/m{sup 2} and 20.2 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. For RV ejection fraction (EF), the repeatability coefficients for intra- and interobserver comparisons were 5.0% and 6.0%, which resulted in threshold values of 2.6 EF% and 3.0 EF%. The threshold values generated can be used during serial assessment of RV size and function. (orig.)

  12. Medical students who decompress during the M-1 year outperform those who fail and repeat it: A study of M-1 students at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign 1988–2000

    Freund Gregory G

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All medical schools must counsel poor-performing students, address their problems and assist them in developing into competent physicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether students with academic deficiencies in their M-1 year graduate more often, spend less time to complete the curriculum, and need fewer attempts at passing USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 by entering the Decompressed Program prior to failure of the M-1 year than those students who fail the M-1 year and then repeat it. Method The authors reviewed the performance of M-1 students in the Decompressed Program and compared their outcomes to M-1 students who failed and fully repeated the M-1 year. To compare the groups upon admission, t-Tests comparing the Cognitive Index of students and MCAT scores from both groups were performed. Performance of the two groups after matriculation was also analyzed. Results Decompressed students were 2.1 times more likely to graduate. Decompressed students were 2.5 times more likely to pass USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt than the repeat students. In addition, 46% of those in the decompressed group completed the program in five years compared to 18% of the repeat group. Conclusion Medical students who decompress their M-1 year prior to M-1 year failure outperform those who fail their first year and then repeat it. These findings indicate the need for careful monitoring of M-1 student performance and early intervention and counseling of struggling students.

  13. Prospective comparison of T2w-MRI and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI, 3D-MR spectroscopic imaging or diffusion-weighted MRI in repeat TRUS-guided biopsies

    Portalez, Daniel [Clinique Pasteur, 45, Department of Radiology, Toulouse (France); Rollin, Gautier; Mouly, Patrick; Jonca, Frederic; Malavaud, Bernard [Hopital de Rangueil, Department of Urology, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Leandri, Pierre [Clinique Saint Jean, 20, Department of Urology, Toulouse (France); Elman, Benjamin [Clinique Pasteur, 45, Department of Urology, Toulouse (France)

    2010-12-15

    To compare T2-weighted MRI and functional MRI techniques in guiding repeat prostate biopsies. Sixty-eight patients with a history of negative biopsies, negative digital rectal examination and elevated PSA were imaged before repeat biopsies. Dichotomous criteria were used with visual validation of T2-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and literature-derived cut-offs for 3D-spectroscopy MRI (choline-creatine-to-citrate ratio >0.86) and diffusion-weighted imaging (ADC x 10{sup 3} mm{sup 2}/s < 1.24). For each segment and MRI technique, results were rendered as being suspicious/non-suspicious for malignancy. Sextant biopsies, transition zone biopsies and at least two additional biopsies of suspicious areas were taken. In the peripheral zones, 105/408 segments and in the transition zones 19/136 segments were suspicious according to at least one MRI technique. A total of 28/68 (41.2%) patients were found to have cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging exhibited the highest positive predictive value (0.52) compared with T2-weighted MRI (0.29), dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (0.33) and 3D-spectroscopy MRI (0.25). Logistic regression showed the probability of cancer in a segment increasing 12-fold when T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI were both suspicious (63.4%) compared with both being non-suspicious (5.2%). The proposed system of analysis and reporting could prove clinically relevant in the decision whether to repeat targeted biopsies. (orig.)

  14. Prospective comparison of T2w-MRI and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI, 3D-MR spectroscopic imaging or diffusion-weighted MRI in repeat TRUS-guided biopsies

    To compare T2-weighted MRI and functional MRI techniques in guiding repeat prostate biopsies. Sixty-eight patients with a history of negative biopsies, negative digital rectal examination and elevated PSA were imaged before repeat biopsies. Dichotomous criteria were used with visual validation of T2-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and literature-derived cut-offs for 3D-spectroscopy MRI (choline-creatine-to-citrate ratio >0.86) and diffusion-weighted imaging (ADC x 103 mm2/s < 1.24). For each segment and MRI technique, results were rendered as being suspicious/non-suspicious for malignancy. Sextant biopsies, transition zone biopsies and at least two additional biopsies of suspicious areas were taken. In the peripheral zones, 105/408 segments and in the transition zones 19/136 segments were suspicious according to at least one MRI technique. A total of 28/68 (41.2%) patients were found to have cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging exhibited the highest positive predictive value (0.52) compared with T2-weighted MRI (0.29), dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (0.33) and 3D-spectroscopy MRI (0.25). Logistic regression showed the probability of cancer in a segment increasing 12-fold when T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI were both suspicious (63.4%) compared with both being non-suspicious (5.2%). The proposed system of analysis and reporting could prove clinically relevant in the decision whether to repeat targeted biopsies. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in localizing prostate cancer before repeat biopsy

    We assessed the accuracy of T2-weighted (T2w) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in localizing prostate cancer before transrectal ultrasound-guided repeat biopsy. Ninety-three patients with abnormal PSA level and negative prostate biopsy underwent T2w and DCE prostate MRI using pelvic coil before repeat biopsy. T2w and DCE images were interpreted using visual criteria only. MR results were correlated with repeat biopsy findings in ten prostate sectors. Repeat biopsy found prostate cancer in 23 patients (24.7%) and 44 sectors (6.6%). At per patient analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 47.8%, 44.3%, 20.4% and 79.5% for T2w imaging and 82.6%, 20%, 24.4% and 93.3% for DCE imaging. When all suspicious areas (on T2w or DCE imaging) were taken into account, a sensitivity of 82.6% and a negative predictive value of 100% could be achieved. At per sector analysis, DCE imaging was significantly less specific (83.5% vs. 89.7%, p < 0.002) than T2w imaging; it was more sensitive (52.4% vs. 32.1%), but the difference was hardly significant (p = 0.09). T2w and DCE MRI using pelvic coil and visual diagnostic criteria can guide prostate repeat biopsy, with a good sensitivity and NPV. (orig.)

  16. Accuracy of 3 Tesla pelvic phased-array multiparametric MRI in diagnosing prostate cancer at repeat biopsy

    Pietro Pepe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiparametric pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI accuracy in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis was evaluated. Materials and Methods. From June 2011 to December 2013, 168 patients (median 65 years with negative digital rectal examination underwent repeat transperineal saturation biopsy (SPBx; median 28 cores for persistently high or increasing PSA values, PSA >10 ng/ml or PSA values between 4.1-10 o r 2.6-4 ng/ml with free/total PSA < 25% and < 20%, respectively. All patients underwent mpMRI using a 3.0 Tesla scanner equipped with surface 16 channels phased-array coil and lesions suspicious for PCa were submitted to additional targeted biopsies. Results. A T1c PCa was found in 66 (39% cases; SPBx and mpMRI-suspicious targeted biopsy diagnosed 60 (91% and 52 (78.8% cancers missing 6 (all of the anterior zone and 14 cancers (12 and 2 of the lateral margins and anterior zone, respectively; in detail, mpMRI missed 12 (18.1% PCa charaterized by microfocal (1 positive core with greatest percentage of cancer and Gleason score equal to 5% and 6, respectively disease at risk for insignificant cancer. The diameter of the suspicious mpMRI lesion was directly correlated to the diagnosis of PCa with poor Gleason score (p < 0.05; detection rate of cancer for each suspicious mpMRI core was 35.3%. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of mpMRI in diagnosing PCa was 75.7%, 82.5%, 71.8%, 78.9%, 87.9%, respectively. Conclusion. Multiparametric pMRI improved SPBx accuracy in diagnosing significant anterior PCa; the diameter of mpMRI suspicious lesion resulted significantly predictive of aggressive cancers.

  17. Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy.

    Tarbé de Saint Hardouin, A-L; Grévent, D; Sainte-Rose, C; Angoulvant, F; Chéron, G

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic spinal epidural hematoma is uncommon in children, making rapid diagnosis difficult. In this report, we present a case of traumatic cervical epidural hematoma in a 1-year-old boy, diagnosed with computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Management was conservative and the lesion regressed spontaneously. The presentation in childhood is often nonspecific. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing these lesions. Conservative treatment has to be considered in cases with a benign clinical course and provided that the patient is followed up neurologically with repeated MRI. PMID:27266638

  18. Test–retest reliability and repeatability of renal diffusion tensor MRI in healthy subjects

    Purpose: This study assessed test–retest reliability and repeatability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the kidneys. Materials and methods: Seven healthy volunteers (age range, 19–31 years), were imaged three consecutive times on the same day (short-term reliability) and the same imaging protocol was repeated after a month (long-term reliability). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans in the coronal-oblique projection of the kidney were acquired on a 1.5 T scanner using a multi-section echo-planar sequence; six contiguous slices each 5 mm thick, diffusion sensitisation along 20 non-collinear directions, TR = 730 ms, TE = 73 ms and 2 b-values (0 and 400 s mm−2). Volunteers were asked to hold their breath throughout each data acquisition (approx. 20 s). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained from maps generated using dedicated software MIStar (Apollo Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Australia). Results: Statistical analyses of both short- and long-term repeats were carried out from which the within-subject coefficient of variation (wsCV) was calculated. The wsCV obtained for both the ADC and FA values were less than 10% in all the analyses carried out. In addition, paired (repeated measures) t-test was used to measure the variation between the diffusion parameters collected from the two scanning sessions a month apart. It showed no significant difference and the wsCV obtained after comparing the first and second scans were found to be smaller than 15% for both ADC and FA. Conclusion: Renal DTI produces reliable and repeatable results which make longitudinal investigation of patients viable.

  19. Repeatability of a Dual Gradient-Recalled Echo MRI Method for Monitoring Post-Isometric Contraction Blood Volume and Oxygenation Changes

    Sanchez, O.A.; Louie, E.A.; Copenhaver, E.A.; Damon, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of a dual gradient-recalled echo (GRE) muscle functional MRI technique. On two days, subjects (n=8) performed 10 s isometric dorsiflexion contractions under conditions of: 1) maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 2) 50% MVC (50%MVC) or 3) 50% MVC with concurrent proximal arterial cuff occlusion (50%MVCcuff). Functional MRI data were acquired using single-slice dual GRE (TR/TE=1000/6, 46 ms) EPI for 20 seconds before, during, and for 180...

  20. Radiotherapy for spinal metastases from breast cancer with emphasis on local disease control and pain response using repeated MRI

    Marta D. Switlyk

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: RT provided excellent local tumor control in patients with SM. Most patients benefit from RT even in cases of progressive vertebral fracture. Pain response was not associated with imaging findings and MRI cannot be used to select patients at risk of not responding to RT.

  1. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting

  2. TU-C-12A-05: Repeatability Study of Reduced Field-Of-View Diffusion-Weighted MRI On Human Thyroid Gland

    Shukla-Dave, A; Lu, Y; Hatzoglou, V; Stambuk, H; Mazaheri, Y [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, S; Shankaranarayanan, A [GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, California (United States); Deasy, J [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the repeatability of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) in quantifying apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting. Methods: Nine healthy human volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3T MRI exams. For each volunteer, 3 longitudinal exams (2 weeks apart) with 2 repetitive sessions within each exam, including rFOV and conventional full field-of-view (fFOV) DWI scans, were performed. In the acquired DWI images, a fixed-size region of interest (ROI; diameter=8mm) was placed on thyroid glands to calculate ADC. ADC was calculated using a monoexponential function with a noise correction scheme. The repeatability of ADC was assessed by using coefficient variation (CV) across sessions or exams, which was defined to be: r = 1-CV, 0 < r < 1, where CV=STD/m, STD is the standard deviation of ADC, and m is the average of ADC across sessions or exams. An experienced radiologist assessed and scored rFOV and fFOV DW images based on image characteristics (1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, satisfactory; 4, good; and 5, excellent).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare ADC values, CV of ADC, repeatability of ADC across sessions and exams, and radiologic scores between rFOV and fFOV DWI techniques. Results: There was no significant difference in ADC values across sessions and exams either in rFOV or fFOV DWI. The average CVs of both rFOV and fFOV DWI were less than 13%. The repeatability of ADC measurement between rFOV and fFOV DWI was not significantly different. The overall image quality was significantly higher with rFOV DWI than with fFOV DWI. Conclusion: This study suggested that ADCs from both rFOV and fFOV DWI were repeatable, but rFOV DWI had superior imaging quality for human thyroid glands in a clinical setting.

  3. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... & Stages > Toddler > Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  4. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Ages & Stages > Toddler > Social Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  5. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  6. Repeated Miscarriage

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ100 PREGNANCY Repeated Miscarriages • What is recurrent pregnancy loss? • What is the likelihood of having repeated miscarriages? • What is the most common cause of miscarriage? • ...

  7. An exploratory intervention study suggests clinical benefits of training in chronic stroke to be paralleled by changes in brain activity using repeated fMRI

    Landsmann B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Landsmann,1,2 Daniela Pinter,2 Eva Pirker,1,2 Gerald Pichler,3 Walter Schippinger,3 Elisabeth M Weiss,1 Gabriel Mathie,2 Thomas Gattringer,2 Franz Fazekas,2 Christian Enzinger2,4 1Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 2Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Albert Schweitzer Clinic Graz, Graz, Austria; 4Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria Purpose: Previous studies demonstrated changes in sensorimotor network activation over time after stroke that have been interpreted as partly compensatory. Locomotor and balance trainings may improve both mobility and cognition even in chronic stroke and thereby impact on cerebral activation patterns. We here aimed at testing these assumptions in an exploratory study to inform subsequent larger intervention studies. Patients and methods: Eight patients (73.3±4.4 years with a chronic lacunar stroke (mean interval 3.7 years after the acute event with a range from 2 to 4 years and residual leg paresis leading to gait disturbance received a guided 5-week training focusing on mobility, endurance, and coordination. Before and afterward, they underwent clinical, neuropsychological, and gait assessments and brain MRI at 3 T including a functional ankle movement paradigm. Sixteen healthy controls (HCs; 68.8±5.4 years followed the same protocol without intervention. Results: After training, patients had improved in mobility, memory, and delayed recall of memory. While cerebral activations in HC remained completely unaltered, patients showed increased activations in the right precentral gyrus, the right and left superior frontal gyri, and the right frontal lobe, with bipedal ankle movements after training. Conclusion: In this exploratory study of chronic stroke, we found not only significant effects of physical training on mobility but also distinct aspects of cognition already with a small number of

  8. Chest MRI

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - chest; Magnetic resonance imaging - chest; NMR - chest; MRI of the thorax; Thoracic MRI ... healthy enough to filter the contrast. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  9. MRI and low back pain

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  10. MRI Scans

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  11. SVZ sum rules : 30 + 1 years later

    Narison, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    For this exceptional 25th anniversary of the QCD-Montpellier series of conferences initiated in 85 with the name "Non-perturbative methods", we take the opportunuity to celebrate the 30 + 1 years of the discovery of the SVZ (also called ITEP, QCD or QCD spectral) sum rules by M.A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein and V.I. Zakahrov in 79 [1]. In this talk, I have the duty to present the status of the method. I shall (can) not enumerate the vast area of successful applications of sum rules in hadron physics but I shall focus on the historical evolution of field and its new developments. More detailed related discussions and more complete references can be found in the textbooks [2,3].

  12. MRI in Japanese encephalitis

    Kumar, S. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Misra, U.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Kalita, J. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Neurology; Salwani, V. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gupta, R.K. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology; Gujral, R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    We document the MRI features in seven patients with Japanese encephalitis. MRI was carried out on a 1.5 T system within 10-60 days of onset. In all the patients MRI revealed bilateral thalamic lesions, haemorrhagic in five. Signal changes were present in the cerebrum in four patients, the midbrain and cerebellum in three each, the pons in two and the basal ganglia in one. The lesions were haemorrhagic in three of the four patients with lesions in the cortex, two of the three with lesions in the midbrain and cerebellum, but the pontine lesions were haemorrhagic in both patients. Spinal cord involvement was seen in one of the three patients who underwent MRI. In two patients MRI was repeated 3 years after the onset, showing marked reduction in abnormal signal; and all the lesions gave low signal on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Bilateral thalamic involvement, especially haemorrhagic, may be considered characteristic of Japanese encephalitis, especially in endemic areas. (orig.)

  13. Abdominal MRI

    ... kidney and ureter Insulinoma Islet of Langerhans tumor Medullary cystic disease Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ... kidney and ureter Insulinoma Kidney stones Lymphofollicular ... kidney disease MRI Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Multiple endocrine ...

  14. Pediatric MRI

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Study of Normal Brain Development is a longitudinal study using anatomical MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to map pediatric...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    ... Resonance Imaging (MRI) What is an MRI? MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. It is an important ... MRI is often used for diagnosis or for monitoring disease. For example, if someone is having severe ...

  16. MRI Safety during Pregnancy

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z MRI Safety During Pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Illness ... during the exam? Contrast material MRI during pregnancy Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) If you are pregnant and your doctor ...

  17. Portable MRI

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  18. Portable MRI

    Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    This project proposes to: (1) provide the power of MRI to situations where it presently isn't available; (2) perform the engineering required to move from lab to a functional prototype; and (3) leverage significant existing infrastructure and capability in ultra-low field MRI. The reasons for doing this: (1) MRI is the most powerful tool for imaging soft-tissue (e.g. brain); (2) Billions don't have access due to cost or safety issues; (3) metal will heat/move in high magnetic fields; (4) Millions of cases of traumatic brain injury in US alone; (5) even more of non-traumatic brain injury; (6) (e.g. stroke, infection, chemical exposure); (7) Need for early diagnostic; (8) 'Signature' wound of recent conflicts; (9) 22% of injuries; (10) Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder; and (11) chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  19. Fetal MRI

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  20. Fetal MRI

    Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C. [University Hospital of Vienna (Austria). Division of Neuroradiology

    2004-07-01

    New, ultrafast sequences have made it possible to obtain MR images of the fetus without maternal sedation or immobilization of the fetus itself. While fetal MRI began as an adjunct to ultrasound, it has now been shown that MRI can provide additional information that may change prognosis, the management of pregnancy, or the treatment of the newborn child. It is of particular value in the assessment of malformations of the central nervous system. The steady development and adaptation of MR-sequences to the needs of fetal imaging has led to new indications that can support prognostic and therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  1. Low-cost, low-field dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis: a 1-year follow-up study

    Lindegaard, H.M.; Vallø, J.; Hørslev-Petersen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of low-cost low-field dedicated extremity magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI) to assess and predict erosive joint damage in the wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: 24 previously untreated patients with...... rheumatoid arthritis with joint symptoms for <1 year were evaluated at the time of diagnosis and after 6 and 12 months of methotrexate treatment with conventional clinical or biochemical examinations, x rays of both hands and wrists, and E-MRI of the dominant wrist and MCP joints. RESULTS: At baseline, all...... arthritis who were treated uniformly, baseline E-MRI erosions in MCP or wrist bones markedly increased the risk of x ray erosions at the 1-year follow-up. Low-cost, low-field dedicated extremity MRI is promising for assessment and prognostication of early rheumatoid arthritis. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Sep...

  2. MRI and pathology in persistent postherniotomy pain

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jensen, Karl-Erik; Fiirgaard, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain impairs everyday life in 5% to 10% of patients. MRI can potentially be useful in the investigation of pathogenic mechanisms and guide surgeons in mesh removal and neurectomy. No study has investigated interobserver agreement or MRI-specific findings in...... persistent postherniotomy pain. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two patients with persistent postherniotomy pain > 1 year after uni- or bilateral groin hernia repair and 6 pain-free postherniotomy controls were MRI scanned, resulting in a total of 32 painful groins, 15 pain-free operated groins, and 29 pain......-free unoperated groins scanned. Two blinded observers separately assessed groins using a predefined list of possible MRI pathology and anatomic landmarks. Primary outcomes included interobserver agreement assessed by calculating kappa-coefficients. Secondary outcomes included frequency of MRI pathology in painful...

  3. MRI zoo

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    The basic idea was to use MRI to produce a sequence of 3D gray scale image slices of various animals, subsequentlyimaged with a clinical CT system. For this purpose, these animals were used: toad, lungfish, python snake and a horseshoe crab. Each animal was sacrificed according to standard proced...

  4. Fetal MRI

    Ultrasonography is the method of choice for prenatal malformation screening, but it does not always provide sufficient information for correct diagnosis or adequate abnormality evaluation. Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to complete sonographic findings. It was initially used for evaluation of cerebral abnormalities but is increasingly being applied to other fetal areas. In vivo investigation of fetal brain maturation has been enhanced by MRI. An adequate analysis of fetal chest and abdomen can be achieved with fast T2-, T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The advantages include the great field of view and the excellent soft tissue contrast. This allows correct diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and evaluation of the consequences on pulmonary growth. Other pulmonary malformations, such as cystic adenomatoid malformation, sequestration and brochogenic cysts, can also be easily identified. Renal position can be quickly determined using DWI sequences and renal agenesia can be easily diagnosed with only one sequence. Prenatal MRI is virtually as effective as postnatal examination, dispenses with transport of a potentially very ill newborn, and provides logistic advantages. Therefore, prenatal MRI is useful for adequate postnatal treatment of newborns with malformations. (orig.)

  5. Comparative diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI and {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT in recurrent glioma

    Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Abhishek; Khangembam, Bangkim Chandra; Bandopadhyaya, Guru Pada; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandrasekhar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Goenka, Ajit [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Deepak Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery, New Delhi (India)

    2013-09-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Ce-MRI) and {sup 18}F-fluorodopa ({sup 18}F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for detecting recurrent glioma. In this prospective study, 35 patients (age, 36.62 {+-} 0.86 years; 80 % male) with histopathologically proven glioma with clinical suspicion of recurrence were evaluated using Ce-MRI and {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT. {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT images were evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Combination of clinical follow-up (minimum 1 year), repeat imaging and/or biopsy (when available) was taken as the reference standard. Based on the reference standard, 26 patients were positive and nine were negative for recurrence. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Ce-MRI were 92.3 %, 44.4 % and 80 % respectively, whereas those of {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT were 100 %, 88.89 % and 97.1 % respectively. Results of Ce-MRI and {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT were concordant in 74.3 % (29/35) and discordant in 17.1 % of patients (6/35). On McNemar analysis the difference was not statistically significant overall (P = 0.687), for high-grade tumour (P = 0.5) or low-grade tumours (P = 1.0). However, {sup 18}F-FDOPA PET-CT was more specific than Ce-MRI overall (P = 0.0002), for high-grade tumour (P = 0.006) and low-grade tumours (P = 0.004). F-FDOPA PET-CT shows a high but comparable diagnostic accuracy to Ce-MRI for the detection of recurrent glioma. However, it is more specific than Ce-MRI. (orig.)

  6. Comparative diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI and 18F-FDOPA PET-CT in recurrent glioma

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Ce-MRI) and 18F-fluorodopa (18F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for detecting recurrent glioma. In this prospective study, 35 patients (age, 36.62 ± 0.86 years; 80 % male) with histopathologically proven glioma with clinical suspicion of recurrence were evaluated using Ce-MRI and 18F-FDOPA PET-CT. 18F-FDOPA PET-CT images were evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Combination of clinical follow-up (minimum 1 year), repeat imaging and/or biopsy (when available) was taken as the reference standard. Based on the reference standard, 26 patients were positive and nine were negative for recurrence. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Ce-MRI were 92.3 %, 44.4 % and 80 % respectively, whereas those of 18F-FDOPA PET-CT were 100 %, 88.89 % and 97.1 % respectively. Results of Ce-MRI and 18F-FDOPA PET-CT were concordant in 74.3 % (29/35) and discordant in 17.1 % of patients (6/35). On McNemar analysis the difference was not statistically significant overall (P = 0.687), for high-grade tumour (P = 0.5) or low-grade tumours (P = 1.0). However, 18F-FDOPA PET-CT was more specific than Ce-MRI overall (P = 0.0002), for high-grade tumour (P = 0.006) and low-grade tumours (P = 0.004). F-FDOPA PET-CT shows a high but comparable diagnostic accuracy to Ce-MRI for the detection of recurrent glioma. However, it is more specific than Ce-MRI. (orig.)

  7. Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - slideshow

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100222.htm Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - series—Part ... occur in as little as 4 minutes. Rapid first aid for choking can save a life. The universal ...

  8. Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - slideshow

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100221.htm Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - series—Part 1 To ... Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared FIRST AID 1. DO NOT perform these steps if the ...

  9. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved

  10. Battlefield MRI

    Espy, Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the best method for non-invasive imaging of soft tissue anatomy, saving countless lives each year. It is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries. Furthermore, conventional MRI relies on very high, fixed strength magnetic fields (> 1.5 T) with parts-per-million homogeneity, which requires very large and expensive magnets.

  11. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 8 MB) Also available in Other Language versions . Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  12. What Is Chest MRI?

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Chest MRI? Chest MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a safe, noninvasive test. "Noninvasive" means that ... your chest wall, heart, and blood vessels. Chest MRI uses radio waves, magnets, and a computer to ...

  13. Knee MRI scan

    MRI - knee ... radiologist see certain areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ... less anxious. Your provider may suggest an "open" MRI, in which the machine is not as close ...

  14. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  15. MRI of car occupants with whiplash injury

    Voyvodic, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Dolinis, J. [National Injury Surveillance Unit, Bedford Park, SA (Australia)]|[National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Moore, V.M. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ryan, G.A. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Slavotinek, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Whyte, A.M. [Ashford Hospital Specialist Centre, SA (Australia); Hoile, R.D. [Ashford Hospital Specialist Centre, SA (Australia); Taylor, G.W. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document and investigate the prognostic significance of features seen on MRI of patients with whiplash injury following relatively minor road traffic crashes. MRI was obtained shortly and at 6 months after the crash using a 0.5 T imager. The images were assessed independently by two radiologists for evidence of fracture or other injury; loss of lordosis and spondylosis were also recorded. Clinical examinations were used to assess the status of patients initially and at 6 months. The results of the independent MRI and clinical investigations were then examined for association using statistical tests. Initial MRI was performed on 29 patients, of whom 19 had repeat studies at 6 months; 48 examinations were thus examined. Apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, only one abnormality was detected: an intramedullary lesion consistent with a small cyst or syrinx. There were no statistically significant associations between the outcome of injury and spondylosis or loss of lordosis. No significant changes were found when comparing the initial and follow-up MRI. It appears that MRI of patients with relatively less severe whiplash symptoms reveals a low frequency of abnormalities, apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, which have little short-term prognostic value. Routine investigation of such patients with MRI is not justified in view of the infrequency of abnormalities detected, the lack of prognostic value and the high cost of the procedure. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. MRI of car occupants with whiplash injury

    Our purpose was to document and investigate the prognostic significance of features seen on MRI of patients with whiplash injury following relatively minor road traffic crashes. MRI was obtained shortly and at 6 months after the crash using a 0.5 T imager. The images were assessed independently by two radiologists for evidence of fracture or other injury; loss of lordosis and spondylosis were also recorded. Clinical examinations were used to assess the status of patients initially and at 6 months. The results of the independent MRI and clinical investigations were then examined for association using statistical tests. Initial MRI was performed on 29 patients, of whom 19 had repeat studies at 6 months; 48 examinations were thus examined. Apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, only one abnormality was detected: an intramedullary lesion consistent with a small cyst or syrinx. There were no statistically significant associations between the outcome of injury and spondylosis or loss of lordosis. No significant changes were found when comparing the initial and follow-up MRI. It appears that MRI of patients with relatively less severe whiplash symptoms reveals a low frequency of abnormalities, apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, which have little short-term prognostic value. Routine investigation of such patients with MRI is not justified in view of the infrequency of abnormalities detected, the lack of prognostic value and the high cost of the procedure. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Leptomeningeal metastasis: a CT and MRI study

    Oschmann, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Bauer, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Kaps, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Trittmacher, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany); Dorndorf, W. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Giessen (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) that was proved by repeated positive cytology (33 patients) and/or autopsy (10 patients) with T1-weighted Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced CT. The patients (20 women and 15 men) ranged in age from 5-77 years (mean 56 years). Tumour histology included 26 carcinomas, 1 sarcoma, 6 leucaemias, 1 medulloblastoma and 1 primary CNS lymphoma. Intracranial abnormalities were noted in 58% of cases by CT and 88% by MRI, and included hydrocephalus, meningeal or ependymal enhancement, subarachnoidal or intraparenchymal nodules. Leptomeningeal metastasis was detected by MRI in 13 of 17 examined patients, including the three cases with a positive CT. It was proved that MRI is equal or superior to CT in demonstrating meningeal or ependymal enhancement and quantifying enhanced subarachnoidal or parenchymal nodules. However, in the evaluation of leptomeningeal metastasis both modalities had a high incidence of false-negative studies, 89% (31 of 35) by CT and 24% (4 of 17) by MRI. In contrast, two patients with initially negative cytology had pathological MRI findings. Our data indicate that Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is the preferred imaging modality in leptomeningeal metastasis, and suggest that CT does not add significant additional information. However, LM is primarily a histological diagnosis by detecting tumour cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. (orig.)

  18. Leptomeningeal metastasis: a CT and MRI study

    We evaluated 35 patients with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) that was proved by repeated positive cytology (33 patients) and/or autopsy (10 patients) with T1-weighted Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced CT. The patients (20 women and 15 men) ranged in age from 5-77 years (mean 56 years). Tumour histology included 26 carcinomas, 1 sarcoma, 6 leucaemias, 1 medulloblastoma and 1 primary CNS lymphoma. Intracranial abnormalities were noted in 58% of cases by CT and 88% by MRI, and included hydrocephalus, meningeal or ependymal enhancement, subarachnoidal or intraparenchymal nodules. Leptomeningeal metastasis was detected by MRI in 13 of 17 examined patients, including the three cases with a positive CT. It was proved that MRI is equal or superior to CT in demonstrating meningeal or ependymal enhancement and quantifying enhanced subarachnoidal or parenchymal nodules. However, in the evaluation of leptomeningeal metastasis both modalities had a high incidence of false-negative studies, 89% (31 of 35) by CT and 24% (4 of 17) by MRI. In contrast, two patients with initially negative cytology had pathological MRI findings. Our data indicate that Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is the preferred imaging modality in leptomeningeal metastasis, and suggest that CT does not add significant additional information. However, LM is primarily a histological diagnosis by detecting tumour cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) KidsHealth > For Teens > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Exam Safety Getting Your Results What Is MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of safe, painless testing ...

  20. The clinical outcome of scaphoid fracture malunion at 1 year.

    Forward, D P; Singh, H P; Dawson, S; Davis, T R C

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of malunion of scaphoid fractures on the clinical outcome at 1 year. Forty-two consecutive patients with united scaphoid waist fractures which had been treated non-operatively underwent longitudinal CT scans to confirm union and assess malunion at 12 to 18 weeks after injury. A blind clinical assessment was made and the Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM) and DASH questionnaires were completed by all the patients 1 year after injury. The group consisted of 38 men and four women with a mean age of 31 years at the time of injury. Correlation analysis revealed no significant relationships between any of the outcome measures (range of motion, grip strength and PEM and DASH scores) and any of the three measures of malunion (height-to-length ratio, the dorsal cortical angle and the lateral intra-scaphoid angle). PMID:19129358

  1. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  2. The MRI appearances of early vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis

    Dunbar, J.A.T.; Sandoe, J.A.T. [Department of Microbiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Rao, A.S. [Department of Orthopaedics, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Crimmins, D.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Baig, W. [Department of Cardiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Rankine, J.J., E-mail: james.rankine@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Aim: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances in patients with a clinical history suggestive of vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis who underwent MRI very early in their clinical course. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the database of spinal infections from a spinal microbiological liaison team was performed over a 2 year period to identify cases with clinical features suggestive of spinal infection and an MRI that did not show features typical of vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. All patients had positive microbiology and a follow up MRI showing typical features of spinal infection. Results: In four cases the features typical of spinal infection were not evident at the initial MRI. In three cases there was very subtle endplate oedema associated with disc degeneration, which was interpreted as Modic type I degenerative endplate change. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was continued prior to repeat MRI examinations. The mean time to the repeat examination was 17 days with a range of 8-22 days. The second examinations clearly demonstrated vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. Conclusion: Although MRI is the imaging method of choice for vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis in the early stages, it may show subtle, non-specific endplate subchondral changes; a repeat examination may be required to show the typical features.

  3. The MRI appearances of early vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis

    Aim: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances in patients with a clinical history suggestive of vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis who underwent MRI very early in their clinical course. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the database of spinal infections from a spinal microbiological liaison team was performed over a 2 year period to identify cases with clinical features suggestive of spinal infection and an MRI that did not show features typical of vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. All patients had positive microbiology and a follow up MRI showing typical features of spinal infection. Results: In four cases the features typical of spinal infection were not evident at the initial MRI. In three cases there was very subtle endplate oedema associated with disc degeneration, which was interpreted as Modic type I degenerative endplate change. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was continued prior to repeat MRI examinations. The mean time to the repeat examination was 17 days with a range of 8-22 days. The second examinations clearly demonstrated vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. Conclusion: Although MRI is the imaging method of choice for vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis in the early stages, it may show subtle, non-specific endplate subchondral changes; a repeat examination may be required to show the typical features.

  4. MRI in the assessment of growth arrest

    Lohman, Martina; Kivisaari, Arto; Kivisaari, Leena [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Vehmas, Tapio [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, Pentti; Puntila, Juha [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare MRI with X-ray tomography in the assessment of bone bridges across the growth plate. Materials and methods: The investigation consisted of two parts. (1) Eleven children with 13 epiphyses suspected of physeal growth arrests were examined with conventional X-ray tomography and MRI. The bar was post-traumatic in eight children, postinfectious in two and due to a congenital, operated pes equinovarus in one. Three blinded radiologists separately evaluated the examinations retrospectively. (2) The images of four children with known physeal bars in the ankle were mixed with 36 normal examinations obtained 1-year after trauma and evaluated blindly by three radiologists. Results: In 5 of 13 epiphysis, the bony bridge was considered smaller on MRI than on X-ray tomography, in 7 of 13 it was considered equal, while it was larger only in one. The interobserver agreement (weighted kappa) was 0.8 (very good) for MRI, 0.76 (good) for X-ray tomography and 0.60 (moderate) for radiographs. The four bony bridges were easily detected on MRI. Conclusions: Compared to MRI, the size of bridges was estimated larger by tomography in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  5. Intracranial idiopathic hypertension: 1-year follow-up study.

    D'Amico, D; Curone, M; Erbetta, A; Farago', G; Bianchi-Marzoli, S; Ciasca, P; Bussone, G; Chiapparini, L

    2014-05-01

    Standard guidelines for ongoing management, as well as definitive data about the long-term course of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are not available. The aim of this study was to compare several clinical and instrumental variables as assessed at the time of diagnosis and then after 1 year in a sample of IIH patients. A total of 21 patients were studied. Our results confirmed that headache and TVO are the most frequent symptoms in IIH patients, and that overweight is a very common feature. A trend towards a favorable outcome in patients followed for 1 year and treated by usual medical therapy was found: intracranial pressure was lower at follow-up; improvement of headache and transient visual obscurations, as well as of papilledema, was reported in most patients. On the other hand, neuroradiological findings (such as empty sella, perioptic subarachnoid space distension, narrowing of the transverse sinuses) were substantially stable at follow. These findings may be relevant for future research as far as understanding the role of different clinical and instrumental findings as diagnostic items as well as predictors of outcome in IIH. PMID:24867861

  6. The effect of sequence repeat time on auditory cortex stimulation during phonetic discrimination

    Shah, J. N.; Steinhoff, S; Mirzazade, S.; Zafiris, O.; Grosse-Ruyken, M. L.; Jäncke, R. K.; Zilles, K

    2000-01-01

    Acoustic noise generated by the MR scanner gradient system during fMRI studies of auditory function is a very significant potential confound. Despite these deleterious effects, fMRI of the auditory cortex has been successful and numerous practitioners have circumvented the problem of acoustic masking noise. In the context of auditory cortex fMRI, the sequence repeat time (TR) has the effect of altering the length of time during which the scanner is quiet. Indeed, the move to whole-brain fMRI ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a way of obtaining very ...

  8. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm3) and mucinous (6358.2 cm3) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim

  9. SVZ sum rules: 30+1 years later

    For this exceptional 25th anniversary of the QCD-Montpellier series of conferences initiated in 85 with the name 'Non-perturbative methods', we take the opportunuity to celebrate the 30+1 years of the discovery of the SVZ (also called ITEP, QCD or QCD spectral) sum rules by M.A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein and V.I. Zakahrov in 79 [M.A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein and V.I. Zakharov, Nucl. Phys. B 147 (1979) 385, 448]. In this talk, I have the duty to present the status of the method. I shall (can) not enumerate the vast area of successful applications of sum rules in hadron physics but I shall focus on the historical evolution of field and its new developments.

  10. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  11. Abdominal MRI scan

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... radiologist see certain areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  12. Interventional MRI: update

    Lufkin, R.B. [Department of Radiology, University of California Los Angeles, School of Medicine, 10 833 Le Comte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1721 (United States); Gronemeyer, D.H.W.; Seibel, R.M.M. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Computerscience, University Witten/Herdecke (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Interventional MRI is in its early stages of development. Nevertheless, the design of new interventional MRI scanners that allow maximum direct access to the patient combined with the development of new interventional MRI pulse sequences and localization systems, means that the archetypal operating rooms of the 21st century may well contain dedicated interventional MRI units for combined radiological and surgical procedures. The present article looks at the state of interventional MRI today and looks ahead to what may be forthcoming in the not-too-distant future. After briefly discussing the instrumentation necessary for practical interventional MRI, the article will go on to describe a number of different approaches to, and clinical applications for, interventional MRI. The use of MRI in guiding and controlling tumor ablation, aspiration cytology and surgical biopsy of different body parts is described. (orig.) With 13 figs., 1 tab., 114 refs.

  13. Honesty through repeated interactions.

    Rich, Patricia; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2016-04-21

    In the study of signaling, it is well known that the cost of deception is an essential element for stable honest signaling in nature. In this paper, we show how costs for deception can arise endogenously from repeated interactions between individuals. Utilizing the Sir Philip Sidney game as an illustrative case, we show that repeated interactions can sustain honesty with no observable signal costs, even when deception cannot be directly observed. We provide a number of potential experimental tests for this theory which distinguish it from the available alternatives. PMID:26869213

  14. MRI of Stroke Recovery

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    MRI is a vital tool for the measurement of acute stroke and has been used to visualize changes in activation patterns during stroke recovery. There is emerging interest on using MRI to monitor the structural substrates of spontaneous recovery and neurorestorative treatment of stroke. In this review, we describe the use of MRI and its associated challenges to measure vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to spontaneous and therapy-induced stroke recovery. We demonstrate that MRI methodo...

  15. fMRI Neuroinformatics

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Christensen, Mark Schram; Madsen, Kristoffer M.;

    2006-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) generates vast amounts of data. The handling, processing, and analysis of fMRI data would be inconceivable without computer-based methods. fMRI neuroinformatics is concerned with research, development, and operation of these methods. Reconstruction...

  16. MRI in acute poliomyelitis

    Kornreich, L. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dagan, O. [The Intensive Care Unit, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Beilinson Medical Campus, Petah Tiqva (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Grunebaum, M. [Imaging Department, The Schneider Children`s Medical Centre of Israel, Kaplan Street, Petah Tiqva 49202 (Israel)]|[Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1996-05-01

    MRI can be used in the diagnosis of anterior horn infection and for assessing the extent of disease. There are no specific MRI signs to differentiate between the various possible pathogens. This is demonstrated in the present case of poliomyelitis, in which MRI of the spine played an important role in establishing the diagnosis. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  17. MRI in cranial tuberculosis

    Just, M.; Higer, H.P.; Betting, O.; Bockenheimer, S.; Pfannenstiel, P.

    1987-11-01

    A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas is presented. CT and MRI findings are discussed and compared. MRI showed multiple tuberculomas characterised by the same signal intensity as the surrounding brain parenchyma. Differentiation could be achieved only by the perifocal oedema of the high signal intensity. Changes of the lesions during chemotherapy were monitored by CT and MRI and the results are presented. (orig.)

  18. MRI in cranial tuberculosis.

    Just, M; Higer, H P; Betting, O; Bockenheimer, S; Pfannenstiel, P

    1987-11-01

    A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas is presented. CT and MRI findings are discussed and compared. MRI showed multiple tuberculomas characterised by the same signal intensity as the surrounding brain parenchyma. Differentiation could be achieved only by the perifocal oedema of high signal intensity. Changes of the lesions during chemotherapy were monitored by CT and MRI and the results are presented. PMID:3691545

  19. Getting an MRI

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed pictures of ...

  20. Getting an MRI

    Full Text Available ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed pictures of ...

  1. Getting an MRI

    Full Text Available ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una resonancia magnética, RM (video) An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan creates detailed ...

  2. Triggering of repeated earthquakes

    Sobolev, G. A.; Zakrzhevskaya, N. A.; Sobolev, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the world's earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.5 for 1960-2013, it is shown that they cause global-scale coherent seismic oscillations which most distinctly manifest themselves in the period interval of 4-6 min during 1-3 days after the event. After these earthquakes, a repeated shock has an increased probability to occur in different seismically active regions located as far away as a few thousand km from the previous event, i.e., a remote interaction of seismic events takes place. The number of the repeated shocks N( t) decreases with time, which characterizes the memory of the lithosphere about the impact that has occurred. The time decay N( t) can be approximated by the linear, exponential, and powerlaw dependences. No distinct correlation between the spatial locations of the initial and repeated earthquakes is revealed. The probable triggering mechanisms of the remote interaction between the earthquakes are discussed. Surface seismic waves traveling several times around the Earth's, coherent oscillations, and global source are the most preferable candidates. This may lead to the accumulation and coalescence of ruptures in the highly stressed or weakened domains of a seismically active region, which increases the probability of a repeated earthquake.

  3. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  4. A 1-year Study of Eye Trauma at Farabi Hospital

    J. Faraji Oskooie

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted 1-year study investigating the causation and management of eye trauma at Farabi Eye' center. All patients sustaining eye injuries who were evaluated by ophthalmology service over one year interval were included."n. A formal questionnaire was completed with details of the injuiy being obtained. An ophthalmologic examination was performed on each patient, and examination findings and diagnostic tests obtained, diagnosis and treatment were recorded and analyzed."nNine hundreds and sixty-one injuries (65% occured in males and 503 (35% in females. The average age was 30 years. This study included 1464 eye injuries."nFour handreds and eighty-five (nearly 30% of patients were in pediatric age group. Seventy percent of all patients were admitted within 24 hours of their injury. Fourty percent of all injuries occurred in the street, 30% at home, 15% at the work place , the rest either in school or sport field."nAmong those older than 65 years of age, 70% of injuries were the result of fall. Seventy percent of all eye injuries were caused by blunt trauma. Diagnosis and management were recorded."nConclusions : Tehran and other metropolitans population is more likely to sustain eye trauma as the result of an assault and is less likely to be involved in a work- or sports-related one."nGiven poor compliance without patient management and follow-up, aggressive primary management may be indicated to optimize visual outcome

  5. MRI follow-up of conservatively treated meniscal knee lesions in general practice

    Oei, Edwin H.G.; Hunink, M.G.M. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Program for the Assessment of Radiological Technology (ART Program), Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koster, Ingrid M. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hensen, Jan-Hein J.; Vroegindeweij, Dammis [Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boks, Simone S. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Diaconessenhuis Meppel, Department of Radiology, Meppel (Netherlands); Wagemakers, Harry P.A.; Koes, Bart W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M.A. [University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate meniscal status change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, prognostic factors and association with clinical outcome in patients with conservatively treated knee injury. We analysed 403 meniscal horns in 101 conservatively treated patients (59 male; mean age 40 years) in general practice who underwent initial knee MRI within 5 weeks of trauma. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis to analyse prognostic factors for meniscal change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, and we assessed the association with clinical outcome. On follow-up MRI 49 meniscal horns had deteriorated and 18 had improved. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.3/decade), body weight (OR 1.2/10 kg), total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on initial MRI (OR 2.4), location in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (OR 3.0) and an initial meniscal lesion (OR 0.3) were statistically significant predictors of meniscal MRI appearance change after 1 year, which was not associated with clinical outcome. In conservatively treated patients, meniscal deterioration on follow-up MRI 1 year after trauma is predicted by higher age and body weight, initial total ACL rupture, and location in the medial posterior horn. Change in MRI appearance is not associated with clinical outcome. (orig.)

  6. MRI follow-up of conservatively treated meniscal knee lesions in general practice

    To evaluate meniscal status change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, prognostic factors and association with clinical outcome in patients with conservatively treated knee injury. We analysed 403 meniscal horns in 101 conservatively treated patients (59 male; mean age 40 years) in general practice who underwent initial knee MRI within 5 weeks of trauma. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis to analyse prognostic factors for meniscal change on follow-up MRI after 1 year, and we assessed the association with clinical outcome. On follow-up MRI 49 meniscal horns had deteriorated and 18 had improved. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.3/decade), body weight (OR 1.2/10 kg), total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture on initial MRI (OR 2.4), location in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (OR 3.0) and an initial meniscal lesion (OR 0.3) were statistically significant predictors of meniscal MRI appearance change after 1 year, which was not associated with clinical outcome. In conservatively treated patients, meniscal deterioration on follow-up MRI 1 year after trauma is predicted by higher age and body weight, initial total ACL rupture, and location in the medial posterior horn. Change in MRI appearance is not associated with clinical outcome. (orig.)

  7. Alternative grafts for brachioaxillary hemodialysis access: 1-year comparative results

    Sergio Quilici Belczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many chronic renal patients lack autologous veins in the upper limbs suitable for construction of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. Alternative fistula options for these patients should be evaluated and compared.OBJECTIVE: To compare different types of grafts used for brachioaxillary access in hemodialysis patients in terms of their patency and complication rates.METHOD: Forty-nine patients free from arterial system abnormalities and with no venous options for creation of arteriovenous fistulae in the arm and/or forearm underwent brachioaxillary bypass with implantation of autologous saphenous vein, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, or PROPATEN(r grafts. Patients were assessed by Doppler ultrasonography at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery,.RESULTS: The four first saphenous vein grafts had failed by 3 or 6 months after surgery. The autologous saphenous vein group was discontinued at the beginning of the study because of extreme difficulty in achieving puncture and hematoma formation. Failure rates of PTFE and PROPATEN(r grafts did not differ after 3 (p = 0.559, 6 (p = 0.920, or 12 months (p = 0.514. A log-rank test applied to cumulative survival of grafts at 1 year (0.69 for PTFE, 0.79 for PROPATEN(r detected no significant differences (p = 0.938. There were no differences in complications resulting in graft failure between the two types of prosthetic graft.CONCLUSION: Autologous saphenous vein grafts do not appear to be a good option for brachioaxillary hemodialysis access because of difficulties with achieving puncture. Brachioaxillary fistulae constructed using PTFE or PROPATEN(r grafts exhibited similar patency and complication rates. Further studies with large samples size are warranted to confirm our findings.

  8. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  9. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    Kevin M. Moerman; Sprengers, Andre M. J.; Ciaran K. Simms; Lamerichs, Rolf M.; Stoker, Jaap; Aart J. Nederveen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deform...

  10. MRI in psychiatry

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  12. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  13. MRI of adrenal masses

    The diagnostic usefulness of MRI was evaluated on 38 adrenal masses. The most important finding differentiating adenomas from metastases was the size of the tumor and the signal intensity of the mass. Adenomas showed a tendency to be smaller and homogeneous in signal intensity. On MRI with Gd-DTPA adenomas also showed moderate homogeneous enhancement, but metastases were inhomogeneously enhanced. The detectability by MRI was almost comparable with CT. Three cases of small adenomas and hyperplasia 1-1.5 cm in diameter were detectable only with CT. MRI seems to be complementary to CT in the diagnosis of adrenal masses. (author)

  14. MRI assessment program

    Usage, cost and efficacy data from the MRI Assessment Program to 30 March 1988 is presented, as a continuation of an earlier analysis. Analysis has been performed on data from 8565 examinations relating to 7997 patients at 4 hospitals. MRI was used mainly for examination of the head and spine. Some details of the follow up studies being conducted on selected patients and disease categories are given. A consensus statement is included which summaries the view of the Technical Committee on the potential applications of MRI in Australia. The MRI unit quench incident at Royal Adelaide Hospital is described. Refs., 10 figs., tabs

  15. Proton MRI appearance of cystic fibrosis: Comparison to CT

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent inherited disorder leading to premature death in the Caucasian population. As life expectancy is limited by pulmonary complications, repeated imaging [chest X-ray, multislice high-resolution computed tomography (MS-HRCT)] is required in the follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung parenchyma is a promising new diagnostic tool. Its value for imaging lung changes caused by CF compared with CT is demonstrated. MRI performs well when compared with CT, which serves as the gold standard. Its lack in spatial resolution is obvious, but advantages in contrast and functional assessment compensate for this limitation. Thus, MRI is a reasonable alternative for imaging the CF lung and should be introduced as a radiation-free modality for follow-up studies in CF patients. For further evaluation of the impact of MRI, systematic studies comparing MRI and conventional imaging modalities are necessary. Furthermore, the value of the additional functional MRI (fMRI) information has to be studied, and a scoring system for the morphological and functional aspect of MRI has to be established. (orig.)

  16. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ...

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. The Effect of fMRI (Noise) on Cognitive Control

    Hommel, Bernhard; Fischer, Rico; Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Cellini, Cristiano

    2012-01-01

    Stressful situations, the aversiveness of events, or increases in task difficulty (e.g., conflict) have repeatedly been shown to be capable of triggering attentional control adjustments. In the present study we tested whether the particularity of an fMRI testing environment (i.e., EPI noise) might result in such increases of the cognitive control…

  1. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    Paulson, Eric S., E-mail: epaulson@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 and Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  2. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  3. Getting an MRI

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) Print A A A ...

  4. Play the MRI Game

    ... Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and radio waves are used for getting images of inner organs made of soft tissue, compared to X-ray imaging where you get images of hard tissue, ...

  5. MRI of Listeria rhombencephalitis

    A case of Listeria rhombencephalitis in a patient, who was evaluated by MRI, is reported. MRI shows areas of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the rhombencephalon and confirmed the clinical diagnosis of a brainstem affection by Listeria monocytogenes. (orig.)

  6. Getting an MRI

    Full Text Available ... School Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting an MRI (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting an MRI (Video) ...

  7. Effect of CT screening on smoking habits at 1-year follow-up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    Ashraf, H; Tønnesen, P; Holst Pedersen, J;

    2008-01-01

    : high motivation to quit, low dependency, low ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity, low pack years, higher age, longer period of abstinence and CT findings necessitating 3-month repeat CT scans. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, quit rates were similar in the CT and control group at 1......-year follow-up, with a net quit rate of 6.0%. Quit rates were higher and relapse rate lower among subjects with initial CT findings that necessitated a repeat scan 3 months later....

  8. Wilson's disease: cranial MRI observations and clinical correlation

    Study of MRI changes may be useful in diagnosis, prognosis and better understanding of the pathophysiology of Wilson's disease (WD). We aimed to describe and correlate the MRI abnormalities of the brain with clinical features in WD. MRI evaluation was carried out in 100 patients (57 males, 43 females; mean age 19.3±8.9 years) using standard protocols. All but 18 patients were on de-coppering agents. Their history, clinical manifestations and scores for severity of disease were noted. The mean duration of illness and treatment were 8.3±10.8 years and 7.5±7.1 years respectively. MRI of the brain was abnormal in all the 93 symptomatic patients. The most conspicuous observations were atrophy of the cerebrum (70%), brainstem (66%) and cerebellum (52%). Signal abnormalities were also noted: putamen (72%), caudate (61%), thalami (58%), midbrain (49%), pons (20%), cerebral white matter (25%), cortex (9%), medulla (12%) and cerebellum (10%). The characteristic T2-W globus pallidal hypointensity (34%), ''Face of giant panda'' sign (12%), T1-W striatal hyperintensity (6%), central pontine myelinosis (7%), and bright claustral sign (4%) were also detected. MRI changes correlated with disease severity scores (P<0.001) but did not correlate with the duration of illness. MRI changes were universal but diverse and involved almost all the structures of the brain in symptomatic patients. A fair correlation between MRI observations and various clinical features provides an explanation for the protean manifestations of the disease. (orig.)

  9. Renal MRI findings and their clinical associations in nephropathia epidemica: analysis of quantitative findings

    Paakkala, A. [University of Tampere, Medical School, Tampere (Finland); Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Dastidar, P.; Ryymin, P. [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, H. [University of Tampere, School of Public Health, Tampere (Finland); Mustonen, J. [University of Tampere, Medical School, Tampere (Finland); Tampere University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Tampere (Finland)

    2005-05-01

    Morphologic renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with nephropathia epidemica (NE) were evaluated, and these findings were correlated with the clinical course of NE. Renal MRI was performed in 20 hospitalized NE patients during the acute phase of their disease. A repeat MRI study was made 5-8 months later. Renal parenchymal volume, renal length and parenchymal thickness were decreased in all patients in the repeat study. Edema/fluid collections were found bilaterally in 16 patients in the primary MRI study. Greater change in parenchymal volume, renal length and parenchymal thickness between the primary and the repeat MRI study as well as the presence of edema/fluid collections in the primary study evinced mild association with clinical fluid volume overload, high blood pressure level, inflammation, thrombocytopenia and severe clinical renal insufficiency. Change in parenchymal volume was associated with a severe clinical course more markedly than the other MRI findings. Measurable renal MRI changes occurred in every NE patient. The severity of the findings in MRI evinced mild association with clinical fluid volume overload, high blood pressure level, inflammation, thrombocytopenia and severe clinical renal insufficiency. Based on this study and our previous ultrasound (US) findings, we prefer US as the primary examination mode in NE patients. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of femoral torsion and tibial torsion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    A new MRI method for the measurement of femoral torsion and tibial torsion is presented. Axial images were generated using a standard gradient echo sequence (FLASH 2D). Otherwise measurement of femoral and tibial torsion was performed according to an established CT method. The torsion angles measured using MRI were in accordance with the angles measured using the CT method. The MRI method was not more time-consuming than the CT method. In respect of radiation exposure, MRI determination of femoral and tibial torsion should be considered particularly in children and patients who have to undergo repeated torsion measurements. (orig.)

  11. Explaining MRI examinations DVD

    When conducting MRI examinations, there are various things to be careful of. There is often stress related to the MRI examinations, so in order to perform an examination safely and smoothly, sufficient explanation must be given. An explanation of what to do and what not to do during an examination should be outlined in a brochure given to patients before the examination. There may be many patients who have misgivings about their MRI examinations, so to reduce their anxiousness and deepen their understanding of MRI examinations and to improve the safety and effiency of MRI examinations,; we created a DVD about MRI examinations. We gathered MRI-related safety information and instructions, and assessed the effect that the information might have on patients. We started a workgroup for a project to plan and record a video according to the Storyboard. When editing, we reviewed the length of each segment, the amount of information on screen, and the overall length of the DVD. We discussed the issue within the workgroup and had hospital approval. It was possible for us to complete it without depending on the supplier and the cost was kept to a minimum. Finally, we decided on a viewing location. We asked a hospital volunteers to see a complete DVD and we evaluated their responses by questionnaires. As the result, their understanding and anxieties related to MRI examinations were alleviated, as expected. Their anxiety seemed to be eased. Patients also seemed to have a deeper understanding of MRI examinations having seen an examination being conducted. (author)

  12. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  13. MRI in perianal fistulae

    MRI has become the method of choice for evaluating perianal fistulae due to its ability to display the anatomy of the sphincter muscles orthogonally, with good contrast resolution. In this article we give an outline of the classification of perianal fistulae and present a pictorial assay of sphincter anatomy and the MRI findings in perianal fistulae. This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 43 patients with a clinical diagnosis of perianal fistula. MRI revealed a total of 44 fistulae in 35 patients; eight patients had only perianal sinuses

  14. MRI of brachial plexopathies

    Sureka, J. [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)], E-mail: drjyoticmch@rediffmail.com; Cherian, R.A.; Alexander, M.; Thomas, B.P. [Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India)

    2009-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the primary imaging technique in the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology, and plays an important role in the identification, localization, and characterization of the cause. Improvements in MRI technique have helped in detecting changes in the signal intensity of nerves, subtle enhancement, and in detecting perineural pathology, thereby refining the differential diagnosis. The present review of the visualization of brachial plexus abnormalities using MRI is based on a review of 26 cases. The causes include trauma and a spectrum of non-traumatic causes, such as acute idiopathic/viral plexitis, metastases, immune-mediated plexitis, and mass lesions compressing the brachial plexus.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  17. Brain MRI in Parkinson's disease

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Goraj, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review article, conventional brain MRI and advanced MRI techniques in Parkinson`s disease (PD) are discussed, with emphasis on clinical relevance. Conventional brain MRI sequences generally demonstrate limited abnormalities specific for PD and in clinical practice brain MRI is mainly used to

  18. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  19. Saturation of repeated quantum measurements

    Haapasalo, Erkka; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kuramochi, Yui

    2016-08-01

    We study sequential measurement scenarios where the system is repeatedly subjected to the same measurement process. We first provide examples of such repeated measurements where further repetitions of the measurement do not increase our knowledge on the system after some finite number of measurement steps. We also prove, however, that repeating the Lüders measurement of an unsharp two-outcome observable never saturates in this sense, and we characterize the observable measured in the limit of infinitely many repetitions. Our result implies that a repeated measurement can be used to correct the inherent noise of an unsharp observable.

  20. MRI of the Chest

    ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including cancer, heart and vascular disease, heart valve abnormalities, bone ...

  1. Combined PET/MRI

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  2. MRI of myelitis

    Hodel, J.; Outteryck, O; Jissendi, P; Zins, M.; Leclerc, X; Pruvo, J P

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of myelitis relies on MRI. The purpose of this review is to describe the imaging findings in patients with myelitis through clinical cases. MR findings in Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica and others Transverse Myelitis are highlighted.

  3. MRI of the shoulder

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become available at a time in which shoulder pathology is more frequently seen. It is a noninvasive procedure that does not use ionizing radiation. It provides detailed visualization of soft-tissue structures that is not possible with other imaging modalities. Though not as widely available as conventional radiographs or computed tomography scanning, the number of MRI units worldwide is increasing steadily. The main features of the present book are as follows: The physical basis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), normal shoulder anatomy and MRI, diagnosis of shoulder disorders, MRI of patients with shoulder pain or instability, case studies as well as treatment of shoulder disorders. (orig./MG) With 145 figs

  4. MRI of intracranial calcifications

    Kang, Jin Wha; Chang, Kee Hyun; Park, Jung Mi; Han, Moon Hee; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    Recently computed tomography(CT) has been rapidly replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis of majority of intracranial diseases. But MRI still has some limitation, one of which is its inferiority in detecting calcification. MRI of intracranial calcification has been known to be variable in signal intensity. We retrospectively analyzed the MRI of 26 patients with intracranial calcified lesions in order to evaluate the MR intensity of calcification and to assess the capability of MRI in detecting calcification in various intracranial lesions. All the MRI were obtained using routine T1-and T2-weighted spin eco pulse sequences on 2.0T superconducting system. The 26 patients consisted of 13 brain tumors (4 oligodendrogliomas, 2 craniopharyngiomas, 2 astrocytomas, 1 gem cell tumor, 1 medulloblastoma, 1 ependympma, and pathologically unconfirmed 2 cases), 11 infectious diseases (1 paragonimiasis, 1 sparganosis, 2 cysticercosis, 3 tuberculosis, and 4 unknown cases), and 2 undetermined pathologies. Eighty-two percent (9/11) of infections disease, and 50% (1/2) of undetermined group showed signal diminution or signal void on both T1-and T2-weighted image (T1W1, T2W1). Twenty-four percent (3/13) of brain tumors showed signal diminution on both T1W1 and T2W1. In 46% (6/13) and 61% (8/13) of brain tumors the signal intensities were isointense on T1W1 and T1W1, respectively. Unexpectedly, 3 oligodendrogliomas showed high signal intensity on T1W1, two of which showed com plexed signal intensity mixed with high, iso, and low signal intensities on T2W1. In remained cases (18% (2/11) of infectious diseases and 50% (1/2) of undetermined group) the signal intensities were mixed. With simultaneous review of CT and MRI in each case, the calcification (at least one in cases showing multiple ones) was identifiable on MRI in 62% (8/13) of rumors, 82% (9/11) of infectious diseases, and 100% (2/2) in undetermined group. In 36% (4/11) of infectious diseases, fewer number of

  5. MRI of the penis

    Kirkham, A

    2012-01-01

    MRI of the penis is an expensive test that is not always superior to clinical examination or ultrasound. However, it shows many of the important structures, and in particular the combination of tumescence from intracavernosal alprostadil, and high-resolution T2 sequences show the glans, corpora and the tunica albuginea well. In this paper we summarise the radiological anatomy and discuss the indications for MRI. For penile cancer, it may be useful in cases where the local stage is not apparen...

  6. MRI assessment program

    The MRI Assessment Program involves installation and operation of five MRI units in Australian public hospitals and the evaluation at each unit of the cost and efficacy of the technology over a period of two years. This first report in a series presents preliminary usage and cost data for the year to 30 June 1987 as well as describing the background and the data set. 6 figs., tabs

  7. MRI in osteochondrosis dissecans

    The osseous manifestations of osteochondrosis dissecans are well demonstrated by conventional and computerised tomography. Beyond that, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is effective in evaluating the vitality and loosening of an osseous dissecate. Subchondral cavities and cartilaginous defects are detected with high acccuracy. Further, MRI seems to be a useful method in childhood to differentiate a variant irregularity of the osseous articular surface from definite osteochondrosis dissecans. (orig.)

  8. MRI of plantar fasciitis

    Roger, B.; Grenier, P. [Service de Radiologie Polyvalente Diagnostique et Interventionelle, Hopital de la Pitie, 83, boulevard de l`Hopital, F-75651 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    1997-12-01

    At present, MRI is the only imaging method that can precisely visualize lesions of the superficial plantar aponeurosis, whether they be musculoaponeurositides, enthesopathies or tears, and whether they be acute or chronic, with or without complications. By its direct visualization of the lesion, MRI enables an accurate assessment of the injury to be made and thereby better orients the therapeutic strategy. (orig.) With 11 figs., 15 refs.

  9. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    Zhu, Changlian [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Department of Physiology, Henan Traditional Medical University (China); Li, Qian; Huang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hongfu [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Kuhn, Hans-Georg [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Blomgren, Klas, E-mail: klas.blomgren@neuro.gu.se [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. {yields} Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. {yields} Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. {yields} Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. {yields} Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 {sup o}C. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  10. Repeated exposure of the developing rat brain to magnetic resonance imaging did not affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function

    Research highlights: → The effect of MRI on the developing brain is a matter of debate. → Repeated exposure to MRI did not affect neurogenesis. → Memory function was not affected by repeated MRI during development. → Neither late gestation nor young postnatal brains were affected by MRI. → Repeated MRI did not cause cell death in the neurogenic region of the hippocampus. -- Abstract: The effect of magnetic fields on the brain is a matter of debate. The objective of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposure to strong magnetic fields, such as during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could elicit changes in the developing rat brain. Embryonic day 15 (E15) and postnatal day 14 (P14) rats were exposed to MRI using a 7.05 T MR system. The animals were anesthetized and exposed for 35 min per day for 4 successive days. Control animals were anesthetized but no MRI was performed. Body temperature was maintained at 37 oC. BrdU was injected after each session (50 mg/kg). One month later, cell proliferation, neurogenesis and astrogenesis in the dentate gyrus were evaluated, revealing no effects of MRI, neither in the E15, nor in the P14 group. DNA damage in the dentate gyrus in the P14 group was evaluated on P18, 1 day after the last session, using TUNEL staining. There was no difference in the number of TUNEL-positive cells after MRI compared with controls, neither in mature neurons, nor in newborn progenitors (BrdU/TUNEL double-labeled cells). Novel object recognition was performed to assess memory function 1 month after MRI. There was no difference in the recognition index observed after MRI compared with the control rats, neither for the E15, nor for the P14 group. In conclusion, repeated exposure to MRI did not appear to affect neurogenesis, cell death or memory function in rats, neither in late gestation (E15-E18) nor in young postnatal (P14-P17) rats.

  11. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Melchert, U.H. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Schroeder, C. [Radiologische Abt., Universitaets-Kinderklinik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Boer, R. de [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Spielmann, R.P. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. Kiel (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  12. Functional MRI of the patellofemoral joint: comparison of ultrafast MRI, motion-triggered cine MRI and static MRI

    To evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of ultrafast MRI (u), patellar tracking from 30 of flexion to knee extension (0 ) was analysed and compared with motion-triggered cine MRI (m) and a static MRI technique (s). The different imaging methods were compared in respect of the patellofemoral relationship, the examination time and image quality. Eight healthy subjects and four patients (in total 18 joints) with patellar subluxation or luxation were examined. Significant differences between the static MRI series without quadriceps contraction and the functional MRI studies (motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI) were found for the patellar tilt angle. In the dynamic joint studies there was no statistical difference of the regression coefficients between the motion-triggered cine MRI studies and the ultrafast MRI studies. The findings of the functional MRI studies compared with the static MRI images were significantly different for the lateralisation of the patella, expressed by the lateral patellar displacement and bisect offset. No significant differences in patellar lateralisation were found between motion-triggered cine MRI and ultrafast MRI. Ultrafast MRI was superior to motion-triggered cine MRI in terms of the reduction in imaging time and improvement of the image quality. (orig.)

  13. Posttraumatic pseudolipoma: MRI appearances

    The goal of this study was to describe the MRI characteristics of posttraumatic pseudolipomas. Ten patients with previous history of blunt trauma or local surgery were investigated with MRI at the level of their deformity. The etiology was blunt trauma in eight patients and postoperative trauma in two. For all patients medical documentation, in the form of clinical history and physical examination, confirmed that a visible hematoma was present acutely at the same location following the injury and that the contour deformity subsequently appeared. All patients underwent liposuction. Preoperative bilateral MRI examinations were performed on all patients. The mean clinical follow-up was 17.8 months. MRI examinations were interpreted in consensus by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with attention to fatty extension (subcutaneous fatty thickness and anatomical extension), asymmetry compared with the asymptomatic side, the presence or absence of fibrous septae or nonfatty components, and patterns of contrast enhancement. Ten posttraumatic pseudolipomas were identified. Clinically, they showed as subcutaneous masses with the consistency of normal adipose tissue. Their locations were the abdomen (n=1), hip (n=1), the upper thigh (n=6), the knee (n=1), and the ankle (n=1). On MRI examinations, using the contralateral side as a control, pseudolipomas appeared as focal fatty masses without a capsule or contrast enhancement. Posttraumatic pseudolipomas may develop at a site of blunt trauma or surgical procedures often antedated by a soft tissue hematoma. Characteristic MRI findings are unencapsulated subcutaneous fatty masses without contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  14. MRI of fish

    Recently, rats and mice are popular and useful as an experimental model for MRI. However, MRI for fishes has been unknown. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of living fishes as a new experimental model for MRI. MR images were collected with a spin-echo pulse sequence (SE) or echo-planar imaging pulse sequence (EPI) using 2T MR imaging system for animal. Carp, which was able to be alive for a long time in the air, was examined. Enhancement study was examined by use of Gd-DOTMA (gadolinium hydrogen alpha, alpha', alpha'', alpha'''-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate). On both SE and EPI images, the internal components of the head and chest in carp were clearly recognized. On the T1-weighted image acquisition time of MRI with sufficient resolution was short (in about one minute) in comparison with that of rat. The head in carp was well enhanced by administration of Gd-DOTMA on the T1-weighted image. In addition, the time course of contrast enhancement effect of images was observed after administration of Gd-DOTMA. The authors concluded that fishes, such as a carp, can be readily imaged on MRI, and could be potential in the future investigation of contrast enhancement effect and relaxation effect as a living body phantom for MRI. (author)

  15. Posttraumatic pseudolipoma: MRI appearances

    Theumann, N.; Abdelmoumene, A.; Wintermark, M.; Schnyder, P.; Gailloud, M.C.; Resnick, D. [CHUV, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the MRI characteristics of posttraumatic pseudolipomas. Ten patients with previous history of blunt trauma or local surgery were investigated with MRI at the level of their deformity. The etiology was blunt trauma in eight patients and postoperative trauma in two. For all patients medical documentation, in the form of clinical history and physical examination, confirmed that a visible hematoma was present acutely at the same location following the injury and that the contour deformity subsequently appeared. All patients underwent liposuction. Preoperative bilateral MRI examinations were performed on all patients. The mean clinical follow-up was 17.8 months. MRI examinations were interpreted in consensus by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with attention to fatty extension (subcutaneous fatty thickness and anatomical extension), asymmetry compared with the asymptomatic side, the presence or absence of fibrous septae or nonfatty components, and patterns of contrast enhancement. Ten posttraumatic pseudolipomas were identified. Clinically, they showed as subcutaneous masses with the consistency of normal adipose tissue. Their locations were the abdomen (n=1), hip (n=1), the upper thigh (n=6), the knee (n=1), and the ankle (n=1). On MRI examinations, using the contralateral side as a control, pseudolipomas appeared as focal fatty masses without a capsule or contrast enhancement. Posttraumatic pseudolipomas may develop at a site of blunt trauma or surgical procedures often antedated by a soft tissue hematoma. Characteristic MRI findings are unencapsulated subcutaneous fatty masses without contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  16. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    2013-11-01

    ... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (May 1, 1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Vehicular Repeaters AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Commission's rules to allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and...

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters.

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  18. Sequence repeats and protein structure

    Hoang, Trinh X.; Trovato, Antonio; Seno, Flavio; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Maritan, Amos

    2012-11-01

    Repeats are frequently found in known protein sequences. The level of sequence conservation in tandem repeats correlates with their propensities to be intrinsically disordered. We employ a coarse-grained model of a protein with a two-letter amino acid alphabet, hydrophobic (H) and polar (P), to examine the sequence-structure relationship in the realm of repeated sequences. A fraction of repeated sequences comprises a distinct class of bad folders, whose folding temperatures are much lower than those of random sequences. Imperfection in sequence repetition improves the folding properties of the bad folders while deteriorating those of the good folders. Our results may explain why nature has utilized repeated sequences for their versatility and especially to design functional proteins that are intrinsically unstructured at physiological temperatures.

  19. Diagnosis of breast cancer at dynamic MRI in patients with breast augmentation by paraffin or silicone injection

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in breasts augmented with liquid paraffin or silicone injection. Materials and methods: Among 62 patients with breast augmentation by liquid paraffin or silicone injection who had undergone dynamic breast MRI at our institution, 27 women, who had pathological diagnosis or at least 1-year MRI follow-up, were included in this retrospective study and their MRI images were reviewed. For enhancing lesions on MRI, the morphological features, enhancement kinetics, and BI-RADS assessment category were analysed. The lesion characteristics at MRI were correlated with the final diagnosis based on the histopathological result or at least 1-year MRI follow-up. Results: Of the 27 patients, 17 enhancing lesions in 13 patients were found on MRI. All six lesions that were confirmed as malignancy showed suspicious morphological findings and type 2 or 3 enhancement kinetics, assigned to BI-RADS category 4 or 5. Of the remaining 11 benign lesions, 10 showed benign-favouring morphological findings, and all showed type 1 enhancement kinetics, assigned to BI-RADS category 2 or 4. Conclusion: In patients with breasts injected with foreign material, MRI was used to successfully diagnose malignant breast lesions and could be the diagnostic method of choice. Analysis of the morphological and kinetic features at MRI in conjunction with clinical findings is essential.

  20. Diagnosis of breast cancer at dynamic MRI in patients with breast augmentation by paraffin or silicone injection

    Youk, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, E.J., E-mail: ejsonrd@yuhs.a [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E.-K.; Kim, J.-A.; Kim, M.J.; Kwak, J.Y.; Lee, S.M. [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in breasts augmented with liquid paraffin or silicone injection. Materials and methods: Among 62 patients with breast augmentation by liquid paraffin or silicone injection who had undergone dynamic breast MRI at our institution, 27 women, who had pathological diagnosis or at least 1-year MRI follow-up, were included in this retrospective study and their MRI images were reviewed. For enhancing lesions on MRI, the morphological features, enhancement kinetics, and BI-RADS assessment category were analysed. The lesion characteristics at MRI were correlated with the final diagnosis based on the histopathological result or at least 1-year MRI follow-up. Results: Of the 27 patients, 17 enhancing lesions in 13 patients were found on MRI. All six lesions that were confirmed as malignancy showed suspicious morphological findings and type 2 or 3 enhancement kinetics, assigned to BI-RADS category 4 or 5. Of the remaining 11 benign lesions, 10 showed benign-favouring morphological findings, and all showed type 1 enhancement kinetics, assigned to BI-RADS category 2 or 4. Conclusion: In patients with breasts injected with foreign material, MRI was used to successfully diagnose malignant breast lesions and could be the diagnostic method of choice. Analysis of the morphological and kinetic features at MRI in conjunction with clinical findings is essential.

  1. Periarthritis of the shoulder-MRI findings

    We examined MRI findings in patients with periarthritis of the shoulder. We excluded cuff tears, calcified tendinitis, instability of the shoulder, fracture and impingement syndrome of young patients. Subjects comprised 36 cases, 38 shoulders (25 men and 11 women), with an average age of 59.1 years (42-75). Scanning was performed on a Gyroscan T5-II 0.5-T (Philips). T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences in the coronal oblique plane, T2-weighted sequences in the coronal sagittal plane and horizontal plane were taken. Twelve shoulders showed some change in the humeral heads. Degeneration of the rotator cuff was observed in 15 shoulders. Joint fluid collection was observed in the gleno-humeral joints of 15 shoulders, in the subacromial bursa of 11 shoulders and in the acromio-clavicular joints of 7 shoulders. Twenty four shoulders had fluid collection in the sheath of the long head of the biceps long tendon. Localized high signal area was observed around the inferior pouch in 11 shoulders. We studied the relationship between MRI findings and clinical symptoms. There was no significant relationship but the shoulders with night pain and severe contractures had a higher positive rate of joint fluid collection on MRI than the shoulders without night pain and with less contractures. (author)

  2. Periarthritis of the shoulder-MRI findings

    Hirano, Mako; Nomura, Kazutoshi; Hashimoto, Noburo; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Oshima, Suguru; Katahira, Kazuhiro [Kumamoto National Hospital (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    We examined MRI findings in patients with periarthritis of the shoulder. We excluded cuff tears, calcified tendinitis, instability of the shoulder, fracture and impingement syndrome of young patients. Subjects comprised 36 cases, 38 shoulders (25 men and 11 women), with an average age of 59.1 years (42-75). Scanning was performed on a Gyroscan T5-II 0.5-T (Philips). T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences in the coronal oblique plane, T2-weighted sequences in the coronal sagittal plane and horizontal plane were taken. Twelve shoulders showed some change in the humeral heads. Degeneration of the rotator cuff was observed in 15 shoulders. Joint fluid collection was observed in the gleno-humeral joints of 15 shoulders, in the subacromial bursa of 11 shoulders and in the acromio-clavicular joints of 7 shoulders. Twenty four shoulders had fluid collection in the sheath of the long head of the biceps long tendon. Localized high signal area was observed around the inferior pouch in 11 shoulders. We studied the relationship between MRI findings and clinical symptoms. There was no significant relationship but the shoulders with night pain and severe contractures had a higher positive rate of joint fluid collection on MRI than the shoulders without night pain and with less contractures. (author)

  3. Contrast agents for MRI

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible. - Highlights: • This paper studies the contrast agents for MRI. • Fe―Co alloys and Mn-ferrites exhibit suitable contrast enhancement. • Nonhydrolytic thermal-decomposition synthetic method is suitable to produce MNPs. • This method allows controlling the size, magnetic dopants, magneto-crystalline anisotropy. • The increase in the superparamagnetic size leads to the contrast-enhancement

  4. MRI of the lung

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  5. MRI of the lung

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  6. Segmentation precision of abdominal anatomy for MRI-based radiotherapy

    The limited soft tissue visualization provided by computed tomography, the standard imaging modality for radiotherapy treatment planning and daily localization, has motivated studies on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for better characterization of treatment sites, such as the prostate and head and neck. However, no studies have been conducted on MRI-based segmentation for the abdomen, a site that could greatly benefit from enhanced soft tissue targeting. We investigated the interobserver and intraobserver precision in segmentation of abdominal organs on MR images for treatment planning and localization. Manual segmentation of 8 abdominal organs was performed by 3 independent observers on MR images acquired from 14 healthy subjects. Observers repeated segmentation 4 separate times for each image set. Interobserver and intraobserver contouring precision was assessed by computing 3-dimensional overlap (Dice coefficient [DC]) and distance to agreement (Hausdorff distance [HD]) of segmented organs. The mean and standard deviation of intraobserver and interobserver DC and HD values were DCintraobserver = 0.89 ± 0.12, HDintraobserver = 3.6 mm ± 1.5, DCinterobserver = 0.89 ± 0.15, and HDinterobserver = 3.2 mm ± 1.4. Overall, metrics indicated good interobserver/intraobserver precision (mean DC > 0.7, mean HD < 4 mm). Results suggest that MRI offers good segmentation precision for abdominal sites. These findings support the utility of MRI for abdominal planning and localization, as emerging MRI technologies, techniques, and onboard imaging devices are beginning to enable MRI-based radiotherapy

  7. Heat-stroke-induced cerebellar atrophy: clinical course, CT and MRI findings

    We report the clinical course and CT and MRI findings in a case of heat-stroke-induced cerebellar atrophy. Although the cerebellar syndrome was severe concomitant with the onset of heat stroke, no abnormality was observed on brain CT in the first 2 weeks following the event. Cerebellar atrophy was first noted after 10 weeks on MRI; it was progressive during a 1-year follow-up. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion, confusion and functional MRI

    Diffusion MRI has been introduced in 1985 and has had a very successful life on its own. While it has become a standard for imaging stroke and white matter disorders, the borders between diffusion MRI and the general field of fMRI have always remained fuzzy. First, diffusion MRI has been used to obtain images of brain function, based on the idea that diffusion MRI could also be made sensitive to blood flow, through the intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) concept. Second, the IVIM concept helped better understand the contribution from different vasculature components to the BOLD fMRI signal. Third, it has been shown recently that a genuine fMRI signal can be obtained with diffusion MRI. This 'DfMRI' signal is notably different from the BOLD fMRI signal, especially for its much faster response to brain activation both at onset and offset, which points out to structural changes in the neural tissues, perhaps such as cell swelling, occurring in activated neural tissue. This short article reviews the major steps which have paved the way for this exciting development, underlying how technical progress with MRI equipment has each time been instrumental to expand the horizon of diffusion MRI toward the field of fMRI. (authors)

  9. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in osteoporotic fractures of vertebral bodies - a prospective 1-year follow-up analysis

    Purpose: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty offer two minimally invasive operative stabilization procedures for vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether both procedures are able to reduce pain and to preserve postoperative vertebral height during a 1-year follow up. Materials and methods: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures were treated in 42 cases, 20 patients (15 female, 5 male) underwent vertebroplasty, 22 patients (14 female, 8 male) underwent kyphoplasty. 32 vertebral fractures were treated with vertebroplasty and 35 vertebral fractures were treated with kyphoplasty. Symptomatic levels were identified by correlating the clinical presentation with conventional radiographs, CT or/and MRI. During the follow up reduction of pain was determined. Radiographic scans were performed pre- and postoperatively and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The vertebral height and endplate angles were measured to assess the restoration of the sagittal alignment. The effects on pain symptoms were measured on a self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry score was documented. Results: The median pain scores (VAS) decreased significantly for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty from pre- to post-treatment, as did the Oswestry score (p<0.05). No significant differences could be found between both groups for the median pain score (VAS) and the Oswestry score. Kyphoplasty led to a significant restoration of the vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis (p<0.05). During the 1-year follow up operation techniques were able to stabilize the height of the vertebral body. Conclusion: Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are effective minimally invasive procedures for the stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral fractures leading to a statistically significant reduction in pain. Kyphoplasty restores significantly vertebral body height in fresh fractures. The restoration of vertebral height and reduction of kyphosis may have an influence on the long

  10. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsy uses imaging ... Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate biopsies are performed ...

  11. Repeated early thrombolysis in cervical spinal cord ischemia.

    Etgen, Thorleif; Höcherl, Constanze

    2016-07-01

    Specific therapy of acute spinal ischemia is not established. We report the first case of an MRI-verified cervical spinal ischemia treated by thrombolysis and review the literature. A 72-year old woman with right-sided motor hemiparesis and trunk ataxia was treated by intravenous thrombolysis with full recovery. Three days later she developed again a severe right-sided sensorimotor hemiparesis and a second off-label intravenous thrombolysis was repeated. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right-sided posterior-lateral cervical spinal ischemia. Spinal ischemia may clinically present with a cerebral-stroke-like picture challenging diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Systemic thrombolysis might be a treatment option in acute spinal ischemia. In addition, early repeated systemic thrombolysis may be considered in selected strokes. PMID:26762860

  12. MRI in gout

    The appearance of gouty tophus in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is characteristic. On T1- and T2-weighted SE images, the signal intensity of tophaceous lesions is similar to that of muscles. According to the histology, T2-weighted SE images demonstrate extremely hyperintense signals, which reflect the high protein content in the amorpheous center of the tophus. The microscopic urate crystals deposited there have no MRI signal and are of no further diagnostic impact. Vascularized granulation tissue surrounding the tophus center enhance after intervenous application of contrast agents (Gadolinium). The inflammed tophus is associated with local edema, causing high signal intensity. MRI is superior to plain radiography for early detection of intraosseous tophi. Involvement of anatomical structures such as ligaments and tendons can be evaluated sufficiently. For peripheral joints, axial slice orientation is most helpful. (orig.)

  13. MRI Physics Workshop:

    Daryoush Saedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge of the basic principle of imaging physics helps better understanding of normal anatomy and pathological imaging findings of the diseases."n"n This is more necessary in advanced imaging techniques like MRI because of the complexity of the basic physics of the technique. In basic MRI physics workshop, we discuss about this technique from the primary concepts. The content is very simplified and is showed by slides, animation and easy pictures for better understanding. In the beginning of the lecture, the structure of atoms and their magnetic characteristics are explained and then step by step, we learn how to use this character to produce signal and usages of it to make an image. Also basic pulse sequence will be explained subsequently. This workshop is recommended for all radiologists, residents of radiology, technologists and anyone who wants to know more about MRI.    

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... during MRI, but this is rarely a problem. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... or cause problems during an MRI exam. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is currently a recognized, but rare, complication ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams; however, older ... MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of many conditions, including tumors. MRI enables the ... physicians with expertise in several radiologic areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that ... than 30 minutes from the onset of symptoms. Risks The MRI examination poses almost no risk to ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... information on the chemicals present in the body's cells, may also be performed during the MRI exam ... can help physicians evaluate the structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want ... MRI can detect stroke at a very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... conditions such as: brain tumors stroke infections developmental anomalies hydrocephalus — dilatation of fluid spaces within the brain ( ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... have this exam in the first trimester of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI. If you have claustrophobia (fear of ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... items, which can distort MRI images removable dental work pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses body piercings In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical ... CD. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine ...

  6. MRI of vaginal conditions

    Lopez, C. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: carolina.lopez@bwhct.nhs.uk; Balogun, M. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ganesan, R. [Department of Histopathology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Olliff, J.F. [University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the assessment of suspected vaginal pathology. This pictorial review demonstrates the MRI features and some of the histopathological findings of a variety of vaginal conditions. These may be congenital (total vaginal agenesis, partial vaginal agenesis, longitudinal vaginal septum, transverse vaginal septum), benign (Bartholin's cyst, diffuse vaginal inflammation, invasive endometriosis, ureterovaginal fistula, post-surgical appearances with the formation of a neovagina and adhesions) or malignant, usually due to extension or recurrence from another pelvic malignancy. In this paper, examples of the above are described and illustrated together with examples of the much rarer primary vaginal malignancies.

  7. 2 years versus 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive breast cancer (HERA)

    Goldhirsch, Aron; Gelber, Richard D; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J;

    2013-01-01

    Trastuzumab has established efficacy against breast cancer with overexpression or amplification of the HER2 oncogene. The standard of care is 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab, but the optimum duration of treatment is unknown. We compared 2 years of treatment with trastuzumab with 1 year of treatmen...

  8. MRI evaluation of tuberous sclerosis

    The authors present four cases of tuberous sclerosis examined with MRI. The patho-anatomic aspects are reviewed and analysed with respect to MRI data. MRI appears superior to the CT particularly for imaging of cortical tubers, cystic lesions, and heterotopic clusters; these last two features were never described with MRI before. Here is also presented the second progressive case of giant intracranial aneurysm associated with tuberous sclerosis. (orig.)

  9. Screening in asymptomatic SDHx mutation carriers: added value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis and 1-year follow-up

    Lepoutre-Lussey, C.; Deandreis, D.; Berdelou, A.; Nascimento, C.; Lumbroso, J.; Schlumberger, M.; Baudin, E.; Leboulleux, S. [Gustave Roussy Institut, Universite Paris-Sud, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif (France); Caramella, C.; Bidault, F.; Deschamps, F. [Gustave Roussy Institut, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Al Ghuzlan, A. [Gustave Roussy Institut, Department of Medical Biology and Pathology, Villejuif (France); Hartl, D.; Dumont, F. [Gustave Roussy Institut, Department of Surgery, Villejuif (France); Borget, I. [Gustave Roussy Institut, Department of Biostatistic and Epidemiology, Villejuif (France); Paris-Sud University, Villejuif (France); Gimenez-Roqueplo, A.P. [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Department of Genetics, Paris (France); Paris Descartes University, Faculty of Medicine, Paris (France); Guillaud Bataille, M. [Gustave Roussy Institut, Department of Genetics, Villejuif (France)

    2015-05-01

    Specific recommendations on screening modalities for paraganglioma (PGL) and phaeochromocytoma (PCC) in asymptomatic SDHx mutation carriers (relatives) are still lacking. We evaluated the added value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in comparison with morphological imaging at initial diagnosis and 1 year of follow-up in this population. The study included 30 consecutive relatives with a proven SDHx mutation who were investigated by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck, thoracic/abdominal/pelvic (TAP) contrast-enhanced CT and/or TAP MRI. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 20 subjects and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in 20 subjects. The gold standard was based on pathology or a composite endpoint as defined by any other positive imaging method and persistent tumour on follow-up. Images were considered as false-positive when the lesions were not detected by another imaging method or not confirmed at 1 year. At initial work-up, an imaging abnormality was found in eight subjects (27 %). The final diagnosis was true-positive in five subjects (two with abdominal PGL, one with PCC and two with neck PGL) and false-positives in the other three subjects (detected with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in two and TAP MRI in one). At 1 year, an imaging abnormality was found in three subjects of which one was an 8-mm carotid body PGL in a patient with SDHD mutation and two were considered false-positive. The tumour detection rate was 100 % for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging, 80 % for SRS and 60 % for {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy. Overall, disease was detected in 4 % of the subjects at the 1-year follow-up. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated excellent sensitivity but intermediate specificity justifying combined modality imaging in these patients. Given the slow progression of the disease, if {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and MRI are normal at baseline, the second imaging work-up should be delayed and an examination

  10. Screening in asymptomatic SDHx mutation carriers: added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT at initial diagnosis and 1-year follow-up

    Specific recommendations on screening modalities for paraganglioma (PGL) and phaeochromocytoma (PCC) in asymptomatic SDHx mutation carriers (relatives) are still lacking. We evaluated the added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in comparison with morphological imaging at initial diagnosis and 1 year of follow-up in this population. The study included 30 consecutive relatives with a proven SDHx mutation who were investigated by 18F-FDG PET/CT, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck, thoracic/abdominal/pelvic (TAP) contrast-enhanced CT and/or TAP MRI. 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 20 subjects and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in 20 subjects. The gold standard was based on pathology or a composite endpoint as defined by any other positive imaging method and persistent tumour on follow-up. Images were considered as false-positive when the lesions were not detected by another imaging method or not confirmed at 1 year. At initial work-up, an imaging abnormality was found in eight subjects (27 %). The final diagnosis was true-positive in five subjects (two with abdominal PGL, one with PCC and two with neck PGL) and false-positives in the other three subjects (detected with 18F-FDG PET/CT in two and TAP MRI in one). At 1 year, an imaging abnormality was found in three subjects of which one was an 8-mm carotid body PGL in a patient with SDHD mutation and two were considered false-positive. The tumour detection rate was 100 % for 18F-FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging, 80 % for SRS and 60 % for 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. Overall, disease was detected in 4 % of the subjects at the 1-year follow-up. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated excellent sensitivity but intermediate specificity justifying combined modality imaging in these patients. Given the slow progression of the disease, if 18F-FDG PET/CT and MRI are normal at baseline, the second imaging work-up should be delayed and an examination that does not expose the patient to radiation

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. MRI can help physicians evaluate the structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ...

  12. MRI of the posttraumatic shoulder

    Full text: Abnormalities of the shoulder are common but still unclear for both GPs and the orthopedic surgeon in our community. Difficult and late these patients are directed to a specialist for diagnosis and treatment. Our goal is to address some of the key and most common problem conditions related to the complaints in this area. Incidence of symptomatic ruptures of the shoulder’s rotator cuff is difficult to be evaluated. But it is by no means rare, concerning the research in the world - historically and today. It is also known that ruptures can be asymptomatic. Despite the large percentage of them, many of them are at risk for progression of the symptoms. While, on the world, the authors explicitly state that dealing with a rotator cuff rupture is one of the top 10 issues that are most important for orthopedic surgeons, in our country the most common diagnosis for shoulder complaints is still periarthritis, without specifying of individual muscles pathology. Another major concern is shoulder instability associated with multiple incidents of luxation started either in adolescence with minor traumatic incident, such as recurrent dislocation, or started after severe trauma in older ages. It has to be specified diagnostic type of instability: front, rear or multidirection. Especially it is important to make the initial stabilization period of unavoidable long series of repeated dislocations in adolescents and young people, whether actively practicing sports or not. This point is often missed, and later for large lesions it leads to more invasive surgery. Not infrequently this condition is characterized by pain and limited movement without true dislocation. Then it is mandatory to assess the diagnostic changes in labrum, ligaments and muscles, not to leave the patient to reach first dislocation. Impingement syndrome (IC) is a common suffering, engaging soft tissues in the subacromial bursitis. IC characterizes by pain during the upper limb removal and the

  13. MRI of intact plants

    As, van H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  14. Cardiac MRI tagging

    Cardiac MRI tagging is an original technique based upon the perturbation of the magnetization of determined regions of the myocardium (tags). The motion of the tags accurately reflects the deformation of the underlying tissue. Data analysis requires special techniques to reconstruct the 3D motion of the heart, and to evaluate the myocardial strain, locally and throughout the whole heart. (authors)

  15. MRI of intact plants.

    As, H. van; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transpor

  16. MRI and interventions

    Roberto Blanco Sequeiros

    2002-01-01

    @@ Interventional radiology was started not long after the discovery of X - rays. Interventions started as image guided biopsies and angiographies early this century, later emerged computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound-guided interventions in the 1970s and ultimately the magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) guided interventions at the 1980s.

  17. MRI in decompression illness

    We report a case of decompression illness in which the patient developed paraparesis during scuba diving after rapid ascent. MRI of the spine revealed a focal intramedullary lesion consistent with the symptoms. The pathophysiological and radiological aspects of spinal decompression illness are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse excessive high signal intensity in low-risk preterm infants at term-equivalent age does not predict outcome at 1 year: a prospective study

    Leitner, Yael [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Child Development Centre, Dana-Dwek Children' s Hospital, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Weinstein, Maya [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Functional Brain Centre, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bar Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Myers, Vicki [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Functional Brain Centre, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Uliel, Shimrit; Geva, Karen [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Child Development Centre, Dana-Dwek Children' s Hospital, Tel Aviv (Israel); Berger, Irit; Marom, Ronella [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben-Sira, Liat [Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv (Israel); Geva, Ronny [Bar Ilan University, Department of Psychology, Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Centre, Ramat-Gan (Israel); Gross-Tsur, Varda [Shaare-Zedek Medical Centre, Neuropediatric Unit, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    The outcome of premature infants with only diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) is not clear. We explored the relationship between DEHSI, white matter (WM) diffusion characteristics, perinatal characteristics, and neurobehavioral outcome at 1 year in a homogenous group of preterm infants without major brain abnormalities. Fifty-eight preterm infants, gestational age 29 ± 2.6 weeks, underwent an MRI at term-equivalent age (TEA). Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, neurological assessment, and Parental Stress Index (PSI) were performed at 1 year corrected age. These measures were compared between preterm infants according to DEHSI classification (none, mild, moderate). Diffusion tensor imaging was used in major WM volumes of interest to objectively measure the degree of WM maturation. No significant differences were detected in the perinatal risk characteristics, neurobehavioral outcome, and PSI at 1 year between infants with different DEHSI classifications. In infants with DEHSI, increased axial and radial diffusivities were detected in the optic radiations, centrum semiovale, and posterior limb of the internal capsule, indicating less advanced maturation of the WM. Significant correlations were detected between the time interval from birth to MRI and the WM microstructure in infants without DEHSI. DEHSI in premature infants is neither a predictive measure for short-term adverse neurobehavioral outcome nor related to perinatal risk characteristics. Extrauterine exposure time had a differential effect on WM maturational trajectories in infants with DEHSI compared to those without. We suggest DEHSI may represent an alteration in WM maturational characteristics. Further follow-up studies may verify later consequences of DEHSI in premature infants. (orig.)

  19. Diffuse excessive high signal intensity in low-risk preterm infants at term-equivalent age does not predict outcome at 1 year: a prospective study

    The outcome of premature infants with only diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) is not clear. We explored the relationship between DEHSI, white matter (WM) diffusion characteristics, perinatal characteristics, and neurobehavioral outcome at 1 year in a homogenous group of preterm infants without major brain abnormalities. Fifty-eight preterm infants, gestational age 29 ± 2.6 weeks, underwent an MRI at term-equivalent age (TEA). Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, neurological assessment, and Parental Stress Index (PSI) were performed at 1 year corrected age. These measures were compared between preterm infants according to DEHSI classification (none, mild, moderate). Diffusion tensor imaging was used in major WM volumes of interest to objectively measure the degree of WM maturation. No significant differences were detected in the perinatal risk characteristics, neurobehavioral outcome, and PSI at 1 year between infants with different DEHSI classifications. In infants with DEHSI, increased axial and radial diffusivities were detected in the optic radiations, centrum semiovale, and posterior limb of the internal capsule, indicating less advanced maturation of the WM. Significant correlations were detected between the time interval from birth to MRI and the WM microstructure in infants without DEHSI. DEHSI in premature infants is neither a predictive measure for short-term adverse neurobehavioral outcome nor related to perinatal risk characteristics. Extrauterine exposure time had a differential effect on WM maturational trajectories in infants with DEHSI compared to those without. We suggest DEHSI may represent an alteration in WM maturational characteristics. Further follow-up studies may verify later consequences of DEHSI in premature infants. (orig.)

  20. Novel whole brain segmentation and volume estimation using quantitative MRI

    West, J. [Linkoeping University, Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); SyntheticMR AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Warntjes, J.B.M. [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); SyntheticMR AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Clinical Physiology UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Clinical Physiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Lundberg, P. [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Imaging Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University and Department of Radiology UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, Radiology, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-05-15

    Brain segmentation and volume estimation of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) are important for many neurological applications. Volumetric changes are observed in multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and in normal aging. A novel method is presented to segment brain tissue based on quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R{sub 1}, the transverse relaxation rate R{sub 2} and the proton density, PD. Previously reported qMRI values for WM, GM and CSF were used to define tissues and a Bloch simulation performed to investigate R{sub 1}, R{sub 2} and PD for tissue mixtures in the presence of noise. Based on the simulations a lookup grid was constructed to relate tissue partial volume to the R{sub 1}-R{sub 2}-PD space. The method was validated in 10 healthy subjects. MRI data were acquired using six resolutions and three geometries. Repeatability for different resolutions was 3.2% for WM, 3.2% for GM, 1.0% for CSF and 2.2% for total brain volume. Repeatability for different geometries was 8.5% for WM, 9.4% for GM, 2.4% for CSF and 2.4% for total brain volume. We propose a new robust qMRI-based approach which we demonstrate in a patient with MS. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of DNB test repeatability

    The repeatability of DNB tests was evaluated by carrying out DNB runs at the same conditions in two different test sections. The resulting matched pairs of DNB runs were then subjected to an extensive statistical analysis. This analysis indicates that individual runs using different test sections are repeatable within approximately 8 percent, and that the means of two different data sets should fall within approximately 2 percent of each other. The repeatability within a set, i.e., from the same test section, was found to be approximately 6.4 percent. An evaluation of the uncertainties by analysis of errors inherent in geometrical and physical parameters results in an estimated set-to-set repeatability for an individual run of 7.6 percent which is in good agreement with the 8 percent error found in the data analysis. For repeatability of an individual run within a set, 6.8 percent was estimated from the test parameters, compared to 6.4 percent determined by data analysis. (U.S.)

  2. High-quality breast MRI.

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2014-05-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demands the competing factors of high spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios, and complete bilateral breast coverage. Achieving these competing factors requires modern MRI equipment with high magnetic field strength and homogeneity, high maximum gradient strength with short rise times, dedicated multichannel bilateral breast coils with prone patient positioning, and 3D (volume) gradient-echo MRI pulse sequences with short TR, short TE, high spatial resolution, and reasonably short acquisition times. This article discusses the equipment and pulse sequences needed to achieve high-quality breast MRI and summarizes requirements of the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program. PMID:24792656

  3. Cine MRI of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Cine MRI was performed using 1.5T or 0.5T MR units in eleven patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Septal and posterior wall thickness measured by cine MRI correlated well with those obtained by ultrasonographic cardiogram. In hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, cine MRI demonstrated the site and nature of obstructive change in left ventricle. Cine MRI also showed flow void due to mitral regurgitation successfully. We considered cine MRI is useful means to evaluate the anatomical and functional findings in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  4. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol. PMID:25903096

  5. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  6. Increased BOLD activation in the left parahippocampal cortex after 1 year of medical school: an association with cumulative verbal memory learning.

    Bernier, Michaël; Gauvreau, Claudie; Theriault, Denis; Madrolle, Stéphanie; Lepage, Jean-François; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have shown left-right hippocampus asymmetry during learning, it is unclear whether such asymmetry also exists for the parahippocampal cortex, a structure within the limbic system that is also involved in memory and learning. Using a common mental navigation task known to activate the bilateral parahippocampal cortex, this study aimed at determining how BOLD activation in these two areas changes after 1 year of medical school, a program characterized by intensive verbal learning. Fifteen first-year medical students participated in this study and underwent two sessions of functional MRI, at a 1-year interval. In the first session, we observed marginal differences between left and right parahippocampal cortex activity. However, 1 year later, left parahippocampal activation significantly increased (+4.7%), whereas the right remained stable. These results bring new information as to how intensive learning can modify regional metabolism in the human brain and how the left parahippocampal region is particularly important for cumulative verbal memory. PMID:26606418

  7. MRI-negative focal cortical dysplasias and seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery

    Full text: Introduction: The focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are a main cause of drug-resistant epilepsies. The MRI appearance of FCD is specific but some FCD remain hidden for the MRI. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the success rate of epilepsy surgery in patients with FCD and especially MRI-negative FCD during the first 6 years of the epilepsy surgery program of University Hospital 'St. Ivan Rilski', Sofia. Material and methods: Fourteen patients with drug resistant epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasias were operated on from January 2006 to april 2012. The mean age at surgery was 13 years (7-35 years) and the mean age of epilepsy onset was 7 years (1 year - 19 years). The presurgical work-up have included preoperative MRI (1.5T, GE) and seizures registration with video- EEG in all patients, PET-CT in 4 patients and invasive EEG in 5 patients. Eleven patients have MRI-positive cortical dysplasia and 3 patients were MRI negative. Results: Complete seizure control (Engel class I) was achieved in 9 patients, significant improvement (Engel class II) was observed in 3 patients and two patients remain without improvement (Engel class IV). In the small group of 3 patients with MRI-negative FCD, complete seizure control was achieved in two patients. No significant improvement was observed in one patient with MRI-negative FCD and one patient with MRI-positive FCD. Discussion: FCD type I are frequently invisible for the MRI and the localization of the epileptogenic zone is a difficult problem. Many studies have demonstrated the negative predictive value of MRI-negative FCD regarding seizure control after epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and MRI-negative FCD are good candidates for epilepsy surgery but need comprehensive presurgical workup including PET-CT and invasive-EEG.

  8. Repeating seismic events in China.

    Schaff, David P; Richards, Paul G

    2004-02-20

    About 10% of seismic events in and near China from 1985 to 2000 were repeating events not more than about 1 kilometer from each other. We cross-correlated seismograms from approximately 14,000 earthquakes and explosions and measured relative arrival times to approximately 0.01 second, enabling lateral location precision of about 100 to 300 meters. Such precision is important for seismic hazard studies, earthquake physics, and nuclear test ban verification. Recognition and measurement of repeating signals in archived data and the resulting improvement in location specificity quantifies the inaccuracy of current procedures for picking onset times and locating events. PMID:14976310

  9. Procedural learning and associative memory mechanisms contribute to contextual cueing: Evidence from fMRI and eye-tracking

    Manelis, Anna; Reder, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of eye tracking and fMRI in a contextual cueing task, we explored the mechanisms underlying the facilitation of visual search for repeated spatial configurations. When configurations of distractors were repeated, greater activation in the right hippocampus corresponded to greater reductions in the number of saccades to locate the target. A psychophysiological interactions analysis for repeated configurations revealed that a strong functional connectivity between this area ...

  10. MRI findings of serous atrophy of bone marrow and associated complications

    Boutin, Robert D. [Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); White, Lawrence M. [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, Damon J. [New England Baptist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Lopez-Ben, Robert R. [Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology, Charlotte, NC (United States); Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To report the MRI appearance of serous atrophy of bone marrow (SABM) and analyse clinical findings and complications of SABM. A retrospective search of MRI examinations of SABM was performed. Symptoms, underlying conditions, MRI findings, delay in diagnosis and associated complications were recorded. We identified 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age: 46 ± 21 years) with MRI findings of SABM. Underlying conditions included anorexia nervosa (n = 10), cachexia from malignant (n = 5) and non-malignant (n = 7) causes, massive weight loss after bariatric surgery (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), AIDS (n = 3), endocrine disorders (n = 2) and scurvy (n = 1). MRI showed mildly hypointense signal on T1- weighted and hyperintense signal on fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images of affected bone marrow in all cases and similar signal abnormalities of the adjacent subcutaneous fat in 29/30 cases. Seven patients underwent repeat MRI due to initial misinterpretation of bone marrow signal as technical error. Superimposed fractures of the hips and lower extremities were common (n = 14). SABM occurs most commonly in anorexia nervosa and cachexia. MRI findings of SABM are often misinterpreted as technical error requiring unnecessary repeat imaging. SABM is frequently associated with fractures of the lower extremities. (orig.)

  11. MRI findings of serous atrophy of bone marrow and associated complications

    To report the MRI appearance of serous atrophy of bone marrow (SABM) and analyse clinical findings and complications of SABM. A retrospective search of MRI examinations of SABM was performed. Symptoms, underlying conditions, MRI findings, delay in diagnosis and associated complications were recorded. We identified 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age: 46 ± 21 years) with MRI findings of SABM. Underlying conditions included anorexia nervosa (n = 10), cachexia from malignant (n = 5) and non-malignant (n = 7) causes, massive weight loss after bariatric surgery (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), AIDS (n = 3), endocrine disorders (n = 2) and scurvy (n = 1). MRI showed mildly hypointense signal on T1- weighted and hyperintense signal on fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images of affected bone marrow in all cases and similar signal abnormalities of the adjacent subcutaneous fat in 29/30 cases. Seven patients underwent repeat MRI due to initial misinterpretation of bone marrow signal as technical error. Superimposed fractures of the hips and lower extremities were common (n = 14). SABM occurs most commonly in anorexia nervosa and cachexia. MRI findings of SABM are often misinterpreted as technical error requiring unnecessary repeat imaging. SABM is frequently associated with fractures of the lower extremities. (orig.)

  12. SU-E-J-192: Verification of 4D-MRI Internal Target Volume Using Cine MRI

    Lafata, K; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of 4D-MRI in determining the Internal Target Volume (ITV) used in radiation oncology treatment planning of liver cancers. Cine MRI is used as the standard baseline in establishing the feasibility and accuracy of 4D-MRI tumor motion within the liver. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Analysis was performed on MR images from four patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for liver cancer at our institution. Eligible patients received both Cine and 4D-MRI scans before treatment. Cine images were acquired sagittally in real time at a slice bisecting the tumor, while 4D images were acquired volumetrically. Cine MR DICOM headers were manipulated such that each respiratory frame was assigned a unique slice location. This approach permitted the treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) to recognize a complete respiratory cycle as a “volume”, where the gross tumor was contoured temporally. Software was developed to calculate the union of all frame contours in the structure set, resulting in the corresponding plane of the ITV projecting through the middle of the tumor, defined as the Internal Target Area (ITA). This was repeated for 4D-MRI, at the corresponding slice location, allowing a direct comparison of ITAs obtained from each modality. Results: Four patients have been analyzed. ITAs contoured from 4D-MRI correlate with contours from Cine MRI. The mean error of 4D values relative to Cine values is 7.67 +/− 2.55 %. No single ITA contoured from 4D-MRI demonstrated more than 10.5 % error compared to its Cine MRI counterpart. Conclusion: Motion management is a significant aspect of treatment planning within dynamic environments such as the liver, where diaphragmatic and cardiac activity influence plan accuracy. This small pilot study suggests that 4D-MRI based ITA measurements agree with Cine MRI based measurements, an important step towards clinical implementation. NIH 1R21

  13. The usefulness of MRI-CT for aortic diseases

    We report here the results of our study of four recent aortic disease patients with a clinical evaluation of the efficacy of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography (MRI-CT). This new technique is noninvasive and particularly suited to the assessment of cardiovascular diseases. The following conclusions were obtained. 1) The MRI-CT produces a definite and clear contrast between flowing blood, mural thrombosis, and the vessel wall. A certain diagnosis can be facilitated for aortic dissection, aneurysm formation, and of atherosclerotic changes, in any of the cross-sectional, coronal, and saggital planes. 2) Repeated preoperative check-up and long-term postoperative follow-up is enabled, even at an outpatients' department. 3) MRI-CT is useful as a noninvasive method for screening of aortic abnormalities, especially so in cases of poor general conditions. We also identify the following areas where research could improve the clinical advantage of MRI-CT. 1) The physiologic effects related to an artificial valve in magnetic field must be clarified. 2) Faster and finer imaging should be developed for MRI-CT use as a choice method for cases of aortic dissection or impending aneurysm rupture. 3) Clear distinction on imaging between blood pooling, fresh thrombosis and soft tissue tumor must be developed. (author)

  14. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H215O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H215O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  15. MRI of the shoulder

    Vahlensieck, M.

    2000-02-01

    Shoulder imaging is one of the major applications in musculoskeletal MRI. In order to analyze the images it is important to keep informed about anatomical and pathological findings and publications. In this article MRI technique, anatomy and pathology is reviewed. Technical considerations about MR sequences and examination strategy are only shortly discussed with emphasis on turbo spin echo and short T1 inversion recovery imaging. Basic anatomy as well as recent findings, including macroscopic aspects of the supraspinatus fat pad, composition of the supraspinatus muscle belly, and variability of the glenohumeral ligaments or coracoid ligament, are presented. Basic pathological conditions are described in detail, e. g. instability particularly problems in differentiating the various subtypes of labral pathology. Rotator cuff diseases are elucidated with emphasis on some rarer entities such as subscapularis calcifying tendinitis, coracoid impingement, chronic bursitis producing the double-line sign, prominent coraco-acromial ligament and the impingement due to an inflamed os acromiale. (orig.)

  16. MRI of cardiovascular malformations

    Kastler, Bruno [Centre Hospitalier Univ. Jean Minjoz, Besancon (France); Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (FR). Lab. I4S (Health, Innovation, Intervention, Imaging, Engineering); Centre Hospitalier Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    MRI is a non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging modality that is perfectly suited for the diagnosis and follow-up of both pediatric and adult congenital heart disease. It provides a large field of view and has the unique ability to depict complex cardiac and vascular anatomy and to measure cardiac function and flow within one examination. MRI is the ideal complement to echocardiography whenever the information provided by the latter is limited. This book has been conceived as a self-teaching manual that will assist qualified radiologists, cardiologists, and pediatricians, as well as those in training. It is richly illustrated with numerous images and drawings that cover all usual and most unusual anomalies. The principal author, Professor Bruno Kastler, is head of radiology at Besancon University Hospital, France and is board certified in both radiology and cardiology. (orig.)

  17. MRI of the shoulder

    Shoulder imaging is one of the major applications in musculoskeletal MRI. In order to analyze the images it is important to keep informed about anatomical and pathological findings and publications. In this article MRI technique, anatomy and pathology is reviewed. Technical considerations about MR sequences and examination strategy are only shortly discussed with emphasis on turbo spin echo and short T1 inversion recovery imaging. Basic anatomy as well as recent findings, including macroscopic aspects of the supraspinatus fat pad, composition of the supraspinatus muscle belly, and variability of the glenohumeral ligaments or coracoid ligament, are presented. Basic pathological conditions are described in detail, e. g. instability particularly problems in differentiating the various subtypes of labral pathology. Rotator cuff diseases are elucidated with emphasis on some rarer entities such as subscapularis calcifying tendinitis, coracoid impingement, chronic bursitis producing the double-line sign, prominent coraco-acromial ligament and the impingement due to an inflamed os acromiale. (orig.)

  18. MRI of restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI in combination of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging for the identification of restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Methods: One hundred sixteen patients with RCM underwent ECG, thoracic radiography, echocardiography and MRI. The final diagnosis was made on comprehensive evaluation in consideration of patient history, clinical symptoms and imaging appearances. Fifty-five normal subjects were used as the controls. All patients were divided into two groups according to contrast-enhanced MRI patterns: RCM with delayed enhancement (RCM with DE, n=35) and RCM without delayed enhancement (RCM without DE, n=81). Bi-atrial and bi-ventricular size, ventricular septal and left free wall thickness were measured. A paired t-test was used for statistic analysis. Results: Bi-atrial size, right ventricular diastolic diameter (RVDD), ventricular septal and left free wall thickness were significantly larger in RCM patients than in normal subjects (P0.05). Visual observation showed mild mitral regurgitation (50 cases), moderate mitral regurgitation (24 cases ), mild tricuspid regurgitation (32 cases) and severe tricuspid regurgitation (46 cases). Thirty-five RCMs with DE presented diffuse (15 cases) or segmental (20 cases) enhancement. Twelve RCMs with diffuse delayed enhancement showed powdery, enhancement, and 3 showed petaline enhancement. Three cases with powdery enhancement were histologically proven as myocardial amyloidosis. Ventricular septum was the most vulnerable segment in patients with segmental enhancement. Six cases presented subendocardial enhancement that corresponded to apical obliteration, of which one case was confirmed as hypereosinophilia by bone marrow biopsy and the other 14 cases didn't present any regular enhancement. In 81 RCMs without DE, marked bi-atrial dilation, near-normal ventricular chambers and near-normal ventricular thickness were presented. Conclusion: MRI is an excellent imaging modality for

  19. Measuring MRI noise

    Hoiting, Gerke Jan

    2005-01-01

    De MRI-scanner wordt tegenwoordig veel gebruikt voor medisch onderzoek. Het lawaai dat het apparaat produceert (110 dB en meer), is echter een storende factor die lastig te beteugelen is. Weliswaar kan het geluiddruk vooraf berekend worden, maar de tot nu gehanteerde methode geeft een foute voorspelling wanneer het over een lage geluidsdruk gaat. Gerke Hoiting stelt in zijn proefschrift een nieuwe methode voor, die bij lage geluidsdruk wel een correcte voorspelling doet. Het proefschrift beva...

  20. MRI of maxillary sinuses

    A mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus is clinically important in the dental fields. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate a mucous membrane because the mucosa contains rich free water. However, the morphology and location of the mucous membrane of normal maxillary sinuses have not been studied well by MRI. T2-weighted coronal images were obtained by spin echo technique in 40 normal volunteers. The eight maxillary sinuses were classified into four groups (Type 1∼IV) according to the morphology and also classified into five groups (Type a, b1, b2, b3, c) according to the location of the mucous membrane. Coronal images obtained at a standard angle of 77 degree to the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was the best for the evaluation of maxillary sinus because the image displayed the maximum cross-section of the maxillary sinus. In the normal cases, Type I (no high signal intensity) was observed in 20 sites, Type II (linear high signal intensity) in 48 sites, Type III (belt-like high signal intensity) in 11 sites and Type IV (mass-like high signal intensity) in 1 site. Type a (medial∼basal wall) was observed in 46 sites, Type b1 (medial wall alone) in 4 sites, Type b2 (basal wall alone) in 8 sites and Type c (entire wall) in 2 sites. Half of the cases showed the same findings bilaterally. Thus, MRI could demonstrate the morphology and location of the mucous membrane in the normal maxillary sinus so clearly that MRI was considered to be a useful diagnostic tool in the dento-maxillo-facial region. (author)

  1. [MRI in coma survivors].

    Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Bruno, M A; Boly, M; Soddu, A; Laureys, S; Moonen, G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic and non-traumatic brain injured disorders of consciousness patients are still challenging for diagnosis, prognosis, ethical and socio-economic reasons. Currently, there remains a high rate of misdiagnosis of the vegetative state (Schnakers, et al. 2009). Recent advances in MRI techniques (diffusion tensor, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional imaging) provide data that could improve the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation and management of these patients. PMID:20085015

  2. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  3. A Semiparametric Bayesian Model for Repeatedly Repeated Binary Outcomes

    Quintana, Fernando A.; Müller, Peter; Rosner, Gary L.; Mary V Relling

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the analysis of data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays comparing tumor and normal tissues. The data consist of sequences of indicators for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and involve three nested levels of repetition: chromosomes for a given patient, regions within chromosomes, and SNPs nested within regions. We propose to analyze these data using a semiparametric model for multi-level repeated binary data. At the top level of the hierarchy we assume a sampling model fo...

  4. Poststroke depression and risk of recurrent stroke at 1 year in a Chinese cohort study.

    Huai Wu Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies show that poststroke depression (PSD increases mortality risk at 1 year. However, whether PSD increases the risk of recurrent stroke at 1 year remains unclear. This study was to investigate whether PSD at 2 weeks following a stroke could increase risk of recurrent stroke at 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a multi-centered prospective cohort study. A total of 2306 patients with acute stroke were enrolled in our study. PSD was diagnosed according to the criteria set by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV. The outcomes of recurrent stroke were followed up via face-to-face or phone interview. A total of 1713 patients had complete follow-up data, with 481 (28.1% cases of PSD and 158 (9.2% cases of cumulative recurrent stroke at 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a 49% increase of OR of recurrent stroke at 1 year in patients with PSD, compared to patients without PSD following a stroke (OR=1.49, 95%CI: 1.03-2.15. There was no significant correlation between anti-depressant drugs and the risk of recurrent stroke at 1 year following a stroke (OR=1.96, 95%: CI 0.95-4.04. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, nearly 3 out of 10 hospitalized stroke patients in China were diagnosed with PSD at 2 weeks following a stroke. PSD is associated with a higher risk of recurrent stroke at 1 year. Our study did not find benefit of anti-depressant drugs in reducing such risk.

  5. Incidental mastoid opacification in children on MRI

    Singh, Sumit; Kuruva, Manohar [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Pediatric Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna Rao [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Biostatistics Program, Department of Pediatrics, Little Rock, AR (United States); Qin, Curtis [Georgetown University Hospital, Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The opacification the mastoid cavity is frequently reported by radiologists on cross-sectional imaging done for non-otological indications. It is well known that presence of fluid the mastoid does not amount to mastoiditis. This study seeks to provide an evidence-based confirmation of this known finding. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of mastoid opacification in children undergoing outpatient brain MRI examination. Our study included 515 outpatient children who had brain MRI for indications other than mastoiditis or otitis media from January 2014 to March 2014. Children with history of skull base trauma or radiation were excluded. The age range was 15 days to 18 years. The overall prevalence of mastoid opacification was determined using one sample proportion and exact 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals. The prevalence of mastoid opacification was analyzed based on gender, age and presenting symptoms using chi-square test of association. One hundred ten children (21.4%) had mastoid opacification. Younger patients tended to have higher opacification rates with the prevalence in children younger than 1 year of age and between 1 and 2 years of age as high as 41.7% (20/48) and 47.5% (38/80), respectively. The diagnosis of mastoiditis in children should not be based upon a radiologist's report of finding fluid or mucosal thickening in the mastoid air cells as incidental opacification the mastoid is seen frequently. (orig.)

  6. MRI findings of neuro-Behcet's disease.

    Borhani Haghighi, Afshin; Sarhadi, Sirous; Farahangiz, Siamak

    2011-06-01

    Neurological manifestations present in 5% to 30% of patients with Behçet's disease. We studied consecutive patients with relapsing--remitting or progressive neuro-Behcet's disease who referred from January 2002 to January 2009 to Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, southern Iran. Sequential MRIs were performed during clinical relapses in patients with relapsing--remitting course or during relentless progression after first referral of patients with progressive course. We reviewed 55 MRIs of 17 patients (ten men and seven women) with age of 36.4 ± 8.1 years at the time of first MRI. Nine (53%) patients had a relapsing-remitting course and eight (47%) had a progressive course. The initial and last follow-up studies had a mean interval of 29.2 months (range, 24 to 84). Of the patients with progressive neuro-Behcet's disease, 50% had brainstem atrophy and 75% had black holes in their last follow-up MRIs. The respective prevalence rates for those with relapsing--remitting neuro-Behcet's disease were 0% and 11%. In the total population of patients with neuro-Behcet's disease, the number of lesions (p = 0.002) and MRI burden (p = 0.016) had a significant increase in the last follow-up studies in comparison to the initial studies. Incremental pattern in the number of lesions and MRI burdens in patients with parenchymal neuro-Behcet's disease in our longitudinal study may imply an ongoing pathologic process. PMID:21165752

  7. MRI diagnosis of meningovascular neurosyphilis

    Objective: To evaluate the value and limitation of MRI in the diagnosis of meningovascular neurosyphilis. Methods: Five cases of neurosyphilis confirmed by clinical history/laboratory were examined with MRI (3 plain MRI, 2 enhanced MRI). The results of blood and CSF TPPA/RPR were positive and HIV was negative. Results: Abnormal signals were demonstrated in the temporal lobe in 3 cases, and infarction was revealed in the basal ganglion and periventricular white matter in another 2 cases. There was no marked contrast enhancement in the 2 cases. Conclusion: Meningovascular neurosyphilis has no characteristic features on MRI, but MRI is an effective method in delineating the size, range, and characters of neurosyphilis, and it is also an useful modality to follow-up after antibiotic therapy. (authors)

  8. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Associated With Higher 1-year All-Cause Rehospitalization Rates in Patients Admitted for Acute Heart Failure.

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Grillo, Cristina; Scala, Luca; Chiampan, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Zoppini, Giacomo; Lonardo, Amedeo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher D; Targher, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Repeat hospitalization due to acute heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem that markedly impacts on health resource use. Identifying novel predictors of rehospitalization would help physicians to determine the optimal postdischarge plan for preventing HF rehospitalization. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for many heart diseases, including HF. We assessed whether NAFLD at hospital admission predicts 1-year all-cause rehospitalization in patients with acute HF. We enrolled all patients consecutively admitted for acute HF to our General Medicine Division, from January 2013 to April 2014, after excluding patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe heart valve diseases, malignancy, known liver diseases, and those with volume overload related to extracardiac causes. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography and exclusion of competing etiologies. The primary outcome of the study was the 1-year all-cause rehospitalization rate. Among the 107 patients enrolled in the study, the cumulative rehospitalization rate was 12.1% at 1 month, 25.2% at 3 months, 29.9% at 6 months, and 38.3% at 1 year. Patients with NAFLD had markedly higher 1-year rehospitalization rates than those without NAFLD (58% vs 21% at 1 y; P < 0.001 by the log-rank test). Cox regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with a 5.5-fold increased risk of rehospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 5.56, 95% confidence interval 2.46-12.1, P < 0.001) after adjustment for multiple HF risk factors and potential confounders. In conclusion, NAFLD was independently associated with higher 1-year rehospitalization in patients hospitalized for acute HF. PMID:26886619

  9. MRI assessment program. Consensus statement on clinical efficacy of MRI

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This consensus statement is largely based on the experience gained at the MRI units at the four hospitals which have operated scanners in the MRI program. It reflects the considered opinion of the radiologists responsible for the MRI services at those hospitals. Account has also been taken of relevant overseas data. This collection of opinion relates particularly to comparison with other imaging modalities. The specific comments will require further consideration as technical developments with MRI become available, additional experience is gained with gadolinium contrast material and additional data are obtained on the influence of MRI on patient management. MRI, at present, is used either to improve diagnostic accuracy when other tests are negative or equivocal, when there is strong clinical suspicion of disease, or to improve surgical or other management planning when the diagnosis known. In some situations (eg syringomyelia, congenital spinal disease, posterior fossa/cerebello-pontine angle tumours) it may entirely replace other tests (eg myelography, air contrast, CT) which are substantially less accurate and/or more invasive. In other situations (eg hemispheric brain tumours, lumbar disc protrusions) when other tests, such as CT, can be as accurate, MRI is not usually or initially indicated because it is currently more expensive and of limited availability. However, balanced against this is the fact that it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful ionising radiation. It is also stressed that MRI images depend on complex, widely variable and, as yet, incompletely understood parameters. There is concern that this may result in false positive diagnoses, especially where MRI is used alone as a screening test, or used as the initial test. For several reasons (availability, cost, medical and diagnostic efficacy), the specific comments on indications for MRI presented are based upon the assumption that MRI is a tertiary and complementary imaging examination

  10. MRI assessment program. Consensus statement on clinical efficacy of MRI

    This consensus statement is largely based on the experience gained at the MRI units at the four hospitals which have operated scanners in the MRI program. It reflects the considered opinion of the radiologists responsible for the MRI services at those hospitals. Account has also been taken of relevant overseas data. This collection of opinion relates particularly to comparison with other imaging modalities. The specific comments will require further consideration as technical developments with MRI become available, additional experience is gained with gadolinium contrast material and additional data are obtained on the influence of MRI on patient management. MRI, at present, is used either to improve diagnostic accuracy when other tests are negative or equivocal, when there is strong clinical suspicion of disease, or to improve surgical or other management planning when the diagnosis known. In some situations (eg syringomyelia, congenital spinal disease, posterior fossa/cerebello-pontine angle tumours) it may entirely replace other tests (eg myelography, air contrast, CT) which are substantially less accurate and/or more invasive. In other situations (eg hemispheric brain tumours, lumbar disc protrusions) when other tests, such as CT, can be as accurate, MRI is not usually or initially indicated because it is currently more expensive and of limited availability. However, balanced against this is the fact that it does not expose the patient to potentially harmful ionising radiation. It is also stressed that MRI images depend on complex, widely variable and, as yet, incompletely understood parameters. There is concern that this may result in false positive diagnoses, especially where MRI is used alone as a screening test, or used as the initial test. For several reasons (availability, cost, medical and diagnostic efficacy), the specific comments on indications for MRI presented are based upon the assumption that MRI is a tertiary and complementary imaging examination

  11. MRI of the fetal abdomen

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic component for central nervous system and thoracic diseases during fetal development. Although ultrasound remains the method of choice for observing the fetus during pregnancy, fetal MRI is being increasingly used as an additional technique for the accurate diagnosis of abdominal diseases. Recent publications confirm the value of MRI in the diagnosis of fetal gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system diseases. The following report provides an overview of MRI-examination techniques for the most frequent diseases of the abdomen. (orig.)

  12. Quality assurance in functional MRI

    Liu, Thomas T; Glover, Gary H; Mueller, Bryon A;

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has ben- efited greatly from improvements in MRI hardware and software. At the same time, fMRI researchers have pushed the technical limits of MRI systems and greatly in- fluenced the development of state-of-the-art systems...... imaging methods such as echo-planar imaging (EPI) or spiral acquisitions that can push the scanner hardware to its limits. High temporal stability sustained over the course of a scan session (up to 2 h) is required to obtain quality data within a single subject, sustained stability is required to obtain...

  13. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  14. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Itatani, R., E-mail: banguliao@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Namimoto, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y. [Department of Urology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitaoka, M. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Nakaura, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa Medical Center, Kameba 854-1, Amakusa, Kumamoto 863-0046 (Japan); Yamashita, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy.

  15. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy

  16. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Péter Kovács; András Csontos; Balázs Heilig; András Koppán

    2013-01-01

    The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried ...

  17. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  18. Measurement of midfemoral shaft geometry: repeatability and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Woodhead, H J; Kemp, A F; Blimkie CJR; Briody, J N; Duncan, C S; Thompson, M; Lam, A; Howman-Giles, R; Cowell, C T

    2001-12-01

    Although macroscopic geometric architecture is an important determinant of bone strength, there is limited published information relating to the validation of the techniques used in its measurement. This study describes new techniques for assessing geometry at the midfemur using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and examines both the repeatability and the accuracy of these and previously described DXA methods. Contiguous transverse MRI (Philips 1.5T) scans of the middle one-third femur were made in 13 subjects, 3 subjects with osteoporosis. Midpoint values for total width (TW), cortical width (CW), total cross-sectional area (TCSA), cortical cross-sectional area (CCSA), and volumes from reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) images (total volume [TV] and cortical volume [CVol]) were derived. Midpoint TW and CW also were determined using DXA (Lunar V3.6, lumbar software) by visual and automated edge detection analysis. Repeatability was assessed on scans made on two occasions and then analyzed twice by two independent observers (blinded), with intra- and interobserver repeatability expressed as the CV (CV +/- SD). Accuracy was examined by comparing MRI and DXA measurements of venison bone (and Perspex phantom for MRI), against "gold standard" measures made by vernier caliper (width), photographic image digitization (area) and water displacement (volume). Agreement between methods was analyzed using mean differences (MD +/- SD%). MRI CVs ranged from 0.5 +/- 0.5% (TV) to 3.1 +/- 3.1% (CW) for intraobserver and 0.55 +/- 0.5% (TV) to 3.6 +/- 3.6% (CW) for interobserver repeatability. DXA results ranged from 1.6 +/- 1.5% (TW) to 4.4 +/- 4.5% (CW) for intraobserver and 3.8 +/- 3.8% (TW) to 8.3 +/- 8.1% (CW) for interobserver variation. MRI accuracy was excellent for TV (3.3 +/- 6.4%), CVol (3.5 +/- 4.0%), TCSA (1.8 +/- 2.6%), and CCSA (1.6 +/- 4.2%) but not TW (4.1 +/- 1.4%) or CW (16.4 +/14.9%). DXA results were TW (6.8 +/- 2

  19. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star. PMID:26934226

  20. A repeating fast radio burst

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  1. Sexual function in male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea after 1 year of CPAP treatment

    Petersen, Marian Christin; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate what impact 1 year of effective nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment had on general and functional aspects of sexuality in male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). METHODS: Before and after 1...... year of CPAP treatment, a total of 207 CPAP-compliant male patients (age 26-77) received a survey with questions drawn from two self-administered questionnaires on sexuality - Life Satisfaction 11 (LiSat-11) and brief sexual function inventory (BSFI). For assessment of daytime sleepiness, we used the...... Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). RESULTS: Response rate was 76%. We found no significant changes in satisfaction with relation to partner or life as a whole, but satisfaction with sexual life (LiSat-11) and both general and functional aspects of sexuality (BSFI) were significantly improved after 1 year of...

  2. Excessive daytime somnolence in Parkinson's disease. Follow-up after 1 year of treatment.

    Fabbrini, G; Barbanti, P; Aurilia, C; Pauletti, C; Vanacore, N; Meco, G

    2003-10-01

    Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) and quality of sleep were studied in 25 parkinsonian patients at baseline, when they had not yet received any antiparkinsonian medication, and after 1 year of treatment with dopaminergic drugs. EDS was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). At baseline, the ESS score was not different from that of age-matched healthy controls. The mean ESS score increased significantly after 1 year of follow-up, being more than 10 in 12 patients. The mean PSQI also increased significantly after 1 year of treatment, but there were no differences in the number of "bad sleepers" at baseline and at follow-up. In conclusion, EDS seems to emerge during the course of the illness, at least in a proportion of PD patients, and could represent another clinical correlate of the interaction between the ongoing neurodegenerative process and the side effects of drugs. PMID:14598075

  3. Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG Gated MRI

    Martyn N.J. Paley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-compatible system to enable gating of a scanner to the heartbeat of a foetus for cardiac, umbilical cord flow and other possible imaging applications. We performed radiofrequency safety testing prior to a fetal electrocardiogram (fECG gated imaging study in pregnant volunteers (n = 3. A compact monitoring device with advanced software capable of reliably detecting both the maternal electrocardiogram (mECG and fECG simultaneously was modified by the manufacturer (Monica Healthcare, Nottingham, UK to provide an external TTL trigger signal from the detected fECG which could be used to trigger a standard 1.5 T MR (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA gating system with suitable attenuation. The MR scanner was tested by triggering rapidly during image acquisition at a typical fetal heart rate (123 beats per minute using a simulated fECG waveform fed into the gating system. Gated MR images were also acquired from volunteers who were attending for a repeat fetal Central Nervous System (CNS examination using an additional rapid cardiac imaging sequence triggered from the measured fECG. No adverse safety effects were encountered. This is the first time fECG gating has been used with MRI and opens up a range of new possibilities to study a developing foetus.

  4. Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) versus axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) to detect and measure bone metastases in prostate cancer (PCa)

    To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) in detecting and measuring bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). WB-MRI and AS-MRI examinations were performed in 60 patients with PCa at high risk of metastases. Two radiologists separately categorised the AS-MRI and WB-MRI as negative or positive for metastases, and measured focal metastases using the ''Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours'' (RECIST) criteria transposed to bone. One radiologist reviewed all examinations 2 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreements in establishing the presence/absence of metastases were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement between AS-MRI and WB-MRI. Strong to perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements were found between AS-MRI and WB-MRI in defining the presence/absence of bone metastases. There were no patients with isolated ''peripheral'' metastases at WB-MRI, missed at AS-MRI. There was no difference in lesion count between the two radiologists. AS-MRI and WB-MRI provided statistically equivalent RECIST values for one radiologist and slightly lower values at AS-MRI for the other. In our series of PCa patients, AS-MRI and WB-MRI were equivalent in determining the presence/absence of bone metastases and provided similar evaluation of the metastatic burden. (orig.)

  5. Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) versus axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) to detect and measure bone metastases in prostate cancer (PCa)

    Lecouvet, F.E.; Simon, M.; Berg, B.C.V.; Simoni, P. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Tombal, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires St Luc, Department of Urology, Brussels (Belgium); Jamart, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Clinique Universitaire de Mont-Godinne, Center of Biostatistics and Medical Documentation, Yvoir (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    To compare whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) and axial skeleton MRI (AS-MRI) in detecting and measuring bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). WB-MRI and AS-MRI examinations were performed in 60 patients with PCa at high risk of metastases. Two radiologists separately categorised the AS-MRI and WB-MRI as negative or positive for metastases, and measured focal metastases using the ''Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours'' (RECIST) criteria transposed to bone. One radiologist reviewed all examinations 2 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreements in establishing the presence/absence of metastases were calculated. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess measurement agreement between AS-MRI and WB-MRI. Strong to perfect inter- and intraobserver agreements were found between AS-MRI and WB-MRI in defining the presence/absence of bone metastases. There were no patients with isolated ''peripheral'' metastases at WB-MRI, missed at AS-MRI. There was no difference in lesion count between the two radiologists. AS-MRI and WB-MRI provided statistically equivalent RECIST values for one radiologist and slightly lower values at AS-MRI for the other. In our series of PCa patients, AS-MRI and WB-MRI were equivalent in determining the presence/absence of bone metastases and provided similar evaluation of the metastatic burden. (orig.)

  6. Iron shielded MRI optimization

    Borghi, C. A.; Fabbri, M.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the main current systems of an actively shielded and of an iron shielded MRI device for nuclear resonance imaging, is considered. The model for the analysis of the magnetic induction produced by the current system, is based on the combination of a Boundary Element technique and of the integration of two Fredholm integral equations of the first and the second kind. The equivalent current magnetization model is used for the calculation of the magnetization produced by the iron shield. High field uniformity in a spherical region inside the device, and a low stray field in the neighborhood of the device are required. In order to meet the design requirements a multi-objective global minimization problem is solved. The minimization method is based on the combination of the filled function technique and the (1+1) evolution strategy algorithm. The multi-objective problem is treated by means of a penalty method. The actively shielded MRI system results to utilize larger amount of conductor and produce higher magnetic energy than the iron shield device. On veut étudier le projet du système des courants principaux d'un MRI à écran en fer et d'un MRI à écran actif. Le modèle d'analyse du champ magnétique produit par le système de courants est basé sur la combinaison d'une technique Boundary Element et de l'intégration de deux équations intégrales de Fredholm de première et de seconde sorte. On utilise pour calculer la magnétisation produite par l'écran en fer le modèle à cou rants de magné ti sa tion équivalents. On exige une élévation uniforme du champ dans une région sphérique au cœur de l'appareil et un bas champ magnétique dispersé à proximité de l'appareil. Dans le but de répondre aux impératifs du projet, on va résoudre un problème multiobjectif de minimisation globale. On utilise une technique de minimisation obtenue par la combinaison des méthodes “Filled Function” et “(1+1) Evolution Strategy”. Le probl

  7. Parental spanking of 1-year-old children and subsequent child protective services involvement✩

    Lee, Shawna J.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of U.S. parents spank their children, often beginning when their children are very young. We examined families (N=2,788) who participated in a longitudinal community-based study of new births in urban areas. Prospective analyses examined whether spanking by the child's mother, father, or mother's current partner when the child was 1-year-old was associated with household CPS involvement between age 1 and age 5. Results indicated that 30% of 1-year-olds were spanked at least once ...

  8. Prediction of amblyopia and squint by means of refraction at age 1 year.

    Ingram, R M; Walker, C; Wilson, J M; Arnold, P E; Dally, S

    1986-01-01

    In this series amblyopia, uncorrectable by spectacles and occlusion, was highly likely (48%) if a child had +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia at age 1 year. 45% of children with this refraction also had a squint. All those who remained with severely defective acuity in spite of treatment had either +3.50 or more dioptres of meridional hypermetropia or 4 or more dioptres of meridional myopia at age 1 year. These children were identifiable in the 3.7% of the population at age 1...

  9. MRI finding of hemangioblastomas

    Park, Seung Cheol; Oh, Min Cheol; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Seol, Hye Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Kim, Jung Hyuk [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of posterior fossa hemanangioblastoma and usefulness of contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA. Seven patients with posterior fossa hemangioblastoma were studied with both pre- and post-enhanced MRI. The MR images were reviewed regarding the location, size, signal intensities of cysts and mural nodules, and their contrast enhancement pattern. Five tumors were located in cerebellar hemisphere, one in vermis, and one in posterior part of medulla. One patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease had a medullary hemangioblastoma with multiple pancreatic cysts. In 6 cases, the major portion of the tumor was cysts and had small mulkal nodules. The solid portion was relatively lange in one cases, cemprising half of the tumor cysts were oval shaped and their sized were 3-6.7 cm in diameter. In five cases(71%), septations were noted within the cysts. Cysts were isointense or slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on T2- weighted image compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Mural nodules were oval or rounded radiotherapy had better prognosis than those treated with radiotherapy alwas 0.5-2.5 cm in diameter. Mural nodules were isointense to gray matter. They were detected in five cases on T1-weighted images and one case on T2-weighted images. In two cases, vascular signal void area was noted in mural nodules. On contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, all mural nodules were intensely enhanced. MRI provide to be a good diagnostic method to detect and characterize posterior fossa hemangioblastoma. The most common finding is Cystic posterior fossa lesion with enhancing mural nodule. Contrast enhancement is essential for specific diagnosis.

  10. Multiparametric MRI and targeted prostate biopsy: Improvements in cancer detection, localization, and risk assessment

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Mendhiratta, Neil; Wysock, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiparametric-MRI (mp-MRI) is an evolving noninvasive imaging modality that increases the accurate localization of prostate cancer at the time of MRI targeted biopsy, thereby enhancing clinical risk assessment, and improving the ability to appropriately counsel patients regarding therapy. Material and methods We used MEDLINE/PubMed to conduct a comprehensive search of the English medical literature. Articles were reviewed, data was extracted, analyzed, and summarized. In this review, we discuss the mp-MRI prostate exam, its role in targeted prostate biopsy, along with clinical applications and outcomes of MRI targeted biopsies. Results Mp-MRI, consisting of T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and possibly MR spectroscopy, has demonstrated improved specificity in prostate cancer detection as compared to conventional T2-weighted images alone. An MRI suspicion score has been developed and is depicted using an institutional Likert or, more recently, a standardized reporting scale (PI-RADS). Techniques of MRI-targeted biopsy include in-gantry MRI guided biopsy, TRUS-guided visual estimation biopsy, and software co-registered MRI-US guided biopsy (MRI-US fusion). Among men with no previous biopsy, MRI-US fusion biopsy demonstrates up to a 20% increase in detection of clinically significant cancers compared to systematic biopsy while avoiding a significant portion of low risk disease. These data suggest a potential role in reducing over-detection and, ultimately, over-treatment. Among men with previous negative biopsy, 72–87% of cancers detected by MRI targeted biopsy are clinically significant. Among men with known low risk cancer, repeat biopsy by MR-targeting improves risk stratification in selecting men appropriate for active surveillance secondarily reducing the need for repetitive biopsy during surveillance. Conclusions Use of mp-MRI for targeting prostate biopsies has the potential to reduce the

  11. MRI of intact plants

    As, van, H.; Scheenen, T.; Vergeldt, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transport in the stem, e.g., as a function of environmental (stress) conditions. Non-spatially resolved portable NMR is becoming available to study leaf water content and distribution of water in different...

  12. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  13. Rabies, encephalomyelitis: MRI findings

    The authors present a 14 year old patient who started with walking and swallowing difficulty; followed by fever, abdominal and lower back pain. Mechanical breathing difficulties required a respiratory mechanic assistance. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome was thought at first. Since the patient have had previous contact with a bat two months before the symptoms began, this suggested rabies as the main diagnosis, which was later confirmed by hair-bulb, cornea, oral mucosa and salival immunofluorescence. The brain and spinal cord MRI showed focal lesions in T2 and FLAIR sequences, compatible with encephalomyelitis. (author)

  14. Repeated Exposure to Media Violence Is Associated with Diminished Response in an Inhibitory Frontolimbic Network

    Kelly, Christopher R.; Jack Grinband; Joy Hirsch

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC) and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function...

  15. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  16. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  17. Neuroanatomical Classification in a Population-Based Sample of Psychotic Major Depression and Bipolar I Disorder with 1 Year of Diagnostic Stability

    Mauricio H. Serpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of psychotic features in the course of a depressive disorder is known to increase the risk for bipolarity, but the early identification of such cases remains challenging in clinical practice. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of a neuroanatomical pattern classification method in the discrimination between psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar I disorder (BD-I, and healthy controls (HC using a homogenous sample of patients at an early course of their illness. Twenty-three cases of first-episode psychotic mania (BD-I and 19 individuals with a first episode of psychotic MDD whose diagnosis remained stable during 1 year of followup underwent 1.5 T MRI at baseline. A previously validated multivariate classifier based on support vector machine (SVM was employed and measures of diagnostic performance were obtained for the discrimination between each diagnostic group and subsamples of age- and gender-matched controls recruited in the same neighborhood of the patients. Based on T1-weighted images only, the SVM-classifier afforded poor discrimination in all 3 pairwise comparisons: BD-I versus HC; MDD versus HC; and BD-I versus MDD. Thus, at the population level and using structural MRI only, we failed to achieve good discrimination between BD-I, psychotic MDD, and HC in this proof of concept study.

  18. Modelling DW-MRI data from primary and metastatic ovarian tumours

    Winfield, Jessica M. [Institute of Cancer Research, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Surrey (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Surrey (United Kingdom); DeSouza, Nandita M.; Collins, David J. [Institute of Cancer Research, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Surrey (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom); Priest, Andrew N.; Hodgkin, Charlotte; Freeman, Susan [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wakefield, Jennifer C.; Orton, Matthew R. [Institute of Cancer Research, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    To assess goodness-of-fit and repeatability of mono-exponential, stretched exponential and bi-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data in primary and metastatic ovarian cancer. Thirty-nine primary and metastatic lesions from thirty-one patients with stage III or IV ovarian cancer were examined before and after chemotherapy using DW-MRI with ten diffusion-weightings. The data were fitted with (a) a mono-exponential model to give the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), (b) a stretched exponential model to give the distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and stretching parameter (α), and (c) a bi-exponential model to give the diffusion coefficient (D), perfusion fraction (f) and pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*). Coefficients of variation, established from repeated baseline measurements, were: ADC 3.1 %, DDC 4.3 %, α 7.0 %, D 13.2 %, f 44.0 %, D* 165.1 %. The bi-exponential model was unsuitable in these data owing to poor repeatability. After excluding the bi-exponential model, analysis using Akaike Information Criteria showed that the stretched exponential model provided the better fit to the majority of pixels in 64 % of lesions. The stretched exponential model provides the optimal fit to DW-MRI data from ovarian, omental and peritoneal lesions and lymph nodes in pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements with good repeatability. (orig.)

  19. Arthroscopy vs. MRI for a detailed assessment of cartilage disease in osteoarthritis: diagnostic value of MRI in clinical practice

    Haage Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with osteoarthritis, a detailed assessment of degenerative cartilage disease is important to recommend adequate treatment. Using a representative sample of patients, this study investigated whether MRI is reliable for a detailed cartilage assessment in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods In a cross sectional-study as a part of a retrospective case-control study, 36 patients (mean age 53.1 years with clinically relevant osteoarthritis received standardized MRI (sag. T1-TSE, cor. STIR-TSE, trans. fat-suppressed PD-TSE, sag. fat-suppressed PD-TSE, Siemens Magnetom Avanto syngo MR B 15 on a 1.5 Tesla unit. Within a maximum of three months later, arthroscopic grading of the articular surfaces was performed. MRI grading by two blinded observers was compared to arthroscopic findings. Diagnostic values as well as intra- and inter-observer values were assessed. Results Inter-observer agreement between readers 1 and 2 was good (kappa = 0.65 within all compartments. Intra-observer agreement comparing MRI grading to arthroscopic grading showed moderate to good values for readers 1 and 2 (kappa = 0.50 and 0.62, respectively, the poorest being within the patellofemoral joint (kappa = 0.32 and 0.52. Sensitivities were relatively low at all grades, particularly for grade 3 cartilage lesions. A tendency to underestimate cartilage disorders on MR images was not noticed. Conclusions According to our results, the use of MRI for precise grading of the cartilage in osteoarthritis is limited. Even if the practical benefit of MRI in pretreatment diagnostics is unequivocal, a diagnostic arthroscopy is of outstanding value when a grading of the cartilage is crucial for a definitive decision regarding therapeutic options in patients with osteoarthritis.

  20. MRI findings with periventricular leukomalacia. Correlation with neurological development

    Uehara, Hisakazu; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Koh; Doi, Yasuo; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Murata, Miyuki; Sawada, Tadashi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Kotani, Hiromi; Goma, Hideyo

    1998-08-01

    In 22 infants with PVL, who were born at 35 weeks gestational age or less, correlation between severity of white matter lesions on MRI and developmental quotient (DQ) of infants was studied. MRI was obtained later than 7 months of age and the severity of white matter lesions was classified as follows: Group I: periventricular white matter is focally affected (n=7), Group II: periventricular white matter is diffusely affected (n=10), and Group III: subcortical white matter is also affected (n=5). Perinatal characteristics including gestational weeks, birth weight, Apgar score, procedure of delivery, and duration of mechanical ventilation revealed no significant differences between the groups. Seventeen infants developed cerebral palsy, while the other 5 infants (4 in Group I, 1 in Group II) showed normal development at 1 year of age, MRI of 4 among these 5 infants only revealed unilateral cysts around the anterior horn of lateral ventricles. Enjoji developmental test showed significant differences in gross motor DQ between Group I and III at both 1 and 2 corrected ages. Although more quantitative criteria will be required for precise classification, it is suggested that the severity of the white matter lesions on MRI is well correlated with gross motor development in PVL. (author)

  1. MRI findings with periventricular leukomalacia. Correlation with neurological development

    In 22 infants with PVL, who were born at 35 weeks gestational age or less, correlation between severity of white matter lesions on MRI and developmental quotient (DQ) of infants was studied. MRI was obtained later than 7 months of age and the severity of white matter lesions was classified as follows: Group I: periventricular white matter is focally affected (n=7), Group II: periventricular white matter is diffusely affected (n=10), and Group III: subcortical white matter is also affected (n=5). Perinatal characteristics including gestational weeks, birth weight, Apgar score, procedure of delivery, and duration of mechanical ventilation revealed no significant differences between the groups. Seventeen infants developed cerebral palsy, while the other 5 infants (4 in Group I, 1 in Group II) showed normal development at 1 year of age, MRI of 4 among these 5 infants only revealed unilateral cysts around the anterior horn of lateral ventricles. Enjoji developmental test showed significant differences in gross motor DQ between Group I and III at both 1 and 2 corrected ages. Although more quantitative criteria will be required for precise classification, it is suggested that the severity of the white matter lesions on MRI is well correlated with gross motor development in PVL. (author)

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  3. Development of newborn and 1-year-old reference phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    The purpose of this study is the development of paediatric reference phantoms for newborn and 1-year-old infants to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated paediatric phantoms without using medical images. The newborn and 1-year-old hermaphrodite phantoms presented here were developed using three-dimensional (3D) modelling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases, textbooks and images provided by the Department of Anatomy of the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses agree with corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for newborn and 1-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow and cartilage to allow for the use of μCT images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Anatomical results show 3D images of the phantoms’ surfaces, organs and skeletons, as well as tables with organ and tissue masses or skeletal tissue volumes. Dosimetric results present comparisons of organ and tissue absorbed doses or specific absorbed fractions between the newborn and 1-year-old phantoms and corresponding data for other paediatric stylised or voxel phantoms. Most differences were found to be below 10%. (paper)

  4. Individualised unsupervised exercise training in adults with cystic fibrosis: a 1 year randomised controlled trial

    Moorcroft, A; Dodd, M; Morris, J; Webb, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Short term studies of exercise training have shown benefits in cystic fibrosis. Transferring exercise programmes to the community and sustaining them long term is a challenge for the patient. The effectiveness of an individualised unsupervised home based exercise programme was examined in adults with cystic fibrosis over a 1 year period.

  5. A Program To Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.

    McVey, Gail L.; Davis, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls over a 1-year period. Found no program effect. Found instead, significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and…

  6. BNP and NT-proBNP, Predictors of 1-Year Mortality in Nursing Home Residents

    Barents, Maaike; Hillege, Hans H. L.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; de Boer, Rudolph A.; Koster, J.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; de Jongste, Mike J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate 1-year mortality prediction of B type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) in institutionalized elderly with multiple morbidities. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting: One nursing home. Participants: Ninety-three residents (mean age 81

  7. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Anderson, L M; Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2016-02-01

    Non-overweight individuals may follow aggressive weight management approaches alongside overweight/obese friends or family members; thus, research has begun to evaluate subsequent effects among non-overweight populations. A prior study evaluated the short-term effects of an immersion weight loss programme on healthy young adult staff leaders. Results indicated that participation seemed to benefit, not harm, the young adults. The current investigation examined 1-year eating disorder and weight trajectories in this sample. The total sample (N = 244) consisted of staff leaders (44.3%) and demographically similar comparison participants who completed eating disorder and weight assessments across four time points: baseline, end of summer, 6-week follow-up and 1-year follow-up. Forty-seven per cent of the original sample responded to all time points (staff leaders n = 60; comparison n = 55). Over the course of 1 year, risk trajectories did not differ between groups. Staff leaders did not report significant changes in body mass index, suggesting that they maintained healthy weight over the course of 1 year. Participation as an immersion weight loss programme leader appeared to be protective against weight gain, without increasing eating disorder risk, for healthy young adults. This provides further support for using weight management interventions across a wide range of individuals. PMID:26638779

  8. A rare case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 1-year-old child

    Vignesh Kandakumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL represents approximately 12% of lymphoid neoplasms. They are even rarer in children and represent only 1% of Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma in this age group. We report a case of PTCL in a 1-year-old female child for its rarity.

  9. A rare case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in 1-year-old child

    Vignesh Kandakumar; Prasanth Ganesan; Peush Bajpai; Rejiv Rajendranath; Sagar Tenali; Urmila Majhi; Ponni Sivaprakasam

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) represents approximately 12% of lymphoid neoplasms. They are even rarer in children and represent only 1% of Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma in this age group. We report a case of PTCL in a 1-year-old female child for its rarity.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Full Text Available ... MRI exam is assumed to outweigh the potential risks. Pregnant women should not receive injections of gadolinium contrast ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits ... (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of the brain and other cranial structures ...